Science.gov

Sample records for adjacent mountain ranges

  1. Burial history and thermal maturity, Rocky Mountain front ranges, foothills, and foreland, east-central British Columbia and adjacent Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkreuth, W.; McMechan, M.

    1988-11-01

    The regional pattern of maturation of Cretaceous strata in the study area was determined from vitrinite-reflectance measurements. Maturation increases from west to east across the Foothills to a maximum near the eastern limit of Foothills deformation and decreases farther east. Maturation along the eastern limit of deformation also decreases northward significantly. Reflectance measurements from Carboniferous strata exposed in the Front Ranges are much lower than values from the Lower Cretaceous near the eastern limit of deformation. Modeling using burial history curves indicates the regional maturation pattern largely reflects variations in the depth and/or duration of burial beneath Maastrichtian-Eocene foredeep deposits. However, differential vertical movements associated with the Peace River arch/embayment in the Carboniferous, Triassic, Early Cretaceous and Maastrichtian-Eocene had an important effect on the maturation pattern. Determined and estimated maturation levels for reservoir strata are consistent with the known occurrences of gas fields and oil pools, except along the relatively unexplored western margin of the study area. There, moderate maturation levels indicate a potential for wet-gas or oil preservation in shallow structures containing Triassic and Lower Carboniferous carbonates in the south. In the north, structures in the western Foothills deforming Triassic strata with lower levels of maturation are breached. 15 figures.

  2. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  3. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  4. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Along its Oregon segment, the Cascade Range is almost entirely volcanic in origin. The volcanoes and their eroded remnants are the visible magmatic expression of the Cascadia subduction zone, where the offshore Juan de Fuca tectonic plate is subducted beneath North America. Subduction occurs as two lithospheric plates collide, and an underthrusted oceanic plate is commonly dragged into the mantle by the pull of gravity, carrying ocean-bottom rock and sediment down to where heat and pressure expel water. As this water rises, it lowers the melting temperature in the overlying hot mantle rocks, thereby promoting melting. The molten rock supplies the volcanic arcs with heat and magma. Cascade Range volcanoes are part of the Ring of Fire, a popular term for the numerous volcanic arcs that encircle the Pacific Ocean.

  5. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  6. Mountain ranges and the deformation of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouac, J.

    2007-12-01

    Mountain ranges are the most spectacular manifestation of continental dynamics and a primary locus of geo- hazards. Their geological imprint is ubiquitous since all continents consist of cratonic cores that grew with time through collisions with accreting terrains. Understanding how mountain range form and evolve as a result of the interaction between deep seated tectonic processes, and climate driven surface processes is thus a major issue in earth science. The Himalaya is probably the best place on earth where orogenic processes can be observed at work today and where the geological history of a mountain belt can be compared with its current tectonic processes. We now have a reasonably solid understanding of the structure of the range, of its petro-metamorphic history, and of the kinematics of its active deformation and seismicity. The long-term geological history of the range - from several millions to a few tens of millions of years - has been documented by structural, thermobarometric and thermochronological studies. Morphotectonic investigations have revealed its evolution over the past several thousands or tens of thousands of years. And, finally, geodetic measurements and seismological monitoring have revealed the pattern of strain and stress build-up over several years, or due to single large earthquakes. The presentation will show how the results of these investigations can be assembled into a simple, coherent picture of the structure and evolution of the range. The Himalayan model will be compared to other case examples of active orogeny and some implications regarding continental deformation and the influence of surface processes will be drawn.

  7. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  8. Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains and adjacent Raton Basin, southern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Culebra Range) is interpreted as a system of west-dipping, basement-involved thrusts and reverse faults. The Culebra thrust is the dominant structure in the central part of the range; it dips 30 -55?? west and brings Precambrian metamorphic base-ment rocks over unmetamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. East of the Culebra thrust, thrusts and reverse faults break the basement and overlying cover rocks into north-trending fault blocks; these boundary faults probably dip 40-60?? westward. The orientation of fault slickensides indicates oblique (northeast) slip on the Culebra thrust and dip-slip (ranging from eastward to northward) movement on adjacent faults. In sedimentary cover rocks, east-vergent anticlines overlie and merge with thrusts and reverse faults; these anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds. Minor east-dipping thrusts and reverse faults (backthrusts) occur in both the hanging walls and footwalls of thrusts. The easternmost faults and folds of the Culebra Range form a continuous structural boundary between the Laramide Sangre de Cristo highland and the Raton Basin. Boundary structures consist of west-dipping frontal thrusts flanked on the basinward side by poorly exposed, east-dipping backthrusts. The backthrusts are interpreted to overlie structural wedges that have been emplaced above blind thrusts in the basin margin. West-dipping frontal thrusts and blind thrusts are interpreted to involve basement, but backthrusts are rooted in basin-margin cover rocks. At shallow structural levels where erosion has not exposed a frontal thrust, the structural boundary of the basin is represented by an anticline or monocline. Based on both regional and local stratigraphic evidence, Laramide deformation in the Culebra Range and accompanying synorogenic sedimentation in the western Raton Basin probably took place from latest Cretaceous through early Eocene time. The earliest evidence of uplift and

  9. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  10. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-06-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  11. Deformation mechanisms adjacent to a thrust fault, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.C.; McConnell, D.A.; Friberg, V.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the character of grain-scale deformation adjacent to a Laramide thrust fault in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This site represents a window through the hanging wall of a thrust sheet which juxtaposes Precambrian rocks over Pennsylvanian rocks. It provides a rare opportunity to examine deformation mechanisms in the footwall of a basement-involved thrust. Brittle deformation is evident at both outcrop and grain-scale. Filled fractures and slickensides composed of quartz and epidote are present throughout the area, and increase in abundance adjacent to the fault zone, as does the frequency of mesoscopic faulting. Variations in deformation mechanisms can be seen between the Precambrian rocks of the thrust sheet and the Pennsylvanian metasedimentary rocks, and between the metamorphosed arkoses and metapelites within the Pennsylvanian section. Cataclastic textures are present in deformed Precambrian rocks, and the degree of cataclasis is greatest immediately adjacent to the fault zone. Deformation in the Pennsylvanian rocks is largely dependent upon the abundance of fine-grained matrix within each sample. The degree of brittle deformation is negatively correlated to the percentage of matrix. Coarser-grained sections show microscopic faults which offset quartz and feldspar grains. Offsets decrease on the faults as they pass from coarse grains into the matrix.

  12. Conodont and Radiolarian Data from the De Long Mountains Quadrangle and Adjacent Areas, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Blome, Charles D.; Young, Lorne E.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report presents biostratigraphic data from 289 collections at 189 localities in the De Long Mountains, Misheguk Mountain, and Noatak quadrangles (fig. 1); most of these data have never been previously published. The collections were made during studies of the Red Dog massive sulfide deposit in 1998?2004 and in support of regional mapping projects in 1979, 1981, 1983, and 1997?98. The collections?mostly conodonts and some radiolarians?tightly constrain the age of many stratigraphic units of Devonian through Triassic age exposed within the study area, and provide additional data on the depositional environments and thermal history of these rocks. The data are presented in a series of tables, organized by fossil type, stratigraphic unit, and location. Tables 1?12 contain conodont data, mostly from the De Long Mountains quadrangle. All of these collections were initially examined, or were reevaluated, from 1997 through 2004, and complete faunal lists are given for all samples. Table 13 lists ages and conodont color alteration indices (CAIs) of 27 collections from 24 localities in the Noatak quadrangle; updated faunal lists were not prepared for these samples. Radiolarian data?all from the De Long Mountains quadrangle?are given in table 14; these collections were analyzed between 1998 and 2003. Collection localities are shown in four maps (sheets 1, 2). Map 1 (sheet 1) shows all outcrop samples from the De Long Mountains and western Misheguk Mountain quadrangle (locs. 1-121). Maps 2?4 (sheets 1, 2) show all drill hole sample localities; samples come from the Su-Lik deposit and in and around the Anarraaq deposit (map 2, locs. 122?135), in and adjacent to the Red Dog deposits (Paalaaq, Aqqaluk, Main, and Qanaiyaq) (map 3, locs. 136?158), and from drill holes along the Port Road in the Noatak quadrangle (map 4, locs. 159?160). Map 4 (sheet 2) also shows all outcrop samples from the Noatak quadrangle (locs. 161?189). The text summarizes the lithofacies

  13. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  14. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564

  15. Climate dominated topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, B. A.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The broad spatial trend in channel steepness values suggests that the locus of high rock uplift rates is coincident with the rugged range core, in a similar position as high temperature and pressure lithologies, but not in the low lying foothills as has been previously suggested by low-temperature thermochronometry. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns. We demonstrate the same topographic effects are recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on topography makes the argument of mountain range steadiness untenable in significantly glaciated settings. Furthermore, our results suggest that most glaciated Cenozoic ranges are likely still in a mode of readjustment as fluvial systems change topography and erosion rates to equilibrate with rock uplift rates.

  16. Advection and evolution of river basins in mountain ranges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Willett, S.

    2009-04-01

    Fluvial networks determine to a large extent the structure and geometry of erosive landscapes in mountain ranges. As a consequence it is fundamental to understand how they develop in order to reconstruct and predict landscape evolution in orogens. A particularly important problem with relevance for our future ability of "inverting" landscapes is the degree to which fluvial networks and basin boundaries evolve and change with time. The key question is: are river valleys and basins largely static in the landscape or are they rather dynamic, changing and reorganizing frequently during orogen evolution? A "dynamic" view has long found support in a variety of observations (wind gaps, hanging valleys, inferred changes of sources of clastics) interpreted as evidences of river captures and drainage network changes, and has been reproduced in certain analogue and numerical models. It also seems intuitively reasonable when considered in parallel with the high magnitude and frequency of cenozoic climatic changes combined with the very high rates of vertical and horizontal movements of rocks in active orogens which suggest that landscapes may have changed congruently. However, support for a "static" view has also long existed based on the ubiquitous observation of antecedent rivers and drainage systems cutting through lithological and geological structures (folds and faults), extending behind the main drainage divide in large mountain ranges, or the preservation of superficial cover rocks adjacent to valleys deeply incised into the basement. Spectacular plane deformation of large river basins in the East Himalayan syntaxis also illustrates the possible difficulty encountered by river systems to reorganize (Hallet and Molnar 2001). In the debate over the mechanisms responsible for the consistent width-to-length aspect of the main transverse river basins observed in linear mountain belts of different ages, width and tectonic and climatic regimes (Hovius, 1996), Castelltort and

  17. Geologic map of the Providence Mountains in parts of the Fountain Peak and adjacent 7.5' quadrangles, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Miller, David M.; Stevens, Calvin H.; Rosario, Jose J.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wan, Elmira; Priest, Susan S.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2017-03-22

    IntroductionThe Providence Mountains are in the eastern Mojave Desert about 60 km southeast of Baker, San Bernardino County, California. This range, which is noted for its prominent cliffs of Paleozoic limestone, is part of a northeast-trending belt of mountainous terrain more than 100 km long that also includes the Granite Mountains, Mid Hills, and New York Mountains. Providence Mountains State Recreation Area encompasses part of the range, the remainder of which is within Mojave National Preserve, a large parcel of land administered by the National Park Service. Access to the Providence Mountains is by secondary roads leading south and north from Interstate Highways 15 and 40, respectively, which bound the main part of Mojave National Preserve.The geologic map presented here includes most of Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and land that surrounds it on the north, west, and south. This area covers most of the Fountain Peak 7.5′ quadrangle and small adjacent parts of the Hayden quadrangle to the north, the Columbia Mountain quadrangle to the northeast, and the Colton Well quadrangle to the east. The map area includes representative outcrops of most of the major geologic elements of the Providence Mountains, including gneissic Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, a thick overlying sequence of Neoproterozoic to Triassic sedimentary rocks, Jurassic rhyolite that intrudes and overlies the sedimentary rocks, Jurassic plutons and associated dikes, Miocene volcanic rocks, and a variety of Quaternary surficial deposits derived from local bedrock units. The purpose of the project was to map the area in detail, with primary emphasis on the pre-Quaternary units, to provide an improved stratigraphic, structural, and geochronologic framework for use in land management applications and scientific research.

  18. Glacial reorganization of topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Byron; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns, and not tectonic rock uplift rates. Alpine glaciers drastically altered the relief structure of the Olympic Mountains. The details of these relief changes are recorded in channel profiles as overdeepenings, reduced slopes, and associated knickpoints. We find the position of these relief changes within the orogen is dependent on the position of the Pleistocene ELA. While alpine glaciers overdeepened valleys in regions near the Pleistocene ELA (which has a tendency to increase relief), headward erosion of west and north flowing glacier systems captured significant area from opposing systems and caused drainage divide lowering. This divide lowering reduced relief throughout the range. We demonstrate similar topographic effects recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on

  19. Hydroclimate of the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreo, Michael T.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Flint, Alan L.; Damar, Nancy A.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Hurja, James

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration often are used to characterize the hydroclimate of a region. Quantification of these parameters in mountainous terrains is difficult because limited access often hampers the collection of representative ground data. To fulfill a need to characterize ecological zones in the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range of southern Nevada, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of these hydroclimatic parameters are determined from remote-sensing and model-based methodologies. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation estimates for this area ranges from about 100 millimeters (mm) in the low elevations of the study area (700 meters [m]) to more than 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains (> 2,800 m). The PRISM model underestimates precipitation by 7–15 percent based on a comparison with four high‑elevation precipitation gages having more than 20 years of record. Precipitation at 3,000-m elevation is 50 percent greater in the Spring Mountains than in the Sheep Range. The lesser amount of precipitation in the Sheep Range is attributed to partial moisture depletion by the Spring Mountains of eastward-moving, cool-season (October–April) storms. Cool-season storms account for 66–76 percent of annual precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration estimates by the Basin Characterization Model range from about 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains to 1,600 mm in the low elevations of the study area. The model realistically simulates lower potential evapotranspiration on northeast-to-northwest facing slopes compared to adjacent southeast-to-southwest facing slopes. Actual evapotranspiration, estimated using a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer based water-balance model, ranges from about 100 to 600 mm. The magnitude and spatial variation of simulated, actual evapotranspiration was validated by comparison to PRISM precipitation

  20. Acute pulmonary oedema on the Ruwenzori mountain range.

    PubMed Central

    Naeije, R; Mélot, C

    1990-01-01

    A 40 year old man had an episode of severe pulmonary oedema at 4000-5000 m during the ascent of the Margherita peak (5109 m) of Mount Stanley on the Ruwenzori. He had taken acetazolamide and high dose dexamethasone to treat symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Six years before he had been studied by right heart catheterisation as a healthy volunteer during hypoxic breathing at sea level. His pulmonary vascular reactivity had been within the normal range for 32 healthy subjects. This man had high altitude pulmonary oedema despite currently recommended treatments for acute mountain sickness and normal pulmonary vascular reactivity to hypoxia at sea level. PMID:2271350

  1. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  2. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  3. Sedimentary Rocks of the Buckeye Range, Horlick Mountains, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Long, W E

    1962-04-27

    In the Buckeye Range of the Horlick Mountains, 4000 feet of sedimentary rocks nonconformably overlie a granitic basement and underlie a thick diabasic sill. The sedimentary section consists of Devonian sandstone and shale (Horlick formation), Carboniferous (?) tillite (Buckeye formation), Permian (?) platy and carbonaceous shale (Discovery Ridge formation), and Permian arkose, shale, and numerous coal beds (Mount Glossopteris formation). This apparently is the first report of a Paleozoic tillite in Antarctica.

  4. Flat-topped mountain ranges: Their global distribution and value for understanding the evolution of mountain topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Marc; Gunnell, Yanni; Farines, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    rock-cooling signatures, stratigraphic age-bracketing, stream channel gradient patterns, and other direct or indirect dating criteria. It follows that many portions of mountain belts undergo unsteady, nonuniform post-orogenic landscape evolution trajectories, with intermittent opportunities for relief reduction. The resulting erosion surfaces remain preserved as signatures of transient landscape evolution regimes. We find that (i) occurrences of planar topography form populations of discrete, insular landscape units, only some of which could be interpreted as fragments of a fluvially dissected, and/or tectonically fragmented, regional peneplain. (ii) The post-orogenic time required for achieving advanced stages of relief reduction is variable, ranging from 3 to 70 Ma. (iii) Partly depending on whether the adjacent sedimentary basins were over- or underfilled, some erosion surfaces may have been controlled by raised base levels and may thus have formed at high elevations; however, in many cases they were disconnected from marine base levels by rapid surface uplift, thus acquiring their elevated positions in recent time. In some cases, subcrustal processes such as asthenospheric anomalies, and/or lithospheric slab tear or breakoff, explain extremely rapid, regional post-orogenic uplift. (iv) Overall, the conditions for achieving surface preservation in steep and tectonically active terrain are predictable but also quite varied and contingent on context.

  5. Structural analysis of Boat Mountain area in Rocky Mountain foreland, Madison Range, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Sablock, J.M.

    1987-08-01

    Detailed mapping, together with stereographic analysis of over 400 field measurements, has been used to determine the geological structure of the Boat Mountain area in southern Madison Range, Gallatin County, Montana. The principal structure is a north-plunging, north-northwest-trending, overturned and thrusted synform, termed the Bear Creek syncline. Thrusting consists of a duplex of roof and sole thrusts enclosing an imbricate stack of horses in the southwest part of Boat Mountain. Precambrian to Cretaceous (Kootenai Formation) strata are involved in the deformation, which is interpreted as Laramide and of a Foothills Family type, involving several separate pulses of deformation. Stereographic determinations of maximum principal stress directions have shown that an initial northeast-directed stress formed and overturned the synform, caused movement on the out-of-syncline sole thrust, and imbricated the overturned limb. A later, easterly directed stress moved the back-limb roof thrust over the already folded and thrust-faulted rocks of Boat Mountain. Thrusting was succeeded by sinistrally directed tear (or strike-slip) faulting along a northeast-striking fault at the southern end of Boat Mountain. Listric normal faulting on Laramide thrust-fault planes is interpreted as a response to Tertiary extension. Recent normal faulting, on steep-dipping, east-west-striking fault planes and continuing to the present, is interpreted as a response to Yellowstone doming.

  6. Environmental exposures to agrochemicals in the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeNoir, J.; Aston, L.; Data, S.; Fellers, G.; McConnell, L.; Sieber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The release of pesticides into the environment may impact human and environmental health. Despite the need for environmental exposure data, few studies quantify exposures in urban areas and even fewer determine exposures to wildlife in remote areas. Although it is expected that concentrations in remote regions will be low, recent studies suggest that even low concentrations may have deleterious effects on wildlife. Many pesticides are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife, adversely affecting growth, development, and behavior. This chapter reviews the fate and transport of pesticides applied in the Central Valley of California and quantifies their subsequent deposition into the relatively pristine Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.

  7. Summary of ground-water data, Post Headquarters and adjacent areas, White Sands Missile Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, T.E.

    1973-01-01

    Geohydrologic data have been obtained from more than 100 wells and test holes that have been drilled in the Post Headquarters and adjacent areas of White Sands Missile Range. Observation-well data show that, in general, a continuous decline of the water table has occurred in the vicinity of the well field since production began in 1949. Approximately 40,000 acre-feet of water has been produced from the aquifer to date (1972). A series of maps are presented which show the changes that have occurred in the well field as the result of development.

  8. Kelvin-Helmholtz waves in extratropical cyclones passing over mountain ranges: KH Waves in Extratropical Cyclones over Mountain Ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Socorro; Houze, Robert A.

    2016-02-19

    Kelvin–Helmholtz billows with horizontal scales of 3–4 km have been observed in midlatitude cyclones moving over the Italian Alps and the Oregon Cascades when the atmosphere was mostly statically stable with high amounts of shear and Ri < 0.25. In one case, data from a mobile radar located within a windward facing valley documented a layer in which the shear between down-valley flow below 1.2 km and strong upslope cross-barrier flow above was large. Several episodes of Kelvin–Helmholtz waves were observed within the shear layer. The occurrence of the waves appears to be related to the strength of the shear: when the shear attained large values, an episode of billows occurred, followed by a sharp decrease in the shear. The occurrence of large values of shear and Kelvin–Helmholtz billows over two different mountain ranges suggests that they may be important features occurring when extratropical cyclones with statically stable flow pass over mountain ranges.

  9. Climate and Floristic Variation in Great Basin Mountain Ranges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, D. A.; Leary, P.

    2010-12-01

    are 316 in the Snake Range transect, and 425 along the Sheep Range transect. Near the Sheep Range lies the Spring Mountains where 769 samples were obtained. More than 30,000 geo-referenced photographs document the sites, and nearly 1000 vascular plant taxa have been encountered and their distributions documented. Recently completed soil maps, the PRISM precipitation model, and 10m Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the study areas exist. As a result, many environmental conditions can be explored with multivariate statistical methods. Preliminary results indicate that different kinds of physical data may be appropriate only at certain scales. Most useful for fine-scale investigations on mountains appears to be measures of irradiance at the solstices and equinox derived from the 10m DEM. Past climate in Nevada is readily evident on its landscapes, featuring glacial, periglacial and pluvial features. Pollen and remains left by woodrats provide vegetation records dating up to 40,000 years before present. The vegetation work described here provides a snapshot of biodiversity at fine scale of several mountain ranges. Efforts of the physical scientists and physiologists now, and repeat visits to the sample sites of this study later, will help us track the processes and manifestations of landscape change as responses to climate.

  10. Free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and an outbreak of inflammatory bowel disease along the Clark Fork River in Plains, Montana.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Ellen S

    2012-10-01

    Nine individuals with ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease grew up or lived in Plains, Montana, a 1,200-person community adjacent to the Clark Fork River near herds of free ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. This inflammatory bowel disease outbreak is similar to others that have occurred along rivers contaminated by animal feces.

  11. 75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will hold a public meeting in conjunction with the Whiskey Mountain...). DATES: The public meeting will be held from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. Mountain Standard Time on Tuesday, June...

  12. Erosion of an ancient mountain range, the Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P.R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Finkel, R.; Caffee, M.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 10Be and 26Al in bedrock (n=10), colluvium (n=5 including grain size splits), and alluvial sediments (n=59 including grain size splits), coupled with field observations and GIS analysis, suggest that erosion rates in the Great Smoky Mountains are controlled by subsurface bedrock erosion and diffusive slope processes. The results indicate rapid alluvial transport, minimal alluvial storage, and suggest that most of the cosmogenic nuclide inventory in sediments is accumulated while they are eroding from bedrock and traveling down hill slopes. Spatially homogeneous erosion rates of 25 - 30 mm Ky-1 are calculated throughout the Great Smoky Mountains using measured concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in quartz separated from alluvial sediment. 10Be and 26Al concentrations in sediments collected from headwater tributaries that have no upstream samples (n=18) are consistent with an average erosion rate of 28 ?? 8 mm Ky-1, similar to that of the outlet rivers (n=16, 24 ?? 6 mm Ky-1), which carry most of the sediment out of the mountain range. Grain-size-specific analysis of 6 alluvial sediment samples shows higher nuclide concentrations in smaller grain sizes than in larger ones. The difference in concentrations arises from the large elevation distribution of the source of the smaller grains compared with the narrow and relatively low source elevation of the large grains. Large sandstone clasts disaggregate into sand-size grains rapidly during weathering and downslope transport; thus, only clasts from the lower parts of slopes reach the streams. 26Al/10Be ratios do not suggest significant burial periods for our samples. However, alluvial samples have lower 26Al/10Be ratios than bedrock and colluvial samples, a trend consistent with a longer integrated cosmic ray exposure history that includes periods of burial during down-slope transport. The results confirm some of the basic ideas embedded in Davis' geographic cycle model, such as the reduction of relief

  13. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  14. The crustal section of the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerstaff, D.; Harris, R.A.; Miller, M.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-04-01

    Fragments of the upper crustal section of the Brooks Range Ophiolite on the west flank of Siniktanneyak Mountain expose important contact relations and paleohorizontal indicators. The nearly complete crustal sequence faces northwest. Based on field observations, the crustal units encountered at Siniktanneyak Mountain from bottom to top are: (1) layered gabbro, (2) isotropic gabbro, (3) high level and late-stage intrusions of diorite and diabase, (4) rare sheeted dikes, (5) basalt, and (6) a bedded volcanic tuff. Potassium feldspar-bearing pegmatites are also found. Of particular interest is the orientation of the layered gabbro, sheeted dikes, and the bedded volcanic tuff. The steeply dipping gabbro layers strike N-S, the adjacent vertical sheeted dikes strike NE-SW. Bedded volcanic tuff and lavas are flat lying. Contacts within the upper crust units are often covered by talus. Contacts between various plutonic rocks are both sharp and gradational, suggesting syn- and post-cooling intrusions. Contacts between plutonic rock and higher volcanic rock appear to be fault contacts.

  15. Uranium deposits at Shinarump Mesa and some adjacent areas in the Temple Mountain district, Emery County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.

    1953-01-01

    Deposits of uraniferous hydrocarbons are associated with carnotite in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age at Shinarump Mesa and adjacent areas of the Temple Mountain district in the San Rafael Swell of Emery County, Utah. The irregular ore bodies of carnotite-bearing sandstone are genetically related to lenticular uraniferous ore bodies containing disseminated asphaltitic and humic hydrocarbon in permeable sandstones and were localized indirectly by sedimentary controls. Nearly non-uraniferous bitumen commonly permeates the sandstones in the Shinarump conglomerate and the underlying Moekopi formation in the area. The ore deposits at Temple Mountain have been altered locally by hydrothermal solutions, and in other deposits throughout the area carnotite has been transported by ground and surface water. Uraniferous asphaltite is thought to be the non-volatile residue of an original weakly uraniferous crude oil that migrated into the San Rafael anticline; the ore metals concentrated in the asphaltite as the oil was devolatilized and polymerized. Carnotite is thought to have formed from the asphaltite by ground water leaching. It is concluded that additional study of the genesis of the asphaltitic uranium ores in the San Rafael Swell, of the processes by which the hydrocarbons interact and are modified (such as heat, polymerization, and hydrogenation under the influence of alpha-ray bombardment), of petroleum source beds, and of volcanic intrusive rocks of Tertiary age are of fundamental importance in the continuing study of the uranium deposits on the Colorado Plateau.

  16. Russian aeromagnetic surveys of the Prince Charles Mountains and adjacent regions into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, Alexander; Golynsky, Dmitry; Kiselev, Alexander; Masolov, Valery

    2014-05-01

    Russian aeromagnetic investigations in the Prince Charles Mountains (PCM) and surrounding areas, seek to contribute data on the tectonics of Precambrian igneous belts and cratonic fragments, the crustal structure of the Lambert Rift system and other major aspects of Antarctic geology, critical to understanding continental growth processes (Golynsky et al., 2006). Over the past decade, the Polar Marine Geoscience Expedition projects acquired approximately 77,400 line-km of aeromagnetic data over the largely ice-covered regions of MacRobertson Land and Princess Elizabeth Land. The airborne surveys were performed with a standard profile spacing of 5 km and tie-line interval of 15-25 km. The total amount of the Russian aeromagnetic data collected in this region exceeded more than 165,000 line-km. Together with the PCMEGA and AGAP surveys (Damaske and McLean, 2005; Ferraccioli et al., 2011) the PMGE dataset forms the longest transect ever mapped in East Antarctica exceeding 1950 km in length. Several distinct crustal subdivisions are clearly differentiated in the magnetic data. The high-amplitude positive anomalies that extend around the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Islands are likely be attributed to the southern boundary of high-grade metamorphic Late Archean craton. The northern PCM that are composed by ~1 Ga orthogneiss and charnockite display a predominantly northeasterly trending magnetic fabric that continues to the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift. The aeromagnetic data from the Southern PCM reveal the spatial boundary of the Archaean Ruker Terrane that is characterized by a short-wavelength anomalies and the prominent Ruker Anomaly that is associated with a banded iron formation. The prominent alternating system of linear NE-SW positive and negative anomalies over the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift may reflect the western boundary of the Princess Elizabeth Land cratonic(?) block, although its relationships and tectonic origin remained largely ambiguous

  17. Late Cenozoic uplift of mountain ranges and global climate change: chicken or egg?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter

    1990-07-01

    The high altitudes of most mountain ranges have commonly been ascribed to late Cenozoic uplift, without reference to when crustal thickening and other tectonic processes occurred. Deep incision and recent denudation of these mountain ranges, abundant late Cenozoic coarse sediment near them, and palaeobotanical evidence for warmer climates, where high mountain climates today are relatively cold, have traditionally been interpreted as evidence for recent uplift. An alternative cause of these phenomena is late Cenozoic global climate change: towards lower temperatures, increased alpine glaciation, a stormier climate, and perturbations to humidity, vegetative cover and precipitation.

  18. Inbreeding patterns in the Gredos Mountain Range (Spain).

    PubMed

    Fuster, V; Morales, B; Mesa, M S; Martin, J

    1996-02-01

    The relationships among the frequency of consanguineous marriages, inbreeding coefficient, period, village size, and altitude are analyzed for three rural valleys belonging to the Sierra de Gredos (central Spain). These valleys occupy an area of about 30 x 80 km2, and the average total number of inhabitants for the period 1877-1970 was 58,621. Information about a sample of 23,744 weddings celebrated between 1875 and 1974 was obtained from 48 village parish registers. The mean inbreeding level up to second cousins for the whole area was 0.0012. A high percentage of inbreeding variation (83%) can be explained by each village's census size, resulting in a different interslope consanguinity pattern consisting of higher inbreeding levels in most northern localities in the Gredos mountains. This north-south geographic trend is consistent with results on blood polymorphisms from the same area (Mesa et al. 1994).

  19. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    PubMed

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased.

  20. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  1. Facing the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains: What other ranges do they look like?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creyts, T. T.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bell, R. E.; Wolovick, M.; Corr, H.; Jordan, T. A.; Frearson, N.; Damaske, D.; Rose, K. C.; Braaten, D. A.; Finn, C.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain ranges serve as nucleation sites for continental ice sheets over multiple glacial cycles. During warmer interglacial periods, such ranges provide a toe-hold for snow accumulation and small glaciers that expand as temperatures drop in response to declining carbon dioxide levels. Once an ice sheet grows beyond a critical size, its basal thermal regime favors melting and development of water networks. Studies of deglaciated ice sheet beds indicate a complex thermal regime where cold-based areas are interspersed with warm, temperate areas. The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are a massive range in central East Antarctica. They are Earth's only completely ice-covered mountain range. Results from ice penetrating radar reveal steep headwalls with semicircular planform lying along high ridges and with peaks above 2500 m in the central mountain core. These likely represent cirque headwalls and provide evidence for widespread mountain glaciers within the Gamburtsevs. Headwalls are often accompanied by discrete overdeepenings that indicate occupation by cirque glaciers, and the cirque elevations are relatively uniform from north to south, spanning a distance of roughly 750 km. Such mountain glacier features have been preserved since the start of continental-scale glaciation (>33.9 Myr ago). Preservation results from freezing conditions beneath the ice sheet that have reduced erosion despite active water networks. Reconstructions of temperature indicate 17.1--19.3 +/- 4 at sea level, consistent with sedimentary proxies from the early Eocene (48--58 Myr ago). Here, we compare the Gamburtsevs to other mountain ranges using statistical tests. We focus on comparisons among mountain hypsometries, or the distributions of area with elevation. We introduce two tests, a decay-length test that relates the form of the peaks of the individual ranges and a χ2 goodness-of-fit test for the overall distribution. Results show that there is a striking similarity to mountains that are

  2. The impact of embedded valleys on daytime pollution transport over a mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Gohm, Alexander; Wagner, Johannes S.

    2016-04-01

    Idealized large-eddy simulations were performed to investigate the impact of different mountain geometries on daytime pollution transport by thermally driven winds. The main objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the interactions between plain-to-mountain and slope wind systems and (ii) to analyze their influence on daytime pollution distribution over complex terrain. For this purpose, tracer analyses were conducted over a quasi-two-dimensional mountain range with embedded valleys bordered by ridges with different crest heights and a flat foreland in cross-mountain direction. The valley depth was varied systematically. It was found that different flow regimes develop dependent on the valley floor height. In the case of elevated valley floors, the plain-to-mountain wind descends into the potentially warmer valley and replaces the opposing upslope wind. This superimposed plain-to-mountain wind increases the pollution transport towards the main ridge by additional 20 \\unit{%} compared to the regime with a deep valley. Due to mountain and advective venting, a more than threefold increased earth-atmosphere exchange is found over the various mountain geometries when compared to the reference plain simulation. However, the calculated vertical exchange is strongly sensitive to the definition of the convective boundary layer height.

  3. Variability of the isotopic lapse rate across the mountain ranges in Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian, H.; Fan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Stable isotope based paleoaltimetry studies require knowledge of the isotope-elevation gradient during the time of interest, but this information is rarely available. As a result, many studies often apply the modern local lapse rate or a global average lapse rate and assume these values are valid for the area of interest and that they hold through time. However, natural variability in local-scale climate and mountain geometry and morphology can influence the isotope-elevation (and temperature-elevation) gradient. We evaluate the inter- and intra-mountain range variability of modern climate and isotope values of stream water for three Laramide ranges in Wyoming (Wind River Range, Bighorn and Laramie Mountains), as well as for a regional elevation transect across the central Rocky mountain front. Samples of steam water were taken from major catchments across Wyoming in 2007, 2011, and 2012. We find that the modern lapse rate for these ranges is -1.7‰/km, -2.2‰/km and -1.8‰/km respectively. Although these values are very similar to one another and to the global isotopic lapse rate (-2.1‰/km), large variation (up to 6‰/km) exists among individual small river catchments of the Bighorn Mountains. The variability in catchment-scale lapse rate does not appear to be systematically related to annual, or seasonal surface air temperature, precipitation amount, or catchment area. However, the range-scale lapse rates may yet reflect the regional climate, which is generally coolest and driest in the Wind River Range (lowest lapse rate) and warmest and wettest in the Bighorn Mountains (highest lapse rate). Similar d-excess values exist across individual mountain ranges, but inter-mountain range differences indicate that the Laramie Mountains (and regions of western Nebraska) receive evaporatively enriched rainwater compared to those in the Wind River Range and Bighorn Mountains. These differences do not necessarily require separate vapor sources as the lower d

  4. The Growth of Simple Mountain Ranges: 2. Geomorphic Evolution at Fault Linkage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawers, N. H.; Densmore, A. L.; Davis, A. M.; Gupta, S.

    2002-12-01

    Large normal faults grow partly through linkage of fault segments and partly by fault tip propagation. The process by which fault segments interact and link is critical to understanding how topography is created along fault-bounded ranges. Structural studies and numerical models have shown that fault linkage is accompanied by localised increased displacement rate, which in turn drives rapid base level fall at the evolving range front. The changes in both along-strike fault structure and base level are most pronounced at and adjacent to sites of fault linkage. These areas, known as relay zones, thus preserve clues to both the tectonic history and the geomorphic evolution of large fault-bounded mountain ranges. We discuss the temporal and spatial constraints on the evolution of footwall-range topography, by comparing a number of active fault linkage sites, using field and DEM observations of the spatial pattern of footwall denudation. In particular, we focus on sites in Pleasant Valley, Nevada (Pearce and Tobin fault segments) and in the northeastern Basin and Range (the Beaverhead fault, Idaho, and the Star Valley fault, Wyoming). The study areas represent different stages in the structural and geomorphic evolution of relay zones, and allow us to propose a developmental model of large fault evolution and landscape response. Early in the growth of fault segments into an overlapping geometry, catchments may form within the evolving relay. However, increasing displacement rate associated with fault interaction and linkage makes these catchments prone to capture by streams that have incised headward from the range front. This scenario leads to locally increased footwall denudation in the vicinity of the capture site. Longitudinal profiles of streams differ with respect to position along relays and whether or not any particular stream has been able to capture early-formed drainages. The restricted space between interacting en echelon fault segments helps preserve close

  5. Genetic Structure and Evolutionary History of Three Alpine Sclerophyllous Oaks in East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li; Zheng, Qi-Jian; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides, and Quercus rehderiana) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography. Our results indicate there were mixed genetic structure and asymmetric contemporary gene flow within them. The ENMs revealed a similar demographic history for the three species expanded their ranges from the last interglacial (LIG) to the last glacial maximum (LGM), which was consistent with effective population sizes changes. Effects of genetic drift and fragmentation of habitats were responsible for the high differentiation and the lack of phylogeographic structure. Our results support that geological and climatic factors since Miocene triggered the differentiation, evolutionary origin and range shifts of the three oak species in the studied area and also emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach combining molecular markers, ENMs and population genetics can yield deep insights into diversification and evolutionary dynamics of species. PMID:27891142

  6. Genetic Structure and Evolutionary History of Three Alpine Sclerophyllous Oaks in East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Zheng, Qi-Jian; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides, and Quercus rehderiana) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography. Our results indicate there were mixed genetic structure and asymmetric contemporary gene flow within them. The ENMs revealed a similar demographic history for the three species expanded their ranges from the last interglacial (LIG) to the last glacial maximum (LGM), which was consistent with effective population sizes changes. Effects of genetic drift and fragmentation of habitats were responsible for the high differentiation and the lack of phylogeographic structure. Our results support that geological and climatic factors since Miocene triggered the differentiation, evolutionary origin and range shifts of the three oak species in the studied area and also emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach combining molecular markers, ENMs and population genetics can yield deep insights into diversification and evolutionary dynamics of species.

  7. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  8. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F. )

    1996-01-01

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  9. Dynamics of erosion in a compressional mountain range revealed by 10Be paleoerosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val, P.; Hoke, G. D.; Fosdick, J. C.; Wittmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of erosion over million-year timescales is key to understanding the evolution of mountain ranges and adjacent fold-and-thrust belts. While models of orogenic wedge evolution predict an instantaneous response of erosion to pulses of rock uplift, stream-power based landscape evolution models predict catchment-wide erosion maxima that lag behind a rock uplift pulse. Here, we explore the relationships between rock uplift, erosion, and sediment deposition in the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt at 30°S where extensive previous work documents deformation, climate and sediment accumulation histories. Sandstone samples spanning 8.8 to 1.8 Ma were collected from the previously dated wedge-top (Iglesia) and foredeep basins (Bermejo) for quartz purification and 10Be extraction. 10Be concentrations due to burial and exhumation were estimated and subtracted from the measured concentrations and yielded the inherited 10Be concentrations, which were then corrected for sample magnetostratigraphic age. The inherited concentrations were then used to calculate paleoerosion rates. We modeled various pre-burial and post-burial exposure scenarios in order to assess potential sources of uncertainty in the recovered paleoerosion rates. The modeling results reveal that pre-burial and post-burial exposure periods only marginally affect our results. By combining the 10Be-derived paleoerosion rates and geomorphic observations with detrital zircon provenance, we document the isolation of the wedge-top basin, which was later reconnected by an upstream migrating pulse of erosion in a process that was directly controlled by thrust activity and base level. The data further indicate that the attainment of maximum upland erosion rates lags maximum rates of deformation and subsidence over million-year timescales. The magnitudes and causes of the erosional delays shed new light on the catchment erosional response to tectonic deformation and rock uplift in orogenic

  10. Adjacency graphs and long-range interactions of atoms in quasi-degenerate states: applied graph theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, C. M.; Debierre, V.; Jentschura, U. D.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze, in general terms, the evolution of energy levels in quantum mechanics, as a function of a coupling parameter, and demonstrate the possibility of level crossings in systems described by irreducible matrices. In long-range interactions, the coupling parameter is the interatomic distance. We demonstrate the utility of adjacency matrices and adjacency graphs in the analysis of "hidden" symmetries of a problem; these allow us to break reducible matrices into irreducible subcomponents. A possible breakdown of the no-crossing theorem for higher-dimensional irreducible matrices is indicated, and an application to the 2 S-2 S interaction in hydrogen is briefly described. The analysis of interatomic interactions in this system is important for further progress on optical measurements of the 2 S hyperfine splitting.

  11. Vertebrate range sizes indicate that mountains may be 'higher' in the tropics.

    PubMed

    McCain, Christy M

    2009-06-01

    In 1967, Daniel Janzen proposed the influential, but largely untested hypothesis, that tropical mountain passes are physiologically higher than temperate mountains. I test his key prediction, the one upon which all the others rely: namely, that elevational range sizes of organisms get larger on mountains at increasing latitudes. My analyses use 170 montane gradients spanning 36.5 degrees S to 48.2 degrees N latitude compiled from over 80 years of research and 16,500 species of rodents, bats, birds, lizards, snakes, salamanders, and frogs. In support of Janzen's prediction, I find that elevational range size increases with increasing latitude for all vertebrate groups except rodents. I document additional lines of evidence for temperature variability as a plausible mechanism for trends in vertebrate range size, including strong effects of thermoregulation and daily temperature variability, and a weak effect of precipitation.

  12. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    PubMed

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface.

  13. Isotope geochemistry and fluxes of carbon and organic matter in tropical small mountainous river systems and adjacent coastal waters of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Ryan; Bauer, James; Grottoli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that small mountainous rivers (SMRs) may act as sources of aged and/or refractory carbon (C) to the coastal ocean, which may increase organic C burial at sea and subsidize coastal food webs and heterotrophy. However, the characteristics and spatial and temporal variability of C and organic matter (OM) exported from tropical SMR systems remain poorly constrained. To address this, the abundance and isotopic character (δ13C and Δ14C) of the three major C pools were measured in two Puerto Rico SMRs with catchments dominated by different land uses (agricultural vs. non-agricultural recovering forest). The abundance and character of C pools in associated estuaries and adjacent coastal waters were also examined. Riverine dissolved and particulate organic C (DOC and POC, respectively) concentrations were highly variable with respect to land use and sampling month, while dissolved inorganic C (DIC) was significantly higher at all times in the agricultural catchment. In both systems, riverine DOC and POC ranged from modern to highly aged (2,340 years before present), while DIC was always modern. The agricultural river and irrigation canals contained very old DOC (1,184 and 2,340 years before present, respectively), which is consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that these tropical SMRs provide a source of aged DOC to the ocean. During months of high river discharge, OM in estuarine and coastal waters had C isotope signatures reflective of direct terrestrial input, indicating that relatively unaltered OM is transported to the coastal ocean at these times. This is also consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that C transported to the coastal ocean by SMRs may differ from that of larger rivers because it is exported from smaller catchments that have steeper terrains and fewer land-use types.

  14. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  15. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  16. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  17. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  18. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Southern Funeral Mountains and Adjacent Ground-Water Discharge Sites, Inyo County, California, and Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Slate, Janet L.; Berry, M.E.; Machette, Michael N.

    2008-01-01

    This map covers the southern part of the Funeral Mountains, and adjacent parts of four structural basins - Furnace Creek, Amargosa Valley, Opera House, and central Death Valley. It extends over three full 7.5-minute quadrangles, and parts of eleven others - a total area of about 950 square kilometers. The boundaries of this map were drawn to include all of the known proximal hydrogeologic features that may affect the flow of ground water that discharges from the springs of the Furnace Creek wash area, in the west-central part of the map. These springs provide the major potable water supply for Death Valley National Park.

  19. Lithology and structure within the basement terrain adjacent to Clark Mountains, California, mapped with calibrated data from the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Vane, Gregg

    1989-01-01

    The Clark Mountains in eastern California form a rugged, highly dissected area nearly 5000 ft above sea level, with Clark Mountain rising to 8000 ft. The rocks of the Clark Mountains and the Mescal Range just to the south are Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks, and Mesozoic clastic and volcanic rocks standing in pronounced relief above the fractured Precambrian gneisses to the east. The Permian Kaibab Limestone and the Triassic Moenkopi and Chinle Formations are exposed in the Mescal Range, which is the only place in California where these rocks, which are typical of the Colorado Plateau, are found. To the west, the mountains are bordered by the broad alluvial plains of Shadow Valley. Cima Dome, which is an erosional remnant carved on a batholithic intrusion of quartz monzonite, is found at the south end of the valley. To the east of the Clark and Mescal Mountains is found the Ivanpah Valley, in the center of which is located the Ivanpah Play. Studies of the Clark Mountains with the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer are briefly described.

  20. Tectonic origin of Lower Mesozoic regional unconformities: Southern Colorado Plateau and adjacent Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Palinspastic restoration of Basin and Range structural blocks to early Mesozoic positions relative to the Colorado Plateau permits correlation of lower Mesozoic regional unconformities of the Colorado Plateau across the southern Basin and Range. These unconformities correlate with tectonic reconfiguration of sedimentary basins in which enclosed depositional sequences were deposited. Lesser recognized intraformational unconformities are related to relative sea level change. The Tr-1 unconformity developed on subaerially exposed, karsted, and deeply incised Leonardian carbonates. The overlying Lower Triassic Moenkopi Formation and equivalent strata display a narrow, north-south aligned, passive-margin-type architecture subdivided by Smithian and Spathian intraformational unconformities into three depositional sequences. From basinal to inner shelf facies, Tr-1 truncates folds in Permian rocks. Initial deposition of the lowest sequence began with sea level at the base of the continental slope. Basal conglomerates of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation were deposited in northward-trending paleovalleys incised within and parallel to the Early Triassic shelf. Distribution of fluvial deposition, orientation of paleovalleys, paleocurrent indicators, and provenance indicate change from the passive-margin-bordered Early Triassic basin to an offshore active-margin basin. Continental and marine facies suggest two depositional sequences separated by an early Norian type 2( ) sequence boundary. The J-O unconformity at the base of the Lower Jurassic Glen Canyon Group marks a major change in tectonic setting of western North America as evidenced by (1) progressive southwestward downcutting of the unconformity to deformed Paleozoic rocks and Precambrian basement, (2) coincidence in time and space with Late Triassic to Early Jurassic thrust faults, and (3) initiation of calcalkaline volcanism.

  1. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping.

  2. Deformation Rates in the Snake River Plain and Adjacent Basin and Range Regions Based on GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    We estimate horizontal velocities for 405 sites using Global Positioning System (GPS) phase data collected from 1994 to 2010 within the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. The velocities reveal a slowly-deforming region within the Snake River Plain in Idaho and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau in Oregon separated from the actively extending adjacent Basin and Range regions by shear. Our results show a NE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.6 ± 0.7 nanostrain/yr in the Centennial Tectonic Belt and an ~E-oriented extensional strain rate of 3.5 ± 0.2 nanostrain/yr in the Great Basin. These extensional rates contrast with the very low strain rate within the 125 km x 650 km region of the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau which is not distinguishable from zero (-0.1 ± 0.4 x nanostrain/yr). Inversions of Snake River Plain velocities with dike-opening models indicate that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones, as previously hypothesized, is not currently occurring. GPS data also disclose that rapid extension in the surrounding regions adjacent to the slowly-deforming region of the Snake River Plain drives shear between them. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.3-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic Belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic Belt. The fastest lateral shearing evident in the GPS occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where earthquakes with right-lateral strike-slip focal mechanisms are within a NE-trending zone of seismicity. The regional velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic Belt, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and eastern Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is not locally driven by Yellowstone hotspot volcanism, but instead by extension to the south across the Wasatch fault possibly due to gravitational

  3. Turkish Children's Drawing of Nature in a Certain Way: Range of Mountains in the Back, the Sun, Couple of Clouds, a River Rising from the Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulker, Riza

    2012-01-01

    This study reveals that Turkish kindergarten through 8th Grade (K-8) students draw nature pictures in a certain way; range of mountains in the background, a sun, a couple of clouds, a river rising from the mountains. There are similarities in the K-8 students' nature drawings in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper. We…

  4. Flight Period of Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in its Recently Expanded Range.

    PubMed

    Bleiker, K P; Van Hezewijk, B H

    2016-12-01

    The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting. The best model accounted for 89% of the variation in the data. Mountain pine beetle's flight tended to start later and be more contracted at higher latitudes. The synchrony of mountain pine beetle's flight period in the expanded range appears to be comparable to the limited reports from the historic range, although it may start earlier. This suggests that conditions in the new range are suitable for a coordinated dispersal flight, which is critical for the beetle's strategy of overwhelming tree defenses by attacking en masse. Forest managers can use the model to support operational decisions, e.g., when to impose hauling restrictions to reduce the risk of spread through the transport of infested material, or the time frame for control programs. Understanding the flight period may also improve our ability to assess the response of mountain pine beetle to novel and changing climates in the future.

  5. Flight Period of Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in its Recently Expanded Range.

    PubMed

    Bleiker, K P; Van Hezewijk, B H

    2016-09-20

    The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting. The best model accounted for 89% of the variation in the data. Mountain pine beetle's flight tended to start later and be more contracted at higher latitudes. The synchrony of mountain pine beetle's flight period in the expanded range appears to be comparable to the limited reports from the historic range, although it may start earlier. This suggests that conditions in the new range are suitable for a coordinated dispersal flight, which is critical for the beetle's strategy of overwhelming tree defenses by attacking en masse. Forest managers can use the model to support operational decisions, e.g., when to impose hauling restrictions to reduce the risk of spread through the transport of infested material, or the time frame for control programs. Understanding the flight period may also improve our ability to assess the response of mountain pine beetle to novel and changing climates in the future.

  6. The large karstic holes at the top of the Syrian coastal Mountain Range. Importance of structural setting for the karstogenesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocochain, Ludovic; Blanpied, Christian; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Peyronel, Olivier; Gorini, Christian; Abdalla, Abdelkarim Al; Azki, Fawaz

    2015-04-01

    Along the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Syria Coastal Mountain Range spreads from north to south over 150 km of long. This range is a monocline structure stopped by a major escarpment that domines Al-Gahb Graben to the East. The Coastal Mountain Range is mainly formed by Mesozoic limestone that show a major unconformity between the Upper Jurassic and Aptien deposits, and important erosions in the Upper Cretaceous deposits. Locally, the Juro-Cretaceous unconformity is characterized by a layer of continental basalts with fossil woods that reveal a long emersion of the platform. The most recent carbonate deposits at the top of the Coastal Mountain Range are Turonian age. In the center part of the Coastal Mountain Range, in a small area, the Cretaceous carbonates are affected by large karstic dolines. These dolines are curiously located at the top of the mountain range. This position is not beneficial for the development of large karstic holes.

  7. Soil-geomorphic significance of land surface characteristics in an arid mountain range, Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirmas, D.R.; Graham, R.C.; Kendrick, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mountains comprise an extensive and visually prominent portion of the landscape in the Mojave Desert, California. Landform surface properties influence the role these mountains have in geomorphic processes such as dust flux and surface hydrology across the region. The primary goal of this study was to describe and quantify land surface properties of arid-mountain landforms as a step toward unraveling the role these properties have in soil-geomorphic processes. As part of a larger soil-geomorphic study, four major landform types were identified within the southern Fry Mountains in the southwestern Mojave Desert on the basis of topography and landscape position: mountaintop, mountainflank, mountainflat (intra-range low-relief surface), and mountainbase. A suite of rock, vegetation, and morphometric land surface characteristic variables was measured at each of 65 locations across the study area, which included an associated piedmont and playa. Our findings show that despite the variation within types, landforms have distinct land surface properties that likely control soil-geomorphic processes. We hypothesize that surface expression influences a feedback process at this site where water transports sediment to low lying areas on the landscape and wind carries dust and soluble salts to the mountains where they are washed between rocks, incorporated into the soil, and retained as relatively long-term storage. Recent land-based video and satellite photographs of the dust cloud emanating from the Sierra Cucapá Mountains in response to the 7.2-magnitude earthquake near Mexicali, Mexico, support the hypothesis that these landforms are massive repositories of dust.

  8. Devonian-Mississippian carbonate sequence in the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dumoulin, J.A. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Essentially continuous, dominantly carbonate sedimentation occurred from at least the Early Devonian through the Mississippian in the area that is now the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range. This succession is in striking contrast to Paleozoic sequences in the eastern Brooks Range and in the subsurface across northern Alaska, where uppermost Devonian-Mississippian clastic and Carboniferous carbonates unconformably overlie Proterozoic or lower Paleozoic metasedimentary or sedimentary rocks. Conodonts obtained throughout the Maiyumerak Mountains sequence indicate that any hiatus is less than a stage in duration, and there is no apparent physical evidence of unconformity within the succession. The sequence is best exposed northwest of the Eli River, where Emsian-Eifelian dolostones (Baird Group) are conformably overlain by Kinderhookian-Osagian sandy limestones (Utukok Formation) and Osagian-Chesterian fossiliferous limestones (Kogruk Formation) of the Lisburne Group. Conodont species assemblages and sedimentary structures indicate deposition in a range of shallow-water shelf environments. The sequence extends at least 30 km, from the Noatak Quadrangle northeast into the Baird Mountains Quadrangle; its easternmost extent has not been definitively determined. The Ellesmerian orogeny, thought to have produced the extensive middle Paleozoic unconformity seen through much of northern Alaska apparently had little effect on this western Brooks Range sedimentary succession.

  9. Crustal structure of Wrangellia and adjacent terranes inferred from geophysical studies along a transect through the northern Talkeetna Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glen, J.M.G.; Schmidt, J.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.K.; O'Neill, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent investigations of the Talkeetna Mountains in south-central Alaska were undertaken to study the region's framework geophysics and to reinterpret structures and crustal composition. Potential field (gravity and magnetic) and magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected along northwest-trending profiles as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Talkeetna Mountains transect project. The Talkeetna Mountains transect area comprises eight 1:63,360 quadrangles (???9500 km2) in the Healy and Talkeetna Mountains 1?? ?? 3?? sheets that span four major lithostratigraphic terranes (Glen et al., this volume) including the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes and two Mesozoic overlap assemblages inboard (northwest) of Wrangellia. These data were used here to develop 21/2-dimensional models for the three profiles. Modeling results reveal prominent gravity, magnetic, and MT gradients (???3.25 mGal/ km, ???100nT/km, ???300 ohm-m/km) corresponding to the Talkeetna Suture Zone-a first-order crustal discontinuity in the deep crust that juxtaposes rocks with strongly contrasting rock properties. This discontinuity corresponds with the suture between relatively dense magnetic crust of Wrangellia (likely of oceanic composition) and relatively less dense transitional crust underlying Jurassic to Cretaceous flysch basins developed between Wrangellia and North America. Some area of the oceanic crust beneath Wrangellia may also have been underplated by mafic material during early to mid-Tertiary volcanism. The prominent crustal break underlies the Fog Lakes basin approximately where theTalkeetna thrust faultwaspreviouslymappedas a surface feature. Potential fieldand MT models, however, indicate that the Talkeetna Suture Zone crustal break along the transect is a deep (2-8 km), steeply west-dipping structure-not a shallow east-dipping Alpine nappe-like thrust. Indeed, most of the crustal breaks in the area appear to be steep in the geophysical data, which is consistent with regional geologic

  10. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  11. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  12. A geochemical perspective of Red Mountain: an unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the environmental geochemistry of a group of unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in the Bonnifield mining district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The spectacularly colored Red Mountain deposit is the best exposed of these and provides excellent baseline geochemical data for natural environmental impacts of acidic rock drainage, metal dissolution and transport, and acidic salt and metal precipitation from an exposed and undisturbed VMS deposit.

  13. Mineral potential of altered rocks near Blawn Mountain, Wah Wah Range, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Osmonson, Lee M.

    1978-01-01

    A mineralized area near Blawn Mountain in the southern Wah Wah Range has potential for deposits of lithophile metals, including uranium, tin, molybdenum, and beryllium. An area of iron oxide, alunite, and kaolinite alteration in rhyolite on Blawn Mountain overlaps southward with an area of fluorite, montmorillonite, and illite alteration in rhyolite and breccia near the Staats mine. The area on Blawn Mountain is largely depleted of metals other than iron, but the area near the Staats mine has produced some fluorspar and uranium and has anomalous amounts of tin, molybdenum, and beryllium in altered rock. Topaz rhyolites near the Staats mine and on The Tetons are similar to those in the Thomas Range of Utah, which are associated with deposits of fluorspar, uranium, and beryllium. Unmineralized topaz rhyolite in the Wah Wah Range contains anomalous traces of Be, Ga, Li, Mo, Nb, and Sn. Extensive areas of jasperoid with very low trace metal contents are associated with the areas of mineralization and alteration. The age of alteration and mineralization in the southern Wah Wah Range can De inferred from the age of host rocks. The rhyolite of Blawn Mountain, which is the host for alunite and kaolinite, is dated as 30.7?1.5 m.y. old. The intrusive topaz rhyolite of the Staats mine area, which with its altered breccia zone is the host and probable source of fluorine and lithophile metals, is 19.7?0.8 m.y. old. The overlap of both kaolinite and montmorillonite in altered breccia along the north side of the intrusive topaz rhyolite suggests that all of the alteration and mineralization may be younger than 19.7?0.8 m.y.

  14. Growth and erosion of mountain ranges at the northeastern margin of Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzel, Ralf; Palumbo, Luigi; Giese, Jörg; Guo, Jianming

    2010-05-01

    The hypothesis that mountain belts may reach a steady state, in which rock uplift is balanced by erosion, has been supported by numerous field studies and numerical models. The early evolution of mountain ranges, however, and especially the relation between fault growth and topographic response has received little attention. By using a space-for-time substitution we illustrate how active thrust faults and small, fault-bounded mountain ranges evolve into mature mountain chains that will ultimately be incorporated into the laterally growing Tibetan Plateau. At an early stage of development, when faults propagate laterally, slip rates are constant along strike [1-3]. As long as no significant topographic relief has developed, tectonic uplift is at least an order of magnitude faster than the rate of erosion [2,4]. During progressive relief growth and the establishment of drainage basins, erosion of the rising mountain ranges becomes more important, but the studied ranges are still in a pre-steady state and continue to grow both vertically and laterally [5]. During this stage the rate of erosion is linearly correlated to the mean hillslope gradient and the mean local relief, if differences in lithology or rock strength are negligible [6]. The rate of relief growth may be inferred from the difference between local erosion rates on ridge crests and catchment-wide denudation rates [7] - the latter may be taken as a surrogate for the rate of river incision. As hillslopes approach a threshold value, landsliding becomes the dominant process of mass transport and erosion rates increase non-linearly with slope. Once a steady state has been reached, the erosion rate is equal to the rate of rock uplift. A key problem is how the rate of rock uplift can be quantified in such regions, because the stochastic distribution of landslides causes the denudation rates inferred from 10Be in river sediment to be highly variable [8]. References [1] Hetzel et al. (2004). Implications of the

  15. Basin and range-age reactivation of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Texas Panhandle: evidence from Ogallala Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1984-04-01

    The Ogallala Formation (Neogene) is a widespread syntectonic alluvial apron that was shed eastward from the Rio Grande rift and related uplifts in Colorado and New Mexico during Basin and Range extension. In the Texas Panhandle, the Ogallala completely buried Ancestral Rocky Mountain (Pennsylvanian) structures. Renewed movement on these older structures during the Neogene influenced the thickness and facies distribution of the Ogallala. The Ogallala thickens into the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko basins. Major distributary channels on Ogallala alluvial fans coincide with the axes of these basins, whereas major interchannel areas overlie intervening uplifts. Second-order structures subtly influenced the unit as well. For example, the Carson basin, a Pennsylvanian rhomb graben along the Amarillo uplift, the Ogallala is over 250 m (820 ft) thick compared with 90 m (275 ft) in adjacent areas. Within the Palo Duro basin, local highs controlled the distribution of thin, interchannel flood-basin and lacustrine deposits. Thicker, braided-stream channel deposits follow local lows. Later movement on the Amarillo uplift broadly folded the Ogallala. The southern high plains surface subtly reflects basement structure, with topographic highs overlying basement highs, suggesting post-Ogallala deformation within the Palo Duro basin. The Amarillo uplift is approximately perpendicular to the Rio Grande rift and parallel to the direction of Basin and Range extension. Thus, the stress field that produced the rift may have caused strike-slip movement and reactivation of the Carson basin along the Amarillo uplift.

  16. Mountain Meadows Dacite: Oligocene intrusive complex that welds together the Los Angeles Basin, northwestern Peninsular Ranges, and central Transverse Ranges, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloh, Thane H.; Beyer, Larry A.; Morin, Ronald W.

    2001-01-01

    Dikes and irregular intrusive bodies of distinctive Oligocene biotite dacite and serially related hornblende latite and felsite occur widely in the central and eastern San Gabriel Mountains, southern California, and are related to the Telegraph Peak granodiorite pluton. Identical dacite is locally present beneath Middle Miocene Topanga Group Glendora Volcanics at the northeastern edge of the Los Angeles Basin, where it is termed Mountain Meadows Dacite. This study mapped the western and southwestern limits of the dacite distribution to understand the provenance of derived redeposited clasts, to perceive Neogene offsets on several large strike-slip faults, to test published palinspastic reconstructions, and to better understand the tectonic boundaries that separate contrasting pre-Tertiary rock terranes where the Peninsular Ranges meet the central and western Transverse Ranges and the Los Angeles Basin. Transported and redeposited clasts of dacite-latite occur in deformed lower Miocene and lower middle Miocene sandy conglomerates (nonmarine, nearshore, and infrequent upper bathyal) close to the northern and northeastern margins of the Los Angeles Basin for a distance of nearly 60 km. Tie-lines between distinctive source suites and clast occurrences indicate that large tracts of the ancestral San Gabriel Mountains were elevated along range-bounding faults as early as 16–15 Ma. The tie-lines prohibit very large strike-slip offsets on those faults. Transport of eroded dacite began south of the range as early as 18 Ma. Published and unpublished data about rocks adjacent to the active Santa Monica-Hollywood-Raymond oblique reverse left-lateral fault indicate that cumulative left slip totals 13–14 km and total offset postdates 7 Ma. This cumulative slip, with assembly of stratigraphic and paleogeographic data, invalidates prior estimates of 60 to 90 km of left slip on these faults beginning about 17–16 Ma. A new and different palinspastic reconstruction of a region

  17. Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

  18. Middle Jurassic U-Pb crystallization age for Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. ); Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors report here a U-Pb age for the Siniktanneyak Mountain Ophiolite klippe in the west-central Brooks Range, the first U-Pb ophiolite age in northern Alaska. Like klippen of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Brooks Range, the Siniktanneyak Mountain klippe is composed of a lower allochthon of Devonian and younger( ) diabase and metabasalt with trace-element characteristics of seamount basalts and an upper allochthon of ophiolite. The ophiolite is partial, consisting of (1) abundant dunite and subordinate harzburgite and wehrlite; (2) cumulate clinopyroxene gabbro, and (3) minor noncumulate clinopyroxene gabbro and subordinate plagiogranite; no sheeted dikes or volcanic rocks are known in the ophilitic allochthon. The plagiogranite forms small dikes and stocks that intrude the noncumulate gabbro and consists of zoned Na-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene with interstial quartz and biotite. Five fractions of subhedral, tan zircon from the plagiogranite yield slightly discordant U-Pb data with an upper intercept age of 170 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data indicate that the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite crystallized in the Middle Jurassic and was emplaced by thrusting onto mafic accretionary prism rocks within about 10 m.y. of crystallization. The U-Pb data provide an upper limit to the age of initiation of the Brookian orogeny.

  19. Sangre de Cristo Mountains: East flank Culebra range thrust fault and Raton basin prospects, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, E.K.

    1989-09-01

    Drilling in the Stonewall area west of Trinidad confirms seismic evidence of major thrust faulting displacing the surface complex a minimum of 2.5 km (1.5 mi) eastward over the west flank of the Raton basin. There is no direct evidence of this master fault where it apparently intersects the surface in the poorly exposed Pierre Shale section east of the Dakota stonewall. This mountain-to-basin relationship has been established in some of the frontal ranges to the north, but it had not been proven in this part of the Sangre de Cristo. Although commercial hydrocarbons were not found in this test, the structural information provides encouragement for exploration of hidden traps in other sectors of the mountain front.

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Installation of the Taylor Mountain Long-Range Radar System Taylor Mountain, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    diameter (Photograph 2). Drill log samples collected from Taylor Mountain indicate that a moderately weathered granodiorite extends to 10 feet below...ground surface followed by granodiorite bedrock. Regional geology maps indicate that Kechumstuk Mountain has the similar lithology. 3.1.3.3 Soils

  1. The Holocene history of highland pine forests in a submediterranean mountain: the case of Gredos mountain range (Iberian Central range, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiales, J. M.; García-Amorena, I.; Génova, M.; Gómez Manzaneque, F.; Morla, C.

    2007-07-01

    The significance of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra forests in Gredos mountain range in the Iberian botanical literature has been traditionally a matter of controversy. Considered for many botanists to be anthropogenic forests, a high amount of syntaxonomic approaches, cartographies of potential vegetation and dynamic models have been created based on this guesswork. Nevertheless, this work contributes new data that contradicts this previous hypothesis. For the first time, these data prove the existence of a bioclimatic belt where pine trees dominated during the last 6500 years, clarifying its altitudinal range, surface extension, and its stability. The study is based on the analysis of fossil macrorests and megarests, dated using radiocarbon. The results obtained cohere with the suggestions of other authors that assume the native character of P. nigra and P. sylvestris in this area, based on data of diverse origin (palynological, historical, toponymical, dendrochronological or geobotanical). The paper then continues to discuss the geobotanical interpretation of the results and the regional lines of management, as well as the potential causes that could have induced the marked decline of pine forests in the last millennia.

  2. Magnetostratigraphy susceptibility for the Guadalupian Series GSSPs (Middle Permian) in Guadalupe Mountains National Park and adjacent areas in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Lambert, Lance L.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Bell, Gordon L.; Nestell, Galina P.

    2012-01-01

    Here we establish a magnetostratigraphy susceptibility zonation for the three Middle Permian Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) that have recently been defined, located in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, West Texas, USA. These GSSPs, all within the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series, define (1) the base of the Roadian Stage (base of the Guadalupian Series), (2) the base of the Wordian Stage and (3) the base of the Capitanian Stage. Data from two additional stratigraphic successions in the region, equivalent in age to the Kungurian–Roadian and Wordian–Capitanian boundary intervals, are also reported. Based on low-field, mass specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) measurements of 706 closely spaced samples from these stratigraphic sections and time-series analysis of one of these sections, we (1) define the magnetostratigraphy susceptibility zonation for the three Guadalupian Series Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points; (2) demonstrate that χ datasets provide a proxy for climate cyclicity; (3) give quantitative estimates of the time it took for some of these sediments to accumulate; (4) give the rates at which sediments were accumulated; (5) allow more precise correlation to equivalent sections in the region; (6) identify anomalous stratigraphic horizons; and (7) give estimates for timing and duration of geological events within sections.

  3. The role of wind in the evolution of glaciated mountain ranges: Field observations and insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.; MacGregor, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Prevailing winds appear to exert a major control on the evolution of glaciated mountain ranges, particularly those oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wind. The presumed cause of this is the redistribution of wind-blown snow, which has the opposite effect from orographic precipitation in non-glaciated ranges. While fluvially-eroded ranges tend to be exhumed more on the windward side, glacially-eroded ranges seem to experience greater erosion on the leeward side. The Sangre de Cristo Range of southern Colorado runs close to north-south, cross-cutting the prevailing winds from the west (which have formed the Great Sand Dunes of the National Monument adjacent to the west side of the range). Drainage basins on both sides of the range cover similar drainage areas, but moraines are much more substantial on the eastern side of the range, indicating greater glacial incision, which we suggest reflects snow blown over the range crest. The highest peaks of the Bitterroot Range on the Idaho-Montana border lie substantially to the east of the modern drainage divide, while the moraines are again much more substantial on the eastern side of the range. We suggest that the cause of this is greater glacial erosion of both the headwalls and valley floors on the eastern side, linked to wind-blown snow from the west side of the range. Glen Avon, incised into the Cairngorm plateau in Scotland, contains a large, elongated glacially-carved lake immediately downstream of a modest cirque. We suggest that the glacier responsible for carving the lake must have had its mass balance supplemented by substantial amounts of snow blown in from the plateau above. Numerical modelling supports these field-based inferences. A 1-D numerical model of glacial longitudinal profile evolution indicates the importance of wind-blown snow. A plateau region above the valley head from which snow can blow into the valley allows substantially larger and longer-lived glaciers compared with a valley of the same

  4. Evolution of basin and range structure in the Ruby Mountains and vicinity, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, D. D.; Reese, N. M.; Kelley, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Results from various age dating techniques, seismic reflection profiling hydrocarbon maturation studies, and structural analysis were used to evaluate the Cenozoic deformation in the Ruby Mountains and adjoining ranges (pinyon Range and Cortez Range) in Elko and Eureka Counties, Nevada. Age dating techniques used include potassium-argon ages of biotites from granites published by Kistler et al. (1981) and fission track ages from apatite and zircon. Fission track ages from apatite reflect a closing temperature of 100 plus or minus 20 deg C. Zircon fission track ages reflect a closing temperature of 175 plus or minus 25 deg C and potassium-argon ages from brotite reflect a closing temperature of 250 plus or minus 30 deg C. Thus these results allow a reasonably precise tracking of the evolution of the ranges during the Cenozoic. Seismic reflection data are available from Huntington Valley. Access to seismic reflection data directly to the west of the Harrison Pass Pluton in the central Ruby Mountains was obtained. In addition results are available from several deep exploration holes in Huntington Valley.

  5. An integrated remote sensing approach for identifying ecological range sites. [parker mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    A model approach for identifying ecological range sites was applied to high elevation sagebrush-dominated rangelands on Parker Mountain, in south-central Utah. The approach utilizes map information derived from both high altitude color infrared photography and LANDSAT digital data, integrated with soils, geological, and precipitation maps. Identification of the ecological range site for a given area requires an evaluation of all relevant environmental factors which combine to give that site the potential to produce characteristic types and amounts of vegetation. A table is presented which allows the user to determine ecological range site based upon an integrated use of the maps which were prepared. The advantages of identifying ecological range sites through an integrated photo interpretation/LANDSAT analysis are discussed.

  6. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Simons, Andrew M; Won, Yong-Jin

    2016-08-31

    The Taebaek Mountains in South Korea serves as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for South Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in two distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in South Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are five rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) rivers since the late-Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (late-Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong rivers, but also between the Osip and Han rivers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Aeromagnetic and interpretation map of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griscom, Andrew

    1980-01-01

    The data for the aeromagnetic map (sheet 1) of the King Range and Chemise Mountain areas wre collected in 1978 and compiled at a scale of 1:62,500. Northeast-southwest traverses were spaced at 0.8-km intervals at an altitude for 300 m above the ground surface and 600 m above the ocean because of cliffs along the shore. The contour interval is 10 of or 50γ, depending on the steepness of local gradients in the Earth's magnetic field. A regional field of approximately 5.6 γ/km was removed from the data before contouring. 

  8. Tertiary volcanic rocks and uranium in the Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains, Juab County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.

    1982-01-01

    The Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains have a history of volcanism, faulting, and mineralization that began about 42 m.y. (million years) ago. Volcanic activity and mineralization in the area can be divided into three stages according to the time-related occurrence of rock types, trace-element associations, and chemical composition of mineral deposits. Compositions of volcanic rocks changed abruptly from rhyodacite-quartz latite (42-39 m.y. ago) to rhyolite (38-32 m.y. ago) to alkali rhyolite (21 and 6-7 m.y. ago); these stages correspond to periods of chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, no mineralization(?), and lithophile metal mineralization, respectively. Angular unconformities record episodes of cauldron collapse and block faulting between the stages of volcanic activity and mineralization. The youngest angular unconformity formed between 21 and 7 m.y. ago during basin-and-range faulting. Early rhyodacite-quartz latite volcanism from composite volcanoes and fissures produced flows, breccias, and ash-flow tuff of the Drum Mountains Rhyodacite and Mt. Laird Tuff. Eruption of the Mt. Laird Tuff about 39 m.y. ago from an area north of Joy townsite was accompanied by collapse of the Thomas caldera. Part of the roof of the magma chamber did not collapse, or the magma was resurgent, as is indicated by porphyry dikes and plugs in the Drum Mountains. Chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, resulting in deposits of copper, gold, and manganese, accompanied early volcanism. Te middle stage of volcanic activity was characterized by explosive eruption of rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and collapse of the Dugway Valley cauldron. Eruption of the Joy Tuff 38 m.y. ago was accompanied by subsidence of this cauldron and was followed by collapse and sliding of Paleozoic rocks from the west wall of the cauldron. Landslides in The Dell were covered by the Dell Tuff, erupted 32 m.y. ago from an unknown source to the east. An ash flow of the Needles Range

  9. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project: Tomographic characterization of a sediment-filled rift valley and adjacent ranges, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, K.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Carrick, E.; Tikoff, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Salton Trough in Southern California represents the northernmost rift of the Gulf of California extensional system. Relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates is accommodated by continental rifting in step-over zones between the San Andreas, Imperial, and Cerro Prieto transform faults. Rapid sedimentation from the Colorado River has isolated the trough from the southern portion of the Gulf of California, progressively filling the subsiding rift basin. Based on data from previous seismic surveys, the pre-existing continent has ruptured completely, and a new ~22 km thick crust has been created entirely by sedimentation overlying rift-related magmatism. The MARGINS, EarthScope, and USGS-funded Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) was designed to investigate the nature of this new crust, the ongoing process of continental rifting, and associated earthquake hazards. SSIP, acquired in March 2011, comprises 7 lines of onshore seismic refraction / wide-angle reflection data, 2 lines of refraction / reflection data in the Salton Sea, and a line of broadband stations. This presentation focuses on the refraction / wide-angle reflection line across the Imperial Valley, extending ~220 km across California from Otay Mesa, near Tijuana, to the Colorado River. The data from this line includes seventeen 100-160 kg explosive shots and receivers at 100 m spacing across the Imperial Valley to constrain the structure of the Salton Trough rift basin, including the Imperial Fault. Eight larger shots (600-920 kg) at 20-35 km spacing and receivers at 200-500 m spacing extend the line across the Peninsular Ranges and the Chocolate Mountains. These data will contrast the structure of the rift to that of the surrounding crust and provide constraints on whole-crust and uppermost mantle structure. Preliminary work has included tomographic inversion of first-arrival travel times across the Valley, emphasizing a minimum-structure approach to create a velocity model of the

  10. In Situ Aerosol Properties Measured over the California Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, J. M.; Comstock, J. M.; Hubbe, J.; Kluzek, C.; Schmid, B.; Jonsson, H.; Woods, R.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are hypothesized to influence the formation of clouds and precipitation amounts within the Sierra Nevada Mountains. This could have a profound effect on the California water supply. To study this phenomena, an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer (PCASP), and Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS) were operated aboard the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream-1 aircraft from February 2 to March 6, 2011 during the CalWater field campaign. The combined aerosol size distribution from the three instruments characterizes the size-resolved concentration of the submicron and supermicron aerosol over the California Central Valley and Sierra Nevada Mountain Range. The measured aerosol size distributions from CalWater are compared with the size distributions measured during the DOE Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010 to determine the changes in the aerosol size distributions during different seasons, atmospheric river events, and long-range transport events from Asia. These changes are used to estimate the resulting aerosol effect on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and the potential impact on cloud formation and precipitation.

  11. European brown hare syndrome in free-ranging European brown and mountain hares from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Frölich, K; Haerer, G; Bacciarini, L; Janovsky, M; Rudolph, M; Giacometti, M

    2001-10-01

    From 1997 to 2000, complete necropsy and histopathologic investigations were performed on 157 free-ranging European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) found dead throughout Switzerland. Organ samples of all these individuals (157 livers and 107 spleens available) were tested for European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV)-antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Furthermore, 60 additional blood samples were tested for antibodies against EBHSV by ELISA. In addition, liver samples of 87 free-ranging mountain hares (Lepus timidus) hunted in 1996 were tested for EBHSV-antigen. In two European brown hares from southern Switzerland lesions suggestive of changes induced by EBHSV were present, and high titers of EBHSV-antigen were detected in both liver and spleen samples of these animals. Based on negative staining electron microscopy investigations of liver and spleen homogenates, we observed calicivirus in one antigen-positive hare. Low EBHSV-antigen titers were found in three additional European brown hares from central and western Switzerland, but EBHS-lesions were absent. Antibodies against EBHSV were not detected in any of the sera of European brown hares, and EBHSV-antigen was not found in the samples of mountain hares. This is the first report of EBHS in European brown hares from Switzerland.

  12. Anatomy of the Visual Word form Area: Adjacent Cortical Circuits and Long-Range White Matter Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion…

  13. Mountain gorilla ranging patterns: influence of group size and group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Damien; Ndagijimana, Felix; Giarrusso, Anthony J; Vecellio, Veronica; Stoinski, Tara S

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1980s, the Virunga mountain gorilla population has almost doubled, now reaching 480 individuals living in a 430-km(2) protected area. Analysis of the gorillas' ranging patterns can provide critical information on the extent and possible effects of competition for food and space. We analyzed 12 years of daily ranging data and inter-group encounter data collected on 11 gorilla groups monitored by the Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda. During that period, the study population increased in size by almost 50% and the number of groups tripled. Groups had small yearly home ranges compared to other known gorilla populations, with an average 90% kernel density estimate of 8.07 km2 and large between-group variations (3.17-23.59 km2). Most groups had consistent home range location over the course of the study but for some, we observed gradual range shifts of up to 4 km. Neighboring groups displayed high home range overlap, which increased dramatically after the formation of new groups. On average, each group used only 28.6% of its 90% kernel home range exclusively, and in some areas up to six different groups had overlapping home ranges with little or no exclusive areas. We found a significant intra-group positive relationship between the number of weaned individuals in a group and the home range size, but the fitted models only explained 17.5% and 13.7% of the variance in 50% and 90% kernel home range size estimates, respectively. This suggests that despite the increase in size, the study population is not yet experiencing marked effects of feeding competition. However, the increase in home range overlap resulting from the formation of new groups led to a sixfold increase in the frequency of inter-group encounters, which exposes the population to elevated risks of fight-related injuries and infanticide.

  14. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charpes III

    2014-01-01

    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  15. Managers' summary - ecological studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, F.J.; Schoenecker, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ecological Studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997 provides a synthesis of key findings of landscape-scale, interdisciplinary studies of the effects of wild horses and native ungulates on a rugged, mountain ecosystem. This is perhaps the most comprehensive study of a wild horse herd conducted. This was a complex study and one involving a truly interagency approach. Six agencies either provided input to research priority setting, funding, or both. The agencies included the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, and U.S. Forest Service. The major research direction and effort came from the U.S. Geological Survey and Natural Resources Ecology Lab, Colorado State University with Montana State University and the University of Kentucky also participating. Ungulate monitoring was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Bureau of Land Management, Billings Field Office and the Montana Fish and Wildlife Parks, with funding by Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Many other individuals and groups were involved and deserve credit. The report printing was made possible with funds from the Bureau of Land Management, Wild Horse and Burro Program, Washington Office. This report was prepared by the Information Management Project, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey.

  16. On the Geomorphological Status of the Central Mountain Range, Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jongmin; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    It has been known that the tectonic uplift forming the central mountain range (Taebaek Mtn.) in the Korean Peninsula has begun since the Tertiary (Kim, 1961). Recent studies suggest that most uplift events have occurred during the mid Miocene (Min et al., 2008). On the summits of the Taebaek mountain range are low-relief plateaus. They have long been interpreted as paleo erosional surfaces, and thus are considered as transient landscape. In other words, low-relief plateaus have been considered as evidences that the landscape has not responded to the tectonic uplift events yet. However, a recent study on the denudation rates of a plateau reported that the erosion rate of the plateau is much greater than several paleo surfaces reported in other parts of the world (Byun et al., under revision). Such high denudation rate raises a question on the previous hypothesis of paleo surfaces. To test these two contrasting hypotheses, we first identify characteristic features of the plateau landscape using topographic position index (Weiss, 2001). Then, we numerically evaluate the required time for the development into the plateau landscape starting from various initial reliefs. Our quantitative analysis shows that dominant features that compose the plateau are flat-convex ridge, straight mid slope, and slightly concave lower slope. Simulation results show that the highly weathered saprolite observed in the plateau accelerates the development into the representative hillslope profiles. As a result, we find that development from different initial reliefs into the representative profiles takes time less than expected by the previous paleo surfaces hypothesis. Such results reconfirm that the plateau is not originated from paleo surfaces, but from recent geomorphic processes aided by highly weathered saprolites. This can also imply that the plateau topography is not in transient state. References Byun, J., Heimsath, A. M., Seong, Y. B., and Lee, S. Y., Erosion of a high

  17. Anatomy of the visual word form area: adjacent cortical circuits and long-range white matter connections.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, Jason D; Rauschecker, Andreas M; Wandell, Brian A

    2013-05-01

    Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion selective human cortex. Three distinct white matter fascicles pass within close proximity to the VWFA: (1) the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, (2) the inferior frontal occipital fasciculus, and (3) the vertical occipital fasciculus. The vertical occipital fasciculus terminates in or adjacent to the functionally defined VWFA voxels in every individual. The vertical occipital fasciculus projects dorsally to language and reading related cortex. The combination of functional responses from cortex and anatomical measures in the white matter provides an overview of how the written word is encoded and communicated along the ventral occipital-temporal circuitry for seeing words.

  18. New constraints on Holocene uplift rates for the Baudo Mountain Range, northwestern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Juan L.; Shen, Zhixiong; Mauz, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    A beach deposit on the southern end of the Baudo Mountain Range, at an elevation of ˜2.0 m above the backshore of the modern beach, was dated at ˜2870 years using optically stimulated luminescence dating. The calculated average uplift rate necessary to raise this deposit is 0.7 mm/yr. This rate combines the long-term regional deformation associated with the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate and the collision of the Choco Block microplate against the South American continent, as well as uplift from local faults. We propose that rapid emergence probably as several pulses, each involving decimeter scale coseismic uplift, is likely to have occurred to elevate the beach above the intertidal zone and offset destructive wave erosion.

  19. Orographic precipitation, wind-blown snow, and landscape evolution in glaciated mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.; Rowan, A. V.; Plummer, M. A.; Foster, D.; Schultz, D. M.; MacGregor, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    Orographic precipitation and wind-blown snow appear to significantly influence the evolution of glaciated mountain ranges, and in narrow ranges the effect is opposite from orographic precipitation in non-glaciated ranges. While fluvially-eroded ranges tend to be exhumed more on the windward side, glacially-eroded ranges can experience greater erosion on the leeward side. On the timescale of an individual glaciation, the distribution of precipitation and settling is a key component of glacier mass balance and ice extent, while on longer timescales, the interaction of precipitation and topography can play a major role in landscape evolution and range morphology. Numerical modelling of last glacial maximum (LGM) ice extents for catchments on the eastern side of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, highlights the importance of the distribution of precipitation. The accumulation areas of the glaciers would have experienced much greater precipitation than lower elevations, because of the pronounced orographic precipitation gradient, so glacier length is very sensitive to the precipitation distribution employed for any given temperature change. This is particularly challenging given the lack of modern snow monitoring at high altitudes within the Southern Alps, the likelihood of steep accumulation gradients amongst high topography, below the resolution of current datasets, and the difficulty of extrapolating modern values to the LGM. The Sangre de Cristo Range, southern Colorado, and the Bitterroot Range on the Idaho-Montana border both run close to north-south, cross-cutting the prevailing westerly winds. Drainage basins on both sides of the ranges cover similar areas, but moraines are much more substantial on the eastern sides, indicating greater glacial incision, which we suggest at least partly reflects snow blown over the range crest. The Uinta Mountains, Utah, run west-east, parallel to prevailing winds, and show topographic asymmetry across individual catchments, rather

  20. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity. PMID:27314028

  1. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  2. Integrating soils and geomorphology in mountains - An example from the Front Range of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birkeland, P.W.; Shroba, R.R.; Burns, S.F.; Price, A.B.; Tonkin, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil distribution in high mountains reflects the impact of several soil-forming factors. Soil geomorphologists use key pedological properties to estimate ages of Quaternary deposits of various depositional environments, estimate long-term stability and instability of landscapes, and make inferences on past climatic change. Once the influence of the soil-forming factors is known, soils can be used to help interpret some aspects of landscape evolution that otherwise might go undetected. The Front Range of Colorado rises from the plains of the Colorado Piedmont at about 1700 m past a widespread, dissected Tertiary erosion surface between 2300 and 2800 m up to an alpine Continental Divide at 3600 to over 4000 m. Pleistocene valley glaciers reached the western edge of the erosion surface. Parent rocks are broadly uniform (granitic and gneissic). Climate varies from 46 cm mean annual precipitation (MAP) and 11 ??C mean annual temperature (MAT) in the plains to 102 cm and -4 ??C, respectively, near the range crest. Vegetation follows climate with grassland in the plains, forest in the mountains, and tundra above 3450 m. Soils reflect the bioclimatic transect from plains to divide: A/Bw or Bt/Bk or K (grassland) to A/E/Bw or Bt/C (forest) to A/Bw/C (tundra). Corresponding soil pH values decrease from 8 to less than 5 with increasing elevation. The pedogenic clay minerals dominant in each major vegetation zone are: smectite (grassland), vermiculite (forest), and 1.0-1.8 nm mixed-layer clays (tundra). Within the lower forested zone, the topographic factor (aspect) results in more leached, colder soils, with relatively thin O horizons, well-expressed E horizons and Bt horizons (Alfisols) on N-facing slopes, whereas soils with thicker A horizons, less developed or no E horizons, and Bw or Bt horizons (Mollisols) are more common on S-facing slopes. The topographic factor in the tundra results in soil patterns as a consequence of wind-redistributed snow and the amount of time it

  3. Conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), Sadlerochit Mountains, northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The Wahoo Limestone forms the upper part of the Lisburne Group (Carboniferous) in the Sadlerochit Mountains. The Lisburne Group is a thick (> 600 m) sequence of platform carbonate rocks that extends across the Brooks Range of northern Alaska and beneath the North Slope. At Prudhoe Bay, the Lisburne Group forms a major hydrocarbon reservoir. In the easternmost Sadlerochit Mountains, the Wahool Limestone is divisible into informal lower (64 m) and upper (192 m) members. The basal 46 m is chiefly bryozoan and pelmatozoan packstone that formed on a relatively shallow platform during the latest Mississippian lower muricatus subzone (as shown by the occurrence of the zonal index with representatives of Cavusgnathus). Cavusgnathus is dominant in this part of the section and occurs with representatives of Kladognathus, Ghathodus, Adetognathus, Hindeodus, and Rhachistognathus (in order of decreasing abundance). Declinognathodus noduliferus, the index for the base of the Pennsylvanian, first occurs at 49 m above the base of the Wahoo and 1 m above a discontinuity surface that marks the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary. The unconformity represents the highest conodont subzone of the Mississippian and probably part of the earliest Pennsylvanian. Previously, the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary was placed t the lower-upper Wahoo contact based on endothyroids; conodont data now indicate that this boundary is 15 m lower. The remaining lower Wahoo is possibly of noduliferus-primus zone age and chiefly yields, in order of decreasing abundance, species of Adetognathus, Declinognathodus, and Rhachistognathus, as well as redeposited Mississipian conodonts. The lower 15 m of the upper member of the Wahoo contains silty (5-40%) carbonate rock types that yield very few conodonts. Conodonts no older than the minutus-sinuatus zone are relatively abundant from 15 to 106 m above the base of the upper Wahoo.

  4. Characterizing Controls of Riparian Width for Mountain Streams in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvi, L. E.; Wohl, E. E.

    2007-12-01

    High variability of mountain streams causes riparian width to vary greatly from changes in drainage, valley and channel characteristics. GIS- based models for predicting flood-prone width, valley bottoms, or riparian zones may not accurately reflect processes at the reach scale, therefore field verification and reach-specific studies are needed. Management of riparian areas often designates a generalized width, which may under- or over-estimate the true riparian width. This study examines correlations between potential control variables and riparian zone width in the Colorado Front Range. Results from this study will be used to predict the riparian zone as a proxy for flood-prone width in the semi-arid Colorado Front Range. We hypothesize that local controls interact with large- scale controls to determine floodplain processes. Large-scale controls identified are elevation, which reflects hydroclimatology and glacial history, gradient and drainage area. Local controls are entrenchment, the ratio of the valley width to channel width, connectedness, defined as the distance from the channel to valley edge, presence of colluvium, and vegetation type, affecting roughness during flooding and bank stability. We chose twenty reaches based on elevation, connectedness, gradient and drainage area using a GIS base map in anthropogenically undisturbed areas of the Colorado Front Range, which included the Cache la Poudre and North St. Vrain drainages. Riparian width was defined using a three-tiered approach: evidence of fluvial processes and presence of riparian vegetation, compared with the Q100 stage. A longitudinal and two valley and channel cross-section surveys were completed at each stream reach to determine valley and channel geometry and bed gradient. Preliminary results show significant positive correlations between drainage area, entrenchment, and connectedness and riparian width, and negative correlations between gradient and riparian width, supporting the hypothesis

  5. Global Trends in Glacial Cirque Floor Altitudes and Their Relationships with Climate, Equilibrium Line Altitudes, and Mountain Range Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S. G.; Humphries, E.

    2013-12-01

    Glacial erosion at the base of cirque headwalls and the creation of threshold slopes above cirque floors may contribute to the 'glacial buzzsaw' effect in limiting the altitude of some mountain ranges. Since glacial extent and therefore glacial erosion rate depends on the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of a region, the altitude of cirque formation should be a function of the ELA. Several regional studies have shown that cirque floors form at an altitude approximating average Quaternary ELAs in some mountain ranges, but a global correlation has not yet been demonstrated. We examined the correlation between cirque altitudes and global ELA trends by compiling existing and new cirque altitude and morphometry data from > 30 mountain ranges at a wide range of latitudes. Where available, we calculate or present the average cirque altitude, relief, and latitude. We compared these altitudes to both the global East Pacific ELA and local ELAs where available. For the locations analyzed, the majority of average cirque altitudes fall between the Eastern Pacific modern and LGM ELAs, and mountain range height is typically limited to < 600 m above that altitude. This evidence supports the hypothesis that cirque formation is dependent upon the ELA, and that cirques likely form as a result of average, rather than extreme, glacial conditions. Furthermore, the correlation between cirque altitude and ELA, along with the restricted window of relief, implies that cirque formation is a factor in limiting peak altitude in ranges that rise above the ELA.

  6. Map showing mineral-resource potential of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Humboldt and Mendocino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Minor manganese resources occur adjacent to the southeast corner of the King Range Instant Study Area near Queen Peak. The manganese forms small stratabound deposits associated with radiolarian chert and pillow basalt. The known deposits are too small and the manganese too low in concentration for further economic exploitation. Similar manganese mineralization may be within the belt of melange in the southeast corner of the King Range area and within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area, but economic deposits are unlikely. Although there has been historical base- and precious-metal exploration activity north of the King Range in the Mattole River drainage, our geologic and geochemical field data indicate almost no gold potential and low potentials for lead, zinc, copper, and silver. During this investigation, one high-grade vein and several minor veins containing lead, zinc, copper, and silver were discovered at Point Delgada immediately south of the King Range Instant Study Area. The vein mineralization is Miocene and cuts Cretaceous basalt flows, dikes, flow breccia, and younger overlying sedimentary rocks of the King Range. The vein mineralization at Point Delgada could be remobilized from more extensive unexposed stratabound base-metal mineralization at depth. Traces of lead and zinc detected within the King Range Instant Study Area may have similar stratabound or vein origins, but no resource potential is indicated. Minor copper mineralization with associated lead, zinc, and manganese anomalies within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area is of low economic potential because of the shearing, isolation, and lenticularity of the basaltic and cherty rocks within the melange mineralization.

  7. Contributions of long-range and regional atmospheric transport on pesticide concentrations along a transect crossing a mountain divide.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Karen S; Hageman, Kimberly J

    2013-02-05

    Twenty-one halogenated legacy and current-use pesticides and pesticide degradation products were measured in pine needles along a coast-to-coast transect that crossed the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Concentration profiles of nine pesticides were used to determine the influence of geographic sources on the atmospheric pesticide burden at the mountain sites. Pesticide concentration profiles were calculated for each source and mountain site by normalizing concentrations (adjusted for temperature at the site and air-needle partitioning) to the sum of all pesticide concentrations at the site. Each mountain site profile was compared to varying mixtures of the potential source profiles to determine the percent contribution of each source. The highest elevation mountain sites were primarily influenced by long-range, synoptic-scale northwesterly winds. Westerly upslope winds had little influence on any of the mountain sites. Easterly upslope winds from the Canterbury Plains, an agricultural region, strongly influenced the mountain sites within close proximity and had progressively less influence with distance.

  8. Snow algal communities on glaciers in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in eastern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sota; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Miyairi, Masaya; Fujisawa, Yuta; Kadota, Tsutomu; Shirakawa, Tatsuo; Kusaka, Ryo; Takahashi, Shuhei; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Yabuki, Hironori; Konya, Keiko; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    Snow and ice algal communities were investigated on four glaciers in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in eastern Siberia in Russia over three melting seasons from 2012 to 2014. Two taxa of green algae and five taxa of cyanobacteria were observed on the glaciers. The algal community was dominated by green algae: Ancylonema nordenskioldii in the lower bare ice area and Chloromonas sp. in the upper snow area. The total algal bio-volume showed altitudinal variation, ranging from 0.03 to 4.0 mL m-2, and was greatest in the middle of the glaciers. The altitudinal variations in the algal community were similar on all studied glaciers, suggesting that they are typical in this region. Observations over the three years revealed that there was no significant change in the community structure, but a significant change in the total biomass. Since the mean summer air temperature was significantly higher in 2012 when algal biomass was greater, the difference in algal biomass among the years is probably due to the duration of surface melting. The community structure on the studied glaciers is similar to those on glaciers in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.

  9. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant. PMID:21457381

  10. Morphotectonic architecture of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains based on geomorphic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demyanick, Elizabeth; Wilson, Terry J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensional forces within the Antarctic Plate have produced the Transantarctic Mountains rift-flank uplift along the West Antarctic rift margin. Large-scale linear morphologic features within the mountains are controlled by bedrock structure and can be recognized and mapped from satellite imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). This study employed the Antarctic Digital Database DEM to obtain slope steepness and aspect maps of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains, allowing definition of the position and orientation of the morphological axis of the rift-flank. The TAM axis, interpreted as a fault-controlled escarpment formed by coast-parallel retreat, provides a marker for the orientation of the faulted boundary between the TAM and the rift system. Changes in position and orientation of the TAM axis suggests the rift flank is segmented into tectonic blocks bounded by relay ramps and transverse accommodation zones. The transverse boundaries coincide with major outlet glaciers, supporting interpretation of rift structures between them. The pronounced morphological change across Byrd Glacier points to control by structures inherited from the Ross orogen.

  11. Quantifying Sediment Delivery History in Mediterranean Mountain Watersheds from Lake Records (Iberian Range, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero-Garcés, Blas; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Moreno, Ana; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Giralt, Santiago; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains with long history of human occupation and strong seasonality of hydrological regimes. Monitoring studies in experimental catchments in the Pyrenees have identified main controlling factors on erosion dynamics but, because of the short time span, they do not integrate the diverse temporal and spatial variability of these environments. We propose a novel strategy based on multi-proxy analyses of lake sediments aimed to quantify sediment delivery and erosion dynamics. Karstic lakes in the Iberian Range (Spain) provide the opportunity to reconstruct the depositional evolution of Mediterranean mountain watersheds and to evaluate the response to both, anthropogenic and climate forcings during the last millennia. Precipitation (rainfall intensity, seasonality, runoff production) and land cover (forest area, degraded areas, land uses) are key factors controlling erosion in both experimental and lake catchments. Values for Minimum Denuded Mass (Mdc) and Total Denudation Rate (DRt) measured in experimental catchments and reconstructed from lake sequences are comparable. In both settings, most sediment yield occurs during flooding events. The reconstructed sediment delivery to the lakes during flood events spans several orders or magnitude (less than 100 T to 98000 T) and the denudation rate ranges from 6 to 480 T km-2 yr-1. Reconstructed mass denudation values per event in the forested lake catchments are similar (less than 30 T km-2 yr-1) to sediment yields from a high altitude experimental watershed. Flood sediment yield values from an abandoned farmland experimental catchment (69 T km2) are in the lower range of lake watersheds (from 60 to 480 T km-2 yr-1). No lake watershed has reached the values documented for the badland catchment (3094 T km-2). These results underline the punctuated nature of sediment dynamics in Mediterranean landscapes at decadal and centennial scales. Major

  12. Unusual Chemistry of the Miocene Central Basin and Range: zr and LREE Enriched Mafic Rocks of the Lucy Gray and Mccullough Mountains, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, R. L.; Smith, E. I.

    2011-12-01

    The dominantly intermediate mid-Miocene (ca. 16-12 Ma) volcanic section in the northern and central McCullough Range of the Basin and Range Province, Nevada, typifies igneous rocks in similar-aged, adjacent mountain ranges (e.g., the Highland Range and the Eldorado Mountains). Calc-alkaline andesite to dacite domes, flows, and related pyroclastic materials dominate while rhyolite and basalt are volumetrically minor constituents. These rocks have the typical "arc" chemical signature prevalent in subduction zones and in pre-extensional Basin and Range igneous rocks (Zr, Nb, Ti depletions, <100 ppm La), which has lead many to postulate a slab fluid enriched lithospheric mantle (LM) source, contaminated by and mixed with an upper crustal reservoir (enriched in Pb, Ba, Sr, Rb). By contrast, older Miocene volcanic rocks (ca. 18.5-16 Ma), in the south-central McCullough and adjacent Lucy Gray Mountains, are alkaline to mildly tholeiitic with distinctively high Zr, Nb, Sr, and light rare earth element (LREE) concentrations (e.g., 500-700 ppm Zr and 150-200 ppm La), Mg-rich olivine-bearing basanite and diabase, and abundant peridotite and pyroxenite mantle xenoliths. Andesites containing a typical mineral assemblage of iddingsitic olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase are host to up to 700 ppm Zr, highly enriched Sr isotopes (0.709-0.714), over 200 ppm La, and up to 3000 ppm Sr and Ba. If the arc-signature "normal" rocks are produced in slab-fluid enriched LM, where, then, do the Zr- and LREE-enriched mafic rocks originate? One way to enrich a rock in LREEs is to partially melt a garnet-bearing source, such as garnet peridotite. Zr, Sr, Nb, and Ba enrichment cannot be explained through this method, however, and the extreme enrichment (1000x chondrite) of the LREEs is difficult to reproduce. Another option is to contaminate a garnet-bearing source with an upper crustal felsic rock such as granite or granitoid. Several types of upper crustal rocks are exposed in the Lucy

  13. Ortophoto and satellite imagery to monitoring biochar in mountain soils (NW of Cantabrian Range, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, S.; Roces, P.; Recondo, C.; Santin, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Northwest of the Cantabrian Mountain Range the climate is oceanic and the vegetation cover should be mainly wood forests and heathlands. However, frequent wildfires have led to a progressive degradation of the vegetation cover by enhancing the development of extensive moorlands and pyrophytes species of high combustibility. Previous studies have proved that this intense fire history has altered the rates of carbon (C) transfer from vegetation to soil and carbon accumulation in soils. In this way, C stocks of 32 Mg/ha and 90 Mg/ha were measured in unburned and burned forest soils, respectively. The use of satellite imagery indexes (NDVI; fAPAR and LAI) showed a higher capability of C fixation in the unburned woodland biomass than in the burned one. On the other hand, the burned woodlands presented greater amounts of C stored in soils, mainly due to transfer processes promoted by the fires. Satellite imagery and ortophotography could be useful in order to monitor the C sequestration in soils. Several chemical bonds which represent different forms of soil organic C absorb energy from different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. The near infrared and visible bands reflectance values could be related to the amounts and types of soil carbon. In this work, we want to test the use of Landsat; Spot and MODIS satellite imageries and orthophotos to monitoring the pool of biochar in soils of wide mountain areas with high rates of C transfer from vegetation to soil, promoted by forest fires. 55 georeferenced soil samples, taken in an area 100 km2 located in the Northwest sector of the Cantabrian Range were crossed with ortophotos and satellite images taken in the winter season. Several spectrometric indexes related to soil properties (NDSI, NDBaI,), color indexes from the visible part of spectrum (SWIR) and values from visible and thermal infrared were calculated for each soil sample. Multivariate statistical analyses will be used to build models to relate the

  14. [Seasonal water quality changes in the Huoditang forest region of the Qinling Mountain range].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-li

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted in the Huoditang forest region of Shaanxi Province. The region is located in the Qinling Mountain range. We collected stream water samples at the outlets of two small watersheds and two tributaries each month across an eight year period. The samples were analyzed for pH and water chemistry. Changes in pH and water chemistry with season were studied by using contributing factor analyses. The results of the study showed that stream water was slightly alkaline, with the pH ranging from 7.1 to 8.4 throughout the year. Stream water pH was higher in winter and spring and lower in summer and autumn. The NO3- concentrations in stream water were highest in spring and early summer, while NH4+ concentrations were highest in winter and early spring, and PO4(3-) concentrations were highest in winter and summer. K+ concentrations were highest in spring. Na+ concentrations were highest in September and lowest in August. Ca2+ concentrations in stream water were highest in June and September and ranged from 19.4 mg x L(-1) to 44.3 mg x L(-1) during the year. Mg2+ concentrations were highest in March and ranged from 2.18 mg x L(-1) to 5.25 mg x L(-1) during the year. Cd concentrations were highest from January to April, while Pb concentrations were highest in November and January. The concentration of both Cd and Pb was lowest in autumn. The concentration of Cd ranged from 0.019 microg x L(-1) to 0.3265 microg x L(-1) and the concentration of Pb ranged from 0.217 microg x L(-1) to 3.886 microg x L(-1). Mn concentrations were highest in May and December, while Fe concentrations were highest in spring and Zn concentrations were highest in March and August. According to environmental quality standards for surface water, stream water quality in the Huoditang forest region met the requirements for water quality standard I. Water quality was best in autumn and poorest in winter and spring.

  15. A new species of Simulium (Chirostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Mantiqueira mountain range, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Neusa; Nascimento, Jeane Marcelle Cavalcante; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2015-10-01

    Simulium (Chirostilbia) vitribasi n. sp. from the Mantiqueira mountain range, in São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, southeastern Brazil, is described and illustrated based on male, female, pupal and larval morphologies. The pupae of the new species is similar to the one of Simulium pertinax Kollar, one of the most voracious black fly species in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil and a target of control programs in these regions. But the pupa of the new species has a large basal fenestra in the gills that distinguishes it from all other S. (Chirostilibia) species. The other life stages of the new species also have morphological characters that distinguish it from the other species in the subgenus: male has scutum black, with patches of thick, golden hairs; female has scutum similar to that of the male, without banding or other markers, abdominal tergites I and II whitish and sternite VIII dark, heavily sclerotized; anal lobe almost as wide as long, with thin, long hairs on its outer margin; larva body cuticle has wide scale-like setae, with lobulated distal margins. Females were not observed biting humans during the fieldwork.

  16. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of a portion of the Himalayan mountain range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, shows a portion of the Himalayan mountain range. The image was recorded with a 180mm lens on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for Shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real time. In this observation, the center coordinates are 27.822 degrees north latitude and 84.173 degrees east longitude. Geolocation accuracy on this image is 0.7 nautical miles. The Kali River runs from the east (top left corner) to the west (bottom right corner). Nepal's capital city of Kathmandu lies (out of frame) about 96 nautical miles east of the center point. Digital file name is ESC01039.IMG.

  17. Export of earthquake-triggered landslides in active mountain ranges: insights from 2D morphodynamic modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe; Steer, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In active mountain ranges, large earthquakes (Mw > 5-6) trigger numerous landslides that impact river dynamics. These landslides bring local and sudden sediment piles that will be eroded and transported along the river network causing downstream changes in river geometry, transport capacity and erosion efficiency. The progressive removal of landslide materials has implications for downstream hazards management and also for understanding landscape dynamics at the timescale of the seismic cycle. The export time of landslide-derived sediments after large-magnitude earthquakes has been studied from suspended load measurements but a full understanding of the total process, including the coupling between sediment transfer and channel geometry change, still remains an issue. Note that the transport of small sediment pulses has been studied in the context of river restoration, but the magnitude of sediment pulses generated by landslides may make the problem different. Here, we study the export of large volumes (>106 m3) of sediments with the 2D hydro-morphodynamic model, Eros. This model uses a new hydrodynamic module that resolves a reduced form of the Saint-Venant equations with a particle method. It is coupled with a sediment transport and lateral and vertical erosion model. Eros accounts for the complex retroactions between sediment transport and fluvial geometry, with a stochastic description of the floods experienced by the river. Moreover, it is able to reproduce several features deemed necessary to study the evacuation of large sediment pulses, such as river regime modification (single-thread to multi-thread), river avulsion and aggradation, floods and bank erosion. Using a synthetic and simple topography we first present how granulometry, landslide volume and geometry, channel slope and flood frequency influence 1) the dominance of pulse advection vs. diffusion during its evacuation, 2) the pulse export time and 3) the remaining volume of sediment in the catchment

  18. Distributional changes and range predictions of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromberg, J.E.; Kumar, S.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive winter annual grass, may be increasing in extent and abundance at high elevations in the western United States. This would pose a great threat to high-elevation plant communities and resources. However, data to track this species in high-elevation environments are limited. To address changes in the distribution and abundance of downy brome and the factors most associated with its occurrence, we used field sampling and statistical methods, and niche modeling. In 2007, we resampled plots from two vegetation surveys in Rocky Mountain National Park for presence and cover of downy brome. One survey was established in 1993 and had been resampled in 1999. The other survey was established in 1996 and had not been resampled until our study. Although not all comparisons between years demonstrated significant changes in downy brome abundance, its mean cover increased nearly fivefold from 1993 (0.7%) to 2007 (3.6%) in one of the two vegetation surveys (P = 0.06). Although the average cover of downy brome within the second survey appeared to be increasing from 1996 to 2007, this slight change from 0.5% to 1.2% was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Downy brome was present in 50% more plots in 1999 than in 1993 (P = 0.02) in the first survey. In the second survey, downy brome was present in 30% more plots in 2007 than in 1996 (P = 0.08). Maxent, a species-environmental matching model, was generally able to predict occurrences of downy brome, as new locations were in the ranges predicted by earlier generated models. The model found that distance to roads, elevation, and vegetation community influenced the predictions most. The strong response of downy brome to interannual environmental variability makes detecting change challenging, especially with small sample sizes. However, our results suggest that the area in which downy brome occurs is likely increasing in Rocky Mountain National Park through increased frequency and cover

  19. Nd isotopic variation of Paleozoic-Mesozoic granitoids from the Da Hinggan Mountains and adjacent areas, NE Asia: Implications for the architecture and growth of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qidi; Wang, Tao; Guo, Lei; Tong, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Hou, Zengqian

    2017-02-01

    There is a long-standing controversy regarding the tectonic division, composition and structure of the continental crust in the Da Hinggan Mountains and adjacent areas, which are mainly part of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper approaches these issues via neodymium isotopic mapping of Paleozoic-Mesozoic (480 to 100 Ma) granitoids. On the basis of 943 published and 8 new whole-rock Nd isotopic data, the study area can be divided into four Nd isotopic provinces (I, II, III and IV). Province I (the youngest crust, Nd model ages (TDM) = 0.8-0.2 Ga) is a remarkable region of Phanerozoic crustal growth, which may reflect a major zone for closures of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Province II (slightly juvenile crust, TDM = 1.0-0.8 Ga), the largest Nd isotopic province in the southeastern CAOB, is considered to reflect the recycling of the initial crustal material produced during the early stage (Early Neoproterozoic) evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Province III (slightly old crust, TDM = 1.6-1.1 Ga) is characterized by ancient crustal blocks, such as the central Mongolian, Erguna, Dariganga and Hutag Uul-Xilinhot blocks, which represent micro-continents and Precambrian basements in the southeastern CAOB. Several parts of Province III are located along the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC), which is interpreted as a destroyed cratonic margin during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Province IV (the oldest crust, TDM = 2.9-1.6 Ga) mainly occurs within the NCC and reflects its typical Precambrian nature. These mapping results indicate that the boundary between Provinces II and III (the northern margin of the NCC) along the Solonker-Xar Moron Fault can be regarded as the lithospheric boundary between the CAOB and NCC. Provinces I and II account for 20% and 44% of the area of the southeastern CAOB, respectively, and therefore the ratio of continental growth is 64% from the Neoproterozoic to the Mesozoic, which is typical for this part of the

  20. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, during accretion near 10 degree N paleolatitude

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrum, J.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Paleomagnetic data are presented for a 50-m-thick sequence of Oxfordian to Tithonian sedimentary rocks conformably overlying Upper Jurassic pillow basalt within the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California. These new data are similar in direction and polarity to previously published paleomagnetic data for the pillow basalt. The Jurassic sedimentary rocks were deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field, and uniformity of the remanent magnetization within the entire section of pillow basalt and sedimentary rocks indicates later remagnetization. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite is interpreted to have occurred during accretion to the continental margin, possibly by burial and low-temperature alteration related to this event. Similar paleolatitudes calculated for the ophiolite (11{degree} {plus minus} 3{degree}) and for mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Stanley Mountain terrane at Figueroa Mountain (6{degree} {plus minus} 5{degree}) are consistent with remagnetization of the ophiolite in southern California and elsewhere along the Pacific coast imply that these rocks were also overprinted, and their magnetic inclinations suggest remagnetization at low paleolatitudes as well. The Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain is thus inferred to have been remagnetized along the North American margin near 10{degree}N paleolatitude between earliest and mid-Cretaceous time and subsequently transported northward by strike-slip faulting related to relative motions between the Farallon, Kula, Pacific, and North American plates.

  1. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, during accretion near 10°N paleolatitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.

    1992-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data are presented for a 50-m-thick sequence of Oxfordian to Tithonian sedimentary rocks conformably overlying Upper Jurassic pillow basalt within the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California. These new data are similar in direction and polarity to previously published paleomagnetic data for the pillow basalt. The Jurassic sedimentary rocks were deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field, and uniformity of the remanent magnetization within the entire section of pillow basalt and sedimentary rocks indicates later remagnetization. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite is interpreted to have occurred during accretion to the continental margin, possibly by burial and low-temperature alteration related to this event. Similar paleolatitudes calculated for the ophiolite (11° ±3°) and for mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Stanley Mountain terrane at Figueroa Mountain (6° ±5°) are consistent with remagnetization of the ophiolite at low paleo-latitudes. Uniform-polarity directions for other remnants of ophiolite in southern California and elsewhere along the Pacific coast imply that these rocks were also overprinted, and their magnetic inclinations suggest remagnetization at low paleolatitudes as well. The Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain is thus inferred to have been remagnetized along the North American margin near 10°N paleolatitude between earliest and mid-Cretaceous time and subsequently transported northward by strike-slip faulting related to relative motions between the Farallon, Kula, Pacific, and North American plates.

  2. The Significance of High, Isolated, Low-relief Surfaces in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The highest regions of glaciated mountain ranges are characterised by cirques, arêtes and steep hillslopes. In addition, though, many ranges exhibit high, isolated, low-relief surfaces, which may provide an important record of landscape evolution. Broad, low-curvature surfaces, for example in the Laramide Ranges of the western United States, reflect periglacial regolith production and transport (e.g., Anderson, 2002). Here, the focus is on smaller surfaces that appear to be out of equilibrium with current/recent surface processes, and are interpreted as former glacial valley floors isolated from the current valley network. The low-relief surfaces at the crest of the Sierra Nevada, California, are diamict covered. The top of Sardine Canyon is a beheaded cirque, while the cirque on the western side of Baxter Pass is in the process of being beheaded. Meanwhile, the isolated patch of diamict on the northeastern ridge of University Peak is surrounded on all sides by steep cliffs, and presumably represents a more evolved surface. It is inferred that the glaciated eastern Sierra Nevada is subject to a cycle of drainage capture and relief inversion, driven by headward erosion by cirque glaciers. The central Himalaya contains a number of low-relief, ice-covered surfaces far above the rest of the glacial valley network (e.g., the Sakyetang Glacier, >6,600m, above the Kazhen Glacier, <5,400m). The ice at > 6,000m is frozen to the bedrock, so sub-glacial erosion will be outpaced by rock uplift. The extreme relief and active tectonics of the central Himalaya mean that drainage capture is not necessarily required in the generation of high, isolated, low-relief surfaces; glacial steps can become exaggerated to form reconstituted glaciers. High, isolated, low-relief surfaces are found across the Southern Alps, New Zealand, from Miserable Ridge and Kelly Saddle close to the western range front, through Urquhart Peak and Lake Browning near the Main Divide, to Kaimakamaka Peaks east

  3. The vortex moving toward Taiwan and the influence of the central mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Yih

    2016-12-01

    Surface friction is important to a vortex moving toward Taiwan but was ignored in several previous studies. The change of the potential vorticity comes from friction in the shallow-water equation, hence, it was applied to study the westbound vortex influenced by the central mountain range (CMR) blocking and surface friction, which is defined as friction coefficient multiplied by the square root of topographic elevation. Without surface friction, the movement of vortex is not affected by the CMR due to the conservation of potential vorticity. With small surface friction, the simulated vortex first deflects southward slightly, then rebounds gently north due to the effect of channel flow, as the previous studies. With moderate or large surface friction, when the vortex approaching Taiwan, it deforms and creates two wind maxima; one due to effect of channel flow and the other on the east of the vortex, because the slowdown vortex is pushed by the mean easterly flow behind. Meanwhile, the vortex and two wind maxima rotate cyclonically. Hence, the vortex can deflect north or south, or form a loop, that depends on the strength and location of the wind maxima. If the circulation of the vortex moves around the northern tip of Taiwan, it can induce a significant secondary vortex on the lee side. On the other hand, the secondary vortex, triggered by the flow passing over the CMR, is rather weak. This paper may provide the formation of asymmetric inner flow and the deflection of the vortex, which may be difficult to define in a more complicated atmospheric model.

  4. Inbreeding in Gredos mountain range (Spain): contribution of multiple consanguinity and intervalley variation.

    PubMed

    Fuster, V; Jiménez, A M; Colantonio, S E

    2001-04-01

    The present paper examines consanguineous marriages occurring between 1874 and 1975 in three valleys (Tormes, Alberche, and Tiétar) in the Sierra de Gredos mountain range, Avila province, Spain. Information was obtained from parish registers of 42 localities, corresponding to a total of 41,696 weddings. Consanguineous marriages were defined as those up to the third degree of consanguinity (second cousins). From 1874 to 1975 the percentage of related mates was 4.45% and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.0011868 (for 1874 to 1917 corresponding figures up to the fourth degree were 16.44% and 0.00 19085, respectively). In order to ascertain the characteristics and evolution of mating patterns in Gredos, the contribution of each degree of kinship was analyzed as a whole and then for each valley separately. Regarding total consanguineous marriages in Gredos, there is a low frequency of uncle-niece matings (0.21%) and a first-second cousin mating ratio (C22/C33) of 0.23 (up to the third degree of consanguinity). Before 1918 multiple matings (i.e., those involving more than a single relationship) accounted for 19.16% of consanguineous marriages (up to the fourth degree). The observed frequencies of multiple consanguineous marriages was, on average, about twice that expected at random, and the proportion of such marriages to total inbreeding was 34.65%. The temporal change of the Gredos inbreeding pattern was characterized by a recent decrease; the highest inbreeding levels correspond to the period from 1915 to 1944. Finally, intervalley differences (maximum inbreeding coefficient in the Tormes, minimum in the Tiétar) are interpreted considering the geography, population size, and population mobility for each valley

  5. What controls the geometry of mountain ranges: insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Katharina; Matenco, Liviu; Gerya, Taras; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    When continents collide mountain ranges with high topographies and complex geometries are formed. Compressional stresses during ongoing convergence result in crustal thickening, localized deformation, and material transport at which crustal material is transported and redistributed within the orogen. We use numerical high-resolution thermo-mechanical models to investigate the physical processes of continent collision zones and its implications on crustal scale deformation and geometry. We demonstrate that compression of two continental blocks, separated by a rheologically weak suture zone can result in (i) double-vergent or (ii) single-vergent orogens, with distinct geometries, deformation and exhumation patterns. Double-vergent orogens are formed in response to the gradual accretion of crustal material to the upper plate along retro-shears (back thrusts) and are characterized by deformation of both upper and lower plate material. Typical examples include the collision recorded by the Swiss Alps and the Pyrenees. In contrast, single-vergent orogens are characterized by large-scale lower plate deformation and are accompanied by the subduction of lower crustal material. In this situation, no significant retro-shear formation is observed, which is in agreement with recent physical modelling studies on deformation of the continental lithosphere. Natural examples of such single vergent orogens are common in the Mediterranean (Carpathians, Dinarides, Apennines, Betics) or the SE Asia subduction zones. The transition between these different modes of collision is strongly controlled by the rheology of the continental lithosphere. Coupled crustal layers form double vergent orogens, while decoupled crustal layers result in single-vergent orogens. We conclude that deformation and exhumation in continent-continent collision zones may occur in foreland or hinterland settings, depending on the rheological structure of the continental lithosphere, forming single-vergent or double

  6. A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Within the Northern Basin and Range Province, USA, we estimate horizontal velocities for 405 sites using Global Positioning System (GPS) phase data collected from 1994 to 2010. The velocities, together with geologic, volcanic, and earthquake data, reveal a slowly deforming region within the Snake River Plain in Idaho and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau in Oregon separated from the actively extending adjacent Basin and Range regions by shear. Our results show a NE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.6 ± 0.7 × 10-9 yr-1 in the Centennial Tectonic Belt and an ˜E-oriented extensional strain rate of 3.5 ± 0.2 × 10-9 yr-1 in the Great Basin. These extensional rates contrast with the very low strain rate within the 125 km × 650 km region of the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, which is indistinguishable from zero (-0.1 ± 0.4 × 10-9 yr-1). Inversions of the velocities with dyke-opening models indicate that rapid extension by dyke intrusion in volcanic rift zones, as previously hypothesized, is not currently occurring in the Snake River Plain. This slow internal deformation, in contrast to the rapidly extending adjacent Basin and Range regions, indicates shear along the boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.3-1.4 mm yr-1 along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic Belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm yr-1 along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic Belt. The fastest lateral shearing evident in the GPS occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic Belt, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and eastern Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is not locally driven by Yellowstone hotspot volcanism, but instead by extension to the

  7. Dataset of MIGRAME Project (Global Change, Altitudinal Range Shift and Colonization of Degraded Habitats in Mediterranean Mountains)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Zamora, Regino; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, we describe the dataset of the Global Change, Altitudinal Range Shift and Colonization of Degraded Habitats in Mediterranean Mountains (MIGRAME) project, which aims to assess the capacity of altitudinal migration and colonization of marginal habitats by Quercus pyrenaica Willd. forests in Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) considering two global-change drivers: temperature increase and land-use changes. The dataset includes information of the forest structure (diameter size, tree height, and abundance) of the Quercus pyrenaica ecosystem in Sierra Nevada obtained from 199 transects sampled at the treeline ecotone, mature forest, and marginal habitats (abandoned cropland and pine plantations). A total of 3839 occurrence records were collected and 5751 measurements recorded. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this mountain range. PMID:26491387

  8. Strong effect of climate on ectomycorrhizal fungal composition: evidence from range overlap between two mountains.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Sakai, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2015-08-01

    Separating the effects of environmental factors and spatial distance on microbial composition is difficult when these factors covary. We examined the composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi along elevation gradients on geographically distant mountains to clarify the effect of climate at the regional scale. Soil cores were collected from various forest types along an elevation gradient in southwestern Japan. Fungal species were identified by the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA using direct sequencing. The occurrence of fungal species in this study was compared with a previous study conducted on a mountain separated by ∼550 km. In total, we recorded 454 EM fungi from 330 of 350 soil cores. Forty-seven fungal species (∼20% of the total excluding singletons) were shared between two mountains, mostly between similar forest types on both mountains. Variation partitioning in redundancy analysis revealed that climate explained the largest variance in EM fungal composition. The similarity of forest tree composition, which is usually determined by climatic conditions, was positively correlated with the similarity of the EM fungal composition. However, the lack of large host effects implied that communities of forest trees and EM fungi may be determined independently by climate. Our data provide important insights that host plants and mutualistic fungi may respond to climate change idiosyncratically, potentially altering carbon and nutrient cycles in relation to the plant-fungus associations.

  9. Long-range Transport of Aerosol at a Mountain Site in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Véronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Dulac, François

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  10. Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-06-01

    Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.

  11. Multi-Faceted Geophysical Analysis of a Mountain Watershed in the Snowy Range, WY: from Airborne Electromagnetics to NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Flinchum, B. A.; Provart, M.; Carr, B. J.; Auken, E.; Pedersen, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Surface/groundwater interactions are an important, but poorly understood, facet of mountain hydrology. We utilize ground electrical resistivity data as a key tool for mapping groundwater pathways and aquifers. However, surface resistivity profiling is limited in both spatial extent and depth, especially in mountainous headwater environments because of inaccessibility and terrain. Because this important groundwater recharge environment is poorly understood, WyCEHG has focused efforts to increase knowledge about the dynamics and location of groundwater recharge. Currently, traditional hydrologic measurements estimate that only 10% of annual snowmelt enters the groundwater system while the rest is immediately available to surface flow. The Wyoming Center for Environmental Hydrology and Geophysics (WyCEHG) collected a 40 sq. km survey of helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) and aeromagnetic data during the fall of 2013 as the first step in a "top down" geophysical characterization of a mountainous headwater catchment in the Snowy Range, Wyoming. Furthermore, mountain springs in the Snowy Range suggests that the "groundwatershed" acts as both a sink and source to surface watersheds. HTEM data show horizontal electrical conductors at depth, which are currently interpreted as fluid-filled subsurface fractures. Because these fractures eventually connect to the surface, they could be geophysical evidence of connectivity between the watershed and "groundwatershed." However, current HTEM inversion techniques assume a layered homogenous subsurface model, which directly contradicts two characteristics of the Snowy Range: the subvertical bedding of the Cheyenne Belt and heterogeneous distribution of surface water. Ground electrical resistivity surveys and surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements collected during the summer of 2014 target these anomalies to determine their validity and further understand the complicated dynamic of surface and groundwater flow.

  12. Peneplains of the Front Range and Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Willis T.

    1923-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to call attention to some of the major surface features in the Rocky Mountain National Park and to point out their probable correlation with similar features in neighboring regions. The observations on which the paper is based were made in the summer of 1916, during an investigation in which other work demanded first consideration. This paper may therefore be considered a by-product. For the same reason many of the observations were not followed to conclusions, yet the data obtained seem to be sufficient to establish a certain order of events, the recognition of which may be of assistance in working out in detail the geologic and geographic history of the Rocky Mountain region.

  13. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  14. Meat quality of lamb: Pre-slaughter fattening on cultivated or mountain range pastures.

    PubMed

    Lind, Vibeke; Berg, Jan; Eik, Lars Olav; Mølmann, Jørgen; Haugland, Espen; Jørgensen, Marit; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2009-12-01

    Many consumers perceive lamb meat from mountain pastures to be of superior quality, a quality that may be altered if lambs are kept for a longer period on cultivated pastures before slaughtering. The objective of this experiment was to compare sensory profile and fatty acid composition in meat from lambs slaughtered directly from unimproved mountain pastures with meat from lambs raised on unimproved mountain pastures and fattened on biodiverse cultivated pastures for 26, 39 and 42days before slaughtering. The experiment was conducted at two different locations in Norway in 2006 and 2007, with a total of 124 Norwegian Crossbred Sheep lambs. Loin samples of M. Longissimus dorsi from lambs above a body weight of 40kg were selected and analysed for sensory attributes. Fatty acid composition was determined in the subcutaneous fat over the Longissimus dorsi. Small but significant differences were found in hardness, tenderness, fattiness, metallic and rancid flavour, and in polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that to a small extent pre-slaughter fattening on cultivated pastures alters meat characteristics.

  15. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  16. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-05-27

    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis.

  17. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Daniel E; Kofahl, Nathan; Fellers, Gary D; Gates, Natalie B; Houser, Dorian S

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210+/-32 mL d(-1)) and field metabolic rates (1,488+/-486 kJ d(-1)) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals.

  18. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis. PMID:26013161

  19. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems alongthe Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study from 2002 through 2003 through its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to determine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses at sites ranging from minimally to highly developed; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting aquatic communities at these sites; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin.

  20. Key to the species of Eotrechinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae) of Thailand and review of the fauna of the Phetchabun Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Nakthong, La-Au; Vitheepradit, Akekawat; Sites, Robert W

    2014-09-03

    Water striders of the subfamily Eotrechinae from the Phetchabun Mountain Range can be found at the margins of rock pools and puddles, and in hygropetric habitats including waterfalls. Twenty-two species in three genera are known from Thailand. In the Phetchabun Mountain Range, 12 species representing all three genera were recorded from over a decade of collections (2002-2012). This paper provides taxonomic, biological, and ecological information for taxa of the Phetchabun Mountain Range in Thailand and a taxonomic key to all known species from Thailand. 

  1. Seismicity Near the Bighorn Mountain Range, Wyoming, During the Earthscope USArray Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, C. T.; Nakai, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Erslev, E.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we combine a temporary seismic array with the existing USArray network in order to establish a more complete earthquake record for northern Wyoming and to better understand the current state of stress in the area. To accomplish this, we incorporate data gathered during a temporary array of 35 broadband and 156 short-period seismometers deployed across the Bighorn Mountains and flanking basins in northern Wyoming as part of the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE). These stations were installed in an array designed to densify the existing USArray network in the area, achieving a spatial resolution of ~30km (broadband) and ~5km spacing (short-period) vs. ~70km of a typical USArray grid. We focus on the area surrounding the Bighorn Mountains, ~250km east of Yellowstone, which is listed as a moderate seismic hazard by the USGS and has a record of several intensity-V earthquakes in the past several decades. The area is also poorly covered by the World Stress Map; to help fill this gap in data we solve for focal mechanisms and collect industry borehole breakout and fracture data to provide a better picture of the overall stress of the area. The Bighorn Mountains were created during the late Eocene and are considered to be an archetype of Laramide basement-involved foreland arches. Though the Bighorn Mountain region appears to tectonically inactive today, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF) has identified several dozen small-magnitude earthquakes (and many mine blasts) that occurred during the USArray deployment. We believe this list can be improved by using a lower station threshold and other improved detection parameters, as well as the inclusion of the dense BASE array. We perform initial hypocenter relocation calculations using detection, association, and location algorithms that are part of the Antelope Environmental Data Collection Software, which present a simple user interface and allow for quick event identification and relocation. This study

  2. The influence of mountain meteorology on precipitation chemistry at low and high elevations of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denning, A. Scott

    1993-01-01

    We explored the seasonal characteristics in wet deposition chemistry for two sites located at different elevations along the east slope of the Colorado Front Range in Rocky Mountain National Park. Seasonally separated precipitation was stratified into highly concentrated (high salt), dilute (low salt), or acid-dominated precipitation groups. These groups and unstratified precipitation data were related to mean easterly or westerly zonal winds to determine direction of local transport. Strong acid anion associations were also determined for the stratified and unstratified precipitation data sets. We found that strong acid anions, acidity, ammonium, and high salt concentrations originate to the east of Rocky Mountain National Park, and are transported via up-valley funneling winds or convective instability from differential heating of the mountains and the plains to the east. These influence the composition of precipitation at Beaver Meadows, the low elevation site, throughout the year, while their effect on precipitation at Loch Vale, the high elevation site, is felt most strongly during the summer. During the winter, Loch Vale precipitation is very dilute, and occurs in conjunction with westerly winds resulting from the southerly location of the jet stream.

  3. Geologic, biogeomorphic, and hydrologic controls on floodplain organic carbon retention in mountainous headwater streams of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutfin, N. A.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unaltered mountainous streams provide insight into natural processes and mechanisms of organic carbon (OC) retention in riparian ecosystems. Our prior work indicates that downed large wood and soil OC are the primary reservoirs for OC storage in mountainous headwaters streams of the Colorado Front Range. We surveyed downed large wood and floodplain soil along 24 study reaches in mountainous headwater streams in and around Rocky Mountain National Park, CO. Comparison of study reaches with various degrees of valley confinement in old growth (>200 yrs) and younger subalpine and montane forests reveals geologic and biogeomorphic controls for OC retention. Preliminary results indicate that unconfined valley segments store much more OC per area (783 Mg/ha) compared to partly confined and confined valley segments (153 Mg/ha). Unconfined valley segments store a significant amount of OC along single thread channels and facilitate potential for development of multithread channels. Multithread channels in old-growth forests, with trees large enough to create persistent channel-spanning logjams, store relatively little sediment and a disproportionately large amount of OC as large wood. Beaver dams also facilitate the development of multithread channels and high soil OC content in beaver meadows constitutes the largest OC pools among all channel types. Preliminary reach-average radiocarbon ages from charcoal in floodplain sediment of three study reaches with drainage areas <20 km2 (1438 ± 84 yBP), 20 - 100 km2 (539 ± 110 yBP), and >100 km2 (887 ± 84 yBP) indicate that floodplain sediment turnover time is much longer in small streams at higher, subalpine elevations. Snowmelt-dominated hydrographs in these high-elevation streams rarely exhibit bimodal characteristics typical of the hydrologic disturbance regime in lower elevation montane forests of the region, which are influenced by large convective thunderstorms and monsoons of the southwestern US. The downstream cumulative

  4. A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R.W. King; S.A. Kattenhorn

    2012-04-01

    We evaluate horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities together with geologic, volcanic, and seismic data to interpret extension, shear, and contraction within the Snake River Plain and the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. We estimate horizontal surface velocities using GPS data collected at 385 sites from 1994 to 2009 and present an updated velocity field within the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF). Our results show an ENE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Centennial Tectonic belt and an E-oriented extensional strain rate of 6.2 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Intermountain Seismic belt combined with the northern Great Basin. These extensional strain rates contrast with the regional north-south contraction of -2.6 {+-} 1.1 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} calculated in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau over a 125 x 650 km region. Tests that include dike-opening reveal that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones does not occur in the Snake River Plain at present. This slow internal deformation in the Snake River Plain is in contrast to the rapidly-extending adjacent Basin and Range provinces and implies shear along boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of <0.5 to 1.7 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic belt. The fastest lateral shearing occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional GPS velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic belt, Idaho batholith, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and central Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is driven by extension to the

  5. Structural and Geomorphic Controls in Altitudinal Treeline: a Case Study in the Front Ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias Fauria, M.; Johnson, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    Altitudinal treelines occur on mountain slopes. The geological history of mountain systems sets both the distribution of slope angles, aspects and lengths, and the physical characteristics of the bedrock and regolith on which trees have to establish and grow. We show that altitudinal treeline is largely controlled at an ecosystem level by structural and slope (i.e. gravitational) geomorphic processes operating at a range of temporal and spatial scales, which have direct influence on the hydrological properties of the substrate (affecting the trees’ water and energy budget), as well as on substrate stability, both of which affect recruitment and growth of trees. The study was conducted over a relatively large area of > 200 km2 in the Front Ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, selected to contain the regional diversity of slopes and substrates, which is the result of hundreds of millions of years of sea deposition, subsequent mountain building, and deep erosion by glaciations. Very high-resolution remote sensing data (LiDAR), aerial orthophotos taken at several times since the late 1940s, and ground truthing were employed to classify the terrain into process-based geomorphic units. High resolution, landscape-scale treeline studies are able avoid potential biases in site selection (i.e. selection of sites that are not representative of the overall regional treeline), and consequently capture the coupling between trees and the environment at an ecosystem (regional) level. Moreover, explicitly accounting for slope and substrate-related processes occurring in the studied mountain region is paramount in order to understand the dynamics of trees at their altitudinal distribution limit. Presence of trees in each unit was found to be controlled by a set of parameters relevant to both hydrological and slope processes, such as contributing area, slope angle, regolith transmissivity, and aspect. Our results show no treeline advance over the last 60 years in the region, as

  6. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over snow-capped Sierra Nevada mountain range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory during a flight over the snow-covered Sierra Nevada Mountains. Over the past several years the DC-8 has conducted research missions in such diverse places as the Pacific in spring and Sweden in winter. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  7. Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions?

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Frank; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Devi, Nadezhda M; Grigor'ev, Andrey A; Bartysh, Alexandr A; Fomin, Valeriy V; Kapralov, Denis S; Terent'ev, Maxim; Bugman, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Moiseev, Pavel A

    2014-11-01

    High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks.

  8. Glacial modifications of short-wavelength topography and potential feedbacks on the denudation of a deglaciated mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Kober, Florian; Kissling, Eduard; Willett, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Distinct erosional landforms in the European Alps and other mid- to high-latitude mountain belts highlight the importance of glacial erosion in shaping mountain topography. Here we focus on the glacially induced modifications to the short-wavelength topography of the European Central Alps in an attempt to characterize the impact of glacial erosion on topography and to highlight potential feedback mechanisms on the denudation of the deglaciated mountain range. Glacial induced changes to the short-wavelength topography were analyzed by measuring the variations of drainage density and hillslope relief across the range. Variations of denudation rates were analyzed by compiling catchment-averaged concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be from existing studies covering Alpine and Foreland basins. Our results underline the importance of the LGM ELA elevation (i.e. the Equilibrium Line Altitude at the Late Glacial Maximum) as an important limit for the destruction of short-wavelength topography: The cumulative impact of glacial erosion above the LGM ELA has progressively decreased (i) drainage density, (ii) channel integration and (iii) commensurately increased hillslopes length (or hillslope relief). Exceptions from this trend are the highest and steepest peaks and ridges, nunataks even during the LGM. Alpine catchments in the orogen parts below this limit (i.e. Alpine foothills) lack strong modifications by glaciers. Here, glacial erosion is largely restricted to glacial troughs. There is also a statistically significant correlation between drainage density (or hillslope length) and catchment-wide denudation rates. The correlation does not define a single-valued function; rather there are two populations above and below the LGM ELA, one with a positive correlation for low-elevation, fluvially-dominated landscapes and a second for high-elevation, glacially-eroded basins in which this correlation is negative. We speculate that the commensurate lengthening of hillslopes increase

  9. Denudation of Actively Growing Mountain Ranges in the Foreland of NE Tibet Inferred From in- Situ Produced Cosmogenic Be-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Tao, M.; Li, X.

    2007-12-01

    At the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau ranges bounded by active thrust faults offer the unique opportunity to study the competing effects of uplift and erosion during the early stages of mountain building. Owing to along- strike variations in relief, slope, and lithology, these ranges are an ideal target for studying the influence of topography, lithology, and active faulting on denudation. Here we report spatially-averaged erosion rates for catchments situated along two of these ranges based on Be-10 concentrations of quartz in stream sediments. The Yumu Shan and the western Long Shou Shan are about 60 km long and their overall shape as well as the presence of wind gaps illustrates their vertical-lateral growth during Plio-Quaternary thrust faulting (Hetzel et al. 2004a). Erosion rates determined so far for 20 small catchments are variable and range from 20 to 550 mm/kyr. The observed variability results from at least three factors: (1) the erosion rate in catchments exposing the same lithology is positively correlated with relief and mean slope, (2) weakly consolidated Cretaceous sediments generally erode faster than low-grade Paleozoic bedrock, and (3) the erosion rate seems to decrease from the centre of the fault-bounded ranges towards their propagating tips. As rates of thrust faulting and rock uplift in the region (600-1200 mm/kyr; Hetzel et al., 2004a, b) exceed the denudation rates, the active growth of mountains and the lateral growth of Tibet has not yet come to rest. References Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Niedermann, S., Strecker, M.R., Ivy-Ochs, S., Kubik, P.W., Gao, B. (2004a). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova 16, 157-162. Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Stokes, S., Niedermann, S., Ivy-Ochs, S., Gao, B., Strecker, M.R., Kubik, P.W. (2004b). Late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rate of the Zhangye thrust (Qilian Shan, China) and implications for the active growth of the

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites of Howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Carolina; Rico-Hernández, Guillermo; Mandujano, Salvador

    2010-06-01

    In recent years populations of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in southeastern Mexico have decreased substantially due to the transformation and loss of natural habitats. This is especially evident in the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico where several studies have evaluated the impact of fragmentation on howler monkey populations in order to propose management programs for their conservation. The conditions generated by fragmentation likely change the rates of parasitic infection and could decrease howler survival. In this study, gastrointestinal parasite species richness, prevalence, and egg density of infection were determined in howler groups inhabiting five forest fragments at the Santa Marta mountain range. Two hundred and seventy-eight fresh fecal samples were collected between October 2002 and April 2003. Three parasite species were found during the dry and the wet season in all forest fragments sampled: one unidentified species of Eimeriidae; Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae); and Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae). Both the prevalence of T. minutus and infection density for all parasites differed between seasons and fragments (the largest fragment consistently differed from other fragments). Host density, distance to the nearest town, fragment size, fragment shape, and total basal area of food trees explained parasite prevalence, but each species had a different pattern. Although parasite richness was lower, prevalence and density were higher than values reported for howlers in conserved forests. These results suggest that the establishment of biological corridors and animal translocation programs must take into account the parasite ecology of each fragment to avoid higher infection rates and preclude potential consequent mortality.

  11. Thrust-induced collapse of mountains-an example from the "Big Bend" region of the San Andreas Fault, western transverse ranges, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.

    2005-01-01

    Mount Pinos and Frazier Mountain are two prominent mountains just south of the San Andreas fault in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California, a region that has undergone rapid Quaternary contraction and uplift. Both mountains are underlain, at least in part, by thrusts that place granitic and gneissic rocks over sedimentary rocks as young as Pliocene. Broad profiles and nearly flat summits of each mountain have previously been interpreted as relicts of a raised erosion surface. However, several features bring this interpretation into question. First, lag or stream gravels do not mantle the summit surfaces. Second, extensive landslide deposits, mostly pre?Holocene and deeply incised, mantle the flanks of both mountains. Third, a pervasive fracture and crushed?rock network pervades the crystalline rocks underlying both mountains. The orientation of the fractures, prominent in roadcuts on Mount Pinos, is essentially random. 'Hill?and?saddle' morphology characterizes ridges radiating from the summits, especially on Mount Pinos; outcrops are sparse on the hills and are nonexistent in the saddles, suggesting fractures are concentrated in the saddles. Latest movement on the thrusts underlying the two mountain massifs is probably early Quaternary, during which the mountains were uplifted to considerably higher (although unknown) elevations than at present. A model proposes that during thrusting, ground accelerations in the hanging wall, particularly near thrust tips, were high enough to pervasively fracture the hanging?wall rocks, thereby weakening them and producing essentially an assemblage of loose blocks. Movement over flexures in the fault surface accentuated fracturing. The lowered shear stresses necessary for failure, coupled with deep dissection and ongoing seismic activity, reduced gravitational potential by spreading the mountain massifs, triggering flanking landslides and producing broad, flat?topped mountains. This study developed from mapping in

  12. An empirical law for wavelet maxima interpretation of potential fields: Application to the Uinta Mountains range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalier, Paul; Baghai-Wadji, Alireza; Poprawski, Yohann; Inggs, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Wavelet methods have been used in potential fields study to estimate source properties such as depth or structural index, through the analysis of Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima Lines (WTMML) intersections and slopes at high scales. Little has been done on the study of maximum points of the wavelet diagram, that we call here Maximum Wavelet Coefficient Scales (MWCS). Previous works have shown interesting correlations between MWCS and source depths, depending on the wavelet used in regards to the source nature and the data derivative order. In this paper, we introduce an empirical law involving spectral parameters that have not been studied so far, which allows analytical calculation of the MWCS, knowing the source characteristics and using certain wavelets. In return, the study of MWCS allows recovering source characteristics from the use of a single wavelet, without prior knowledge on the source. We demonstrate through synthetic models that the new capability of predicting the source type and depth according to the wavelet coefficient behaviour allows new ways of potential fields' sources characterization and identification. We show an application of the formula on a real case example in the Uinta Mountains (Utah, USA).

  13. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  14. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  15. More than one way to stretch: A tectonic model for extension along the plume track of the Yellowstone hotspot and adjacent Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Thompson, G.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain of southern Idaho poses a paradoxical problem because it is nearly aseismic and unfaulted although it appears to be actively extending in a SW-NE direction continuously with the adjacent block-faulted Basin and Range Province. The plain represents the 100-km-wide track of the Yellowstone hotspot during the last ???16-17 m.y., and its crust has been heavily intruded by mafic magma, some of which has erupted to the surface as extensive basalt flows. Outside the plain's distinct topographic boundaries is a transition zone 30-100 km wide that has variable expression of normal faulting and magmatic activity as compared with the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Many models for the evolution of the Snake River Plain have as an integral component the suggestion that the crust of the plain became strong enough through basaltic intrusion to resist extensional deformation. However, both the boundaries of the plain and its transition zone lack any evidence of zones of strike slip or other accommodation that would allow the plain to remain intact while the Basin and Range Province extended around it; instead, the plain is coupled to its surroundings and extending with them. We estimate strain rates for the northern Basin and Range Province from various lines of evidence and show that these strains would far exceed the elastic limit of any rocks coupled to the Basin and Range; thus, if the plain is extending along with its surroundings, as the geologic evidence indicates, it must be doing so by a nearly aseismic process. Evidence of the process is provided by volcanic rift zones, indicators of subsurface dikes, which trend across the plain perpendicular to its axis. We suggest that variable magmatic strain accommodation, by emplacement and inflation of dikes perpendicular to the least principal stress in the elastic crust, allows the crust of the plain to extend nearly aseismically. Dike injection releases accumulated elastic strain but

  16. Hematology and blood chemistry parameters differ in free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) living in the Serra da Canastra National Park versus adjacent farmlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    May-Júnior, J A; Songsasen, N; Azevedo, F C; Santos, J P; Paula, R C; Rodrigues, F H G; Rodden, M D; Wildt, D E; Morato, R G

    2009-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the specific impacts of anthropogenic factors on the health of wildlife. This study examined hematology and serum chemistry status of a prominent carnivore, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), living in, on the boundaries to, or on adjacent farmlands to the Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil. Twenty-eighty wolves were captured, and values were compared 1) between subadults (n=8 animals) and adults (n=20 animals), 2) males (n=12 animals) and females (n=16 animals), and 3) among wolves living inside the park (n=11), near the park border (n=11 animals), and in neighboring farming areas (n=6 animals). Age, gender, and wolf locations influenced (P<0.05) hematology and serum biochemistry values. Specifically, adults had lower (P<0.05) circulating phosphorus than subadults. Males had lower (P<0.05) serum glucose, creatinine phosphokinase, and cholesterol and higher (P<0.05) potassium than females. Erythrocyte count and serum cholinesterase were lower (P<0.05) in wolves living within the park compared with near the park border or on farmlands. Mean corpuscular volume was lower (P<0.05) in wolves living near the park border than those ranging within the park and on farmlands. Aspartate transaminase and chloride were higher (P<0.05) in wolves living inside the park compared with those ranging near the park border. Creatinine phosphokinase was lower (P<0.05) in wolves living on farmland compared with the other two locations. These results clearly reveal a relationship between age and gender on hematology and serum biochemistry values in free-living maned wolves. More importantly, certain traits indicative of health are potentially compromised in wolves living in areas under anthropogenic pressure. These data lay a foundation for examining the influence of farming and local domestic species on disease susceptibility and fitness in the maned wolf.

  17. Functional Plant Types Drive Plant Interactions in a Mediterranean Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Macek, Petr; Prieto, Iván; Macková, Jana; Pistón, Nuria; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2016-01-01

    Shrubs have positive (facilitation) and negative (competition) effects on understory plants, the net interaction effect being modulated by abiotic conditions. Overall shrubs influence to great extent the structure of plant communities where they have significant presence. Interactions in a plant community are quite diverse but little is known about their variability and effects at community level. Here we checked the effects of co-occurring shrub species from different functional types on a focal understory species, determining mechanisms driving interaction outcome, and tested whether effects measured on the focal species were a proxy for effects measured at the community level. Growth, physiological, and reproductive traits of Euphorbia nicaeensis, our focal species, were recorded on individuals growing in association with four dominant shrub species and in adjacent open areas. We also recorded community composition and environmental conditions in each microhabitat. Shrubs provided environmental conditions for plant growth, which contrasted with open areas, including moister soil, greater N content, higher air temperatures, and lower radiation. Shrub-associated individuals showed lower reproductive effort and greater allocation to growth, while most physiological traits remained unaffected. Euphorbia individuals were bigger and had more leaf N under N-fixing than under non-fixing species. Soil moisture was also higher under N-fixing shrubs; therefore soil conditions in the understory may counter reduced light conditions. There was a significant effect of species identity and functional types in the outcome of plant interactions with consistent effects at individual and community levels. The contrasting allocation strategies to reproduction and growth in Euphorbia plants, either associated or not with shrubs, showed high phenotypic plasticity and evidence its ability to cope with contrasting environmental conditions.

  18. Functional Plant Types Drive Plant Interactions in a Mediterranean Mountain Range

    PubMed Central

    Macek, Petr; Prieto, Iván; Macková, Jana; Pistón, Nuria; Pugnaire, Francisco I.

    2016-01-01

    Shrubs have positive (facilitation) and negative (competition) effects on understory plants, the net interaction effect being modulated by abiotic conditions. Overall shrubs influence to great extent the structure of plant communities where they have significant presence. Interactions in a plant community are quite diverse but little is known about their variability and effects at community level. Here we checked the effects of co-occurring shrub species from different functional types on a focal understory species, determining mechanisms driving interaction outcome, and tested whether effects measured on the focal species were a proxy for effects measured at the community level. Growth, physiological, and reproductive traits of Euphorbia nicaeensis, our focal species, were recorded on individuals growing in association with four dominant shrub species and in adjacent open areas. We also recorded community composition and environmental conditions in each microhabitat. Shrubs provided environmental conditions for plant growth, which contrasted with open areas, including moister soil, greater N content, higher air temperatures, and lower radiation. Shrub-associated individuals showed lower reproductive effort and greater allocation to growth, while most physiological traits remained unaffected. Euphorbia individuals were bigger and had more leaf N under N-fixing than under non-fixing species. Soil moisture was also higher under N-fixing shrubs; therefore soil conditions in the understory may counter reduced light conditions. There was a significant effect of species identity and functional types in the outcome of plant interactions with consistent effects at individual and community levels. The contrasting allocation strategies to reproduction and growth in Euphorbia plants, either associated or not with shrubs, showed high phenotypic plasticity and evidence its ability to cope with contrasting environmental conditions. PMID:27242863

  19. Climatic Factors Drive Population Divergence and Demography: Insights Based on the Phylogeography of a Riparian Plant Species Endemic to the Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Shao-Tian; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Zhou, Zhuo; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary climatic factors have played a significant role in population divergence and demography. Here we investigated the phylogeography of Osteomeles schwerinae, a dominant riparian plant species of the hot/warm-dry river valleys of the Hengduan Mountains (HDM), Qinling Mountains (QLM) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP). Three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (trnD-trnT, psbD-trnT, petL-psbE), one single copy nuclear gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; G3pdh), and climatic data during the Last Interglacial (LIG; c. 120–140 ka), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; c. 21 ka), and Current (c. 1950–2000) periods were used in this study. Six cpDNA haplotypes and 15 nuclear DNA (nDNA) haplotypes were identified in the 40 populations of O. schwerinae. Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, median-joining networks, and Bayesian phylogenetic trees based on the cpDNA and nDNA datasets, all suggested population divergence between the QLM and HDM-YGP regions. Our climatic analysis identified significant heterogeneity of the climatic factors in the QLM and HDM-YGP regions during the aforementioned three periods. The divergence times based on cpDNA and nDNA haplotypes were estimated to be 466.4–159.4 ka and 315.8–160.3 ka, respectively, which coincide with the time of the weakening of the Asian monsoons in these regions. In addition, unimodal pairwise mismatch distribution curves, expansion times, and Ecological Niche Modeling suggested a history of population expansion (rather than contraction) during the last glaciation. Interestingly, the expansion times were found being well consistent with the intensification of the Asian monsoons during this period. We inferred that the divergence between the two main lineages is probably caused by disruption of more continuous distribution because of weakening of monsoons/less precipitation, whilst subsequent intensification of the Asian monsoons during the last glaciation facilitated the expansion of O. schwerinae

  20. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts.

  1. Influence of tectonic terranes adjacent to Precambrian Wyoming province of petroleum source and reservoir rock stratigraphy in northern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnsen, J.J.

    1984-07-01

    The perimeter of the Archean Precambrian Wyoming province can be generally defined. A Proterozoic suture belt separates the province from the Archean Superior province to the east. The western margin of the Precambrian rocks lies under the western Overthrust belt, but the Precambrian province extends at least as far west as southwest Montana and southeast Idaho. The province is bounded on the north and south by more regionally extensive Proterozoic mobile belts. In the northern belt, Archean rocks have been remobilized by Proterozoic tectonic events, but the southern belt does not appear to contain rocks as old as Archean. The tectonic response of these Precambrian terranes to cratonic and continental margin vertical and horizontal forces has exerted a profound influence on Phanerozoic sedimentation and stratigraphic facies distributions. Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock stratigraphy of the Northern Rocky Mountain region has been correlated with this structural history. In particular, the Devonian, Permian, and Jurassic sedimentation patterns can be shown to have been influenced by articulation among the different terranes comprising the ancient substructure. Depositional patterns in the Chester-Morrow carbonate and clastic sequence in the Central Montana trough are also related to this substructure. Further, a correlation between these tectonic terranes and the localization of regional hydrocarbon accumulations has been observed and has been useful in basin analyses for exploration planning.

  2. 3-D image of urban areas and mountains of the northern Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, N.S.; Evans, J.M.; Olmstead, R.J.; Langer, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, communities in the Northern Front Range of Colorado have experienced tremendous growth rivaling or surpassing that in other parts of the United States. This growth has challenged businesses as well as city, county, State, and Federal planners to meet the increasing demands for natural resources necessary for growth. Such resources include construction aggregate (stone, sand, and gravel), water, oil, and natural gas. The Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (FRIRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the process of studying these resources, and this publication is the first in a series (USGS Geologic Investigations Series I-2750) that deals with resources in the northern Front Range urban corridor.

  3. Impact of group size on female reproductive success of free-ranging Rhinopithecus roxellana in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Baoguo; Watanabe, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Group size influences female reproductive success through scramble/contest feeding competition, predation pressures and infanticide risks in primates. The Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is an endangered folivorous colobine species living in a multilevel society. From 2002 to 2008, we studied a free-ranging band of R. roxellana in the Qinling Mountains of China to examine the effect of group size on female reproductive success. During our observation period, the number of monkeys in the study band fluctuated from 61 to 108, and the number of one-male/multi-female groups within it varied from 7 to 10. A significant negative linear relationship was found between group size and birth rate, but group size was not significantly correlated with infant survival rate or interbirth interval. These results suggest that group size influences female reproductive success via within-group scramble competition in this folivorous species.

  4. Late Pleistocene Earthquakes Along the Simpson Park Mountains Fault: Long-term Contribution to Basin and Range Extension, Nevada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2006-12-01

    Technological advances in remote sensing fields of GPS and InSAR have advanced our understanding of short- term strain accumulation rates related to Pacific/North American Plate boundary deformation. In Central Nevada, a region characterized by distributed, active faulting, efforts to compare geodetic observations to late Quaternary fault slip rates have been encumbered by slow deformation rates and insufficient paleoseismic data. Therefore, we have performed Quaternary geologic mapping along parts of 8 ranges across HWY 50 in order to identify sites that record long-term deformation and are amenable to paleoseismic investigation. We have excavated fault trenches along the Eastern Toiyabe Range and Simpson Park Range Faults. Additional ranges mapped and planned for future paleoseismic investigation include the Antelope, Monitore, Fish Creek, Butte, Egan, and Schell Creek Ranges. Preliminary paleoseismic results from two recent trench excavations along the Simpson Park Mountains fault suggest the occurrence of two earthquakes in late Pleistocene time. The first trench, SPT1, excavated across a recessional shoreline of pluvial lake Gilbert exposed a package of nearshore pluvial deposits overlain by beach gravels and soil. The penultimate event is evidenced by juxtaposition of nearshore deposits along a nearly vertical fault plane. The topographic expression of the penultimate event was modified by beach processes, prior to the most recent earthquake; noted by offset of the beach gravels (~1.8 m), fissure fills, and a graben feature. Tephra correlated to the Maazama ash within lagoonal mud deposited on Lake Gilbert highstand beach gravels suggest that the highstand may be as young as 7 ka. Alternatively, the highstand may correlate to the timing of the highstand of Lake Lahontan, ~13 ka. Because the offset shoreline is lower than the highstand, the MRE postdates the highstand, which is broadly constrained between 7 and 13 ka. Based on the lack of soil development in

  5. Realignment of Mountain Home Air Force Base and Proposed Expanded Range Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-19

    minute MOA periods per year. The 35 TFW and 366 TFW will require airspace to support approximately 8,500 MOA periods. The present Owyhee /Paradise MOA is...approximately 80 by 70 NM. Altitudes range from 100 feet AGL to 14,500 feet MSL for Owyhee MOA in Idaho and 14,500 feet MSL to 18,000 feet MSL for

  6. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic radiolarian chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, and implications for its paleogeographic origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Murchey, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Upper Jurassic red tuffaceous chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California (lat 35??N, long 240??E), contains three components of remanent magnetization. The first component (A; removed by ???100-???200 ??C) has a direction near the present-day field for southern California and is probably a recently acquired thermoviscous magnetization. A second component (B; removed between ???100 and ???600 ??C) is identical to that observed by previous workers in samples of underlying pillow basalt and overlying terrigenous sedimentary rocks. This component has constant normal polarity and direction throughout the entire section, although these rocks were deposited during a mixed polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. The B magnetization, therefore, is inferred to be a secondary magnetization acquired during accretion, uplift, or Miocene volcanism prior to regional clockwise rotation. The highest temperature component (C; removed between ???480 and 680 ??C) is of dual polarity and is tentatively interpreted as a primary magnetization, although it fails a reversal test possibly due to contamination by B. Separation of the B and C components is best shown by samples with negative-inclination C directions, and a corrected mean direction using only these samples indicates an initial paleolatitude of 32??N ?? 8??. Paleobiogeographic models relating radiolarian faunal distribution patterns to paleolatitude have apparently been incorrectly calibrated using the overprint B component. Few other paleomagnetic data have been incorporated in these models, and faunal distribution patterns are poorly known and mostly unqualified. The available data, therefore, do not support formation of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain near the paleoequator or accretion at ???10??N paleolatitude, as has been previously suggested based on paleomagnetic data, but indicate deposition near expected paleolatitudes for North America (35??N ?? 4??) during Late Jurassic

  7. Long-range transported atmospheric pollutants in snowpacks accumulated at different altitudes in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Arellano, Lourdes; Fernández, Pilar; Tatosova, Jolana; Stuchlik, Evzen; Grimalt, Joan O

    2011-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), endosulfans, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were analyzed in snowpack samples collected along an altitudinal gradient (1683-2634 meters above sea level) in the High Tatra Mountains (Slovakia). All analyzed compounds were found at all altitudes, pointing to their global distribution. The presence of PBDEs, particularly BDE 209, in the snowpack samples is especially relevant, as it reflects the air transport capacity of this low volatile, very hydrophobic pollutant to remote mountain regions. The most abundant compounds at all altitudes were PAHs, with mean values ranging from 90 to 300 ngL(-1), 1 order of magnitude higher than concentrations of other compounds. PCBs (sum of PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180) and BDE 209 were the dominant organohalogen pollutants, with concentrations from 550 to 1600 pg L(-1) and from 670 to 2000 pgL(-1), respectively. Low brominated PBDEs, endosulfans, HCHs and HCB were consistently found in all samples at lower concentrations. The concentrations of these compounds correlated positively with altitude (i.e., negatively with temperature), which is consistent with cold-trapping effects. The regression coefficients were positive and statistically significant (p < 0.05) for all compounds except BDE 209, endosulfan sulfate, HCB and α-HCH. Contrariwise, the concentrations of BDE 209 and endosulfan sulfate exhibited a statistically significant positive correlation with total particle amount, which agrees with long-range atmospheric transport associated to aerosols according to the physical-chemical properties of these compounds. Snow specific surface area, which determines the maximum amount of each organic compound that can be sorbed by snow, proved utile for describing the distribution of the more volatile compounds, namely α-HCB and HCB, in the snowpack.

  8. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  9. Climate Change Impacts on the Cryosphere of Mountain Regions: Validation of a Novel Model Using the Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, T. M.; Hill, D. F.; Sharp, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain regions are natural water towers, storing water seasonally as snowpack and for much longer as glaciers. Understanding the response of these systems to climate change is necessary in order to make informed decisions about prevention or mitigation measures. Yet, mountain regions are often data sparse, leading many researchers to implement simple or enhanced temperature index (ETI) models to simulate cryosphere processes. These model structures do not account for the thermal inertia of snowpack and glaciers and do not robustly capture differences in system response to climate regimes that differ from those the model was calibrated for. For instance, a temperature index calibration parameter will differ substantially in cold-dry conditions versus warm-wet ones. To overcome these issues, we have developed a cryosphere hydrology model, called the Significantly Enhanced Temperature Index (SETI), which uses an energy balance structure but parameterizes energy balance components in terms of minimum, maximum and mean temperature, precipitation, and geometric inputs using established relationships. Additionally, the SETI model includes a glacier sliding model and can therefore be used to estimate long-term glacier response to climate change. Sensitivity of the SETI model to changing climate is compared with an ETI and a simple temperature index model for several partially-glaciated watersheds within Alaska, including Wolverine glacier where multi-decadal glacier stake measurements are available, to highlight the additional fidelity attributed to the increased complexity of the SETI structure. The SETI model is then applied to the entire Alaska Range region for an ensemble of global climate models (GCMs), using representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Comparing model runs based on ensembles of GCM projections to historic conditions, total annual snowfall within the Alaska region is not expected to change appreciably, but the spatial distribution of snow

  10. Structure of Franciscan complex in the Stanley Mountain window, Southern Coast ranges, California

    SciTech Connect

    Korsch, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    Three sets of deformational events are recognized in the Franciscan Complex of the Stanley Mt. area, S. Coast ranges, California. First, in pre-melange time, shortening of the relatively cohesive sequence of interbedded graywacke and mudstone formed isoclinal folds and an axial-plane slaty cleavage. Second, fragmentation of the once cohesive sequence, probably over a considerable period of time, produced the configuration now considered a melange. Third, after the melange developed, the Franciscan Complex was deformed along with the surrounding upper Mesozoic Great Valley sequence into the Stanley Mt. antiform. In the cohesive Upper Cretaceous Carrie Creek Formation, macroscopic and mesoscopic folds have 2 predominant orientations. The less cohesive Franciscan Complex attempted to fold, as shown by the distribution of shear foliations on stereographic projections, but lack of lithologic continuity and slip along previously formed shear fractures prevents the recognition of macroscopic folds. Hence, in the Franciscan Complex of the Stanley Mt. window, several lines of evidence show that the melange structure is tectonic in origin, not just a tectonic imprint superimposed upon already chaotic rocks of sedimentary origin (olistostromes). 43 references.

  11. Genetic differentiation of the pine wilt disease vector Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) over a mountain range - revealed from microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Shoda-Kagaya, E

    2007-04-01

    To study the dispersal process of the pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus (Hope) in frontier populations, a microsatellite marker-based genetic analysis was performed on expanding populations at the northern limit of its range in Japan. In Asian countries, M. alternatus is the main vector of pine wilt disease, the most serious forest disease in Japan. Sawyers were collected from nine sites near the frontier of the pine wilt disease damage area. A mountain range divides the population into western and eastern sides. Five microsatellite loci were examined and a total of 188 individuals was genotyped from each locus with the number of alleles ranged from two to nine. The mean observed heterozygosity for all loci varied from 0.282 to 0.480 in the nine sites, with an overall mean of 0.364. None of the populations have experienced a significant bottleneck. Significant differentiation was found across the mountain range, but the genetic composition was similar amongst populations of each side. It is believed that the mountain range acts as a geographical barrier to dispersal and that gene flow without a geographical barrier is high. On the west side of the mountain range, a pattern of isolation by distance was detected. This was likely to be caused by secondary contact of different colonizing routes on a small spatial scale. Based on these data, a process linking genetic structure at local (kilometres) and regional spatial scales (hundreds of kilometres) was proposed.

  12. Potential impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge and streamflow in a central European low mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2003-12-01

    General Circulation Models simulate significant changes of temperature and precipitation over Europe as part of the anthropogenic climate change. In this study, the impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge and streamflow in a central European low mountain range catchment are investigated using a conceptual eco-hydrologic model, a revised version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). To improve the reliability of our simulations, we compile plant physiological studies concerning the influence of elevated ambient CO 2 concentrations on stomatal conductance and leaf area. Using this information to parameterise the model, we evaluate the impacts of two climate change scenarios, which represent a wide range of assumptions concerning future greenhouse gas emissions and climate sensitivity. The resulting effects on mean annual groundwater recharge and streamflow are small, as increased atmospheric CO 2 levels reduce stomatal conductance thus counteracting increasing potential evapotranspiration induced by the temperature rise and decreasing precipitation. There are, however, more pronounced changes associated with the mean annual cycle of groundwater recharge and streamflow. Our results imply that due to the warming a smaller proportion of the winter precipitation will fall as snow. The spring snowmelt peak therefore is reduced while the flood risk in winter will probably increase. In summer, mean monthly groundwater recharge and streamflow are reduced by up to 50% potentially leading to problems concerning water quality, groundwater withdrawals and hydropower generation.

  13. K-Ar geochronology of the Survey Pass, Ambler River and Eastern Baird Mountains quadrangles, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, R.B.; Mayfield, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    We report 76 previously unpublished K-Ar mineral ages from 47 metamorphic and igneous rocks in the southwestern Brooks Range. The pattern of radiometric ages is complex, reflecting the complex geologic history of this area. Local and regional radiometric evidence suggests that the southern Brooks Range schist belt has, at least in part, undergone a late Precambrian metamorphism and that the parent sedimentary and igneous rocks for the metamorphic rocks dated as late Precambrian are at least this old (Precambrian Z). This schist terrane experienced a major thermal event in mid-Cretaceous time, causing widespread resetting of nearly all K-Ar mica ages. A series of apparent ages intermediate between late Precambrian and mid-Cretaceous are interpreted as indicating varying amounts of partial argon loss from older rocks during the Cretaceous event. The schist belt is characterized by dominant metasediments and subordinate metabasites and metafelsites. Blueschists occur within the schist belt from the Chandalar quadrangle westward to the Baird Mountains quadrangle, but geologic evidence does not support the existence of a fossil subduction zone.

  14. Modeling Potential Climatic Treeline of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruening, J. M.; Tran, T. J.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a valuable paleoclimate resource due to the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Recent work has shown that low growing season temperatures limit tree growth at the upper treeline ecotone. The presence of precisely dated remnant wood above modern treeline shows that this ecotone shifts at centennial timescales; in some areas during the Holocene climatic optimum treeline was 100 m higher than at present. A recent model from Paulsen and Körner (2014, doi:10.1007/s00035-014-0124-0) predicts global potential treeline position as a function of climate. The model develops three parameters necessary to sustain a temperature-limited treeline; a growing season longer than 94 days, defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C, and a mean temperature of 6.4 °C across the entire growing season. While maintaining impressive global accuracy in treeline prediction, these parameters are not specific to the semi-arid Great Basin bristlecone pine treelines in Nevada. In this study, we used 49 temperature sensors arrayed across approximately one square kilometer of complex terrain at treeline on Mount Washington to model temperatures using topographic indices. Results show relatively accurate prediction throughout the growing season (e.g., July average daily temperatures were modeled with an R2 of 0.80 and an RMSE of 0.29 °C). The modeled temperatures enabled calibration of a regional treeline model, yielding different parameters needed to predict potential treeline than the global model. Preliminary results indicate that modern Bristlecone pine treeline on and around Mount Washington occurs in areas with a longer growing season length (~160 days defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C) and a warmer seasonal mean temperature (~9 °C) than the global average. This work will provide a baseline data set on treeline position in the Snake Range derived only from parameters physiologically relevant to

  15. Reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenni, A. J.; Benedict, K. B.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Zhou, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; Sive, B. C.; Zondlo, M. A.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) took place in July-August 2014. This collaborative study was aimed at characterizing those processes which control air quality along Colorado's Front Range. Although the study was largely focused on ozone, an additional goal of the study included characterizing contributions from Front Range sources and long-range transport to total reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Import of reactive nitrogen into ROMO and other pristine, high elevation areas has the potential to negatively impact terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We present measurements of reactive nitrogen species measured within ROMO during FRAPPÉ, and compare these data to measurements made in the surrounding areas. At our monitoring site in ROMO, co-located with IMPROVE and CASTNet monitoring, measurements of NO, NO2, NOx, NOy, NH3, and total reactive nitrogen (TNx) were made at high time resolution. Additional measurements of NH3, HNO3 and PM2.5 ions were made at hourly resolution using a MARGA and also at 24-hour time resolution using URG denuder-filter pack sampling. Precipitation samples also were collected to quantify wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen. Finally, measurements of organic gases were made using online gas chromatography and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for ammonia show both a diel pattern, with concentrations increasing each morning, and a strong dependence on wind direction, implicating the importance of transport. Higher concentrations of NOx and NOy also were observed in the daytime, but in general these patterns differed from that of ammonia. Several upslope events were observed during the measurement period during which NOx, NH3, 2-propylnitrate, 2-butylnitrate, ethane, butane, and pentane were observed to increase in concentration along with ozone.

  16. Chytridiomycosis in endemic amphibians of the mountain tops of the Córdoba and San Luis ranges, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Julián N; Longo, Silvana; Robledo, Gerardo

    2013-02-28

    Chytridiomycosis is a major threat to amphibian conservation. In Argentina, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been recorded in several localities, and recently, it was registered in amphibians inhabiting low-elevation areas of mountain environments in Córdoba and San Luis provinces. In the present study, we searched for B. dendrobatidis in endemic and non-endemic amphibians on the mountain tops of Córdoba and San Luis provinces. We collected dead amphibians in the upper vegetation belt of the mountains of Córdoba and San Luis. Using standard histological techniques, the presence of fungal infection was confirmed in 5 species. Three of these species are endemic to the mountain tops of both provinces. Although there are no reported population declines in amphibians in these mountains, the presence of B. dendrobatidis in endemic species highlights the need for long-term monitoring plans in the area.

  17. Assessment and prevention of the avalanche risk on medium-high mountain from a geo-historical point of view. The Vosges range (France) as a case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacona, Florie; Martin, Brice; David, Pierre-Marie

    2010-05-01

    To mention avalanche risks in the Vosges generally causes certain disbelief because of its modest height. Moreover, as far as natural risks are concerned, and especially the avalanche risk, medium-high mountains are not usually studied. The attention is more focused on the spectacular and destructive phenomena that occur in highest mountains such as the Alps or the Pyrenees. However, in January and February 2000, fifteen people were victims of avalanches and three of them died. These accidents have suddenly drawn attention to the fact that avalanche risk is underestimated. In opposition to the Alps and Pyrenees there is no study or systematic inventory of avalanches in the medium-high mountain ranges. Moreover, the many research and methodological articles dedicated to studies on avalanches in the high mountain ranges do not, unfortunately, raise any concerns about medium-high mountain ranges. So, we had to develop a new research method based on handwritten, printed, and oral sources as well as on observations. The results of this historical research exceeded all expectations. About 300 avalanche events have been reported since the end of the 18th century; they happened in about 90 avalanche paths. Spatial and temporal distributions of the avalanche events can be explained by climate, vulnerability and land use evolutions. The vulnerability has evolved since the 18th century: material vulnerability decreased whereas human vulnerability increased due to the expansion of winter sports. Finally we focus our study on the perception of the avalanche risk by the winter sports adepts in the Vosges mountains. Indeed, at the beginning of this research, we were directly confronted to a lack of knowledge, or even to an ignorance, of the avalanche risk. Several factors contribute to this situation among which the topography. Even though some places in the Vosges mountains look like the alpine topography, most of the summits are rounded. Furthermore, this mountain presents an

  18. Frequency-range discriminations and absolute pitch in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T Y; Charrier, Isabelle; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2006-08-01

    The acoustic frequency ranges in birdsongs provide important absolute pitch cues for the recognition of conspecifics. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to sort tones contiguous in frequency into 8 ranges on the basis of associations between response to the tones in each range and reward. All 3 species acquired accurate frequency-range discriminations, but zebra finches acquired the discrimination in fewer trials and to a higher standard than black-capped or mountain chickadees, which did not differ appreciably in the discrimination. Chickadees' relatively poorer accuracy was traced to poorer discrimination of tones in the higher frequency ranges. During transfer tests, the discrimination generalized to novel tones when the training tones were included, but not when they were omitted.

  19. Inferring the colonization of a mountain range--refugia vs. nunatak survival in high alpine ground beetles.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Konrad; Nicholls, James A; Stone, Graham N

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated whether high alpine specialists survived ice ages in situ on small ice-free islands of habitat, so-called nunataks, or whether glacial survival was restricted to larger massifs de refuge at the periphery. We evaluate these alternative hypotheses in a local radiation of high alpine carabid beetles (genus Trechus) in the Orobian Alps, Northern Italy. While summits along the northern ridge of this mountain range were surrounded by the icesheet as nunataks during the last glacial maximum, southern areas remained unglaciated. We analyse a total of 1366 bp of mitochondrial (Cox1 and Cox2) data sampled from 150 individuals from twelve populations and 530 bp of nuclear (PEPCK) sequence sampled for a subset of 30 individuals. Using Bayesian inference, we estimate ancestral location states in the gene trees, which in turn are used to infer the most likely order of recolonization under a model of sequential founder events from a massif de refuge from the mitochondrial data. We test for the paraphyly expected under this model and for reciprocal monophyly predicted by a contrasting model of prolonged persistence of nunatak populations. We find that (i) only three populations are incompatible with the paraphyly of the massif de refuge model, (ii) both mitochondrial and nuclear data support separate refugial origins for populations on the western and eastern ends of the northern ridge, and (iii) mitochondrial node ages suggest persistence on the northern ridge for part of the last ice age.

  20. 1. Characterizing contributions of glacier melt and groundwater in alpine glacierized watersheds of the Saint-Elias Mountain range (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Emilie; Baraer, Michel; Chesnokova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological processes of alpine glacierized watersheds have been observed in most regions of the world; these have an important impact on water resources and can affect downstream ecosystems and populations. Subarctic catchments such as those found in southern Yukon (Canada) are particularly sensitive to climate related hydrological changes. To further understand the ongoing evolution of subarctic hydrological systems, we applied natural tracers based investigations in the Saint-Elias mountain range of the Yukon. The main goal was to identify water sources and their relative contributions to outflows in an alpine glacierized catchment. During the summer of 2015, we collected more than 100 water samples in two sub-watersheds of the glacier-fed Duke River watershed. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon, major ions and stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). The resulting dataset was then processed using statistical methods and the hydrochemical basin characterization method (HBCM). Results show that on the sampling period, watershed outflows consisted mainly of glacier meltwater with a non-negligible contribution of other water sources such as icings and ice-cored moraines. In this study, supraglacial processes are shown playing a particularly important role in the watersheds' hydrology.

  1. Geologic and Fossil Locality Maps of the West-Central Part of the Howard Pass Quadrangle and Part of the Adjacent Misheguk Mountain Quadrangle, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, James H.; Tailleur, Irvin L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The map depicts the field distribution and contact relations between stratigraphic units, the tectonic relations between major stratigraphic sequences, and the detailed internal structure of these sequences. The stratigraphic sequences formed in a variety of continental margin depositional environments, and subsequently underwent a complexde formational history of imbricate thrust faulting and folding. A compilation of micro and macro fossil identifications is included in this data set.

  2. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For

  3. The project of comprehensive cosmic ray investigations with mountain elevation experimental setups in the energy range 10 15-10 18eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavatinsky, S. A.; Pamir Collaboration; Tien Shan Collaboration

    2001-04-01

    The project of upgrading of two currently operating experimental setups, i.e., the Pamir and the Hadron setups, located at high mountain altitudes is proposed for comprehensive investigations of the primary cosmic rays (PCR) in the energy range 1-1000 PeV. The main goals of the project are the research of primary energy spectrum peculiarities, namely, the direct and feasible reverse bends of the spectrum and the study of the PCR mass composition as well as revealing the nature of some new phenomena in cosmic rays recently observed at mountain elevations.

  4. In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk.

    PubMed

    Selariu, Anca; Powers, Jenny G; Nalls, Amy; Brandhuber, Monica; Mayfield, Amber; Fullaway, Stephenie; Wyckoff, Christy A; Goldmann, Wilfred; Zabel, Mark M; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2015-11-01

    The presence of disease-associated prions in tissues and bodily fluids of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-infected cervids has received much investigation, yet little is known about mother-to-offspring transmission of CWD. Our previous work demonstrated that mother-to-offspring transmission is efficient in an experimental setting. To address the question of relevance in a naturally exposed free-ranging population, we assessed maternal and fetal tissues derived from 19 elk dam-calf pairs collected from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk from north-central Colorado, a known CWD endemic region. Conventional immunohistochemistry identified three of 19 CWD-positive dams, whereas a more sensitive assay [serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA)] detected CWD prion seeding activity (PrPCWD) in 15 of 19 dams. PrPCWD distribution in tissues was widespread, and included the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system, and reproductive, secretory, excretory and adipose tissues. Interestingly, five of 15 sPMCA-positive dams showed no evidence of PrPCWD in either CNS or lymphoreticular system, sites typically assessed in diagnosing CWD. Analysis of fetal tissues harvested from the 15 sPMCA-positive dams revealed PrPCWD in 80 % of fetuses (12 of 15), regardless of gestational stage. These findings demonstrated that PrPCWD is more abundant in peripheral tissues of CWD-exposed elk than current diagnostic methods suggest, and that transmission of prions from mother to offspring may contribute to the efficient transmission of CWD in naturally exposed cervid populations.

  5. Testing the Climate Sensitivity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) Near the Southern Limit of Its Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, S.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the climate sensitivity of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) near the southern limit of its range, tests the stability of its climate-tree relations over the last few decades, and explores its potential as a hydroclimatic proxy for Crater Lake National Park. We collected tree cores at seven locations around the caldera rim, focusing on hemlock growing at higher elevations (2000-2400 masl). The median length of all ring-width series is 283 years, and the oldest hemlock sample extends back to C.E. 1450. Several types of anatomical anomalies, including frost rings, traumatic resin ducts, false rings, and light late-wood bands were observed within the specimens, the most common feature being a false ring in C.E. 1810. Each set of standardized ring-width measurements has a strong common signal, with between-tree correlations (r-bar) ranging from 0.31 to 0.49. Preliminary analysis suggests hemlock growth across the park is strongly and inversely related to total cool-season precipitation, and is also influenced positively (albeit more weakly) by mean summer temperature. Most sites are significantly and negatively correlated with total December-to-February precipitation (r = -0.41) and total precipitation from December to August (r = -0.48). Compared to other ring-width records exhibiting similar negative responses to winter precipitation, these hemlocks appear to track that specific signal quite clearly and, as a result, these data may be suitable to reconstruct past changes in cool-season moisture in Crater Lake National Park and across the broader southern Cascades.

  6. Tree demography suggests multiple directions and drivers for species range shifts in mountains of Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Wason, Jay W; Dovciak, Martin

    2016-12-09

    Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine whether species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 m above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests. We modeled elevational distributions of tree species saplings and adults using logistic regression to test whether sapling distributions suggest ongoing species range expansion upslope (or contraction downslope) relative to adults, and we used linear mixed models to determine the extent to which climate, land use, and soil variables explain these distributions. Tree demography varied with elevation by species, suggesting a potential upslope shift only for American beech, downslope shifts for red spruce (more so in cool regions) and sugar maple, and no change with elevation for balsam fir. While soils had relatively minor effects, climate was the dominant predictor for most species and more so for saplings than adults of red spruce, sugar maple, yellow birch, cordate birch, and striped maple. On the other hand, logging legacies were positively associated with American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, and negatively with red spruce and balsam fir - generally more so for adults than saplings. All species exhibited individualistic rather than synchronous demographic responses to climate and land use, and the return of red spruce to lower elevations where past logging originally benefited northern hardwood species indicates

  7. Tier One: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1. Realignment of Mountain Home Air Force Base and Proposed Expanded Range Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    MHAFB to other units. The outbound personnel flow will be integrated with the inbound personnel flow to approximate current manning levels. A gradual...to VFR aircraft inbound to or departing from these private airports. These airports do not have any published instrument approach procedures. Control...LGN 1. = Turner Hotel ___% 2. = Pedro Anchustegul Pelota Court ’Nj %3. = Mountain Home Hotel ru 4. = F.P. Ake BuildingL . % S. =Mountain Home Carnegie

  8. Deglaciation and postglacial environmental changes in the Teton Mountain Range recorded at Jenny Lake, Grand Teton National Park, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Ofstun, Adam R.

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contained in lake basins positioned along the eastern front of the Teton Mountain Range preserve a continuous and datable record of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions. Here, we develop a multiproxy glacier and paleoenvironmental record using a combination of seismic reflection data and multiple sediment cores recovered from Jenny Lake and other nearby lakes. Age control of Teton lake sediments is established primarily through radiocarbon dating and supported by the presence of two prominent rhyolitic tephra deposits that are geochemically correlated to the widespread Mazama (∼7.6 ka) and Glacier Peak (∼13.6 ka) tephra layers. Multiple glacier and climate indicators, including sediment accumulation rate, bulk density, clastic sediment concentration and flux, organic matter (concentration, flux, δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratios), and biogenic silica, track changes in environmental conditions and landscape development. Sediment accumulation at Jenny Lake began centuries prior to 13.8 ka and cores from three lakes demonstrate that Teton glacier extents were greatly reduced by this time. Persistent ice retreat in Cascade Canyon was slowed by an interval of small glacier activity between ∼13.5 and 11.5 ka, prior to the end of glacial lacustrine sedimentation ∼11.5 ka. The transition to non-glacial sediments marks the onset of Holocene conditions at Jenny Lake and reflects a shift toward warmer summers, increased vegetation cover, and landscape stability in the Tetons. We discuss the Teton lake sediment records within the context of other regional studies in an effort to construct a comprehensive overview of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions at Grand Teton National Park.

  9. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Lisburne Group (chiefly Carboniferous) is a wide-spread succession of platform carbonate rocks that apparently developed along a south-facing passive continental margin in northern Alaska. Marine transgressions onlapped northward across northeast Alaska allowing the Lisburne platform to extend over terrigenous deposits of the Endicott Group and local pre-Mississippian paleotopographic highs. The Wahoo Limestone is the youngest formation of the Lisburne Group in northeasternmost Alaska, ranging from latest Mississippian (latest Chesterian) to Middle Pennsylvanian (at least early Atokan) in age. The Wahoo Limestone was systematically sampled for lithostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies at a relatively continuous section (about 262 m in thickness) in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Existing Carboniferous conodont zonations could not be readily applied to the study section because most zonal indicators are absent. Species diversity is low for a section that spans at least 10 million years. Twenty-four species, distributed among 14 genera, were identified in 72 productive samples; no new species were distinguished. The following biostratigraphic zones and faunal intervals were recognized: Upper muricatus Subzone (latest Chesterian); noduliferus-primus Zone (earliest Morrowan); minutus Fauna (Morrowan) containing a lower subdivision (lower minutus Fauna of early to middle? Morrowan age); and an Idiognathodus Fauna (Morrowan? to early Atokan). The presence of Idiognathodus incurvus? and Rhachistognathus minutus subspp. above the first occurrence of the foraminifer Pseudostaffella sp. in the uppermost part of the Wahoo Limestone indicates that the youngest beds are early Atokan in age. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary is placed at 56 m above the base of the lower member of the Wahoo Limestone on the basis of the lowest occurrence of Declinognathodus noduliferus japonicus above forms transitional from Gnathodus girtyl simplex.

  10. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H.; Wernicke, B.P.

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  11. Analysis of the genetic diversity of the nematode parasite Baylisascaris schroederi from wild giant pandas in different mountain ranges in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the most common nematodes of the giant panda, and can cause severe baylisascarosis in both wild and captive giant pandas. Previous studies of the giant pandas indicated that this population is genetically distinct, implying the presence of a new subspecies. Based on the co-evolution between the parasite and the host, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic differentiation in the B. schroederi population collected from giant pandas inhabiting different mountain ranges, and further to identify whether the evolution of this parasite correlates with the evolution of giant pandas. Methods In this study, 48 B. schroederi were collected from 28 wild giant pandas inhabiting the Qinling, Minshan and Qionglai mountain ranges in China. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (mtCytb) gene was amplified by PCR, and the corresponding population genetic diversity of the three mountain populations was determined. In addition, we discussed the evolutionary relationship between B. schroederi and its host giant panda. Results For the DNA dataset, insignificant Fst values and a significant, high level of gene flow were detected among the three mountain populations of B. schroederi, and high genetic variation within populations and a low genetic distance were observed. Both phylogenetic analyses and network mapping of the 16 haplotypes revealed a dispersed pattern and an absence of branches strictly corresponding to the three mountain range sampling sites. Neutrality tests and mismatch analysis indicated that B. schroederi experienced a population expansion in the past. Conclusions Taken together, the dispersed haplotype map, extremely high gene flow among the three populations of B. schroederi, low genetic structure and rapid evolutionary rate suggest that the B. schroederi populations did not follow a pattern of isolation by distance, indicating the existence of physical connections before these populations

  12. Active Seismicity and Tectonics in Central Asia from Seismological Data Recorded in the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountain Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd; Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vladislav; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.; Gadoev, Mustafo; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon

    2010-05-01

    Active tectonics in the Pamir mountains in central Asia, the westernmost part of the India-Eurasia collision zone, are controlled by ongoing convergence (about 20 mm/yr), causing substantial crustal shortening and compressional deformation. This leads to high seismicity rates throughout the region. Whereas seismic activity along the rim of the Pamir plateau is mostly compressional and concentrated along the Main Pamir Thrust, the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in its interior are more diffuse, with extensional events occurring along North-South trending rift zones (Kara Kul, Wachan). Seismicity in the south-western Pamir and in the Hindu Kush features frequent intermediate-depth earthquakes, reaching hypocentral depths of 300 km, which is rare for regions not obviously related to active subduction of oceanic lithosphere. These mantle earthquakes, which are not observed beneath the Himalayas and Tibet further east, form a rather well-defined Wadati-Benioff zone that was readily interpreted as subducted lithosphere present below the current collisional orogen. Earlier seismological studies showed the presence of a northward-dipping lithospheric slab under the Hindu Kush and a southward-dipping one beneath the Pamirs, with a small seismic gap in-between. Different hypotheses concerning the nature of these slabs (oceanic or continental lithosphere) and tectonic geometry in general (two slabs subducting in opposite directions or a single, hugely contorted slab) have been proposed in literature. Political instability in the region in the last two decades hampered on-site studies and field work, leaving many key issues poorly understood. In the framework of the multidisciplinary project TIPAGE (Tien Shan Pamir Geodynamic Programme), for the first time, new field campaigns collecting high quality data have been made possible. Local seismicity in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) is currently being recorded by a temporary

  13. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  14. Paleomagnetic results from the Sadlerochit and Shublik Mountains, Arctic National Wildlife Range (ANWR), and other North Slope sites, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Plumley, P.W.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1985-04-01

    Carboniferous through Triassic sedimentary units exposed in the Shublik and Sadlerochit Mountains were sampled in an attempt to obtain reliable primary magnetic components. Reliable pre-Cretaceous paleomagnetic poles from this area would greatly advance the understanding of the rotation and latitudinal displacement history of the North Slope. Carbonate rocks of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group were drilled in south-dipping units of Katakturuk Canyon, Sadlerochit Mountains, and in the north-dipping Fire Creek section, Shublik Mountains. Magnetic cleaning involved stepwise thermal demagnetization to 550/sup 0/C. Principal component analysis of the demagnetization results defines two major components of magnetization. The secondary component is steep and down (inc = 87/sup 0/), but the characteristic component (325/sup 0/C-500/sup 0/C) is reversed. The secondary magnetization postdates Cretaceous and younger folding, whereas the characteristic component was acquired before folding. The components may have recorded two phases of overprinting: a late Cretaceous into Cenozoic normal overprint and a predeformation remagnetization episode during a time of reverse polarity. However, the reverse component more likely is primary remanence. If so, it would suggest little latitudinal displacement but 40/sup 0/ of clockwise rotation with respect to North America. The Devonian Nanook Limestone, sampled in the Shublik Mountains, also reveals two major components of magnetization; however, the characteristic component is isolated at blocking temperatures greater than 500/sup 0/C and is shallower in inclination than expected from the Devonian reference pole for North America.

  15. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world's continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation at 19 sites in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin; sites were either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or had had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. We selected horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During 1997 and 1998, line-intercept transects randomly located within sites revealed that horse-removed sites exhibited 1.1-1.9 times greater shrub cover, 1.2-1.5 times greater total plant cover, 2-12 species greater plant species richness, and 1.9-2.9 times greater cover and 1.1-2.4 times greater frequency of native grasses than did horse-occupied sites. In contrast, sites with horses tended to have more grazing-resistant forbs and exotic plants. Direction and magnitude of landscape-scale results were corroborated by smaller-scale comparisons within horse-occupied sites of horse-trail transects and (randomly located) transects that characterized overall site conditions. Information-theoretic analyses that incorporated various subsets of abiotic variables suggested that presence of horses was generally a strong determinant of those vegetation-related variables that differed significantly between treatments, especially frequency and cover of grasses, but also species richness and shrub cover and frequency. In contrast, abiotic variables such as precipitation, site elevation, and soil erodibility best predicted characteristics such as forb cover, shrub frequency, and continuity of the shrub canopy. We found species richness of plants

  16. Evolution of fold-thrust belts and Cenozoic uplifting of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the Kuqa region, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Lei; Li, Yue-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Ya; Tian, Zuo-Ji; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt is accompanied with the Cenozoic uplifting of South Tianshan Mountain range. The critical Coubomb wedge theory can be well applied to the structural evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt where the décollement structures are well developed. Following the initial hypotheses of this theory, with the base of the taper wedge (not the sea level) as the reference level, we propose a geometric relationship between the evolution of fold-thrust belt and tectonic uplifting of orogen, and deduce a calculation formula between orogen tectonic uplifting amount (very different from the topographic uplifting) (∂H), fold-thrust belt extending distance (∂S) and crustal shortening amount (∂L): ∂H = (∂S - ∂L) ∗ tan(α + ∂α) + [tan(α + ∂α)/tanα - 1] ∗ H0. In this paper we select two representative seismic profiles across the Kuqa fold-thrust belt to reconstruct the structural evolution, and use the calculation formula to get the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in Kuqa region during two geological periods. The results showed: during the end of Miocene to the end of Pliocene, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM1) is 4.1 km; during the end of Pliocene to the present, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM2) is 4.7 km, and in the east segment of Kuqa (∂HE) is 5.0 km.

  17. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  18. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L.; Lindgren, B. Staffan; Huber, Dezene P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to

  19. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  20. Direct-path acoustic ranging across the Japan Trench axis, Adjacent to the Large Shallow Thrusting in the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Ito, Y.; Iinuma, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Hino, R.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor geodetic data, i.e. GPS/acoustic measurement and continuous seafloor pressure monitoring, brought important evidences showing that the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) caused huge (> 50 m) coseismic slip near the Japan Trench. The postseismic behavior of the large slipped area is required to clarify to understand why large amount seismic slip could occur there. We started making direct-path acoustic ranging across the trench axis to reveal the convergence rate between the subducting Pacific and overriding continental plates. We expect the change of the baseline length across the trench axis, the plate boundary, reflects the slip rate at the shallow megathrust, which is difficult to estimate only from other geodetic observations largely affected by intraplate deformation caused by the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation process.  To this end, we developed an ultra-deep seafloor acoustic ranging system. Our previous ranging systems have been designed to measure baseline length ~ 1 km and to be deployed up to 7,000 m water-depth (Osada et al., 2008, 2012). In order to realize the measurement across the Japan Trench, we improved this system to enhance range of acoustic ranging as well as operational depth of instruments. The improved system was designed to allow acoustic ranging up to 3 km and to be durable under the high-pressure equivalent to water depth of 9,000 m. In May 2013, we carried out a test deployment of the new ranging system. The system is composed of three seafloor instruments equipped with precision transponder (PXPs). Two of the PXPs were set on the landward slope of the Japan Trench, where large coseismic slip happened in 2011. Another PXP was deployed on the seaward side of the trench so that the baseline change associated with the slip on the plate boundary fault, if any, can be detected. Continuous records of baseline lengths were successfully obtained for four months. The repeatability of the distance measurements was about 20 mm for

  1. Land use pattern at Alacam mountainous range land (submediterranean-Turkey) due to edaphic and physiographical factors.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Tecimen, Huseyin Baris; Carus, Serdar; Kavgaci, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Soil degradation is perceived as a major threat in the Mediterranean region due to land use pattern and projected climate change. As the high altitudinal mountainous lands are sensitive lands, the land use patterns atAlaçam mountains were investigated in this study. The assessment of land use distribution is arranged with the altitude, exposure, slope and bedrock parameters. The spatial database of project was created using GRASS GIS open source software (GRASS Development Team, 2008). The scanned land use and main rock map of the project area rectified, digitized, and attributes of land use and bedrocks were entered into the database tables. Also raster SRTM3 data were imported into these databases for making physiographical factor (elevation, slope, aspect) maps. Our findings illustrated thatthe whole area of Alaçam mountains is 282 480 ha where most of the area of the mass is located between 700-1300 m asl with 200 585 ha corresponding to 71% of the whole area. We detected two kinds of mis-land use; (1) agricultural activities applied at the slopes above 17% (representing 35 220 ha) and agricultural activities applied on metamorphic rocks (representing 872 ha). Total misuse of lands reached 36 092 ha comprised 12.77% of the whole area.

  2. Snow Cover Variability in the Black Forest Region as an Example of a German Low Mountain Range under the Influence of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbein, J.; Schneider, C.

    2003-04-01

    During the last decades high snow cover variability was observed in the German low mountain ranges. In addition, average snow cover periods have decreased at most localities. This process involves a strong economic impact on skiing resorts of low mountain ranges. Based on data sets from weather stations of the German meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)) which cover up to the last 60 years, the temporal development of the mean seasonal snow cover period in the low mountain ranges of Black Forest (south-west), Harz (north), and Bavarian Forest (south-east) of Germany was examined. Mean wintertime air temperature in the low mountain ranges is increasing more rapidly compared to the annual mean air temperature. Additionally the south west is the warmest region in Germany. Therefore, the snow cover of the Black Forest is much more susceptible to an increase in air temperature than in the other low mountain ranges in Germany. In the Black Forest region air temperatures near the melting point are observed even in January. Snow cover in the Bavarian Forest region with its much more continental climate is less affected by temperature variations but subject to variations in wintertime precipitation. Seasonal snow cover in the Harz region starts about two weeks earlier compared to Bavarian Forest and the Black Forest. The future snow cover development of Black Forest was examined using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prognosis of future air temperature development and trend analysis within observed time series at low mountain range weather stations. The IPCC scenarios were adopted specifically with respect to region, season and altitude and afterwards compared to the observed trend. A transfer function describes the relation between seasonal air temperature change and snow cover duration. A mean reduction of snow cover duration until 2025 for each mountain range is approximated. For instance, the period of a snow cover with a minimum height

  3. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermotectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range and adjacent North Slope foreland basin, Alaska: Including fission track results from the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Sullivan, P. B.; Murphy, J.M.; Blythe, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Apatite fission track data are used to evaluate the thermal and tectonic history of the central Brooks Range and the North Slope foreland basin in northern Alaska along the northern leg of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT). Fission track analyses of the detrital apatite grains in most sedimentary units resolve the timing of structures and denudation within the Brooks Range, ranging in scale from the entire mountain range to relatively small-scale folds and faults. Interpretation of the results indicates that rocks exposed within the central Brooks Range cooled rapidly from paleotemperatures 110?? to 50??C during discrete episodes at ???100??5 Ma, ???60??4 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma, probably in response to kilometer-scale denudation. North of the mountain front, rocks in the southern half of the foreland basin were exposed to maximum paleotemperatures 110??C in the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene as a result of burial by Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Rapid cooling from these elevated paleotemperatures also occurred due to distinct episodes of kilometer-scale denudation at ???60??4 Ma, 46??3 Ma, 35??2 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma. Combined, the apatite analyses indicate that rocks exposed along the TACT line through the central Brooks Range and foreland basin experienced episodic rapid cooling throughout the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in response to at least three distinct kilometer-scale denudation events. Future models explaining orogenic events in northern Alaska must consider these new constraints from fission track thermochronology. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Structural analysis of terrane accretions in the eastern Brooks Range and adjacent areas in central Alaska and Canada. Technical progress report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Coney, P.J.; Harms, T.A.

    1985-03-14

    Work on radiolarian separation and identification of samples from the Sylvester Allochthon is nearing completion. A preliminary chronostratigraphic chart showing the age range and lithologic type of all dated units has been drawn. The comparative petrography of lithologies from the Sylvester Allochthon and the Angayucham and Mosquito Terranes, and from deformed clastic rocks of the Venetie Terrane is being studied. Several preliminary structure sections have been drawn across the Sylvester Terrane. (ACR)

  5. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wallace M.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B.; Brantley, Sandra L.; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E.; Hall, W. Eugene; Olson, Carl A.; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M.; Brusca, Richard C.; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11–25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  6. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  7. Physical modeling of sedimentation adjacent to diapirs and comparison with late precambrian Oratunga Breccia body in central Flinders Ranges, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, N.M.

    1985-09-01

    The interaction of sedimentation with the change in shape of a developing diapir is modeled in a series of simple sandbox experiments. This model replicates the pillow, diapir, and postdiapir stages of salt movement. Modeling produced rim synclines, crestal unconformities, and turtle-structure anticlines-all features known to be associated with diapirs. By changing experimental parameters such as diapir shape, sedimentation was simulated around various diapiric situations. One experiment closely matches the sediment distribution around the Oratunga diapir one of the controversial breccia bodies in the late Precambrian-Cambrian Adelaide geosyncline exposed in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia. Rim synclines, unconformities, and bedding attitude around Oratunga resemble those described around salt domes. In addition, the distribution, size, orientation, and lithology of breccia within the Oratunga diapir resemble breccia associated with active salt diapirs in Iran. These data suggest the breccia was emplaced as a salt diapir.

  8. Irrigated Acreage Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welborn, Toby L.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate delineations of irrigated acreage are needed for the development of water-use estimates and in determining water-budget calculations for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study. Irrigated acreage is estimated routinely for only a few basins in the study area. Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper platforms were used to delineate irrigated acreage on a field-by-field basis for the entire study area. Six hundred and forty-three fields were delineated. The water source, irrigation system, crop type, and field activity for 2005 were identified and verified through field reconnaissance. These data were integrated in a geodatabase and analyzed to develop estimates of irrigated acreage for the 2000, 2002, and 2005 growing seasons by hydrographic area and subbasin. Estimated average annual potential evapotranspiration and average annual precipitation also were estimated for each field.The geodatabase was analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of field locations, the total amount of irrigated acreage by potential irrigation water source, by irrigation system, and by crop type. Irrigated acreage in 2005 totaled nearly 32,000 acres ranging from less than 200 acres in Butte, Cave, Jakes, Long, and Tippett Valleys to 9,300 acres in Snake Valley. Irrigated acreage increased about 20 percent between 2000 and 2005 and increased the most in Snake and White River Valleys. Ground-water supplies as much as 80 percent of irrigation water during dry years. Almost 90 percent of the irrigated acreage was planted with alfalfa.

  9. Mapping Evapotranspiration Units in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Laczniak, Randell J.; Moreo, Michael T.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area. One common method used throughout the southwestern United States is to estimate ground-water discharge from evapotranspiration (ET). ET is a process by which water from the Earth's surface is transferred to the atmosphere. The volume of water lost to the atmosphere by ET can be computed as the product of the ET rate and the acreage of vegetation, open water, and moist soil through which ET occurs. The procedure used in the study groups areas of similar vegetation, water, and soil conditions into different ET units, assigns an average annual ET rate to each unit, and computes annual ET from each ET unit within the outer extent of potential areas of ground-water discharge. Data sets and the procedures used to delineate the ET-unit map used to estimate ground-water discharge from the study area and a qualitative assessment of the accuracy of the map are described in this report.

  10. A Comparison of Aerosol-Layer and Convective Boundary-Layer Structure over a Mountain Range during STAAARTE '97

    SciTech Connect

    De Wekker, Stephan; Steyn, D. G.; Nyeki, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial structure of the aerosol layer (AL) height as observed with an airborne downlooking lidar over the Swiss Alps was investigated with a three dimensional mesoscale numerical model and a particle dispersion model. Convective boundary layer (CBL) heights were derived from the mesoscale model output, and the behavior of surface-released particles was investigated with the particle dispersion model. While a previous investigation, using data from the same field study, equated the observed AL height with the CBL height, the results of the current investigation indicate that there is a considerable difference between AL and CBL heights caused by mixing and transport processes between the CBL and the free atmosphere. CBL heights show a more terrain-following behavior and are lower than AL heights. We argue that processes causing the difference between AL and CBL heights are common over mountainous terrain and that the AL height is a length scale that needs t o be considered in air pollution studies in mountainous terrain.

  11. Origin of narrow terranes and adjacent major terranes occurring along the denali fault in the eastern and central alaska range, alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, W.J.; Richter, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    Several narrow terranes occur along the Denali fault in the Eastern and Central Alaska Range in Southern Alaska. These terranes are the Aurora Peak, Cottonwood Creek, Maclaren, Pingston, and Windy terranes, and a terrane of ultramafic and associated rocks. Exterior to the narrow terranes to the south is the majorWrangellia island arc composite terrane, and to the north is the major Yukon Tanana metamorphosed continental margin terrane. Overlying mainly the northern margin of the Wrangellia composite terrane are the Kahiltna overlap assemblage to the west, and the Gravina- Nutzotin-Gambier volcanic-plutonic- sedimentary belt to the east and southeast. The various narrow terranes are interpreted as the result of translation of fragments of larger terranes during two major tectonic events: (1) Late Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous accretion of the Wrangellia island arc composite terrane (or superterrane composed of the Wrangellia, Peninsular, and Alexander terranes) and associated subduction zone complexes; and (2) starting in about the Late Cretaceous, dextral transport of the Wrangellia composite terrane along the Denali fault. These two major tectonic events caused: (1) entrapment of a lens of oceanic lithosphere along the suture belt between the Wrangellia composite terrane and the North American Craton Margin and outboard accreted terranes to form the ultramafic and mafic part of the terrane of ultramafic and associated rocks, (2) subsequent dextral translation along the Denali fault of the terrane of ultramafic and associated rocks, (3) dextral translation along the Denali fault of the Aurora Peak, Cottonwood Creek, and Maclaren and continental margin arc terranes from part of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex (Coast-North Cascade plutonic belt) in the southwest Yukon Territory or Southeastern Alaska, (4) dextral translation along the Denali fault of the Pingston passive continental margin from a locus along the North American Continental Margin, and (5

  12. Statistical tables and charts showing geochemical variation in the Mesoproterozoic Big Creek, Apple Creek, and Gunsight formations, Lemhi group, Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Tysdal, Russell G.; Taggart, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    The principal purpose of this report is to provide a reference archive for results of a statistical analysis of geochemical data for metasedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic age of the Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho. Descriptions of geochemical data sets, statistical methods, rationale for interpretations, and references to the literature are provided. Three methods of analysis are used: R-mode factor analysis of major oxide and trace element data for identifying petrochemical processes, analysis of variance for effects of rock type and stratigraphic position on chemical composition, and major-oxide ratio plots for comparison with the chemical composition of common clastic sedimentary rocks.

  13. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  14. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  15. Structure, production and resource use in some old-growth spruce/fir forests in the front range of the Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binkley, D.; Olsson, U.; Rochelle, R.; Stohlgren, T.; Nikolov, N.

    2003-01-01

    Old-growth forests of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex. Engelm.) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) dominate much of the landscape of the Rocky Mountains. We characterized the structure, biomass and production of 18 old-growth (200-450-year-old) spruce/fir forests in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, as well as the stand-level supply and use of light and nitrogen. Stands were chosen to span a broad range of elevation, aspect, and topography. Aboveground tree biomass in these old-growth forests averaged 253 Mg/ha (range 130-488 Mg/ha), with aboveground net primary production of 3700 kg ha-1 yr-1 (range from 2700 to 5200 kg ha-1 yr-1). Within stands, trees >35 cm in diameter accounted for 70% of aboveground biomass, but trees <35 cm contributed 70% of the production of woody biomass. Differences in slope and aspect among sites resulted in a range of incoming light from 58 to 74 TJ ha-1 yr-1, and tree canopies intercepted an average of 71% of incoming light (range 50-90%). Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of trees did not relate to the supply of light or N, but ANPP correlated strongly with the amount of light and N used (r2 = 0.45-0.54, P < 0.01). Uptake of 1 kg of N was associated with about 260 kg of ANPP, and one TJ of intercepted shortwave radiation produced about 78 kg of ANPP. Across these old-growth stands, stands with greater biomass showed higher rates of both ANPP and resource use; variation in aboveground biomass was associated with 24% of the variation in N use (P = 0.04), 44% of the light use (P = 0.003), and 45% of the ANPP (P = 0.002). ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contributions of local sources, long-range and mountain wind transport for aerosols over an eastern Himalayan high-altitude station in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Singh, Ajay; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Das, Sanat

    A long-term study (2010-2013) on aerosols mass concentrations (PM2.5), number concentrations of size segregated aerosols and mass concentration of total suspended black carbon aerosols has been made over Darjeeling (27.01 N, 88.15 E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) station at eastern Himalaya in India. Seasonal and diurnal variation of all types of aerosols, their chemical composition and source apportionment revealed that aerosols over this part of Himalaya are mainly of two types; locally generated and long-range transported aerosols. The diurnal variation of aerosols including black carbon showed distinct feature of up-slope mountain wind transport mainly during premonsoon (Mar-May) which brings aerosol particles from low land regions. This present study focuses on the estimation of the individual contributions from local emissions (LE), long-range transport (LRT) and mountain wind transport (MWT) towards the total aerosol loading over Darjeeling. Several strike events (called by local political party) were observed at Darjeeling over the entire period of study (2008-2013) when all the local activities (schools, colleges, offices, vehicular, industrial etc) were stopped fully. Most of the strike events occurred during premonsoon. We have observed three types of events during premonsoon over the entire study period; 1) strike events with the contribution of LRT+MWT with zero local emissions (LE=0), 2) normal days with the contribution of LE+LRT+MWT, 3) normal days with the contribution of LE+MWT with zero long-range contribution (LRT=0). On normal days, the diurnal variation of aerosols during premonsoon showed sharp morning and evening peaks associated to local anthropogenic activities with the effect of up-slope mountain wind during afternoon. During strike events, the morning and evening peaks were absent but a broad peak was observed during afternoon associated to up-slope mountain wind. The increase in aerosol concentrations during afternoon on strike days

  17. Uplift and denudation rates of an actively growing mountain range inferred from in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be: the Yumu Shan (NE Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Minxing, T.; Li, X.; Guo, J.

    2009-04-01

    Located in the foreland of the Quilian Shan (NE Tibet), the Yumu Shan is an isolated mountain range bounded by an active NW-SE striking thrust fault. Geomorphic and structural features such as fault scarps and wind gaps suggest that the ~70 km long range is actively growing (Hetzel et al., 2004; Tapponnier et al., 1990), hence the tectonic uplift should exceed the rate of denudation. Here we quantify the rate of these two competing processes using in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be. Catchment-wide denudation rates are derived from 10Be concentrations in stream sediments, whereas rock uplift rates are obtained by combining scarp topographic profiles with dating of geomorphic surfaces deformed by active thrust faults at the Yumu Shan mountain front. Both denudation and rock uplift rates integrate over a similar temporal scale (~10-100 ka) and thus over many earthquake cycles. Our data document that catchment wide-denudation rates vary from ~100 to ~400 mm ka-1 as a function of morphology and lithology, while rock uplift takes place at the rate of ~0.7 mm ka-1. The difference between these values confirms that the Yumu Shan is in a topographic pre-steady state and in accordance with geomorphic and structural features. Tectonic features indicate that over few millions of years the Yumu Shan may rise to a similar height as the main ranges of the Qilian Shan farther south, which have peaks with elevations between ~5 and ~5.5 km. References: Hetzel R., Tao M., Niedermann S., Strecker M.R., Ivy-Ochs S., Kubik P.W., Gao B. (2004). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova, 16, 157-162. Tapponnier P., Meyer B., Avouac J.P., Peltzer G., Gaudemer Y., Guo S., Xiang H., Yin K., Chen Z., Cai S., Dai H. (1990). Active thrusting and folding in the Quilian Shan, and decoupling between upper crust and mantle in northeastern Tibet, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 97, 382-403.

  18. Late glacial 10Be ages for glacial landforms in the upper region of the Taibai glaciation in the Qinling Mountain range, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Liang; Chen, Yixin; Liu, Beibei; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Cui, Zhijiu; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Glacial landforms are well preserved on Taibai Mountain (3767 m), the main peak of the Qinling mountain range located south of the Loess Plateau and east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The timing and extent of Quaternary glaciation in the study area is important for reconstructing Quaternary environmental change however numerical ages for glaciation in this study area have not previously been well resolved. Using terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides we dated four samples collected from two glacially eroded rock steps in the upper part of a valley near the main peak, in an area previously identified as having been occupied by ice during the Taibai glaciation. The 10Be results are all late glacial in age: 18.6 ± 1.1 ka, 16.9 ± 1.0 ka, 16.9 ± 1.1 ka and 15.1 ± 1.0 ka. The spatial pattern of ages in the valley suggests fast retreat, with horizontal and vertical retreat rates estimated to be on the order of 0.4 and 0.09 m a-1, respectively. A simple extrapolation of these retreat rates from the ages at the two sample sites suggests that the glacier retreat began during Last Glacial Maximum and that glaciers disappeared from the main peak by about 15 ka.

  19. Flexural rigidity of the Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain transition from coherence analysis of gravity and topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Anthony R.; Smith, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Stochastic inversion for flexural loads and flexural rigidity of the continental elastic layer can be accomplished most effectively by using the coherence of gravity and topography. However, the spatial resolution of coherence analysis has been limited by use of two-dimensional periodogram spectra from very large (greater than 10(exp 5)sq km) windows that generally include multiple tectonic features. Using a two-dimensional spectral estimator based on the maximum entropy method, the spatial resolution of flexural proerties can be enhanced by a factor of 4 or more, enabling more detailed analysis at the scale of individual tectonic features. This new approach is used to map the spatial variation of flexural rigidity along the Basin and Range transition to the Colorado Plateau and Middle Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces. Large variations in flexural isostatic responses are found, with rigidities ranging from as low as 8.7 x 10(exp 20) N m (elastic thickness (T(sub e) = 4.6 km) in the Basin and Range to as high as 4.1 x 10(exp 24) N m T(sub e) = 77 km) in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These results compare favorably woith independent determinations of flexural rigidity in the region. Areas of low flexural rigidity correlate strongly with areas of high surface heat flow, as is expected from the contingence of flexural rigidity on a temperature-dependent flow law. Also, late Cenozoic normal faults with large displacements are found primarily in area of low flexural rigidity region. The highest flexural rigidity is found within the Archean Wyoming craton, where evidence suggests that deeply rooted cratonic lithosphere may play a role in determining the distribution of tectonism at the surface.

  20. Thrust faults of southern Diamond Mountains, central Nevada: Implications for hydrocarbons in Diamond Valley and at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.E.

    1993-04-01

    Overmature Mississippian hydrocarbon source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains have been interpreted to be a klippe overlying less mature source rocks and represented as an analogy to similar conditions near Yucca Mountain (Chamberlain, 1991). Geologic evidence indicates an alternative interpretation. Paleogeologic mapping indicates the presence of a thrust fault, referred to here as the Moritz Nager Thrust Fault, with Devonian rocks emplaced over Permian to Mississippian strata folded into an upright to overturned syncline, and that the overmature rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in the footwall of this thrust. The upper plate has been eroded from most of the Diamond Mountains but remnants are present at the head of Moritz Nager Canyon and at Sentinel Mountain. Devonian rocks of the upper plate comprised the earliest landslide megabreccia. Later, megabreccias of Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks of the overturned syncline of the lower plate were deposited. By this interpretation the maturity of lower-plate source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains, which have been increased by tectonic burial, is not indicative of conditions in Diamond Valley, adjacent to the west, where upper-plate source rocks might be present in generating conditions. The interpretation that overmature source rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in a lower plate rather than in a klippe means that this area is an inappropriate model for the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain.

  1. Ellesmerian (. ) and Brookian deformation in the Franklin Mountains, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska, and its bearing on the origin of the Canada Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Oldow, J.S.; Ave Lallemant, H.G.; Julian, F.E.; Seidensticker, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Structural analysis of deformed rocks in the Franklin Mountains, northeastern Alaska, indicates that (1) pre-Carboniferous rocks were transported southeastward during mid-Devonian (Ellesmerian.) thrusting, (2) Cretaceous and older rocks were transported northward during Mesozoic-Cenozoic Brookian thrusting, and (3) the pre-Carboniferous rocks were strongly involved in the Brookian deformation. The strong involvement of these rocks in Brookian structures suggests that the magnitude of northward thrusting during Brookian tectonism is virtually uniform from west to east along the axis of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. In addition, the newly recognized southern vergence of pre-Carboniferous structures is comparable with that of coeval structures exposed in Arctic Canada to the east. These data are not easily reconciled with the orocline model for the origin of the Canada Basin but are consistent with left-lateral transport on a north-south-striking transform fault along the Canadian Arctic islands. 19 references.

  2. Tertiary tectonics of the Border Ranges Fault system, north-central Chugach Mountains, Alaska: Sedimentation, deformation and uplift along the inboard edge of a subduction complex

    SciTech Connect

    Little, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    In south-central Alaska the Border Ranges Fault system (BRFS) separates lower Paleogene rocks of a forearc basin sequence from a Cretaceous subduction complex. In a north-central part of the Chugach Mountains the upper Paleocene-lower Eocene Chickaloon Formation was deposited along the seaward margin of the forearc basin as an alluvial fan complex. A field study combining geologic mapping of a {approximately}200 km{sup 2} region, stratigraphic studies, K-Ar and fission-track geochronology, metamorphic petrology, and detailed structural analysis of deformed rocks on both sides of the BRFS has been used to reconstruct the Tertiary history of displacements and uplift events along the inboard edge of Alaska's subduction-accretion complex.

  3. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (−):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest. PMID:26042134

  4. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  5. Detection of aspen/conifer forest mixes from multitemporal LANDSAT digital data. [Bear River Range, Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.; Harniss, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The digital MSS data were utilized to devise quantitative indices which correlate with apparently stable and seral aspen forests. The extent to which a two-date LANDSAT MSS analysis may permit the delineation of different categories of aspen/conifer forest mix was explored. Multitemporal analyses of MSS data led to the identification of early, early to mid, mid to late, and late seral stages of aspen/conifer forest mixing.

  6. Pleistocene divergence across a mountain range and the influence of selection on mitogenome evolution in threatened Australian freshwater cod species.

    PubMed

    Harrisson, K; Pavlova, A; Gan, H M; Lee, Y P; Austin, C M; Sunnucks, P

    2016-06-01

    Climatic differences across a taxon's range may be associated with specific bioenergetic demands and may result in genetics-based metabolic adaptation, particularly in aquatic ectothermic organisms that rely on heat exchange with the environment to regulate key physiological processes. Extending down the east coast of Australia, the Great Dividing Range (GDR) has a strong influence on climate and the evolutionary history of freshwater fish species. Despite the GDR acting as a strong contemporary barrier to fish movement, many species, and species with shared ancestries, are found on both sides of the GDR, indicative of historical dispersal events. We sequenced complete mitogenomes from the four extant species of the freshwater cod genus Maccullochella, two of which occur on the semi-arid, inland side of the GDR, and two on the mesic coastal side. We constructed a dated phylogeny and explored the relative influences of purifying and positive selection in the evolution of mitogenome divergence among species. Results supported mid- to late-Pleistocene divergence of Maccullochella across the GDR (220-710 thousand years ago), bringing forward previously reported dates. Against a background of pervasive purifying selection, we detected potentially functionally relevant fixed amino acid differences across the GDR. Although many amino acid differences between inland and coastal species may have become fixed under relaxed purifying selection in coastal environments rather than positive selection, there was evidence of episodic positive selection acting on specific codons in the Mary River coastal lineage, which has consistently experienced the warmest and least extreme climate in the genus.

  7. Blue Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 16 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Mountains Ecoregion encompasses approximately 65,461 km² (25,275 mi²) of land bordered on the north by the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion, on the east by the Northern Rockies Ecoregion, on the south by the Snake River Basin and the Northern Basin and Range Ecoregions, and on the west by the Cascades and the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregions (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). Most of the Blue Mountains Ecoregion is located within Oregon (83.5 percent); 13.8 percent is in Idaho, and 2.7 percent is in Washington. The Blue Mountains are composed of primarily Paleozoic volcanic rocks, with minor sedimentary, metamorphic, and granitic rocks. Lower mountains and numerous basin-and-range areas, as well as the lack of Quaternary-age volcanoes, distinguish the Blue Mountains from the adjacent Cascade Range (Thorson and others, 2003).

  8. Thermal and unroofing history of a thick, tilted Basin-and-Range crustal section in the Tortilla Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; Foster, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    We estimate here a geothermal gradient of only 17 ?? 5??C km-1 for the tilted Grayback fault block in southeastern Arizona when extension began ???25 Ma. This gradient is lower than preextension gradients estimated elsewhere in the Basin and Range, is only about 50% of typical gradients in the Basin and Range today, and needs to be accounted for in models of continental extension. The Grayback block exposes a 12-km-thick crustal section of Proterozoic and Cretaceous granitoids, which was tilted 90?? during extension between 25 and 15 Ma. Zircon fission-track ages decrease structurally downward (westward) across the block and were all within a zone of partial track annealing prior to tilting and quenching. The zircon age gradient suggests that the 220??-240??C isotherm migrated downward 5-6 km during Paleogene erosion and regional cooling. Apatite fission-track ages decrease westward from ???83 Ma in the structurally highest crystalline rocks to ???24 Ma at ???6-km paleodepth and then to ???15 Ma another 6 km farther west. Track-length analysis confirms that apatites above the break in slope in age at ???5.7-km paleodepth resided in a zone of partial annealing prior to tilting, and deeper apatites record rapid cooling upon tilting and unroofing beginning ???25 Ma. At that time the 110 ?? 10??C isotherm determined by the depth at which tracks in apatite were fully erased was at a basement paleodepth of ???5.7 km, and the 220 ?? 30??C isotherm as estimated from zircon data resided at a pretilting basement depth of ???12.15 km. From consistent values of paleogeothermal gradient for two depth intervals we estimate the pretilt gradient was 17 ?? 5??C km-1. From 25 to 15 Ma the rotating Grayback block cooled rapidly as higher, westward moving blocks unroofed it tectonically at a rate of ???1 km m.y.-1.

  9. Genesis and evolution of a curved mountain front: paleomagnetic and geological evidence from the Gran Sasso range (central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, Fabio; Adamoli, Leo; Maniscalco, Rosanna; Florindo, Fabio

    2003-02-01

    The Gran Sasso range is a striking salient formed by two roughly rectilinear E-W and N-S limbs. In the past ˜90° counterclockwise (CCW) rotations from the eastern Gran Sasso were reported [Tectonophysics 215 (1992) 335], suggesting west-east increase of rotation-related northward shortening along the E-W limb. In this paper, we report on paleomagnetic data from Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary dykes and strata cropping out at Corno Grande (central part of the E-W Gran Sasso limb), the highest summit of the Apennine belt. Predominant northwestward paleomagnetic declinations (in the normal polarity state) from both sedimentary dykes and strata are observed. When compared to the expected declination values for the Adriatic foreland, our data document no thrusting-related rotation at Corno Grande. The overall paleomagnetic data set coupled with the available geological information shows that the Gran Sasso arc is in fact a composite structure, formed by an unrotated-low shortening western (E-W trending) limb and a strongly CCW rotated eastern salient. Late Messinian and post-early Pliocene shortening episodes documented along the Gran Sasso front indicate that belt building and arc formation occurred during two distinct episodes. We suggest that the southern part of a late Messinian N-S front was reactivated during early-middle Pliocene time, forming a tight range salient due to CCW rotations and differential along-front shortening rates. The formation of a northward displacing bulge in an overall NW-SE chain is likely a consequence of the collision between the Latium-Abruzzi and Apulian carbonate platforms during northeastward propagation of the Apennine wedge, inducing lateral northward extrusion of Latium-Abruzzi carbonates towards ductile basinal sediment areas.

  10. Environmental geochemistry at Red Mountain, an unmined volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit in the Bonnifield district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Dusel-Bacon, C.; Giles, S.A.; Gough, L.P.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Hubbard, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The unmined, pyrite-rich Red Mountain (Dry Creek) deposit displays a remarkable environmental footprint of natural acid generation, high metal and exceedingly high rate earth element (REE) concentrations in surface waters. The volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit exhibits well-constrained examples of acid-generating, metal-leaching, metal-precipitation and self-mitigation (via co-precipitation, dilution and neutralization) processes that occur in an undisturbed natural setting, a rare occurrence in North America. Oxidative dissolution of pyrite and associated secondary reactions under near-surface oxidizing conditions are the primary causes for the acid generation and metal leaching. The deposit is hosted in Devonian to Mississippian felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. Water samples with the lowest pH (many below 3.5), highest specific conductance (commonly >2500 ??S/cm) and highest major- and trace-element concentrations are from springs and streams within the quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zone. Aluminum, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Y, Zn and, particularly, the REEs are found in high concentrations, ranging across four orders of magnitude. Waters collected upstream from the alteration zone have near-neutral pH, lower specific conductance (370 to 830 ??S/cm), lower metal concentrations and measurable alkalinities. Water samples collected downstream of the alteration zone have pH and metal concentrations intermediate between these two extremes. Stream sediments are anomalous in Zn, Pb, S, Fe, Cu, As, Co, Sb and Cd relative to local and regional background abundances. Red Mountain Creek and its tributaries do not, and probably never have, supported significant aquatic life. ?? 2007 AAG/ Geological Society of London.

  11. A metabarcoding comparison of windward and leeward airborne algal diversity across the Ko'olau mountain range on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i(1).

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Alison R; Dittbern, Monica N; Johnston, Emily T; Conklin, Kimberly Y

    2016-12-18

    Airborne algae from sites on the windward (n = 3) and leeward (n = 3) sides of the Ko'olau Mountain range of O'ahu, Hawai'i, were sampled for a 16 d period during January and February 2015 using passive collection devices and were characterized using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the universal plastid amplicon marker. Amplicons were assigned to 3,023 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which included 1,189 cyanobacteria, 1,009 heterotrophic bacteria, and 304 Eukaryota (of which 284 were algae and land plants). Analyses demonstrated substantially more OTUs at windward than leeward O'ahu sites during the sampling period. Removal of nonalgal OTUs revealed a greater number of algal reads recovered from windward (839,853) than leeward sites (355,387), with the majority of these being cyanobacteria. The 1,234 total algal OTUs included cyanobacteria, diatoms, cryptophytes, brown algae, chlorophyte green algae, and charophyte green algae. A total of 208 algal OTUs were identified from leeward side samplers (including OTUs in common among samplers) and 1,995 algal OTUs were identified from windward samplers. Barcoding analyses of the most abundant algal OTUs indicated that very few were shared between the windward and leeward sides of the Ko'olau Mountains, highlighting the localized scale at which these airborne algae communities differ. Back trajectories of air masses arriving on O'ahu during the sampling period were calculated using the NOAA HY-SPLIT model and suggested that the sampling period was composed of three large-scale meteorological events, indicating a diversity of potential sources of airborne algae outside of the Hawaiian Islands.

  12. Long-range atmospheric transport of volatile monocarboxylic acids with Asian dust over a high mountain snow site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Aoki, Kazuma; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2016-11-01

    To understand the long-range transport of monocarboxylic acids from the Asian continent to the Japanese islands, we collected snowpack samples from a pit sequence (depth ca. 6 m) at the Murodo-Daira snowfield near the summit of Mt. Tateyama, central Japan, in 2009 and 2011. Snow samples (n = 16) were analyzed for normal (C1-C10), branched chain (iC4-iC6), aromatic (benzoic and toluic acid isomers), and hydroxyl (glycolic and lactic) monocarboxylic acids, together with inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Acetic acid (C2) was found to be a dominant species (average 125 ng g-1), followed by formic acid (C1) (85.7 ng g-1) and isopentanoic acid (iC5) (20.0 ng g-1). We found a strong correlation (r = 0.88) between formic plus acetic acids and non-sea-salt Ca2+ that is a proxy of Asian dust. Contributions of total monocarboxylic acids to DOC in 2009 (21.2 ± 11.6 %) were higher than that in 2011 (3.75 ± 2.62 %), being consistent with higher intensity of Asian dust in 2009 than in 2011. Formic plus acetic acids also showed a positive correlation (r = 0.90) with benzoic acid that is a tracer of automobile exhaust, indicating that monocarboxylic acids and their precursors are largely emitted from anthropogenic sources in China and/or secondarily produced in the atmosphere by photochemical processing. In addition, the ratio of formic plus acetic acids to nss-Ca2+ (0.27) was significantly higher than those (0.00036-0.0018) obtained for reference dust materials of Chinese loess deposits from the Tengger and Gobi deserts. This result suggests that volatile and semi-volatile organic acids are adsorbed on the alkaline dust particles during long-range atmospheric transport. Entrainment of organic acids by dusts is supported by a good correlation (r = 0.87) between formic plus acetic acids and pH of melt snow samples. Our study suggests that Asian alkaline dusts may be a carrier of volatile monocarboxylic acids.

  13. The Mafic Holocene Sand Mountain-Nash Crater Chain, Oregon Cascade Range: Preliminary Insights Into Enigmatic Crustal Contamination Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, F. C.; Conrey, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    The ca. 3 ka Sand Mtn-Nash Crater chain is a 10 km long bifurcated cinder cone alignment formed during an intra-arc extensional fissure-style eruption in the central Oregon Cascades. Eruptions began with at least 6 separate basalt flows (MgO 6.5 to 8.8 wt %), followed by several flows of two distinct basaltic andesites. Measurable paleomagnetic secular variation is absent (12 of 13 flows sampled; Duane Champion, pers. comm., 2003), suggesting the eruptions spanned at most a few decades. Nash Crater basaltic andesite is similar to the most common Mt. Washington type mafic lava in the Cascades, while Sand Mtn. basaltic andesite is similar to less common Sr-rich (900-1200 ppm Sr) mafic lava. Both basalt and basaltic andesite typically contain olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts, with rare clinopyroxene. Rare glass-bearing gabbroic xenoliths appear to preserve a record of both assimilation and crystallization of plag-oliv-cpx. Each basalt is unique, but basalts collectively record a wide compositional diversity (e.g., K2O 0.65 - 0.90; Ba 230 - 350; Ba/Sr 0.33 - 0.53), which may result from either source variation and/or crustal assimilation. Sr isotopes range from 0.7031 - 0.7034 in basalt whole rocks (WR), and are positively correlated with Ba/Sr ratio. A similar correlation is found in Sr isotopes from Sand Mtn basaltic andesites (WR), which range from 0.7031 - 0.7033. Preliminary laser ablation sampling of Sr isotopes in Sand Mtn. basaltic andesite plagioclase phenocrysts and groundmass demonstrates equilibrium between WR, groundmass, and crystals, strongly suggesting that compositional variation in at least these lavas was acquired below the plagioclase stability field (i.e., in the lower crust or upper mantle). Variations in the more typical Nash Crater basaltic andesites appear to reflect in part mixing with a Sand Mtn type component. Derivation of basaltic andesites from their co-erupted basalts, suggested by the field relations, is not readily apparent. The

  14. Evolution of Cretaceous granitoids in the western cordillera: An example from the Santa Rose Mountain Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Stuck, R.J.; Hart, W.K. )

    1992-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Range is located in Humboldt County, Nevada. Two textural/compositional groups exist within the granitoid suite. The bulk of the granitoids, exposed in the main stock and a smaller flanking stock, belong to the Santa Rosa/Andorno (SR/A) group. These rocks are primarily met- to peraluminous, equigranular, hornblende-biotite granodiorite. These granitoids are enclave bearing and are cross cut by syn-plutonic rholite/dacite dikes and fine grained aplite dikes. The second group exposed in the Sawtooth (ST) and Granite Peak (GP) stocks, are primarily met- to peraluminous, equigranular to porphyritic biotite granite/granodiorite. The rocks of this group are also cut by fine grained aplite dikes. Petrographic and elemental analyses indicate a broad northward evolutionary trend with rocks of the GP stock being the most highly evolved of the suite. Major element variation diagrams show patterns of enrichment or depletion consistent with fractional crystallization. There is a change in the slope of these trends, however, at the SR/A and ST/GP transition indicating these two groups many not be petrogenetically linked. Sr vs SiO[sub 2] displays two distinct, overlapping, sub parallel trends of Sr depletion with increasing SiO[sub 2] again indicating the two granitoid groups are not related. Trace element characteristics suggest that it is not possible to derive the most evolved granitoid in the SR/A group from the least evolved sample available by fractional crystallization alone. Crustal contamination of the magma, or the mixing of an additional liquid(s), coupled with fractionation of both plagioclase and biotite are required to produce the trace element trends observed in the SR/A groups. In contrast, the GP/ST group has undergone K-feldspar fractionation.

  15. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  16. The Contribution of Trans-Pacific Submicron Aerosols and Local Particle Nucleation Bursts to California's Air Quality as Seen from the Pacific Coast Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, E. C. C.; Christensen, J. N.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    The long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols to the Western US has received considerable attention due to the growing disparity between North American and Asian air quality. Using MODIS and space-borne LIDAR measurements some have argued that the transcontinental transport of dust from Asia, Africa, and Europe outweighs that of locally produced combustion aerosols (Yu et al. 2012). This study seeks to compare the aerosol composition, number, and size distribution of locally derived submicron aerosols (including particle nucleation events) vs. long-range transported aerosols observed at a remote mountain site near the Pacific Coast. Toward this aim, rotating drum impactor (RDI) and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements of size-segregated elemental compositions and size spectra were collected from February to November of 2012 at Chews Ridge (elevation 1450 m) in Monterey County, California. This mountaintop site experiences two main wind modes. The main mode is ohshore-directed winds from the southwest, which are most likely to bring trans-Pacific aerosols to the site; and offshore-directed, northeasterly winds that bring continental aerosols to the site from the interior of California. Elemental ratios (normalized to Al), matrix factorization, and a k-cluster analysis of these data suggest distinct crustal, combustion, and marine sources with considerable seasonal as well as short-term variability. HYSPLIT model back trajectories support the hypothesized sources of these submicron aerosols. Locally, SMPS data reveal consistent nucleation bursts and subsequent growth in the 20-60 nm range during the afternoons. A distinct but weaker diel cycle was observed in the 70 - 100 nm range, corresponding to the smallest RDI impactor stage. Finally, the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) of aerosol samples from selected dates will be measured by MC-ICPMS to further identify aerosol origins (e.g. Ewing et al. 2010).

  17. Geochemistry and geochronology of the Late Permian mafic intrusions along the boundary area of Jiamusi and Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massifs and adjacent regions, northeastern China: Petrogenesis and implications for the tectonic evolution of the Mudanjiang Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu; Ge, Wen-chun; Yang, Hao; Xu, Wen-liang; Bi, Jun-hui; Wang, Zhi-hui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock major and trace element data, and Hf isotope data for the metagabbros from the Zhushan pluton and gabbros from the Taiping pluton along the boundary area of Jiamusi and Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massifs and adjacent regions, which will not only place important constraints on the rock-forming ages, source characteristics and tectonic setting of these gabbros, but will also provide insights into understanding the Permian tectonic evolution between the Jiamusi Massif and the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif. Zircon U-Pb dating, determined using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and secondary-ion mass spectrometry, indicates that the magmatic zircons from the Zhushan and Taiping plutons yield 206Pb/238U ages of 256 ± 2 Ma and 259 ± 3 Ma, respectively, interpreted as the emplacement ages of the intrusions. The metagabbros from the Zhushan pluton display the geochemical characteristics of calc-alkaline series rocks, and are enriched in light rare earth and large ion lithophile elements, and depleted in Nb, Ta, P, Zr and Hf. The εHf(t) values of magmatic zircons in these metagabbros vary from - 5.47 to + 0.74. All these geochemical features indicate that the primary magma of the Zhushan pluton was derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by subducted slab-derived fluids. The gabbros from the Taiping pluton are also enriched in large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Ba and U) relative to high field strength elements, and have negative Nb-Ta-P anomalies, with εHf(t) values of - 4.02 to - 1.70. It is inferred that they also formed from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle that was metasomatized by subducted slab-derived fluids. The rocks from the Zhushan and Taiping plutons have similar petrogenetic processes, but their primary magmas are likely to be derived from two distinct magma sources based on geochemical and

  18. An expeditious risk analysis of intense rainfall events in low mountain ranges of Central German Uplands under the aspect of a sustainable and decentralised flood retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertermann, D.; Bialas, C.; Zacherl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to increasing settlement pressure, intensifying pressure as a result of the utilisation of flood-threatened surfaces and also in consequence of the climate change with its effects even on local scales an accumulation of flood events is to be expected. Areas that have not been influenced by flood events in the past, like low mountain ranges, can certainly be affected in the near future. Against this background applicable solution and adjustment strategies are required in practice to mitigate such events or to even prevent them. The key aim of the research activities is the development of a standardised and expeditious risk analysis of intense rainfall events in low mountain ranges of Central German Uplands under the aspect of sustainable and decentralised flood retention and protection. Hydrologic characteristics, expressed by the 'run-off-coefficient' and the 'surface roughness', for clearly defined biotope types of German low mountain ranges should be derived with the help of already existing standardised soil/utilisation/vegetation units. According to the current state-of-the-art of flood models land use changes do not have great impact on the slow-flowing, large flood events in widespread watersheds. On the contrary, small, swift-flowing floods in small watersheds can be influenced by land use or management changes. Thus, the focus of the research work is aimed on these small quick flood events. However, also differentiated information for the solution of flood problems in large watersheds can be reached by the summation of statements about small watersheds. The development of a standardised planning method (incl. the GI-System implementation) for the optimization of the drain regulation serves for the reduction of the flood danger. Land use and vegetation is so optimised in adaptation to soil and land management and by taking into account prevailing drain roads that an essential contribution to the regulation of the surface run-off can be performed. The

  19. Simulations of Orographic Mixed-Phase Clouds at Mountain Range Site using COSMO-ART-M7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, Olga; Henneberger, Jan; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions constitute the highest uncertainties in radiative forcing estimation since preindustrial times. Clouds living in temperature range between 0° C and -38° C may contain supercooled water drops as well as ice particles formed by heterogeneous freezing. The coexistence of the three water-phases: vapor, liquid and ice in mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) leads to an enhanced number of microphysical processes that further complicates the estimation of radiative effects furthermore and challenges models on every scale. Due to a lower saturation pressure over ice than over water ice growth is favoured and a rapid glaciation of MPCs is expected. Even though MPCs are considered unstable, observations have shown that they can persist over long periods up to several hours. In-situ measurements at the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch (JFJ) show the occurrence of MPCs under certain conditions. In addition to the longevity of MPCs an unexpected high ice crystal concentration exceeding the number of ice nuclei was also observed. Due to the lack of information about updraft velocities in this complex orographic region and the constraint of measurements on a single location it is not fully understood how MPCs can persist over such a long time in this region, whether microphysical or dynamical processes are dominantly determining their longevity and what causes the high ice crystal concentration. The measurements taken at JFJ delivering mass content as well as number concentration of particles on one hand require a detailed model study to fully understand processes of mixed phase clouds and on the other hand deliver a great opportunity to study the performance of the newly developed COSMO version: COSMO-ART-M7 on the kilometer-scale in comparison with measurement results. Furthermore it has to be proven whether a resolution of 1 km is sufficient enough to capture relevant processes in MPC. First model simulations with COSMO, including the two

  20. Geochemical Characteristics of Overbank Deposits after a Flood Event in a Small, Mountainous River System in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics of particulate organic matter (POM) transported by rivers has broad implications in our understanding of aquatic nutrient dynamics, the fate of contaminants, environmental change in watersheds, and carbon export to depositional environments. The major fraction of this POM is mobilized during storms, especially in small mountainous river systems (SMRS) producing complex spatial-temporal POM patterns poorly documented due to logistical difficulties. In this study, we examine the use of overbank flood deposits as a surrogate of a quasi-Lagrangian POM sampling scheme to supplement the conventional Eulerian sampling scheme for POM. We report on the geochemical characteristics of 11 overbank deposits created after a significant flood (10 X mean discharge) along 80 km in the Alsea River, a SMRS in the Oregon Coast Range. We measure organic carbon, nitrogen, stable isotopes, and biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols as well as particle size distribution and surface area of the deposited sediments. We compared those characteristics with the POM sampled during several storms at a fixed location. Our results suggest that despite the differences in local depositional conditions inferred from particle size distributions and texture, the geochemical properties of overbank deposits resemble the properties of the material in transport, mainly derived from a terrestrial source with a clear signal of gymnosperm wood. Furthermore, the normalized ranges of the geochemical indicators measured across space for one single event are comparable to, or even higher than, the normalized range of the same indicators measured along time at the fixed location. The implications of the amount and quality of the additional information offered by the overbank deposits in POM dynamics in watershed is discussed.

  1. Application of the Basin Characterization Model to Estimate In-Place Recharge and Runoff Potential in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2007-01-01

    A regional-scale water-balance model was used to estimate recharge and runoff potential and support U.S. Geological Survey efforts to develop a better understanding of water availability for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The water-balance model, or Basin Characterization Model (BCM), was used to estimate regional ground-water recharge for the 13 hydrographic areas in the study area. The BCM calculates recharge by using a distributed-parameter, water-balance method and monthly climatic boundary conditions. The BCM requires geographic information system coverages of soil, geology, and topographic information with monthly time-varying climatic conditions of air temperature and precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration, snow accumulation, and snowmelt are distributed spatially with process models. When combined with surface properties of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock and alluvium, the potential water available for in-place recharge and runoff is calculated using monthly time steps using a grid scale of 866 feet (270 meters). The BCM was used with monthly climatic inputs from 1970 to 2004, and results were averaged to provide an estimate of the average annual recharge for the BARCAS study area. The model estimates 526,000 acre-feet of potential in-place recharge and approximately 398,000 acre-feet of potential runoff. Assuming 15 percent of the runoff becomes recharge, the model estimates average annual ground-water recharge for the BARCAS area of about 586,000 acre-feet. When precipitation is extrapolated to the long-term climatic record (1895-2006), average annual recharge is estimated to be 530,000 acre-feet, or about 9 percent less than the recharge estimated for 1970-2004.

  2. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  3. Dominance relationships among one-male units in a provisioned free-ranging band of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio; Li, Baoguo; Qi, Xiaoguang

    2008-07-01

    We studied the dominance relationships among one-male units (OMUs) in a provisioned free-ranging band of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains of central China from 2001 to 2005. The band was composed of 6-8 OMUs that stayed in the band for several years. Linear dominance orders could be detected using displacement interactions with directional asymmetry among OMUs in 82.3+/-5% of interactions, and ambiguous and reversed interactions in 17.7+/-5%. The dominance rank of OMUs was positively related with the duration of their stay in the band, and this may be attributed to the association of the resident male with adult females, rather than the fighting ability of resident males, as males do not fight seriously with each other. Subordinate units were observed to merge with dominant units resulting in an elevation of their rank order. The linear dominance relationship among OMUs in the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys may have evolved as a result of competition for preferred food trees.

  4. Female social dynamics in a provisioned free-ranging band of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio; Li, Baoguo

    2008-11-01

    Little information is available on the social dynamics of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Here, we provide 5-year observational data on a provisioned free-ranging band in the Qinling Mountains, central China, from October 2001 to December 2005. The results of this study suggested that females place a high priority on maintaining long-term relationships with other female in their one-male units (OMUs). Females had more social interactions with unit members than with nonunit individuals. They showed relatively high rates of affiliation with their unit females, intermediate levels with the resident males, and low levels with individuals outside the unit. Females had few interactions with other resident males. Social interactions, especially affiliative interactions, were more symmetrical between focal females and their unit females than between focal females and the resident males. Thus female social interactions appeared to resemble those of other female-bonded primate societies. On the other hand, female transfers occurred sometimes. We recorded 11 cases of female immigration and 5 cases of female disappearance, 1 case of female intraband shift, and 2 cases of "merging of OMUs," which suggested that unit females might be loose-knit in this species. We discussed influencing factors on female Sichuan snub-nosed monkey social dynamics, by comparing them with those of Hamadryas and gelada baboons that also have multilevel societies.

  5. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  6. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  7. Ozone trends in Great Smoky Mountains National Park over the past two decades: Implications for plants and ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hourly ozone data from five sampling locations in Great Smoky Mountains National Park and one low elevation location adjacent to the Park in NC were analyzed over the period 1989 to 2012 for diurnal and season trends. Sampling locations spanned an elevational range from 564 m at...

  8. The extreme disjunction between Beringia and Europe in Ranunculus glacialis s. l. (Ranunculaceae) does not coincide with the deepest genetic split - a story of the importance of temperate mountain ranges in arctic-alpine phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Ronikier, M; Schneeweiss, G M; Schönswetter, P

    2012-11-01

    The arctic-alpine Ranunculus glacialis s. l. is distributed in high-mountain ranges of temperate Europe and in the North, where it displays an extreme disjunction between the North Atlantic Arctic and Beringia. Based on comprehensive sampling and employing plastid and nuclear marker systems, we (i) test whether the European/Beringian disjunction correlates with the main evolutionary diversification, (ii) reconstruct the phylogeographic history in the Arctic and in temperate mountains and (iii) assess the susceptibility of arctic and mountain populations to climate change. Both data sets revealed several well-defined lineages, mostly with a coherent geographic distribution. The deepest evolutionary split did not coincide with the European/Beringian disjunction but occurred within the Alps. The Beringian lineage and North Atlantic Arctic populations, which reached their current distribution via rapid postglacial colonization, show connections to two divergent pools of Central European populations. Thus, immigration into the Arctic probably occurred at least twice. The presence of a rare cpDNA lineage related to Beringia in the Carpathians supports the role of these mountains as a stepping stone between temperate Europe and the non-European Arctic, and as an important area of high-mountain biodiversity. The temperate and arctic ranges presented contrasting phylogeographic histories: a largely static distribution in the former and rapid latitudinal spread in the latter. The persistence of ancient lineages with a strictly regional distribution suggests that the ability of R. glacialis to survive repeated climatic changes within southern mountain ranges is greater than what recently was predicted for alpine plants from climatic envelope modelling.

  9. Style and magnitude of Mesozoic thrust faulting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt Pequop Mountains-Wood Hills-East Humboldt Range region, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, P.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Pequop Mountains (PM), Wood Hills (WH) and East Humboldt Range (EHR), NE Nevada, provide evidence that the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt experienced large-magnitude Mesozoic shortening ([>=]55 km) and crustal thickening ([>=] 30 km). These ranges expose a structurally continuous crustal cross section of unmetamorphosed to high pressure upper amphibolite facies Triassic to Precambrian miogeoclinal strata. This sequence lies structurally beneath unmetamorphosed extensional klippen that omit metamorphic grade and crustal section, but also repeat stratigraphic units. Because they repeat stratigraphic units, the underlying miogeoclinal section, or footwall, must have once lain beneath a thrust fault (herein named the Windermere thrust). The footwall of the Windermere thrust was exhumed by two generations of top-to-the-W-NW low-angle normal faults that are distinguished by whether they are depositionally overlapped by Eocene volcanic rocks or if they cut the volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. The latter phase is associated with development of the mid-Tertiary extensional mylonitic shear zone in the EHR. An integration of geobarometric, metamorphic, and map data suggest (1) a NW dip of the footwall of the Windermere thrust with metamorphic facies belts trending perpendicular to dip direction and metamorphic grade increasing down dip, and (2) a top-to-the-SE sense-of-slip for the Windermere thrust. Assuming that the Windermere thrust comprised a flat on the youngest rocks exposed in the footwall (Triassic), the Mesozoic depth to the Windermere thrust in the northern PM is [>=] 7 km, in WH is [approximately]10--16 km, and in the EHR[>=]30 km. The Windermere thrust accommodated a minimum of 50 km of shortening associated with the Independence thrust is [>=] 5 km. These data indicate that the amount of hinterland shortening in NE Nevada greatly exceeds that to the south in the Eureka belt.

  10. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain).

    PubMed

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2015-11-15

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency).

  11. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with a long-range transported biomass burning plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L. J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m above mean sea level on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located ~ 3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ± 0.7 μg m-3. On average, organic aerosol components represent the largest mass fraction of the total measured aerosol (60 ± 51%), followed by sulfate (23 ± 28%), nitrate (13 ± 10%), chloride (2 ± 3%), and elemental carbon (2 ± 2%). Water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas had unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. FLEXPART retroplume analyses showed the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). These aged aerosol WSOM compounds had an average O/C ratio of ~ 0.45, which is relatively low compared to O/C ratios of other aged aerosol. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in the WSOM and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic species suggests

  12. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with long range transported biomass burning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2014-09-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m a.m.s.l. on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory (38°28'15'' N; 28°24'14'' W) is located ∼3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances, mainly from North America. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon and inorganic ion species. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 μg m-3; on average organic aerosol contributes the majority of mass (57%), followed by sulfate (21%) and nitrate (17%). Filter-collected aerosol measurements were positively correlated (with an r2 ≥ 0.80) with continuous aerosol measurements of black carbon, aerosol light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) species extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. FLEXPART retroplume analysis shows the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. These aged WSOC compounds have an average O / C ratio of ∼0.45, which is relatively low compared to O / C ratios of other aged aerosol and might be the result of evaporation and increased fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in

  13. Differentiation in stag beetles, Neolucanus swinhoei complex (Coleoptera: Lucanidae): four major lineages caused by periodical Pleistocene glaciations and separation by a mountain range.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Lung; Wan, Xia; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Taxonomic debates on Neolucanus swinhoei complex consisting of N. swinhoei, N. doro doro, N. doro horaguchii, and N. euganiae, distributed exclusively in Taiwan, have been ongoing for several decades because of their overlapping morphological characters. To clarify their taxonomic status and phylogeographical history, we analyzed nine morphological characteristics and four molecular amplicons. Phylogenetic inferences based on COI+16S rDNA+wingless showed one eastern and three western lineages, with the latter consisting of one low-hill and two montane lineages. Intermingled DNA sequences from different populations within each lineage, many low FST values, and a high variance component between lineages indicate the possibility of gene flow among populations. However, positive relationships were observed between the genetic divergences of 16S rDNA and its FST values with geographic distance. A divergence estimation based on COI+16S revealed that these beetles might have originated from Asian mainland and differentiated into western and eastern lineages ca. 1Mya, with the differentiation of the western lineages occurring approximately 0.50-0.75Mya. Isolation by mountain ranges and limited flying capability of these beetles as well as populations retreat to and expansion from refugia in response to glaciation cycles have resulted in the current distribution of N. swinhoei complex. Although most morphological characters are variable and undistinguishable, multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on measurable characteristics could recognize hill N. swinhoei as a cluster distinct from the others. However, based on the realities of genetic admixture, shared phylogeographical history and overlapping characteristics, all of these stag beetles should be regarded as Neolucanus swinhoei Bates, 1866.

  14. Brittle structures and their role in controlling porosity and permeability in a complex Precambrian crystalline-rock aquifer system in the Colorado Rocky Mountain front range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, J.S.; Tomusiak, S.R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Expansion of the Denver metropolitan area has resulted in substantial residential development in the foothills of the Rocky Mountain Front Range. This type of sub-urban growth, characteristic of much of the semiarid intermountain west, often relies on groundwater from individual domestic wells and is exemplified in the Turkey Creek watershed. The watershed is underlain by complexly deformed and fractured crystalline bedrock in which groundwater resources are poorly understood, and concerns regarding groundwater mining and degradation have arisen. As part of a pilot project to establish quantitative bounds on the groundwater resource, an outcrop-based geologic characterization and numerical modeling study of the brittle structures and their controls on the flow system was initiated. Existing data suggest that ground-water storage, flow, and contaminant transport are primarily controlled by a heterogeneous array of fracture networks. Inspections of well-permit data and field observations led to a conceptual model in which three dominant lithologic groups underlying sparse surface deposits form the aquifer system-metamorphic rocks, a complex array of granitic intrusive rocks, and major brittle fault zones. Pervasive but variable jointing of each lithologic group forms the "background" permeability structure and is an important component of the bulk storage capacity. This "background" is cut by brittle fault zones of varying structural styles and by pegmatite dikes, both with much higher fracture intensities relative to "background" that likely make them spatially complex conduits. Probabilistic, discrete-fracture-network and finite-element modeling was used to estimate porosity and permeability at the outcrop scale using fracture network data collected in the field. The models were conditioned to limited aquifer test and borehole geophysical data and give insight into the relative hydraulic properties between locations and geologic controls on storage and flow

  15. Bacteria influence mountain pine beetle brood development through interactions with symbiotic and antagonistic fungi: implications for climate-driven host range expansion.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Janet; Mason, Charles J; Cale, Jonathan A; Adams, Aaron; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Raffa, Kenneth F; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-10-01

    Bark beetles are associated with diverse communities of symbionts. Although fungi have received significant attention, we know little about how bacteria, and in particular their interactions with fungi, affect bark beetle reproduction. We tested how interactions between four bacterial associates, two symbiotic fungi, and two opportunistic fungi affect performance of mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in host tissue. We compared beetle performance in phloem of its historical host, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and its novel host recently accessed through warming climate, jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Overall, beetles produced more larvae, and established longer ovipositional and larval galleries in host tissue predominantly colonized by the symbiotic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera, or Ophiostoma montium than by the opportunistic colonizer Aspergillus and to a lesser extent, Trichoderma. This occurred in both historical and naïve hosts. Impacts of bacteria on beetle reproduction depended on particular fungus-bacterium combinations and host species. Some bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas sp. D4-22 and Hy4T4 in P. contorta and Pseudomonas sp. Hy4T4 and Stenotrophomonas in P. banksiana, reduced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus and Trichoderma resulting in more larvae and longer ovipositional and larval galleries. These effects were not selective, as bacteria also reduced beneficial effects by symbionts in both host species. Interestingly, Bacillus enhanced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus in both hosts. These results demonstrate that bacteria influence brood development of bark beetles in host tissue. They also suggest that climate-driven range expansion of D. ponderosae through the boreal forest will not be significantly constrained by requirements of, or interactions among, its microbial associates.

  16. Cluster analyses of 20th century growth patterns in high elevation Great Basin bristlecone pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. J.; Bruening, J. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a useful climate proxy because of the species' long lifespan (up to 5000 years) and the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Past studies have shown that growth of individual trees can be limited by temperature, soil moisture, or a combination of the two depending on biophysical setting at the scale of tens of meters. We extend recent research suggesting that trees vary in their growth response depending on their position on the landscape to analyze how growth patterns vary over time. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the growth of 52 bristlecone pine trees near the treeline of Mount Washington, Nevada, USA. We classified growth of individual trees over the instrumental climate record into one of two possible scenarios: trees belonging to a temperature-sensitive cluster and trees belonging to a precipitation-sensitive cluster. The number of trees in the precipitation-sensitive cluster outnumbered the number of trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster, with trees in colder locations belonging to the temperature-sensitive cluster. When we separated the temporal range into two sections (1895-1949 and 1950-2002) spanning the length of the instrumental climate record, we found that most of the 52 trees remained loyal to their cluster membership (e.g., trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster in 1895-1949 were also in the temperature sensitive cluster in 1950-2002), though not without exception. Of those trees that do not remain consistent in cluster membership, the majority changed from temperature-sensitive to precipitation-sensitive as time progressed. This could signal a switch from temperature limitation to water limitation with warming climate. We speculate that topographic complexity in high mountain environments like Mount Washington might allow for climate refugia where growth response could remain constant over the Holocene.

  17. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  18. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  19. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W.; Borgo, Gina M.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  20. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined.

  1. Chemical composition and aerosol size distribution of the middle mountain range in the Nepal Himalayas during the 2009 pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, P.; Barros, A. P.; Khlystov, A.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol particle number size distribution and chemical composition were measured at two low altitude sites, one urban and one relatively pristine valley, in Central Nepal during the 2009 pre-monsoon season (May-June). This is the first time that aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured simultaneously at lower elevations in the middle Himalayan region in Nepal. The aerosol size distribution was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, 14-340 nm), and the chemical composition of the filter samples collected during the field campaign was analyzed in the laboratory. Teflon membrane filters were used for ion chromatography (IC) and water-soluble organic carbon and nitrogen analysis. Quartz fiber filters were used for organic carbon and elemental carbon analysis. Multi-lognormal fits to the measured aerosol size distribution indicated a consistent larger mode around 100 nm which is usually the oldest, most processed background aerosol. The smaller mode was located around 20 nm, which is indicative of fresh but not necessarily local aerosol. The diurnal cycle of the aerosol number concentration showed the presence of two peaks (early morning and evening), during the transitional periods of boundary layer growth and collapse. The increase in number concentration during the peak periods was observed for the entire size distribution. Although the possible contribution of local emissions in size ranges similar to the larger mode cannot be completely ruled out, another plausible explanation is the mixing of aged elevated aerosol in the residual layer during the morning period as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, the evening time concentration peaks when the boundary layer becomes shallow concurrent with increase in local activity. A decrease in aerosol number concentration was observed during the nighttime with the development of cold (downslope) mountain winds that force the low level warmer air in the valley to rise. The

  2. Glacial geology of the Mountain Iron-Virginia-Eveleth area Mesabi Iron Range, Minnesota: Sub-chapter in Geological Survey research 1964, Chapter C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotter, R.D.; Rogers, J.E.

    1964-01-01

    The surficial clayey till in the vicinity of Mountain Iron, Virginia, and Eveleth is of post-Cary age. In the southern part of the area studied, this till is overlain by deposits of glacial Lake Upham, and throughout the area it is underlain successively by stratified drift and bouldery till, both of Cary age, and by remnants of older tills.

  3. Folding above faults, Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetric folds formed above basement faults can be observed throughout the Rocky Mountains. Several previous interpretations of the folding process made the implicit assumption that one or both fold hinges migrated or rolled'' through the steep forelimb of the fold as the structure evolved (rolling hinge model). Results of mapping in the Bighorn and Seminoe Mountains, WY, and Sangre de Cristo Range, CO, do not support this hypothesis. An alternative interpretation is presented in which fold hinges remained fixed in position during folding (fixed hinge model). Mapped folds share common characteristics: (1) axial traces of the folds intersect faults at or near the basement/cover interface, and diverge from faults upsection; (2) fold hinges are narrow and interlimb angles cluster around 80--100[degree] regardless of fold location; (3) fold shape is typically angular, despite published cross sections that show concentric folds; and, (4) beds within the folds show thickening and/or thinning, most commonly adjacent to fold hinges. The rolling hinge model requires that rocks in the fold forelimbs bend through narrow fold hinges as deformation progressed. Examination of massive, competent rock units such as the Ord. Bighorn Dolomite, Miss. Madison Limestone, and, Penn. Tensleep Sandstone reveals no evidence of the extensive internal deformation that would be expected if hinges rolled through rocks of the forelimb. The hinges of some folds (e.g. Golf Creek anticline, Bighorn Mountains) are offset by secondary faults, effectively preventing the passage of rocks from backlimb to forelimb. The fixed hinge model proposes that the fold hinges were defined early in fold evolution, and beds were progressively rotated and steepened as the structure grew.

  4. TranSCorBe Project: A high-resolution seismic-passive profile to study the variation of the crustal and upper mantle structures under the Betic mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, José; Martín, Rosa; Stich, Daniel; Heit, Benjamín; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mancilla, Flor; Benito, José; Carrion, Francisco; Serrano, Inmaculada; López-Comino, Jose Angel; Abreu, Rafael; Alguacil, Gerardo; Almendros, Javier; Carmona, Enrique; Ontiveros, Alfonso; García-Quiroga, Daniel; García-Jerez, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this project is to study the crustal and upper mantle structures under the Betic mountain ranges and their variations between the different geological domains. We deployed 50 broadband and short period seismic stations during 18 months following two profiles. We collect teleseismic events to perform a high-resolution P-to-S and S-to-P receiver function analysis. The main profile (TranSCorBe), of 160 km length, starts near the coast in Mazarrón (Murcia) and follows a NW-SE direction, crossing the Cazorla mountain range. It probes, from south to north, the Alboran domain (metamorphic rocks), the External zones (sedimentary rocks) and the Variscan terrains of the Iberian Massif. The spacing between stations is around 3-4 km. This inter-station distance allows us mapping with high accuracy the variations of the crust and upper mantle discontinuities in the Betic Range and their transition to the Iberian Massif. A second profile (HiRe II) with a larger spacing between seismic stations, is a continuation of a previously installed HiRe I profile, a NS profile starting near the Mediterranean coast in Adra (Almería) through Sierra Nevada Mountains. HiRe II profile prolongs HiRe I profile until the Variscan intersecting with TranSCorBe profile near Cazorla.

  5. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  6. Deciphering the Tectonic History of the Northern Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Samantha; Graw, Jordan; Brenn, Gregory; Kenyon, Lindsey; Park, Yongcheol; DuBay, Brian

    2016-04-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range in the world, and their structure plays a key role in the climatic and tectonic development of Antarctica. While numerous uplift mechanisms for the TAMs have been proposed, there is little consensus on their origin. Over the past three years, we have operated a network of 15 broadband seismic stations within a previously unexplored portion of the northern TAMs. Using data collected by this array, we have undertaken numerous studies to further assess the crustal and lithospheric structure beneath the mountain range and to differentiate between competing origin models. Receiver functions indicate crustal thickening inland from the Ross Sea coast but comparable crustal thickness beneath the TAMs and the East Antarctic plateau, indicating little evidence for a substantial crustal root beneath the mountain range. Body and surface wave analyses show a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath Terror Rift, adjacent to the TAMs, and extending beneath Victoria Land in the upper mantle. Together, these findings support a thermally-buoyant source of uplift for the northern TAMs and broad flexure of the East Antarctic lithosphere.

  7. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    than scientific; his second, more scientific trip was made 2 years later. Powell revisited the Uinta Mountains in 1874 and 1875 to complete the studies begun 6 years earlier. His classic 'Report on the Geology of the Eastern Portion of the Uinta Mountains and a Region of Country Adjacent Thereto' was published in 1876. King's survey?officially 'The United States Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel'?is better known simply as the '40th Parallel Survey.' King began working eastward from California in 1867. The Uinta Mountains region, however, was mapped by S. F. Emmons, under the supervision of King, in the summers of 1869 and 1871. Emmons' work was monumental, and although he emphasized in his letter of transmittal to King the exploratory nature of the work?as the formal title of the report indicates?his maps, descriptions, and conclusions reflect a comprehensive understanding of the country and its rocks. The 40th Parallel report contains the best, most complete early descriptions of the Uinta Mountains. It, indeed, is a treasurechest of information and a landmark contribution to the emerging science of geology. Hayden visited the Uinta Mountains in 1870, descending the valley of Henrys Fork to Flaming Gorge in the fall after having earlier examined the higher part of the range to the west. Most of Hayden's observations were cursory, and he repeatedly expressed regret at having insufficient time for more detailed studies. In reference to the area between Clay Basin and Browns Park, he remarked (Hayden, 1871, p. 67) somewhat dryly that 'the geology of this portion of the Uinta range is very complicated and interesting. To have solved the problem to my entire satisfaction would have required a week or two.' Eighty-odd years later I spent several months there?looking at the same rocks. Powell was perhaps more creative?more intuitive?than either King or Hayden, and his breadth of interest in the fields of geology, physiography, ethnology, an

  8. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Eby, Lisa A; Helmy, Olga; Holsinger, Lisa M; Young, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with temperature, wildfire, or other habitat variables. We found that site abandonment probabilities (0.36) were significantly higher than colonization probabilities (0.13), which indicated a reduction in the number of occupied sites. Site abandonment probabilities were greater at low elevations with warm temperatures. Other covariates, such as the presence of wildfire, nonnative brook trout, proximity to areas with many adults, and various stream habitat descriptors, were not associated with changes in probability of occupancy. Higher abandonment probabilities at low elevation for bull trout provide initial evidence validating the predictions made by bioclimatic models that bull trout populations will retreat to higher, cooler thermal refuges as water temperatures increase. The geographic breadth of these declines across the region is unknown but the approach of revisiting historical sites using an occupancy framework provides a useful template for additional assessments.

  9. Evidence of Climate-Induced Range Contractions in Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain Watershed, U.S.A

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Lisa A.; Helmy, Olga; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Young, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with temperature, wildfire, or other habitat variables. We found that site abandonment probabilities (0.36) were significantly higher than colonization probabilities (0.13), which indicated a reduction in the number of occupied sites. Site abandonment probabilities were greater at low elevations with warm temperatures. Other covariates, such as the presence of wildfire, nonnative brook trout, proximity to areas with many adults, and various stream habitat descriptors, were not associated with changes in probability of occupancy. Higher abandonment probabilities at low elevation for bull trout provide initial evidence validating the predictions made by bioclimatic models that bull trout populations will retreat to higher, cooler thermal refuges as water temperatures increase. The geographic breadth of these declines across the region is unknown but the approach of revisiting historical sites using an occupancy framework provides a useful template for additional assessments. PMID:24897341

  10. Preliminary analysis of the role of lake basin morphology on the modern diatom flora in the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starratt, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    As paleolimnologists, we often look at the world through a 5-cm-diameter hole in the bottom of a lake, and although a number of studies have shown that a single core in the deepest part of a lake does not necessarily reflect the entire diatom flora, time and money often limit our ability to collect more than one core from a given site. This preliminary study is part of a multidisciplinary research project to understand Holocene climate variability in alpine regions of the Great Basin, and ultimately, to compare these high elevation records to the better studied pluvial records from adjacent valleys, in this case, the Ruby Valley.

  11. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Appalachian Mountains     View Larger Image Multi-angle views of the Appalachian Mountains, March 6, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  3 ...

  13. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Aerosols over the Appalachian Mountains     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these views of the Appalachian Mountains on March 6, 2000. The image at left is a downward-looking ... location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  2 ...

  14. Ozone levels in the Spanish Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range are above the thresholds for plant protection: analysis at 2262, 1850, and 995 m a.s.l.

    PubMed

    Elvira, S; González-Fernández, I; Alonso, R; Sanz, J; Bermejo-Bermejo, V

    2016-10-01

    The Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range, located at 60 km from Madrid City (Spain), includes high valuable ecosystems following an altitude gradient, some of them protected under the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park. The characteristic Mediterranean climatic conditions and the precursors emitted from Madrid favor a high photochemical production of ozone (O3) in the region. However, very little information is available about the patterns and levels of O3 and other air pollutants in the high elevation areas and their potential effects on vegetation. Ozone levels were monitored at three altitudes (2262, 1850, and 995 m a.s.l.) for at least 3 years within the 2005-2011 period. NO x and SO2 were also recorded at the highest and lowest altitude sites. Despite the inter-annual and seasonal variations detected in the O3 concentrations, the study revealed that SG is exposed to a chronic O3 pollution. The two high elevation sites showed high O3 levels even in winter and at nighttime, having low correlation with local meteorological variables. At the lower elevation site, O3 levels were more related with local meteorological and pollution conditions. Ozone concentrations at the three sites exceeded the thresholds for the protection of human health and vegetation according to the European Air Quality Directive (EU/50/2008) and the thresholds for vegetation protection of the CLRTAP. Ozone should be considered as a stress factor for the health of the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain ecosystems. Furthermore, since O3 levels at foothills differ from concentration in high elevation, monitoring stations in mountain ranges should be incorporated in regional air quality monitoring networks.

  15. Geochemical and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. A.; Colgan, J. P.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Cousens, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oligocene calderas and underlying plutons in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) in western Nevada were tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude Miocene extension and unconformably overlain by 15-13 Ma intermediate and mafic lava flows. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and Ar-Ar and U-Pb dating document 2 brief periods of magmatism resulting in 5 nested calderas and related plutons in sections locally ≥9 km thick. Early magmatism at ~29 Ma included the Deep Canyon caldera in CAM, and in the SSR, pre-caldera rhyolites, ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled Job Canyon caldera (JC, ~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick IXL pluton (~28.5 Ma) that intruded JC and is compositionally similar to the tuff and lava flows. The second period included 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: small-volume tuff of Louderback Mountains (LM, low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.3 Ma); multiple cooling units of tuff of Poco Canyon (PC, high-silica rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; ~25.3 Ma); and ≥2500 km3 of tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (EC, trachydacite to rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; 25.1 Ma) that covers ~1600 km2 and extends east from SSR to the northern Desatoya Mountains. The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granodiorite, ~25.0 Ma; granite, ~24.8 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (~25.2 Ma) and granite (~24.8 Ma) plutons intruded LM, PC and EC calderas. Radiogenic isotopes in all caldera units are similar (Sri~0.7050, ΕNd~0.0), while oxygen isotope compositions are variable (δ18Oquartz=5.7-8.4‰, δ18Ozircon=4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.6-7.6‰, including <6‰ values for JC and lower PC rhyolites. U-Pb zircon dating shows homogeneous age populations and few/no xenocrysts or antecrysts. These data show that (1) thick plutons (>2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring

  16. Microbial ecology of á-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers along a concentration gradient of dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the San Bernadino Mountain Range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, F. L.; Fenn, M. E.; Stein, L. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The fate of atmospherically-deposited nitrogen from industrial pollution is of major concern in the montane ecosystems bordering the South Coast California Air Basin. Nitrogen deposition rates in the more exposed regions of the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) are among the highest in North America often exceeding 40 kg ha-1 year-1 in throughfall deposition of nitrate and ammonium (Fenn and Poth, 1999). Forest ecosystems with elevated N deposition generally exhibit elevated accumulation of soil nitrate, leaching and runoff, elevated emissions of nitrogenous gases, increased nitrification, and decreased litter decomposition rates. The role of nitrifying microbial populations, especially those taxonomically associated with the beta-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOB), will provide insight into nitrogen-cycling in these extremely N-saturated environments. Using 16S ribosomal DNA-based molecular techniques (16S rDNA clone library construction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), we are comparing AOB community diversity at 3 different locations along a natural atmospheric N-deposition concentration gradient in the SBM: from high at Camp Paviaka (CP), medium at Strawberry Peak (SP) to low at Dogwood (DW). As observed for wet N-deposition systems on the east coast, we hypothesized a negative correlation between AOB community diversity, abundance and function with nitrogen loading in the dry N deposition system of SBM. Nitrification potentials determined for the 3 sites along the N-deposition gradient were in the order of CP less than SP less than DW. Preliminary results indicate no correlation between diversity of AOB and increased nitrogen loading. Shannon-Weiner diversity indices calculated for ammonia-oxidizer RFLP group units were 2.22, 2.66 and 1.80 for CP, SP and DW, respectively.

  17. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  18. Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allochthon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; John, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Shoshone and Toiyabe Ranges in north-central Nevada expose numerous areas of mineralized Paleozoic rock, including major Carlin-type gold deposits at Pipeline and Cortez. Paleozoic rocks in these areas were previously interpreted to have undergone negligible postmineralization extension and tilting, but here we present new data that suggest major post-Eocene extension along west-dipping normal faults. Tertiary rocks in the northern Shoshone Range crop out in two W-NW–trending belts that locally overlie and intrude highly deformed Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. Tertiary exposures in the more extensive, northern belt were interpreted as subvertical breccia pipes (intrusions), but new field data indicate that these “pipes” consist of a 35.8 Ma densely welded dacitic ash flow tuff (informally named the tuff of Mount Lewis) interbedded with sandstones and coarse volcaniclastic deposits. Both tuff and sedimentary rocks strike N-S and dip 30° to 70° E; the steeply dipping compaction foliation in the tuffs was interpreted as subvertical flow foliation in breccia pipes. The southern belt along Mill Creek, previously mapped as undivided welded tuff, includes the tuff of Cove mine (34.4 Ma) and unit B of the Bates Mountain Tuff (30.6 Ma). These tuffs dip 30° to 50° east, suggesting that their west-dipping contacts with underlying Paleozoic rocks (previously mapped as depositional) are normal faults. Tertiary rocks in both belts were deposited on Paleozoic basement and none appear to be breccia pipes. We infer that their present east tilt is due to extension on west-dipping normal faults. Some of these faults may be the northern strands of middle Miocene (ca. 16 Ma) faults that cut and tilted the 34.0 Ma Caetano caldera ~40° east in the central Shoshone Range (

  19. From the mountains to the coast and back again: Ancient biogeography in a radiation of short-range endemic harvestmen from California.

    PubMed

    Emata, K N; Hedin, M

    2016-05-01

    The harvestmen genus Calicina is represented by 25 short-range endemic species occurring in the western Sierra Nevada, Transverse and Coast Ranges of California. Our principal aim was to reconstruct the temporal and spatial biogeographic history of this arachnid lineage. We inferred a time-calibrated species tree for 21 of 25 described Calicina species using multiple genes and multilocus coalescent-based methods. This species tree was used as a framework for algorithmic biogeographic and divergence time analyses, and a phylogenetic canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was used to examine the relationship between morphological evolution and environmental variables. Species tree and biogeographic analyses indicate that high-elevation Sierran taxa are early-diverging in Calicina, with subsequent biogeographic "criss-crossing" of lineages from the Sierra Nevada to the Coast Ranges, back to the Sierra Nevada, then back to Coast Ranges. In both the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges, distantly-related parapatric lineages essentially never occur in sympatry. CCA reveals that in both the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada, distant phylogenetic relatives evolve convergent morphologies. Our evidence shows that Calicina is clearly dispersal-limited, with an ancient biogeographic history that provides unique insight into the complex geologic evolution of California since the mid-Paleogene.

  20. Map showing areas with potential for talc deposits in the Gravelly, Greenhorn, and Ruby ranges and the Henrys Lake Mountains of southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Berg, Richard B.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    1998-01-01

    For the last several years, Montana has been the leading talc producing state in the United States (U.S. Geological Survey, 1996). For example, in 1992 Montana supplied about 40 percent of the U.S. mine production of talc (Virta, 1992). All of this production has come from the large deposits of high purity talc in the southwestern part of the state. All Montana talc is currently (1997) extracted from four mines, each within the study area of this map—the open pit operations of the Treasure State, Regal, and Yellowstone mines and the underground operation of the Beaverhead mine (see map numbers 1-4 on list and map to the left). The related mineral chlorite is mined at the Antler mine, located nearby, but outside of the study area in the Highland Mountains. Montana talc has at least two market advantages: (1) some deposits are very large and near surface, allowing economic mining by open pit methods; and (2) the deposits are of high purity and lack tremolite or other amphibole mineral contaminants (such as absestos) that occur in some other talc-rich deposits. Talc from southwest Montana is used in ceramics, paint, paper, plastics, cosmetics, rubber, roofing, flooring, caulking, and agricultural applications. The talc is also used in the processes of recycling paper and plastics. Talc was first discovered in the early 1900's at the present site of the Yellowstone mine (Perry, 1948, p. 9). Modest production began in 1942 from shallow pits and adits, supplying steatite (massive, compact, high-purity) talc that was used to make ceramic insulators. The southwest Montana talc industry grew to become a significant part of the region's economy; this history is described by Perry (1948), Olson (1976), and Berg (1997). Exploration and development are likely to continue for the foreseeable future for several reasons: (1) mines are active in the area at present and an infrastructure for talc processing exists; (2) large changes in domestic and export talc markets are not

  1. An integrated environmental tracer approach to characterizing groundwater circulation in a mountain block

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    [1] The subsurface transfer of water from a mountain block to an adjacent basin (mountain block recharge (MBR)) is a commonly invoked mechanism of recharge to intermountain basins. However, MBR estimates are highly uncertain. We present an approach to characterize bulk fluid circulation in a mountain block and thus MBR that utilizes environmental tracers from the basin aquifer. Noble gas recharge temperatures, groundwater ages, and temperature data combined with heat and fluid flow modeling are used to identify clearly improbable flow regimes in the southeastern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, and adjacent Wasatch Mountains. The range of possible MBR rates is reduced by 70%. Derived MBR rates (5.5-12.6 ?? 104 m3 d-1) are on the same order of magnitude as previous large estimates, indicating that significant MBR to intermountain basins is plausible. However, derived rates are 50-100% of the lowest previous estimate, meaning total recharge is probably less than previously thought. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  3. [Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size of vascular plants in Xiaolong- shan Reserve of Qinling Mountain: a test of Rapoport' s rule].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Gong, Da-Jie; Sun, Cheng-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Li, Wan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size and their underlying mechanisms have long been a key topic in biogeography and biodiversity research. Rapoport's rule stated that the species richness gradually declined with the increasing altitude, while the species ranges became larger. Using altitude-distribution database from Xiaolongshan Reverse, this study explored the altitudinal patterns of vascular plant species richness and species range in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve, and examined the relationships between species richness and their distributional middle points in altitudinal bands for different fauna, taxonomic units and growth forms and tested the Rapoport's rule by using Stevens' method, Pagel's method, mid-point method and cross-species method. The results showed that the species richness of vascular plants except small-range species showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve and the highest proportion of small-range species was found at the lower altitudinal bands and at the higher altitudinal bands. Due to different assemblages and examining methods, the relationships between species distributing range sizes and the altitudes were different. Increasing taxonomic units was easier to support Rapoport's rule, which was related to niche differences that the different taxonomic units occupied. The mean species range size of angiosperms showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude, while those of the gymnosperms and pteridophytes were unclearly regular. The mean species range size of the climbers was wider with the increasing altitude, while that of the shrubs which could adapt to different environmental situations was not sensitive to the change of altitude. Pagel's method was easier to support the Rapoport's rule, and then was Steven's method. On the contrary, due to the mid-domain effect, the results of the test by using the mid-point method showed that the mean species range size varied in a unimodal

  4. An animal location-based habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep and wild horses in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Montana, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wockner, Gary; Singer, Francis J.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this habitat suitability model is to provide a tool that will help managers and researchers better manage bighorn sheep and wild horses in the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BICA) and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (PMWHR). A concern in the management of the Pryor Mountain wild horse population is whether or not the wild horses compete with bighorn sheep for available forage or available space. Two studies have been conducted that have shown no obvious, convincing competition between the two species. A study of diets and habitat-use of both species revealed substantial diet overlap only during some seasons, but there were considerable spatial and habitat separations between wild horses and bighorns during all seasons (Kissell and others, 1996). This empirical data was then used in a modeling exercise that predicted that neither the current (about 160 horses at the time of the analysis) nor larger numbers of wild horses on the area (e.g., about 200 horses) would result in reduced numbers or condition of bighorn sheep (Coughenour 1999). But competition is a very complex biological process to document. Bighorns might have already been spatially avoiding wild horses when these studies were conducted. A second concern for managers is that earlier studies suggest both species are not using many areas of the range that appear to be suitable (Gudorf and others, 1996; Kissell and others, 1996). A primary goal for the management of both species is to increase their numbers for purposes of genetic conservation and viability. The bighorn sheep population declined during the mid-1990’s from a peak of about 211 animals to ~ 100 animals at present. Absolute minimum goals for genetic viability in the bighorn sheep herd (genetic effective population size of N >50) suggest at least 150 animals should be present, while studies of persistence suggest populations of 250+ are e more likely to recover rapidly and persist should the population experience an

  5. [Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Carvalho, Mauren Lopes; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Arraes, Eduardo Fonseca; Gomes, José Orlando

    2012-06-01

    Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio-environmental vulnerability context are highlighted. These involve changes in the current patterns of social, economic and environmental development geared toward ecological sustainability and social justice as pillars of sustainable development.

  6. Geologic map of the Valley Mountain 15’ quadrangle, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Keith A.; Bacheller, John; Fitzgibbon, Todd T.; Powell, Robert E.; Allen, Charlotte M.

    2013-01-01

    The Valley Mountain 15’ quadrangle straddles the Pinto Mountain Fault, which bounds the eastern Transverse Ranges in the south against the Mojave Desert province in the north. The Pinto Mountains, part of the eastern Transverse Ranges in the south part of the quadrangle expose a series of Paleoproterozoic gneisses and granite and the Proterozoic quartzite of Pinto Mountain. Early Triassic quartz monzonite intruded the gneisses and was ductiley deformed prior to voluminous Jurassic intrusion of diorite, granodiorite, quartz monzonite, and granite plutons. The Jurassic rocks include part of the Bullion Mountains Intrusive Suite, which crops out prominently at Valley Mountain and in the Bullion Mountains, as well as in the Pinto Mountains. Jurassic plutons in the southwest part of the quadrangle are deeply denuded from midcrustal emplacement levels in contrast to supracrustal Jurassic limestone and volcanic rocks exposed in the northeast. Dikes inferred to be part of the Jurassic Independence Dike Swarm intrude the Jurassic plutons and Proterozoic rocks. Late Cretaceous intrusion of the Cadiz Valley Batholith in the northeast caused contact metamorphism of adjacent Jurassic plutonic rocks. The Tertiary period saw emplacement of basanitoid basalt at about 23 Ma and deposition of Miocene and (or) Pliocene ridge-capping gravels. An undated east-dipping low-angle normal fault zone in the Pinto Mountains drops hanging-wall rocks eastward and may account for part of the contrast in uplift history across the quadrangle. The eastern Transverse Ranges are commonly interpreted as severely rotated clockwise tectonically in the Neogene relative to the Mojave Desert, but similar orientations of Jurassic dike swarms suggest that any differential rotation between the two provinces is small in this quadrangle. The late Cenozoic Pinto Mountain Fault and other strike-slip faults cut Quaternary deposits in the quadrangle, with two northwest-striking faults cutting Holocene deposits

  7. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  8. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  9. Map showing areas with potential for garnet resources in bedrock and placer in the Blacktail Mountains and the Gravelly, Greenhorn, Ruby, and Snowcrest ranges of southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Berg, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Garnet crystals, some of gem quality, have been sought by rock hounds for many years in the alluvial deposits of the Alder Gulch-Ruby River area. Since 1995, garnet have been extracted from these gravels for industrial products at two separately own placer mines in the region: (1) at Cominco American's "Ruby Garnet" operation at Alder , Montana and (2) at the "Sweetwater Garnet" operation in the Sweetwater Basin of the Ruby Range. The two placer mines excavate different types of garnetiferous deposits, but both produce sized concentrates of almandine garnet derived from similar source rocks. 

  10. A late Frasnian (Late Devonian) radiolarian, sponge spicule, and conodont fauna from the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Roberts Mountains allochthon, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boundy-Sanders, S. Q.; Sandberg, C.A.; Murchey, B.L.; Harris, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Co-occuring conodonts, radiolarians, and sponge spicules from the type locality of the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, indicate that the radiolarian and sponge spicule assemblage described herein correlates with the Late rhenana conodont Zone (late Frasnian). The moderately well preserved radiolarians are the first Frasnian-age fauna described from the Western Hemisphere. They include spumellarians, Ceratoikiscum, and Paleoscenidium, and a radiolarian which we have assigned to a new genus, Durahelenifore Boundy-Sanders and Murchey, with its type species, Durahelenifore robustum Boundy-Sanders and Murchey. Sponge spicules include umbellate microscleres of the Subclass Amphidiscophora, Order Hemidiscosa, previously documented only in Pennsylvanian and younger rocks.

  11. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  12. Geologic map of the Mohave Mountains area, Mohave County, western Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; Nielson, J.E.; Wilshire, W.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Goodge, J.W.; Reneau, S.L.; John, Barbara E.; Hansen, V.L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The Mohave Mountains area surrounds Lake Havasu City, Arizona, in the Basin and Range physiographic province. The Mohave Mountains and the Aubrey Hills form two northwest-trending ranges adjacent to Lake Havasu (elevation 132 m; 448 ft) on the Colorado River. The low Buck Mountains lie northeast of the Mohave Mountains in the alluviated valley of Dutch Flat. Lowlands at Standard Wash separate the Mohave Mountains from the Bill Williams Mountains to the southeast. The highest point in the area is Crossman Peak in the Mohave Mountains, at an elevation of 1519 m (5148 ft). Arizona Highway 95 is now rerouted in the northwestern part of the map area from its position portrayed on the base map; it now also passes through the southern edge of the map area. Geologic mapping was begun in 1980 as part of a program to assess the mineral resource potential of Federal lands under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (Light and others, 1983). Mapping responsibilities were as follows: Proterozoic and Mesozoic rocks, K.A. Howard; dikes, J.K. Nakata; Miocene section, J.E. Nielson; and surficial deposits, H.G. Wilshire. Earlier geologic mapping includes reconnaissance mapping by Wilson and Moore (1959). The present series of investigations has resulted in reports on the crystalline rocks and structure (Howard and others, 1982a), dikes (Nakata, 1982), Tertiary stratigraphy (Pike and Hansen, 1982; Nielson, 1986; Nielson and Beratan, 1990), surficial deposits (Wilshire and Reneau, 1992), tectonics (Howard and John, 1987; Beratan and others, 1990), geophysics (Simpson and others, 1986), mineralization (Light and McDonnell, 1983; Light and others, 1983), field guides (Nielson, 1986; Howard and others, 1987), and geochronology (Nakata and others, 1990; Foster and others, 1990).

  13. Cenomanian-Turonian organic facies in the western Mediterranean and along the adjacent Atlantic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnt, W.; Herbin, J.P.; Thurow, J.; Wiedmann, J.

    1988-08-01

    Pre-Cenomanian sediments of the western Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic margin are characterized by low total organic content (TOC) with an important terrestrial component. During the Cenomanian, TOC increased and the marine component became dominant, culminating around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary with TOC up to 40%. After the Turonian, organic-rich sediments progressively disappeared and were replaced by more oxygenated sediments. Study methods include considering data from outcrops, DSDP/ODP sites, or petroleum wells. Detailed data from onshore locations allowed the development of high-resolution stratigraphy, analysis of depositional environment, and calculation of sedimentation rates. Analysis of these data indicates Cenoamnian-Turonian organic-rich sediments can be observed in a wide range of bathymetric settings. They are widespread in the western Mediterranean and Atlantic and have been especially studied in Italy (Apennines, southern Alps), Tunisia (Bahloul), Algeria, Morocco (Rif Mountains, Atlas Mountains, Tarfaya), Gibraltar arch, Spain (Betics, Bay of Biscay, Galicia margin), Senegal (Cape Verde basin, Casamance), and Nigeria (Benue, Calabar flank).

  14. Bedrock geologic map of the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Detailed bedrock geologic maps form an integral part of the site characterization program by providing the fundamental framework for research into the geologic hazards and hydrologic behavior of the mountain. This bedrock geologic map provides the geologic framework and structural setting for the area in and adjacent to the site of the potential repository. The study area comprises the northern and central parts of Yucca Mountain, located on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex, which was the source for many of the volcanic units in the area. The Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex is part of the Miocene southwestern Nevada volcanic field, which is within the Walker Lane belt. This tectonic belt is a northwest-striking megastructure lying between the more active Inyo-Mono and Basin-and-Range subsections o f the southwestern Great Basin.

  15. Terrestrial cosmogenic surface exposure dating of glacial and associated landforms in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and along the northeastern flank of the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Briggs, Richard W.; Caffee, Marc W.; Ryerson, F. J.; Finkel, Robert C.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2016-09-01

    Deposits near Lamoille in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and at Woodfords on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada each record two distinct glacial advances. We compare independent assessments of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages for glacial deposits that we have determined to those obtained by others at the two sites. At each site, TCN ages of boulders on moraines of the younger advance are between 15 and 30 ka and may be associated with marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2. At Woodfords, TCN ages of boulders on the moraine of the older advance are younger than ~ 60 ka and possibly formed during MIS 4, whereas boulders on the correlative outwash surface show ages approaching 140 ka (~ MIS 6). The TCN ages of boulders on older glacial moraine at Woodfords thus appear to severely underestimate the true age of the glacial advance responsible for the deposit. The same is possibly true at Lamoille where clasts sampled from the moraine of the oldest advance have ages ranging between 20 and 40 ka with a single outlier age of ~ 80 ka. The underestimations are attributed to the degradation and denudation of older moraine crests. Noting that boulder ages on the older advances at each site overlap significantly with MIS 2. We speculate that erosion of the older moraines has been episodic, with a pulse of denudation accompanying the inception of MIS 2 glaciation.

  16. [Modeling of species distribution using topography and remote sensing data, with vascular plants of the Tukuringra Range low mountain belt (Zeya state Nature Reserve, Amur Region) as a case study].

    PubMed

    Dudov, S V

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of maximum entropy method embedded in MaxEnt software, the cartographic models are designed for spatial distribution of 63 species of vascular plants inhabiting low mountain belt of the Tukuringra Range. Initial data for modeling were actual points of a species occurrence, data on remote sensing (multispectral space snapshots by Landsat), and a digital topographic model. It is found out that the structure of factors contributing to the model is related to species ecological amplitude. The distribution of stenotopic species is determined, mainly, by the topography, which thermal and humidity conditions of habitats are associated with. To the models for eurytopic species, variables formed on the basis of remote sensing contribute significantly, those variables encompassing the parameters of the soil-vegetable cover. In course of the obtained models analyzing, three principal groups of species are revealed that have similar distribution pattern. Species of the first group are restricted in their distribution by the slopes of the. River Zeya and River Giluy gorges. Species of the second group are associated with the southern macroslope of the range and with southern slopes of large rivers' valleys. The third group incorporates those species that are distributed over the whole territory under study.

  17. Seismic attenuation variations at range fronts in central Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarker, Golam Moinuddin

    Seismic attenuation ({cal Q}sp{-1})changes abruptly between stable Eurasian cratons and mountain belts associated with the Alpine-Himalayan collision. Digital seismograms from the seismic networks in the Greater Caucasus, Kopet Dagh, and Kyrgyz Tien Shan acquired for paths ≤4sp° long indicate strong effects of attenuation variations. These waveforms are used to quantify attenuation parameters by fitting a source and propagation model to body wave amplitude spectra. The fitting procedure determines the attenuation parameters (tsp *), simultaneously with source parameters at frequencies 1-15 Hz. The tsp* measurements are then inverted for spatial variations of {cal Q}sp{-1}, with parameterizations of varying complexity. Inversions that allow {cal Q}sp{-1} to vary laterally show strong wave propagation variations that correlate with fine-scale tectonic features. In Caucasus, the lateral variations in {cal Q}sp{-1} reveal a seismic boundary between high-{cal Q}sp{-1} and low-{cal Q}sp{-1} that closely follows the topographic front at the northern foothills of the mountains. Geologically, the active deformation front that lies on the south side of the mountains represents this boundary. By contrast, the boundary between high-{cal Q}sp{-1} and low-{cal Q}sp{-1} lies within the mountain range of Kyrgyz Tien Shan, and does not follow the topographic range front. The location instead follows a Paleozoic suture that marks the transition between early and late Paleozoic tectonic terranes. Inversion results along with path-averaged {cal Q} values show that all mountain paths are 2-3 times more attenuating than the adjacent cratons. In these estimates, the mountain paths exhibit frequency-independent {cal Q}sb{s} values between 700 and 900, compared to craton {cal Q}sb{s} between 2000 and 2200, for all range fronts. For all paths, {cal Q}sb{s} is roughly equal to {cal Q}sb{p}. Additional {cal Q}sb{coda} measurements are similar to body wave {cal Q}sb{s}. Frequency dependence

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  19. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, E.

    1987-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains, a major continental range, extend approximately 3,000 kilometers, vary from less than 50 to more than 400 kilometers wide, and have elevations of up to 4,500 meters. Earth scientists have generally defined the stratigraphy of the range and recognize that uplift of the region occurred after the Jurassic period but still know very little about the processes that effected uplift. Unlike other major mountain chains, the Transantarctic Mountains show no evidence of thrusting, folding, regional metamorphism, and andesitic volcanism associated with their uplift. The objectives during austral summer 1987-1988 are to map the uplift geometry of the Transantarctic Mountains using erosion surfaces (pre-Devonian Kukir peneplain) and widespread terrace levels as datum planes and to determine the uplift rates for the mountain range using fission-track dating of apatites. Presently, fission-track dating provides only quantitative data on the initiation time, amount, and rate of uplift. Through research, the authors hopes to extend data from Victoria Land through 1,600 kilometers of the Transantarctic Mountains. This study also has implications for the glacial history of Antarctica, because the uplift occurred during the inception, growth, and subsequent fluctuations of the east and west antarctic ice sheets. It will also add to our understanding of the nature of the East-West Antarctic boundary and to the knowledge of the sedimentation history in the Ross embayment and the basins beneath polar plateau.

  20. 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb Ages and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. A.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Colgan, J. P.; Cousens, B.

    2014-12-01

    Calderas in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) were formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flareup and subsequently tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude extension. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and 40Ar/39Ar and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating document 2 periods of magmatism resulting in 4 nested calderas and related granitoid plutons in sections up to 10 km thick. The first period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes (30(?) Ma), ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled the Job Canyon caldera (~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick, geochemically similar IXL pluton (28.9±0.4 Ma) that intruded the Job Canyon caldera. The second period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes and dikes (~25.5 Ma) and 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: tuff of the Louderback Mountains (low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.2 Ma); tuff of Poco Canyon (high-silica rhyolite; up to 4.3 km thick; 25.27±0.05 Ma); and ≥2000 km3 tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (trachydacite to rhyolite; up to 4.5 km thick; 25.12±0.01 Ma). The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granite, 24.8±0.4 Ma; granodiorite, 25.0±0.2 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (25.2±0.2 Ma) and granite (24.8±0.3 Ma) plutons intruded the Poco Canyon and Elevenmile Canyon calderas. Early (30 Ma) rhyolites have the least radiogenic compositions (Sri~0.7040), whereas other units are relatively homogeneous (Sri~0.7050, ENd~0.0). Oxygen isotope compositions for SSR and CAM calderas are highly variable (d18Oquartz=5.6-8.2‰, d18Osanidine=5.5-7.0‰, d18Ozircon= 4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.7-7.9‰. U-Pb dating of zircons indicates homogeneous age populations and few/no xenocrysts and antecrysts. These data show that (1) thick plutons (>2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring divergent magmatic sources in relatively

  1. Timing of Pleistocene glacial oscillations recorded in the Cantabrian Mountains (North Iberia): correlation of glacial and periglacial sequences from both sides of the range using a multiple-dating method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimón; Bourlès, Didier

    2015-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a coastal mountain range up to 2648 m altitude located at 43oN latitude and directly influenced by the North Atlantic climate oscillations. Although nowadays it is fully deglaciatied, glacial sediments and landforms are clearly preserved elsewhere above 1600 m. Particularly, glacial evidence in the central Cantabrian Mountains suggests the formation of an icefield in the headwaters of the Porma and Esla catchments drained by glaciers up to 1-6 km in length in the northern slope and 19 km-long in the southern slope, with their fronts at minimum altitudes of 900 and 1150 m asl respectively (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2014). Numerical ages obtained from the base of the Brañagallones ice-dammed deposit and one of the lateral moraines that are damming this deposit suggest that the local glacial maximum was prior to ca 33.5 cal ka BP in the Monasterio Valley (see data compiled in Rodriguez-Rodríguez et al., in press). Currently, our research is focused on developing a full chronology of glacial oscillations in both sides of the range and investigating their paleoclimate significance and relationship with glacial asymmetry through the combined use of surface exposure, OSL and radiocarbon dating methods. In this work, we present 47 10Be surface exposure ages obtained from boulders in moraines, glacial erratic boulders and rock glaciers in the Monasterio and Porma valleys. The glacial record of these valleys was chosen because of: (i) its good preservation state; (ii) the occurrence of a quartz-rich sandstone formation; and (iii) the availability of previous 14C and OSL numerical ages. Sampling sites were selected considering the relative age of glacial stages to cover as complete as possible the history of Pleistocene glaciations in the studied area, from the glacial maximum stage to the prevalence of periglacial conditions. Preliminary results suggest the occurrence of several glacial advances of similar extent at ca 150 - 50 ka followed

  2. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  3. Studying local sources in the radio range based on the partial solar eclipse of January 4, 2011, at the Mountain Astronomical Station, Central Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shramko, A. D.; Guseva, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Data are presented on a partial solar eclipse, which occurred on January 4, 2011, and was observed with RT-3 (λ = 4.9 cm) and RT-2 (λ = 3.2 cm) radio telescopes at the Mountain Astronomical Station, Central Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences (MAS CAO RAS). The radioemission flux in two channels was registered using digital methods with a time resolution of 0.5 s. Comparisons were performed with observations in the optical, UV, and X-ray ranges. The following local sources of increased radioemission on the solar disk have been identified: sunspot groups 1 (NOAA 1142) and 126 (NOAA 1141), unipolar sunspot 127 (NOAA 1140), facula areas, and polar and midlatitude coronal holes. It has been indicated that the brightness of a unipolar sunspot (for λ = 4.9 cm, I rel = 29.5; for λ = 3.2 cm, I rel = 10.1) and two sunspot groups (for λ = 4.9 cm, I rel = 10.1 and 14.2; for λ = 3.2 cm, I rel = 5.1 and 6.2) is maximal. The radioemission flux of all found coronal holes is decreased, and the decrease is more contrasting in the 4.9-cm range as compared to such a decrease in the 3.2-cm range. Radio maps of the Sun and changes in the radioemission flux of undisturbed solar regions from the center to the limb for λ = 4.9 and 3.2 cm have been constructed based on the eclipse data.

  4. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: the importance of topography and geographical location in supporting higher biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason's richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM's area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM's area was in the 10°-20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM.

  5. The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, Macalpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1999-01-01

    number of ordinary chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

  6. The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, MacAlpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    2000-01-01

    chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized in Table 1. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

  7. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  8. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  9. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  10. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  11. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  12. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  13. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  14. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  15. Mountain Goats (Oreamnos americanum) at the livestock/wildlife interface: A susceptible species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) were first introduced into the East Humboldt and Ruby Mountains of Elko County, Nevada in the 1960’s. These contiguous mountain ranges are also home to introduced Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and native mule deer and are surrounded by both public and private rang...

  16. Metal content of biopsies adjacent to dental cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Garhammer, Pauline; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T

    2003-06-01

    Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.

  17. Fault-related fluid flow, Beech Mountain thrust sheet, Blue Ridge Province, Tennessee-North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, W.K.; Mora, C.I. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The latest proterozoic Beech Granite is contained within the Beech Mountain thrust sheet (BMTS), part of a middle-late Paleozoic thrust complex located between Mountain City and Grandfather Mountain windows in the western Blue Ridge of TN-NC. At the base of the BMTS, Beech Granite is juxtaposed against lower Paleozoic carbonate and elastics of the Rome Fm. along the Stone Mountain thrust on the southeaster margin of the Mountain City window. At the top of the BMTS, Beech Granite occurs adjacent to Precambrian mafic rocks of the Pumpkin Patch thrust sheet (PPTS). The Beech Granite is foliated throughout the BMTS with mylonitization and localized cataclasis occurring within thrust zones along the upper and lower margins of the BMTS. Although the degree of mylonitization and cataclasis increases towards the thrusts, blocks of relatively undeformed granite also occur within these fault zones. Mylonites and thrusts are recognized as conduits for fluid movement, but the origin of the fluids and magnitude and effects of fluid migration are not well constrained. This study was undertaken to characterize fluid-rock interaction within the Beech Granite and BMTS. Extensive mobility of some elements/compounds within the thrust zones, and the isotopic and mineralogical differences between the thrust zones and interior of the BMTS indicate that fluid flow was focused within the thrust zones. The wide range of elevated temperatures (400--710 C) indicated by qz-fsp fractionations suggest isotopic disequilibrium. Using a more likely temperature range of 300--400 C for Alleghanian deformation, calculated fluid compositions indicate interactions with a mixture of meteoric-hydrothermal and metamorphic water with delta O-18 = 2.6--7.5[per thousand] for the upper thrust zone and 1.3 to 6.2[per thousand] for the lower thrust zone. These ranges are similar to isotopic data reported for other Blue Ridge thrusts and may represent later periods of meteoric water influx.

  18. Origin of tonalites from the Boil Mountain ophiolitic complex, west-central Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, J.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    The Boil Mountain ophiolitic complex, west-central Maine, marks the suture between the Boundary Mountain and Gander terranes that became amalgamated in the late Cambrian during a pre-Taconic collisional event known as the Penobscottian orogeny. This even formed a composite terrane that is believed to have collided with the proto-North American margin during the Ordovician Taconic orogeny. The ophiolite is unusual in that there is no associated tectonized ultramafic section; there is a lack of a sheeted dike sequence; and an intrusive tonalite layer comprises a significant volume of the complex. Preliminary major and trace element geochemical analysis of the tonalites indicates that this unit is derived by partial melting of the associated mafic volcanics. This melting may have been induced by stopping water-rich hydrothermally altered basalts into subcrustal magma chambers. The association of arc-like volcanics and plutonics of the Boil Mountain ophiolite with the adjacent Hurricane melange suggests that the Boil Mountain may be a fragment of a forearc supra-subduction zone complex. Similar interpretations have been made recently for the Late Proterozoic Bou Azzer ophiolite in Morocco and the Coast Range ophiolite.

  19. [Population and distribution of western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) at Ailao Mountain, Xinping, Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Song; Yang, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Li, Wei

    2011-12-01

    The western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) is mainly distributed in Yunnan, China. Ailao Mountain is located in central Yunnan and divided into three prefectures and six counties. This mountain forms the principle distribution range for western black crested gibbon; however, there are no published data on the gibbon population inhabiting the Xinping administrative. Take the interview results conducted in 2007 and 2009 with local people as the reference, this study conducted an extensive field survey covering all possible habitats from November 2009 to January 2010 using call surveys. Among the one hundred and twenty-four gibbon groups which were confirmed across the Ailao Mountain, the largest known population of western black crested gibbons yet, 85 groups inhabit the national nature reserve and adjacent national forest, 30 groups inhabit the provincial nature reserve and nine groups inhabit the collective forest located outside the reserve and national forest. We found that the western black crested gibbons here have a patchy distribution pattern and occur at higher densities in certain areas. Moreover, the population distribution density and elevation gradient distribution decline from north to south. The results also demonstrated the importance of Ailao Mountain in the western black crested gibbon protection.

  20. Mountains: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of…

  1. Mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge, which generally occurs along the margins of alluvial basins, can be a large part of total recharge to the aquifer system in such basins. Mountain-front recharge occurs as the result of infiltration of flow from streams that have headwaters in the mountainous areas adjacent to alluvial basins and ground- water flow from the aquifers in the mountainous areas to the aquifer in the alluvial basin. This report presents estimates of mountain-front recharge to the basin-fill aquifer along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. The basin is a structural feature that contains a large thickness of basin-fill deposits, which compose the main aquifer in the basin. The basin is bounded along the eastern side by mountains composed of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. Precipitation is much larger in the mountains than in the basin; many stream channels debouch from the mountainous area to the basin. Chloride-balance and water-yield regression methods were used to estimate mountain-front recharge. The chloride-balance method was used to calculate a chloride balance in watersheds in the mountainous areas along the eastern side of the basin (subareas). The source of chloride to these watersheds is bulk precipitation (wet and dry deposition). Chloride leaves these watersheds as mountain-front recharge. The water-yield regression method was used to determine the streamflow from the mountainous watersheds at the mountain front. This streamflow was assumed to be equal to mountain-front recharge because most of this streamflow infiltrates and recharges the basin-fill aquifer. Total mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin was estimated to be about 11,000 acre- feet per year using the chloride-balance method and about 36,000 and 38,000 acre-feet per year using two water-yield regression equations. There was a large range in the recharge estimates in a

  2. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  3. The oldest known Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F.C.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines >1600 yr old, including four that are >2100 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the S Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 BC. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr. -from Authors

  4. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p < 0.05), and the maximal torque in the fusion model was about threefold (p < 0.05) that in the control model. And in axial rotation, the ROM of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was increased by about 100 % (p < 0.001), and the maximal torque was about sixfold (p < 0.01) that in the control model. The ROM of adjacent segments was significantly increased after pedicle screw fixation as assessed by biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, but not in those regulated by torque. We present the results of biomechanical tests regulated by torque and angular displacement and show that the maximum torque of the fusion model was larger than that of the control model in the biomechanical test regulated by an angular displacement load, suggesting that mechanical stress on the segments adjacent to the fused segment is large. We think that ASD arises after spinal fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically

  5. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Gerlach, Terrance M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Evans, William C.; Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Rogie, John D.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, geologists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  6. Plight of the Cabinet Mountains grizzlies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mineral and petroleum exploration and development and logging on grizzly bears in the Cabinet Mountains region of Montana is discussed. The author points out that such activities might cut the bears off from other bear populations in the Glacier National park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness. It is maintained, that in order for the bears to survive, they must range beyond the Cabinet Mountains and that extensive human activities in the area would damage their range. (JMT)

  7. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  8. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  11. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  13. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  14. Influence of mountains on Arctic tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring of 2008 using a differential absorption lidar. The observations were carried out at Eureka Weather Station, which is located between various mountain ranges. Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the midtroposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies from spring of 2008 are described.

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of ...

  16. Lesson 2: Sacred Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which the students are divided into four Mountain Study Teams in order to examine a sacred mountain. Explains that the students in each group assume a particular role, such as an historian or scientist. Provides a profile on the four mountains and a definition of the seven student roles. (CMK)

  17. Debris Flows and Record Floods from Extreme Mesoscale Convective Thunderstorms over the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Shoemaker, Craig; Webb, Robert H.; Schaffner, Mike; Griffiths, Peter G.; Pytlak, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Ample geologic evidence indicates early Holocene and Pleistocene debris flows from the south side of the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona, but few records document historical events. On July 31, 2006, an unusual set of atmospheric conditions aligned to produce record floods and an unprecedented number of debris flows in the Santa Catalinas. During the week prior to the event, an upper-level area of low pressure centered near Albuquerque, New Mexico generated widespread heavy rainfall in southern Arizona. After midnight on July 31, a strong complex of thunderstorms developed over central Arizona in a deformation zone that formed on the back side of the upper-level low. High atmospheric moisture (2.00' of precipitable water) coupled with cooling aloft spawned a mesoscale thunderstorm complex that moved southeast into the Tucson basin. A 15-20 knot low-level southwesterly wind developed with a significant upslope component over the south face of the Santa Catalina Mountains advecting moist and unstable air into the merging storms. National Weather Service radar indicated that a swath of 3-6' of rainfall occurred over the lower and middle elevations of the southern Santa Catalina Mountains. This intense rain falling on saturated soil triggered over 250 hillslope failures and debris flows throughout the mountain range. Sabino Canyon, a heavily used recreation area administered by the U.S. Forest Service, was the epicenter of mass wasting, where at least 18 debris flows removed structures, destroyed the roadway in multiple locations, and closed public access for months. The debris flows were followed by streamflow floods which eclipsed the record discharge in the 75-year gaging record of Sabino Creek. In five canyons adjacent to Sabino Canyon, debris flows approached or excited the mountain front, compromising floow conveyance structures and flooding some homes.

  18. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  19. PINE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canney, Frank C.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic study and geochemical survey were made of the Pine Mountain Wilderness in Arizona. Only slight traces of mineralization of no apparent significance were found and the results of the geochemical survey were negative. The presence of important near-surface mineral deposits in the area is considered unlikely. No evidence of nonmetallic or energy resources was identified during the course of this study. Ore deposits, if present, are probably of the massive sulfide type, and buried deeply beneath the ground surface, beyond the range of the various geochemical and geophysical techniques used in routine exploration. Some of the newer geophysical methods might possibly be capable of detecting such hidden ore bodies if not buried too deeply.

  20. Geology of the Yucca Mountain site area, southwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, W.R.; Whitney, J.W.; Buesch, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Pleistocene and Holocene times; these paleoseismic studies form the basis for evaluating the potential for future earthquakes and fault displacements. Thermoluminescence and U-series analyses were used to date the surficial materials involved in the Quaternary faulting events. The rate of erosional downcutting of bedrock on the ridge crests and hillslopes of Yucca Mountain, being of particular concern with respect to the potential for breaching of the proposed underground storage facility, was studied by using rock varnish cation-ratio and 10Be and 36Cl cosmogenic dating methods to determine the length of time bedrock outcrops and hillslope boulder deposits were exposed to cosmic rays, which then served as a basis for calculating long-term erosion rates. The results indicate rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 cm/k.y., which represent the maximum downcutting along the summit of Yucca Mountain under all climatic conditions that existed there during most of Quaternary time. Associated studies include the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in Fortymile Wash, the major drainage course in the area, which record a complex history of four to five cut-and-fill cycles within the channel during middle to late Quaternary time. The last 2-4 m of incision probably occurred during the last pluvial climatic period, 22-18 ka, followed by aggradation to the present time. Major faults at Yucca Mountain-from east to west, the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, Stagecoach Road, Solitario Canyon, Fatigue Wash, Windy Wash, and Northern and Southern Crater Flat Faults-trend predominantly north, are spaced 1-5 km apart, have bedrock displacements ranging from 125 m to as much as 500 m, and exhibit Quaternary movements of several centimeters to a few meters. Displacements are predominantly down to the west, and bedrock/alluvium contacts commonly are marked by fault-line scarps. The predominant northerly fault trend changes to a more northeasterly trend in adjacent areas south

  1. Ungulate herbivory on alpine willow in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Schoenecker, K.A.; Amburg, L.K.V.

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the Rocky Mountains, elk (Cervus elaphus) migrate from low-elevation mountain valleys during spring to high-elevation subalpine and alpine areas for the summer. Research has focused on the impacts of elk herbivory on winter-range plant communities, particularly on woody species such as willow and aspen; however, little information is available on the effects of elk herbivory on alpine willows. In the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south central Colorado, select alpine areas appear to receive high levels of summer elk herbivory, while other areas are nearly unbrowsed. In 2005 and 2008, we measured willow height, cover, and utilization on sites that appeared to be used heavily by elk, as well as on sites that appeared to be used lightly, to determine differences between these communities over time. We found less willow cover and shorter willows at sites that received higher levels of browsing compared to those that had lower levels of browsing. Human recreational use was greater at lightly browsed sites than at highly browsed sites. From 2005 to 2008, willow utilization declined, and willow cover and height increased at sites with heavy browsing, likely owing to ownership change of adjacent valley land which led to (1) removal of grazing competition from, cattle at valley locations and (2) increased human use in alpine areas, which displaced elk. We discuss the implications of increased human use and climate change on elk use of these alpine habitats. ?? 2011.

  2. Mountain Permafrost in the Yukon Territory, Canada: Mapping and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkowicz, A. G.; Bonnaventure, P.; Schultz, E.; Etzelmuller, B.

    2006-12-01

    The distribution and characteristics of mountain permafrost in North America are poorly known compared to lowland permafrost, and predictions of climatic change impacts are therefore subject to a higher degree of uncertainty. Recent DC resistivity soundings in association with borehole temperature information in the Yukon Territory, show the wide range of permafrost conditions that can exist at sites separated by short distances. To provide baseline information for future modelling, efforts are underway to produce a detailed map of permafrost probability in the mountains of the southern half of the Yukon Territory (60-65°N), an area greater than 200 x 103km2. The methodology is based on the Basal Temperature of Snow (BTS) technique, first developed in the European Alps. Ground surface temperatures measured at the base of snow > 80 cm thick in late winter are an indicator of permafrost presence or absence. We have used this method successfully in three study areas of about 200 km2: first, Wolf Creek basin near Whitehorse (Lewkowicz and Ednie, 2004) and now the western side of the Ruby Range adjacent to Kluane Lake, and the Haines Summit area in northwestern British Columbia. In each area, (1) we installed miniature temperature loggers at the ground surface and in the air to check on the timing of the BTS measurements; (2) we measured BTS values in the elevation zone across which permafrost was expected to become widespread; (3) we modelled the BTS spatial field using elevation (from a 30 m DEM) and potential incoming solar radiation (PISR) as the independent variables; and (4) we used logistic regression to compare the modelled BTS values with pit observations made in late-summer of the presence or absence of frozen ground. Both elevation and PISR were significant in the Wolf Creek and Ruby Range sites which have relatively continental climates and fall within the Upper Yukon-Stikine Basin climatic region (Wahl et al., 1987). For the Haines Summit area, however

  3. WILD CATTLE MOUNTAIN AND HEART LAKE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Denton, David K.

    1984-01-01

    The results of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas in California indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or fossil fuel resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and noncompetitive geothermal lease applications have been filed on much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park. Geochemical and geologic data indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Growler and Morgan Hot Springs just southwest of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, the entire Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of the Heart Lake Roadless Area have a substantiated geothermal resource potential; the rest of the Heart Lake Roadless Area has a probable geothermal resource potential.

  4. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m−2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest. PMID:28186151

  5. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m‑2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest.

  6. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  7. Surgical treatment of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xia, Tian; Dong, Shuanghai; Zhao, Qinghua; Tian, Jiwei

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the clinical and radiographic characteristics of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability and describes the outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients (14 male, seven female; mean age=34 years) with complex axis fractures and adjacent segment instability who were treated between August 2003 and June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment selection was based on fracture type and stability of the upper cervical segments. All patients were immobilized with a hard collar for three months after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (range=6-36 months). No intraoperative surgery-related complications were observed and fusion was achieved in all patients. The outcome was excellent for 17 patients, good for two patients, fair for one patient, and poor for one patient. The upper cervical segments that can become unstable due to complex axis fractures include the atlantoaxial and C2-3 joints. Recommended surgical treatments produce good results.

  8. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  9. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Volcanism and uplift in the northern Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, Jordan H.; Adams, Aubreya N.; Hansen, Samantha E.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hackworth, Lauren; Park, Yongcheol

    2016-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range on Earth, and while a variety of uplift mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the TAMs is still a matter of great debate. Most previous seismic investigations of the TAMs have focused on a central portion of the mountain range, near Ross Island, providing little along-strike constraint on the upper mantle structure, which is needed to better assess competing uplift models. Using data recorded by the recently deployed Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, as well as data from the Transantarctic Mountains Seismic Experiment and from five stations operated by the Korea Polar Research Institute, we investigate the upper mantle structure beneath a previously unexplored portion of the mountain range. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are calculated using a two-plane wave approximation and are inverted for shear wave velocity structure. Our model shows a low velocity zone (LVZ; ∼4.24 km s-1) at ∼160 km depth offshore and adjacent to Mt. Melbourne. This LVZ extends inland and vertically upwards, with more lateral coverage above ∼100 km depth beneath the northern TAMs and Victoria Land. A prominent LVZ (∼4.16-4.24 km s-1) also exists at ∼150 km depth beneath Ross Island, which agrees with previous results in the TAMs near the McMurdo Dry Valleys, and relatively slow velocities (∼4.24-4.32 km s-1) along the Terror Rift connect the low velocity anomalies. We propose that the LVZs reflect rift-related decompression melting and provide thermally buoyant support for the TAMs uplift, consistent with proposed flexural models. We also suggest that heating, and hence uplift, along the mountain front is not uniform and that the shallower LVZ beneath northern Victoria Land provides greater thermal support, leading to higher bedrock topography in the northern TAMs. Young (0-15 Ma) volcanic rocks associated with the Hallett and the Erebus Volcanic Provinces are situated directly

  10. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides along the plain-mountain transect in central China: Regional source vs. long-range transport and air-soil exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengkai; Xing, Xinli; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Huang, Huanfang; Lima, Annamaria; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed to measure spatiality and seasonality of atmospheric OCPs in Jianghan Plain (JHP) and Western Hubei Mountain (WHM), to make a preliminary explorative study of the source-sink relationship of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their association with the monsoon. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the JHP were generally higher than those in the WHM. Significantly high levels of DDTs and Endosulfan were found in the spring and summer, HCB was found in autumn and winter, and HCHs displayed uniform distributions. Compared with the levels of 2005, a significant decrease of atmospheric HCHs, DDTs and HCB was observed, whereas an increase in Endosulfan was observed. The air-soil equilibrium status of OCPs suggested that Dajiuhu (DJH) soils are likely to be a sink for OCPs, and JHP soils are acting as the emitter, contaminating the atmosphere at certain monitoring stations. Backward air trajectory analysis demonstrated that the seasonal fluctuation of atmospheric DDTs, HCB and Endosulfan at the DJH site were closely associated with the variations of the East Asian monsoon.

  11. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-01-01

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent. PMID:27353861

  12. Satellite Spots Turbulence Producing Mountain Waves in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Robert Roy

    2002-01-01

    When masses of air flow over massive mountains, invisible waves often roil high into the stratosphere, affecting weather and mixing the chemicals that contribute to ozone depletion. The waves also create turbulence that can be a danger to high-altitude research missions by NASA's lightweight ER-2 aircraft, as well as shuttle flights upon reentry. In Friday's issue of the journal Science, researchers report for the first time a technique that allows them to see temperature signatures from these invisible mountain waves. The method, involving high-resolution, satellite-based measurement of adjacent pockets of the atmosphere, is expected to aid in spotting turbulence and, one day, improve weather forecasts.

  13. MIDDLE MOUNTAIN-TOBACCO ROOT ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Cather, Eric E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the northern part of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana determined that the area included in or enclosed by the Middle Mountain-Tobacco Root Roadless Area contains serveral areas of probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineralized areas are located in or adjacent to intrusive rocks of Late Cretaceous age. Mineral resources are probably of three types: disseminated and stockwork copper and molybdenum in porphyry-type deposits; gold-silver-quartz veins; and gold-bearing silicified zones. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  14. Contrasting rainfall generated debris flows from adjacent watersheds at Forest Falls, southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Douglas M.; Alvarez, Rachel M.; Ruppert, Kelly R.; Goforth, Brett

    2008-04-01

    Debris flows are widespread and common in many steeply sloping areas of southern California. The San Bernardino Mountains community of Forest Falls is probably subject to the most frequently documented debris flows in southern California. Debris flows at Forest Falls are generated during short-duration high-intensity rains that mobilize surface material. Except for debris flows on two consecutive days in November 1965, all the documented historic debris flows have occurred during high-intensity summer rainfall, locally referred to as 'monsoon' or 'cloudburst' rains. Velocities of the moving debris range from about 5 km/h to about 90 km/h. Velocity of a moving flow appears to be essentially a function of the water content of the flow. Low velocity debris flows are characterized by steep snouts that, when stopped, have only small amounts of water draining from the flow. In marked contrast are high-velocity debris flows whose deposits more resemble fluvial deposits. In the Forest Falls area two adjacent drainage basins, Snow Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, have considerably different histories of debris flows. Snow Creek basin, with an area about three times as large as Rattlesnake Creek basin, has a well developed debris flow channel with broad levees. Most of the debris flows in Snow Creek have greater water content and attain higher velocities than those of Rattlesnake Creek. Most debris flows are in relative equilibrium with the geometry of the channel morphology. Exceptionally high-velocity flows, however, overshoot the channel walls at particularly tight channel curves. After overshooting the channel, the flows degrade the adjacent levee surface and remove trees and structures in the immediate path, before spreading out with decreasing velocity. As the velocity decreases the clasts in the debris flows pulverize the up-slope side of the trees and often imbed clasts in them. Debris flows in Rattlesnake Creek are relatively slow moving and commonly stop in the channel

  15. Contrasting rainfall generated debris flows from adjacent watersheds at Forest Falls, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Alvarez, R.M.; Ruppert, K.R.; Goforth, B.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows are widespread and common in many steeply sloping areas of southern California. The San Bernardino Mountains community of Forest Falls is probably subject to the most frequently documented debris flows in southern California. Debris flows at Forest Falls are generated during short-duration high-intensity rains that mobilize surface material. Except for debris flows on two consecutive days in November 1965, all the documented historic debris flows have occurred during high-intensity summer rainfall, locally referred to as 'monsoon' or 'cloudburst' rains. Velocities of the moving debris range from about 5??km/h to about 90??km/h. Velocity of a moving flow appears to be essentially a function of the water content of the flow. Low velocity debris flows are characterized by steep snouts that, when stopped, have only small amounts of water draining from the flow. In marked contrast are high-velocity debris flows whose deposits more resemble fluvial deposits. In the Forest Falls area two adjacent drainage basins, Snow Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, have considerably different histories of debris flows. Snow Creek basin, with an area about three times as large as Rattlesnake Creek basin, has a well developed debris flow channel with broad levees. Most of the debris flows in Snow Creek have greater water content and attain higher velocities than those of Rattlesnake Creek. Most debris flows are in relative equilibrium with the geometry of the channel morphology. Exceptionally high-velocity flows, however, overshoot the channel walls at particularly tight channel curves. After overshooting the channel, the flows degrade the adjacent levee surface and remove trees and structures in the immediate path, before spreading out with decreasing velocity. As the velocity decreases the clasts in the debris flows pulverize the up-slope side of the trees and often imbed clasts in them. Debris flows in Rattlesnake Creek are relatively slow moving and commonly stop in the

  16. Geology of the Yucca Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; O'Leary, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began ca. 10 Ma and continued as recently as ca. 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, ???10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  18. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Benson, John F.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Riley, Seth P. D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance. PMID:27411098

  19. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Sikich, Jeff A; Riley, Seth P D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance.

  20. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Mountain aster Machaerantha amplifolia Sensitive Organ Mountain evening primrose Oenothera organensis Sensitive Candidate Organ Mountain figwort ...rock spleenwort scorpionweed smooth cucumber smooth figwort southwest barrel cactus spoonieaf rabbitbrush Standby’s whitJowgrass supreme sage

  1. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  2. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  3. Field guide to geologic excursions in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, William R.; Lund, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This field guide contains road logs for field trips planned in conjunction with the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America held at Southern Utah University in Cedar City, Utah. There are a total of eight field trips, covering various locations and topics in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada. In addition, the field guide contains a road log for a set of Geological Engineering Field Camp Exercises run annually by the University of Missouri at Rolla in and around Cedar City. Two of the field trips address structural aspects of the geology in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona; two trips deal with ground water in the region; and along with the Field Camp Exercises, one trip, to the Grand Staircase, is designed specifically for educators. The remaining trips examine the volcanology and mineral resources of a large area in and around the Tusher Mountains in Utah; marine and brackish water strata in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument; and the Pine Valley Mountains, which are cored by what may be the largest known laccolith in the world. The "Three Corners" area of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada is home to truly world-class geology, and I am confident that all of the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting attendees will find a field trip suited to their interests.

  4. Black Mountains crustal section, Death Valley extended terrain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, D.K.; Wernicke, B. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent reconstructions of Cenozoic extension in the southern Great Basin juxtapose the Panamint Range above the Black Mountains and indicate major tectonic denudation of the Black Mountains during Tertiary extension. Structural and geologic characteristics of the Black Mountains and consideration of the regional geology of surrounding ranges suggest that the Black Mountains block may represent a 10 to 30 km preextensional crustal section that has been uplifted along a major detachment zone. Geobarometry and ductile deformation features in a synrift, intermediate to mafic batholith and metamorphism of Eocambrian sedimentary rock on the western side of the range appear to support this hypothesis. These data suggest that the Black Mountains block is one of the youngest and perhaps among the deepest exposed examples of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes.

  5. Variations in erosional efficiency modulate orogenic growth of the Alborz Mountains (N Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, Paolo; Landgraf, Angela; Stockli, Daniel; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Strecker, Manfred; Kirby, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The recognition that redistribution of mass by erosion governs orogenic evolution has radically changed our perspective on the coupling between climate and mountain building processes. Climate modulates the efficiency of surface processes, which modifies crustal stresses and this is expected to produce the cessation of shortening at the orogenic front, onset of out-of-sequence thrusting, and increased rates of rock -uplift and sediment supply. Unambiguous characterization of these multiple responses through field-based studies, however, has remained challenging. Here, we show that coordinated changes in the rates and patterns of exhumation and deformation during the development of the Alborz Mountains (N Iran) were driven by abrupt, large magnitude (0.6 to 1.5 km) fluctuations in base level in the adjacent Caspian Sea. We argue that sustained regression of the paleoshoreline from ~6 to 3.2 Ma enhanced erosional efficiency of fluvial systems and increased exhumation within the axial orogenic zone and along the northern range flank which, in turn, drove coordinated retreat of the deformation fronts. When base level rose again at 3.2 Ma, exhumation in the orogen interior slowed and range-bounding faults were reactivated. This was associated with the progressive establishment of positive feedbacks loop between orographically-induced precipitation, focused erosion, exhumation, and rock uplift. Overall, these coordinated changes offer compelling evidence that enhanced erosion can indeed trigger a structural reorganization within an actively deforming orogen.

  6. Fault terminations, Seminoe Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dominic, J.B.; McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Two basement-involved faults terminate in folds in the Seminoe Mountains. Mesoscopic and macroscopic structures in sedimentary rocks provide clues to the interrelationship of faults and folds in this region, and on the linkage between faulting and folding in general. The Hurt Creek fault trends 320[degree] and has maximum separation of 1.5 km measured at the basement/cover contact. Separation on the fault decreases upsection to zero within the Jurassic Sundance Formation. Unfaulted rock units form an anticline around the fault tip. The complementary syncline is angular with planar limbs and a narrow hinge zone. The syncline axial trace intersects the fault in the footwall at the basement/cover cut-off. Map patterns are interpreted to show thickening of Mesozoic units adjacent to the syncline hinge. In contrast, extensional structures are common in the faulted anticline within the Permian Goose Egg and Triassic Chugwater Formations. A hanging wall splay fault loses separation into the Goose Egg formation which is thinned by 50% at the fault tip. Mesoscopic normal faults are oriented 320--340[degree] and have an average inclination of 75[degree] SW. Megaboudins of Chugwater are present in the footwall of the Hurt Creek fault, immediately adjacent to the fault trace. The Black Canyon fault transported Precambrian-Pennsylvanian rocks over Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone. This fault is layer-parallel at the top of the Tensleep and loses separation along strike into an unfaulted syncline in the Goose Egg Formation. Shortening in the pre-Permian units is accommodated by slip on the basement-involved Black Canyon fault. Equivalent shortening in Permian-Cretaceous units occurs on a system of thin-skinned'' thrust faults.

  7. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at

  8. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  9. SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  10. Uplift of Zagros Mountains slows plate convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-05-01

    Research has indicated that mountain ranges can slow down the convergence between two tectonic plates on timescales as short as a few million years, as the growing mountains provide enough tectonic force to impact plate motions. Focusing on the convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates at the Zagros mountain range, which runs across Iran and Iraq, Austermann and Iaffaldano reconstructed the relative motion of the plates using published paleomagnetic data covering the past 13 million years, as well as current geodetic measurements. They show that the convergence of the two plates has decreased by about 30% over the past 5 million years. Looking at the geological record to infer past topography and using a computer model of the mantle-lithosphere system, the authors examined whether the recent uplift across the Zagros Mountains could have caused the observed slowdown. They also considered several other geological events that might have influenced the convergence rate, but the authors were able to rule those out as dominant controls. The authors conclude that the uplift across the Zagros Mountains in the past 5 million years did indeed play a key role in slowing down the convergence between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. (Tectonics, doi:10.1002/tect.20027, 2013)

  11. Remote mineral mapping using AVIRIS data at Summitville, Colorado and the adjacent San Juan Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Trude V. V.; Clark, Roger N.; Ager, Cathy; Swayze, Gregg A.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated the unique utility of imaging spectroscopy in mapping mineral distribution. In the Summitville mining region we have shown that the mine site does not contribute clay minerals to the Alamosa River, but does contribute Fe-bearing minerals. Such minerals have the potential to carry heavy metals. This application illustrates only one specific environmental application of imaging spectroscopy data. For instance, the types of minerals we can map with confidence are those frequently associated with environmental problems related to active and abandoned mine lands. Thus, the potential utility of this technology to the field of environmental science has yet to be fully explored.

  12. 78 FR 41335 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Battle Mountain VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) navigation aid, Battle Mountain, NV, to...

  13. 78 FR 58159 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV... Class E airspace at the Battle Mountain VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) navigation aid, Battle Mountain, NV, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules...

  14. Mountain regions in peril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The United Nations has declared 2002 the International Year of Mountains (IYM) to bring attention to a number of threats that affect ecosystems and human populations in mountainous and highland regions around the world.“More than half of humanity—3 billion people—relies on mountains for safe, fresh water, water to grow food, to produce electricity to sustain industries and, most important, water to drink,“ said Jacques Diouf, director-general of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, the primary IYM sponsor. “Yet, mountain glaciers, the source of water for many of the world's river systems and people, are melting at unprecedented rates.”

  15. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... If you have fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema), treatment may include: Oxygen A high blood pressure ...

  16. Environmental geochemical study of Red Mountain--an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska range, east-central Alaska: Chapter I in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Giles, Stuart A.; Gough, Larry P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2007-01-01

    Water samples with the lowest pH values, highest specific conductances, and highest major- and trace-element concentrations are from springs and streams within the quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zone. Aluminum, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Y, and particularly Zn and the REEs are all found in high concentrations, ranging across four orders of magnitude. Waters collected upstream from the alteration zone have near-neutral pH values, lower specific conductances, lower metal concentrations, and measurable alkalinities. Water samples collected downstream of the alteration zone have pH values and metal concentrations intermediate between these two extremes. Stream sediments are anomalous in Zn, Pb, S, Fe, Cu, As, Co, Sb, and Cd relative to local and regional background abundances. Red Mountain Creek and its tributaries do not support, and probably never have supported, significant megascopic faunal aquatic life.

  17. 1983 biotic studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    O`Farrell, T.P.; Collins, E.

    1984-04-01

    A 27.5-square-mile portion of Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, is being considered as a potential location for a national high-level radioactive waste repository. Preliminary geologic and environmental characterization studies have been supported and more extensive studies are planned. Goals of the biotic surveys were to identify species of concern, describe major floral and faunal associations, and assess possible impacts of characterization and operational activities. Floral associations observed were characteristic of either the Mojave or Transition deserts that are widely distributed in southern Nevada. Diversity, in terms of total number of perennial species represented, was higher in Transition Desert associations than in Mojave Desert associations. Canopy coverage of associations fell within the range of reported values, but tended to be more homogeneous than expected. Annual vegetation was found to be diverse only where the frequency of Bromus rubens was low. Ground cover of winter annuals, especially annual grasses, was observed to be very dense in 1983. The threat of range fires on Yucca Mountain was high because of the increased amount of dead litter and the decreased amount of bare ground. Significant variability was observed in the distribution and relative abundance of several small mammal species between 1982 and 1983. Desert tortoise were found in low densities comparable with those observed in 1982. Evidence of recent activity, which included sighting of two live tortoises, was found in five areas on Yucca Mountain. Two of these areas have a high probability of sustaining significant impacts if a repository is constructed. Regeneration of aboveground shrub parts from root crowns was observed in areas damaged in 1982 by seismic testing with Vibroseis machines. These areas, which had been cleared to bare dirt by passage of the machines, also supported lush stands of winter annuals.

  18. Mountain Rivers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-12-01

    Published in 2000, the original Mountain Rivers was written to provide a concise summary of the scientific understanding of the distinct subset of rivers that gave the book its name. Spurred by developments in the field in the past decade, the book's author, Ellen Wohl, produced Mountain Rivers Revisited, an updated edition aimed at graduate students and professional researchers. In this interview, Eos talks to Wohl about steep channels, climate change, and opportunities for future research.

  19. Organic contaminants in mountains.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Wania, Frank

    2005-01-15

    The study of organic contaminants at high altitudes is motivated by the potential risk that they pose to humans living in, or depending on resources derived from, mountains and to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in alpine areas. Mountains are also ideal settings to study contaminant transport and behavior along gradients of climate and surface cover. Information on organic contaminants in mountains is compiled from the literature and synthesized, with a focus on atmospheric transport and deposition, contaminant dynamics in alpine lakes and aquatic organisms, and concentration differences with altitude. Diurnal mountain winds, in connection with enhanced deposition at higher elevations caused by low temperatures and high precipitation rates, conspire to make mid-latitude mountains become convergence zones for selected persistent organic chemicals. In particular, the more volatile constituents of contaminant mixtures seem to become enriched, relative to the less volatile constituents at higher altitudes. For selected contaminants, concentration inversions (i.e., concentrations that increase with elevation) have been observed. A notable difference between cold trapping in high latitudes and high altitudes is the likely importance of precipitation. High rates of snow deposition in mid- and high-latitude mountains may lead to a large contaminant release during snowmelt. Regions above the tree line often have little capacity to retain the released contaminants, suggesting the potential for a highly dynamic contaminant fate situation during the snow-free season with significant revolatilization and runoff. The chemical and environmental factors that control the orographic cold trapping of organic contaminants should be examined further by measuring and comparatively interpreting concentration gradients along several mountain slopes with widely different characteristics. Future efforts should further focus on the bioaccumulation and potential effects of contaminants in

  20. Cordilleran front range structural features in northwest Montana interpreted from vintage seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Mason C.; Rutherford, Bradley S.; Speece, Marvin A.; Mosolf, Jesse G.

    2016-04-01

    Industry seismic reflection data spanning the Rocky Mountain Cordillera front ranges of northwest Montana were reprocessed and interpreted in this study. Five seismic profiles represent 160 km of deep reflection data collected in 1983 that span the eastern Purcell anticlinorium, Rocky Mountain Trench (RMT), Rocky Mountain Basal Décollement (RMBD), and Lewis thrust. The data were reprocessed using modern techniques including refraction statics, pre-stack time migration (PSTM), and pre- and post-stack depth migration. Results indicate the RMBD is 8-13 km below the Earth's surface and dip 3-10° west. Evidence for the autochthonous Mesoproterozoic Belt and basal Cambrian rocks beneath the RMBD is present in all of the profiles and appears to extend east of the RMT. The Lewis thrust was identified in the seismic profiles and appears to sole into the RMBD east of the RMT. The RMT fault system has a dip displacement of 3-4 km and forms a half graben filled with 1 km of unconsolidated Tertiary sedimentary deposits. The RMT and adjacent Flathead fault systems are interpreted to be structurally linked and may represent a synthetic, en echelon fault system.

  1. Identification of debris-flow hazards in warm deserts through analyzing past occurrences: Case study in South Mountain, Sonoran Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2016-11-01

    After recognition that debris flows co-occur with human activities, the next step in a hazards analysis involves estimating debris-flow probability. Prior research published in this journal in 2010 used varnish microlamination (VML) dating to determine a minimum occurrence of 5 flows per century over the last 8100 years in a small mountain range of South Mountain adjacent to neighborhoods of Phoenix, Arizona. This analysis led to the conclusion that debris flows originating in small mountain ranges in arid regions like the Sonoran Desert could pose a hazard. Two major precipitation events in the summer of 2014 generated 35 debris flows in the same study area of South Mountain-providing support for the importance of probability analysis as a key step in a hazards analysis in warm desert settings. Two distinct mechanisms generated the 2014 debris flows: intense precipitation on steep slopes in the first storm; and a firehose effect whereby runoff from the second storm was funneled rapidly by cleaned-out debris-flow chutes to remobilize Pleistocene debris-flow deposits. When compared to a global database on debris flows, the 2014 storms were among the most intense to generate desert debris flows - indicating that storms of lesser intensity are capable of generating debris flows in warm desert settings. The 87Sr/86Sr analyses of fines and clasts in South Mountain debris flows of different ages reveal that desert dust supplies the fines. Thus, wetter climatic periods of intense rock decay are not needed to resupply desert slopes with fines; instead, a combination of dust deposition supplying fines and dirt cracking generating coarse clasts can re-arm chutes in a warm desert setting with abundant dust.

  2. The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocke, F. M.; Science Teams, F A D A

    2015-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ) was designed to quantify the factors controlling surface ozone in the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) and determine whether current and planned emission controls are sufficient to reduce ozone levels below standards. The experiment was conducted simultaneously with the 2014 DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) intensive, and employed a coordinated set of ground-based, aircraft-based and satellite measurements. The NFRMA is subject to emissions from a wide variety of very diverse sources such as transportation, power generation, agriculture and livestock operations, oil and gas extraction activities, and natural emissions from vegetation. Inflow into the state can contain elevated ozone brought about from emissions originating from other Western states, Canada or Asia. Terrain-induced, complex mountain-valley circulation patterns, can, to some extent, recirculate polluted air and exacerbate high ozone events. This transport also contributes to high ozone, visibility degradation, and deposition of pollution into Rocky Mountain National Park and other pristine areas. Fifteen flights were performed between July 26 and August 17, 2014, on board the NCAR/NSF C-130 research aircraft, which was equipped with a comprehensive gas phase photochemistry and aerosol payload. The C-130 flights covered much of the State of Colorado. Numerous ground sites and mobile labs were taking measurements simultaneously, and the NASA P3, B-200, and Falcon aircraft flight operations were concentrated on the NFRMA itself. This presentation will summarize the FRAPPÉ activities and present first results with respect to emission characterization of the area and comparison with inventories, contributions of emission source types to ozone production and particle composition, transport and chemical evolution of air masses

  3. Earth science: Making a mountain out of a plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Hugh

    2017-02-01

    A theory proposed in 2015 suggested that relatively flat surfaces in mountain ranges were formed by the reorganization of river networks. A fresh analysis rebuts this idea, reigniting discussion of a long-standing problem in Earth science.

  4. Relict colluvial boulder deposits as paleoclimatic indicators in the Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, J.W.; Harrington, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Early to middle Pleistocene boulder deposits are common features on southern Nevada hillslopes. These darkly varnished, ancient colluvial deposits stand out in stark contrast to the underlying light-colored bedrock of volcanic tuffs, and they serve as minor divides between drainage channels on modern hillslopes. To demonstrate the antiquity of these stable hillslope features, six colluvial boulder deposits from Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, were dated by cation-ratio dating of rock varnish accreted on boulder surfaces. Estimated minimum ages of these boulder deposits range from 760 to 170 ka. Five additional older deposits on nearby Skull and Little Skull Mountains and Buckboard Mesa yielded cation-ratio minimum-age estimates of 1.38 Ma to 800 ka. An independent cosmogenic chlorine-36 surface exposure date was obtained on one deposit, which confirms an estimated early to middle Quaternary age. These deposits have provided the oldest age estimates for unconsolidated hillslope deposits in the southwestern United States. We suggest that the colluvial boulder deposits were produced during early and middle Pleistocene glacial/pluvial episodes and were stabilized during the transition to drier interglacial climates. The preservation of old, thin hillslope deposits and the less-than-2-m incision by hillslope runoff adjacent to these deposits, indicate that extremely low denudation rates have occurred on resistant volcanic hillslopes in the southern Great Basin during Quaternary time. -from Authors

  5. Detrital mineral chronology of the Uinta Mountain Group: Implications for the Grenville flood in southwestern Laurentia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, P.A.; Foster, D.A.; Mogk, D.W.; Wooden, J.L.; Kamenov, George D.; Vogl, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that large quantities of Grenville-age detritus dominate Neo-proterozoic to Cambrian arenites in southwest Laurentia (southwestern United States). U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons and 40Ar/39Ar ages of white mica from clastic sedimentary rocks of the Neoproterozoic Uinta Mountain Group also indicate significant Mesoproterozoic detritus mixed with a variably abundant Archean component. Zircons with ages representative of the Paleoproterozoic basement in the eastern Uinta Mountains or the younger Paleoproterozoic rocks of the adjacent Yavapai-Mazatzal terranes were not observed. A limited range of initial ??Hf (???90% between -3 and +3) for Mesoproterozoic zircons suggests derivation from a source region (or regions) characterized by mixing between juvenile and reworked older crust during Grenville orogenesis. The enriched Grenville-age basement proposed to underlie much of southeastern North America may be this source based on similarities of Hf isotopic data from Mesoproterozoic zircons in Mississippi River sand and available paleocurrent data. If so, then disruption of this supply in the Cambrian may be related to Iapetan rifting and, perhaps, the separation of the Precordillera terrane from Laurentia. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  6. Geological map of Bare Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Monsen, S.A.; Carr, M.D.; Reheis, M.C.; Orkild, P.P.

    1992-12-31

    Bare Mountain comprises the isolated complex of mountain peaks southeast of the town of Beatty in southern Nye County, Nevada. This small mountain range lies between the alluvial basins of Crater Flat to the east and the northern Amargosa Desert to the southwest. The northern boundary of the range is less well defined, but for this report, the terrane of faulted Miocene volcanic rocks underlying Beatty Mountain and the unnamed hills to the east are considered to be the northernmost part of Bare Mountain. The southern tip of the mountain range is at Black Marble, the isolated hill at the southeast corner of the map. The main body of the range, between Fluorspar Canyon and Black Marble, is a folded and complexly faulted, but generally northward-dipping (or southward-dipping and northward-overturned), sequence of weakly to moderately metamorphosed upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic marine strata, mostly miogeoclinal (continental shelf) rocks. The geology of Bare Mountain is mapped at a scale of 1:24,000.

  7. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, J. St; Kysela, R.F.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Primers for 15 microsatellite loci were developed for Mountain Plover, a species whose distribution and abundance have been reduced drastically in the past 30 years. In a screen of 126 individuals collected from four breeding locales across the species' range, levels of polymorphism ranged from two to 13 alleles per locus. No two loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci can be used in population genetic studies, ultimately aiding in management efforts for Mountain Plover. Additionally, these markers can potentially be used in studies investigating the mating system of Mountain Plover. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. High altitude pulmonary edema in mountain climbers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Guzek, Aneta; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-04-01

    Every year thousands of ski, trekking or climbing fans travel to the mountains where they stay at the altitude of more than 2500-3000m above sea level or climb mountain peaks, often exceeding 7000-8000m. High mountain climbers are at a serious risk from the effects of adverse environmental conditions prevailing at higher elevations. They may experience health problems resulting from hypotension, hypoxia or exposure to low temperatures; the severity of those conditions is largely dependent on elevation, time of exposure as well as the rate of ascent and descent. A disease which poses a direct threat to the lives of mountain climbers is high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). It is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in rapidly climbing unacclimatized lowlanders usually within 2-4 days of ascent above 2500-3000m. It is the most common cause of death resulting from the exposure to high altitude. The risk of HAPE rises with increased altitude and faster ascent. HAPE incidence ranges from an estimated 0.01% to 15.5%. Climbers with a previous history of HAPE, who ascent rapidly above 4500m have a 60% chance of illness recurrence. The aim of this article was to present the relevant details concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, prevention, and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema among climbers in the mountain environment.

  9. Adjacent segment disease and C-ADR: promises fulfilled?

    PubMed Central

    Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312

  10. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  11. Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam Basin, Northern Tibet: A framework for examining the links between glaciation, lake level changes and alluvial fan formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, L.A.; Finkel, R.C.; Haizhou, M.; Barnard, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Qaidam Basin in Northern Tibet is one of the largest hyper-arid intermontane basins on Earth. Alluvial fans, pediment surfaces, shorelines and a thick succession of sediments within the basin, coupled with moraines and associated landforms in the adjacent high mountain catchments of the Kunlun Mountains, record a complex history of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental change and landscape evolution. The region provides an ideal natural laboratory to examine the interaction between tectonics and climate within a continent-continent collision zone, and to quantify rates of landscape evolution as controlled by climate and the associated glacial and hydrological changes in hyper-arid and adjacent high-altitude environments. Geomorphic mapping, analysis of landforms and sediments, and terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure and optically stimulated luminescence dating serve to define the timing of formation of Late Quaternary landforms along the southern and northwestern margins of the Qaidam Basin, and in the Burhan Budai Shan of the Kunlun Mountains adjacent to the basin on the south. These dates provide a framework that suggests links between climatic amelioration, deglaciation, lake desiccation and alluvial fan evolution. At least three glacial advances are defined in the Burham Budai Shan of the Kunlun Mountains. On the northern side of this range these occurred in the penultimate glacial cycle or early in the last glacial cycle, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)/Lateglacial and during the Holocene. On the south side of the range, advances occurred during the penultimate glacial cycle, MIS-3, and possibly the LGM, Lateglacial or Holocene. Several distinct phases of alluvial fan sedimentation are likewise defined. Alluvial fans formed on the southern side of the Kunlun Mountains prior to 200 ka. Ice-contact alluvial fans formed during the penultimate glacial and during MIS-3. Extensive incised alluvial fans that form the main valley fills north of

  12. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  13. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  14. Effect of two nonfumigant nematicides on corn grown in two adjacent fields infested with different nematodes.

    PubMed

    Dickson, D W; Hewlett, T E

    1987-10-01

    The organo-phosphate experimental nematicide, O-ethyl S,S-di-sec-butyl phosphorodithioate (FMC 67825), provided yield increases of corn comparable to carbofuran. Both the emulsifiable concentrate and granular formulations of FMC 67825 were equally effective. The evaluations, duplicated in two adjacent fields, clearly demonstrated the importance of the type of plant pathogenic nematodes infesting the sites. Where Belonolaimus longicaudatus occurred, yield increases ranged from 73% to 80%, whereas in the adjacent field (without B. longicaudatus) yields increases ranged from - 14% to 28%.

  15. WILSON MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson Mountains Wilderness consists of about 68 sq mi in the San Miguel Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Based on a mineral survey two areas in the wilderness have a probable mineral-resource potential. One area is on the east margin of the area in the Trout Lake mining district, and the other is near the center of the area, the Mount Wilson mining district. Both areas have had a modest base and (or) precious metal production from narrow veins and have a probable potential for the occurrence of similar deposits. Of more significance is a probable mineral-resource potential for disseminated copper mineralization in the Mount Wilson mining district.

  16. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  17. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  18. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  19. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  20. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  1. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  7. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  8. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  9. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr‑1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr‑1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm‑2 yr‑1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment.

  10. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    PubMed

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-07

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr(-1) in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr(-1) in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm(-2) yr(-1) in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment.

  11. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr−1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr−1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm−2 yr−1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment. PMID:27600881

  12. Conodont color alteration (CAI) as an aid to structural interpretation in the Black Pine Mountains, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Fred J.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    The Black Pine Mountains, southeastern Cassia County, Idaho, consist of southern and northern blocks separated by a northeast-trending, high-angle fault. Differences in conodont color alteration values distinguish the two blocks. The southern block has significantly higher organic maturation levels than the northern block and is interpreted to have been thrust northeastward adjacent to the northern block.

  13. Interpreting Primary Children's Representations of Mountains and Mountainous Landscapes and Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trend, Roger; Everett, Lynn; Dove, Jane

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports research into children's understanding of mountainous landscapes and mountain genesis as revealed in their drawing and modelling representations and in subsequent interviews. A sample of 444 children aged 7-11 years was drawn from five UK inner-city schools. Comparisons between the younger (7-9 years) and older (9-11 years) children showed significant differences in perception, conception and priorities. The naive interpretation of children's drawings and models is questioned: interview data indicated that children use sophisticated techniques to represent mountains and mountain environments. Children are able to interpret stereotypical representations of mountain landscape features they encounter in books and elsewhere. They make use of a range of conventions in their own drawings that are revealed only in subsequent interviews. Research based solely on the interpretation of children's pictures is shown to be problematic and somewhat unreliable. Children perceive the differences between reality and pictorial representation and make full and conscious use of the range of conventions, including stereotypical forms.

  14. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  15. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  16. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  17. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  18. Rocky Mountain High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  19. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan

    2017-01-01

    The tick-borne disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) can have deadly outcomes unless treated appropriately, yet nonspecific flu-like symptoms complicate diagnosis. Occupational health nurses must have a high index of suspicion with symptomatic workers and recognize that recent recreational or occupational activities with potential tick exposure may suggest RMSF.

  20. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  1. Nitrogen saturation in the Rocky Mountains: Linking emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects using stable isotopes of nitrogen compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, D.H.; Nanus, L.; Böhlke, J.K.; Harlin, K.; Collett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition are affecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at high elevations in Rocky Mountain National Park and adjacent areas of the Front Range of Colorado. Federal and state agencies are now working together to develop cost-effective means for reducing atmospheric N deposition. A discussion on N saturation covers the need for better understanding of N emission source areas and source types that contribute to N deposition in the Rocky Mountains Front Range of Colorado; reductions in NO emissions that resulted from Clean Air Act Amendments, which caused NO3 deposition to decrease between 1984 and 2003; factors contributing to N deposition, e.g., rapid population growth and energy development; origins of NO3, e.g., as NO emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including stationary sources (e.g. emission from coal combustion in electric generating units), and mobile sources (vehicle emissions); disperse stationary sources from energy resource development, e.g., natural gas production; and the importance of incorporating local source characterization and finer spatial and temporal sampling into future studies, which could provide additional insight into N deposition source attribution. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 100th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association (Pittsburgh, PA 6/26-29/2007).

  2. Neocomian source and reservoir rocks in the western Brooks Range and Arctic Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, C.G.; Reifenstuhl, R.R.; Harris, E.E.; Crowder, R.K.

    1995-04-01

    Detailed (1:63,360) mapping of the Tingmerkpuk sandstone and associated rocks in the Misheguk Mountain and DeLong Mountains guadrangles of the western Brooks Range thrust belt documents potential hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks in the northern foothills of the western Delong Mountains and adjacent Colville basin of northwest Alaska. Neocomian (?) to Albian micaceous shale, litharenite, and graywacke that overlies the Tingmerkpuk represents the onset of deposition of orogenic sediments derived from the Brooks Range to the south, and the merging of northern and southern sediment sources in the Colville basin. Both the proximal and distal Tingmerkpuk facies contain clay shale interbeds and overlie the Upper Jurassic to Neocomian Kingak Shale. Preliminary geochemical data show that in the thrust belt, these shales are thermally overmature (Ro 1.4-1.6), but are good source rocks with total organic content (TOC) that ranges from 1.2 to 1.8 percent. Shale in the overlying Brookian rocks is also thermally overmature (Ro 1.2-1.5 percent), but contains up to 1.8 percent TOC from a dominantly terrigenous source, and has generated gas. In outcrops at Surprise Creek, in the foothills north of the thrust belt, the Kingak (1.9 percent TOC) and underlying Triassic Shublik Formation (4.6 percent TOC) are excellent oil source rocks with thermal maturity close to peak oil generation stage (Ro0.75-0.9 percent). These rocks have lower thermal maturity values than expected for their stratigraphic position within the deeper parts of the Colville basin and indicate anomalous burial and uplift history in parts of the basin. Preliminary apatite fission-track (AFTA) data from the thrust belt indicate a stage of rapid uplift and cooling at about 53.61 Ma.

  3. Gravity and Magnetic Investigations of the Mojave National Preserve and Adjacent Areas, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Biehler, S.; Negrini, R.; Mickus, K.; Miller, D.M.; Miller, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data provide the underpinnings of a hydrogeologic framework for the Mojave National Preserve by estimating the thickness of Cenozoic deposits and locating inferred structural features that influence groundwater flow. An inversion of gravity data indicates that thin (<1 km) basin deposits cover much of the Preserve, except for Ivanpah Valley and the Woods Mountains volcanic center. Localized areas of Cenozoic deposits thicker than 500 m are predicted beneath parts of Lanfair Valley, Fenner Valley, near Kelso, Soda Lake, and southeast of Baker. Along the southern margin of the Mojave National Preserve, basins greater than 1 km deep are located between the Clipper and Marble Mountains, between the Marble and Bristol Mountains, and south of the Bristol Mountains near Amboy. Both density and magnetization boundaries defined by horizontal-gradient analyses coincide locally with Cenozoic faults and can be used to extend these faults beneath cover. Magnetization boundaries also highlight the structural grain within the crystalline rocks and may serve as a proxy for fracturing, an important source of permeability within the generally impermeable basement rocks, thus mapping potential groundwater pathways through and along the mountain ranges in the study area.

  4. Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit

  5. WHITE MOUNTAINS AND BIRCH CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral survey of the White Mountains and Birch Creek Roadless Areas in California and Nevada indicates that there is probable and substantiated resource potential for gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc, tungsten, and mercury as well as barite and pyrophyllite. Pumice resources occur in several areas in the White Mountains Roadless Area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the areas. Metasedimentary rocks in Jeffrey Mine Canyon along the range front of the White Mountains Roadless Area contain known rutile occurrences at the site of the Champion mine. Geochemical studies and (or) a drilling program could help define the possibility of a titanium resource.

  6. Geology of the Bighorn Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darton, N.H.

    1906-01-01

    There are extensive, forests in the mountains, which are now included in a Government forest reserve, but their timber is not of great value. Much of the area below timber line contains an abundance of luxuriant grasses and other plants, which afford excellent pasturage for stock, and large herds of sheep and cattle are ranged in the region during the short summer season. Game is moderately abundant, and most of the streams contain large numbers of trout. The region is one of great interest geologically on account of its variety of sedimentary rocks, interesting structure, and remarkably instructive glacial features. The central area, with its high peaks, presents alpine scenery of notable character. Doubtless in the future the region will be extensively visited by tourists, hunters, and geologists.

  7. Hydrology of area 54, Northern Great Plains, and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Daddow, P.D.; Craig, G.S.; ,

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide need for information characterizing hydrologic conditions in mined and potential mine areas has become paramount with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This report, one in a series covering the coal provinces nationwide, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The summation of the topical discussions provides a description of the hydrology of the area. Area 54, in north-central Colorado and south-central Wyoming, is 1 of 20 hydrologic reporting areas of the Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces. Part of the Southern Rocky Mountains and Wyoming Basin physiographic provinces, the 8,380-square-mile area is one of contrasting geology, topography, and climate. This results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The major streams, the North Platte, Laramie, and Medicine Bow Rivers, and their principal tributaries, all head in granitic mountains and flow into and through sedimentary basins between the mountain ranges. Relief averages 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, which produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt in spring and summer provides most streamflow. Precipitation in the basins averages 10 to 16 inches annually, insufficient for sustained streamflow; thus, streams originating in the basins are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are least. These concentrations increase as streams flow through sedimentary basins. The increases are mainly natural, but some may be due to irrigation in and adjacent to the flood plains. In the North Platte River, dissolved-solids concentrations are usually less than 300 milligrams per liter; in the Laramie and the Medicine Bow Rivers, the concentrations may average 500 to 850 milligrams per liter. However

  8. Tabletop Tectonics: Diverse Mountain Ranges Using Flour and Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the frontal deformation zones where plates converge (foreland fold- and-thrust belts on continents and accretionary wedges at subduction zones) involve shortening over a decoupling layer, or decollement. A simple but successful way of explaining many aspects of their behavior is called the critical Coulomb wedge model, which regards these contractional wedges as analogous to the wedge-shaped mass of soil accreted in front of a bulldozer, or the wedge of snow that piles up in front of a snow plow. The shape and deformation history of the accreted wedge of soil or snow will depend upon the frictional strength of the material being plowed up and the surface over which it is being plowed. The same is true of `bulldozer' wedges consisting of many km thick piles of sediment at convergent plate margins. Using flour (or powdered milk), sandpaper, graphite, transparency sheets, and athletic field marker chalk, manipulated with sieves, brushes, pastry bags and blocks and sheets of wood, it is possible to demonstrate a wide variety of processes and tectonic styles observed at convergent plate boundaries. Model fold-and-thrust belts that behave like natural examples with a decollement that is strong (e.g., in rock without high pore fluid pressure) or weak (e.g., in a salt horizon or with elevated pore fluid pressure) can be generated simply by placing wither sandpaper or graphite beneath the flour that is pushed across the tabletop using a block of wood (the strong basement and hiterland rocks behind the fold-thrust belt). Depending upon the strength of the decollement, the cross-sectional taper of the deforming wedge will be thin or broad, the internal deformation mild or intense, and the structures either close to symmetric or strongly forward-vergent, just as at the analogous natural fold-thrust belts. Including a horizontal sheet of wood or Plexiglas in front of the pushing block allows generation of an accretionary wedge, outer-are high, and forearc basin, just as over a subduction zone. Any dark material emplaced (a pastry bag works well) atop the experiment before deformation in the form of football-field `hash marks' every 10 cm allows for easy calculation of strain distribution at any time during or after the experiment. Finally, the entire orogen can be excavated using a plastic photocopier transparency sheet. If the original set-up included occasional thin layers of red and blue field marker chalk within sedimentary column (the rest of which consists of white flour or powdered milk), excavation reveals (quite colorfully) many internal details of the fold-thrust belts that have been generated.

  9. Effects of Mountain Ranges on Mesoscale Systems Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    sites, and the fields of 700-mb height, 850 to 700-mb thickness, and surface to 500-mb precipitable water vapor are analyzed. Notable features which...exceeding 30 mm of precipitable water ) to the south and east of the developing system. The shaded region of pronounced convective instability...central Kansas at the center of the consolidated convective band. The persistence of this NE/SW band was appartently due in part to the active cold front

  10. Colorado Northern Front Range Mountain Backdrop Protection Study Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Mark [D-CO

    2009-01-08

    01/08/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (text of measure as introduced: CR S232) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Groom Mountain Range, Lincoln County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    This road is not involved with the withdrawal and therefore not supported as a mitigation. The second proposal, was to pave the road from Rachel into...check to determine if the road is open to traffic from the NTS to Rachel . iii- CONTENTS COVER SHEET i SUMMARY ii LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF FIGURES viii 1...miles to the east of the withdrawal and Rachel is about 5 miles to the north. It is doubtful that rural growth in these small communities would become a

  12. Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Groom Mountain Range, Lincoln County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    This road is not involved with the withdrawal and therefore not supported as a mitigation. The second proposal, was to pave the road from Rachel into the...provided so NTS workers can check to determine if the road is open to traffic from the NTS to Rachel . 1.4 ALTERNATIVES Alternatives to the proposed...Use and Paving of the Rachel to NTS Road" Maintenance of the 43 mile road from Rachel to the Nevada Test Site is the responsibility of Lincoln County

  13. Environmental Impact Statement. Groom Mountain Range, Lincoln County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Rachel into the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Air Force recommends this as a miti- gation measure to be shared with Lincoln County. A schedule of open...number has been provided so NTS workers can check to determine if the road is open to traffic from the NTS to Rachel . 1.4 ALTERNATIVES Alternatives to...presented in Sections 3.10 and 4.2.10 of the DEIS. 18. "Maintenance, Use and Paving of the Rachel to NTS Road" Maintenance of the 43 mile road from

  14. [Death by avalanche in the minor mountain range].

    PubMed

    Geisenberger, Dorothee; Kramer, Lena; Pircher, Rebecca; Pollak, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    On 30 Jan 2015, two avalanche accidents happened in the Black Forest (at the foot of the 1493 m high Feldberg and the Herzogenhorn situated next to it), in which experienced ski tourers--a 58-year-old woman and a 20-year-old man--were completely buried by snow masses. Both victims were recovered dead after nearly 2 hours under the snow. The avalanches were promoted by strong snowfalls, snowdrift by the wind and steep downwind slopes. One of the victims, the 20-year-old man, underwent a forensic autopsy. The findings suggested death by protracted asphyxiation with agonal hypothermia. A mechanical traumatization with internal injuries suspected by the emergency doctor at the scene could not be confirmed at autopsy. The possible causes of death in the avalanche are discussed using the reported case as an example and in reference to the relevant literature.

  15. Development of Archean crust in the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, C. D.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Wind River Mountains are a NW-SE trending range composed almost entirely of high-grade Archean gneiss and granites which were thrust to the west over Phanerozoic sediments during the Laramide orogeny. Late Archean granites make up over 50% of the exposed crust and dominates the southern half of the range, while older orthogneisses and magnatites form most of the northen half of the range. Locally these gneisses contain enclaves of supracrustal rocks, which appear to be the oldest preserved rocks in the range. Detailed work in the Medina Mountain area of the central Wind River Mountains and reconnaissance work throughout much of the northern part of the range has allowed definition of the sequence of events which marked crustal development in this area. The sequence of events are described.

  16. The Occurrence of Erionite at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-07-01

    The naturally-occurring zeolite mineral erionite has a fibrous morphology and is a known human carcinogen (inhalation hazard). Erionite has been found typically in very small quantities and restricted occurrences in the course of mineralogic characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for a high-level nuclear waste repository. The first identification of erionite was made in 1984 on the basis of morphology and chemical composition and later confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found in the lower vitrophyre (Tptpv3) of the Topopah Spring Tuff in a borehole sidewall sample. Most erionite occurrences identified at Yucca Mountain are in the Topopah Spring Tuff, within an irregular zone of transition between the lower boundary of devitrified tuff and underlying glassy tuff. This zone is fractured and contains intermingled devitrified and vitric tuff. In 1997, a second host of erionite mineralization was identified in the Exploratory Studies Facility within and adjacent to a high-angle fracture/breccia zone transgressing the boundary between the lowermost devitrified tuff (Tpcplnc) and underlying moderately welded vitric tuff (Tpcpv2) of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The devitrified-vitric transition zones where erionite is found tend to have complex secondary-mineral assemblages, some of very localized occurrence. Secondary minerals in addition to erionite may include smectite, heulandite-clinoptilolite, chabazite, opal-A, opal-CT, cristobalite, quartz, kenyaite, and moganite. Incipient devitrification within the Topopah Spring Tuff transition zone includes patches that are highly enriched in potassium feldspar relative to the precursor volcanic glass. Geochemical conditions during glass alteration may have led to local evolution of potassium-rich fluids. Thermodynamic modeling of zeolite stability shows that erionite and chabazite stability fields occur only at aqueous K concentrations much higher than in present Yucca Mountain waters. The association of erionite

  17. Using Digital Topography to Differentiate Erosionally Exhumed and Tectonically Active Mountains Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, K. L.; Pazzaglia, F. J.

    2003-12-01

    Mountain ranges in the southern Rocky Mountains have departed on unique landscape evolutionary pathways in the late Cenozoic that are directly dependent upon the degree of post-orogenic tectonic activity they have experienced. The topography of Sierra Nacimiento, a Laramide uplift in west-central New Mexico lacking an active range-front fault, is shaped primarily by erosional exhumation that is continuous, but not steady, being driven by distal base level fall from Rio Grande incision and resultant south to north knickpoint migration. In contrast, the topography of the Taos Range, a rift flank uplift in north-central New Mexico is shaped by contrasting active stream incision and aggradation astride an active range front normal fault. The distinction between exhumation-dominated and tectonically-dominated mountain fronts is best quantified by analyses of a new metric we call the drainage basin volume to drainage basin area ratio (V-A ratio) as well as the gradients of first-order streams. Drainage basin volume and area are calculated by constructing topographic envelope maps from 10 m resolution digital elevation models (DEM). The envelope maps are pinned by the watershed divide and cover the maximum elevations in each drainage basin. Subtracting the original DEM from the maximum elevation envelope map produces a topographic residual map from which area and volume data can be obtained. The erosionally exhumed Sierra Nacimiento has a mean V-A ratio of 88 m while the tectonically active Taos Range has a mean V-A ratio of 140 m. Similarly, there are systematic differences in the gradients of first order streams measured both in the range block and approximately 5 km of adjacent piedmont. Streams were defined and subsequently Strahler ordered by a flow accumulation threshold of 250 water-equivalent grid cell units. First order stream channel long profiles were extracted from the DEM at 30 meter increments and gradients were calculated by a FORTRAN program. Gradients of

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Lacz, N L; Schwartz, R A; Kapila, R

    2006-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an unusual but important dermatological condition to identify without hesitation. The classic triad of headache, fever, and a rash that begins on the extremities and travels proximally to involve the trunk is found in a majority of patients. The cutaneous centripetal pattern is a result of cell to cell migration by the causative organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Such individuals should receive prompt antimicrobial therapy and supportive care to avoid serious and potentially fatal complications.

  19. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kamper, C A; Chessman, K H; Phelps, S J

    1988-02-01

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever are reviewed. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a severe infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted to man by various species of ticks. High-incidence areas exist in the southeast and south central United States. Only 60-70% of patients with the disease report a history of tick bite or exposure to tick-infested areas. The disease is initially characterized by fever, headache, gastrointestinal complaints, myalgia, and a generalized rash. In several days generalized vasculitis may lead to periorbital edema and nonpitting edema of the face and extremities. Central nervous system involvement is common. Because signs and symptoms associated with the disease are nonspecific, the diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Traditionally diagnostic confirmation relied on serologic testing, but an indirect fluorescent antibody assay will soon be commercially available. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is usually treated with the rickettsiostatic agents chloramphenicol or tetracycline, but few comparative data on these agents in patients with the disease are available. For patients who cannot tolerate oral medications, intravenous chloramphenicol sodium succinate is the preferred treatment; chloramphenicol is also the drug of choice for children less than eight years of age. Otherwise, oral tetracycline hydrochloride is the drug of choice. Antibiotic therapy should be continued for 7-10 days or until the patient is afebrile for two to five days. All cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever must be reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The best ways to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease are to increase awareness of its signs and symptoms and to prevent exposure to ticks.

  20. Structural Requirements of HDAC Inhibitors: SAHA Analogs Functionalized Adjacent to the Hydroxamic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bieliauskas, Anton V.; Weerasinghe, Sujith V. W.; Pflum, Mary Kay H.

    2007-01-01

    Inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) have emerged as effective therapeutic anti-cancer agents. To better understand the structural requirements of HDAC inhibitors, a small molecule library with a variety of substituents attached adjacent to the metal binding hydroxamic acid of SAHA was synthesized. The presence of a substituent adjacent to the hydroxamic acid led to an 800 to 5000-fold decrease in inhibition compared to SAHA. The observed results have implications for drug design, suggesting that HDAC inhibitors with substituents near the metal binding moiety will have inhibitory activities in the μM rather than nM range. PMID:17307359

  1. Lithofacies and stratigraphy of the Lisburne and Etivluk groups in the Lisburne 1 well and adjacent outcrops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    The Lisburne 1 well in the thrust belt of the central Brooks Range penetrated 17,000 ft of imbricated, chiefly Ellesmerian sequence strata in the Endicott Mountains allochthon. Five thrust repeats of the Lisburne Group (Carboniferous) and overlying Etivluk Group (Permian-Jurassic) were drilled. Lithofacies analyses of >350 thin sections of cores and cuttings, and biostratigraphy based on foraminifers and conodonts, allow detailed correlation with coeval units in adjacent outcrops and provide data on the depositional setting and reservoir and source rock potential of these strata. The late Early- Late Mississippian (Osagean-Chesterian) Lisburne Group consists mainly of skeletal wackestone to grainstone, locally completely dolomitized. An interval of abundant glauconite and detrital quartz in the lower Lisburne may mark a sequence-bounding unconformity. Dolostone in the upper part of the unit has maximum porosities of 10-13% and common residual hydrocarbons. The uppermost Lisburne is thinly interbedded mudstone, chert, and shale that are locally dolomitic, phosphatic, spiculitic, and organic-rich; conodonts from this interval in outcrop represent an outer shelf to slope biofacies. The Etivluk Group here encompasses the Siksikpuk and Otuk Formations. The Siksikpuk is mainly varicolored shale and radiolarian chert, with a basal interval of glauconitic, pyritic sandstone. Phosphatic and organic-rich shale, radiolarian chert, and pelecypod coquinas make up the Otuk. Outcrop and subsurface data indicate that the Lisburne Group in this area accumulated near the seaward margin of a shallow-water carbonate platform that drowned during the Late Mississippian; outer shelf or deeper conditions predominated throughout deposition of the upper Lisburne and the Etivluk Group.

  2. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition.

  4. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  5. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Chisa; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Nagai, Aiko; Hayashi, Naoki

    2010-06-01

    Craniopharyngioma has benign histological character. However, because of proximity to optic pathways, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus, it may cause severe and permanent damage to such critical structures and can even be life threatening. Total surgical resection is often difficult. This study aims to evaluate treatment results of Novalis stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways. Ten patients (six men, four women) with craniopharyngioma and median age of 56.5 years (range 10-74 years) were treated by SRT using Novalis from July 2006 through March 2009. Median volume of tumor was 7.9 ml (range 1.1-21 ml). Three-dimensional noncoplanar five- or seven-beam SRT or coplanar five-beam SRT with intensity modulation was performed. Total dose of 30-39 Gy in 10-15 fractions (median 33 Gy) was delivered to the target. Ten patients were followed up for 9-36 months (median 25.5 months). Response rate was 80% (8/10), and control rate was 100%. Improvement of neurological symptoms was observed in five patients. No serious complications due to SRT were found. SRT for craniopharyngioma may be a safe and effective treatment. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine long-term tumor control or late complications.

  6. Pollen Record of The Last 700 Years From A High Mountain Site In Inner Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, V. G.

    A paleoenvironmental reconstruction from the Tuva region (S. Siberia) provides information about vegetation dynamics and climate changes in these arid highlands during the last millennium. The study area is situated in the center of Eurasia where the Altai, Sayan and Mongolian Altai mo untain chains meet to form the main Asian watershed. The area is still poorly investigated, especially in terms of well-dated evidence of the Little Ice Age (LIA) period. The high mountain topography and the arid climate define a unique environmental diversity, from glaciated highlands to desert-steppe. Mountain larch forests are restricted to north-facing slopes. Pollen data from a sediment core in the Mogen-Buren river valley (50 11 51 N, 89 45 03 E, 2050 m a.s.l.) allow the reconstruction of the vegetation history in this region during the last millennium. Arboreal pollen, dominated by Pinus sibirica, is considered to be long-distance transported. The fluctuations of arboreal pollen reflect forest evolution in adjacent areas. An abrupt decrease of arboreal pollen around 650 14C yrs BP probably indicates a large-scale climate change towards cold conditions. The decrease of tree pollen continues, to reach a minimum around 500 14C yrs BP, after which the arboreal pollen values slightly increase and become approximately constant up to the present, which reflects a relatively stable, cool and dry period. In contrast, fluctuations of pollen of shrubs and herbaceous taxa indicate more complicated local vegetation dynamics. From about 650 14C yrs BP on, the local vegetation shows a succession from scarce plant cover to dense meadows and shrubs with a high floristic diversity, while the forests show a decline. It may be related to a short period of an optimal balance between temperature and moisture level for the arid mountain environments, which could occur during the early part of LIA. Then, up to 500 14C yrs BP, sedge communities characterized by a low pollen diversity, become

  7. Transit time estimation using tritium and stable isotopes in a Mediterranean mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig-Planasdemunt, Maria; Stewart, Mike; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Water resources of Mediterranean regions mainly depend on runoff generated in mountain areas. Therefore, study of the time water spends travelling through Mediterranean mountains is important for water resources management as it reflects the ability of catchments to retain and release water. Natural isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes) have been used in different environments to quantify the ages of water within catchments. However, there are relatively few studies of water transit times in Mediterranean mountain regions. Additionally, tritium dating is more common in Southern Hemisphere streams because they were less affected by tritium produced mainly in the North Hemisphere by nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 60s. With the aim of improving knowledge of the hydrological catchment functioning of Mediterranean mountain areas, this work estimates water transit times in spring water, groundwater and stream water using tritium and stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) measurements in the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). Tritium measurements from a previous study carried out in 1996-1998 (Herrmann et al., 1999) were supplemented by new samples collected on 3 November 2013. Difficulties with the age interpretation of the tritium measurements arise from the determination of the tritium input function, the different accuracies of the tritium measurements and the ambiguous ages resulting from past input of tritium from nuclear testing to the atmosphere. Water stable isotope samples were collected in rainfall, spring water, groundwater and streamwater at baseflow conditions every 15 days over a 27 month period. Detailed distributed hydrometric measurements (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, discharge and water table level) were obtained during the same period. Preliminary results using δ18O, δ2H and tritium show that mean transit times in the Cal Rodó catchment (4.2 km2) ranged between 1.3 and 11.6 years. The lowest mean

  8. Evidence of prehistoric flooding and the potential for future extreme flooding at Coyote Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Glancy, P.A.

    1994-09-01

    Coyote Wash, an approximately 0.3-square-mile drainage on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, is the potential location for an exploratory shaft to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain for construction of an underground repository for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. An ongoing investigation is addressing the potential for hazards to the site and surrounding areas from flooding and related fluvial-debris movement. Unconsolidated sediments in and adjacent to the channel of North Fork Coyote Wash were examined for evidence of past floods. Trenches excavated across and along the valley bottom exposed multiple flood deposits, including debris-flow deposits containing boulders as large as 2 to 3 feet in diameter. Most of the alluvial deposition probably occurred during the late Quaternary. Deposits at the base of the deepest trench overlie bedrock and underlie stream terraces adjacent to the channel; these sediments are moderately indurated and probably were deposited during the late Pleistocene. Overlying nonindurated deposits clearly are younger and may be of Holocene age. This evidence of intense flooding during the past indicates that severe flooding and debris movement are possible in the future. Empirical estimates of large floods of the past range from 900 to 2,600 cubic feet per second from the 0.094-square-mile drainage area of North Fork Coyote Wash drainage at two proposed shaft sites. Current knowledge indicates that mixtures of water and debris are likely to flow from North Fork Coyote Wash at rates up to 2,500 cubic feet per second. South Fork Coyote Wash, which has similar basin area and hydraulic characteristics, probably will have concurrent floods of similar magnitudes. The peak flow of the two tributaries probably would combine near the potential sites for the exploratory shaft to produce future flow of water and accompanying debris potentially as large as 5,000 cubic feet per second.

  9. Mammoth Mountain, California broadband seismic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. B.; Pitt, A. M.; Wilkinson, S. K.; Chouet, B. A.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Prejean, S. G.; Read, C.; Shelly, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a young cumulo-volcano located on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Current volcanic processes beneath Mammoth Mountain are manifested in a wide range of seismic signals, including swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, upper and mid-crustal long-period earthquakes, swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, and shallow (3-km depth) very-long-period earthquakes. Diffuse emissions of C02 began after a magmatic dike injection beneath the volcano in 1989, and continue to present time. These indications of volcanic unrest drive an extensive monitoring effort of the volcano by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. As part of this effort, eleven broadband seismometers were deployed on Mammoth Mountain in November 2011. This temporary deployment is expected to run through the fall of 2013. These stations supplement the local short-period and broadband seismic stations of the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and provide a combined network of eighteen broadband stations operating within 4 km of the summit of Mammoth Mountain. Data from the temporary stations are not available in real-time, requiring the merging of the data from the temporary and permanent networks, timing of phases, and relocation of seismic events to be accomplished outside of the standard NCSN processing scheme. The timing of phases is accomplished through an interactive Java-based phase-picking routine, and the relocation of seismicity is achieved using the probabilistic non-linear software package NonLinLoc, distributed under the GNU General Public License by Alomax Scientific. Several swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, spasmodic bursts of high-frequency earthquakes, a few long-period events located within or below the edifice of Mammoth Mountain and numerous mid-crustal long-period events have been recorded by the network. To date, about 900 of the ~2400 events occurring beneath Mammoth Mountain since November 2011 have

  10. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Southeastern Funeral Mountains, California-Nevada, and Implications for the Major Water-Supply Springs in Death Valley National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridrich, C.; Workman, J.; Blakely, R.; Bredehoeft, J.; Jansen, J.; Thompson, R.; King, M.

    2003-12-01

    We are using a combination of geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, hydrologic computer modeling, and a drilling-and-testing program to evaluate the hydrologic framework of the southeastern Funeral Mountains. Our work addresses: (1) the hydrologic connection of the Furnace Creek springs on the south side of the Funeral Mountains to the regional aquifer system on the north side, and (2) potential impacts on these springs from human activities, including possible leakage from the proposed radioactive waste repository under Yucca Mountain, ~50 km to the northeast, and ongoing agricultural overdrafting of groundwater in the southern Amargosa Desert, ~25 km to the northeast. Discharge from the springs at Furnace Creek provides the major water supply for Death Valley National Park and, at 5000 acre-ft/yr, is at least 10 times larger than that attributable to recharge in the adjacent, arid Funeral Mountains. Moreover, hydrochemical data indicate that the spring water is derived mainly from interbasin groundwater flow through the regional carbonate aquifer. This aquifer extends northeastward across much of southeastern Nevada. Our geologic map data indicate that the carbonate aquifer is continuous under the southeastern Funeral Mountains. The base of this aquifer is, however, structurally uplifted under the axis of the range, to an elevation that is much higher than most of the springs at Furnace Creek, but that is locally lower than the water table on the opposite (northeast) side of the range. Rather than forming a barrier that blocks groundwater flow under the Funeral Mountains, as previously interpreted, this uplift evidently forms a spillway. The ~700 m drop in the water-table elevation across this range, into Death Valley, thus does not indicate the presence of any feature that would divert or slow groundwater flow. Because of the spillway mechanism, flow from the springs at Furnace Creek may be sensitive to the water-mining activities that have been progressively

  11. Aeromagnetic and gravity data over the Central Transantarctic Mountains (CTAM), Antarctica: a website for the distribution of data and maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.D.; Finn, C.A.; Damaske, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Goldmann, F.; Goodge, J.W.; Braddock, P.

    2006-01-01

    Near complete coverage of the East Antarctic Shield by ice hampers geological study of crustal architecture important for understanding global tectonic and climate history. Limited exposures in the central Transantarctic Mountains (CTAM), however, show that Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the shield as well as Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic sedimentary successions were involved in oblique convergence associated with Gondwana amalgamation. Subsequently, the area was overprinted by Jurassic magmatism and Cenozoic uplift. To extend the known geology of the region to ice-covered areas, we conducted an aeromagnetic survey flown in draped mode by helicopters over the Central Transantarctic Mountains and by fixed-wing aircraft over the adjacent polar plateau. We flew more than 32,000 line km covering an area of nearly 60,000 km2 at an average altitude of 600 m, with average line spacing 2.5 km over most areas and 1.25 km over basement rocks exposed in the Miller and Geologists ranges. Additional lines flown to the north, south, and west extended preliminary coverage and tied with existing surveys. Gravity data was collected on the ground along a central transect of the helicopter survey area.

  12. Cryogenesis study of a pingo-like mound in the Akkol valley of the Russian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahana, G.; Fukui, K.; Fujii, Y.; Ostanin, O.; Mikhailov, N.

    2008-12-01

    Vertical outcrop of a pingo-like mound found in the Akkol valley of the Russian Altai Mountains is described. Several pingo-like mounds were found on the valley floor at about 2300 m ASL. They are 5 - 10 m high and up to 50 m in diameter. Part of a 5 m mound had collapsed into adjacent pond with continuous water supply from streams on the mountain ridge nearby and top 4 m section had been revealed. Highly complex combinations of segregated ice lenses were observed in the outcrop. Ice veins, which are consisted by a number of thick ice lenses, develop radially from the core of the mound. The areas in-between the ice veins had fine parallel lenticular cryostructure. Surface soil layer (about one meter) and patchy soil parts between ice lenses were made of fine till of lacustrine sediments. delta O18 values of water from these ice lenses range from -15 to -18. Spatial distribution of the isotope values was well correlated with the spatial pattern of the ice lenses"f distribution. In addition to segregation of ice lenses perpendicular to the temperature gradient, contribution of relatively rapid formation of ice in radial direction from the core of the mound can be large in this three dimensional frost heave phenomenon.

  13. Reconnaissance geology and geochronology of the Precambrian of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell E.; Hildreth, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    The Precambrian of the western part of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, contains a metamorphic complex of gneisses, schists, and amphibolites that were derived through amphibolite-grade metamorphism from a sedimentary-volcanic sequence perhaps similar to that exposed in the southeastern Wind River Mountains. Whole-rock Rb-Sr dating places the time of metamorphism at 2,860?80 million years. A high initial 87Sr/ 86 S r ratio of 0.7048 suggests that either the protoliths or the source terrane of the sedimentary component is several hundred million years older than the time of metamorphism. Following an interval of 300:t100 million years for which the geologic record is lacking or still undeciphered, the metamorphic complex was intruded by a batholith and satellite bodies of medium- to coarse-grained, generally massive biotite granite and related pegmatite and aplite. The main body of granite is dated at 2,550?60 million years by the Rb-Sr method. Limited data suggest that diabase dikes were emplaced and nephrite veins were formed only shortly after intrusion of the granite. Emplacement of the granite at about 2,550 million years ago appears to be related to a major period of regional granitic plutonism in the Precambrian of southern and western Wyoming. Granites, in the strict sense, that are dated between 2,450 and 2,600 million years occur in the Teton Range, the Sierra Madre, the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Laramie Range. This episode of granitic plutonism occured some 50 to 100 million years later than the major tonalitic to granitic plutonism in the Superior province of northern Minnesota and adjacent Ontario-the nearest exposed Precambrian W terrane that is analogous to the Wyoming province. Initial 87Sr / 86Sr ratios of some of the Wyoming granites are higher than expected if the rocks had been derived from juvenile magmas and it is likely that older crustal rocks were involved to some degree in the generation of these granites. Slightly to highly disturbed

  14. Minerals in the Foods Eaten by Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei)

    PubMed Central

    Cancelliere, Emma C.; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual’s health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods. PMID:25372712

  15. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei).

    PubMed

    Cancelliere, Emma C; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  16. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  17. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  19. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  20. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguard