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Sample records for adjacent mountain ranges

  1. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  2. Burial history and thermal maturity, Rocky Mountain front ranges, foothills, and foreland, east-central British Columbia and adjacent Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkreuth, W.; McMechan, M.

    1988-11-01

    The regional pattern of maturation of Cretaceous strata in the study area was determined from vitrinite-reflectance measurements. Maturation increases from west to east across the Foothills to a maximum near the eastern limit of Foothills deformation and decreases farther east. Maturation along the eastern limit of deformation also decreases northward significantly. Reflectance measurements from Carboniferous strata exposed in the Front Ranges are much lower than values from the Lower Cretaceous near the eastern limit of deformation. Modeling using burial history curves indicates the regional maturation pattern largely reflects variations in the depth and/or duration of burial beneath Maastrichtian-Eocene foredeep deposits. However, differential vertical movements associated with the Peace River arch/embayment in the Carboniferous, Triassic, Early Cretaceous and Maastrichtian-Eocene had an important effect on the maturation pattern. Determined and estimated maturation levels for reservoir strata are consistent with the known occurrences of gas fields and oil pools, except along the relatively unexplored western margin of the study area. There, moderate maturation levels indicate a potential for wet-gas or oil preservation in shallow structures containing Triassic and Lower Carboniferous carbonates in the south. In the north, structures in the western Foothills deforming Triassic strata with lower levels of maturation are breached. 15 figures.

  3. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  4. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  5. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Along its Oregon segment, the Cascade Range is almost entirely volcanic in origin. The volcanoes and their eroded remnants are the visible magmatic expression of the Cascadia subduction zone, where the offshore Juan de Fuca tectonic plate is subducted beneath North America. Subduction occurs as two lithospheric plates collide, and an underthrusted oceanic plate is commonly dragged into the mantle by the pull of gravity, carrying ocean-bottom rock and sediment down to where heat and pressure expel water. As this water rises, it lowers the melting temperature in the overlying hot mantle rocks, thereby promoting melting. The molten rock supplies the volcanic arcs with heat and magma. Cascade Range volcanoes are part of the Ring of Fire, a popular term for the numerous volcanic arcs that encircle the Pacific Ocean.

  6. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  7. Himalayan Mountain Range, India/China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The frontier between India (Kashmir) and China (Tibet) (33.5N, 79.5E) lies across the narrow land bridge between the two lakes near the center of this photo. Many of the peaks in this region of the Karakoram and Latakh ranges of the Himalayan Mountains, exceed 20,000 ft. making it one of the most remote regions of the Earth. The large end lake is the Kako in China and the long narrow lake is the Pangong in India.

  8. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  9. Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains and adjacent Raton Basin, southern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Culebra Range) is interpreted as a system of west-dipping, basement-involved thrusts and reverse faults. The Culebra thrust is the dominant structure in the central part of the range; it dips 30 -55?? west and brings Precambrian metamorphic base-ment rocks over unmetamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. East of the Culebra thrust, thrusts and reverse faults break the basement and overlying cover rocks into north-trending fault blocks; these boundary faults probably dip 40-60?? westward. The orientation of fault slickensides indicates oblique (northeast) slip on the Culebra thrust and dip-slip (ranging from eastward to northward) movement on adjacent faults. In sedimentary cover rocks, east-vergent anticlines overlie and merge with thrusts and reverse faults; these anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds. Minor east-dipping thrusts and reverse faults (backthrusts) occur in both the hanging walls and footwalls of thrusts. The easternmost faults and folds of the Culebra Range form a continuous structural boundary between the Laramide Sangre de Cristo highland and the Raton Basin. Boundary structures consist of west-dipping frontal thrusts flanked on the basinward side by poorly exposed, east-dipping backthrusts. The backthrusts are interpreted to overlie structural wedges that have been emplaced above blind thrusts in the basin margin. West-dipping frontal thrusts and blind thrusts are interpreted to involve basement, but backthrusts are rooted in basin-margin cover rocks. At shallow structural levels where erosion has not exposed a frontal thrust, the structural boundary of the basin is represented by an anticline or monocline. Based on both regional and local stratigraphic evidence, Laramide deformation in the Culebra Range and accompanying synorogenic sedimentation in the western Raton Basin probably took place from latest Cretaceous through early Eocene time. The earliest evidence of uplift and

  10. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  11. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-06-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  12. Deformation mechanisms adjacent to a thrust fault, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.C.; McConnell, D.A.; Friberg, V.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the character of grain-scale deformation adjacent to a Laramide thrust fault in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This site represents a window through the hanging wall of a thrust sheet which juxtaposes Precambrian rocks over Pennsylvanian rocks. It provides a rare opportunity to examine deformation mechanisms in the footwall of a basement-involved thrust. Brittle deformation is evident at both outcrop and grain-scale. Filled fractures and slickensides composed of quartz and epidote are present throughout the area, and increase in abundance adjacent to the fault zone, as does the frequency of mesoscopic faulting. Variations in deformation mechanisms can be seen between the Precambrian rocks of the thrust sheet and the Pennsylvanian metasedimentary rocks, and between the metamorphosed arkoses and metapelites within the Pennsylvanian section. Cataclastic textures are present in deformed Precambrian rocks, and the degree of cataclasis is greatest immediately adjacent to the fault zone. Deformation in the Pennsylvanian rocks is largely dependent upon the abundance of fine-grained matrix within each sample. The degree of brittle deformation is negatively correlated to the percentage of matrix. Coarser-grained sections show microscopic faults which offset quartz and feldspar grains. Offsets decrease on the faults as they pass from coarse grains into the matrix.

  13. Conodont and Radiolarian Data from the De Long Mountains Quadrangle and Adjacent Areas, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Blome, Charles D.; Young, Lorne E.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report presents biostratigraphic data from 289 collections at 189 localities in the De Long Mountains, Misheguk Mountain, and Noatak quadrangles (fig. 1); most of these data have never been previously published. The collections were made during studies of the Red Dog massive sulfide deposit in 1998?2004 and in support of regional mapping projects in 1979, 1981, 1983, and 1997?98. The collections?mostly conodonts and some radiolarians?tightly constrain the age of many stratigraphic units of Devonian through Triassic age exposed within the study area, and provide additional data on the depositional environments and thermal history of these rocks. The data are presented in a series of tables, organized by fossil type, stratigraphic unit, and location. Tables 1?12 contain conodont data, mostly from the De Long Mountains quadrangle. All of these collections were initially examined, or were reevaluated, from 1997 through 2004, and complete faunal lists are given for all samples. Table 13 lists ages and conodont color alteration indices (CAIs) of 27 collections from 24 localities in the Noatak quadrangle; updated faunal lists were not prepared for these samples. Radiolarian data?all from the De Long Mountains quadrangle?are given in table 14; these collections were analyzed between 1998 and 2003. Collection localities are shown in four maps (sheets 1, 2). Map 1 (sheet 1) shows all outcrop samples from the De Long Mountains and western Misheguk Mountain quadrangle (locs. 1-121). Maps 2?4 (sheets 1, 2) show all drill hole sample localities; samples come from the Su-Lik deposit and in and around the Anarraaq deposit (map 2, locs. 122?135), in and adjacent to the Red Dog deposits (Paalaaq, Aqqaluk, Main, and Qanaiyaq) (map 3, locs. 136?158), and from drill holes along the Port Road in the Noatak quadrangle (map 4, locs. 159?160). Map 4 (sheet 2) also shows all outcrop samples from the Noatak quadrangle (locs. 161?189). The text summarizes the lithofacies

  14. The formation of mountain range curvature by gravitational spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copley, Alex

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a mechanism by which mountain ranges can form curved range-fronts. Gravitational spreading of mountain ranges that have been thrust onto rigid lowlands will result in the formation of curvature, provided that enough gravity-driven flow occurs to dominate the shape of the topography. Whether this mechanism can operate during the lifetime of a given mountain range depends upon the viscosity of the range, the square of the along-strike length of the range, and the cube of the elevation of the range. The curvature of the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau is consistent with formation by gravitational spreading provided that the viscosity is similar to that previously estimated using other, independent, methods. The low elevation and young age of the Zagros mountains mean that large-scale curvature has not had time to develop. The short along-strike extent and possibly low viscosity of the Sulaiman Ranges in Pakistan may have allowed the ranges to form their distinctive arcuate shape. The formation of range-front curvature plays an important role in controlling the tectonic evolution of the interiors of the ranges, with arc-parallel extension becoming progressively more important as range-front curvature develops.

  15. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564

  16. Lineaments and their tectonic implications in Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains region

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, E.K.; Perry, W.J. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Two orthogonal sets of lineaments in Phanerozoic rocks of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains region probably reflect recurrent structural movement along corresponding fractures in the underlying igneous and metamorphic rocks. The lineaments seem to have been primarily paleotopographic features that affected the depositional and erosional margins, thicknesses, and the distribution of lithofacies of Phanerozoic strata. At small scales, the crosscutting lineaments of either set suggest primarily vertical movements of rectangular blocks along through-going rectilinear fractures in the basement rocks. At larger scales, the differential movement of these blocks apparently was propagated upward through the strata and formed a variety of structures, many of which are en echelon. Blocks in the region moved at different times, and they commonly rotated about horizontal axes, as indicated by lateral differences in rates of associated sedimentation and by structural features along the lineaments. Throughout most of the Phanerozoic, the movements seem to have been mainly along the diagonal set (northeast, northwest) of lineaments, but the cardinal set (north-south, east-west) also influenced the development of Laramide structures and the present landscape in the Rocky Mountain region. The structural stresses, which were released along the two sets of lineaments, may reflect plate movements, and they probably are related to orogenies caused either by plate collisions or by rifting and continental fragmentation.

  17. Climate dominated topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, B. A.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The broad spatial trend in channel steepness values suggests that the locus of high rock uplift rates is coincident with the rugged range core, in a similar position as high temperature and pressure lithologies, but not in the low lying foothills as has been previously suggested by low-temperature thermochronometry. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns. We demonstrate the same topographic effects are recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on topography makes the argument of mountain range steadiness untenable in significantly glaciated settings. Furthermore, our results suggest that most glaciated Cenozoic ranges are likely still in a mode of readjustment as fluvial systems change topography and erosion rates to equilibrate with rock uplift rates.

  18. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  19. Lineaments and their tectonic implications in Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains region

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, E.K.; Perry, W.J. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Two orthogonal sets of lineaments in Phanerozoic rocks of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains region probably reflect recurrent structural movement along corresponding fractures in the underlying igneous and metamorphic rocks. The lineaments seem to have been primarily paleotopographic features that affected the depositional and erosional margins, thicknesses, and the distribution of lithofacies of Phanerozoic strata. One set is oriented approximately N5-15/sup 0/E and N75-85/sup 0/W; the other set is oriented about N50-60/sup 0/E and N30-40/sup 0/W. At small scales, the crosscutting lineaments of either set indicate primarily vertical movements of rectangular blocks along through-going rectilinear fractures in the basement rocks. At larger scales, the differential movement of these blocks apparently was propagated upward through the strata and formed a variety of structures, many of which are en echelon. Blocks in the region moved at different times, and they commonly rotated about horizontal axes, as indicated by lateral differences in rates of associated sedimentation and by structural features along the lineaments. Through most of the Phanerozoic, the movements seem to have been mainly along the diagonal set (northeast, northwest) of lineaments, but the cardinal set (north-south, east-west) also influenced the development of Laramide structures and the present landscape in the Rocky Mountain region. The structural stresses, which were released along the two sets of lineaments, may reflect plate movements, and they probably are related to orogenies caused either by plate collisions or by rifting and continental fragmentation.

  20. Glacial reorganization of topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Byron; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns, and not tectonic rock uplift rates. Alpine glaciers drastically altered the relief structure of the Olympic Mountains. The details of these relief changes are recorded in channel profiles as overdeepenings, reduced slopes, and associated knickpoints. We find the position of these relief changes within the orogen is dependent on the position of the Pleistocene ELA. While alpine glaciers overdeepened valleys in regions near the Pleistocene ELA (which has a tendency to increase relief), headward erosion of west and north flowing glacier systems captured significant area from opposing systems and caused drainage divide lowering. This divide lowering reduced relief throughout the range. We demonstrate similar topographic effects recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on

  1. Hydroclimate of the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreo, Michael T.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Flint, Alan L.; Damar, Nancy A.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Hurja, James

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration often are used to characterize the hydroclimate of a region. Quantification of these parameters in mountainous terrains is difficult because limited access often hampers the collection of representative ground data. To fulfill a need to characterize ecological zones in the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range of southern Nevada, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of these hydroclimatic parameters are determined from remote-sensing and model-based methodologies. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation estimates for this area ranges from about 100 millimeters (mm) in the low elevations of the study area (700 meters [m]) to more than 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains (> 2,800 m). The PRISM model underestimates precipitation by 7–15 percent based on a comparison with four high‑elevation precipitation gages having more than 20 years of record. Precipitation at 3,000-m elevation is 50 percent greater in the Spring Mountains than in the Sheep Range. The lesser amount of precipitation in the Sheep Range is attributed to partial moisture depletion by the Spring Mountains of eastward-moving, cool-season (October–April) storms. Cool-season storms account for 66–76 percent of annual precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration estimates by the Basin Characterization Model range from about 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains to 1,600 mm in the low elevations of the study area. The model realistically simulates lower potential evapotranspiration on northeast-to-northwest facing slopes compared to adjacent southeast-to-southwest facing slopes. Actual evapotranspiration, estimated using a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer based water-balance model, ranges from about 100 to 600 mm. The magnitude and spatial variation of simulated, actual evapotranspiration was validated by comparison to PRISM precipitation

  2. Acute pulmonary oedema on the Ruwenzori mountain range.

    PubMed Central

    Naeije, R; Mélot, C

    1990-01-01

    A 40 year old man had an episode of severe pulmonary oedema at 4000-5000 m during the ascent of the Margherita peak (5109 m) of Mount Stanley on the Ruwenzori. He had taken acetazolamide and high dose dexamethasone to treat symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Six years before he had been studied by right heart catheterisation as a healthy volunteer during hypoxic breathing at sea level. His pulmonary vascular reactivity had been within the normal range for 32 healthy subjects. This man had high altitude pulmonary oedema despite currently recommended treatments for acute mountain sickness and normal pulmonary vascular reactivity to hypoxia at sea level. PMID:2271350

  3. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  4. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  5. Sedimentary Rocks of the Buckeye Range, Horlick Mountains, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Long, W E

    1962-04-27

    In the Buckeye Range of the Horlick Mountains, 4000 feet of sedimentary rocks nonconformably overlie a granitic basement and underlie a thick diabasic sill. The sedimentary section consists of Devonian sandstone and shale (Horlick formation), Carboniferous (?) tillite (Buckeye formation), Permian (?) platy and carbonaceous shale (Discovery Ridge formation), and Permian arkose, shale, and numerous coal beds (Mount Glossopteris formation). This apparently is the first report of a Paleozoic tillite in Antarctica. PMID:17745908

  6. Sedimentary Rocks of the Buckeye Range, Horlick Mountains, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Long, W E

    1962-04-27

    In the Buckeye Range of the Horlick Mountains, 4000 feet of sedimentary rocks nonconformably overlie a granitic basement and underlie a thick diabasic sill. The sedimentary section consists of Devonian sandstone and shale (Horlick formation), Carboniferous (?) tillite (Buckeye formation), Permian (?) platy and carbonaceous shale (Discovery Ridge formation), and Permian arkose, shale, and numerous coal beds (Mount Glossopteris formation). This apparently is the first report of a Paleozoic tillite in Antarctica.

  7. Flat-topped mountain ranges: Their global distribution and value for understanding the evolution of mountain topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Marc; Gunnell, Yanni; Farines, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    rock-cooling signatures, stratigraphic age-bracketing, stream channel gradient patterns, and other direct or indirect dating criteria. It follows that many portions of mountain belts undergo unsteady, nonuniform post-orogenic landscape evolution trajectories, with intermittent opportunities for relief reduction. The resulting erosion surfaces remain preserved as signatures of transient landscape evolution regimes. We find that (i) occurrences of planar topography form populations of discrete, insular landscape units, only some of which could be interpreted as fragments of a fluvially dissected, and/or tectonically fragmented, regional peneplain. (ii) The post-orogenic time required for achieving advanced stages of relief reduction is variable, ranging from 3 to 70 Ma. (iii) Partly depending on whether the adjacent sedimentary basins were over- or underfilled, some erosion surfaces may have been controlled by raised base levels and may thus have formed at high elevations; however, in many cases they were disconnected from marine base levels by rapid surface uplift, thus acquiring their elevated positions in recent time. In some cases, subcrustal processes such as asthenospheric anomalies, and/or lithospheric slab tear or breakoff, explain extremely rapid, regional post-orogenic uplift. (iv) Overall, the conditions for achieving surface preservation in steep and tectonically active terrain are predictable but also quite varied and contingent on context.

  8. Acidification reversal in low mountain range streams of Germany.

    PubMed

    Sucker, Carina; von Wilpert, Klaus; Puhlmann, Heike

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluates the acidification status and trends in streams of forested mountain ranges in Germany in consequence of reduced anthropogenic deposition since the mid 1980s. The analysis is based on water quality data for 86 long-term monitored streams in the Ore Mountains, the Bavarian Forest, the Fichtelgebirge, the Harz Mountains, the Spessart, the Black Forest, the Thuringian Forest, and the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge of Germany and the Vosges of France. Within the observation period, which starts for the individual streams between 1980 and 2001 and ends between 1990 and 2009, trends in chemical water quality were calculated with the Seasonal Mann Kendall Test. About 87% of the streams show significant (p < 0.05) negative trends in sulfate. The general reduction in acid deposition resulted in increased pH values (significant for 66% of the streams) and subsequently decreased base cation concentrations in the stream water (for calcium significant in 58% and magnesium 49% of the streams). Reaction products of acidification such as aluminum (significant for 50%) or manganese (significant for 69%) also decreased. Nitrate (52% with significant decrease) and chloride (38% with significant increase) have less pronounced trends and more variable spatial patterns. For the quotient of acidification, which is the ratio of the sum of base cations and the sum of acid anions, no clear trend is observed: in 44% of the monitored streams values significantly decreased and in 23% values significantly increased. A notable observation is the increasing DOC concentration, which is significant for 55% of the observed streams.

  9. Structural analysis of Boat Mountain area in Rocky Mountain foreland, Madison Range, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Sablock, J.M.

    1987-08-01

    Detailed mapping, together with stereographic analysis of over 400 field measurements, has been used to determine the geological structure of the Boat Mountain area in southern Madison Range, Gallatin County, Montana. The principal structure is a north-plunging, north-northwest-trending, overturned and thrusted synform, termed the Bear Creek syncline. Thrusting consists of a duplex of roof and sole thrusts enclosing an imbricate stack of horses in the southwest part of Boat Mountain. Precambrian to Cretaceous (Kootenai Formation) strata are involved in the deformation, which is interpreted as Laramide and of a Foothills Family type, involving several separate pulses of deformation. Stereographic determinations of maximum principal stress directions have shown that an initial northeast-directed stress formed and overturned the synform, caused movement on the out-of-syncline sole thrust, and imbricated the overturned limb. A later, easterly directed stress moved the back-limb roof thrust over the already folded and thrust-faulted rocks of Boat Mountain. Thrusting was succeeded by sinistrally directed tear (or strike-slip) faulting along a northeast-striking fault at the southern end of Boat Mountain. Listric normal faulting on Laramide thrust-fault planes is interpreted as a response to Tertiary extension. Recent normal faulting, on steep-dipping, east-west-striking fault planes and continuing to the present, is interpreted as a response to Yellowstone doming.

  10. Environmental exposures to agrochemicals in the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeNoir, J.; Aston, L.; Data, S.; Fellers, G.; McConnell, L.; Sieber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The release of pesticides into the environment may impact human and environmental health. Despite the need for environmental exposure data, few studies quantify exposures in urban areas and even fewer determine exposures to wildlife in remote areas. Although it is expected that concentrations in remote regions will be low, recent studies suggest that even low concentrations may have deleterious effects on wildlife. Many pesticides are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife, adversely affecting growth, development, and behavior. This chapter reviews the fate and transport of pesticides applied in the Central Valley of California and quantifies their subsequent deposition into the relatively pristine Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.

  11. Regional significance of Mississippian rocks at Pentagon Mountain, Lewis and Clark Range, northwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    Pentagon Mountain exposes one of the best of the few sections of Mississippian rocks in the Lewis and Clark Range of northwestern Montana. This section consists of 225 m (738 ft) of marine carbonate rocks from which conodonts, ranging in age from earliest Osagean to early Meramecian, have been identified. Its stratigraphic base is well exposed, but the top has been eroded. Five units are recognized in this sequence, in ascending order: (1) phosphatized coarsely crinoidal and spiculitic wackestone, (2) dolomitic lime mudstone or wackestone, thinly interbedded with spiculitic biogenic chert, (3) partly dolomitized lime bioclastic wackestone showing much pressure-solution compaction, (4) partly dolomitized lime bioclastic packstone or wackestone, also showing much pressure-solution compaction, and (5) dolomitic mudstone. The Mississippian sequence at Pentagon Mountain can be readily correlated lithologically, across the Lewis thrust system with Mississippian rocks that crop out to the east in the Sawtooth Range. This implies either that Mississippian units were originally widespread or that the magnitude of thrusting between the Mississippian rocks in the Lewis and Clark Range and those in the Sawtooth Range was insignificant. However, Mississippian rocks at Pentagon Mountain exhibit extreme pressure-solution compaction, which suggests greater stratigraphic or structural burial of these rocks than their Mississippian counterparts in the Sawtooth Range. Secondary dolomite is pervasive in the lower part of the Mississippian section in the Lewis and Clark Range, and spectacular solution breccias locally disrupt the base of the section. These breccias and the adjacent dolomite are probably related, as both are thought to result from the passage of fluids through these rocks during Laramide uplift and/or post Laramide erosion and extension.

  12. Climate and Floristic Variation in Great Basin Mountain Ranges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, D. A.; Leary, P.

    2010-12-01

    are 316 in the Snake Range transect, and 425 along the Sheep Range transect. Near the Sheep Range lies the Spring Mountains where 769 samples were obtained. More than 30,000 geo-referenced photographs document the sites, and nearly 1000 vascular plant taxa have been encountered and their distributions documented. Recently completed soil maps, the PRISM precipitation model, and 10m Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the study areas exist. As a result, many environmental conditions can be explored with multivariate statistical methods. Preliminary results indicate that different kinds of physical data may be appropriate only at certain scales. Most useful for fine-scale investigations on mountains appears to be measures of irradiance at the solstices and equinox derived from the 10m DEM. Past climate in Nevada is readily evident on its landscapes, featuring glacial, periglacial and pluvial features. Pollen and remains left by woodrats provide vegetation records dating up to 40,000 years before present. The vegetation work described here provides a snapshot of biodiversity at fine scale of several mountain ranges. Efforts of the physical scientists and physiologists now, and repeat visits to the sample sites of this study later, will help us track the processes and manifestations of landscape change as responses to climate.

  13. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  14. Erosion of an ancient mountain range, the Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P.R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Finkel, R.; Caffee, M.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 10Be and 26Al in bedrock (n=10), colluvium (n=5 including grain size splits), and alluvial sediments (n=59 including grain size splits), coupled with field observations and GIS analysis, suggest that erosion rates in the Great Smoky Mountains are controlled by subsurface bedrock erosion and diffusive slope processes. The results indicate rapid alluvial transport, minimal alluvial storage, and suggest that most of the cosmogenic nuclide inventory in sediments is accumulated while they are eroding from bedrock and traveling down hill slopes. Spatially homogeneous erosion rates of 25 - 30 mm Ky-1 are calculated throughout the Great Smoky Mountains using measured concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in quartz separated from alluvial sediment. 10Be and 26Al concentrations in sediments collected from headwater tributaries that have no upstream samples (n=18) are consistent with an average erosion rate of 28 ?? 8 mm Ky-1, similar to that of the outlet rivers (n=16, 24 ?? 6 mm Ky-1), which carry most of the sediment out of the mountain range. Grain-size-specific analysis of 6 alluvial sediment samples shows higher nuclide concentrations in smaller grain sizes than in larger ones. The difference in concentrations arises from the large elevation distribution of the source of the smaller grains compared with the narrow and relatively low source elevation of the large grains. Large sandstone clasts disaggregate into sand-size grains rapidly during weathering and downslope transport; thus, only clasts from the lower parts of slopes reach the streams. 26Al/10Be ratios do not suggest significant burial periods for our samples. However, alluvial samples have lower 26Al/10Be ratios than bedrock and colluvial samples, a trend consistent with a longer integrated cosmic ray exposure history that includes periods of burial during down-slope transport. The results confirm some of the basic ideas embedded in Davis' geographic cycle model, such as the reduction of relief

  15. The crustal section of the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerstaff, D.; Harris, R.A.; Miller, M.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-04-01

    Fragments of the upper crustal section of the Brooks Range Ophiolite on the west flank of Siniktanneyak Mountain expose important contact relations and paleohorizontal indicators. The nearly complete crustal sequence faces northwest. Based on field observations, the crustal units encountered at Siniktanneyak Mountain from bottom to top are: (1) layered gabbro, (2) isotropic gabbro, (3) high level and late-stage intrusions of diorite and diabase, (4) rare sheeted dikes, (5) basalt, and (6) a bedded volcanic tuff. Potassium feldspar-bearing pegmatites are also found. Of particular interest is the orientation of the layered gabbro, sheeted dikes, and the bedded volcanic tuff. The steeply dipping gabbro layers strike N-S, the adjacent vertical sheeted dikes strike NE-SW. Bedded volcanic tuff and lavas are flat lying. Contacts within the upper crust units are often covered by talus. Contacts between various plutonic rocks are both sharp and gradational, suggesting syn- and post-cooling intrusions. Contacts between plutonic rock and higher volcanic rock appear to be fault contacts.

  16. Uranium deposits at Shinarump Mesa and some adjacent areas in the Temple Mountain district, Emery County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.

    1953-01-01

    Deposits of uraniferous hydrocarbons are associated with carnotite in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age at Shinarump Mesa and adjacent areas of the Temple Mountain district in the San Rafael Swell of Emery County, Utah. The irregular ore bodies of carnotite-bearing sandstone are genetically related to lenticular uraniferous ore bodies containing disseminated asphaltitic and humic hydrocarbon in permeable sandstones and were localized indirectly by sedimentary controls. Nearly non-uraniferous bitumen commonly permeates the sandstones in the Shinarump conglomerate and the underlying Moekopi formation in the area. The ore deposits at Temple Mountain have been altered locally by hydrothermal solutions, and in other deposits throughout the area carnotite has been transported by ground and surface water. Uraniferous asphaltite is thought to be the non-volatile residue of an original weakly uraniferous crude oil that migrated into the San Rafael anticline; the ore metals concentrated in the asphaltite as the oil was devolatilized and polymerized. Carnotite is thought to have formed from the asphaltite by ground water leaching. It is concluded that additional study of the genesis of the asphaltitic uranium ores in the San Rafael Swell, of the processes by which the hydrocarbons interact and are modified (such as heat, polymerization, and hydrogenation under the influence of alpha-ray bombardment), of petroleum source beds, and of volcanic intrusive rocks of Tertiary age are of fundamental importance in the continuing study of the uranium deposits on the Colorado Plateau.

  17. Russian aeromagnetic surveys of the Prince Charles Mountains and adjacent regions into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, Alexander; Golynsky, Dmitry; Kiselev, Alexander; Masolov, Valery

    2014-05-01

    Russian aeromagnetic investigations in the Prince Charles Mountains (PCM) and surrounding areas, seek to contribute data on the tectonics of Precambrian igneous belts and cratonic fragments, the crustal structure of the Lambert Rift system and other major aspects of Antarctic geology, critical to understanding continental growth processes (Golynsky et al., 2006). Over the past decade, the Polar Marine Geoscience Expedition projects acquired approximately 77,400 line-km of aeromagnetic data over the largely ice-covered regions of MacRobertson Land and Princess Elizabeth Land. The airborne surveys were performed with a standard profile spacing of 5 km and tie-line interval of 15-25 km. The total amount of the Russian aeromagnetic data collected in this region exceeded more than 165,000 line-km. Together with the PCMEGA and AGAP surveys (Damaske and McLean, 2005; Ferraccioli et al., 2011) the PMGE dataset forms the longest transect ever mapped in East Antarctica exceeding 1950 km in length. Several distinct crustal subdivisions are clearly differentiated in the magnetic data. The high-amplitude positive anomalies that extend around the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Islands are likely be attributed to the southern boundary of high-grade metamorphic Late Archean craton. The northern PCM that are composed by ~1 Ga orthogneiss and charnockite display a predominantly northeasterly trending magnetic fabric that continues to the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift. The aeromagnetic data from the Southern PCM reveal the spatial boundary of the Archaean Ruker Terrane that is characterized by a short-wavelength anomalies and the prominent Ruker Anomaly that is associated with a banded iron formation. The prominent alternating system of linear NE-SW positive and negative anomalies over the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift may reflect the western boundary of the Princess Elizabeth Land cratonic(?) block, although its relationships and tectonic origin remained largely ambiguous

  18. Landscape of a Glaciated Rift Flank: Structure of the Transantarctic Mountains From the Royal Society Range to the Churchill Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanick, E.; Wilson, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    Multiphase tectonic activity has shaped the regional landscape of the Transantarctic Mountains in Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Cenozoic times. The Antarctic ice sheets have covered the continent for the last 34 m.y. and coeval glacial activity and tectonism have affected mountain landscape evolution. Large-scale linear morphologic features within the mountains are controlled by bedrock structure. Satellite imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs) have been used in this study to map regional, linear morphologic trends along the mountain chain between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains. ASTER imagery was mosaicked and processed to enhance linear features and lineament analysis was employed to quantify major trends in the mountains. These trends were then compared to geologic maps and other structural and geomorphic data for the area. A low-resolution DEM derived from topographic map contours and new, higher- resolution DEMs created from ASTER imagery were used to create contour, shaded relief, slope steepness, and slope aspect maps. Geomorphology was assessed using these maps and related to mapped lineaments. Linear features that parallel known rift-related faults, or form typical rift-fault patterns, were used to develop a structural model for the architecture of this sector of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank.

  19. Millennial-scale Denudation Rates of the Santa Lucia Mountains, CA: Implications for Landscape Thresholds from a Steep, High Relief, Coastal Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, H.; Hilley, G. E.; Kiefer, K.; Blisniuk, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new, 10-Be-derived denudation rates measured from river sands in basins of the Santa Lucia Range, central California. The Santa Lucia Mountains of the California Coast Range are an asymmetrical northwest-southeast trending range bounded by the San Gregorio-Hosgri (SG-HFZ ) and Rinconada-Reliz faults. This area provides an additional opportunity to analyze the relationships between topographic form, denudation rates, and mapped underlying geologic substrate in an actively deforming landscape. Analysis of in situ-produced 10-Be from alluvial sand samples collected in the Santa Lucia Mountains has yielded measurements of spatially varying basin-scale denudation rates. Despite the impressive relief of the Santa Lucia's, denudation rates within catchments draining the coastal side of the range are uniformly low, generally varying between ~90 m/Myr and ~350 m/Myr, with one basin eroding at ~500 m/Myr. Preliminary data suggest the lowest erosion rates are located within the northern interior of the range in sedimentary and granitic lithologies, while higher rates are located directly along the coast in metasedimentary bedrock. This overall trend is punctuated by a single high denudation rate, which is hosted by a watershed whose geometry suggests that it previously has, and continues to experience divide migration as it captures the adjacent watershed's area. Spatial distribution of basins with higher denudation rates is inferred to indicate a zone of uplift adjacent to the SG-HFZ. We compare erosion rates to basin mean channel steepness index, extracted from a 10 m digital elevation model. Denudation rate generally increases with channel steepness index until ~250 m/Myr, at which point the relationship becomes invariant, suggesting a non-linear erosion model may best characterize this region. These hypotheses will be tested further as additional denudation rate results are analyzed.

  20. Observed Changes in Mountain Hydrology Following a Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in the Snowy Range of Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, A. L.; Miller, S. N.; Paige, G. B.; Kelleners, T.; Ohara, N.; Hayes, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Snowy Range Mountains of Wyoming peaked in 2008 coinciding with changes in climate. The combination of the two effects have potentially changed hydrologic response in mountain watersheds. Shorter snowmelt duration and an earlier onset of snowmelt are hypothesized to occur as results of both mountain pine beetle epidemics and global climate change, while beetle effects likely point to increased total flows, baseflows, and peak flows. We used statistical analysis to identify changes in hydrologic response over the past four decades by comparing hydrograph components from 2012-2014 water years to hydrograph components from the 1960's-1980's water years using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) including a precipitation covariate. The 2012-2014 group was found to be associated with (1) shorter snowmelt duration, (2) earlier onset of snowmelt, and (3) increased baseflows. No differences in total discharge, snowmelt discharge, stormflow discharge, peak discharge, or day of peak discharge were detected. Pearson's correlation coefficients between watershed and runoff characteristics for six mountain watersheds were calculated for the 2013 and 2014 water years. Watershed characteristics include percent green conifers, percent red phase conifers, and percent grey phase conifers derived from a Random Forest land classification map. For the 2013 water year, watershed area expressed as percent red phase conifer was found to be significantly correlated to watershed discharge expressed as percent baseflow with a Pearson's Correlation Coefficient of +0.95 (alpha level = 0.05). The positive correlation between red phase conifer and baseflow may be considered corroborating evidence of a mountain pine beetle induced change on mountain hydrology detected in the ANOVA/ANCOVA analysis. No significant correlations between beetle phase and either snowmelt duration or onset of snowmelt were detected.

  1. Reflection of VLF radio waves from distant mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, N. R.

    1985-04-01

    A computer cross-correlation technique is being used to determine the group delays and directions of arrival of man-made subionospheric VLF signals which have reached the receiver by paths other than the direct great circle path. The 200-baud MSK signals transmitted by NWC, NPM, and NLK allow time resolution to at least 5 ms and, with 15 min of integration, the sensitivity can be as low as about 100 nV/m in quiet conditions. Reflections from the Andes, the Rockies, and the mountains of southeast Asia have now been identified at Dunedin, New Zealand. Round-the-world and round-the-world-the-other-way signals have also been observed.

  2. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    PubMed

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased.

  3. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    PubMed

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased. PMID:23803847

  4. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  5. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F. )

    1996-01-01

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  6. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  7. The impact of embedded valleys on daytime pollution transport over a mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Gohm, Alexander; Wagner, Johannes S.

    2016-04-01

    Idealized large-eddy simulations were performed to investigate the impact of different mountain geometries on daytime pollution transport by thermally driven winds. The main objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the interactions between plain-to-mountain and slope wind systems and (ii) to analyze their influence on daytime pollution distribution over complex terrain. For this purpose, tracer analyses were conducted over a quasi-two-dimensional mountain range with embedded valleys bordered by ridges with different crest heights and a flat foreland in cross-mountain direction. The valley depth was varied systematically. It was found that different flow regimes develop dependent on the valley floor height. In the case of elevated valley floors, the plain-to-mountain wind descends into the potentially warmer valley and replaces the opposing upslope wind. This superimposed plain-to-mountain wind increases the pollution transport towards the main ridge by additional 20 \\unit{%} compared to the regime with a deep valley. Due to mountain and advective venting, a more than threefold increased earth-atmosphere exchange is found over the various mountain geometries when compared to the reference plain simulation. However, the calculated vertical exchange is strongly sensitive to the definition of the convective boundary layer height.

  8. The Growth of Simple Mountain Ranges: 2. Geomorphic Evolution at Fault Linkage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawers, N. H.; Densmore, A. L.; Davis, A. M.; Gupta, S.

    2002-12-01

    Large normal faults grow partly through linkage of fault segments and partly by fault tip propagation. The process by which fault segments interact and link is critical to understanding how topography is created along fault-bounded ranges. Structural studies and numerical models have shown that fault linkage is accompanied by localised increased displacement rate, which in turn drives rapid base level fall at the evolving range front. The changes in both along-strike fault structure and base level are most pronounced at and adjacent to sites of fault linkage. These areas, known as relay zones, thus preserve clues to both the tectonic history and the geomorphic evolution of large fault-bounded mountain ranges. We discuss the temporal and spatial constraints on the evolution of footwall-range topography, by comparing a number of active fault linkage sites, using field and DEM observations of the spatial pattern of footwall denudation. In particular, we focus on sites in Pleasant Valley, Nevada (Pearce and Tobin fault segments) and in the northeastern Basin and Range (the Beaverhead fault, Idaho, and the Star Valley fault, Wyoming). The study areas represent different stages in the structural and geomorphic evolution of relay zones, and allow us to propose a developmental model of large fault evolution and landscape response. Early in the growth of fault segments into an overlapping geometry, catchments may form within the evolving relay. However, increasing displacement rate associated with fault interaction and linkage makes these catchments prone to capture by streams that have incised headward from the range front. This scenario leads to locally increased footwall denudation in the vicinity of the capture site. Longitudinal profiles of streams differ with respect to position along relays and whether or not any particular stream has been able to capture early-formed drainages. The restricted space between interacting en echelon fault segments helps preserve close

  9. Structure and deformation history of the northern range of Trinidad and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algar, S. T.; Pindell, J. L.

    1993-08-01

    Conflicting models have been proposed for both the evolution of northern South America and the neotectonics of the south Caribbean plate boundary zone. The Trinidadian portion of the margin is particularly controversial, but surprisingly it has been little studied. We present a structural analysis of Trinidad's Northern Range, pertinent updates of the island's stratigraphy and sedimentology, and new zircon fission track age determinations, and use them to constrain Trinidad's geologic history, and to better understand the controlling tectonic processes. In our interpretation Trinidad's three E-ENE striking ranges, which are separated by late Neogene-Recent depocenters, expose (1) the Northern Range Group, generally greenschist-metamorphosed Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous north facing continental slope sediments of the Northern Range, deposited on the northern South American passive margin 200-400 km to the WNW, and (2) the Trinidad Group, Cretaceous-Paleogene shelf slope sediments of the central and southern Trinidad deposited less than 100 km WNW of their present location. A small allochthon composing the Sans Souci Group Cretaceous tholeiitic volcaniclastic, basaltic, and gabbroic rocks (Sans Souci Formation) and sediments (Toco Formation) now in the northeastern Northern Range, has been transported hundreds of kilometers from the west with the Caribbean Plate. Despite earlier references to Cretaceous orogenesis, all deformation in Trinidad is of Cenozoic age. The first deformation in the Northern Range (D1) formed north vergent nappes and induced greenschist metamorphism, probably in the Late Eocene or Oligocene. The nappes developed either by the underthrusting of the Proto-Caribbean crust beneath South America due to convergence between North and South America, or as gravity slides caused by oversteepening induced by this convergence and/or the passage of the Caribbean Plate's peripheral bulge and arrival of its foredeep. Northern Range D2 deformation is south

  10. Dynamics of erosion in a compressional mountain range revealed by 10Be paleoerosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val, P.; Hoke, G. D.; Fosdick, J. C.; Wittmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of erosion over million-year timescales is key to understanding the evolution of mountain ranges and adjacent fold-and-thrust belts. While models of orogenic wedge evolution predict an instantaneous response of erosion to pulses of rock uplift, stream-power based landscape evolution models predict catchment-wide erosion maxima that lag behind a rock uplift pulse. Here, we explore the relationships between rock uplift, erosion, and sediment deposition in the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt at 30°S where extensive previous work documents deformation, climate and sediment accumulation histories. Sandstone samples spanning 8.8 to 1.8 Ma were collected from the previously dated wedge-top (Iglesia) and foredeep basins (Bermejo) for quartz purification and 10Be extraction. 10Be concentrations due to burial and exhumation were estimated and subtracted from the measured concentrations and yielded the inherited 10Be concentrations, which were then corrected for sample magnetostratigraphic age. The inherited concentrations were then used to calculate paleoerosion rates. We modeled various pre-burial and post-burial exposure scenarios in order to assess potential sources of uncertainty in the recovered paleoerosion rates. The modeling results reveal that pre-burial and post-burial exposure periods only marginally affect our results. By combining the 10Be-derived paleoerosion rates and geomorphic observations with detrital zircon provenance, we document the isolation of the wedge-top basin, which was later reconnected by an upstream migrating pulse of erosion in a process that was directly controlled by thrust activity and base level. The data further indicate that the attainment of maximum upland erosion rates lags maximum rates of deformation and subsidence over million-year timescales. The magnitudes and causes of the erosional delays shed new light on the catchment erosional response to tectonic deformation and rock uplift in orogenic

  11. GIS based climate regionalisation in complex terrain for low mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häntzschel, J.; Goldberg, V.; Bernhofer, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    In low mountain range areas with complex topography climate elements show a high variability caused by manifold interactions between relief and landuse. The lack of continuous measurements demands concepts for the transfer of regional climatic information into smaller scales. Here model approaches for net raditation, temperature and precipitation in small scaled heterogeneous areas are combined with a Geographic information system (GIS). To parameterise these approaches model output of the vegetation-boundary layer model HIRVAC (HIgh Resolution Vegetation Atmosphere Coupler) is used. These modified approaches were transferred in a GIS (ARC VIEW) environment to consider topographic influences like terrain geometry and sky view factor as well as the influence of different land use (e.g., pasture and forest) especially on net radiation. Depending on the horizontal resolution of the digital elevation data a model of area related meteorological surface data without any interpolation methods and associated loss of precision is feasible. To illustrate the results the area of the "Tharandter Wald" near Dresden was selected. The results show that the combined influences of topography and land use on radiation balance lead to complex patterns in a terrain with well distinguished land surface types and a small-scale topography. The solar radiation on a clear Spring day is, e.g., over areas with extreme northward elevation 10 times lower than over comparable southward orientated areas. The spruce areas in the forest have up to 2 times higher daily sums of net radiation than the adjacent clearcuts. The model results are in adequate agreement with continuous measurements of the "Anchor Station Tharandter Wald" for the investigated period. The results can be applied for water budget modelling, forest management and for downscaling of satellite information.

  12. The impact of embedded valleys on daytime pollution transport over a mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, M. N.; Gohm, A.; Wagner, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Idealized large-eddy simulations were performed to investigate the impact of different mountain geometries on daytime pollution transport by thermally driven winds. The main objective was to determine interactions between plain-to-mountain and slope wind systems, and their influence on the pollution distribution over complex terrain. For this purpose, tracer analyses were conducted over a quasi-two-dimensional mountain range with embedded valleys bordered by ridges with different crest heights and a flat foreland in cross-mountain direction. The valley depth was varied systematically. It was found that different flow regimes develop dependent on the valley floor height. In the case of elevated valley floors, the plain-to-mountain wind descends into the potentially warmer valley and replaces the opposing upslope wind. This superimposed plain-to-mountain wind increases the pollution transport towards the main ridge by an additional 20 % compared to the regime with a deep valley. Due to mountain and advective venting, the vertical exchange is 3.6 times higher over complex terrain than over a flat plain. However, the calculated vertical exchange is strongly sensitive to the definition of the convective boundary layer height. In summary, the impact of the terrain geometry on the mechanisms of pollution transport confirms the necessity to account for topographic effects in future boundary layer parameterization schemes.

  13. Stratigraphy of the wisconsin range, horlick mountains, antarctica.

    PubMed

    Minshew, V H

    1966-04-29

    The Wisconsin Range consists of a basement complex of granitic and metamorphic rocks unconformably overlain by about 550 meters of Upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The base of the Upper Paleozoic succession is composed of the Buckeye formation, a tillite, which varies in thickness from 80 to more than 140 meters. Overlying the Buckeye formation are the Weaver and Queen Maud formations, with a combined thickness of about 455 meters, characterized by a prolific Glossopteris flora, indicative of a Permian age.

  14. Tectonic origin of Lower Mesozoic regional unconformities: Southern Colorado Plateau and adjacent Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Palinspastic restoration of Basin and Range structural blocks to early Mesozoic positions relative to the Colorado Plateau permits correlation of lower Mesozoic regional unconformities of the Colorado Plateau across the southern Basin and Range. These unconformities correlate with tectonic reconfiguration of sedimentary basins in which enclosed depositional sequences were deposited. Lesser recognized intraformational unconformities are related to relative sea level change. The Tr-1 unconformity developed on subaerially exposed, karsted, and deeply incised Leonardian carbonates. The overlying Lower Triassic Moenkopi Formation and equivalent strata display a narrow, north-south aligned, passive-margin-type architecture subdivided by Smithian and Spathian intraformational unconformities into three depositional sequences. From basinal to inner shelf facies, Tr-1 truncates folds in Permian rocks. Initial deposition of the lowest sequence began with sea level at the base of the continental slope. Basal conglomerates of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation were deposited in northward-trending paleovalleys incised within and parallel to the Early Triassic shelf. Distribution of fluvial deposition, orientation of paleovalleys, paleocurrent indicators, and provenance indicate change from the passive-margin-bordered Early Triassic basin to an offshore active-margin basin. Continental and marine facies suggest two depositional sequences separated by an early Norian type 2( ) sequence boundary. The J-O unconformity at the base of the Lower Jurassic Glen Canyon Group marks a major change in tectonic setting of western North America as evidenced by (1) progressive southwestward downcutting of the unconformity to deformed Paleozoic rocks and Precambrian basement, (2) coincidence in time and space with Late Triassic to Early Jurassic thrust faults, and (3) initiation of calcalkaline volcanism.

  15. 75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... range and capital investments on the land described in the Public Land Order (PLO) at 55 FR 37878 (1990..., which was published in the Federal Register on January 8, 2010 (76 FR 1076-1077), is hereby modified to... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range...

  16. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    PubMed

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface.

  17. Isotope geochemistry and fluxes of carbon and organic matter in tropical small mountainous river systems and adjacent coastal waters of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Ryan; Bauer, James; Grottoli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that small mountainous rivers (SMRs) may act as sources of aged and/or refractory carbon (C) to the coastal ocean, which may increase organic C burial at sea and subsidize coastal food webs and heterotrophy. However, the characteristics and spatial and temporal variability of C and organic matter (OM) exported from tropical SMR systems remain poorly constrained. To address this, the abundance and isotopic character (δ13C and Δ14C) of the three major C pools were measured in two Puerto Rico SMRs with catchments dominated by different land uses (agricultural vs. non-agricultural recovering forest). The abundance and character of C pools in associated estuaries and adjacent coastal waters were also examined. Riverine dissolved and particulate organic C (DOC and POC, respectively) concentrations were highly variable with respect to land use and sampling month, while dissolved inorganic C (DIC) was significantly higher at all times in the agricultural catchment. In both systems, riverine DOC and POC ranged from modern to highly aged (2,340 years before present), while DIC was always modern. The agricultural river and irrigation canals contained very old DOC (1,184 and 2,340 years before present, respectively), which is consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that these tropical SMRs provide a source of aged DOC to the ocean. During months of high river discharge, OM in estuarine and coastal waters had C isotope signatures reflective of direct terrestrial input, indicating that relatively unaltered OM is transported to the coastal ocean at these times. This is also consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that C transported to the coastal ocean by SMRs may differ from that of larger rivers because it is exported from smaller catchments that have steeper terrains and fewer land-use types.

  18. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Southern Funeral Mountains and Adjacent Ground-Water Discharge Sites, Inyo County, California, and Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Slate, Janet L.; Berry, M.E.; Machette, Michael N.

    2008-01-01

    This map covers the southern part of the Funeral Mountains, and adjacent parts of four structural basins - Furnace Creek, Amargosa Valley, Opera House, and central Death Valley. It extends over three full 7.5-minute quadrangles, and parts of eleven others - a total area of about 950 square kilometers. The boundaries of this map were drawn to include all of the known proximal hydrogeologic features that may affect the flow of ground water that discharges from the springs of the Furnace Creek wash area, in the west-central part of the map. These springs provide the major potable water supply for Death Valley National Park.

  19. Lithology and structure within the basement terrain adjacent to Clark Mountains, California, mapped with calibrated data from the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert O.; Vane, Gregg

    The Clark Mountains in eastern California form a rugged, highly dissected area nearly 5000 ft above sea level, with Clark Mountain rising to 8000 ft. The rocks of the Clark Mountains and the Mescal Range just to the south are Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks, and Mesozoic clastic and volcanic rocks standing in pronounced relief above the fractured Precambrian gneisses to the east. The Permian Kaibab Limestone and the Triassic Moenkopi and Chinle Formations are exposed in the Mescal Range, which is the only place in California where these rocks, which are typical of the Colorado Plateau, are found. To the west, the mountains are bordered by the broad alluvial plains of Shadow Valley. Cima Dome, which is an erosional remnant carved on a batholithic intrusion of quartz monzonite, is found at the south end of the valley. To the east of the Clark and Mescal Mountains is found the Ivanpah Valley, in the center of which is located the Ivanpah Play. Studies of the Clark Mountains with the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer are briefly described.

  20. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill... section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Illinois, and...

  1. Serologic survey and serum biochemical reference ranges of the free-ranging mountain lion (Felis concolor) in California.

    PubMed

    Paul-Murphy, J; Work, T; Hunter, D; McFie, E; Fjelline, D

    1994-04-01

    Serum samples from 58 mountain lions (Felis concolor) in California (USA) were collected between April 1987 and February 1990. Nineteen serum samples were used for serum biochemistry determinations; the ranges were similar to reference values in domestic cats, captive exotic felidae and free-ranging mountain lions. A serological survey was conducted to determine whether antibodies were present against selected infectious agents. Fifty-four (93%) of 58 sera had antibodies against feline panleukopenia virus. Fifteen (68%) of 22, 16 (28%) of 58, 11 (19%) of 58, and 10 (17%) of 58 had serum antibodies against feline reovirus, feline coronavirus, feline herpes virus, and feline calicivirus, respectively. Twenty-three (40%) of 58 and 21 (58%) of 36 had serum antibodies against Yersinia pestis and Toxoplasma gondii, respectively. Only one of 22 sera had antibodies against the somatic antigen of Dirofilaria immitis. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus antigens were not detected in any mountain lion's sera. All 58 sera samples were negative for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus and Chlamydia psittaci. PMID:8028105

  2. For Sale--Scotland's Most Famous Mountain Range: Land "Ownership" in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    The nature of land ownership is infrequently discussed by practitioners of outdoor education, though it is often central to the way they work. The recent controversy over the proposed sale of the Cuillin mountain range on the Isle of Skye in Scotland provoked heated discussion over rights to and benefits of this important place. The main point at…

  3. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping.

  4. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping. PMID:25036943

  5. Managing a Scarce Natural Resource: The High Altitude Mountaineering Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    This study identifies some characteristics of mountaineering visitors, climbers' perceptions of the mountain environment, and certain preferred management options affecting both the mountain environment and the mountaineer on Mt. McKinley and adjacent Alaska Range peaks. Approximately 360 registered climbers were asked to complete a 26-item…

  6. Notoedric mange in two free-ranging mountain lions (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Houston, Robin S; Riley, Seth P D; Poppenga, Robert; Odani, Jenee; Boyce, Walter

    2007-04-01

    Two mountain lions (Puma con-color) were found dead in the Simi Hills area of southern California (Ventura County). Postmortem examination and toxicological analyses indicated that the cause of death was anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. In addition, both lions had marked alopecia and skin crusts, caused by Notoedres cati. The diagnosis of notoedric mange was confirmed by histology and direct examination of mites obtained from skin scrapings of the two animals. Histologically, the affected skin showed acanthotic epidermis with parakeratosis and parasitic tunnels in the stratum corneum. This is the first report of the pathological changes associated with notoedric mange in free-ranging mountain lions.

  7. Notoedric mange in two free-ranging mountain lions (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Houston, Robin S; Riley, Seth P D; Poppenga, Robert; Odani, Jenee; Boyce, Walter

    2007-04-01

    Two mountain lions (Puma con-color) were found dead in the Simi Hills area of southern California (Ventura County). Postmortem examination and toxicological analyses indicated that the cause of death was anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. In addition, both lions had marked alopecia and skin crusts, caused by Notoedres cati. The diagnosis of notoedric mange was confirmed by histology and direct examination of mites obtained from skin scrapings of the two animals. Histologically, the affected skin showed acanthotic epidermis with parakeratosis and parasitic tunnels in the stratum corneum. This is the first report of the pathological changes associated with notoedric mange in free-ranging mountain lions. PMID:17495313

  8. Turkish Children's Drawing of Nature in a Certain Way: Range of Mountains in the Back, the Sun, Couple of Clouds, a River Rising from the Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulker, Riza

    2012-01-01

    This study reveals that Turkish kindergarten through 8th Grade (K-8) students draw nature pictures in a certain way; range of mountains in the background, a sun, a couple of clouds, a river rising from the mountains. There are similarities in the K-8 students' nature drawings in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper. We…

  9. Neogene structural evolution of Gold Mountain, Slate Ridge and adjacent areas, Esmeralda and Nye counties, SW Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, D.C.; Weiss, S.I.; Worthington, J.E. . Mackay School of Mines); McKee, E.H. )

    1993-04-01

    The onset of crustal instability in the Gold Mountain-Slate Ridge (GMSR) area took place prior to middle Miocene time, as shown by the irregular topography upon which the 16.8 Ma tuff of Mount Dunfee was deposited. Local wedges of fanglomerate and conglomerate between four overlying ash-flow sheets and complex patterns of thinning and thickening, nondeposition, and erosion show that normal faulting took place more-or-less continuously between 16.8 and 11.5 Ma. More intense listric( ) faulting, tilting, uplift, erosion and deposition of wedges of fanglomerate and conglomerate occurred between emplacement of the 11.5 Ma Timber Mountain Tuff (TMT) and the 7.5 Ma Stonewall Flat Tuff (SFT). The present topography west of long. 117[degree]W developed mostly after 7.5 Ma following deposition of the widespread SFT, which thickens westward with increasing elevation on the east end of Slate Ridge. major uplifted blocks include the GMSR area, Magruder Mountain, and Palmetto Mountain, where erosional remnants of the SFT are found at elevations as high as 8,200 ft. Uplift was accommodated by high-angle faulting with little tilting and by warping. In the GMSR area pre-7.5 Ma tilting was mainly to the south-southeast reflecting movement along N-dipping listric( ) faults, indicating northwest-directed extension. In contrast, southeast of Gold Mountain and in the northeastern part of the Grapevine Mountains post-11.5 Ma tilting resulted from movement on normal faults that dip to the SSE beneath Sarcobatus Flat and toward the WNW-vergent Boundary Canyon-Original Bullfrog detachment fault system further south; this implies SE-directed extensional strain within a general region of NW-directed extension. Slate Ridge also acted as a barrier to the 11.5 Ma TMT. These relations suggest that certain areas within this section of the Walker Lane belt tended to remain high from middle Miocene time until the present, with a major exception being the time of deposition of the SFT.

  10. Potential impacts on Colorado Rocky Mountain weather due to land use changes on the adjacent Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence from both meteorological stations and vegetational successional studies suggests that summer temperatures are decreasing in the mountain-plain system in northeast Colorado, particularly since the early 1980s. These trends are coincident with large changes in regional land cover. Trends in global, Northern Hemisphere and continental surface temperatures over the same period are insignificant. These observations suggest that changes in the climate of this mountain-plain system may be, in some part, a result of localized forcing mechanisms. In this study the effects of land use change on the northern Colorado plains, where large regions of grasslands have been transformed into both dry and irrigated agricultural lands, on regional weather is examined in an effort to understand this local deviation from larger-scale trends. We find with high-resolution numerical simulations of a 3-day summer period using a regional atmospheric-land surface model that replacing grasslands with irrigated and dry farmland can have impacts on regional weather and therefore climate which are not limited to regions of direct forcing. Higher elevations remote from regions of land use change are affected as well. Specifically, cases with altered landcover had cooler, moister boundary layers, and diminished low-level upslope winds over portions of the plains. At higher elevations, temperatures also were lower as was low-level convergence. Precipitation and cloud cover were substantially affected in mountain regions. We advance the hypothesis that observed land use changes may have already had a role in explaining part of the observed climate record in the northern Colorado mountain-plain system. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Placing Absolute Timing on Basin Incision Adjacent to the Colorado Front Range: Results from Meteoric and in Situ 10BE Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duehnforth, M.; Anderson, R. S.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    A sequence of six levels of gravel-capped surfaces, mapped as Pliocene to Holocene in age, are cut into Cretaceous shale in the northwestern part of the Denver Basin immediately adjacent to the Colorado Front Range (CFR). The existing relative age constraints and terrace correlations suggest that the incision of the Denver Basin occurred at a steady and uniform rate of 0.1 mm yr-1 since the Pliocene. As absolute ages in this landscape are rare, they have the potential to test the reliability of the existing chronology, and to illuminate the detailed history of incision. We explore the timing of basin incision and the variability of geomorphic process rates through time by dating the three highest surfaces at the northwestern edge of the Denver Basin using both in situ and meteoric 10Be concentrations. As the tectonic conditions have not changed since the Pliocene, much of the variability of generation and abandonment of alluvial surfaces likely reflects the influence of glacial-interglacial climate variations. We selected Gunbarrel Hill (mapped as pre-Rocky Flats (Pliocene)), Table Mountain (mapped as Rocky Flats (early Pleistocene)), and the Pioneer surface (mapped as Verdos (Pleistocene, ~640 ka)) as sample locations. We took two amalgamated clast samples on the Gunbarrel Hill surface, and dated depth profiles using meteoric and in situ 10Be on the Table Mountain and Pioneer surfaces. In addition, we measured the in situ 10Be concentrations of 6 boulder samples from the Table Mountain surface. We find that all three surfaces are significantly younger than expected and that in situ and meteoric age measurements largely agree with each other. The samples from the pre-Rocky Flats site (Gunbarrel Hill) show ages of 250 and 310 ka, ignoring post-depositional surface erosion. The ages of the Table Mountain and Pioneer sites fall within the 120 to 150 ka window. These absolute ages overlap with the timing of the penultimate glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) 6

  12. The large karstic holes at the top of the Syrian coastal Mountain Range. Importance of structural setting for the karstogenesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocochain, Ludovic; Blanpied, Christian; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Peyronel, Olivier; Gorini, Christian; Abdalla, Abdelkarim Al; Azki, Fawaz

    2015-04-01

    Along the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Syria Coastal Mountain Range spreads from north to south over 150 km of long. This range is a monocline structure stopped by a major escarpment that domines Al-Gahb Graben to the East. The Coastal Mountain Range is mainly formed by Mesozoic limestone that show a major unconformity between the Upper Jurassic and Aptien deposits, and important erosions in the Upper Cretaceous deposits. Locally, the Juro-Cretaceous unconformity is characterized by a layer of continental basalts with fossil woods that reveal a long emersion of the platform. The most recent carbonate deposits at the top of the Coastal Mountain Range are Turonian age. In the center part of the Coastal Mountain Range, in a small area, the Cretaceous carbonates are affected by large karstic dolines. These dolines are curiously located at the top of the mountain range. This position is not beneficial for the development of large karstic holes.

  13. The autecology of small rodents and insectivores of the Tribec mountain range.

    PubMed

    Grulich, I; Nosek, J; Szabó, L

    1967-01-01

    Small rodents and insectivores have become the main reservoirs of tick-borne encephalitis virus. In order, therefore, to demonstrate the dynamic and structural changes occurring in a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis, information has been collected on the distribution, habitat, life-cycle, population density and extent of tick infestation of the rodents and insectivores that inhabit the Tribec region and adjacent parts of the Hronský Inovec Mountains. The following mammals are discussed: Sciurus vulgaris, Citellus citellus, Glis glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Mus musculus, Micromys minutus, Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, Microtus arvalis, Pitymys subterraneus, Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicola terrestris, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Neomys fodiens, N. anomalus, Crocidura suaveolens, C. leucodon, Erinaceus roumanicus and Talpa europaea. Many of these are important reservoirs of virus.

  14. Soil-geomorphic significance of land surface characteristics in an arid mountain range, Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirmas, D.R.; Graham, R.C.; Kendrick, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mountains comprise an extensive and visually prominent portion of the landscape in the Mojave Desert, California. Landform surface properties influence the role these mountains have in geomorphic processes such as dust flux and surface hydrology across the region. The primary goal of this study was to describe and quantify land surface properties of arid-mountain landforms as a step toward unraveling the role these properties have in soil-geomorphic processes. As part of a larger soil-geomorphic study, four major landform types were identified within the southern Fry Mountains in the southwestern Mojave Desert on the basis of topography and landscape position: mountaintop, mountainflank, mountainflat (intra-range low-relief surface), and mountainbase. A suite of rock, vegetation, and morphometric land surface characteristic variables was measured at each of 65 locations across the study area, which included an associated piedmont and playa. Our findings show that despite the variation within types, landforms have distinct land surface properties that likely control soil-geomorphic processes. We hypothesize that surface expression influences a feedback process at this site where water transports sediment to low lying areas on the landscape and wind carries dust and soluble salts to the mountains where they are washed between rocks, incorporated into the soil, and retained as relatively long-term storage. Recent land-based video and satellite photographs of the dust cloud emanating from the Sierra Cucapá Mountains in response to the 7.2-magnitude earthquake near Mexicali, Mexico, support the hypothesis that these landforms are massive repositories of dust.

  15. Gondwanian age dextral transpression and spatial kinematic partitioning within the Heritage Range, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Michael L.

    1997-02-01

    The Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica, consist of two mountain ranges; the Sentinel, and Heritage ranges. The more southerly Heritage Range is composed of a lower Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rock sequence, deformed during a single major deformation event in the early Mesozoic. This Gondwanian Orogeny possibly resulted from Andean-style convergence along the southern margin of Gondwana, prior to break-up of the super-continent, and the subsequent translation of the Ellsworth Mountains from a position close to the Natal embayment of southern Africa to that of the present day. Rocks of the Heritage Range are intensely folded, with close to tight, upright to inclined folds, plunging gently about a horizontal axis trending NNW-SSE. Locally, folds plunge moderately to subvertical toward the NNW, possessing asymmetries consistent with a dextral sense of shear. Cleavage is generally axial planar displaying downdip and strike-parallel stretching lineations that are frequently associated with domains of reverse, and dextral shear striking parallel to the regional structural grain. The spatial and temporal relationship of fractures developed within these domains as a result of noncoaxial shear, in addition to the progressive incremental strain histories derived from mineral fibres in strain shadows, indicate the contemporaneous nature of these shear domains. Strain analysis of deformed tuffaceous diamictites and oncolithic limestones reveal k-values <1 (mean 0.59) throughout the Heritage Range. The coexistence of strike-parallel dextral, oblique and reverse-shear domains, abrupt reorientation of progressive strain axes, steep cleavage dips, and k-values <1 are all consistent with a dextral transpressive deformation regime, previously unrecognized in the Ellsworth Mountains. A model of highly oblique (pure-shear dominated) transpression, associated with efficient spatial partitioning of the strike-slip component of shear is proposed to describe the structural

  16. Devonian-Mississippian carbonate sequence in the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dumoulin, J.A. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Essentially continuous, dominantly carbonate sedimentation occurred from at least the Early Devonian through the Mississippian in the area that is now the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range. This succession is in striking contrast to Paleozoic sequences in the eastern Brooks Range and in the subsurface across northern Alaska, where uppermost Devonian-Mississippian clastic and Carboniferous carbonates unconformably overlie Proterozoic or lower Paleozoic metasedimentary or sedimentary rocks. Conodonts obtained throughout the Maiyumerak Mountains sequence indicate that any hiatus is less than a stage in duration, and there is no apparent physical evidence of unconformity within the succession. The sequence is best exposed northwest of the Eli River, where Emsian-Eifelian dolostones (Baird Group) are conformably overlain by Kinderhookian-Osagian sandy limestones (Utukok Formation) and Osagian-Chesterian fossiliferous limestones (Kogruk Formation) of the Lisburne Group. Conodont species assemblages and sedimentary structures indicate deposition in a range of shallow-water shelf environments. The sequence extends at least 30 km, from the Noatak Quadrangle northeast into the Baird Mountains Quadrangle; its easternmost extent has not been definitively determined. The Ellesmerian orogeny, thought to have produced the extensive middle Paleozoic unconformity seen through much of northern Alaska apparently had little effect on this western Brooks Range sedimentary succession.

  17. Crustal structure of Wrangellia and adjacent terranes inferred from geophysical studies along a transect through the northern Talkeetna Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glen, J.M.G.; Schmidt, J.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.K.; O'Neill, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent investigations of the Talkeetna Mountains in south-central Alaska were undertaken to study the region's framework geophysics and to reinterpret structures and crustal composition. Potential field (gravity and magnetic) and magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected along northwest-trending profiles as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Talkeetna Mountains transect project. The Talkeetna Mountains transect area comprises eight 1:63,360 quadrangles (???9500 km2) in the Healy and Talkeetna Mountains 1?? ?? 3?? sheets that span four major lithostratigraphic terranes (Glen et al., this volume) including the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes and two Mesozoic overlap assemblages inboard (northwest) of Wrangellia. These data were used here to develop 21/2-dimensional models for the three profiles. Modeling results reveal prominent gravity, magnetic, and MT gradients (???3.25 mGal/ km, ???100nT/km, ???300 ohm-m/km) corresponding to the Talkeetna Suture Zone-a first-order crustal discontinuity in the deep crust that juxtaposes rocks with strongly contrasting rock properties. This discontinuity corresponds with the suture between relatively dense magnetic crust of Wrangellia (likely of oceanic composition) and relatively less dense transitional crust underlying Jurassic to Cretaceous flysch basins developed between Wrangellia and North America. Some area of the oceanic crust beneath Wrangellia may also have been underplated by mafic material during early to mid-Tertiary volcanism. The prominent crustal break underlies the Fog Lakes basin approximately where theTalkeetna thrust faultwaspreviouslymappedas a surface feature. Potential fieldand MT models, however, indicate that the Talkeetna Suture Zone crustal break along the transect is a deep (2-8 km), steeply west-dipping structure-not a shallow east-dipping Alpine nappe-like thrust. Indeed, most of the crustal breaks in the area appear to be steep in the geophysical data, which is consistent with regional geologic

  18. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  19. A geological reconnaissance across the Bitterroot Range and Clearwater Mountains in Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Waldemar

    1904-01-01

    This report describes, in a preliminary way, a belt of country extending westward from the Bitterroot Valley, across the dividing range and the rugged mountains of the Clearwater system, down to the fertile plateaus which border the canyon of Snake River. It thus presents a reconnaissance section from western Montana across northern Idaho, and deals chiefly with areas about which, thus far, little geological information has been available.

  20. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  1. Mineral potential of altered rocks near Blawn Mountain, Wah Wah Range, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Osmonson, Lee M.

    1978-01-01

    A mineralized area near Blawn Mountain in the southern Wah Wah Range has potential for deposits of lithophile metals, including uranium, tin, molybdenum, and beryllium. An area of iron oxide, alunite, and kaolinite alteration in rhyolite on Blawn Mountain overlaps southward with an area of fluorite, montmorillonite, and illite alteration in rhyolite and breccia near the Staats mine. The area on Blawn Mountain is largely depleted of metals other than iron, but the area near the Staats mine has produced some fluorspar and uranium and has anomalous amounts of tin, molybdenum, and beryllium in altered rock. Topaz rhyolites near the Staats mine and on The Tetons are similar to those in the Thomas Range of Utah, which are associated with deposits of fluorspar, uranium, and beryllium. Unmineralized topaz rhyolite in the Wah Wah Range contains anomalous traces of Be, Ga, Li, Mo, Nb, and Sn. Extensive areas of jasperoid with very low trace metal contents are associated with the areas of mineralization and alteration. The age of alteration and mineralization in the southern Wah Wah Range can De inferred from the age of host rocks. The rhyolite of Blawn Mountain, which is the host for alunite and kaolinite, is dated as 30.7?1.5 m.y. old. The intrusive topaz rhyolite of the Staats mine area, which with its altered breccia zone is the host and probable source of fluorine and lithophile metals, is 19.7?0.8 m.y. old. The overlap of both kaolinite and montmorillonite in altered breccia along the north side of the intrusive topaz rhyolite suggests that all of the alteration and mineralization may be younger than 19.7?0.8 m.y.

  2. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  3. A geochemical perspective of Red Mountain: an unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the environmental geochemistry of a group of unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in the Bonnifield mining district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The spectacularly colored Red Mountain deposit is the best exposed of these and provides excellent baseline geochemical data for natural environmental impacts of acidic rock drainage, metal dissolution and transport, and acidic salt and metal precipitation from an exposed and undisturbed VMS deposit.

  4. Tectonic uplift, threshold hillslopes, and denudation rates in a developing mountain range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binnie, S.A.; Phillips, W.M.; Summerfield, M.A.; Fifield, L.K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies across a broad range of drainage basins have established a positive correlation between mean slope gradient and denudation rates. It has been suggested, however, that this relationship breaks down for catchments where slopes are at their threshold angle of stability because, in such cases, denudation is controlled by the rate of tectonic uplift through the rate of channel incision and frequency of slope failure. This mechanism is evaluated for the San Bernardino Mountains, California, a nascent range that incorporates both threshold hill-slopes and remnants of pre-uplift topography. Concentrations of in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be in alluvial sediments are used to quantify catchment-wide denudation rates and show a broadly linear relationship with mean slope gradient up to ???30??: above this value denudation rates vary substantially for similar mean slope gradients. We propose that this decoupling in the slope gradient-denudation rate relationship marks the emergence of threshold topography and coincides with the transition from transport-limited to detachment-limited denudation. The survival in the San Bernardino Mountains of surfaces formed prior to uplift provides information on the topographic evolution of the range, in particular the transition from slope-gradient-dependent rates of denudation to a regime where denudation rates are controlled by rates of tectonic uplift. This type of transition may represent a general model for the denudational response to orogenic uplift and topographic evolution during the early stages of mountain building. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  5. Basin and range-age reactivation of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Texas Panhandle: evidence from Ogallala Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1984-04-01

    The Ogallala Formation (Neogene) is a widespread syntectonic alluvial apron that was shed eastward from the Rio Grande rift and related uplifts in Colorado and New Mexico during Basin and Range extension. In the Texas Panhandle, the Ogallala completely buried Ancestral Rocky Mountain (Pennsylvanian) structures. Renewed movement on these older structures during the Neogene influenced the thickness and facies distribution of the Ogallala. The Ogallala thickens into the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko basins. Major distributary channels on Ogallala alluvial fans coincide with the axes of these basins, whereas major interchannel areas overlie intervening uplifts. Second-order structures subtly influenced the unit as well. For example, the Carson basin, a Pennsylvanian rhomb graben along the Amarillo uplift, the Ogallala is over 250 m (820 ft) thick compared with 90 m (275 ft) in adjacent areas. Within the Palo Duro basin, local highs controlled the distribution of thin, interchannel flood-basin and lacustrine deposits. Thicker, braided-stream channel deposits follow local lows. Later movement on the Amarillo uplift broadly folded the Ogallala. The southern high plains surface subtly reflects basement structure, with topographic highs overlying basement highs, suggesting post-Ogallala deformation within the Palo Duro basin. The Amarillo uplift is approximately perpendicular to the Rio Grande rift and parallel to the direction of Basin and Range extension. Thus, the stress field that produced the rift may have caused strike-slip movement and reactivation of the Carson basin along the Amarillo uplift.

  6. Mountain Meadows Dacite: Oligocene intrusive complex that welds together the Los Angeles Basin, northwestern Peninsular Ranges, and central Transverse Ranges, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloh, Thane H.; Beyer, Larry A.; Morin, Ronald W.

    2001-01-01

    Dikes and irregular intrusive bodies of distinctive Oligocene biotite dacite and serially related hornblende latite and felsite occur widely in the central and eastern San Gabriel Mountains, southern California, and are related to the Telegraph Peak granodiorite pluton. Identical dacite is locally present beneath Middle Miocene Topanga Group Glendora Volcanics at the northeastern edge of the Los Angeles Basin, where it is termed Mountain Meadows Dacite. This study mapped the western and southwestern limits of the dacite distribution to understand the provenance of derived redeposited clasts, to perceive Neogene offsets on several large strike-slip faults, to test published palinspastic reconstructions, and to better understand the tectonic boundaries that separate contrasting pre-Tertiary rock terranes where the Peninsular Ranges meet the central and western Transverse Ranges and the Los Angeles Basin. Transported and redeposited clasts of dacite-latite occur in deformed lower Miocene and lower middle Miocene sandy conglomerates (nonmarine, nearshore, and infrequent upper bathyal) close to the northern and northeastern margins of the Los Angeles Basin for a distance of nearly 60 km. Tie-lines between distinctive source suites and clast occurrences indicate that large tracts of the ancestral San Gabriel Mountains were elevated along range-bounding faults as early as 16–15 Ma. The tie-lines prohibit very large strike-slip offsets on those faults. Transport of eroded dacite began south of the range as early as 18 Ma. Published and unpublished data about rocks adjacent to the active Santa Monica-Hollywood-Raymond oblique reverse left-lateral fault indicate that cumulative left slip totals 13–14 km and total offset postdates 7 Ma. This cumulative slip, with assembly of stratigraphic and paleogeographic data, invalidates prior estimates of 60 to 90 km of left slip on these faults beginning about 17–16 Ma. A new and different palinspastic reconstruction of a region

  7. Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

  8. Noninvasive saliva collection techniques for free-ranging mountain gorillas and captive eastern gorillas.

    PubMed

    Smiley, Tierra; Spelman, Lucy; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Mukherjee, Jean; Kaufman, Gretchen; Akiyoshi, Donna E; Cranfield, Michael

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to develop a simple, noninvasive method for saliva collection: a first step toward developing new diagnostic tests to survey gorillas for infectious diseases. The subjects included free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, and a group of orphan mountain and Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla heringei graueri) housed nearby in a temporary holding facility. Three collection methods were used to recover saliva from discarded forest food: swabbing, soaking, and washing. Saliva was also collected from orphan gorillas maintained in a captive setting by using dental ropes inside mesh bags. The presence of gorilla saliva in each sample was confirmed by using a salivary s-amylase assay and forensic press test paper. The recovery of gorilla DNA was verified by polymerase chain reaction by using primers specific to mountain and Grauer's gorillas. Of the three collection techniques used to recover saliva from forest food, directly swabbing plant bite marks was the most effective. Wild celery (Peucedanum linderi) provided for the most consistent saliva recovery and is eaten year round by mountain gorillas in Rwanda. This study shows that gorilla saliva can be recovered easily and noninvasively from known individual free-ranging gorillas by collecting pieces of wild celery discarded as the gorillas forage and from captive gorillas by offering them juice-soaked dental ropes inside mesh bags. Both methods can be used to recover gorilla DNA for genetic studies. Saliva collected from free-ranging and captive gorillas may prove to be a useful biologic sample for the development of new diagnostic tests and hormonal analysis.

  9. Campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, and shigellosis in free-ranging human-habituated mountain gorillas of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nizeyi, J B; Innocent, R B; Erume, J; Kalema, G R; Cranfield, M R; Graczyk, T K

    2001-04-01

    For conservation purposes and due to growing ecotourism, free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) have been habituated to humans. Fecal specimens (n = 62) collected in January 1999 from mountain gorillas of the Bwindi and Mgahinga National Parks, Uganda, were tested for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp., and the overall prevalence of infection was 19%, 13%, and 6%, respectively. The prevalence of positive specimens was not related to the year of habituation of a gorilla group to humans. Campylobacter spp., Salmonella, and Shigella spp. infections were not distributed equally among the age classes of gorillas; most of the enteropathogens (80%), and all Shigella spp. organisms, S. sonnei, S. boydii, and S. flexneri, were isolated from subadults and adult gorillas with ages ranging from 6.0 to 11.9 yr. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. infections among human-habituated gorillas has doubled during the last 4 yr, and isolation of Shigella spp. for the first time from mountain gorillas, may indicate enhanced anthropozoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens.

  10. Middle Jurassic U-Pb crystallization age for Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. ); Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors report here a U-Pb age for the Siniktanneyak Mountain Ophiolite klippe in the west-central Brooks Range, the first U-Pb ophiolite age in northern Alaska. Like klippen of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Brooks Range, the Siniktanneyak Mountain klippe is composed of a lower allochthon of Devonian and younger( ) diabase and metabasalt with trace-element characteristics of seamount basalts and an upper allochthon of ophiolite. The ophiolite is partial, consisting of (1) abundant dunite and subordinate harzburgite and wehrlite; (2) cumulate clinopyroxene gabbro, and (3) minor noncumulate clinopyroxene gabbro and subordinate plagiogranite; no sheeted dikes or volcanic rocks are known in the ophilitic allochthon. The plagiogranite forms small dikes and stocks that intrude the noncumulate gabbro and consists of zoned Na-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene with interstial quartz and biotite. Five fractions of subhedral, tan zircon from the plagiogranite yield slightly discordant U-Pb data with an upper intercept age of 170 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data indicate that the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite crystallized in the Middle Jurassic and was emplaced by thrusting onto mafic accretionary prism rocks within about 10 m.y. of crystallization. The U-Pb data provide an upper limit to the age of initiation of the Brookian orogeny.

  11. Magnetostratigraphy susceptibility for the Guadalupian Series GSSPs (Middle Permian) in Guadalupe Mountains National Park and adjacent areas in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Lambert, Lance L.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Bell, Gordon L.; Nestell, Galina P.

    2012-01-01

    Here we establish a magnetostratigraphy susceptibility zonation for the three Middle Permian Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) that have recently been defined, located in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, West Texas, USA. These GSSPs, all within the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series, define (1) the base of the Roadian Stage (base of the Guadalupian Series), (2) the base of the Wordian Stage and (3) the base of the Capitanian Stage. Data from two additional stratigraphic successions in the region, equivalent in age to the Kungurian–Roadian and Wordian–Capitanian boundary intervals, are also reported. Based on low-field, mass specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) measurements of 706 closely spaced samples from these stratigraphic sections and time-series analysis of one of these sections, we (1) define the magnetostratigraphy susceptibility zonation for the three Guadalupian Series Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points; (2) demonstrate that χ datasets provide a proxy for climate cyclicity; (3) give quantitative estimates of the time it took for some of these sediments to accumulate; (4) give the rates at which sediments were accumulated; (5) allow more precise correlation to equivalent sections in the region; (6) identify anomalous stratigraphic horizons; and (7) give estimates for timing and duration of geological events within sections.

  12. Evolution of basin and range structure in the Ruby Mountains and vicinity, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, D. D.; Reese, N. M.; Kelley, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Results from various age dating techniques, seismic reflection profiling hydrocarbon maturation studies, and structural analysis were used to evaluate the Cenozoic deformation in the Ruby Mountains and adjoining ranges (pinyon Range and Cortez Range) in Elko and Eureka Counties, Nevada. Age dating techniques used include potassium-argon ages of biotites from granites published by Kistler et al. (1981) and fission track ages from apatite and zircon. Fission track ages from apatite reflect a closing temperature of 100 plus or minus 20 deg C. Zircon fission track ages reflect a closing temperature of 175 plus or minus 25 deg C and potassium-argon ages from brotite reflect a closing temperature of 250 plus or minus 30 deg C. Thus these results allow a reasonably precise tracking of the evolution of the ranges during the Cenozoic. Seismic reflection data are available from Huntington Valley. Access to seismic reflection data directly to the west of the Harrison Pass Pluton in the central Ruby Mountains was obtained. In addition results are available from several deep exploration holes in Huntington Valley.

  13. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project: Tomographic characterization of a sediment-filled rift valley and adjacent ranges, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, K.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Carrick, E.; Tikoff, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Salton Trough in Southern California represents the northernmost rift of the Gulf of California extensional system. Relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates is accommodated by continental rifting in step-over zones between the San Andreas, Imperial, and Cerro Prieto transform faults. Rapid sedimentation from the Colorado River has isolated the trough from the southern portion of the Gulf of California, progressively filling the subsiding rift basin. Based on data from previous seismic surveys, the pre-existing continent has ruptured completely, and a new ~22 km thick crust has been created entirely by sedimentation overlying rift-related magmatism. The MARGINS, EarthScope, and USGS-funded Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) was designed to investigate the nature of this new crust, the ongoing process of continental rifting, and associated earthquake hazards. SSIP, acquired in March 2011, comprises 7 lines of onshore seismic refraction / wide-angle reflection data, 2 lines of refraction / reflection data in the Salton Sea, and a line of broadband stations. This presentation focuses on the refraction / wide-angle reflection line across the Imperial Valley, extending ~220 km across California from Otay Mesa, near Tijuana, to the Colorado River. The data from this line includes seventeen 100-160 kg explosive shots and receivers at 100 m spacing across the Imperial Valley to constrain the structure of the Salton Trough rift basin, including the Imperial Fault. Eight larger shots (600-920 kg) at 20-35 km spacing and receivers at 200-500 m spacing extend the line across the Peninsular Ranges and the Chocolate Mountains. These data will contrast the structure of the rift to that of the surrounding crust and provide constraints on whole-crust and uppermost mantle structure. Preliminary work has included tomographic inversion of first-arrival travel times across the Valley, emphasizing a minimum-structure approach to create a velocity model of the

  14. An integrated remote sensing approach for identifying ecological range sites. [parker mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    A model approach for identifying ecological range sites was applied to high elevation sagebrush-dominated rangelands on Parker Mountain, in south-central Utah. The approach utilizes map information derived from both high altitude color infrared photography and LANDSAT digital data, integrated with soils, geological, and precipitation maps. Identification of the ecological range site for a given area requires an evaluation of all relevant environmental factors which combine to give that site the potential to produce characteristic types and amounts of vegetation. A table is presented which allows the user to determine ecological range site based upon an integrated use of the maps which were prepared. The advantages of identifying ecological range sites through an integrated photo interpretation/LANDSAT analysis are discussed.

  15. Burial and exhumation of the Eisenhower Range, Transantarctic Mountains, based on thermochronological, sedimentary rock maturity and petrographic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenzel, J.; Lisker, F.; Elsner, M.; Schöner, R.; Balestrieri, M. L.; Läufer, A. L.; Berner, U.; Spiegel, C.

    2014-09-01

    The Eisenhower Range is a N-S trending mountain range in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) adjacent to the NW Ross Sea Embayment. New AFT and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) data from vertical basement profiles supplemented by paleotemperature and pressure estimates derived from Beacon sandstones provide new quantitative results on regional burial evolution and first regional constraints on basin inversion and exhumation processes. AFT ages between 32 ± 2 and 259 ± 18 Ma and AHe ages of 37 ± 3-173 ± 16 Ma correlate positively with sample elevations. Thermal history modeling of these data and complementary thermal indications detect heating of the paleosurface on the Eisenhower Range to temperatures ≥ 80 °C subsequent to Ferrar magmatism, and constrain Late Eocene rapid cooling. Regression of modeled paleotemperatures against sample elevations refers to a high Jurassic (~ 45 °C/km) and a moderate Cretaceous-Eocene (28 ± 8 °C/km) geothermal gradient. The texture of Beacon sandstones supports strong mechanical compaction that requires a higher overburden than preserved in the stratigraphic record. Modeled paleotemperatures and pressures suggest basement burial that increases from Late Jurassic (0.7-1.1 km) to Eocene (1.8-2.1 km). The overburden comprises 0.7-1.1 km cumulative Beacon/Ferrar rocks and 0.7-1.4 km of post-Ferrar sediments. Rapid cooling of the whole sample suite between ~ 35 and 30 Ma implies fast erosion of the post-Ferrar sediments and (re-) exposure of underlying magmatic rocks. Subsequent differential sample cooling to present-day surface temperature infers ongoing exhumation by glacial incision enhanced by isostatic response to basin inversion. Decreasing amounts of exhumation from the coast (> 3 km) toward the interior (1.5-2.2 km) point to backstepping incision along the fault controlled Priestley Glacier. Substantial exhumation of the Eisenhower Range since the Late Eocene is hence triggered by both tectonic and climatic factors

  16. Anatomy of the Visual Word form Area: Adjacent Cortical Circuits and Long-Range White Matter Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion…

  17. A case of atmospheric contamination at the slopes of the Los Andes mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo-Kröger, Carlos M.; Llona, Felipe

    High heavy element contents were found in the aerosol in part of the Chilean central Los Andes mountain range. An important contamination source was found to be the copper mine, El Teniente. Samples were taken with battery-powered Stacked Filter Units (SFU), and sites were reached by using mules. The analysis was done by the PIXE system at the University of Chile. A very definite relation between the distance to El Teniente and the aerosol content of heavy metals (Cu, Zn and As) and sulfur was found. Some discussion about the peculiarity of this sampling and the implications of the results is carried out.

  18. The High Variability of Hydrologic Response in Mountain Watersheds: Snowy Range, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Three adjacent mountain streams that coalesce to form a single river have been monitored with a nested watershed design comprised of ten runoff stations for the past three years. Some of the stations are co-located on previous monitoring sites that allow for an extended period of record. Stage-discharge relationships have been built with high degrees of confidence at each station, and stream isotope data have been taken to better determine sources of water and fractionation of precipitation into runoff components. In addition to runoff observations we have multiple weather stations and use geophysical methods to investigate the subsurface and better characterize potential flow pathways and remote sensing and field methods to characterize the watersheds. From these data we have observed a high degree in variability in runoff characteristics among these sites, including significant differences in annual runoff, proportion of baseflow, rainfall/runoff efficiency, and hydrologic regime. Analyses of nested runoff data reveal longitudinal and seasonal changes in surface and subsurface flow, which allow us to identify the timing and location of groundwater contributions and channel transmission to regional aquifers. Differences among the watershed responses are augmented by precipitation, and we identify stream reaches that change from effluent to influent depending on timing and magnitude of runoff. We explored physical interpretations for the observed variability, including management, beetle impacts, and subsurface characteristics as inferred from geophysical data.

  19. GPS and gravity constraints on continental deformation in the Alborz mountain range, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djamour, Yahya; Vernant, Philippe; Bayer, Roger; Nankali, Hamid Reza; Ritz, Jean-François; Hinderer, Jacques; Hatam, Yaghoub; Luck, Bernard; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Sedighi, Morteza; Khorrami, Fateme

    2010-12-01

    A network of 54 survey GPS sites, 28 continuous GPS stations and three absolute gravity (AG) observation sites have been set up in the Alborz mountain range to quantify the present-day kinematics of the range. Our results allow us to accurately estimate the motion of the South Caspian block (SCB) for the first time, and indicate rotation of the SCB relative to Eurasia, accounting for the left lateral motion in the Alborz range. In light of these new results, it clearly appears that deformation rates vary along the range, the eastern part accommodating mainly left lateral strike slip (2 mm yr-1 south of the range and 5 mm yr-1 north of the range) with a very low range normal shortening rate on the Khazar thrust fault (~2 mm yr-1), and the western part accommodating range normal shortening (~6 mm yr-1) on the Khazar thrust fault with a left lateral component of ~2 mm yr-1 north of the range and 1 mm yr-1 south of the range. These present-day kinematics agree with geomorphologic estimated slip rates, but not the long-term deformation, corroborating the idea that the kinematics of the range have changed recently due to the change of SCB motion. Modelling of the interseismic deformation suggests a deep locking depth on the central-western segment of the Khazar fault (~30 km) in agreement with the Baladeh earthquake rupture and aftershock ranging between 10 and 30 km. Given this unusual deep locking depth and the 34° dip of the thrust, a large part of the Alborz range is located above the seismically coupled part of the fault. Based on our AG measurements this part of the range seems to uplift at a rate of 1-5 mm yr-1, in agreement with terrace uplift.

  20. Tertiary volcanic rocks and uranium in the Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains, Juab County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.

    1982-01-01

    The Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains have a history of volcanism, faulting, and mineralization that began about 42 m.y. (million years) ago. Volcanic activity and mineralization in the area can be divided into three stages according to the time-related occurrence of rock types, trace-element associations, and chemical composition of mineral deposits. Compositions of volcanic rocks changed abruptly from rhyodacite-quartz latite (42-39 m.y. ago) to rhyolite (38-32 m.y. ago) to alkali rhyolite (21 and 6-7 m.y. ago); these stages correspond to periods of chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, no mineralization(?), and lithophile metal mineralization, respectively. Angular unconformities record episodes of cauldron collapse and block faulting between the stages of volcanic activity and mineralization. The youngest angular unconformity formed between 21 and 7 m.y. ago during basin-and-range faulting. Early rhyodacite-quartz latite volcanism from composite volcanoes and fissures produced flows, breccias, and ash-flow tuff of the Drum Mountains Rhyodacite and Mt. Laird Tuff. Eruption of the Mt. Laird Tuff about 39 m.y. ago from an area north of Joy townsite was accompanied by collapse of the Thomas caldera. Part of the roof of the magma chamber did not collapse, or the magma was resurgent, as is indicated by porphyry dikes and plugs in the Drum Mountains. Chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, resulting in deposits of copper, gold, and manganese, accompanied early volcanism. Te middle stage of volcanic activity was characterized by explosive eruption of rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and collapse of the Dugway Valley cauldron. Eruption of the Joy Tuff 38 m.y. ago was accompanied by subsidence of this cauldron and was followed by collapse and sliding of Paleozoic rocks from the west wall of the cauldron. Landslides in The Dell were covered by the Dell Tuff, erupted 32 m.y. ago from an unknown source to the east. An ash flow of the Needles Range

  1. Antibodies against equine herpesviruses in free-ranging mountain zebras from Namibia.

    PubMed

    Borchers, K; Frölich, K

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-one blood samples of free-ranging mountain zebras (Equus zebra) from Namibia were tested for equine herpesvirus (EHV-1, -2, -3, -4) specific antibodies by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and neutralization test (NT). Additionally, type-specific nested polymerase chain reactions (nested PCR) were employed for detection of EHV-1, -2 and -4 DNA. Equine herpesvirus-1 antibodies were detected by IFA in all zebras, while only seven serum samples contained EHV-4 IFA antibodies. Sera with high IFA antibodies also were found to neutralize EHV-1 and -4. Furthermore, 20 zebras were EHV-2 seropositive by IFA, and one zebra had EHV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Equine herpesvirus-3 specific antibodies were not detected. We did not amplify EHV-1, -2 or -4 specific DNA sequences in peripheral blood leukocytes of the same zebras using type-specific nested PCR. EHV infections appear to be widespread in free-ranging zebras, as they are in domestic horses.

  2. Mountain gorilla ranging patterns: influence of group size and group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Damien; Ndagijimana, Felix; Giarrusso, Anthony J; Vecellio, Veronica; Stoinski, Tara S

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1980s, the Virunga mountain gorilla population has almost doubled, now reaching 480 individuals living in a 430-km(2) protected area. Analysis of the gorillas' ranging patterns can provide critical information on the extent and possible effects of competition for food and space. We analyzed 12 years of daily ranging data and inter-group encounter data collected on 11 gorilla groups monitored by the Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda. During that period, the study population increased in size by almost 50% and the number of groups tripled. Groups had small yearly home ranges compared to other known gorilla populations, with an average 90% kernel density estimate of 8.07 km2 and large between-group variations (3.17-23.59 km2). Most groups had consistent home range location over the course of the study but for some, we observed gradual range shifts of up to 4 km. Neighboring groups displayed high home range overlap, which increased dramatically after the formation of new groups. On average, each group used only 28.6% of its 90% kernel home range exclusively, and in some areas up to six different groups had overlapping home ranges with little or no exclusive areas. We found a significant intra-group positive relationship between the number of weaned individuals in a group and the home range size, but the fitted models only explained 17.5% and 13.7% of the variance in 50% and 90% kernel home range size estimates, respectively. This suggests that despite the increase in size, the study population is not yet experiencing marked effects of feeding competition. However, the increase in home range overlap resulting from the formation of new groups led to a sixfold increase in the frequency of inter-group encounters, which exposes the population to elevated risks of fight-related injuries and infanticide.

  3. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charpes III

    2014-01-01

    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  4. A statistical approach to modelling permafrost distribution in the European Alps or similar mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckli, L.; Brenning, A.; Gruber, S.; Noetzli, J.

    2012-01-01

    and PISR. The linear regression achieves a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.6 °C. The final model combines the two sub-models and accounts for the different scales used for model calibration. The modelling approach provides a theoretical basis for estimating mountain permafrost distribution over larger mountain ranges and can be expanded to more surface types and sub-models than considered, here. The analyses performed with the Alpine data set further provide quantitative insight into larger-area patterns as well as the model coefficients for a later spatial application. The transfer into a map-based product, however, requires further steps such as the definition of offset terms that usually contain a degree of subjectivity.

  5. Managers' summary - ecological studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, F.J.; Schoenecker, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ecological Studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997 provides a synthesis of key findings of landscape-scale, interdisciplinary studies of the effects of wild horses and native ungulates on a rugged, mountain ecosystem. This is perhaps the most comprehensive study of a wild horse herd conducted. This was a complex study and one involving a truly interagency approach. Six agencies either provided input to research priority setting, funding, or both. The agencies included the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, and U.S. Forest Service. The major research direction and effort came from the U.S. Geological Survey and Natural Resources Ecology Lab, Colorado State University with Montana State University and the University of Kentucky also participating. Ungulate monitoring was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Bureau of Land Management, Billings Field Office and the Montana Fish and Wildlife Parks, with funding by Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Many other individuals and groups were involved and deserve credit. The report printing was made possible with funds from the Bureau of Land Management, Wild Horse and Burro Program, Washington Office. This report was prepared by the Information Management Project, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey.

  6. Triangle zone and displacement transfer structures in the eastern Front Ranges, southern Canadian Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, D.A. ); Spratt, D.A. )

    1992-06-01

    The geometry of a relict triangle zone at the boundary of the Foothills and Front Ranges in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains is constrained by detailed surface mapping over 700 m of relief and by seismic reflection data. The geometry and progressive development of the triangle zone along a strike length of 15-20 km, in the displacement transfer zone between the Coleman and Misty thrusts, is illustrated using closely spaced balanced cross sections, palinspastic restorations, and s sequentially restored cross section. Structural geometries show that a northeast- (foreland-) verging, mainly carbonate wedge of Mississippian to Triassic rock was inserted along a major upper detachment zone in shale, near the base of the Jurassic-Cretaceous clastic package. This was accompanied by southwest- (hinterland-) verging displacements along the upper detachment zone, tectonic thickening of the clastic package exceeding 200%, and backthrusting. Later northeast-verging deformation slightly modified the triangle zone by steepening structures, tightening folds, and minor thrusting. Recognition of relict triangle zones within the fold and thrust belt may document important changes in the rate of thrust front advancement, and aid in the delineation of potential hydrocarbon traps, similar to those discovered along the present-day thrust-belt margin in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains.

  7. Effects of Landfall Location and Approach Angle of an Idealized Tropical Cyclone over a Long Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Chen, Shu-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Effects of landfall location and approach angle on track deflection associated with a tropical cyclone (TC) passing over an idealized and Central Appalachian Mountain is investigated by a series of idealized numerical experiments. When the TC landfalls on the central portion of the mountain range, it is deflected to the south upstream, passes over the mountain anticyclonically, and then moves westward downstream. The TC motion is steered by the positive vorticity tendency (VT) which is dominated by horizontal vorticity advection upstream and downstream, but with additional influence from the stretching and residual terms, which are mainly associated with diabatic heating and frictional effects. The track deflection mechanism upstream and downstream is similar to the dry flow in previous study, but is very different in the vicinity of the mountain. When the TC landfalls near the northern (southern) tip, it experiences less (more) southward deflection due to stronger (weaker) vorticity advection around the tip. When the TC approaches the mountain range from the southeast and landfalls on the northern tip, center, or southern tip, the track deflections are similar to those embedded in an easterly flow but with weaker orographic blocking. These results are similar to the cases simulated in the dry flow in previous study, except that there is no track discontinuity due to the weaker orographic blocking associated with strong TC convection. When a TC moves along the north-south mountain range from the south, it tends to deflect toward the mountain and then crosses over to the other side at later time. In these cases, the positive VT is influenced by all horizontal vorticity advection, vorticity stretching (diabatic heating) and residual (friction) terms due to longer and stronger interaction with the mountain range. The vorticity stretching is mainly caused by diabatic heating in the moist flow, instead of by lee slope vorticity stretching in the previous study for dry

  8. Contrasted evolution of glacial lakes along the Hindu Kush Himalaya mountain range between 1990 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardelle, Julie; Arnaud, Yves; Berthier, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present a first regional assessment of glacial lake distribution and evolution in the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH). Seven sites have been selected between Bhutan and Afghanistan, to capture the climatic variability along the 2000-km long mountain range. For each site, glacial lakes have been mapped with LANDSAT satellite imagery acquired in 1990, 2000 and 2009, using an automatic classification. In the East (India, Nepal and Bhutan), glacial lakes are bigger and more numerous than in the West (Pakistan, Afghanistan), and have grown continuously between 1990 and 2009 by 20% to 65%. On the other hand, during the same period, the glacial lake coverage has shrunk in the Hindu Kush (-50%) and the Karakorum (-30%). This east/west pattern of lake changes seems in agreement with sparse glaciological measurements that suggest less (or even no) ice loss in the western part of the HKH.

  9. A new species of the genus Leptobrachium (Anura: Megophryidae) from the Gaoligongshan Mountain Range, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Huan; Wang, Ying-Yong; Chan, Bosco Pui-Lok

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Leptobrachium from the Gaoligongshan Mountain Range, Yunnan Province of China based on molecular and morphological evidences. The new species, Leptobrachium tengchongense sp. nov., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: (1) relatively small size (adult males SVL 41.7-51.5 mm); (2) head width slightly larger than head length; (3) tympanum indistinct; (4) two palmar tubercles oval and distinct, inner one larger than outer one; (5) sexually active males without spines on the upper lip; (6) dorsal skin smooth with distinct network of ridges; (7) dorsum pinkish grey and scattered with irregular black markings; (8) venter dark purplish-gray with numerous small white spots on tubercles, solid white chest; (9) iris bicolored, upper one-third light blue, lower two-third dark brown. With the description of the new species, the number of Leptobrachium species currently known from China adds up to ten. PMID:27515651

  10. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  11. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity. PMID:27314028

  12. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity. PMID:27314028

  13. Spring Database for the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavelko, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    A database containing nearly 3,400 springs was developed for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The spring database provides a foundation for field verification of springs in the study area. Attributes in the database include location, geographic and general geologic settings, and available discharge and temperature data for each spring.

  14. A rapid method to map the crustal and lithospheric thickness using elevation, geoid anomaly and thermal analysis. Application to the Gibraltar Arc System, Atlas Mountains and adjacent zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullea, J.; Fernàndez, M.; Zeyen, H.; Vergés, J.

    2007-02-01

    We present a method based on the combination of elevation and geoid anomaly data together with thermal field to map crustal and lithospheric thickness. The main assumptions are local isostasy and a four-layered model composed of crust, lithospheric mantle, sea water and the asthenosphere. We consider a linear density gradient for the crust and a temperature dependent density for the lithospheric mantle. We perform sensitivity tests to evaluate the effect of the variation of the model parameters and the influence of RMS error of elevation and geoid anomaly databases. The application of this method to the Gibraltar Arc System, Atlas Mountains and adjacent zones reveals the presence of a lithospheric thinning zone, SW-NE oriented. This zone affects the High and Middle Atlas and extends from the Canary Islands to the eastern Alboran Basin and is probably linked with a similarly trending zone of thick lithosphere constituting the western Betics, eastern Rif, Rharb Basin, and Gulf of Cadiz. A number of different, even mutually opposite, geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the origin and evolution of the study area. Our results suggest that a plausible slab-retreating model should incorporate tear and asymmetric roll-back of the subducting slab to fit the present-day observed lithosphere geometry. In this context, the lithospheric thinning would be caused by lateral asthenospheric flow. An alternative mechanism responsible for lithospheric thinning is the presence of a hot magmatic reservoir derived from a deep ancient plume centred in the Canary Island, and extending as far as Central Europe.

  15. Integrating soils and geomorphology in mountains - An example from the Front Range of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birkeland, P.W.; Shroba, R.R.; Burns, S.F.; Price, A.B.; Tonkin, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil distribution in high mountains reflects the impact of several soil-forming factors. Soil geomorphologists use key pedological properties to estimate ages of Quaternary deposits of various depositional environments, estimate long-term stability and instability of landscapes, and make inferences on past climatic change. Once the influence of the soil-forming factors is known, soils can be used to help interpret some aspects of landscape evolution that otherwise might go undetected. The Front Range of Colorado rises from the plains of the Colorado Piedmont at about 1700 m past a widespread, dissected Tertiary erosion surface between 2300 and 2800 m up to an alpine Continental Divide at 3600 to over 4000 m. Pleistocene valley glaciers reached the western edge of the erosion surface. Parent rocks are broadly uniform (granitic and gneissic). Climate varies from 46 cm mean annual precipitation (MAP) and 11 ??C mean annual temperature (MAT) in the plains to 102 cm and -4 ??C, respectively, near the range crest. Vegetation follows climate with grassland in the plains, forest in the mountains, and tundra above 3450 m. Soils reflect the bioclimatic transect from plains to divide: A/Bw or Bt/Bk or K (grassland) to A/E/Bw or Bt/C (forest) to A/Bw/C (tundra). Corresponding soil pH values decrease from 8 to less than 5 with increasing elevation. The pedogenic clay minerals dominant in each major vegetation zone are: smectite (grassland), vermiculite (forest), and 1.0-1.8 nm mixed-layer clays (tundra). Within the lower forested zone, the topographic factor (aspect) results in more leached, colder soils, with relatively thin O horizons, well-expressed E horizons and Bt horizons (Alfisols) on N-facing slopes, whereas soils with thicker A horizons, less developed or no E horizons, and Bw or Bt horizons (Mollisols) are more common on S-facing slopes. The topographic factor in the tundra results in soil patterns as a consequence of wind-redistributed snow and the amount of time it

  16. Conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), Sadlerochit Mountains, northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The Wahoo Limestone forms the upper part of the Lisburne Group (Carboniferous) in the Sadlerochit Mountains. The Lisburne Group is a thick (> 600 m) sequence of platform carbonate rocks that extends across the Brooks Range of northern Alaska and beneath the North Slope. At Prudhoe Bay, the Lisburne Group forms a major hydrocarbon reservoir. In the easternmost Sadlerochit Mountains, the Wahool Limestone is divisible into informal lower (64 m) and upper (192 m) members. The basal 46 m is chiefly bryozoan and pelmatozoan packstone that formed on a relatively shallow platform during the latest Mississippian lower muricatus subzone (as shown by the occurrence of the zonal index with representatives of Cavusgnathus). Cavusgnathus is dominant in this part of the section and occurs with representatives of Kladognathus, Ghathodus, Adetognathus, Hindeodus, and Rhachistognathus (in order of decreasing abundance). Declinognathodus noduliferus, the index for the base of the Pennsylvanian, first occurs at 49 m above the base of the Wahoo and 1 m above a discontinuity surface that marks the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary. The unconformity represents the highest conodont subzone of the Mississippian and probably part of the earliest Pennsylvanian. Previously, the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary was placed t the lower-upper Wahoo contact based on endothyroids; conodont data now indicate that this boundary is 15 m lower. The remaining lower Wahoo is possibly of noduliferus-primus zone age and chiefly yields, in order of decreasing abundance, species of Adetognathus, Declinognathodus, and Rhachistognathus, as well as redeposited Mississipian conodonts. The lower 15 m of the upper member of the Wahoo contains silty (5-40%) carbonate rock types that yield very few conodonts. Conodonts no older than the minutus-sinuatus zone are relatively abundant from 15 to 106 m above the base of the upper Wahoo.

  17. Characterizing Controls of Riparian Width for Mountain Streams in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvi, L. E.; Wohl, E. E.

    2007-12-01

    High variability of mountain streams causes riparian width to vary greatly from changes in drainage, valley and channel characteristics. GIS- based models for predicting flood-prone width, valley bottoms, or riparian zones may not accurately reflect processes at the reach scale, therefore field verification and reach-specific studies are needed. Management of riparian areas often designates a generalized width, which may under- or over-estimate the true riparian width. This study examines correlations between potential control variables and riparian zone width in the Colorado Front Range. Results from this study will be used to predict the riparian zone as a proxy for flood-prone width in the semi-arid Colorado Front Range. We hypothesize that local controls interact with large- scale controls to determine floodplain processes. Large-scale controls identified are elevation, which reflects hydroclimatology and glacial history, gradient and drainage area. Local controls are entrenchment, the ratio of the valley width to channel width, connectedness, defined as the distance from the channel to valley edge, presence of colluvium, and vegetation type, affecting roughness during flooding and bank stability. We chose twenty reaches based on elevation, connectedness, gradient and drainage area using a GIS base map in anthropogenically undisturbed areas of the Colorado Front Range, which included the Cache la Poudre and North St. Vrain drainages. Riparian width was defined using a three-tiered approach: evidence of fluvial processes and presence of riparian vegetation, compared with the Q100 stage. A longitudinal and two valley and channel cross-section surveys were completed at each stream reach to determine valley and channel geometry and bed gradient. Preliminary results show significant positive correlations between drainage area, entrenchment, and connectedness and riparian width, and negative correlations between gradient and riparian width, supporting the hypothesis

  18. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant. PMID:21457381

  19. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-05-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant.

  20. Map showing mineral-resource potential of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Humboldt and Mendocino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Minor manganese resources occur adjacent to the southeast corner of the King Range Instant Study Area near Queen Peak. The manganese forms small stratabound deposits associated with radiolarian chert and pillow basalt. The known deposits are too small and the manganese too low in concentration for further economic exploitation. Similar manganese mineralization may be within the belt of melange in the southeast corner of the King Range area and within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area, but economic deposits are unlikely. Although there has been historical base- and precious-metal exploration activity north of the King Range in the Mattole River drainage, our geologic and geochemical field data indicate almost no gold potential and low potentials for lead, zinc, copper, and silver. During this investigation, one high-grade vein and several minor veins containing lead, zinc, copper, and silver were discovered at Point Delgada immediately south of the King Range Instant Study Area. The vein mineralization is Miocene and cuts Cretaceous basalt flows, dikes, flow breccia, and younger overlying sedimentary rocks of the King Range. The vein mineralization at Point Delgada could be remobilized from more extensive unexposed stratabound base-metal mineralization at depth. Traces of lead and zinc detected within the King Range Instant Study Area may have similar stratabound or vein origins, but no resource potential is indicated. Minor copper mineralization with associated lead, zinc, and manganese anomalies within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area is of low economic potential because of the shearing, isolation, and lenticularity of the basaltic and cherty rocks within the melange mineralization.

  1. Global Trends in Glacial Cirque Floor Altitudes and Their Relationships with Climate, Equilibrium Line Altitudes, and Mountain Range Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S. G.; Humphries, E.

    2013-12-01

    Glacial erosion at the base of cirque headwalls and the creation of threshold slopes above cirque floors may contribute to the 'glacial buzzsaw' effect in limiting the altitude of some mountain ranges. Since glacial extent and therefore glacial erosion rate depends on the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of a region, the altitude of cirque formation should be a function of the ELA. Several regional studies have shown that cirque floors form at an altitude approximating average Quaternary ELAs in some mountain ranges, but a global correlation has not yet been demonstrated. We examined the correlation between cirque altitudes and global ELA trends by compiling existing and new cirque altitude and morphometry data from > 30 mountain ranges at a wide range of latitudes. Where available, we calculate or present the average cirque altitude, relief, and latitude. We compared these altitudes to both the global East Pacific ELA and local ELAs where available. For the locations analyzed, the majority of average cirque altitudes fall between the Eastern Pacific modern and LGM ELAs, and mountain range height is typically limited to < 600 m above that altitude. This evidence supports the hypothesis that cirque formation is dependent upon the ELA, and that cirques likely form as a result of average, rather than extreme, glacial conditions. Furthermore, the correlation between cirque altitude and ELA, along with the restricted window of relief, implies that cirque formation is a factor in limiting peak altitude in ranges that rise above the ELA.

  2. Contributions of long-range and regional atmospheric transport on pesticide concentrations along a transect crossing a mountain divide.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Karen S; Hageman, Kimberly J

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-one halogenated legacy and current-use pesticides and pesticide degradation products were measured in pine needles along a coast-to-coast transect that crossed the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Concentration profiles of nine pesticides were used to determine the influence of geographic sources on the atmospheric pesticide burden at the mountain sites. Pesticide concentration profiles were calculated for each source and mountain site by normalizing concentrations (adjusted for temperature at the site and air-needle partitioning) to the sum of all pesticide concentrations at the site. Each mountain site profile was compared to varying mixtures of the potential source profiles to determine the percent contribution of each source. The highest elevation mountain sites were primarily influenced by long-range, synoptic-scale northwesterly winds. Westerly upslope winds had little influence on any of the mountain sites. Easterly upslope winds from the Canterbury Plains, an agricultural region, strongly influenced the mountain sites within close proximity and had progressively less influence with distance.

  3. Quantifying Sediment Delivery History in Mediterranean Mountain Watersheds from Lake Records (Iberian Range, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero-Garcés, Blas; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Moreno, Ana; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Giralt, Santiago; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains with long history of human occupation and strong seasonality of hydrological regimes. Monitoring studies in experimental catchments in the Pyrenees have identified main controlling factors on erosion dynamics but, because of the short time span, they do not integrate the diverse temporal and spatial variability of these environments. We propose a novel strategy based on multi-proxy analyses of lake sediments aimed to quantify sediment delivery and erosion dynamics. Karstic lakes in the Iberian Range (Spain) provide the opportunity to reconstruct the depositional evolution of Mediterranean mountain watersheds and to evaluate the response to both, anthropogenic and climate forcings during the last millennia. Precipitation (rainfall intensity, seasonality, runoff production) and land cover (forest area, degraded areas, land uses) are key factors controlling erosion in both experimental and lake catchments. Values for Minimum Denuded Mass (Mdc) and Total Denudation Rate (DRt) measured in experimental catchments and reconstructed from lake sequences are comparable. In both settings, most sediment yield occurs during flooding events. The reconstructed sediment delivery to the lakes during flood events spans several orders or magnitude (less than 100 T to 98000 T) and the denudation rate ranges from 6 to 480 T km-2 yr-1. Reconstructed mass denudation values per event in the forested lake catchments are similar (less than 30 T km-2 yr-1) to sediment yields from a high altitude experimental watershed. Flood sediment yield values from an abandoned farmland experimental catchment (69 T km2) are in the lower range of lake watersheds (from 60 to 480 T km-2 yr-1). No lake watershed has reached the values documented for the badland catchment (3094 T km-2). These results underline the punctuated nature of sediment dynamics in Mediterranean landscapes at decadal and centennial scales. Major

  4. Morphotectonic architecture of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains based on geomorphic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demyanick, Elizabeth; Wilson, Terry J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensional forces within the Antarctic Plate have produced the Transantarctic Mountains rift-flank uplift along the West Antarctic rift margin. Large-scale linear morphologic features within the mountains are controlled by bedrock structure and can be recognized and mapped from satellite imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). This study employed the Antarctic Digital Database DEM to obtain slope steepness and aspect maps of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains, allowing definition of the position and orientation of the morphological axis of the rift-flank. The TAM axis, interpreted as a fault-controlled escarpment formed by coast-parallel retreat, provides a marker for the orientation of the faulted boundary between the TAM and the rift system. Changes in position and orientation of the TAM axis suggests the rift flank is segmented into tectonic blocks bounded by relay ramps and transverse accommodation zones. The transverse boundaries coincide with major outlet glaciers, supporting interpretation of rift structures between them. The pronounced morphological change across Byrd Glacier points to control by structures inherited from the Ross orogen.

  5. Unusual Chemistry of the Miocene Central Basin and Range: zr and LREE Enriched Mafic Rocks of the Lucy Gray and Mccullough Mountains, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, R. L.; Smith, E. I.

    2011-12-01

    The dominantly intermediate mid-Miocene (ca. 16-12 Ma) volcanic section in the northern and central McCullough Range of the Basin and Range Province, Nevada, typifies igneous rocks in similar-aged, adjacent mountain ranges (e.g., the Highland Range and the Eldorado Mountains). Calc-alkaline andesite to dacite domes, flows, and related pyroclastic materials dominate while rhyolite and basalt are volumetrically minor constituents. These rocks have the typical "arc" chemical signature prevalent in subduction zones and in pre-extensional Basin and Range igneous rocks (Zr, Nb, Ti depletions, <100 ppm La), which has lead many to postulate a slab fluid enriched lithospheric mantle (LM) source, contaminated by and mixed with an upper crustal reservoir (enriched in Pb, Ba, Sr, Rb). By contrast, older Miocene volcanic rocks (ca. 18.5-16 Ma), in the south-central McCullough and adjacent Lucy Gray Mountains, are alkaline to mildly tholeiitic with distinctively high Zr, Nb, Sr, and light rare earth element (LREE) concentrations (e.g., 500-700 ppm Zr and 150-200 ppm La), Mg-rich olivine-bearing basanite and diabase, and abundant peridotite and pyroxenite mantle xenoliths. Andesites containing a typical mineral assemblage of iddingsitic olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase are host to up to 700 ppm Zr, highly enriched Sr isotopes (0.709-0.714), over 200 ppm La, and up to 3000 ppm Sr and Ba. If the arc-signature "normal" rocks are produced in slab-fluid enriched LM, where, then, do the Zr- and LREE-enriched mafic rocks originate? One way to enrich a rock in LREEs is to partially melt a garnet-bearing source, such as garnet peridotite. Zr, Sr, Nb, and Ba enrichment cannot be explained through this method, however, and the extreme enrichment (1000x chondrite) of the LREEs is difficult to reproduce. Another option is to contaminate a garnet-bearing source with an upper crustal felsic rock such as granite or granitoid. Several types of upper crustal rocks are exposed in the Lucy

  6. Neogene paleoelevation of intermontane basins in a narrow, compressional mountain range, southern Central Andes of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, Gregory D.; Giambiagi, Laura B.; Garzione, Carmala N.; Mahoney, J. Brian; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2014-11-01

    The topographic growth of mountain ranges at convergent margins results from the complex interaction between the motion of lithospheric plates, crustal shortening, rock uplift and exhumation. Constraints on the timing and magnitude of elevation change gleaned from isotopic archives preserved in sedimentary sequences provide insight into how these processes interact over different timescales to create topography and potentially decipher the impact of topography on atmospheric circulation and superposed exhumation. This study uses stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates collected from seven different stratigraphic sections spanning different tectonic and topographic positions in the range today, to examine the middle to late Miocene history of elevation change in the central Andes thrust belt, which is located immediately to the south of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau, the world's second largest orogenic plateau. Paleoelevations are calculated using previously published local isotope-elevation gradients observed in modern rainfall and carbonate-formation temperatures determined from clumped isotope studies in modern soils. Calculated Neogene basin paleoelevations are between 1 km and 1.9 km for basins that today are located between 1500 and 3400 m elevation. Considering the modern elevation and δ18O values of precipitation at the sampling sites, three of the intermontane basins experienced surface uplift between the end of deposition during the late Miocene and present. The timing of elevation change cannot be linked to any documented episodes of large-magnitude crustal shortening. Paradoxically, the maximum inferred surface uplift in the core of the range is greatest where the crust is thinnest. The spatial pattern of surface uplift is best explained by eastward migration of a crustal root via ductile deformation in the lower crust and is not related to flat-slab subduction.

  7. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of a portion of the Himalayan mountain range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, shows a portion of the Himalayan mountain range. The image was recorded with a 180mm lens on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for Shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real time. In this observation, the center coordinates are 27.822 degrees north latitude and 84.173 degrees east longitude. Geolocation accuracy on this image is 0.7 nautical miles. The Kali River runs from the east (top left corner) to the west (bottom right corner). Nepal's capital city of Kathmandu lies (out of frame) about 96 nautical miles east of the center point. Digital file name is ESC01039.IMG.

  8. Distributional changes and range predictions of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromberg, J.E.; Kumar, S.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive winter annual grass, may be increasing in extent and abundance at high elevations in the western United States. This would pose a great threat to high-elevation plant communities and resources. However, data to track this species in high-elevation environments are limited. To address changes in the distribution and abundance of downy brome and the factors most associated with its occurrence, we used field sampling and statistical methods, and niche modeling. In 2007, we resampled plots from two vegetation surveys in Rocky Mountain National Park for presence and cover of downy brome. One survey was established in 1993 and had been resampled in 1999. The other survey was established in 1996 and had not been resampled until our study. Although not all comparisons between years demonstrated significant changes in downy brome abundance, its mean cover increased nearly fivefold from 1993 (0.7%) to 2007 (3.6%) in one of the two vegetation surveys (P = 0.06). Although the average cover of downy brome within the second survey appeared to be increasing from 1996 to 2007, this slight change from 0.5% to 1.2% was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Downy brome was present in 50% more plots in 1999 than in 1993 (P = 0.02) in the first survey. In the second survey, downy brome was present in 30% more plots in 2007 than in 1996 (P = 0.08). Maxent, a species-environmental matching model, was generally able to predict occurrences of downy brome, as new locations were in the ranges predicted by earlier generated models. The model found that distance to roads, elevation, and vegetation community influenced the predictions most. The strong response of downy brome to interannual environmental variability makes detecting change challenging, especially with small sample sizes. However, our results suggest that the area in which downy brome occurs is likely increasing in Rocky Mountain National Park through increased frequency and cover

  9. Export of earthquake-triggered landslides in active mountain ranges: insights from 2D morphodynamic modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe; Steer, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In active mountain ranges, large earthquakes (Mw > 5-6) trigger numerous landslides that impact river dynamics. These landslides bring local and sudden sediment piles that will be eroded and transported along the river network causing downstream changes in river geometry, transport capacity and erosion efficiency. The progressive removal of landslide materials has implications for downstream hazards management and also for understanding landscape dynamics at the timescale of the seismic cycle. The export time of landslide-derived sediments after large-magnitude earthquakes has been studied from suspended load measurements but a full understanding of the total process, including the coupling between sediment transfer and channel geometry change, still remains an issue. Note that the transport of small sediment pulses has been studied in the context of river restoration, but the magnitude of sediment pulses generated by landslides may make the problem different. Here, we study the export of large volumes (>106 m3) of sediments with the 2D hydro-morphodynamic model, Eros. This model uses a new hydrodynamic module that resolves a reduced form of the Saint-Venant equations with a particle method. It is coupled with a sediment transport and lateral and vertical erosion model. Eros accounts for the complex retroactions between sediment transport and fluvial geometry, with a stochastic description of the floods experienced by the river. Moreover, it is able to reproduce several features deemed necessary to study the evacuation of large sediment pulses, such as river regime modification (single-thread to multi-thread), river avulsion and aggradation, floods and bank erosion. Using a synthetic and simple topography we first present how granulometry, landslide volume and geometry, channel slope and flood frequency influence 1) the dominance of pulse advection vs. diffusion during its evacuation, 2) the pulse export time and 3) the remaining volume of sediment in the catchment

  10. The Significance of High, Isolated, Low-relief Surfaces in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The highest regions of glaciated mountain ranges are characterised by cirques, arêtes and steep hillslopes. In addition, though, many ranges exhibit high, isolated, low-relief surfaces, which may provide an important record of landscape evolution. Broad, low-curvature surfaces, for example in the Laramide Ranges of the western United States, reflect periglacial regolith production and transport (e.g., Anderson, 2002). Here, the focus is on smaller surfaces that appear to be out of equilibrium with current/recent surface processes, and are interpreted as former glacial valley floors isolated from the current valley network. The low-relief surfaces at the crest of the Sierra Nevada, California, are diamict covered. The top of Sardine Canyon is a beheaded cirque, while the cirque on the western side of Baxter Pass is in the process of being beheaded. Meanwhile, the isolated patch of diamict on the northeastern ridge of University Peak is surrounded on all sides by steep cliffs, and presumably represents a more evolved surface. It is inferred that the glaciated eastern Sierra Nevada is subject to a cycle of drainage capture and relief inversion, driven by headward erosion by cirque glaciers. The central Himalaya contains a number of low-relief, ice-covered surfaces far above the rest of the glacial valley network (e.g., the Sakyetang Glacier, >6,600m, above the Kazhen Glacier, <5,400m). The ice at > 6,000m is frozen to the bedrock, so sub-glacial erosion will be outpaced by rock uplift. The extreme relief and active tectonics of the central Himalaya mean that drainage capture is not necessarily required in the generation of high, isolated, low-relief surfaces; glacial steps can become exaggerated to form reconstituted glaciers. High, isolated, low-relief surfaces are found across the Southern Alps, New Zealand, from Miserable Ridge and Kelly Saddle close to the western range front, through Urquhart Peak and Lake Browning near the Main Divide, to Kaimakamaka Peaks east

  11. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, during accretion near 10 degree N paleolatitude

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrum, J.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Paleomagnetic data are presented for a 50-m-thick sequence of Oxfordian to Tithonian sedimentary rocks conformably overlying Upper Jurassic pillow basalt within the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California. These new data are similar in direction and polarity to previously published paleomagnetic data for the pillow basalt. The Jurassic sedimentary rocks were deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field, and uniformity of the remanent magnetization within the entire section of pillow basalt and sedimentary rocks indicates later remagnetization. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite is interpreted to have occurred during accretion to the continental margin, possibly by burial and low-temperature alteration related to this event. Similar paleolatitudes calculated for the ophiolite (11{degree} {plus minus} 3{degree}) and for mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Stanley Mountain terrane at Figueroa Mountain (6{degree} {plus minus} 5{degree}) are consistent with remagnetization of the ophiolite in southern California and elsewhere along the Pacific coast imply that these rocks were also overprinted, and their magnetic inclinations suggest remagnetization at low paleolatitudes as well. The Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain is thus inferred to have been remagnetized along the North American margin near 10{degree}N paleolatitude between earliest and mid-Cretaceous time and subsequently transported northward by strike-slip faulting related to relative motions between the Farallon, Kula, Pacific, and North American plates.

  12. Seismic anisotropy across the Longmen Shan mountain range from a passive seismological survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herquel, G.; Robert, A.; Vergne, J.; Zhu, J.

    2008-12-01

    Located between the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and the Yangtze craton, the Longmen Shan mountains range is a key area for understanding mechanisms that control the deformation and the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan plateau. This context motivated several French institutes and the University of Chengdu to set up a seismic network across the Longmen Shan to determine the patterns of the lithospheric deformation in this region. The profile, composed of 36 stations with a mean inter-station spacing of 10km, was deployed in several phases from November 2005 to April 2007 and ran from the Sichuan basin, across the Longmen Shan fold belt, the Songpan Garze terrane and up to the Xianshuhe fault. Here, we present the first results from this experiment about the anisotropy within the lithosphere based on shear wave splitting measurements. 41 clear SKS and SKKS phases from 23 teleseismic events were recorded during the two periods of deployment and selected through visual inspection. We used the cross- correlation method to calculate the splitting parameters, that is, the azimuth of the past polarization direction and the delay time between the split phases arrivals. We show that 1) The polarization directions are coherent in all the studied zone. They are compatible with previous observations, GPS measurements and with the main known surface features like the Xianshuhe strike-slip fault. Strikingly, no significant change is observed between the Longmen Shan region and the eastern part of the Yangtze craton; 2) The measured delays are small and don't reflect important asthenospheric flow. Some measurements of S splitting near the Beichuan-Weichuan fault system show normal anisotropy for the crust (around 0.05 to 0.1s). Based on these results, the origin of anisotropy seems to be confined to the lithosphere and coherent deformation of the crust and mantle lithosphere cannot be excluded.

  13. Characterization of Groundwater Flow at a Mountainous Watershed, Niwot Ridge, Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. G.; Ge, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present a 3D coupled flow and solute transport hydrogeologic model for the Niwot Ridge Watershed in the Front Range of Colorado. This is the first 3D modeling attempt at detailing groundwater recharges at this site. The 7.6 km2 watershed ranges in elevation from 3241 to 4082 m and is representative of an alpine setting. Its climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation of 1.95 m, mean annual air temperature of -2.1 °C, and extensive snow coverage six months of the year with 80% of the precipitation falling as snow. At the study site, Proterozoic metamorphic and igneous bedrock is intruded by Tertiary stocks and overlain by Quaternary deposits. In the middle of the watershed are six paternoster lakes connected by North Boulder Creek, the headwaters of the South Platte River. We use a steady state 3D finite element coupled flow and solute transport model to characterize the groundwater and solute transport systems and quantify mountain recharge under averaged long-term conditions. Field data including effective porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and solute concentration in surface water are utilized to constrain and calibrate model parameters. We conduct model sensitivity analysis to examine how uncertainties in model input parameters may influence model results. Preliminary model results indicate that regional groundwater flow is from northwest to southeast, towards North Boulder Creek. This groundwater flow pattern is consistent with field observations. The average hydraulic head gradient over the entire modeled area is approximately 0.12 m/m. Groundwater velocity varies from 1.4 x 10-6 to 1.8 x 10-3 m/s. Groundwater flow is primarily driven by a topographically influenced precipitation regime, with 7% of the total precipitation recharging into the subsurface. Groundwater contribution to baseflow of North Boulder Creek is at an average rate of 0.03 m3/s, which is on the same magnitude as observed values. Modeled discharge solute concentration (Na

  14. A new mode of radio wave diffraction via the terrestrial surface plasmon on mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masafumi

    2016-08-01

    It is shown that a new mode of radio wave diffraction occurs at the peak of mountains mediated via the terrestrial surface plasmon. If mobile electrical charges exist on the Earth's surface, the electromagnetic theory predicts strong coupling between the radio wave and the surface plasmon on the ground. If sufficient amount of electrical charges of the same sign appear on the ground as a consequence of some underground preseismic activity, they will be subject to the electrical repulsive forces. The surface electrical charges will then move toward topographic highs of nearby mountain peaks. Radio waves are then shown to interact with such electrical charges and create collective oscillations of the surface charges to induce a surface plasmon. Here it is clarified with numerical analyses on a massively parallel supercomputer that such interactions occur on the peak of mountains, hence causing peculiar phenomena of random diffraction. Depending on the density of the electrical charges on the ground surface, the interaction becomes strong enough to cause intense and random scattering and diffraction of the radio wave from the rough surface of the mountain topography. Mountain peaks thus act as a secondary source of radio waves; unexpectedly, radio waves are reradiated from the peaks into various directions by the anomalous diffraction and scattering, and the reradiated wave can propagate beyond the line of sight over mountains to reach distant locations. Such effects may arise randomly but concurrently with some preseismic activity in the crustal rocks, of which observation may allow statistical analysis of the critical state of crustal rocks over a broad area of a few hundred kilometers.

  15. Strong effect of climate on ectomycorrhizal fungal composition: evidence from range overlap between two mountains.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Sakai, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2015-08-01

    Separating the effects of environmental factors and spatial distance on microbial composition is difficult when these factors covary. We examined the composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi along elevation gradients on geographically distant mountains to clarify the effect of climate at the regional scale. Soil cores were collected from various forest types along an elevation gradient in southwestern Japan. Fungal species were identified by the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA using direct sequencing. The occurrence of fungal species in this study was compared with a previous study conducted on a mountain separated by ∼550 km. In total, we recorded 454 EM fungi from 330 of 350 soil cores. Forty-seven fungal species (∼20% of the total excluding singletons) were shared between two mountains, mostly between similar forest types on both mountains. Variation partitioning in redundancy analysis revealed that climate explained the largest variance in EM fungal composition. The similarity of forest tree composition, which is usually determined by climatic conditions, was positively correlated with the similarity of the EM fungal composition. However, the lack of large host effects implied that communities of forest trees and EM fungi may be determined independently by climate. Our data provide important insights that host plants and mutualistic fungi may respond to climate change idiosyncratically, potentially altering carbon and nutrient cycles in relation to the plant-fungus associations.

  16. Dataset of MIGRAME Project (Global Change, Altitudinal Range Shift and Colonization of Degraded Habitats in Mediterranean Mountains).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Zamora, Regino; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    In this data paper, we describe the dataset of the Global Change, Altitudinal Range Shift and Colonization of Degraded Habitats in Mediterranean Mountains (MIGRAME) project, which aims to assess the capacity of altitudinal migration and colonization of marginal habitats by Quercus pyrenaica Willd. forests in Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) considering two global-change drivers: temperature increase and land-use changes. The dataset includes information of the forest structure (diameter size, tree height, and abundance) of the Quercus pyrenaica ecosystem in Sierra Nevada obtained from 199 transects sampled at the treeline ecotone, mature forest, and marginal habitats (abandoned cropland and pine plantations). A total of 3839 occurrence records were collected and 5751 measurements recorded. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this mountain range. PMID:26491387

  17. Dataset of MIGRAME Project (Global Change, Altitudinal Range Shift and Colonization of Degraded Habitats in Mediterranean Mountains)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Zamora, Regino; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, we describe the dataset of the Global Change, Altitudinal Range Shift and Colonization of Degraded Habitats in Mediterranean Mountains (MIGRAME) project, which aims to assess the capacity of altitudinal migration and colonization of marginal habitats by Quercus pyrenaica Willd. forests in Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) considering two global-change drivers: temperature increase and land-use changes. The dataset includes information of the forest structure (diameter size, tree height, and abundance) of the Quercus pyrenaica ecosystem in Sierra Nevada obtained from 199 transects sampled at the treeline ecotone, mature forest, and marginal habitats (abandoned cropland and pine plantations). A total of 3839 occurrence records were collected and 5751 measurements recorded. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this mountain range. PMID:26491387

  18. Imaging continental collision and subduction in the Pamir mountain range, Central Asia, by seismic attenuation tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Haberland, Christian; Sippl, Christian; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mechie, James; Schneider, Felix; Tipage Team

    2014-05-01

    Subduction of continental crust is the mode of shortening in continental collision that is the least well understood. It is known to occur, as testified e.g., by now exhumed ultra-high-pressure rocks, despite the fact that continental crust is generally too buoyant to submerge into the mantle. Continental crust may, however, subduct in tow of a leading dense oceanic plate at the last stage of the plate tectonic Wilson cycle. Alternatively, if upper and lower crust detach, the latter, together with the underlying cold mantle lithosphere, may become negatively buoyant, enabling their descent. The Pamir mountains in Central Asia have been one of the few places on Earth, where on-going continental subduction has been postulated based on an active Wadati-Benioff zone. The Pamir is situated on an orographic node northwest of Tibet, between the Tarim and Tajik basins, where the Hindu Kush, Karakorum, western Kunlun Shan and Tien Shan ranges coalesce. It formed in the late Paleogene to Neogene, i.e. approximately during the second half of the India-Asia collision, north of the Western Himalayan Syntaxis, on the Asian (retro)continent. We use tomography of seismic attenuation to image the lithospheric-scale structure of the Pamir orogen. Attenuation tomography has been shown to be a powerful tool to study deep process-related structures particularly in oceanic subduction zones. Attenuation at this scale may be seen as a proxy for rheology and hence is very sensitive to e.g., homologous temperature and deformation. We use data from a two-year seismic deployment of the Tien Shan-Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE). The whole path attenuation parameter t* is determined by inversion of P-wave velocity spectra from 1790 earthquakes and then inverted for a 3D attenuation model (Qp) employing a recently published 3D velocity model. We find a prominent continuous crescent-shaped high-attenuation anomaly (HAA) that penetrates from upper crustal levels to depths of more than 100 km. At

  19. Long-range Transport of Aerosol at a Mountain Site in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Véronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Dulac, François

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  20. Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-06-01

    Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.

  1. Peneplains of the Front Range and Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Willis T.

    1923-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to call attention to some of the major surface features in the Rocky Mountain National Park and to point out their probable correlation with similar features in neighboring regions. The observations on which the paper is based were made in the summer of 1916, during an investigation in which other work demanded first consideration. This paper may therefore be considered a by-product. For the same reason many of the observations were not followed to conclusions, yet the data obtained seem to be sufficient to establish a certain order of events, the recognition of which may be of assistance in working out in detail the geologic and geographic history of the Rocky Mountain region.

  2. Redistribution of Snowfall across a Mountain Range by Artificial Seeding: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, P V; Radke, L F

    1973-09-14

    Clouds over the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains were artificially seeded to reduce the riming and fall speeds of snow crystals and to divert snowfall across the crest. Aircraft observations showed that the clouds were glaciated by the seeding. The crystal habits and the degrees of riming of snow crystals reaching the target area were modified. Snowfall rates decreased at the crest and simultaneously increased 20 kilometers east of the crest.

  3. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  4. A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R.W. King; S.A. Kattenhorn

    2012-04-01

    We evaluate horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities together with geologic, volcanic, and seismic data to interpret extension, shear, and contraction within the Snake River Plain and the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. We estimate horizontal surface velocities using GPS data collected at 385 sites from 1994 to 2009 and present an updated velocity field within the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF). Our results show an ENE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Centennial Tectonic belt and an E-oriented extensional strain rate of 6.2 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Intermountain Seismic belt combined with the northern Great Basin. These extensional strain rates contrast with the regional north-south contraction of -2.6 {+-} 1.1 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} calculated in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau over a 125 x 650 km region. Tests that include dike-opening reveal that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones does not occur in the Snake River Plain at present. This slow internal deformation in the Snake River Plain is in contrast to the rapidly-extending adjacent Basin and Range provinces and implies shear along boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of <0.5 to 1.7 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic belt. The fastest lateral shearing occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional GPS velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic belt, Idaho batholith, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and central Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is driven by extension to the

  5. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis.

  6. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  7. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis. PMID:26013161

  8. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems alongthe Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study from 2002 through 2003 through its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to determine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses at sites ranging from minimally to highly developed; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting aquatic communities at these sites; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin.

  9. Fission-track thermochronology of the Wind River Range and other basement-cored uplifts in the Rocky Mountain foreland

    SciTech Connect

    Cerveny, P.F. III.

    1990-01-01

    Fission-track analysis of apatites from basement rocks of the Laramide foreland provides information about the timing, magnitude, and apparent rate of uplift of the mountain ranges in this area. One hundred thirty-five samples were collected from various mountain ranges in the Wyoming and northern Colorado foreland, with special emphasis on the Wind River Range. Apatite ages from the flanks of the range indicate that uplift may have initiated in the Wind Rivers by about 85 Ma, but was definitely occurring by 75 Ma. Weaker evidence suggests that uplift had commenced by 100 Ma. Data from Green River Lakes and Fremont Peak in the northern part of the range indicate that uplift/cooling was occurring around 62 Ma, and was most rapid between 60 and 57 Ma. Apparent uplift rates vary from 94 m/m.y. to 246 m/m.y. in this section of the Wind Rivers. Samples from a drill hole in the central Wind Rivers have apatite ages ranging from 37 Ma to 86 Ma, confirm the rapid uplift event at 60 Ma, and suggest a significant cooling event at approximately 42 Ma involving nearly 2 km of the rock column. Ages from the Medicine Bow and bighorn ranges suggest possible uplift as early as 100 Ma. Evidence confirm that uplift was definitely occurring by 75 Ma throughout the foreland, and continued through at least 58 Ma. Data from the Beartooth Range, Park Range, and Laramie Range suggest a rapid uplift/cooling event at about 62 Ma. Data collected from Precambrian/Cambrian boundary localities throughout Wyoming indicate that the basement surface was largely within a zone of partial track annealing prior to the Laramide orogeny, and has been uplifted no more than about 5-6 km relative to the present day surface.

  10. Key to the species of Eotrechinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae) of Thailand and review of the fauna of the Phetchabun Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Nakthong, La-Au; Vitheepradit, Akekawat; Sites, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Water striders of the subfamily Eotrechinae from the Phetchabun Mountain Range can be found at the margins of rock pools and puddles, and in hygropetric habitats including waterfalls. Twenty-two species in three genera are known from Thailand. In the Phetchabun Mountain Range, 12 species representing all three genera were recorded from over a decade of collections (2002-2012). This paper provides taxonomic, biological, and ecological information for taxa of the Phetchabun Mountain Range in Thailand and a taxonomic key to all known species from Thailand.  PMID:25283189

  11. Key to the species of Eotrechinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae) of Thailand and review of the fauna of the Phetchabun Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Nakthong, La-Au; Vitheepradit, Akekawat; Sites, Robert W

    2014-09-03

    Water striders of the subfamily Eotrechinae from the Phetchabun Mountain Range can be found at the margins of rock pools and puddles, and in hygropetric habitats including waterfalls. Twenty-two species in three genera are known from Thailand. In the Phetchabun Mountain Range, 12 species representing all three genera were recorded from over a decade of collections (2002-2012). This paper provides taxonomic, biological, and ecological information for taxa of the Phetchabun Mountain Range in Thailand and a taxonomic key to all known species from Thailand. 

  12. The influence of mountain meteorology on precipitation chemistry at low and high elevations of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denning, A. Scott

    1993-01-01

    We explored the seasonal characteristics in wet deposition chemistry for two sites located at different elevations along the east slope of the Colorado Front Range in Rocky Mountain National Park. Seasonally separated precipitation was stratified into highly concentrated (high salt), dilute (low salt), or acid-dominated precipitation groups. These groups and unstratified precipitation data were related to mean easterly or westerly zonal winds to determine direction of local transport. Strong acid anion associations were also determined for the stratified and unstratified precipitation data sets. We found that strong acid anions, acidity, ammonium, and high salt concentrations originate to the east of Rocky Mountain National Park, and are transported via up-valley funneling winds or convective instability from differential heating of the mountains and the plains to the east. These influence the composition of precipitation at Beaver Meadows, the low elevation site, throughout the year, while their effect on precipitation at Loch Vale, the high elevation site, is felt most strongly during the summer. During the winter, Loch Vale precipitation is very dilute, and occurs in conjunction with westerly winds resulting from the southerly location of the jet stream.

  13. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  14. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  15. More than one way to stretch: A tectonic model for extension along the plume track of the Yellowstone hotspot and adjacent Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Thompson, G.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain of southern Idaho poses a paradoxical problem because it is nearly aseismic and unfaulted although it appears to be actively extending in a SW-NE direction continuously with the adjacent block-faulted Basin and Range Province. The plain represents the 100-km-wide track of the Yellowstone hotspot during the last ???16-17 m.y., and its crust has been heavily intruded by mafic magma, some of which has erupted to the surface as extensive basalt flows. Outside the plain's distinct topographic boundaries is a transition zone 30-100 km wide that has variable expression of normal faulting and magmatic activity as compared with the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Many models for the evolution of the Snake River Plain have as an integral component the suggestion that the crust of the plain became strong enough through basaltic intrusion to resist extensional deformation. However, both the boundaries of the plain and its transition zone lack any evidence of zones of strike slip or other accommodation that would allow the plain to remain intact while the Basin and Range Province extended around it; instead, the plain is coupled to its surroundings and extending with them. We estimate strain rates for the northern Basin and Range Province from various lines of evidence and show that these strains would far exceed the elastic limit of any rocks coupled to the Basin and Range; thus, if the plain is extending along with its surroundings, as the geologic evidence indicates, it must be doing so by a nearly aseismic process. Evidence of the process is provided by volcanic rift zones, indicators of subsurface dikes, which trend across the plain perpendicular to its axis. We suggest that variable magmatic strain accommodation, by emplacement and inflation of dikes perpendicular to the least principal stress in the elastic crust, allows the crust of the plain to extend nearly aseismically. Dike injection releases accumulated elastic strain but

  16. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over snow-capped Sierra Nevada mountain range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory during a flight over the snow-covered Sierra Nevada Mountains. Over the past several years the DC-8 has conducted research missions in such diverse places as the Pacific in spring and Sweden in winter. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  17. Cooperation among tectonic and surface processes in the St. Elias Range, Earth's highest coastal mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkelmann, Eva; Koons, Peter O.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Hallet, Bernard; Barker, Adam; Elliott, Julie; Garver, John I.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Headley, Rachel M.; Pavlis, Gary L.; Ridgway, Kenneth D.; Ruppert, Natalia; Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Investigations of tectonic and surface processes have shown a clear relationship between climate-influenced erosion and long-term exhumation of rocks. Numerical models suggest that most orogens are in a transient state, but observational evidence of a spatial shift in mountain building processes due to tectonic-climate interaction is missing. New thermochronology data synthesized with geophysical and surface process data elucidate the evolving interplay of erosion and tectonics of the colliding Yakutat microplate with North America. Focused deformation and rock exhumation occurred in the apex of the colliding plate corner from > 4 to 2 Ma and shifted southward after the 2.6 Ma climate change. The present exhumation maximum coincides with the largest modern shortening rates, highest concentration of seismicity, and the greatest erosive potential. We infer that the high sedimentation caused rheological modification and the emergence of the southern St. Elias, intercepting orographic precipitation and shifting focused erosion and exhumation to the south.

  18. Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions?

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Frank; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Devi, Nadezhda M; Grigor'ev, Andrey A; Bartysh, Alexandr A; Fomin, Valeriy V; Kapralov, Denis S; Terent'ev, Maxim; Bugman, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Moiseev, Pavel A

    2014-11-01

    High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks.

  19. Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions?

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Frank; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Devi, Nadezhda M; Grigor'ev, Andrey A; Bartysh, Alexandr A; Fomin, Valeriy V; Kapralov, Denis S; Terent'ev, Maxim; Bugman, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Moiseev, Pavel A

    2014-11-01

    High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks. PMID

  20. Glacial modifications of short-wavelength topography and potential feedbacks on the denudation of a deglaciated mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Kober, Florian; Kissling, Eduard; Willett, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Distinct erosional landforms in the European Alps and other mid- to high-latitude mountain belts highlight the importance of glacial erosion in shaping mountain topography. Here we focus on the glacially induced modifications to the short-wavelength topography of the European Central Alps in an attempt to characterize the impact of glacial erosion on topography and to highlight potential feedback mechanisms on the denudation of the deglaciated mountain range. Glacial induced changes to the short-wavelength topography were analyzed by measuring the variations of drainage density and hillslope relief across the range. Variations of denudation rates were analyzed by compiling catchment-averaged concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be from existing studies covering Alpine and Foreland basins. Our results underline the importance of the LGM ELA elevation (i.e. the Equilibrium Line Altitude at the Late Glacial Maximum) as an important limit for the destruction of short-wavelength topography: The cumulative impact of glacial erosion above the LGM ELA has progressively decreased (i) drainage density, (ii) channel integration and (iii) commensurately increased hillslopes length (or hillslope relief). Exceptions from this trend are the highest and steepest peaks and ridges, nunataks even during the LGM. Alpine catchments in the orogen parts below this limit (i.e. Alpine foothills) lack strong modifications by glaciers. Here, glacial erosion is largely restricted to glacial troughs. There is also a statistically significant correlation between drainage density (or hillslope length) and catchment-wide denudation rates. The correlation does not define a single-valued function; rather there are two populations above and below the LGM ELA, one with a positive correlation for low-elevation, fluvially-dominated landscapes and a second for high-elevation, glacially-eroded basins in which this correlation is negative. We speculate that the commensurate lengthening of hillslopes increase

  1. An empirical law for wavelet maxima interpretation of potential fields: Application to the Uinta Mountains range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalier, Paul; Baghai-Wadji, Alireza; Poprawski, Yohann; Inggs, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Wavelet methods have been used in potential fields study to estimate source properties such as depth or structural index, through the analysis of Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima Lines (WTMML) intersections and slopes at high scales. Little has been done on the study of maximum points of the wavelet diagram, that we call here Maximum Wavelet Coefficient Scales (MWCS). Previous works have shown interesting correlations between MWCS and source depths, depending on the wavelet used in regards to the source nature and the data derivative order. In this paper, we introduce an empirical law involving spectral parameters that have not been studied so far, which allows analytical calculation of the MWCS, knowing the source characteristics and using certain wavelets. In return, the study of MWCS allows recovering source characteristics from the use of a single wavelet, without prior knowledge on the source. We demonstrate through synthetic models that the new capability of predicting the source type and depth according to the wavelet coefficient behaviour allows new ways of potential fields' sources characterization and identification. We show an application of the formula on a real case example in the Uinta Mountains (Utah, USA).

  2. Thrust-induced collapse of mountains-an example from the "Big Bend" region of the San Andreas Fault, western transverse ranges, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.

    2005-01-01

    Mount Pinos and Frazier Mountain are two prominent mountains just south of the San Andreas fault in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California, a region that has undergone rapid Quaternary contraction and uplift. Both mountains are underlain, at least in part, by thrusts that place granitic and gneissic rocks over sedimentary rocks as young as Pliocene. Broad profiles and nearly flat summits of each mountain have previously been interpreted as relicts of a raised erosion surface. However, several features bring this interpretation into question. First, lag or stream gravels do not mantle the summit surfaces. Second, extensive landslide deposits, mostly pre?Holocene and deeply incised, mantle the flanks of both mountains. Third, a pervasive fracture and crushed?rock network pervades the crystalline rocks underlying both mountains. The orientation of the fractures, prominent in roadcuts on Mount Pinos, is essentially random. 'Hill?and?saddle' morphology characterizes ridges radiating from the summits, especially on Mount Pinos; outcrops are sparse on the hills and are nonexistent in the saddles, suggesting fractures are concentrated in the saddles. Latest movement on the thrusts underlying the two mountain massifs is probably early Quaternary, during which the mountains were uplifted to considerably higher (although unknown) elevations than at present. A model proposes that during thrusting, ground accelerations in the hanging wall, particularly near thrust tips, were high enough to pervasively fracture the hanging?wall rocks, thereby weakening them and producing essentially an assemblage of loose blocks. Movement over flexures in the fault surface accentuated fracturing. The lowered shear stresses necessary for failure, coupled with deep dissection and ongoing seismic activity, reduced gravitational potential by spreading the mountain massifs, triggering flanking landslides and producing broad, flat?topped mountains. This study developed from mapping in

  3. Functional Plant Types Drive Plant Interactions in a Mediterranean Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Macek, Petr; Prieto, Iván; Macková, Jana; Pistón, Nuria; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2016-01-01

    Shrubs have positive (facilitation) and negative (competition) effects on understory plants, the net interaction effect being modulated by abiotic conditions. Overall shrubs influence to great extent the structure of plant communities where they have significant presence. Interactions in a plant community are quite diverse but little is known about their variability and effects at community level. Here we checked the effects of co-occurring shrub species from different functional types on a focal understory species, determining mechanisms driving interaction outcome, and tested whether effects measured on the focal species were a proxy for effects measured at the community level. Growth, physiological, and reproductive traits of Euphorbia nicaeensis, our focal species, were recorded on individuals growing in association with four dominant shrub species and in adjacent open areas. We also recorded community composition and environmental conditions in each microhabitat. Shrubs provided environmental conditions for plant growth, which contrasted with open areas, including moister soil, greater N content, higher air temperatures, and lower radiation. Shrub-associated individuals showed lower reproductive effort and greater allocation to growth, while most physiological traits remained unaffected. Euphorbia individuals were bigger and had more leaf N under N-fixing than under non-fixing species. Soil moisture was also higher under N-fixing shrubs; therefore soil conditions in the understory may counter reduced light conditions. There was a significant effect of species identity and functional types in the outcome of plant interactions with consistent effects at individual and community levels. The contrasting allocation strategies to reproduction and growth in Euphorbia plants, either associated or not with shrubs, showed high phenotypic plasticity and evidence its ability to cope with contrasting environmental conditions.

  4. Functional Plant Types Drive Plant Interactions in a Mediterranean Mountain Range

    PubMed Central

    Macek, Petr; Prieto, Iván; Macková, Jana; Pistón, Nuria; Pugnaire, Francisco I.

    2016-01-01

    Shrubs have positive (facilitation) and negative (competition) effects on understory plants, the net interaction effect being modulated by abiotic conditions. Overall shrubs influence to great extent the structure of plant communities where they have significant presence. Interactions in a plant community are quite diverse but little is known about their variability and effects at community level. Here we checked the effects of co-occurring shrub species from different functional types on a focal understory species, determining mechanisms driving interaction outcome, and tested whether effects measured on the focal species were a proxy for effects measured at the community level. Growth, physiological, and reproductive traits of Euphorbia nicaeensis, our focal species, were recorded on individuals growing in association with four dominant shrub species and in adjacent open areas. We also recorded community composition and environmental conditions in each microhabitat. Shrubs provided environmental conditions for plant growth, which contrasted with open areas, including moister soil, greater N content, higher air temperatures, and lower radiation. Shrub-associated individuals showed lower reproductive effort and greater allocation to growth, while most physiological traits remained unaffected. Euphorbia individuals were bigger and had more leaf N under N-fixing than under non-fixing species. Soil moisture was also higher under N-fixing shrubs; therefore soil conditions in the understory may counter reduced light conditions. There was a significant effect of species identity and functional types in the outcome of plant interactions with consistent effects at individual and community levels. The contrasting allocation strategies to reproduction and growth in Euphorbia plants, either associated or not with shrubs, showed high phenotypic plasticity and evidence its ability to cope with contrasting environmental conditions. PMID:27242863

  5. Petrology and provenance of modern sands from Cascade Range Forearc and Canadian Rocky Mountain fold-thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Kretchmer, A.G.; Ingersoll, R.V.

    1987-05-01

    The Cascade Range volcanic arc and forearc, and the Canadian Rocky Mountain fold-thrust belt represent the two sides of a continental margin arc-trench system. Sands from these areas show clear compositional differences. The most significant discriminating parameters are volcanic lithic grains, metamorphic lithic grains, plagioclase-to-feldspar ratio, and quartz. Variable sediment composition is also evident within each setting. Cascade sands are volcaniclastic and have high plagioclase-to-feldspar ratios. They divide into three categories (volcanic arc, alluvial forearc, and coastal forearc) that differ in their lithic contents and plagioclase-to-feldspar ratios. These changes reflect the attrition of volcanic lithics with distance from the arc and the input of recycled sediment and subduction-complex lithologies. Rocky Mountain sands are sedimenticlastic. They are of two types, a miogeocline-shelf provenance and a clastic-wedge provenance. These linear belts differ in clastic-carbonate content, plagioclase-to-feldspar ratio, and quartz content. The compositional differences reflect interstratified petrofacies of fold-thrust belts. Just as they can use detrital modes of modern sands to characterize provenance and tectonic setting, modes of ancient sandstones help up to recognize provenance terranes and reconstruct paleotectonic settings.

  6. Climatic Factors Drive Population Divergence and Demography: Insights Based on the Phylogeography of a Riparian Plant Species Endemic to the Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Shao-Tian; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Zhou, Zhuo; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary climatic factors have played a significant role in population divergence and demography. Here we investigated the phylogeography of Osteomeles schwerinae, a dominant riparian plant species of the hot/warm-dry river valleys of the Hengduan Mountains (HDM), Qinling Mountains (QLM) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP). Three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (trnD-trnT, psbD-trnT, petL-psbE), one single copy nuclear gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; G3pdh), and climatic data during the Last Interglacial (LIG; c. 120–140 ka), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; c. 21 ka), and Current (c. 1950–2000) periods were used in this study. Six cpDNA haplotypes and 15 nuclear DNA (nDNA) haplotypes were identified in the 40 populations of O. schwerinae. Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, median-joining networks, and Bayesian phylogenetic trees based on the cpDNA and nDNA datasets, all suggested population divergence between the QLM and HDM-YGP regions. Our climatic analysis identified significant heterogeneity of the climatic factors in the QLM and HDM-YGP regions during the aforementioned three periods. The divergence times based on cpDNA and nDNA haplotypes were estimated to be 466.4–159.4 ka and 315.8–160.3 ka, respectively, which coincide with the time of the weakening of the Asian monsoons in these regions. In addition, unimodal pairwise mismatch distribution curves, expansion times, and Ecological Niche Modeling suggested a history of population expansion (rather than contraction) during the last glaciation. Interestingly, the expansion times were found being well consistent with the intensification of the Asian monsoons during this period. We inferred that the divergence between the two main lineages is probably caused by disruption of more continuous distribution because of weakening of monsoons/less precipitation, whilst subsequent intensification of the Asian monsoons during the last glaciation facilitated the expansion of O. schwerinae

  7. Development of the archean crust in the medina mountain area, wind river range, wyoming (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.; Hulsebosch, T.P.; Bridgwater, D.; Worl, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for an extensive Archean crustal history in the Wind River Range is preserved in the Medina Mountain area in the west-central part of the range. The oldest rocks in the area are metasedimentary, mafic, and ultramafic blocks in a migmatite host. The supracrustal rocks of the Medina Mountain area (MMS) are folded into the migmatites, and include semi-pelitic and pelitic gneisses, and mafic rocks of probable volcanic origin. Mafic dikes intrude the older migmatites but not the MMS, suggesting that the MMS are distinctly younger than the supracrustal rocks in the migmatites. The migmatites and the MMS were engulfed by the late Archean granite of the Bridger, Louis Lake, and Bears Ears batholiths, which constitutes the dominant rock of the Wind River Range. Isotopic data available for the area include Nd crustal residence ages from the MMS which indicate that continental crust existed in the area at or before 3.4 Ga, but the age of the older supracrustal sequence is not yet known. The upper age of the MMS is limited by a 2.7 Ga RbSr age of the Bridger batholith, which was emplaced during the waning stages of the last regional metamorphism. The post-tectonic Louis Lake and Bears Ears batholiths have ages of 2.6 and 2.5 Ga, respectively (Stuckless et al., 1985). At least three metamorphic events are recorded in the area: (1) an early regional granulite event (M1) that affected only the older inclusions within the migmatites, (2) a second regional amphibolite event (M2) that locally reached granulite facies conditions, and (3) a restricted, contact granulite facies event (M3) caused by the intrusion of charnockitic melts associated with the late Archean plutons. Results from cation exchange geobarometers and geothermometers yield unreasonablu low pressures and temperatures, suggesting resetting during the long late Archean thermal evenn. ?? 1987.

  8. Influence of tectonic terranes adjacent to Precambrian Wyoming province of petroleum source and reservoir rock stratigraphy in northern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnsen, J.J.

    1984-07-01

    The perimeter of the Archean Precambrian Wyoming province can be generally defined. A Proterozoic suture belt separates the province from the Archean Superior province to the east. The western margin of the Precambrian rocks lies under the western Overthrust belt, but the Precambrian province extends at least as far west as southwest Montana and southeast Idaho. The province is bounded on the north and south by more regionally extensive Proterozoic mobile belts. In the northern belt, Archean rocks have been remobilized by Proterozoic tectonic events, but the southern belt does not appear to contain rocks as old as Archean. The tectonic response of these Precambrian terranes to cratonic and continental margin vertical and horizontal forces has exerted a profound influence on Phanerozoic sedimentation and stratigraphic facies distributions. Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock stratigraphy of the Northern Rocky Mountain region has been correlated with this structural history. In particular, the Devonian, Permian, and Jurassic sedimentation patterns can be shown to have been influenced by articulation among the different terranes comprising the ancient substructure. Depositional patterns in the Chester-Morrow carbonate and clastic sequence in the Central Montana trough are also related to this substructure. Further, a correlation between these tectonic terranes and the localization of regional hydrocarbon accumulations has been observed and has been useful in basin analyses for exploration planning.

  9. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts.

  10. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

  11. Contrasted evolution of glacial lakes along the Hindu-Kush Himalaya mountain range between 1990 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardelle, J.; Yves, A.; Berthier, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we present the first assessment of glacial lake distribution and evolution in the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH). Seven sites have been selected between Bhutan and Afghanistan, to capture the climatic variability along the 2000-km long mountain range. For each site, glacial lakes have been mapped with LANDSAT satellite imagery acquired in 1990, 2000 and 2009, using an automatic classification. In the East (India, Nepal and Bhutan) glacial lakes are bigger and more numerous than in the West (Pakistan, Afghanistan), and have grown continuously between 1990 and 2009 by 20% to 65%. Conversely, during the same period, the glacial lake coverage has shrunk in the Hindu Kush (-50%) and the Karakorum (-30%). This east/west pattern of lake changes seems in agreement with sparse glaciological measurements that suggest less (or even no) ice loss in the western part of the HKH.

  12. Elevation-dependent temperature trends in the Rocky Mountain Front Range: changes over a 56- and 20-year record.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Chris R; Nufio, César R; Bowers, M Deane; Guralnick, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Determining the magnitude of climate change patterns across elevational gradients is essential for an improved understanding of broader climate change patterns and for predicting hydrologic and ecosystem changes. We present temperature trends from five long-term weather stations along a 2077-meter elevational transect in the Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA. These trends were measured over two time periods: a full 56-year record (1953-2008) and a shorter 20-year (1989-2008) record representing a period of widely reported accelerating change. The rate of change of biological indicators, season length and accumulated growing-degree days, were also measured over the 56 and 20-year records. Finally, we compared how well interpolated Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) datasets match the quality controlled and weather data from each station. Our results show that warming signals were strongest at mid-elevations over both temporal scales. Over the 56-year record, most sites show warming occurring largely through increases in maximum temperatures, while the 20-year record documents warming associated with increases in maximum temperatures at lower elevations and increases in minimum temperatures at higher elevations. Recent decades have also shown a shift from warming during springtime to warming in July and November. Warming along the gradient has contributed to increases in growing-degree days, although to differing degrees, over both temporal scales. However, the length of the growing season has remained unchanged. Finally, the actual and the PRISM interpolated yearly rates rarely showed strong correlations and suggest different warming and cooling trends at most sites. Interpretation of climate trends and their seasonal biases in the Rocky Mountain Front Range are dependent on both elevation and the temporal scale of analysis. Given mismatches between interpolated data and the directly measured station data, we caution against

  13. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  14. A paleomagnetic investigation of rocks from the Ohio Range and the Dry Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Two well-deinfed virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) for East Antarctica were obtained from the Middle Jurassic Ferrar Dolerite, sampled from a thick sill on Mt Schofp in the Ohio Range, and from a horizontal sheet intruding Paleozoic granitic rocks at Mt Cerberus in the Dry Valleys. The VGP from the sill at Mt Schopf lies at lat. 58??.0S, long. 129??.0W (dm = 13??, dp = 12??), and the VGP from Mt Cerberus lies at lat. 57??.8S, long. 135??.7W (dm = 6??, dp = 6??). These data, together with 15 other acceptable pole positions reported in the literature, define a Middle Jurassic paleomagnetic pole at 52??.7S, 139??.6W (??95 = 4??.4). -from Author

  15. Climate Change Impacts on the Cryosphere of Mountain Regions: Validation of a Novel Model Using the Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, T. M.; Hill, D. F.; Sharp, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain regions are natural water towers, storing water seasonally as snowpack and for much longer as glaciers. Understanding the response of these systems to climate change is necessary in order to make informed decisions about prevention or mitigation measures. Yet, mountain regions are often data sparse, leading many researchers to implement simple or enhanced temperature index (ETI) models to simulate cryosphere processes. These model structures do not account for the thermal inertia of snowpack and glaciers and do not robustly capture differences in system response to climate regimes that differ from those the model was calibrated for. For instance, a temperature index calibration parameter will differ substantially in cold-dry conditions versus warm-wet ones. To overcome these issues, we have developed a cryosphere hydrology model, called the Significantly Enhanced Temperature Index (SETI), which uses an energy balance structure but parameterizes energy balance components in terms of minimum, maximum and mean temperature, precipitation, and geometric inputs using established relationships. Additionally, the SETI model includes a glacier sliding model and can therefore be used to estimate long-term glacier response to climate change. Sensitivity of the SETI model to changing climate is compared with an ETI and a simple temperature index model for several partially-glaciated watersheds within Alaska, including Wolverine glacier where multi-decadal glacier stake measurements are available, to highlight the additional fidelity attributed to the increased complexity of the SETI structure. The SETI model is then applied to the entire Alaska Range region for an ensemble of global climate models (GCMs), using representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Comparing model runs based on ensembles of GCM projections to historic conditions, total annual snowfall within the Alaska region is not expected to change appreciably, but the spatial distribution of snow

  16. Structure of Franciscan complex in the Stanley Mountain window, Southern Coast ranges, California

    SciTech Connect

    Korsch, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    Three sets of deformational events are recognized in the Franciscan Complex of the Stanley Mt. area, S. Coast ranges, California. First, in pre-melange time, shortening of the relatively cohesive sequence of interbedded graywacke and mudstone formed isoclinal folds and an axial-plane slaty cleavage. Second, fragmentation of the once cohesive sequence, probably over a considerable period of time, produced the configuration now considered a melange. Third, after the melange developed, the Franciscan Complex was deformed along with the surrounding upper Mesozoic Great Valley sequence into the Stanley Mt. antiform. In the cohesive Upper Cretaceous Carrie Creek Formation, macroscopic and mesoscopic folds have 2 predominant orientations. The less cohesive Franciscan Complex attempted to fold, as shown by the distribution of shear foliations on stereographic projections, but lack of lithologic continuity and slip along previously formed shear fractures prevents the recognition of macroscopic folds. Hence, in the Franciscan Complex of the Stanley Mt. window, several lines of evidence show that the melange structure is tectonic in origin, not just a tectonic imprint superimposed upon already chaotic rocks of sedimentary origin (olistostromes). 43 references.

  17. Lithospheric Structures Across the Longmen Shan Mountain Range From Seismologic and Gravimetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, A.; Zhu, J.; Vergne, J.; Cattin, R.; Wittlinger, G.; Chan, L.; de Sigoyer, J.; Pubellier, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake was somehow unexpected because it occurred in a region where the present-day deformation was not considered to be very high, as attested by GPS measurements and the lack of a well- developed foreland basin to the East of the Longmen Shan range. These observations, together with the persistence of a high topographic border are at the heart of a wide variety of mechanical models, among which several go by the existence of a low viscosity channel at mid crustal depth. Thus, bringing strong constrains on the lithospheric structure and composition in this region is a key to firm up these models. This is what motivated a sino-french team to deploy a dense seismic network between November 2005 and April 2007 in the central part of the Longmen Shan belt, very close to where the Wenchuan earthquake occurred one year after the end of this experiment. Applying the receiver function method to the teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the 36 seismic stations, we obtain a detailed and continuous image of the crustal structure from the Sichuan basin up to the Xianshuhe fault. This image reveals a crustal discontinuity at about 15km depth which may connect with the ruptured zone of the Wenchuan earthquake. Moreover, our results highlight an abrupt 20 km Moho offset between the Sichuan Basin and the Tibetan plateau and this sharp Moho offset is consistent with regional gravity data and microgravity measurements acquired along the seismological profile. These observations indicate a major contrast in strength between the Tibetan plateau and the Yangtze craton, the latest acting as a rigid block resisting the eastward displacement of the Tibetan Plateau. However, the mean crustal Poisson ratio, deduced from the analysis of the receiver functions, is low to normal beneath all the stations located on the Songpan-Ganze terrane, which suggests the absence of a thick and extensive zone of partial melt within the crust of this region.

  18. Modeling Potential Climatic Treeline of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruening, J. M.; Tran, T. J.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a valuable paleoclimate resource due to the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Recent work has shown that low growing season temperatures limit tree growth at the upper treeline ecotone. The presence of precisely dated remnant wood above modern treeline shows that this ecotone shifts at centennial timescales; in some areas during the Holocene climatic optimum treeline was 100 m higher than at present. A recent model from Paulsen and Körner (2014, doi:10.1007/s00035-014-0124-0) predicts global potential treeline position as a function of climate. The model develops three parameters necessary to sustain a temperature-limited treeline; a growing season longer than 94 days, defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C, and a mean temperature of 6.4 °C across the entire growing season. While maintaining impressive global accuracy in treeline prediction, these parameters are not specific to the semi-arid Great Basin bristlecone pine treelines in Nevada. In this study, we used 49 temperature sensors arrayed across approximately one square kilometer of complex terrain at treeline on Mount Washington to model temperatures using topographic indices. Results show relatively accurate prediction throughout the growing season (e.g., July average daily temperatures were modeled with an R2 of 0.80 and an RMSE of 0.29 °C). The modeled temperatures enabled calibration of a regional treeline model, yielding different parameters needed to predict potential treeline than the global model. Preliminary results indicate that modern Bristlecone pine treeline on and around Mount Washington occurs in areas with a longer growing season length (~160 days defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C) and a warmer seasonal mean temperature (~9 °C) than the global average. This work will provide a baseline data set on treeline position in the Snake Range derived only from parameters physiologically relevant to

  19. K-Ar geochronology of the Survey Pass, Ambler River and Eastern Baird Mountains quadrangles, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, R.B.; Mayfield, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    We report 76 previously unpublished K-Ar mineral ages from 47 metamorphic and igneous rocks in the southwestern Brooks Range. The pattern of radiometric ages is complex, reflecting the complex geologic history of this area. Local and regional radiometric evidence suggests that the southern Brooks Range schist belt has, at least in part, undergone a late Precambrian metamorphism and that the parent sedimentary and igneous rocks for the metamorphic rocks dated as late Precambrian are at least this old (Precambrian Z). This schist terrane experienced a major thermal event in mid-Cretaceous time, causing widespread resetting of nearly all K-Ar mica ages. A series of apparent ages intermediate between late Precambrian and mid-Cretaceous are interpreted as indicating varying amounts of partial argon loss from older rocks during the Cretaceous event. The schist belt is characterized by dominant metasediments and subordinate metabasites and metafelsites. Blueschists occur within the schist belt from the Chandalar quadrangle westward to the Baird Mountains quadrangle, but geologic evidence does not support the existence of a fossil subduction zone.

  20. The effect of impurities on the surface melt of a glacier in the Suntar Khayata Mountain Range, Russian Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujisawa, Yuta; Kadota, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Sota; Miyairi, Masaya; Shirakawa, Tatsuo; Kusaka, Ryo; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Ohata, Tetsuo

    2015-12-01

    We investigated characteristics of impurities and their impact on the ablation of Glacier No.31 in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in Russian Siberia during summer 2014. Positive degree-day factors (PDDFs) obtained from 20 stake measurements distributed across the glacier's ablation area varied from 3.00 to 8.55 mm w.e. K-1 day-1. The surface reflectivity measured with a spectrometer as a proxy for albedo, ranged from 0.09 to 0.62, and was negatively correlated with the PDDF, suggesting that glacier ablation is controlled by surface albedo on the studied glacier. Mass of total insoluble impurities on the ice surface varied from 0.1 to 45.2 g m-2 and was not correlated with surface reflectivity, suggesting that albedo is not directly conditioned by the mass of the impurities. Microscopy of impurities revealed that they comprised mineral particles, cryoconite granules, and ice algal cells filled with dark-reddish pigments (Ancylonema nordenskioldii). There was a significant negative correlation between surface reflectivity and algal biomass or organic matter, suggesting that the ice algae and their products are the most effective constituents in defining glacier surface albedo. Our results suggest that the melting of ice surface was enhanced by the growth of ice algae, which increased the melting rate 1.6 - 2.6 times greater than that of the impurity free bare-ice.

  1. Genetic differentiation of the pine wilt disease vector Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) over a mountain range - revealed from microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Shoda-Kagaya, E

    2007-04-01

    To study the dispersal process of the pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus (Hope) in frontier populations, a microsatellite marker-based genetic analysis was performed on expanding populations at the northern limit of its range in Japan. In Asian countries, M. alternatus is the main vector of pine wilt disease, the most serious forest disease in Japan. Sawyers were collected from nine sites near the frontier of the pine wilt disease damage area. A mountain range divides the population into western and eastern sides. Five microsatellite loci were examined and a total of 188 individuals was genotyped from each locus with the number of alleles ranged from two to nine. The mean observed heterozygosity for all loci varied from 0.282 to 0.480 in the nine sites, with an overall mean of 0.364. None of the populations have experienced a significant bottleneck. Significant differentiation was found across the mountain range, but the genetic composition was similar amongst populations of each side. It is believed that the mountain range acts as a geographical barrier to dispersal and that gene flow without a geographical barrier is high. On the west side of the mountain range, a pattern of isolation by distance was detected. This was likely to be caused by secondary contact of different colonizing routes on a small spatial scale. Based on these data, a process linking genetic structure at local (kilometres) and regional spatial scales (hundreds of kilometres) was proposed.

  2. Reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenni, A. J.; Benedict, K. B.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Zhou, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; Sive, B. C.; Zondlo, M. A.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) took place in July-August 2014. This collaborative study was aimed at characterizing those processes which control air quality along Colorado's Front Range. Although the study was largely focused on ozone, an additional goal of the study included characterizing contributions from Front Range sources and long-range transport to total reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Import of reactive nitrogen into ROMO and other pristine, high elevation areas has the potential to negatively impact terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We present measurements of reactive nitrogen species measured within ROMO during FRAPPÉ, and compare these data to measurements made in the surrounding areas. At our monitoring site in ROMO, co-located with IMPROVE and CASTNet monitoring, measurements of NO, NO2, NOx, NOy, NH3, and total reactive nitrogen (TNx) were made at high time resolution. Additional measurements of NH3, HNO3 and PM2.5 ions were made at hourly resolution using a MARGA and also at 24-hour time resolution using URG denuder-filter pack sampling. Precipitation samples also were collected to quantify wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen. Finally, measurements of organic gases were made using online gas chromatography and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for ammonia show both a diel pattern, with concentrations increasing each morning, and a strong dependence on wind direction, implicating the importance of transport. Higher concentrations of NOx and NOy also were observed in the daytime, but in general these patterns differed from that of ammonia. Several upslope events were observed during the measurement period during which NOx, NH3, 2-propylnitrate, 2-butylnitrate, ethane, butane, and pentane were observed to increase in concentration along with ozone.

  3. Chytridiomycosis in endemic amphibians of the mountain tops of the Córdoba and San Luis ranges, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Julián N; Longo, Silvana; Robledo, Gerardo

    2013-02-28

    Chytridiomycosis is a major threat to amphibian conservation. In Argentina, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been recorded in several localities, and recently, it was registered in amphibians inhabiting low-elevation areas of mountain environments in Córdoba and San Luis provinces. In the present study, we searched for B. dendrobatidis in endemic and non-endemic amphibians on the mountain tops of Córdoba and San Luis provinces. We collected dead amphibians in the upper vegetation belt of the mountains of Córdoba and San Luis. Using standard histological techniques, the presence of fungal infection was confirmed in 5 species. Three of these species are endemic to the mountain tops of both provinces. Although there are no reported population declines in amphibians in these mountains, the presence of B. dendrobatidis in endemic species highlights the need for long-term monitoring plans in the area.

  4. Geologic and Fossil Locality Maps of the West-Central Part of the Howard Pass Quadrangle and Part of the Adjacent Misheguk Mountain Quadrangle, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, James H.; Tailleur, Irvin L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The map depicts the field distribution and contact relations between stratigraphic units, the tectonic relations between major stratigraphic sequences, and the detailed internal structure of these sequences. The stratigraphic sequences formed in a variety of continental margin depositional environments, and subsequently underwent a complexde formational history of imbricate thrust faulting and folding. A compilation of micro and macro fossil identifications is included in this data set.

  5. Assessment and prevention of the avalanche risk on medium-high mountain from a geo-historical point of view. The Vosges range (France) as a case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacona, Florie; Martin, Brice; David, Pierre-Marie

    2010-05-01

    To mention avalanche risks in the Vosges generally causes certain disbelief because of its modest height. Moreover, as far as natural risks are concerned, and especially the avalanche risk, medium-high mountains are not usually studied. The attention is more focused on the spectacular and destructive phenomena that occur in highest mountains such as the Alps or the Pyrenees. However, in January and February 2000, fifteen people were victims of avalanches and three of them died. These accidents have suddenly drawn attention to the fact that avalanche risk is underestimated. In opposition to the Alps and Pyrenees there is no study or systematic inventory of avalanches in the medium-high mountain ranges. Moreover, the many research and methodological articles dedicated to studies on avalanches in the high mountain ranges do not, unfortunately, raise any concerns about medium-high mountain ranges. So, we had to develop a new research method based on handwritten, printed, and oral sources as well as on observations. The results of this historical research exceeded all expectations. About 300 avalanche events have been reported since the end of the 18th century; they happened in about 90 avalanche paths. Spatial and temporal distributions of the avalanche events can be explained by climate, vulnerability and land use evolutions. The vulnerability has evolved since the 18th century: material vulnerability decreased whereas human vulnerability increased due to the expansion of winter sports. Finally we focus our study on the perception of the avalanche risk by the winter sports adepts in the Vosges mountains. Indeed, at the beginning of this research, we were directly confronted to a lack of knowledge, or even to an ignorance, of the avalanche risk. Several factors contribute to this situation among which the topography. Even though some places in the Vosges mountains look like the alpine topography, most of the summits are rounded. Furthermore, this mountain presents an

  6. Frequency-range discriminations and absolute pitch in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T Y; Charrier, Isabelle; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2006-08-01

    The acoustic frequency ranges in birdsongs provide important absolute pitch cues for the recognition of conspecifics. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to sort tones contiguous in frequency into 8 ranges on the basis of associations between response to the tones in each range and reward. All 3 species acquired accurate frequency-range discriminations, but zebra finches acquired the discrimination in fewer trials and to a higher standard than black-capped or mountain chickadees, which did not differ appreciably in the discrimination. Chickadees' relatively poorer accuracy was traced to poorer discrimination of tones in the higher frequency ranges. During transfer tests, the discrimination generalized to novel tones when the training tones were included, but not when they were omitted.

  7. Frequency-range discriminations and absolute pitch in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T Y; Charrier, Isabelle; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2006-08-01

    The acoustic frequency ranges in birdsongs provide important absolute pitch cues for the recognition of conspecifics. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to sort tones contiguous in frequency into 8 ranges on the basis of associations between response to the tones in each range and reward. All 3 species acquired accurate frequency-range discriminations, but zebra finches acquired the discrimination in fewer trials and to a higher standard than black-capped or mountain chickadees, which did not differ appreciably in the discrimination. Chickadees' relatively poorer accuracy was traced to poorer discrimination of tones in the higher frequency ranges. During transfer tests, the discrimination generalized to novel tones when the training tones were included, but not when they were omitted. PMID:16893259

  8. Tectonic vs. gravitational morphostructures in the central Eastern Alps (Italy): Constraints on the recent evolution of the mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, Federico; Zanchi, Andrea; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2009-09-01

    Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) influence landscape development in tectonically active mountain ranges. Nevertheless, the relationships among tectonics, DSGSDs, and topography are poorly known. In this paper, the distribution of DSGSDs and their relationships with tectonic structures and active processes, surface processes, and topography were investigated at different scales. Over 100 DSGSDs were mapped in a 5000 km 2 sector of the central Eastern Alps between the Valtellina, Engadine and Venosta valleys. Detailed lineament mapping was carried out by photo-interpretation in a smaller area (about 750 km 2) including the upper Valtellina and Val Venosta. Fault populations were also analysed in the field and their mechanisms unravelled, allowing to identify different structural stages, the youngest being consistent with the regional pattern of the ongoing crustal deformation. Finally, four DSGSD examples have been investigated in detail by geological and 2D geomechanical modelling. DSGSDs affect more than 10% of the study area, and mainly cluster in areas where anisotropic fractured rock mass and high local relief occur. Their onset and development is subjected to a strong passive control by mesoscopic and major tectonic features, including regional nappe boundaries as well as NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW trending recent brittle structures. The kinematic consistency between these structures and the pattern of seismicity suggests that active tectonics may force DSGSDs, although field evidence and numerical models indicate slope debuttressing related to deglaciation as a primary triggering mechanism.

  9. Inferring the colonization of a mountain range--refugia vs. nunatak survival in high alpine ground beetles.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Konrad; Nicholls, James A; Stone, Graham N

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated whether high alpine specialists survived ice ages in situ on small ice-free islands of habitat, so-called nunataks, or whether glacial survival was restricted to larger massifs de refuge at the periphery. We evaluate these alternative hypotheses in a local radiation of high alpine carabid beetles (genus Trechus) in the Orobian Alps, Northern Italy. While summits along the northern ridge of this mountain range were surrounded by the icesheet as nunataks during the last glacial maximum, southern areas remained unglaciated. We analyse a total of 1366 bp of mitochondrial (Cox1 and Cox2) data sampled from 150 individuals from twelve populations and 530 bp of nuclear (PEPCK) sequence sampled for a subset of 30 individuals. Using Bayesian inference, we estimate ancestral location states in the gene trees, which in turn are used to infer the most likely order of recolonization under a model of sequential founder events from a massif de refuge from the mitochondrial data. We test for the paraphyly expected under this model and for reciprocal monophyly predicted by a contrasting model of prolonged persistence of nunatak populations. We find that (i) only three populations are incompatible with the paraphyly of the massif de refuge model, (ii) both mitochondrial and nuclear data support separate refugial origins for populations on the western and eastern ends of the northern ridge, and (iii) mitochondrial node ages suggest persistence on the northern ridge for part of the last ice age. PMID:21073591

  10. 1. Characterizing contributions of glacier melt and groundwater in alpine glacierized watersheds of the Saint-Elias Mountain range (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Emilie; Baraer, Michel; Chesnokova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological processes of alpine glacierized watersheds have been observed in most regions of the world; these have an important impact on water resources and can affect downstream ecosystems and populations. Subarctic catchments such as those found in southern Yukon (Canada) are particularly sensitive to climate related hydrological changes. To further understand the ongoing evolution of subarctic hydrological systems, we applied natural tracers based investigations in the Saint-Elias mountain range of the Yukon. The main goal was to identify water sources and their relative contributions to outflows in an alpine glacierized catchment. During the summer of 2015, we collected more than 100 water samples in two sub-watersheds of the glacier-fed Duke River watershed. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon, major ions and stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). The resulting dataset was then processed using statistical methods and the hydrochemical basin characterization method (HBCM). Results show that on the sampling period, watershed outflows consisted mainly of glacier meltwater with a non-negligible contribution of other water sources such as icings and ice-cored moraines. In this study, supraglacial processes are shown playing a particularly important role in the watersheds' hydrology.

  11. Inferring the colonization of a mountain range--refugia vs. nunatak survival in high alpine ground beetles.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Konrad; Nicholls, James A; Stone, Graham N

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated whether high alpine specialists survived ice ages in situ on small ice-free islands of habitat, so-called nunataks, or whether glacial survival was restricted to larger massifs de refuge at the periphery. We evaluate these alternative hypotheses in a local radiation of high alpine carabid beetles (genus Trechus) in the Orobian Alps, Northern Italy. While summits along the northern ridge of this mountain range were surrounded by the icesheet as nunataks during the last glacial maximum, southern areas remained unglaciated. We analyse a total of 1366 bp of mitochondrial (Cox1 and Cox2) data sampled from 150 individuals from twelve populations and 530 bp of nuclear (PEPCK) sequence sampled for a subset of 30 individuals. Using Bayesian inference, we estimate ancestral location states in the gene trees, which in turn are used to infer the most likely order of recolonization under a model of sequential founder events from a massif de refuge from the mitochondrial data. We test for the paraphyly expected under this model and for reciprocal monophyly predicted by a contrasting model of prolonged persistence of nunatak populations. We find that (i) only three populations are incompatible with the paraphyly of the massif de refuge model, (ii) both mitochondrial and nuclear data support separate refugial origins for populations on the western and eastern ends of the northern ridge, and (iii) mitochondrial node ages suggest persistence on the northern ridge for part of the last ice age.

  12. Fog Collection and its Variability in the Andean Mountain Range of Colombia: A Possible Source for Water Supply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrological droughts occur naturally in some regions of the Colombian Andean watersheds, some of them associated with large-scale climatic phenomena like El Nino. The associated water scarcity is aggravated by an advancing deforestation of the native highland forests. These events have negative consequences for the environment and for human development. Low water availability in arid/semiarid regions and water scarcity in surface sources in mountainous zones could be managed partially by means of water from fog collection. To date, fog collection variability and potential use of fog water as an alternative for water supply has not been evaluated in Colombia. This study evaluates the spatial and temporal fog collection variability and analyses the potential use of fog as an alternative source of water supply in an Andean rural region of southern Colombia, which is highly affected by droughts and low water availability. Fog collection experiments were carried out, and data collection covered both dry and rainy seasons in the period 2003 - 2005, with daily data registration of fog collection and drizzle/precipitation. Twelve Standard Fog Collectors (SFC), built from polypropylene mesh with a vertical collection surface of 1.0 m2, were installed in a mountainous zone with an area of approximately 500 ha, ranging from 1,680 to 1,850 m a.s.l. Chilean meshes with several shade coefficients were tested. In order to assess the spatial fog variability, isolines of fog-water collection rates were estimated using Kriging as the interpolation method. Our results suggest a high potential for the use of fog to supply domestic water requirements in rural areas. Also, the observed collection yields are consistent with some experimental results of fog harvesting from other countries in South America. Annual average collection rates amounted to 4.2 l/m2/day for precipitation + fog, and 3.3 l/m2/day for fog only. The temporal analysis indicates that the most important month for fog

  13. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For

  14. In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk.

    PubMed

    Selariu, Anca; Powers, Jenny G; Nalls, Amy; Brandhuber, Monica; Mayfield, Amber; Fullaway, Stephenie; Wyckoff, Christy A; Goldmann, Wilfred; Zabel, Mark M; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2015-11-01

    The presence of disease-associated prions in tissues and bodily fluids of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-infected cervids has received much investigation, yet little is known about mother-to-offspring transmission of CWD. Our previous work demonstrated that mother-to-offspring transmission is efficient in an experimental setting. To address the question of relevance in a naturally exposed free-ranging population, we assessed maternal and fetal tissues derived from 19 elk dam-calf pairs collected from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk from north-central Colorado, a known CWD endemic region. Conventional immunohistochemistry identified three of 19 CWD-positive dams, whereas a more sensitive assay [serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA)] detected CWD prion seeding activity (PrPCWD) in 15 of 19 dams. PrPCWD distribution in tissues was widespread, and included the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system, and reproductive, secretory, excretory and adipose tissues. Interestingly, five of 15 sPMCA-positive dams showed no evidence of PrPCWD in either CNS or lymphoreticular system, sites typically assessed in diagnosing CWD. Analysis of fetal tissues harvested from the 15 sPMCA-positive dams revealed PrPCWD in 80 % of fetuses (12 of 15), regardless of gestational stage. These findings demonstrated that PrPCWD is more abundant in peripheral tissues of CWD-exposed elk than current diagnostic methods suggest, and that transmission of prions from mother to offspring may contribute to the efficient transmission of CWD in naturally exposed cervid populations. PMID:26358706

  15. In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk

    PubMed Central

    Selariu, Anca; Powers, Jenny G.; Nalls, Amy; Brandhuber, Monica; Mayfield, Amber; Fullaway, Stephenie; Wyckoff, Christy A.; Goldmann, Wilfred; Zabel, Mark M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of disease-associated prions in tissues and bodily fluids of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-infected cervids has received much investigation, yet little is known about mother-to-offspring transmission of CWD. Our previous work demonstrated that mother-to-offspring transmission is efficient in an experimental setting. To address the question of relevance in a naturally exposed free-ranging population, we assessed maternal and fetal tissues derived from 19 elk dam–calf pairs collected from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk from north-central Colorado, a known CWD endemic region. Conventional immunohistochemistry identified three of 19 CWD-positive dams, whereas a more sensitive assay [serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA)] detected CWD prion seeding activity (PrPCWD) in 15 of 19 dams. PrPCWD distribution in tissues was widespread, and included the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system, and reproductive, secretory, excretory and adipose tissues. Interestingly, five of 15 sPMCA-positive dams showed no evidence of PrPCWD in either CNS or lymphoreticular system, sites typically assessed in diagnosing CWD. Analysis of fetal tissues harvested from the 15 sPMCA-positive dams revealed PrPCWD in 80 % of fetuses (12 of 15), regardless of gestational stage. These findings demonstrated that PrPCWD is more abundant in peripheral tissues of CWD-exposed elk than current diagnostic methods suggest, and that transmission of prions from mother to offspring may contribute to the efficient transmission of CWD in naturally exposed cervid populations. PMID:26358706

  16. In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk.

    PubMed

    Selariu, Anca; Powers, Jenny G; Nalls, Amy; Brandhuber, Monica; Mayfield, Amber; Fullaway, Stephenie; Wyckoff, Christy A; Goldmann, Wilfred; Zabel, Mark M; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2015-11-01

    The presence of disease-associated prions in tissues and bodily fluids of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-infected cervids has received much investigation, yet little is known about mother-to-offspring transmission of CWD. Our previous work demonstrated that mother-to-offspring transmission is efficient in an experimental setting. To address the question of relevance in a naturally exposed free-ranging population, we assessed maternal and fetal tissues derived from 19 elk dam-calf pairs collected from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk from north-central Colorado, a known CWD endemic region. Conventional immunohistochemistry identified three of 19 CWD-positive dams, whereas a more sensitive assay [serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA)] detected CWD prion seeding activity (PrPCWD) in 15 of 19 dams. PrPCWD distribution in tissues was widespread, and included the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system, and reproductive, secretory, excretory and adipose tissues. Interestingly, five of 15 sPMCA-positive dams showed no evidence of PrPCWD in either CNS or lymphoreticular system, sites typically assessed in diagnosing CWD. Analysis of fetal tissues harvested from the 15 sPMCA-positive dams revealed PrPCWD in 80 % of fetuses (12 of 15), regardless of gestational stage. These findings demonstrated that PrPCWD is more abundant in peripheral tissues of CWD-exposed elk than current diagnostic methods suggest, and that transmission of prions from mother to offspring may contribute to the efficient transmission of CWD in naturally exposed cervid populations.

  17. Coupling Fluvial Processes and Landslide Distribution Toward Geomorphological Hazard Assessment: Cases in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges in Taiwan and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, C. Y.; Chigira, M.; Matsushi, Y.; Arai, N.; Chen, S. C.; Feng, Z. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale destabilization of mountain slopes, which are affected by long-term river incision, give rise to the risk of catastrophic failures in tectonically active ranges. We found deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DGSDs) induced by these processes in the Chishan River and Dahan River in the Central Range in Taiwan and the Kumano River in the Kii Mts. in Japan. These areas comprise paleosurface remnants with moderate relief at higher elevations and incised V-shaped inner gorges below them, which were made by the recession of knickpoints. Our studies include field surveys, mapping of DGSD and landslide scars, and cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of several landform surfaces. In the Dahan River catchment, rims of paleosurfaces, which have a minimum age of ca. 150 kyr, are distributed up to 600 m above the present river bed, acting as a proxy of fluvial dissection associated with phases of river incision since the middle to late Pleistocene. The relationships between slope movements and the topography modified by the river incision show that about 53% of all DGSDs, or all large DGSDs (>106 m2) and catastrophic landslides occurred on slopes along the rims of paleosurfaces, suggesting they could be fundamentally controlled by long-term river incision. Catastrophic landslides observed along or below the rims of paleosurfaces were preceded by buckling of alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone on parallel or underdip cataclinal slopes dipped at 50° to 58°. This suggests that the peripheral zones of the paleosurfaces may be most susceptible to future catastrophic landslides, particularly on parallel or underdip cataclinal slopes comprising alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone dipping at 50° to 60°. The 2009 Typhoon Morakot-induced Shiaolin landslide along the Chishan River and the 2011 Typhoon Talas-induced catastrophic landslides along the Kumano River also occurred on the gravitationally deformed slopes along the rims of paleosurfaces.

  18. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Lisburne Group (chiefly Carboniferous) is a wide-spread succession of platform carbonate rocks that apparently developed along a south-facing passive continental margin in northern Alaska. Marine transgressions onlapped northward across northeast Alaska allowing the Lisburne platform to extend over terrigenous deposits of the Endicott Group and local pre-Mississippian paleotopographic highs. The Wahoo Limestone is the youngest formation of the Lisburne Group in northeasternmost Alaska, ranging from latest Mississippian (latest Chesterian) to Middle Pennsylvanian (at least early Atokan) in age. The Wahoo Limestone was systematically sampled for lithostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies at a relatively continuous section (about 262 m in thickness) in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Existing Carboniferous conodont zonations could not be readily applied to the study section because most zonal indicators are absent. Species diversity is low for a section that spans at least 10 million years. Twenty-four species, distributed among 14 genera, were identified in 72 productive samples; no new species were distinguished. The following biostratigraphic zones and faunal intervals were recognized: Upper muricatus Subzone (latest Chesterian); noduliferus-primus Zone (earliest Morrowan); minutus Fauna (Morrowan) containing a lower subdivision (lower minutus Fauna of early to middle? Morrowan age); and an Idiognathodus Fauna (Morrowan? to early Atokan). The presence of Idiognathodus incurvus? and Rhachistognathus minutus subspp. above the first occurrence of the foraminifer Pseudostaffella sp. in the uppermost part of the Wahoo Limestone indicates that the youngest beds are early Atokan in age. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary is placed at 56 m above the base of the lower member of the Wahoo Limestone on the basis of the lowest occurrence of Declinognathodus noduliferus japonicus above forms transitional from Gnathodus girtyl simplex.

  19. Deglaciation and postglacial environmental changes in the Teton Mountain Range recorded at Jenny Lake, Grand Teton National Park, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Ofstun, Adam R.

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contained in lake basins positioned along the eastern front of the Teton Mountain Range preserve a continuous and datable record of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions. Here, we develop a multiproxy glacier and paleoenvironmental record using a combination of seismic reflection data and multiple sediment cores recovered from Jenny Lake and other nearby lakes. Age control of Teton lake sediments is established primarily through radiocarbon dating and supported by the presence of two prominent rhyolitic tephra deposits that are geochemically correlated to the widespread Mazama (∼7.6 ka) and Glacier Peak (∼13.6 ka) tephra layers. Multiple glacier and climate indicators, including sediment accumulation rate, bulk density, clastic sediment concentration and flux, organic matter (concentration, flux, δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratios), and biogenic silica, track changes in environmental conditions and landscape development. Sediment accumulation at Jenny Lake began centuries prior to 13.8 ka and cores from three lakes demonstrate that Teton glacier extents were greatly reduced by this time. Persistent ice retreat in Cascade Canyon was slowed by an interval of small glacier activity between ∼13.5 and 11.5 ka, prior to the end of glacial lacustrine sedimentation ∼11.5 ka. The transition to non-glacial sediments marks the onset of Holocene conditions at Jenny Lake and reflects a shift toward warmer summers, increased vegetation cover, and landscape stability in the Tetons. We discuss the Teton lake sediment records within the context of other regional studies in an effort to construct a comprehensive overview of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions at Grand Teton National Park.

  20. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H.; Wernicke, B.P.

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  1. Analysis of the genetic diversity of the nematode parasite Baylisascaris schroederi from wild giant pandas in different mountain ranges in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the most common nematodes of the giant panda, and can cause severe baylisascarosis in both wild and captive giant pandas. Previous studies of the giant pandas indicated that this population is genetically distinct, implying the presence of a new subspecies. Based on the co-evolution between the parasite and the host, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic differentiation in the B. schroederi population collected from giant pandas inhabiting different mountain ranges, and further to identify whether the evolution of this parasite correlates with the evolution of giant pandas. Methods In this study, 48 B. schroederi were collected from 28 wild giant pandas inhabiting the Qinling, Minshan and Qionglai mountain ranges in China. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (mtCytb) gene was amplified by PCR, and the corresponding population genetic diversity of the three mountain populations was determined. In addition, we discussed the evolutionary relationship between B. schroederi and its host giant panda. Results For the DNA dataset, insignificant Fst values and a significant, high level of gene flow were detected among the three mountain populations of B. schroederi, and high genetic variation within populations and a low genetic distance were observed. Both phylogenetic analyses and network mapping of the 16 haplotypes revealed a dispersed pattern and an absence of branches strictly corresponding to the three mountain range sampling sites. Neutrality tests and mismatch analysis indicated that B. schroederi experienced a population expansion in the past. Conclusions Taken together, the dispersed haplotype map, extremely high gene flow among the three populations of B. schroederi, low genetic structure and rapid evolutionary rate suggest that the B. schroederi populations did not follow a pattern of isolation by distance, indicating the existence of physical connections before these populations

  2. Direct-path acoustic ranging across the Japan Trench axis, Adjacent to the Large Shallow Thrusting in the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Ito, Y.; Iinuma, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Hino, R.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor geodetic data, i.e. GPS/acoustic measurement and continuous seafloor pressure monitoring, brought important evidences showing that the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) caused huge (> 50 m) coseismic slip near the Japan Trench. The postseismic behavior of the large slipped area is required to clarify to understand why large amount seismic slip could occur there. We started making direct-path acoustic ranging across the trench axis to reveal the convergence rate between the subducting Pacific and overriding continental plates. We expect the change of the baseline length across the trench axis, the plate boundary, reflects the slip rate at the shallow megathrust, which is difficult to estimate only from other geodetic observations largely affected by intraplate deformation caused by the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation process.  To this end, we developed an ultra-deep seafloor acoustic ranging system. Our previous ranging systems have been designed to measure baseline length ~ 1 km and to be deployed up to 7,000 m water-depth (Osada et al., 2008, 2012). In order to realize the measurement across the Japan Trench, we improved this system to enhance range of acoustic ranging as well as operational depth of instruments. The improved system was designed to allow acoustic ranging up to 3 km and to be durable under the high-pressure equivalent to water depth of 9,000 m. In May 2013, we carried out a test deployment of the new ranging system. The system is composed of three seafloor instruments equipped with precision transponder (PXPs). Two of the PXPs were set on the landward slope of the Japan Trench, where large coseismic slip happened in 2011. Another PXP was deployed on the seaward side of the trench so that the baseline change associated with the slip on the plate boundary fault, if any, can be detected. Continuous records of baseline lengths were successfully obtained for four months. The repeatability of the distance measurements was about 20 mm for

  3. Chronology of rock falls and slides in a desert mountain range: Case study from the Sonoran Desert in south-central Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2014-10-01

    In order to respond to the general paucity of information on the chronology of ubiquitous small rock falls and slides that litter the slopes of desert mountain ranges, a case study in the Sonoran Desert reveals new insight into the desert geomorphology of mountain slopes. Rock falls and rock slides in the McDowell Mountains that abut metropolitan Phoenix, USA, fall in three chronometric groupings dated by conventional radiocarbon and rock varnish microlamination methods. First, the oldest events are > 74 ka and take the form of stable colluvial boulder fields - positive relief features that are tens of meters long and a few meters wide. Second, randomly sampled slides and falls of various sizes and positions wasted during wetter periods of the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene. Third, an anomalous clustering of slides and falls occurred during the late Medieval Warm Period (Medieval Climatic Anomaly) when an extreme storm was a possible but unlikely trigger. One speculative hypothesis for the cluster of Medieval Warm Period events is that a small to moderate sized earthquake shook heavily shattered bedrock - close to failure - just enough to cause a spate of rock falls and slides. A second speculative hypothesis is that this dry period enhanced physical weathering processes such as dirt cracking. However, the reasons for the recent clustering of rock falls remain enigmatic. While the temporal distribution of slides and falls suggests a minimal hazard potential for homes and roads on the margins of the McDowell Mountains, this finding may not necessary match other desert ranges in metropolitan Phoenix or mountains with different rock types and structures that abut other arid urban centers.

  4. Structural analysis of terrane accretions in the eastern Brooks Range and adjacent areas in central Alaska and Canada. Technical progress report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Coney, P.J.; Harms, T.A.

    1985-03-14

    Work on radiolarian separation and identification of samples from the Sylvester Allochthon is nearing completion. A preliminary chronostratigraphic chart showing the age range and lithologic type of all dated units has been drawn. The comparative petrography of lithologies from the Sylvester Allochthon and the Angayucham and Mosquito Terranes, and from deformed clastic rocks of the Venetie Terrane is being studied. Several preliminary structure sections have been drawn across the Sylvester Terrane. (ACR)

  5. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  6. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world's continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation at 19 sites in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin; sites were either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or had had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. We selected horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During 1997 and 1998, line-intercept transects randomly located within sites revealed that horse-removed sites exhibited 1.1-1.9 times greater shrub cover, 1.2-1.5 times greater total plant cover, 2-12 species greater plant species richness, and 1.9-2.9 times greater cover and 1.1-2.4 times greater frequency of native grasses than did horse-occupied sites. In contrast, sites with horses tended to have more grazing-resistant forbs and exotic plants. Direction and magnitude of landscape-scale results were corroborated by smaller-scale comparisons within horse-occupied sites of horse-trail transects and (randomly located) transects that characterized overall site conditions. Information-theoretic analyses that incorporated various subsets of abiotic variables suggested that presence of horses was generally a strong determinant of those vegetation-related variables that differed significantly between treatments, especially frequency and cover of grasses, but also species richness and shrub cover and frequency. In contrast, abiotic variables such as precipitation, site elevation, and soil erodibility best predicted characteristics such as forb cover, shrub frequency, and continuity of the shrub canopy. We found species richness of plants

  7. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final report, August 1, 1978-February 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Marlin, J.M.; Cunniff, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O'Dea, P.

    1981-01-01

    The work accomplished from August 1978 to February 1980 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program are described. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams and special analyses in support of several federal agencies.

  8. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  9. Depositional framework and regional correlation of pre-Carboniferous metacarbonate rocks of the Snowden Mountain area, central Brooks Range, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes lithofacies, conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies, and depositional environments of Proterozoic(?) through Devonian metacarbonate rocks in the Snowden Mountain area. These rocks are correlated with successions on the Seward Peninsula and across the Brooks Range. Lithologic and paleobiogeographic data suggest that these successions formed along a single continental margin which had faunal exchange with both North America and Siberia, rather than on a series of discrete platforms juxtaposed by later tectonic events.

  10. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermotectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range and adjacent North Slope foreland basin, Alaska: Including fission track results from the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Sullivan, P. B.; Murphy, J.M.; Blythe, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Apatite fission track data are used to evaluate the thermal and tectonic history of the central Brooks Range and the North Slope foreland basin in northern Alaska along the northern leg of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT). Fission track analyses of the detrital apatite grains in most sedimentary units resolve the timing of structures and denudation within the Brooks Range, ranging in scale from the entire mountain range to relatively small-scale folds and faults. Interpretation of the results indicates that rocks exposed within the central Brooks Range cooled rapidly from paleotemperatures 110?? to 50??C during discrete episodes at ???100??5 Ma, ???60??4 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma, probably in response to kilometer-scale denudation. North of the mountain front, rocks in the southern half of the foreland basin were exposed to maximum paleotemperatures 110??C in the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene as a result of burial by Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Rapid cooling from these elevated paleotemperatures also occurred due to distinct episodes of kilometer-scale denudation at ???60??4 Ma, 46??3 Ma, 35??2 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma. Combined, the apatite analyses indicate that rocks exposed along the TACT line through the central Brooks Range and foreland basin experienced episodic rapid cooling throughout the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in response to at least three distinct kilometer-scale denudation events. Future models explaining orogenic events in northern Alaska must consider these new constraints from fission track thermochronology. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. A discussion of the results of the rainflow counting of a wide range of dynamics associated with the simultaneous operation of adjacent wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.; Desrochers, G.; Tangler, J.; Smith, B.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a fatigue load comparison between two identical wind turbines employing different rotor designs. One turbine was fitted with a rotor consisting of a set of NREL (SERI) thin-airfoil blades while the other rotor included the original-equipment AeroStar blades. The data discussed are based on sample load populations derived from the rainflow cycle counting of 405, 10-minute records specifically collected over a wide range of inflow turbulence conditions. The results have shown that the statistical structure of the alternating load cycles on both turbines can be described as a mixture of three stochastic processes. We noted a high degree of load distribution similarity between the two turbines, with the differences attributable to either rotor weight or swept area.

  12. Physical modeling of sedimentation adjacent to diapirs and comparison with late precambrian Oratunga Breccia body in central Flinders Ranges, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, N.M.

    1985-09-01

    The interaction of sedimentation with the change in shape of a developing diapir is modeled in a series of simple sandbox experiments. This model replicates the pillow, diapir, and postdiapir stages of salt movement. Modeling produced rim synclines, crestal unconformities, and turtle-structure anticlines-all features known to be associated with diapirs. By changing experimental parameters such as diapir shape, sedimentation was simulated around various diapiric situations. One experiment closely matches the sediment distribution around the Oratunga diapir one of the controversial breccia bodies in the late Precambrian-Cambrian Adelaide geosyncline exposed in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia. Rim synclines, unconformities, and bedding attitude around Oratunga resemble those described around salt domes. In addition, the distribution, size, orientation, and lithology of breccia within the Oratunga diapir resemble breccia associated with active salt diapirs in Iran. These data suggest the breccia was emplaced as a salt diapir.

  13. Irrigated Acreage Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welborn, Toby L.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate delineations of irrigated acreage are needed for the development of water-use estimates and in determining water-budget calculations for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study. Irrigated acreage is estimated routinely for only a few basins in the study area. Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper platforms were used to delineate irrigated acreage on a field-by-field basis for the entire study area. Six hundred and forty-three fields were delineated. The water source, irrigation system, crop type, and field activity for 2005 were identified and verified through field reconnaissance. These data were integrated in a geodatabase and analyzed to develop estimates of irrigated acreage for the 2000, 2002, and 2005 growing seasons by hydrographic area and subbasin. Estimated average annual potential evapotranspiration and average annual precipitation also were estimated for each field.The geodatabase was analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of field locations, the total amount of irrigated acreage by potential irrigation water source, by irrigation system, and by crop type. Irrigated acreage in 2005 totaled nearly 32,000 acres ranging from less than 200 acres in Butte, Cave, Jakes, Long, and Tippett Valleys to 9,300 acres in Snake Valley. Irrigated acreage increased about 20 percent between 2000 and 2005 and increased the most in Snake and White River Valleys. Ground-water supplies as much as 80 percent of irrigation water during dry years. Almost 90 percent of the irrigated acreage was planted with alfalfa.

  14. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  15. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  16. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L.; Lindgren, B. Staffan; Huber, Dezene P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to

  17. Mapping Evapotranspiration Units in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Laczniak, Randell J.; Moreo, Michael T.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area. One common method used throughout the southwestern United States is to estimate ground-water discharge from evapotranspiration (ET). ET is a process by which water from the Earth's surface is transferred to the atmosphere. The volume of water lost to the atmosphere by ET can be computed as the product of the ET rate and the acreage of vegetation, open water, and moist soil through which ET occurs. The procedure used in the study groups areas of similar vegetation, water, and soil conditions into different ET units, assigns an average annual ET rate to each unit, and computes annual ET from each ET unit within the outer extent of potential areas of ground-water discharge. Data sets and the procedures used to delineate the ET-unit map used to estimate ground-water discharge from the study area and a qualitative assessment of the accuracy of the map are described in this report.

  18. Land use pattern at Alacam mountainous range land (submediterranean-Turkey) due to edaphic and physiographical factors.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Tecimen, Huseyin Baris; Carus, Serdar; Kavgaci, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Soil degradation is perceived as a major threat in the Mediterranean region due to land use pattern and projected climate change. As the high altitudinal mountainous lands are sensitive lands, the land use patterns atAlaçam mountains were investigated in this study. The assessment of land use distribution is arranged with the altitude, exposure, slope and bedrock parameters. The spatial database of project was created using GRASS GIS open source software (GRASS Development Team, 2008). The scanned land use and main rock map of the project area rectified, digitized, and attributes of land use and bedrocks were entered into the database tables. Also raster SRTM3 data were imported into these databases for making physiographical factor (elevation, slope, aspect) maps. Our findings illustrated thatthe whole area of Alaçam mountains is 282 480 ha where most of the area of the mass is located between 700-1300 m asl with 200 585 ha corresponding to 71% of the whole area. We detected two kinds of mis-land use; (1) agricultural activities applied at the slopes above 17% (representing 35 220 ha) and agricultural activities applied on metamorphic rocks (representing 872 ha). Total misuse of lands reached 36 092 ha comprised 12.77% of the whole area. PMID:23424838

  19. Land use pattern at Alacam mountainous range land (submediterranean-Turkey) due to edaphic and physiographical factors.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Tecimen, Huseyin Baris; Carus, Serdar; Kavgaci, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Soil degradation is perceived as a major threat in the Mediterranean region due to land use pattern and projected climate change. As the high altitudinal mountainous lands are sensitive lands, the land use patterns atAlaçam mountains were investigated in this study. The assessment of land use distribution is arranged with the altitude, exposure, slope and bedrock parameters. The spatial database of project was created using GRASS GIS open source software (GRASS Development Team, 2008). The scanned land use and main rock map of the project area rectified, digitized, and attributes of land use and bedrocks were entered into the database tables. Also raster SRTM3 data were imported into these databases for making physiographical factor (elevation, slope, aspect) maps. Our findings illustrated thatthe whole area of Alaçam mountains is 282 480 ha where most of the area of the mass is located between 700-1300 m asl with 200 585 ha corresponding to 71% of the whole area. We detected two kinds of mis-land use; (1) agricultural activities applied at the slopes above 17% (representing 35 220 ha) and agricultural activities applied on metamorphic rocks (representing 872 ha). Total misuse of lands reached 36 092 ha comprised 12.77% of the whole area.

  20. Snow Cover Variability in the Black Forest Region as an Example of a German Low Mountain Range under the Influence of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbein, J.; Schneider, C.

    2003-04-01

    During the last decades high snow cover variability was observed in the German low mountain ranges. In addition, average snow cover periods have decreased at most localities. This process involves a strong economic impact on skiing resorts of low mountain ranges. Based on data sets from weather stations of the German meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)) which cover up to the last 60 years, the temporal development of the mean seasonal snow cover period in the low mountain ranges of Black Forest (south-west), Harz (north), and Bavarian Forest (south-east) of Germany was examined. Mean wintertime air temperature in the low mountain ranges is increasing more rapidly compared to the annual mean air temperature. Additionally the south west is the warmest region in Germany. Therefore, the snow cover of the Black Forest is much more susceptible to an increase in air temperature than in the other low mountain ranges in Germany. In the Black Forest region air temperatures near the melting point are observed even in January. Snow cover in the Bavarian Forest region with its much more continental climate is less affected by temperature variations but subject to variations in wintertime precipitation. Seasonal snow cover in the Harz region starts about two weeks earlier compared to Bavarian Forest and the Black Forest. The future snow cover development of Black Forest was examined using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prognosis of future air temperature development and trend analysis within observed time series at low mountain range weather stations. The IPCC scenarios were adopted specifically with respect to region, season and altitude and afterwards compared to the observed trend. A transfer function describes the relation between seasonal air temperature change and snow cover duration. A mean reduction of snow cover duration until 2025 for each mountain range is approximated. For instance, the period of a snow cover with a minimum height

  1. Origin of narrow terranes and adjacent major terranes occurring along the denali fault in the eastern and central alaska range, alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, W.J.; Richter, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    Several narrow terranes occur along the Denali fault in the Eastern and Central Alaska Range in Southern Alaska. These terranes are the Aurora Peak, Cottonwood Creek, Maclaren, Pingston, and Windy terranes, and a terrane of ultramafic and associated rocks. Exterior to the narrow terranes to the south is the majorWrangellia island arc composite terrane, and to the north is the major Yukon Tanana metamorphosed continental margin terrane. Overlying mainly the northern margin of the Wrangellia composite terrane are the Kahiltna overlap assemblage to the west, and the Gravina- Nutzotin-Gambier volcanic-plutonic- sedimentary belt to the east and southeast. The various narrow terranes are interpreted as the result of translation of fragments of larger terranes during two major tectonic events: (1) Late Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous accretion of the Wrangellia island arc composite terrane (or superterrane composed of the Wrangellia, Peninsular, and Alexander terranes) and associated subduction zone complexes; and (2) starting in about the Late Cretaceous, dextral transport of the Wrangellia composite terrane along the Denali fault. These two major tectonic events caused: (1) entrapment of a lens of oceanic lithosphere along the suture belt between the Wrangellia composite terrane and the North American Craton Margin and outboard accreted terranes to form the ultramafic and mafic part of the terrane of ultramafic and associated rocks, (2) subsequent dextral translation along the Denali fault of the terrane of ultramafic and associated rocks, (3) dextral translation along the Denali fault of the Aurora Peak, Cottonwood Creek, and Maclaren and continental margin arc terranes from part of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex (Coast-North Cascade plutonic belt) in the southwest Yukon Territory or Southeastern Alaska, (4) dextral translation along the Denali fault of the Pingston passive continental margin from a locus along the North American Continental Margin, and (5

  2. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  3. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  4. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wallace M.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B.; Brantley, Sandra L.; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E.; Hall, W. Eugene; Olson, Carl A.; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M.; Brusca, Richard C.; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11–25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  5. Atlas Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are the Anti-Atlas Mountains, part of the Atlas Mountain range in southern Morocco, Africa. The region contains some of the world's largest and most diverse mineral resources, most of which are still untouched. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on June 22, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  6. Stratigraphy, structure, and graptolites of an Ordovician and Silurian sequence in the Terra Cotta Mountains, Alaska Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, Michael; Carter, Claire

    1996-01-01

    The geology and graptolite faunas of the Terra Cotta Mountains in south-central Alaska are described. Three new formations of Paleozoic age are named and described; they include graptolitiferous argillaceous rocks, sandstones, and limestones of the Dillinger Terrane. The structure and tectonics of the mapped area arc also discussed. Ninety-five species of Ordovician and Silurian graptolites, including four new species, are described and illustrated. The faunal succession is divided into nine Ordovician and ten Silurian biostratigraphic zones and is correlated with graptolite faunas found elsewhere.

  7. A Comparison of Aerosol-Layer and Convective Boundary-Layer Structure over a Mountain Range during STAAARTE '97

    SciTech Connect

    De Wekker, Stephan; Steyn, D. G.; Nyeki, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial structure of the aerosol layer (AL) height as observed with an airborne downlooking lidar over the Swiss Alps was investigated with a three dimensional mesoscale numerical model and a particle dispersion model. Convective boundary layer (CBL) heights were derived from the mesoscale model output, and the behavior of surface-released particles was investigated with the particle dispersion model. While a previous investigation, using data from the same field study, equated the observed AL height with the CBL height, the results of the current investigation indicate that there is a considerable difference between AL and CBL heights caused by mixing and transport processes between the CBL and the free atmosphere. CBL heights show a more terrain-following behavior and are lower than AL heights. We argue that processes causing the difference between AL and CBL heights are common over mountainous terrain and that the AL height is a length scale that needs t o be considered in air pollution studies in mountainous terrain.

  8. Statistical tables and charts showing geochemical variation in the Mesoproterozoic Big Creek, Apple Creek, and Gunsight formations, Lemhi group, Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Tysdal, Russell G.; Taggart, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    The principal purpose of this report is to provide a reference archive for results of a statistical analysis of geochemical data for metasedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic age of the Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho. Descriptions of geochemical data sets, statistical methods, rationale for interpretations, and references to the literature are provided. Three methods of analysis are used: R-mode factor analysis of major oxide and trace element data for identifying petrochemical processes, analysis of variance for effects of rock type and stratigraphic position on chemical composition, and major-oxide ratio plots for comparison with the chemical composition of common clastic sedimentary rocks.

  9. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  10. Petroleum occurrences associated with Uinta mountains, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Osmond, J.C.

    1984-07-01

    The Uinta Mountains in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado are among the rare major structures in the western United States with east-west trends. The east-west trend may have an ancestry in a Precambrian aulacogen and a lower Paleozoic arch. The area was quiescent until the Paleocene or Eocene when the mountain block began to rise and the basins on the trending arches formed during the Cretaceous, and it uplifted the belt of Sevier-Laramide overthrusts. The eastern part of the mountain block collapsed during the mid-Tertiary. The range is an anticline with a core of Precambrian metasediments and steeply dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks on the flanks. Tertiary debris from the mountains overlaps onto older rocks. Anticlines along the flanks of the mountains produce oil and gas from Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks. Stratigraphic traps on the structures cut by the mountain block are enhanced by the intersection, and they produce from Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks. Uplift of the mountains was important in creating unconformity and stratigraphic traps in several oil and gas fields and in bituminous sand deposits. Geophysical work and drilling have shown the flanks of the mountains to be thrust over or to overhand the adjacent basins. The numerous structural intersections, overhanging flanks, and the facies changes caused by the Uinta Mountains provide good opportunities for continued exploration and success.

  11. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  12. Structure, production and resource use in some old-growth spruce/fir forests in the front range of the Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binkley, D.; Olsson, U.; Rochelle, R.; Stohlgren, T.; Nikolov, N.

    2003-01-01

    Old-growth forests of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex. Engelm.) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) dominate much of the landscape of the Rocky Mountains. We characterized the structure, biomass and production of 18 old-growth (200-450-year-old) spruce/fir forests in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, as well as the stand-level supply and use of light and nitrogen. Stands were chosen to span a broad range of elevation, aspect, and topography. Aboveground tree biomass in these old-growth forests averaged 253 Mg/ha (range 130-488 Mg/ha), with aboveground net primary production of 3700 kg ha-1 yr-1 (range from 2700 to 5200 kg ha-1 yr-1). Within stands, trees >35 cm in diameter accounted for 70% of aboveground biomass, but trees <35 cm contributed 70% of the production of woody biomass. Differences in slope and aspect among sites resulted in a range of incoming light from 58 to 74 TJ ha-1 yr-1, and tree canopies intercepted an average of 71% of incoming light (range 50-90%). Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of trees did not relate to the supply of light or N, but ANPP correlated strongly with the amount of light and N used (r2 = 0.45-0.54, P < 0.01). Uptake of 1 kg of N was associated with about 260 kg of ANPP, and one TJ of intercepted shortwave radiation produced about 78 kg of ANPP. Across these old-growth stands, stands with greater biomass showed higher rates of both ANPP and resource use; variation in aboveground biomass was associated with 24% of the variation in N use (P = 0.04), 44% of the light use (P = 0.003), and 45% of the ANPP (P = 0.002). ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. In free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Whittier, Christopher A; Cranfield, Michael R; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    Health monitoring of wildlife populations can greatly benefit from rapid, local, noninvasive molecular assays for pathogen detection. Fecal samples collected from free-living Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) between August 2002 and February 2003 were tested for Campylobacter spp. DNA using a portable, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instrument. A high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in both individually identified (22/26=85%) and nest-collected samples (68/114=59.6%), with no statistically significant differences among different gorilla sexes or age classes or between tourist-visited versus research gorilla groups. The PCR instrument was able to discriminate two distinct groups of Campylobacter spp. in positive gorilla samples based on the PCR product fluorescent-probe melting profiles. The rare type (6/90 positives, 7%, including three mixed cases) matched DNA sequences of Campylobacter jejuni and was significantly associated with abnormally soft stools. The more common type of positive gorilla samples (87/90 positives, 97%) were normally formed and contained a Campylobacter sp. with DNA matching no published sequences. We speculate that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. detected in gorilla fecal samples in this survey mostly reflects previously uncharacterized and nonpathogenic intestinal flora. The real-time PCR assay was more sensitive than bacterial culture with Campylobacter-specific media and commercially available, enzyme immunoassay tests for detecting Campylobacter spp. in human samples. PMID:20688685

  14. Contributions of local sources, long-range and mountain wind transport for aerosols over an eastern Himalayan high-altitude station in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Singh, Ajay; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Das, Sanat

    A long-term study (2010-2013) on aerosols mass concentrations (PM2.5), number concentrations of size segregated aerosols and mass concentration of total suspended black carbon aerosols has been made over Darjeeling (27.01 N, 88.15 E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) station at eastern Himalaya in India. Seasonal and diurnal variation of all types of aerosols, their chemical composition and source apportionment revealed that aerosols over this part of Himalaya are mainly of two types; locally generated and long-range transported aerosols. The diurnal variation of aerosols including black carbon showed distinct feature of up-slope mountain wind transport mainly during premonsoon (Mar-May) which brings aerosol particles from low land regions. This present study focuses on the estimation of the individual contributions from local emissions (LE), long-range transport (LRT) and mountain wind transport (MWT) towards the total aerosol loading over Darjeeling. Several strike events (called by local political party) were observed at Darjeeling over the entire period of study (2008-2013) when all the local activities (schools, colleges, offices, vehicular, industrial etc) were stopped fully. Most of the strike events occurred during premonsoon. We have observed three types of events during premonsoon over the entire study period; 1) strike events with the contribution of LRT+MWT with zero local emissions (LE=0), 2) normal days with the contribution of LE+LRT+MWT, 3) normal days with the contribution of LE+MWT with zero long-range contribution (LRT=0). On normal days, the diurnal variation of aerosols during premonsoon showed sharp morning and evening peaks associated to local anthropogenic activities with the effect of up-slope mountain wind during afternoon. During strike events, the morning and evening peaks were absent but a broad peak was observed during afternoon associated to up-slope mountain wind. The increase in aerosol concentrations during afternoon on strike days

  15. Differential cycles of range contraction and expansion in European high mountain plants during the Late Quaternary: insights from Pritzelago alpina (L.) O. Kuntze (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Kropf, Matthias; Kadereit, Joachim W; Comes, Hans Peter

    2003-04-01

    Nuclear DNA sequence variation of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to illuminate the evolutionary history of Pritzelago alpina, a herbaceous perennial of (sub)alpine to nival habitats of the European high mountains. Maximum likelihood analysis of ITS sequences of P. alpina, Hornungia petraea and Hymenolobus procumbens (the 'Pritzelago alliance') resolved P. alpina and H. petraea as sister taxa. ITS divergence estimates support an origin for P. alpina in the Late Tertiary, while intraspecific diversification started in the Late Quaternary (0.4-0.9 million years ago). AFLP analysis of 76 individuals of P. alpina, representing 24 localities across its entire west-east distribution, identified four mountain lineages in Cantabria, the Pyrenees, (south-) western Alps, and northeastern Alps/Tatras/Carpathians. In an analysis of molecular variance (amova), 14.3% of the total variation derived from this separation. However, relationships among these lineages remained unresolved in neighbour-joining and principal co-ordinates analyses, suggesting a population history of near simultaneous vicariance. Comparison with our previous ITS/AFLP study of Anthyllis montana (Fabaceae) indicates that the two co-distributed but altitudinally differentiated plant species exhibit temporally concordant but spatially discordant patterns of genetic variation. Moreover, levels of AFLP divergence were significantly lower in P. alpina than in the submediterranean, lower-elevation A. montana. Together, these data are consistent with a 'displacement refugia model', which predicts that European mountain plant species associated with lower- and upper-elevation habitats had a different cycle of range contraction into (long-term) glacial and (short-term) interglacial refugia, respectively.

  16. Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado and portions of adjacent territory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer; Bien, Julius

    1877-01-01

    Sheets I-IV are triangulations, drainage, land classification, and geologic maps of Colorado west of longitude 102°, on the scale of 12 miles to the inch. Sheets V-XVI are topographic (contour) and geologic maps of Colorado and adjacent States, between meridians 104° 30' and 109° 30' and parallels 36° 45' and 40° 30', on the scale of 4 miles to the inch. Sheets XVII and XVIII contain three geologic sections across the State, west of the longitude 104° 30'. Sheets XIX and XX are panoramic views of the Pikes Peak group, Sawatch Range, central portion of West Elk Mountains, Twin Lakes, southwestern border of the Mesa Verde, San Juan Mountains, and La Plata Mountains.

  17. Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado and portions of adjacent territory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer; Bien, Julius

    1881-01-01

    Sheets I-IV are triangulations, drainage, land classification, and geologic maps of Colorado west of longitude 102°, on the scale of 12 miles to the inch. Sheets V-XVI are topographic (contour) and geologic maps of Colorado and adjacent States, between meridians 104° 30' and 109° 30' and parallels 36° 45' and 40° 30', on the scale of 4 miles to the inch. Sheets XVII and XVIII contain three geologic sections across the State, west of the longitude 104° 30'. Sheets XIX and XX are panoramic views of the Pikes Peak group, Sawatch Range, central portion of West Elk Mountains, Twin Lakes, southwestern border of the Mesa Verde, San Juan Mountains, and La Plata Mountains.

  18. Alpine plant community trends on the elk summer range of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado: An analysis of existing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the elk (Cervus elaphus) population of Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado summer in the park’s high-elevation alpine and subalpine meadows and willow krummholz. The park’s population of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus altipetens) depends on both dwarf and krummholz willows for food and cover. Concern about the effects of elk herbivory on these communities prompted the monitoring of 12 vegetation transects in these regions from 1971 to 1996. Over this 25-year period, data were collected on plant species cover and frequency and shrub heights. These data have not been statistically analyzed for trends in the measured variables over time to determine changes in species abundance. Krummholz willow species (Salix planifolia, S. brachycarpa) declined 17–20 percent in cover and about 25 centimeters in height over the study period. Graminoids (particularly Deschampsia caespitosa, Carex, and Poa) increased slightly from 1971 to 1996. No significant increases of nonnative plant species were observed. An increase in presence of bare ground over the 25-year period warrants continued measurement of these transects. Lack of good data on elk density, distribution, or use levels precludes correlating changes in plant species cover, frequency, or heights with elk population trends. I recommend development of a more rigorously designed monitoring program that includes these transects as well as others chosen on a random or stratified design and consistent measurement protocol and sampling intervals. Some method of quantifying elk use, either through measurement of plant utilization, pellet counts, or census-type surveys, would allow correlation of changes in plant species over time with changes in elk distribution and density on the park’s alpine and subalpine regions.

  19. Flexural rigidity of the Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain transition from coherence analysis of gravity and topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Anthony R.; Smith, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Stochastic inversion for flexural loads and flexural rigidity of the continental elastic layer can be accomplished most effectively by using the coherence of gravity and topography. However, the spatial resolution of coherence analysis has been limited by use of two-dimensional periodogram spectra from very large (greater than 10(exp 5)sq km) windows that generally include multiple tectonic features. Using a two-dimensional spectral estimator based on the maximum entropy method, the spatial resolution of flexural proerties can be enhanced by a factor of 4 or more, enabling more detailed analysis at the scale of individual tectonic features. This new approach is used to map the spatial variation of flexural rigidity along the Basin and Range transition to the Colorado Plateau and Middle Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces. Large variations in flexural isostatic responses are found, with rigidities ranging from as low as 8.7 x 10(exp 20) N m (elastic thickness (T(sub e) = 4.6 km) in the Basin and Range to as high as 4.1 x 10(exp 24) N m T(sub e) = 77 km) in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These results compare favorably woith independent determinations of flexural rigidity in the region. Areas of low flexural rigidity correlate strongly with areas of high surface heat flow, as is expected from the contingence of flexural rigidity on a temperature-dependent flow law. Also, late Cenozoic normal faults with large displacements are found primarily in area of low flexural rigidity region. The highest flexural rigidity is found within the Archean Wyoming craton, where evidence suggests that deeply rooted cratonic lithosphere may play a role in determining the distribution of tectonism at the surface.

  20. Magnificent Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    One way to increase awareness of endangered national heritage is to teach youth the importance of the land through the study of selected works of art. This article describes a lesson, in which students will study the work of Thomas Moran and create a mountain range collage. A short biography of Thomas Moran is included.

  1. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodonts are described in a key section of the Wahoo Limestone (Middle Carboniferous); this unit forms a hydrocarbon reservoir at Prudhoe Bay. The Wahoo was deposited in a range of environments on the inner part of a high-energy carbonate ramp. Microfacies and conodont biofacies used together refine paleoenvironmental interpretations. Only 24 conodont species distributed among 14 genera were recognized in a section that spans about 10 million years. Significant conodont collections from the Wahoo across the Northeast Brooks Range are described in an appendix.

  2. Tertiary tectonics of the Border Ranges Fault system, north-central Chugach Mountains, Alaska: Sedimentation, deformation and uplift along the inboard edge of a subduction complex

    SciTech Connect

    Little, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    In south-central Alaska the Border Ranges Fault system (BRFS) separates lower Paleogene rocks of a forearc basin sequence from a Cretaceous subduction complex. In a north-central part of the Chugach Mountains the upper Paleocene-lower Eocene Chickaloon Formation was deposited along the seaward margin of the forearc basin as an alluvial fan complex. A field study combining geologic mapping of a {approximately}200 km{sup 2} region, stratigraphic studies, K-Ar and fission-track geochronology, metamorphic petrology, and detailed structural analysis of deformed rocks on both sides of the BRFS has been used to reconstruct the Tertiary history of displacements and uplift events along the inboard edge of Alaska's subduction-accretion complex.

  3. Ellesmerian (. ) and Brookian deformation in the Franklin Mountains, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska, and its bearing on the origin of the Canada Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Oldow, J.S.; Ave Lallemant, H.G.; Julian, F.E.; Seidensticker, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Structural analysis of deformed rocks in the Franklin Mountains, northeastern Alaska, indicates that (1) pre-Carboniferous rocks were transported southeastward during mid-Devonian (Ellesmerian.) thrusting, (2) Cretaceous and older rocks were transported northward during Mesozoic-Cenozoic Brookian thrusting, and (3) the pre-Carboniferous rocks were strongly involved in the Brookian deformation. The strong involvement of these rocks in Brookian structures suggests that the magnitude of northward thrusting during Brookian tectonism is virtually uniform from west to east along the axis of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. In addition, the newly recognized southern vergence of pre-Carboniferous structures is comparable with that of coeval structures exposed in Arctic Canada to the east. These data are not easily reconciled with the orocline model for the origin of the Canada Basin but are consistent with left-lateral transport on a north-south-striking transform fault along the Canadian Arctic islands. 19 references.

  4. Climate impacts on groundwater storage, hydrochemistry and residence time in geologically variable, snowmelt-dominated mountain catchments, Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeliff, M. M.; Williams, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater storage, hydrochemistry and residence time are all known to vary widely depending on hydrogeologic conditions. In mountainous terrain hydrogeology can vary greatly over short distances, from bedrock aquifers on ridge tops to colluvial and fluvial aquifers in valleys. Determining how climate alters groundwater in the context of variable hydrogeologic conditions is needed to understand in-stream flows and biogeochemical cycles in these climactically sensitive alpine settings. In 2005 at the Niwot LTER six piezometers were installed in surficial diamicton and colluvium at the base of a semi-permanent snowfield at the Martinelli site (3440 m). Eight piezometers were also installed at the Saddle on a ridge-top in the alpine tundra (3528 m). In 2010 12 piezometers were installed at the C1 site (3025 m) in the subalpine atop moraine deposits. Groundwater monitoring for all sites is year-round and is comprised of depth-to-water measurements by hand and pressure transducers for select wells, as well as chemistry samples for major solutes including dissolved organic matter and stable isotopes of water, δ18O and δD. Across the Niwot LTER precipitation falls predominately as snow creating a strongly snowmelt-dominated hydrograph. Groundwater response to this seasonality is reflected in both physical and hydrochemical groundwater measurements. Snowmelt leads to sharp increases in water level in all piezometers including up to 7 m of water table change at the Saddle, up to 3 m of change at Martinelli and up to 5 m of water table change at C1. Minimum water table levels are not always measureable as the water table can drop below the extent of the piezometers, however, at the Saddle there are decreasing trends in annual minimum groundwater level in 3 of the 4 deep piezometers, possibly reflecting a decrease in total aquifer storage. Hydrochemical groundwater response to snowmelt is evident in distinct harmonic trends in major solute and isotope chemistry. Time

  5. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest. PMID:26042134

  6. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  7. Channel Incision in the Inyo Mountains, CA: Transient response to non-steady slip on a Basin and Range normal fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, E.; Kirby, E.

    2005-12-01

    Deciphering the landscape record of tectonic forcing requires understanding the rates and processes by which changes in base level are communicated throughout the fluvial network. Progress toward this goal has been hampered in part by a lack of field sites where we can observe a transient response to a known change in boundary conditions. Here we present preliminary observations of channel profile form in the Inyo Mountains, CA. This range is bound on its eastern side by an active normal fault in Saline Valley, which links strike-slip displacement on the Hunter Mountain fault to extension in northern Saline and Eureka Valleys. Channels draining across the fault system exhibit strongly convex, non-equilibrium profiles, characterized by steep lower reaches and low-gradient upper reaches. In contrast, channels developed in similar lithology north and south of the fault tips exhibit smoothly concave profiles. Channels are developed in relatively uniform granitic bedrock and under similar climatic regimes. Upstream reaches of all channels display uniform steepness indices, consistent with a previous quasi-equilibrium form. Knickpoints separating upper and lower reaches, however, show systematic variations in elevation and upstream drainage area along strike of the range, suggesting non-uniform propagation rates. Overall, we conclude that the channels are responding to an increase in slip rate on the bounding fault. Previous structural mapping in the region suggests an increase in extension rate at ca. 1.4 Ma (Sternlof, 1988). We are undertaking a preliminary test of fluvial incision models to assess to what degree the observed differences in knickpoint position can be explained as a consequence of along-strike variations in slip rate.

  8. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  9. Thrust faults of southern Diamond Mountains, central Nevada: Implications for hydrocarbons in Diamond Valley and at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.E.

    1993-04-01

    Overmature Mississippian hydrocarbon source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains have been interpreted to be a klippe overlying less mature source rocks and represented as an analogy to similar conditions near Yucca Mountain (Chamberlain, 1991). Geologic evidence indicates an alternative interpretation. Paleogeologic mapping indicates the presence of a thrust fault, referred to here as the Moritz Nager Thrust Fault, with Devonian rocks emplaced over Permian to Mississippian strata folded into an upright to overturned syncline, and that the overmature rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in the footwall of this thrust. The upper plate has been eroded from most of the Diamond Mountains but remnants are present at the head of Moritz Nager Canyon and at Sentinel Mountain. Devonian rocks of the upper plate comprised the earliest landslide megabreccia. Later, megabreccias of Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks of the overturned syncline of the lower plate were deposited. By this interpretation the maturity of lower-plate source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains, which have been increased by tectonic burial, is not indicative of conditions in Diamond Valley, adjacent to the west, where upper-plate source rocks might be present in generating conditions. The interpretation that overmature source rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in a lower plate rather than in a klippe means that this area is an inappropriate model for the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain.

  10. Detection of aspen/conifer forest mixes from multitemporal LANDSAT digital data. [Bear River Range, Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.; Harniss, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The digital MSS data were utilized to devise quantitative indices which correlate with apparently stable and seral aspen forests. The extent to which a two-date LANDSAT MSS analysis may permit the delineation of different categories of aspen/conifer forest mix was explored. Multitemporal analyses of MSS data led to the identification of early, early to mid, mid to late, and late seral stages of aspen/conifer forest mixing.

  11. Escaping to the summits: phylogeography and predicted range dynamics of Cerastium dinaricum, an endangered high mountain plant endemic to the western Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kutnjak, Denis; Kuttner, Michael; Niketić, Marjan; Dullinger, Stefan; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo

    2014-09-01

    The Balkans are a major European biodiversity hotspot, however, almost nothing is known about processes of intraspecific diversification of the region's high-altitude biota and their reaction to the predicted global warming. To fill this gap, genome size measurements, AFLP fingerprints, plastid and nuclear sequences were employed to explore the phylogeography of Cerastium dinaricum. Range size changes under future climatic conditions were predicted by niche-based modeling. Likely the most cold-adapted plant endemic to the Dinaric Mountains in the western Balkan Peninsula, the species has conservation priority in the European Union as its highly fragmented distribution range includes only few small populations. A deep phylogeographic split paralleled by divergent genome size separates the populations into two vicariant groups. Substructure is pronounced within the southeastern group, corresponding to the area's higher geographic complexity. Cerastium dinaricum likely responded to past climatic oscillations with altitudinal range shifts, which, coupled with high topographic complexity of the region and warmer climate in the Holocene, sculptured its present fragmented distribution. Field observations revealed that the species is rarer than previously assumed and, as shown by modeling, severely endangered by global warming as viable habitat was predicted to be reduced by more than 70% by the year 2080.

  12. Ellsworth mountains: Position in West Antarctica due to sea-floor spreading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1969-01-01

    Similarities of middle and upper Paleozoic deposits of the Ellsworth Mountains with those of the Pensacola, Horlick, and other Transantarctic mountains indicate that all these ranges may have had a related geologic history. A tentative explanation is now suggested which involves sea-floor spreading and translocation of the Ellsworth crustal block from its original location adjacent to the East Antarctic Shield. Accordingly, the islands of West Antarctica may differ in origin and the Transantarctic Mountains of East Antarctica may represent one margin of an ancient rift.

  13. Multi-proxy record of Holocene glacial history of the Spearhead and Fitzsimmons ranges, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Gerald; Menounos, Brian; Koch, Johannes; Clague, John J.; Vallis, Vanessa

    2007-02-01

    Evidence from glacier forefields and lakes is used to reconstruct Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Spearhead and Fitzsimmons ranges in southwest British Columbia. Radiocarbon ages on detrital wood and trees killed by advancing ice and changes in sediment delivery to downstream proglacial lakes indicate that glaciers expanded from minimum extents in the early Holocene to their maximum extents about two to three centuries ago during the Little Ice Age. The data indicate that glaciers advanced 8630-8020, 6950-6750, 3580-2990, and probably 4530-4090 cal yr BP, and repeatedly during the past millennium. Little Ice Age moraines dated using dendrochronology and lichenometry date to early in the 18th century and in the 1830s and 1890s. Limitations inherent in lacustrine and terrestrial-based methods of documenting Holocene glacier fluctuations are minimized by using the two records together.

  14. Environmental geochemistry at Red Mountain, an unmined volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit in the Bonnifield district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Dusel-Bacon, C.; Giles, S.A.; Gough, L.P.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Hubbard, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The unmined, pyrite-rich Red Mountain (Dry Creek) deposit displays a remarkable environmental footprint of natural acid generation, high metal and exceedingly high rate earth element (REE) concentrations in surface waters. The volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit exhibits well-constrained examples of acid-generating, metal-leaching, metal-precipitation and self-mitigation (via co-precipitation, dilution and neutralization) processes that occur in an undisturbed natural setting, a rare occurrence in North America. Oxidative dissolution of pyrite and associated secondary reactions under near-surface oxidizing conditions are the primary causes for the acid generation and metal leaching. The deposit is hosted in Devonian to Mississippian felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. Water samples with the lowest pH (many below 3.5), highest specific conductance (commonly >2500 ??S/cm) and highest major- and trace-element concentrations are from springs and streams within the quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zone. Aluminum, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Y, Zn and, particularly, the REEs are found in high concentrations, ranging across four orders of magnitude. Waters collected upstream from the alteration zone have near-neutral pH, lower specific conductance (370 to 830 ??S/cm), lower metal concentrations and measurable alkalinities. Water samples collected downstream of the alteration zone have pH and metal concentrations intermediate between these two extremes. Stream sediments are anomalous in Zn, Pb, S, Fe, Cu, As, Co, Sb and Cd relative to local and regional background abundances. Red Mountain Creek and its tributaries do not, and probably never have, supported significant aquatic life. ?? 2007 AAG/ Geological Society of London.

  15. Application of the Basin Characterization Model to Estimate In-Place Recharge and Runoff Potential in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2007-01-01

    A regional-scale water-balance model was used to estimate recharge and runoff potential and support U.S. Geological Survey efforts to develop a better understanding of water availability for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The water-balance model, or Basin Characterization Model (BCM), was used to estimate regional ground-water recharge for the 13 hydrographic areas in the study area. The BCM calculates recharge by using a distributed-parameter, water-balance method and monthly climatic boundary conditions. The BCM requires geographic information system coverages of soil, geology, and topographic information with monthly time-varying climatic conditions of air temperature and precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration, snow accumulation, and snowmelt are distributed spatially with process models. When combined with surface properties of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock and alluvium, the potential water available for in-place recharge and runoff is calculated using monthly time steps using a grid scale of 866 feet (270 meters). The BCM was used with monthly climatic inputs from 1970 to 2004, and results were averaged to provide an estimate of the average annual recharge for the BARCAS study area. The model estimates 526,000 acre-feet of potential in-place recharge and approximately 398,000 acre-feet of potential runoff. Assuming 15 percent of the runoff becomes recharge, the model estimates average annual ground-water recharge for the BARCAS area of about 586,000 acre-feet. When precipitation is extrapolated to the long-term climatic record (1895-2006), average annual recharge is estimated to be 530,000 acre-feet, or about 9 percent less than the recharge estimated for 1970-2004.

  16. Spatiotemporal characteristics and synchronization of extreme rainfall in South America with focus on the Andes Mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The South American Andes are frequently exposed to intense rainfall events with varying moisture sources and precipitation-forming processes. In this study, we assess the spatiotemporal characteristics and geographical origins of rainfall over the South American continent. Using high-spatiotemporal resolution satellite data (TRMM 3B42 V7), we define four different types of rainfall events based on their (1) high magnitude, (2) long temporal extent, (3) large spatial extent, and (4) high magnitude, long temporal and large spatial extent combined. In a first step, we analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of these events over the entire South American continent and integrate their impact for the main Andean hydrologic catchments. Our results indicate that events of type 1 make the overall highest contributions to total seasonal rainfall (up to 50 %). However, each consecutive episode of the infrequent events of type 4 still accounts for up to 20 % of total seasonal rainfall in the subtropical Argentinean plains. In a second step, we employ complex network theory to unravel possibly non-linear and long-ranged climatic linkages for these four event types on the high-elevation Altiplano-Puna Plateau as well as in the main river catchments along the foothills of the Andes. Our results suggest that one to two particularly large squall lines per season, originating from northern Brazil, indirectly trigger large, long-lasting thunderstorms on the Altiplano Plateau. In general, we observe that extreme rainfall in the catchments north of approximately 20°S typically originates from the Amazon Basin, while extreme rainfall at the eastern Andean foothills south of 20°S and the Puna Plateau originates from southeastern South America.

  17. Evolution of Cretaceous granitoids in the western cordillera: An example from the Santa Rose Mountain Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Stuck, R.J.; Hart, W.K. )

    1992-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Range is located in Humboldt County, Nevada. Two textural/compositional groups exist within the granitoid suite. The bulk of the granitoids, exposed in the main stock and a smaller flanking stock, belong to the Santa Rosa/Andorno (SR/A) group. These rocks are primarily met- to peraluminous, equigranular, hornblende-biotite granodiorite. These granitoids are enclave bearing and are cross cut by syn-plutonic rholite/dacite dikes and fine grained aplite dikes. The second group exposed in the Sawtooth (ST) and Granite Peak (GP) stocks, are primarily met- to peraluminous, equigranular to porphyritic biotite granite/granodiorite. The rocks of this group are also cut by fine grained aplite dikes. Petrographic and elemental analyses indicate a broad northward evolutionary trend with rocks of the GP stock being the most highly evolved of the suite. Major element variation diagrams show patterns of enrichment or depletion consistent with fractional crystallization. There is a change in the slope of these trends, however, at the SR/A and ST/GP transition indicating these two groups many not be petrogenetically linked. Sr vs SiO[sub 2] displays two distinct, overlapping, sub parallel trends of Sr depletion with increasing SiO[sub 2] again indicating the two granitoid groups are not related. Trace element characteristics suggest that it is not possible to derive the most evolved granitoid in the SR/A group from the least evolved sample available by fractional crystallization alone. Crustal contamination of the magma, or the mixing of an additional liquid(s), coupled with fractionation of both plagioclase and biotite are required to produce the trace element trends observed in the SR/A groups. In contrast, the GP/ST group has undergone K-feldspar fractionation.

  18. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  19. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-11-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range). 

  20. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-01-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range).  PMID:25277590

  1. Blue Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 16 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Mountains Ecoregion encompasses approximately 65,461 km² (25,275 mi²) of land bordered on the north by the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion, on the east by the Northern Rockies Ecoregion, on the south by the Snake River Basin and the Northern Basin and Range Ecoregions, and on the west by the Cascades and the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregions (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). Most of the Blue Mountains Ecoregion is located within Oregon (83.5 percent); 13.8 percent is in Idaho, and 2.7 percent is in Washington. The Blue Mountains are composed of primarily Paleozoic volcanic rocks, with minor sedimentary, metamorphic, and granitic rocks. Lower mountains and numerous basin-and-range areas, as well as the lack of Quaternary-age volcanoes, distinguish the Blue Mountains from the adjacent Cascade Range (Thorson and others, 2003).

  2. Simulations of Orographic Mixed-Phase Clouds at Mountain Range Site using COSMO-ART-M7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, Olga; Henneberger, Jan; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions constitute the highest uncertainties in radiative forcing estimation since preindustrial times. Clouds living in temperature range between 0° C and -38° C may contain supercooled water drops as well as ice particles formed by heterogeneous freezing. The coexistence of the three water-phases: vapor, liquid and ice in mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) leads to an enhanced number of microphysical processes that further complicates the estimation of radiative effects furthermore and challenges models on every scale. Due to a lower saturation pressure over ice than over water ice growth is favoured and a rapid glaciation of MPCs is expected. Even though MPCs are considered unstable, observations have shown that they can persist over long periods up to several hours. In-situ measurements at the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch (JFJ) show the occurrence of MPCs under certain conditions. In addition to the longevity of MPCs an unexpected high ice crystal concentration exceeding the number of ice nuclei was also observed. Due to the lack of information about updraft velocities in this complex orographic region and the constraint of measurements on a single location it is not fully understood how MPCs can persist over such a long time in this region, whether microphysical or dynamical processes are dominantly determining their longevity and what causes the high ice crystal concentration. The measurements taken at JFJ delivering mass content as well as number concentration of particles on one hand require a detailed model study to fully understand processes of mixed phase clouds and on the other hand deliver a great opportunity to study the performance of the newly developed COSMO version: COSMO-ART-M7 on the kilometer-scale in comparison with measurement results. Furthermore it has to be proven whether a resolution of 1 km is sufficient enough to capture relevant processes in MPC. First model simulations with COSMO, including the two

  3. The Contribution of Trans-Pacific Submicron Aerosols and Local Particle Nucleation Bursts to California's Air Quality as Seen from the Pacific Coast Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, E. C. C.; Christensen, J. N.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    The long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols to the Western US has received considerable attention due to the growing disparity between North American and Asian air quality. Using MODIS and space-borne LIDAR measurements some have argued that the transcontinental transport of dust from Asia, Africa, and Europe outweighs that of locally produced combustion aerosols (Yu et al. 2012). This study seeks to compare the aerosol composition, number, and size distribution of locally derived submicron aerosols (including particle nucleation events) vs. long-range transported aerosols observed at a remote mountain site near the Pacific Coast. Toward this aim, rotating drum impactor (RDI) and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements of size-segregated elemental compositions and size spectra were collected from February to November of 2012 at Chews Ridge (elevation 1450 m) in Monterey County, California. This mountaintop site experiences two main wind modes. The main mode is ohshore-directed winds from the southwest, which are most likely to bring trans-Pacific aerosols to the site; and offshore-directed, northeasterly winds that bring continental aerosols to the site from the interior of California. Elemental ratios (normalized to Al), matrix factorization, and a k-cluster analysis of these data suggest distinct crustal, combustion, and marine sources with considerable seasonal as well as short-term variability. HYSPLIT model back trajectories support the hypothesized sources of these submicron aerosols. Locally, SMPS data reveal consistent nucleation bursts and subsequent growth in the 20-60 nm range during the afternoons. A distinct but weaker diel cycle was observed in the 70 - 100 nm range, corresponding to the smallest RDI impactor stage. Finally, the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) of aerosol samples from selected dates will be measured by MC-ICPMS to further identify aerosol origins (e.g. Ewing et al. 2010).

  4. Formation of basins and mountain ranges in Attica (Greece): The role of Miocene to Recent low-angle normal detachment faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohe, Alexander; Mposkos, Evripidis; Diamantopoulos, Anastasios; Kaouras, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    In seismically active regions, active low-angle detachment faults are probably more frequent as is commonly thought and may play an important but still underestimated role in the evolution of landforms and basins. We investigate the tectonically active region of Attica (Greece) in the Aegean back arc as a model region to show how basins and mountain ranges commonly thought to be formed by movements on high-angle normal faults in fact reflect the surface expression of displacements on yet undetected, deep-seated, active low-angle normal detachment faults. Inferences are made based on an integrated study of Attica linking the petrology of clastic sediments with geomorphology and structures, and including few new palynological data. From the Miocene to Recent, three sets of normal detachment fault systems were successively active. Shear zones of the 1st (Early Miocene) stage emplaced rocks of the Attic Cycladic high- P metamorphic belt (AC-HP-belt) from depth corresponding to greeschist facies conditions in the brittle, upper crust. In the 2nd stage the WNW dipping Attica low-angle normal detachment fault system between the AC-HP-belt and the un- or weakly metamorphosed rocks of the sub-Pelagonian Zone (SPZ) was active. Clastic sedimentation started in the Late Miocene, during the 2nd stage. Late Miocene and Early Pliocene clastic sediments reveal that during the 2nd stage many areas that presently expose the AC-HP-belt were still covered by the overlying SPZ. Also, now uplifted areas such as the Parnitha mountain range that currently undergo strong erosion were then the sites of sedimentary sinks. The 3rd stage (Late Pliocene through Recent) is associated with dramatic changes in the morphology and recurring steepening of the relief. Reversal of the Parnitha area from the site of deposition into the site of erosion is associated with deposition of coarse conglomerates to the SE of the Parnitha Mt. and S of the Penteli Mt. Sediments of the 3rd stage reflect activity

  5. Geochemical Characteristics of Overbank Deposits after a Flood Event in a Small, Mountainous River System in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics of particulate organic matter (POM) transported by rivers has broad implications in our understanding of aquatic nutrient dynamics, the fate of contaminants, environmental change in watersheds, and carbon export to depositional environments. The major fraction of this POM is mobilized during storms, especially in small mountainous river systems (SMRS) producing complex spatial-temporal POM patterns poorly documented due to logistical difficulties. In this study, we examine the use of overbank flood deposits as a surrogate of a quasi-Lagrangian POM sampling scheme to supplement the conventional Eulerian sampling scheme for POM. We report on the geochemical characteristics of 11 overbank deposits created after a significant flood (10 X mean discharge) along 80 km in the Alsea River, a SMRS in the Oregon Coast Range. We measure organic carbon, nitrogen, stable isotopes, and biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols as well as particle size distribution and surface area of the deposited sediments. We compared those characteristics with the POM sampled during several storms at a fixed location. Our results suggest that despite the differences in local depositional conditions inferred from particle size distributions and texture, the geochemical properties of overbank deposits resemble the properties of the material in transport, mainly derived from a terrestrial source with a clear signal of gymnosperm wood. Furthermore, the normalized ranges of the geochemical indicators measured across space for one single event are comparable to, or even higher than, the normalized range of the same indicators measured along time at the fixed location. The implications of the amount and quality of the additional information offered by the overbank deposits in POM dynamics in watershed is discussed.

  6. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naïve host ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Ma, Cary; Whitehouse, Caroline; Shan, Bin; Najar, Ahmed; Evenden, Maya

    2014-02-01

    Host plant secondary chemistry can have cascading impacts on host and range expansion of herbivorous insect populations. We investigated the role of host secondary compounds on pheromone production by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) and beetle attraction in response to a historical (lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and a novel (jack pine, Pinus banksiana) hosts, as pheromones regulate the host colonization process. Beetles emit the same pheromones from both hosts, but more trans-verbenol, the primary aggregation pheromone, was emitted by female beetles on the novel host. The phloem of the novel host contains more α-pinene, a secondary compound that is the precursor for trans-verbenol production in beetle, than the historical host. Beetle-induced emission of 3-carene, another secondary compound found in both hosts, was also higher from the novel host. Field tests showed that the addition of 3-carene to the pheromone mixture mimicking the aggregation pheromones produced from the two host species increased beetle capture. We conclude that chemical similarity between historical and novel hosts has facilitated host expansion of MPB in jack pine forests through the exploitation of common host secondary compounds for pheromone production and aggregation on the hosts. Furthermore, broods emerging from the novel host were larger in terms of body size. PMID:24400902

  7. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  8. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  9. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naïve host ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Ma, Cary; Whitehouse, Caroline; Shan, Bin; Najar, Ahmed; Evenden, Maya

    2014-02-01

    Host plant secondary chemistry can have cascading impacts on host and range expansion of herbivorous insect populations. We investigated the role of host secondary compounds on pheromone production by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) and beetle attraction in response to a historical (lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and a novel (jack pine, Pinus banksiana) hosts, as pheromones regulate the host colonization process. Beetles emit the same pheromones from both hosts, but more trans-verbenol, the primary aggregation pheromone, was emitted by female beetles on the novel host. The phloem of the novel host contains more α-pinene, a secondary compound that is the precursor for trans-verbenol production in beetle, than the historical host. Beetle-induced emission of 3-carene, another secondary compound found in both hosts, was also higher from the novel host. Field tests showed that the addition of 3-carene to the pheromone mixture mimicking the aggregation pheromones produced from the two host species increased beetle capture. We conclude that chemical similarity between historical and novel hosts has facilitated host expansion of MPB in jack pine forests through the exploitation of common host secondary compounds for pheromone production and aggregation on the hosts. Furthermore, broods emerging from the novel host were larger in terms of body size.

  10. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  11. Do Small Mammals and Vegetation Metacommunity Dynamics Determine the Extent and Pattern of Treeline in the High Elevation Zone of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, R. C.; Chase, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a general expectation that warming temperatures will facilitate transformation of high elevation meadows to woody dominated communities. We have been using observational and experimental approaches to analyze potential state changes of meadows and the role seed and seedling predation play in conifer expansion in the high elevation zone of the Sierra Nevada mountain range of the western United States. The observational component consists of 256 plots spanning 3 degrees of latitude and an elevation range from 3000 m to 4000 m. The experimental component consists of mammal seed predator exclosures (N = 252) allocated among three arrays at each of two sites separated by > 100 km. Three cohorts of seeds at five seed densities (1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 seeds per 0.25 m2) and one seedling cohort were placed within and immediately outside the exclosures at each site. Trend surface and distance decay analyses of community composition indicate vegetation communities in the high elevation zone have not assembled predictably along environmental or spatial gradients. Rather, we have found strong support for neutral dynamics, implying that communities assemble more stochastically as a result of dispersal limitation or priority effects. Density of mature and sapling conifers decrease as a function of distance from conifer patches, but seedling density has no relationship with distance from conifer patches. Germination of seeds outside of the exclosures was 19% compared to 65% within, and these were mainly at densities of 1 seed per 0.25 m2. None of the seeds that germinated outside the exclosures survived more than 1.5 years compared to 23% within the exclosures. Virtually all of the seedlings planted outside the exclosures were removed within a year. Collectively, these findings indicate a highly patchy rather than uniform pattern of treeline extension in the high elevation zone of the Sierra Nevada. Moreover, smaller mammals appear to be playing a critical role in

  12. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organochlorinated compounds from south and mainland south-eastern Asia to a remote mountain site in south-western China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Hua; Liu, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    A range of organochlorinated compounds have been consumed in China, India and the countries of mainland southeast Asia (MSA). Considering their persistence in the environment and ability in long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), the potential outflow of these compounds from this region is therefore of great concern in the context of the global distribution of toxic chemicals. As part of a monitoring campaign aimed at investigating the LRAT of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from southern China, MSA and northern India, atmospheric levels of OCPs and PCBs were measured once a week from October 2005 through December 2006 at Tengchong Mountain (TM), a remote site located in south-western China. The average concentrations of OCPs were found to be higher than those in other remote stations in the Arctic and the Tibetan plateau, except for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH). A high level of β-HCH and low α-HCH/β-HCH ratio was attributed to an accidental release of β-HCH from unknown sources, besides obvious evidence of lindane (γ-HCH) and technical HCH usage. Temporal variations of chlordanes and endosulfan were related to the usage pattern of these compounds, as well as LRAT. In contrast, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exhibited a relatively minor seasonal variation. The OCP levels at the monitoring site were found to be related to the air parcel back trajectories on the basis of four distinct clusters. Elevated levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed when air parcels originated from northern India where considerable OCP usage was reported recently, while high levels of γ-HCH and TC (trans-chlordane) were mainly associated with air masses from southern China and northern MSA. The study highlighted the high background level of OCPs as well as their temporal patterns of trans-boundary LRAT in the MSA region. PMID:21952469

  13. Style and magnitude of Mesozoic thrust faulting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt Pequop Mountains-Wood Hills-East Humboldt Range region, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, P.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Pequop Mountains (PM), Wood Hills (WH) and East Humboldt Range (EHR), NE Nevada, provide evidence that the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt experienced large-magnitude Mesozoic shortening ([>=]55 km) and crustal thickening ([>=] 30 km). These ranges expose a structurally continuous crustal cross section of unmetamorphosed to high pressure upper amphibolite facies Triassic to Precambrian miogeoclinal strata. This sequence lies structurally beneath unmetamorphosed extensional klippen that omit metamorphic grade and crustal section, but also repeat stratigraphic units. Because they repeat stratigraphic units, the underlying miogeoclinal section, or footwall, must have once lain beneath a thrust fault (herein named the Windermere thrust). The footwall of the Windermere thrust was exhumed by two generations of top-to-the-W-NW low-angle normal faults that are distinguished by whether they are depositionally overlapped by Eocene volcanic rocks or if they cut the volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. The latter phase is associated with development of the mid-Tertiary extensional mylonitic shear zone in the EHR. An integration of geobarometric, metamorphic, and map data suggest (1) a NW dip of the footwall of the Windermere thrust with metamorphic facies belts trending perpendicular to dip direction and metamorphic grade increasing down dip, and (2) a top-to-the-SE sense-of-slip for the Windermere thrust. Assuming that the Windermere thrust comprised a flat on the youngest rocks exposed in the footwall (Triassic), the Mesozoic depth to the Windermere thrust in the northern PM is [>=] 7 km, in WH is [approximately]10--16 km, and in the EHR[>=]30 km. The Windermere thrust accommodated a minimum of 50 km of shortening associated with the Independence thrust is [>=] 5 km. These data indicate that the amount of hinterland shortening in NE Nevada greatly exceeds that to the south in the Eureka belt.

  14. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain).

    PubMed

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2015-11-15

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency).

  15. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain).

    PubMed

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2015-11-15

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency). PMID:26186465

  16. Ozone trends in Great Smoky Mountains National Park over the past two decades: Implications for plants and ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hourly ozone data from five sampling locations in Great Smoky Mountains National Park and one low elevation location adjacent to the Park in NC were analyzed over the period 1989 to 2012 for diurnal and season trends. Sampling locations spanned an elevational range from 564 m at...

  17. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with a long-range transported biomass burning plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L. J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m above mean sea level on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located ~ 3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ± 0.7 μg m-3. On average, organic aerosol components represent the largest mass fraction of the total measured aerosol (60 ± 51%), followed by sulfate (23 ± 28%), nitrate (13 ± 10%), chloride (2 ± 3%), and elemental carbon (2 ± 2%). Water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas had unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. FLEXPART retroplume analyses showed the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). These aged aerosol WSOM compounds had an average O/C ratio of ~ 0.45, which is relatively low compared to O/C ratios of other aged aerosol. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in the WSOM and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic species suggests

  18. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with long range transported biomass burning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2014-09-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m a.m.s.l. on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory (38°28'15'' N; 28°24'14'' W) is located ∼3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances, mainly from North America. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon and inorganic ion species. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 μg m-3; on average organic aerosol contributes the majority of mass (57%), followed by sulfate (21%) and nitrate (17%). Filter-collected aerosol measurements were positively correlated (with an r2 ≥ 0.80) with continuous aerosol measurements of black carbon, aerosol light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) species extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. FLEXPART retroplume analysis shows the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. These aged WSOC compounds have an average O / C ratio of ∼0.45, which is relatively low compared to O / C ratios of other aged aerosol and might be the result of evaporation and increased fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in

  19. Bacteria influence mountain pine beetle brood development through interactions with symbiotic and antagonistic fungi: implications for climate-driven host range expansion.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Janet; Mason, Charles J; Cale, Jonathan A; Adams, Aaron; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Raffa, Kenneth F; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-10-01

    Bark beetles are associated with diverse communities of symbionts. Although fungi have received significant attention, we know little about how bacteria, and in particular their interactions with fungi, affect bark beetle reproduction. We tested how interactions between four bacterial associates, two symbiotic fungi, and two opportunistic fungi affect performance of mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in host tissue. We compared beetle performance in phloem of its historical host, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and its novel host recently accessed through warming climate, jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Overall, beetles produced more larvae, and established longer ovipositional and larval galleries in host tissue predominantly colonized by the symbiotic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera, or Ophiostoma montium than by the opportunistic colonizer Aspergillus and to a lesser extent, Trichoderma. This occurred in both historical and naïve hosts. Impacts of bacteria on beetle reproduction depended on particular fungus-bacterium combinations and host species. Some bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas sp. D4-22 and Hy4T4 in P. contorta and Pseudomonas sp. Hy4T4 and Stenotrophomonas in P. banksiana, reduced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus and Trichoderma resulting in more larvae and longer ovipositional and larval galleries. These effects were not selective, as bacteria also reduced beneficial effects by symbionts in both host species. Interestingly, Bacillus enhanced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus in both hosts. These results demonstrate that bacteria influence brood development of bark beetles in host tissue. They also suggest that climate-driven range expansion of D. ponderosae through the boreal forest will not be significantly constrained by requirements of, or interactions among, its microbial associates. PMID:26037523

  20. Brittle structures and their role in controlling porosity and permeability in a complex Precambrian crystalline-rock aquifer system in the Colorado Rocky Mountain front range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, J.S.; Tomusiak, S.R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Expansion of the Denver metropolitan area has resulted in substantial residential development in the foothills of the Rocky Mountain Front Range. This type of sub-urban growth, characteristic of much of the semiarid intermountain west, often relies on groundwater from individual domestic wells and is exemplified in the Turkey Creek watershed. The watershed is underlain by complexly deformed and fractured crystalline bedrock in which groundwater resources are poorly understood, and concerns regarding groundwater mining and degradation have arisen. As part of a pilot project to establish quantitative bounds on the groundwater resource, an outcrop-based geologic characterization and numerical modeling study of the brittle structures and their controls on the flow system was initiated. Existing data suggest that ground-water storage, flow, and contaminant transport are primarily controlled by a heterogeneous array of fracture networks. Inspections of well-permit data and field observations led to a conceptual model in which three dominant lithologic groups underlying sparse surface deposits form the aquifer system-metamorphic rocks, a complex array of granitic intrusive rocks, and major brittle fault zones. Pervasive but variable jointing of each lithologic group forms the "background" permeability structure and is an important component of the bulk storage capacity. This "background" is cut by brittle fault zones of varying structural styles and by pegmatite dikes, both with much higher fracture intensities relative to "background" that likely make them spatially complex conduits. Probabilistic, discrete-fracture-network and finite-element modeling was used to estimate porosity and permeability at the outcrop scale using fracture network data collected in the field. The models were conditioned to limited aquifer test and borehole geophysical data and give insight into the relative hydraulic properties between locations and geologic controls on storage and flow

  1. Reactivity, interactions and transport of trace elements, organic carbon and particulate material in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France).

    PubMed

    Point, David; Bareille, Gilles; Amouroux, David; Etcheber, Henri; Donard, Olivier F X

    2007-02-01

    The background levels, variability, partitioning and transport of eleven trace elements-Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and U-were investigated in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France). This particular river system displayed a turbulent hydrodynamic regime, characterized by flash-transient discharge conditions leading to fast shifts in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations as high as two orders of magnitude (12 to 600 mg l(-1)). The distribution of SPM was accurately predicted with a "hysteresis" transport model, indicating that about 75% of the annual solids load was exported within 20 to 40 days. Dissolved and particulate concentrations of most trace elements were low compared to their concentrations in other reference river systems expect for Pb and Cr, associated with historical anthropogenic activities. Although dissolved and particulate metal concentrations were steady for most elements during low and average discharge conditions, significant changes were observed with increasing river discharge. The changes in trace element concentrations in the two compartments was found to induce a partitioning anomaly referred to as the particulate concentration effect. This anomaly was significant for Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and organic carbon (p < 0.03). The processes driving this anomaly were possibly linked to the modification and/or increase of colloidal organic and inorganic vectors, suggested by the significant increase of DOC (p < 0.001) and dissolved Al concentrations (p < 0.05) during flood conditions. A complementary process linked to the influence of coarse particles of low complexation capacity and transported mainly during high discharge may also effect trace element concentrations. Annual metal fluxes transported by this river system were estimated using the hysteresis SPM model with consideration of these fate processes. Metals in the Adour River system are primarily exported into the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean).

  2. Differentiation in stag beetles, Neolucanus swinhoei complex (Coleoptera: Lucanidae): four major lineages caused by periodical Pleistocene glaciations and separation by a mountain range.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Lung; Wan, Xia; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Taxonomic debates on Neolucanus swinhoei complex consisting of N. swinhoei, N. doro doro, N. doro horaguchii, and N. euganiae, distributed exclusively in Taiwan, have been ongoing for several decades because of their overlapping morphological characters. To clarify their taxonomic status and phylogeographical history, we analyzed nine morphological characteristics and four molecular amplicons. Phylogenetic inferences based on COI+16S rDNA+wingless showed one eastern and three western lineages, with the latter consisting of one low-hill and two montane lineages. Intermingled DNA sequences from different populations within each lineage, many low FST values, and a high variance component between lineages indicate the possibility of gene flow among populations. However, positive relationships were observed between the genetic divergences of 16S rDNA and its FST values with geographic distance. A divergence estimation based on COI+16S revealed that these beetles might have originated from Asian mainland and differentiated into western and eastern lineages ca. 1Mya, with the differentiation of the western lineages occurring approximately 0.50-0.75Mya. Isolation by mountain ranges and limited flying capability of these beetles as well as populations retreat to and expansion from refugia in response to glaciation cycles have resulted in the current distribution of N. swinhoei complex. Although most morphological characters are variable and undistinguishable, multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on measurable characteristics could recognize hill N. swinhoei as a cluster distinct from the others. However, based on the realities of genetic admixture, shared phylogeographical history and overlapping characteristics, all of these stag beetles should be regarded as Neolucanus swinhoei Bates, 1866.

  3. Cluster analyses of 20th century growth patterns in high elevation Great Basin bristlecone pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. J.; Bruening, J. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a useful climate proxy because of the species' long lifespan (up to 5000 years) and the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Past studies have shown that growth of individual trees can be limited by temperature, soil moisture, or a combination of the two depending on biophysical setting at the scale of tens of meters. We extend recent research suggesting that trees vary in their growth response depending on their position on the landscape to analyze how growth patterns vary over time. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the growth of 52 bristlecone pine trees near the treeline of Mount Washington, Nevada, USA. We classified growth of individual trees over the instrumental climate record into one of two possible scenarios: trees belonging to a temperature-sensitive cluster and trees belonging to a precipitation-sensitive cluster. The number of trees in the precipitation-sensitive cluster outnumbered the number of trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster, with trees in colder locations belonging to the temperature-sensitive cluster. When we separated the temporal range into two sections (1895-1949 and 1950-2002) spanning the length of the instrumental climate record, we found that most of the 52 trees remained loyal to their cluster membership (e.g., trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster in 1895-1949 were also in the temperature sensitive cluster in 1950-2002), though not without exception. Of those trees that do not remain consistent in cluster membership, the majority changed from temperature-sensitive to precipitation-sensitive as time progressed. This could signal a switch from temperature limitation to water limitation with warming climate. We speculate that topographic complexity in high mountain environments like Mount Washington might allow for climate refugia where growth response could remain constant over the Holocene.

  4. Bacteria influence mountain pine beetle brood development through interactions with symbiotic and antagonistic fungi: implications for climate-driven host range expansion.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Janet; Mason, Charles J; Cale, Jonathan A; Adams, Aaron; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Raffa, Kenneth F; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-10-01

    Bark beetles are associated with diverse communities of symbionts. Although fungi have received significant attention, we know little about how bacteria, and in particular their interactions with fungi, affect bark beetle reproduction. We tested how interactions between four bacterial associates, two symbiotic fungi, and two opportunistic fungi affect performance of mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in host tissue. We compared beetle performance in phloem of its historical host, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and its novel host recently accessed through warming climate, jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Overall, beetles produced more larvae, and established longer ovipositional and larval galleries in host tissue predominantly colonized by the symbiotic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera, or Ophiostoma montium than by the opportunistic colonizer Aspergillus and to a lesser extent, Trichoderma. This occurred in both historical and naïve hosts. Impacts of bacteria on beetle reproduction depended on particular fungus-bacterium combinations and host species. Some bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas sp. D4-22 and Hy4T4 in P. contorta and Pseudomonas sp. Hy4T4 and Stenotrophomonas in P. banksiana, reduced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus and Trichoderma resulting in more larvae and longer ovipositional and larval galleries. These effects were not selective, as bacteria also reduced beneficial effects by symbionts in both host species. Interestingly, Bacillus enhanced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus in both hosts. These results demonstrate that bacteria influence brood development of bark beetles in host tissue. They also suggest that climate-driven range expansion of D. ponderosae through the boreal forest will not be significantly constrained by requirements of, or interactions among, its microbial associates.

  5. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  6. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  7. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined.

  8. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W.; Borgo, Gina M.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  9. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  10. Glacial geology of the Mountain Iron-Virginia-Eveleth area Mesabi Iron Range, Minnesota: Sub-chapter in Geological Survey research 1964, Chapter C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotter, R.D.; Rogers, J.E.

    1964-01-01

    The surficial clayey till in the vicinity of Mountain Iron, Virginia, and Eveleth is of post-Cary age. In the southern part of the area studied, this till is overlain by deposits of glacial Lake Upham, and throughout the area it is underlain successively by stratified drift and bouldery till, both of Cary age, and by remnants of older tills.

  11. The Impact of Biomass Burning and North American Monsoon On the Surface Ozone in the Western U.S. mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Li, Q.; Zhang, L.; Mao, Y.; Murray, L. T.; Martin, R.; Lamsal, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the surface O3 observations from the Clean Air Status and Trend Network (CASTNet) using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to investigate the impact of biomass burning on surface O3 in the western U.S. (WUS) mountain ranges during the June-October fire season of 2007, one of the stronger fire years in the WUS in the past decade. GEOS-Chem O3 captures the observed seasonal, synoptic and daily variations. Model daily afternoon average surface O3 concentrations at the CASTNet sites are within 2 ppb of the observations, with correlation coefficients of 0.51-0.83 and Taylor scores of 0.64-0.92. Model results show July-September maximum surface O3 enhancement of ~9 ppb on average because of biomass burning. Peaks in fire-contributed surface O3 correspond broadly with high levels of potassium (K), reaffirming a strong fire influence. We find a policy relevant background (PRB) O3 of 45.6 ppb on average during July-September. Fire-contributed O3 accounts for up to 30% of the PRB O3, highest in the intense fire region (Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming) with maxima in August and September. At most of the CASTNet sites in the Southwestern (SW) U.S. including the state of Utah, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico, we find sudden decreases in surface O3 from late July through early August, when North American (NA) summer monsoon is at its peak strength. This corresponds to the period when model results are biased high by up to 30 ppb these sites in the SW U.S. Sensitivity simulation indicates that the overestimation is primarily due to the excessive lightning NOx emission in the model. After redistributing the lightning flash rates with that from National Lightning Data Network, the model better agrees with observation. We use CMAP and GPCP precipitation as a proxy for NA monsoon, and find there is a strong anti-correlation between surface O3 and precipitation (-0.5~-0.7 averaged over 2003~2012 for CASTNet sites in SW U.S.). We use GEOS-Chem simulation to

  12. Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in some water rights disputes, yet existing estimates carry large uncertainties. Stable isotope ratios can indicate the magnitude of mountain-front recharge relative to other components, but are generally incapable of distinguishing subsurface inflow from stream seepage. Noble gases provide an effective tool for determining the relative significance of subsurface inflow, specifically. Dissolved noble gas concentrations allow for the determination of recharge temperature, which is correlated with recharge elevation. The nature of this correlation cannot be assumed, however, and must be derived for the study area. The method is applied to the Salt Lake Valley Principal Aquifer in northern Utah to demonstrate its utility. Samples from 16 springs and mine tunnels in the adjacent Wasatch Mountains indicate that recharge temperature decreases with elevation at about the same rate as the mean annual air temperature, but is on average about 2??C cooler. Samples from 27 valley production wells yield recharge elevations ranging from the valley elevation (about 1500 m) to mid-mountain elevation (about 2500 m). Only six of the wells have recharge elevations less than 1800 m. Recharge elevations consistently greater than 2000 m in the southeastern part of the basin indicate that subsurface inflow constitutes most of the total recharge in this area. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  14. Cllsworth Mountains: Position in West Antarctica ue to Sea-Floor Spreading.

    PubMed

    Schopf, J M

    1969-04-01

    Similarities of middle anld upper Paleozoic deposits of the Ellsworth fountains with those of the Pensacola, Horlick, and other Transtarctic mountains indicate that all these ranges may have had a related geologic history. A native explanation is now suggested which involves sea-floor spreading atnd anslocationi of the Ellsworth crutstal block from its originilal location adjacent to the East Antarctic Shield. Accordingly, the islands of West Antarctica may differ it origin and the Transantarctic Mountains of East Antarctica may represent one margin of an ancient rift. PMID:17732525

  15. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger ... of New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote ... date:  Mar 8, 2001 Images:  Christmas Mountains location:  Canada ...

  16. Deciphering the Tectonic History of the Northern Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Samantha; Graw, Jordan; Brenn, Gregory; Kenyon, Lindsey; Park, Yongcheol; DuBay, Brian

    2016-04-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range in the world, and their structure plays a key role in the climatic and tectonic development of Antarctica. While numerous uplift mechanisms for the TAMs have been proposed, there is little consensus on their origin. Over the past three years, we have operated a network of 15 broadband seismic stations within a previously unexplored portion of the northern TAMs. Using data collected by this array, we have undertaken numerous studies to further assess the crustal and lithospheric structure beneath the mountain range and to differentiate between competing origin models. Receiver functions indicate crustal thickening inland from the Ross Sea coast but comparable crustal thickness beneath the TAMs and the East Antarctic plateau, indicating little evidence for a substantial crustal root beneath the mountain range. Body and surface wave analyses show a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath Terror Rift, adjacent to the TAMs, and extending beneath Victoria Land in the upper mantle. Together, these findings support a thermally-buoyant source of uplift for the northern TAMs and broad flexure of the East Antarctic lithosphere.

  17. Quantifying the mass transfer from mountain ranges to deposition in sedimentary basins: Source to sink studies in the Danube Basin-Black Sea system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenco, Liviu; Andriessen, Paul

    2013-04-01

    A source to sink system describes the natural link between mountains, plains and deltas, by analysing the (re)distribution of material at shallow crustal depth and at the Earth's surface, exploring the links between coupled tectonic and surface processes. Sediment fluxes are the product of erosion and movement of material in and from sources (mountains), the transport and movement of sediments and solutes by river systems to the plains, and deposition and storage in sink zones. The ESF-EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE SourceSink programme is a fully integrated research effort to significantly advance our predictive capabilities on the quantitative analyses of coupled active and past drainage systems by means of step-wise 4D reconstructions of sediments mass transfer, integrating geophysics, geology, geomorphology, state of the art high-resolution dating, and numerical and analogue modelling. The area selected for this programme is the Danube River Basin-Black Sea source to sink system, a world-class natural laboratory that is uniquely suited in the heart of Europe's topography, covering almost half of its surface, providing opportunities for excellent field sites to study in integration surface and subsurface data that cover the complete chain of source, carrier and sink. Quantifying and modelling the complete system in relation to the controlling parameters has resulted in significant understanding of forcing factors and linking temporal and spatial scales across multiple orogen and basin systems. This research has provided the opportunity to widen the geographical scope to other natural scenarios, where a number of mountain chains with similar geodynamic genesis separate sedimentary basins with comparable evolution.

  18. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    than scientific; his second, more scientific trip was made 2 years later. Powell revisited the Uinta Mountains in 1874 and 1875 to complete the studies begun 6 years earlier. His classic 'Report on the Geology of the Eastern Portion of the Uinta Mountains and a Region of Country Adjacent Thereto' was published in 1876. King's survey?officially 'The United States Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel'?is better known simply as the '40th Parallel Survey.' King began working eastward from California in 1867. The Uinta Mountains region, however, was mapped by S. F. Emmons, under the supervision of King, in the summers of 1869 and 1871. Emmons' work was monumental, and although he emphasized in his letter of transmittal to King the exploratory nature of the work?as the formal title of the report indicates?his maps, descriptions, and conclusions reflect a comprehensive understanding of the country and its rocks. The 40th Parallel report contains the best, most complete early descriptions of the Uinta Mountains. It, indeed, is a treasurechest of information and a landmark contribution to the emerging science of geology. Hayden visited the Uinta Mountains in 1870, descending the valley of Henrys Fork to Flaming Gorge in the fall after having earlier examined the higher part of the range to the west. Most of Hayden's observations were cursory, and he repeatedly expressed regret at having insufficient time for more detailed studies. In reference to the area between Clay Basin and Browns Park, he remarked (Hayden, 1871, p. 67) somewhat dryly that 'the geology of this portion of the Uinta range is very complicated and interesting. To have solved the problem to my entire satisfaction would have required a week or two.' Eighty-odd years later I spent several months there?looking at the same rocks. Powell was perhaps more creative?more intuitive?than either King or Hayden, and his breadth of interest in the fields of geology, physiography, ethnology, an

  19. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Eby, Lisa A; Helmy, Olga; Holsinger, Lisa M; Young, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with temperature, wildfire, or other habitat variables. We found that site abandonment probabilities (0.36) were significantly higher than colonization probabilities (0.13), which indicated a reduction in the number of occupied sites. Site abandonment probabilities were greater at low elevations with warm temperatures. Other covariates, such as the presence of wildfire, nonnative brook trout, proximity to areas with many adults, and various stream habitat descriptors, were not associated with changes in probability of occupancy. Higher abandonment probabilities at low elevation for bull trout provide initial evidence validating the predictions made by bioclimatic models that bull trout populations will retreat to higher, cooler thermal refuges as water temperatures increase. The geographic breadth of these declines across the region is unknown but the approach of revisiting historical sites using an occupancy framework provides a useful template for additional assessments.

  20. Evidence of Climate-Induced Range Contractions in Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain Watershed, U.S.A

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Lisa A.; Helmy, Olga; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Young, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with temperature, wildfire, or other habitat variables. We found that site abandonment probabilities (0.36) were significantly higher than colonization probabilities (0.13), which indicated a reduction in the number of occupied sites. Site abandonment probabilities were greater at low elevations with warm temperatures. Other covariates, such as the presence of wildfire, nonnative brook trout, proximity to areas with many adults, and various stream habitat descriptors, were not associated with changes in probability of occupancy. Higher abandonment probabilities at low elevation for bull trout provide initial evidence validating the predictions made by bioclimatic models that bull trout populations will retreat to higher, cooler thermal refuges as water temperatures increase. The geographic breadth of these declines across the region is unknown but the approach of revisiting historical sites using an occupancy framework provides a useful template for additional assessments. PMID:24897341

  1. Preliminary analysis of the role of lake basin morphology on the modern diatom flora in the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starratt, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    As paleolimnologists, we often look at the world through a 5-cm-diameter hole in the bottom of a lake, and although a number of studies have shown that a single core in the deepest part of a lake does not necessarily reflect the entire diatom flora, time and money often limit our ability to collect more than one core from a given site. This preliminary study is part of a multidisciplinary research project to understand Holocene climate variability in alpine regions of the Great Basin, and ultimately, to compare these high elevation records to the better studied pluvial records from adjacent valleys, in this case, the Ruby Valley.

  2. Evapotranspiration Rate Measurements of Vegetation Typical of Ground-Water Discharge Areas in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah, September 2005-August 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreo, Michael T.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Stannard, David I.

    2007-01-01

    Evapotranspiration was measured at six eddy-correlation sites for a 1-year period between September 1, 2005, and August 31, 2006. Five sites were in phreatophytic shrubland dominated by greasewood, and one site was in a grassland meadow. The measured annual evapotranspiration ranged from 10.02 to 12.77 inches at the shrubland sites and 26.94 inches at the grassland site. Evapotranspiration rates correlated to measured vegetation densities and to satellite-derived vegetation indexes. Evapotranspiration rates were greater at sites with denser vegetation. The primary water source supporting evapotranspiration was water derived from local precipitation at the shrubland sites, and ground water at the grassland site. Measured precipitation, ranging from 6.21 to 11.41 inches, was within 20 percent of the computed long-term annual mean. The amount of ground water consumed by phreatophytes depends primarily on local precipitation and vegetation density. The ground-water contribution to local evapotranspiration ranged from 6 to 38 percent of total evapotranspiration at the shrubland sites, and 70 percent of total evapotranspiration at the grassland site. Average depth to water ranged from 7.2 to 32.4 feet below land surface at the shrubland sites, and 3.9 feet at the grassland site. Water levels declined throughout the growing season and recovered during the non-growing season. Diurnal water-level fluctuations associated with evapotranspiration were evident at some sites but not at others.

  3. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  4. Mid-range sidescan-sonar images covering parts of proposed tracts for OCS lease sale 56 and contiguous areas, Manteo, Cape Fear, and adjacent quadrangles off North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Cashman, K.V.; Chayes, Dale; Ryan, William B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO), collected 335 km of mid-range sidescan-sonar data in some of the tracts proposed for inclusion in Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 56 and in some contiguous areas (R.V. GYRE, September 18-25, 1980 [GYRE 80-9, leg 1]).

  5. Water levels in periodically measured wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, 1981-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Stephens, D.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Baldwin, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains data on groundwater levels beneath Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas, Nye County, Nevada. In addition to new data collected since 1983, the report contains data that has been updated from previous reports, including added explanations of the data. The data was collected in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy to help that agency evaluate the suitability of the area of storing high-level nuclear waste. The water table in the Yucca Mountain area occurs in ash-flow and air-fall tuff of Tertiary age. West of the crest of Yucca Mountain, water level altitudes are about 775 m above sea level. Along the eastern edge and southern end of Yucca Mountain, the potentiometric surface generally is nearly flat, ranging from about 730 to 728 m above sea level. (USGS)

  6. Atmospheric inputs and nitrogen saturation status in and adjacent to Class I wilderness areas of the northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Templer, Pamela H; Weathers, Kathleen C; Lindsey, Amanda; Lenoir, Katherine; Scott, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric inputs of N and S in bulk deposition (open collectors) and throughfall (beneath canopy collectors) were measured in and adjacent to two Class 1 wilderness areas of the northeastern US. In general, atmospheric S inputs followed our expectations with throughfall S fluxes increasing with elevation in the White Mountains, New Hampshire and throughfall S fluxes being greater in coniferous than deciduous stands in both sites. In contrast, throughfall N fluxes decreased significantly with elevation. Throughfall NO3 (-) fluxes were greater in coniferous than deciduous stands of Lye Brook, Vermont, but were greater in deciduous than coniferous stands of the White Mountains. We found overlap in the range of values for atmospheric N inputs between our measurements and monitoring data [National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET)] for wet and total (wet + dry) deposition at Lye Brook. However, our measurements of total S deposition in the White Mountains and bulk (wet) deposition at both Lye Brook and the White Mountains were significantly lower than NADP plus CASTNET, and NADP data, respectively. Natural abundance (18)O in throughfall and bulk deposition were not significantly different, suggesting that there was no significant biological production of [Formula: see text] via nitrification in the canopy. NO3 (-) concentrations in streams were low and had natural abundance (18)O values consistent with microbial production, demonstrating that atmospheric N is being biologically transformed while moving through these watersheds and that these forested watersheds are unlikely to be N saturated.

  7. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  8. Geochemical and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. A.; Colgan, J. P.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Cousens, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oligocene calderas and underlying plutons in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) in western Nevada were tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude Miocene extension and unconformably overlain by 15-13 Ma intermediate and mafic lava flows. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and Ar-Ar and U-Pb dating document 2 brief periods of magmatism resulting in 5 nested calderas and related plutons in sections locally ≥9 km thick. Early magmatism at ~29 Ma included the Deep Canyon caldera in CAM, and in the SSR, pre-caldera rhyolites, ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled Job Canyon caldera (JC, ~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick IXL pluton (~28.5 Ma) that intruded JC and is compositionally similar to the tuff and lava flows. The second period included 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: small-volume tuff of Louderback Mountains (LM, low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.3 Ma); multiple cooling units of tuff of Poco Canyon (PC, high-silica rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; ~25.3 Ma); and ≥2500 km3 of tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (EC, trachydacite to rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; 25.1 Ma) that covers ~1600 km2 and extends east from SSR to the northern Desatoya Mountains. The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granodiorite, ~25.0 Ma; granite, ~24.8 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (~25.2 Ma) and granite (~24.8 Ma) plutons intruded LM, PC and EC calderas. Radiogenic isotopes in all caldera units are similar (Sri~0.7050, ΕNd~0.0), while oxygen isotope compositions are variable (δ18Oquartz=5.7-8.4‰, δ18Ozircon=4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.6-7.6‰, including <6‰ values for JC and lower PC rhyolites. U-Pb zircon dating shows homogeneous age populations and few/no xenocrysts or antecrysts. These data show that (1) thick plutons (>2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring

  9. Air-water gas exchange of chlorinated pesticides in four lakes spanning a 1,205 meter elevation range in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Andrew C; Kimpe, Lynda E; Blais, Jules M

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air and water were measured from four lakes that transect the Canadian Rocky Mountains. These data were used in combination with wind velocity and temperature-adjusted Henry's law constants to estimate the direction and magnitude of chemical exchange across the air-water interface of these lakes. Bow Lake (1,975 m above sea level [masl]) was studied during the summers of 1998 through 2000; Donald (770 masl) was studied during the summer of 1999; Dixon Dam Lake (946 masl) and Kananaskis Lake (1,667 masl) were studied during the summer of 2000. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dieldrin volatilized from Bow Lake in spring and summer of 1998 to 2000 at a rate of 0.92 +/-1.1 and 0.55+/-0.37 ng m(-2) d(-1), respectively. The alpha-endosulfan deposited to Bow Lake at a rate of 3.4+/-2.2 ng m(-2) d(-1). Direction of gas exchange for gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) changed from net deposition in 1998 to net volatilization in 1999, partly because of a surge in y-HCH concentrations in the water at Bow Lake in 1999. Average gamma-HCH concentrations in air declined steadily over the three-year period, from 0.021 ng m(-3) in 1998, to 0.0023 ng m(-3) in 2000, and to volatilization in 1999 and 2000. Neither the concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in air and water, nor the direction and rate of air-water gas exchange correlate with temperature or elevation. In general, losses of pesticides by outflow were greater than the amount exchanged across the air-water interface in these lakes. PMID:15683168

  10. Microbial ecology of á-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers along a concentration gradient of dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the San Bernadino Mountain Range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, F. L.; Fenn, M. E.; Stein, L. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The fate of atmospherically-deposited nitrogen from industrial pollution is of major concern in the montane ecosystems bordering the South Coast California Air Basin. Nitrogen deposition rates in the more exposed regions of the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) are among the highest in North America often exceeding 40 kg ha-1 year-1 in throughfall deposition of nitrate and ammonium (Fenn and Poth, 1999). Forest ecosystems with elevated N deposition generally exhibit elevated accumulation of soil nitrate, leaching and runoff, elevated emissions of nitrogenous gases, increased nitrification, and decreased litter decomposition rates. The role of nitrifying microbial populations, especially those taxonomically associated with the beta-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOB), will provide insight into nitrogen-cycling in these extremely N-saturated environments. Using 16S ribosomal DNA-based molecular techniques (16S rDNA clone library construction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), we are comparing AOB community diversity at 3 different locations along a natural atmospheric N-deposition concentration gradient in the SBM: from high at Camp Paviaka (CP), medium at Strawberry Peak (SP) to low at Dogwood (DW). As observed for wet N-deposition systems on the east coast, we hypothesized a negative correlation between AOB community diversity, abundance and function with nitrogen loading in the dry N deposition system of SBM. Nitrification potentials determined for the 3 sites along the N-deposition gradient were in the order of CP less than SP less than DW. Preliminary results indicate no correlation between diversity of AOB and increased nitrogen loading. Shannon-Weiner diversity indices calculated for ammonia-oxidizer RFLP group units were 2.22, 2.66 and 1.80 for CP, SP and DW, respectively.

  11. Transverse ranges and neotectonics of southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Transverse Ranges and the east-trending folds and reverse faults that elevate them began forming in mid-Pleistocene time by regional north-south crustal shortening. The adjacent Mojave Desert and Basin and Range provinces continue to respond to this regional strain by east-west crustal extension. Before {approximately}5 Ma the regional structure was characterized by conjugate northwest-trending right-slip faults (San Andreas set) and northeast-trending left-slip faults (Garlock set). Thereafter, the San Andreas set of faults became simple shears separating the North American and Pacific plates. With the mid-Pleistocene inception of the Transverse Ranges, the San Andreas fault deviated from its N40{degree} - 45{degree}W trend in short N75{degree}W-trending segments on the north and south sides of these mountains in response to the new, and local, strain system of upward crustal extension.

  12. From the mountains to the coast and back again: Ancient biogeography in a radiation of short-range endemic harvestmen from California.

    PubMed

    Emata, K N; Hedin, M

    2016-05-01

    The harvestmen genus Calicina is represented by 25 short-range endemic species occurring in the western Sierra Nevada, Transverse and Coast Ranges of California. Our principal aim was to reconstruct the temporal and spatial biogeographic history of this arachnid lineage. We inferred a time-calibrated species tree for 21 of 25 described Calicina species using multiple genes and multilocus coalescent-based methods. This species tree was used as a framework for algorithmic biogeographic and divergence time analyses, and a phylogenetic canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was used to examine the relationship between morphological evolution and environmental variables. Species tree and biogeographic analyses indicate that high-elevation Sierran taxa are early-diverging in Calicina, with subsequent biogeographic "criss-crossing" of lineages from the Sierra Nevada to the Coast Ranges, back to the Sierra Nevada, then back to Coast Ranges. In both the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges, distantly-related parapatric lineages essentially never occur in sympatry. CCA reveals that in both the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada, distant phylogenetic relatives evolve convergent morphologies. Our evidence shows that Calicina is clearly dispersal-limited, with an ancient biogeographic history that provides unique insight into the complex geologic evolution of California since the mid-Paleogene.

  13. Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allochthon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; John, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Shoshone and Toiyabe Ranges in north-central Nevada expose numerous areas of mineralized Paleozoic rock, including major Carlin-type gold deposits at Pipeline and Cortez. Paleozoic rocks in these areas were previously interpreted to have undergone negligible postmineralization extension and tilting, but here we present new data that suggest major post-Eocene extension along west-dipping normal faults. Tertiary rocks in the northern Shoshone Range crop out in two W-NW–trending belts that locally overlie and intrude highly deformed Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. Tertiary exposures in the more extensive, northern belt were interpreted as subvertical breccia pipes (intrusions), but new field data indicate that these “pipes” consist of a 35.8 Ma densely welded dacitic ash flow tuff (informally named the tuff of Mount Lewis) interbedded with sandstones and coarse volcaniclastic deposits. Both tuff and sedimentary rocks strike N-S and dip 30° to 70° E; the steeply dipping compaction foliation in the tuffs was interpreted as subvertical flow foliation in breccia pipes. The southern belt along Mill Creek, previously mapped as undivided welded tuff, includes the tuff of Cove mine (34.4 Ma) and unit B of the Bates Mountain Tuff (30.6 Ma). These tuffs dip 30° to 50° east, suggesting that their west-dipping contacts with underlying Paleozoic rocks (previously mapped as depositional) are normal faults. Tertiary rocks in both belts were deposited on Paleozoic basement and none appear to be breccia pipes. We infer that their present east tilt is due to extension on west-dipping normal faults. Some of these faults may be the northern strands of middle Miocene (ca. 16 Ma) faults that cut and tilted the 34.0 Ma Caetano caldera ~40° east in the central Shoshone Range (

  14. [Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size of vascular plants in Xiaolong- shan Reserve of Qinling Mountain: a test of Rapoport' s rule].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Gong, Da-Jie; Sun, Cheng-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Li, Wan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size and their underlying mechanisms have long been a key topic in biogeography and biodiversity research. Rapoport's rule stated that the species richness gradually declined with the increasing altitude, while the species ranges became larger. Using altitude-distribution database from Xiaolongshan Reverse, this study explored the altitudinal patterns of vascular plant species richness and species range in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve, and examined the relationships between species richness and their distributional middle points in altitudinal bands for different fauna, taxonomic units and growth forms and tested the Rapoport's rule by using Stevens' method, Pagel's method, mid-point method and cross-species method. The results showed that the species richness of vascular plants except small-range species showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve and the highest proportion of small-range species was found at the lower altitudinal bands and at the higher altitudinal bands. Due to different assemblages and examining methods, the relationships between species distributing range sizes and the altitudes were different. Increasing taxonomic units was easier to support Rapoport's rule, which was related to niche differences that the different taxonomic units occupied. The mean species range size of angiosperms showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude, while those of the gymnosperms and pteridophytes were unclearly regular. The mean species range size of the climbers was wider with the increasing altitude, while that of the shrubs which could adapt to different environmental situations was not sensitive to the change of altitude. Pagel's method was easier to support the Rapoport's rule, and then was Steven's method. On the contrary, due to the mid-domain effect, the results of the test by using the mid-point method showed that the mean species range size varied in a unimodal

  15. [Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Carvalho, Mauren Lopes; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Arraes, Eduardo Fonseca; Gomes, José Orlando

    2012-06-01

    Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio-environmental vulnerability context are highlighted. These involve changes in the current patterns of social, economic and environmental development geared toward ecological sustainability and social justice as pillars of sustainable development.

  16. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  17. An integrated environmental tracer approach to characterizing groundwater circulation in a mountain block

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    [1] The subsurface transfer of water from a mountain block to an adjacent basin (mountain block recharge (MBR)) is a commonly invoked mechanism of recharge to intermountain basins. However, MBR estimates are highly uncertain. We present an approach to characterize bulk fluid circulation in a mountain block and thus MBR that utilizes environmental tracers from the basin aquifer. Noble gas recharge temperatures, groundwater ages, and temperature data combined with heat and fluid flow modeling are used to identify clearly improbable flow regimes in the southeastern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, and adjacent Wasatch Mountains. The range of possible MBR rates is reduced by 70%. Derived MBR rates (5.5-12.6 ?? 104 m3 d-1) are on the same order of magnitude as previous large estimates, indicating that significant MBR to intermountain basins is plausible. However, derived rates are 50-100% of the lowest previous estimate, meaning total recharge is probably less than previously thought. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  19. A late Frasnian (Late Devonian) radiolarian, sponge spicule, and conodont fauna from the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Roberts Mountains allochthon, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boundy-Sanders, S. Q.; Sandberg, C.A.; Murchey, B.L.; Harris, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Co-occuring conodonts, radiolarians, and sponge spicules from the type locality of the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, indicate that the radiolarian and sponge spicule assemblage described herein correlates with the Late rhenana conodont Zone (late Frasnian). The moderately well preserved radiolarians are the first Frasnian-age fauna described from the Western Hemisphere. They include spumellarians, Ceratoikiscum, and Paleoscenidium, and a radiolarian which we have assigned to a new genus, Durahelenifore Boundy-Sanders and Murchey, with its type species, Durahelenifore robustum Boundy-Sanders and Murchey. Sponge spicules include umbellate microscleres of the Subclass Amphidiscophora, Order Hemidiscosa, previously documented only in Pennsylvanian and younger rocks.

  20. Geologic map of the Valley Mountain 15’ quadrangle, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Keith A.; Bacheller, John; Fitzgibbon, Todd T.; Powell, Robert E.; Allen, Charlotte M.

    2013-01-01

    The Valley Mountain 15’ quadrangle straddles the Pinto Mountain Fault, which bounds the eastern Transverse Ranges in the south against the Mojave Desert province in the north. The Pinto Mountains, part of the eastern Transverse Ranges in the south part of the quadrangle expose a series of Paleoproterozoic gneisses and granite and the Proterozoic quartzite of Pinto Mountain. Early Triassic quartz monzonite intruded the gneisses and was ductiley deformed prior to voluminous Jurassic intrusion of diorite, granodiorite, quartz monzonite, and granite plutons. The Jurassic rocks include part of the Bullion Mountains Intrusive Suite, which crops out prominently at Valley Mountain and in the Bullion Mountains, as well as in the Pinto Mountains. Jurassic plutons in the southwest part of the quadrangle are deeply denuded from midcrustal emplacement levels in contrast to supracrustal Jurassic limestone and volcanic rocks exposed in the northeast. Dikes inferred to be part of the Jurassic Independence Dike Swarm intrude the Jurassic plutons and Proterozoic rocks. Late Cretaceous intrusion of the Cadiz Valley Batholith in the northeast caused contact metamorphism of adjacent Jurassic plutonic rocks. The Tertiary period saw emplacement of basanitoid basalt at about 23 Ma and deposition of Miocene and (or) Pliocene ridge-capping gravels. An undated east-dipping low-angle normal fault zone in the Pinto Mountains drops hanging-wall rocks eastward and may account for part of the contrast in uplift history across the quadrangle. The eastern Transverse Ranges are commonly interpreted as severely rotated clockwise tectonically in the Neogene relative to the Mojave Desert, but similar orientations of Jurassic dike swarms suggest that any differential rotation between the two provinces is small in this quadrangle. The late Cenozoic Pinto Mountain Fault and other strike-slip faults cut Quaternary deposits in the quadrangle, with two northwest-striking faults cutting Holocene deposits

  1. Microphysical Effects of Wintertime Cloud Seeding with Silver Iodide over the Rocky Mountains. Part II: Observations over the Bridger Range, Montana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Super, Arlin B.; Heimbach, James A., Jr.

    1988-10-01

    During January 1985 six aircraft sampling flights were made in cloud over the target area of an earlier randomized exploratory cloud seeding experiment in the Bridger Range, Montana. One of the two diver iodide (AgI) generator sites used in the earlier experiment was operated well up the wed (windward) slope of the north-south oriented Main Ridge, Crosswind aircraft sampling was done to within 300 m above the secondary ridge target about 17 km downwind of the AgI generator.The AgI plume was detected over the target area on each of the six missions and was generally 5-8 km wide. Three of the missions detected supercooled liquid water (SLW) in the region of the AgI plume. The ice particle concentration (IPC) averaged about an order of magnitude higher in the seeded zone in these cases, and the estimated precipitation rate was greater, as compared with crosswind control zones. Most seeded ice particles were small hexagonal plates, appropriate for the prevailing temperatures and moisture conditions. The AgI generator was deliberately turned off in one of the experiments. and the seeding effects decreased with time beginning about one hour later.The other three missions sampled negligible SLW in the seeded region over the target area. Observations did not indicate detectable changes in ice particle concentrations, sizes or habits.The results of this series of physical experiments are in agreement with statistical suggestions from the earlier randomized experiment. It appears that seeding the stable orographic clouds over the Bridger Range sometimes caused marked increases in IPC, presumably leading to more surface snowfall. The physical observations indicate that enhanced IPC was largely dependent upon the availability of SLW when temperatures were cold enough for AgI nucleation.

  2. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  3. Cenomanian-Turonian organic facies in the western Mediterranean and along the adjacent Atlantic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnt, W.; Herbin, J.P.; Thurow, J.; Wiedmann, J.

    1988-08-01

    Pre-Cenomanian sediments of the western Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic margin are characterized by low total organic content (TOC) with an important terrestrial component. During the Cenomanian, TOC increased and the marine component became dominant, culminating around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary with TOC up to 40%. After the Turonian, organic-rich sediments progressively disappeared and were replaced by more oxygenated sediments. Study methods include considering data from outcrops, DSDP/ODP sites, or petroleum wells. Detailed data from onshore locations allowed the development of high-resolution stratigraphy, analysis of depositional environment, and calculation of sedimentation rates. Analysis of these data indicates Cenoamnian-Turonian organic-rich sediments can be observed in a wide range of bathymetric settings. They are widespread in the western Mediterranean and Atlantic and have been especially studied in Italy (Apennines, southern Alps), Tunisia (Bahloul), Algeria, Morocco (Rif Mountains, Atlas Mountains, Tarfaya), Gibraltar arch, Spain (Betics, Bay of Biscay, Galicia margin), Senegal (Cape Verde basin, Casamance), and Nigeria (Benue, Calabar flank).

  4. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  5. The effect of four landscape features on atmospheric deposition to Hunter Mountain, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Weathers, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition to montane ecosystems is higher than to adjacent lowlands. Because of the heterogeneous nature of mountainous landscapes, rates of deposition are likely to vary considerably with major landscape features. Estimates of total atmospheric deposition for mountains in the northeastern United States are wide-ranging and based on models that do not take into account landscape heterogeneity. Little had been known about the spatial variability of atmospheric deposition to these high elevation ecosystems. On Hunter Mountain in the Catskill Mountains, New York, four landscape features-(1) edges/gaps, (2) elevation, (3) aspect and (4) vegetation type-were identified as likely to control atmospheric deposition in mountainous terrain. Relative rates of atmospheric deposition, or enhancement factors, were measured across these landscape features by using lead in the forest floor as an indicator of total deposition, and, in the case of forest edges, also by making direct measurements of cloudwater deposition. These enhancement factors were used to model deposition to the Hunter Mountain landscape. Average deposition to the area above 1000 m was estimated to be 13% greater than to a nearby low elevation site. [open quotes]Hotspots[close quotes] were identified at high elevation, conifer forest edges where atmospheric deposition of pollutants and nutrients is up to 300% greater than a low-elevation forest. More detailed measurements of cloudwater deposition to an edge of a high elevation spruce forest revealed enhancement from 0- to 15-fold over the interior, with an average 3-fold increase. Sulfate flux in throughfall during cloud events was found to mirror cloudwater deposition and may be a useful tool to quantify patterns of atmospheric deposition in mountains. The data suggest current estimates of atmospheric deposition to mountainous terrain that do not include landscape heterogeneity may seriously underestimate loading of pollutants and nutrients.

  6. The Current Tectonics of the Yukon and Adjacent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.; Leonard, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current tectonics across the Yukon and adjacent areas of western Northwest Territories (NWT) and northern British Columbia appear to be driven primarily by the Yakutat Terrane collision, an "indenter" in the corner of the Gulf of Alaska. GPS data show 1-10 mm/yr northward and eastward, decreasing inland. The rates from earthquake statistics are similar although there are important discrepancies. The eastern Cordillera earthquake mechanisms are mainly thrust in the Mackenzie Mountains of southwestern NWT where the Cordillera upper crust is overthrusting the craton. To the north, the mechanisms are mainly strike-slip in the Richardson Mountains that appear to lie along the edge of the craton. The deformation appears to be limited to the hot and weak Cordillera with the strong craton providing an irregular eastern boundary. For example, there is an eastward bow in the craton edge and the deformation in the Mackenzie Mountains. On the Beaufort Sea margin in the region of the Mackenzie Delta there appears to be a type of "subduction zone" with the continent very slowly overthrusting the oceanic plate, a process that has continued since at least the Cretaceous. A northward moving continental margin block is bounded by left lateral faulting in the west (Canning Displacement Zone of eastern Alaska) and right lateral faulting in the east (Richardson Mountains in eastern Yukon). There is almost no seismicity on this thrust belt but as for some other subduction zones such as Cascadia there is the potential for very infrequent great earthquakes.

  7. 78 FR 60309 - Minor Boundary Revision at Rocky Mountain National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Rocky Mountain National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notification of Boundary Revision. SUMMARY: The boundary of Rocky Mountain National Park... Larimer County, Colorado, immediately adjacent to the current eastern boundary of Rocky Mountain...

  8. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection with population-limiting respiratory disease in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P; Herndon, David R; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Weiser, Glen C; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-02-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P < 0.001]). Similarly, a very strong association was observed between the presence of one or more M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P < 0.001]). M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease. PMID:18057131

  9. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Infection with Population-Limiting Respiratory Disease in Free-Ranging Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis)▿

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P.; Herndon, David R.; Rurangirwa, Fred R.; Weiser, Glen C.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P < 0.001]). Similarly, a very strong association was observed between the presence of one or more M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P < 0.001]). M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease. PMID:18057131

  10. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection with population-limiting respiratory disease in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P; Herndon, David R; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Weiser, Glen C; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-02-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P < 0.001]). Similarly, a very strong association was observed between the presence of one or more M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P < 0.001]). M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease.

  11. Spatial modelling of organic carbon in burned mountain soils using hyperspectral images, field datasets and NiR spectroscopy (Cantabrian Range; NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Susana; Peón, Juanjose; Recondo, Carmen; Calleja, Javier

    2014-05-01

    In the North-West of the Cantabrian Range (north of Spain) the climate is oceanic and vegetation cover is continuous. Nevertheless, in the western part of the territory fires are very common, although small in size; their recurrence affects severely to soil properties. Soil organic matter is seriously affected by fires and suffers changes in stock, composition and distribution. In former researches stocks of oxidizable organic carbon increases in these burnt soils (32 Mg/ha in non-burned in front of 90 Mg/ha of oxidizable carbon measured in burned forest soils); however, biochart compounds, which are typically produced by fires, have not been found in all the fire-affected soils. In order to perfect a cartographic technique to identify areas with increases in soil carbon stocks caused by historical fire management we try to test a technique to transfer spectral calibrated model of soil organic carbon to hyperspectral images (AHS sensor). Total (TOC) and oxidizable carbon (OC) were measured in a population of 89 soil samples. OC mean was 19, 48 with STD 10,32. The samples were scanning with VNIR-SWIR spectrometer (350-2500nm) and chemometric model of OC was calibrated with very high level of adjust (R2 0,85) using Unscrambler 10.3. In order to transfer the chemiometric model to the hyperspectral images the model was recalculated using only the wavelengths present in the hyperspectral images (AHS sensor with cannels in 0,43-1,03;1,55-1,75;1,99-2,54 and 3,3-5,4nm of wavelengths). The most highlighting result was the increase in the adjust of model (R2 0,89) when the wavelengths were restricted between 2200 to 2400 nm. The model was regionalized to a large area using Arc Map 10 and crossing validate with RMSE 10. Finally, in order to analyze the influence of the relief in the OC landscape pattern the slope steepness was considered. Digital Terrain Model with 10m of resolution was used. Those areas with long, steep hillsides covered with heaths have lower amounts of OC

  12. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  13. Terrestrial cosmogenic surface exposure dating of glacial and associated landforms in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and along the northeastern flank of the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Briggs, Richard W.; Caffee, Marc W.; Ryerson, F. J.; Finkel, Robert C.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2016-09-01

    Deposits near Lamoille in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and at Woodfords on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada each record two distinct glacial advances. We compare independent assessments of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages for glacial deposits that we have determined to those obtained by others at the two sites. At each site, TCN ages of boulders on moraines of the younger advance are between 15 and 30 ka and may be associated with marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2. At Woodfords, TCN ages of boulders on the moraine of the older advance are younger than ~ 60 ka and possibly formed during MIS 4, whereas boulders on the correlative outwash surface show ages approaching 140 ka (~ MIS 6). The TCN ages of boulders on older glacial moraine at Woodfords thus appear to severely underestimate the true age of the glacial advance responsible for the deposit. The same is possibly true at Lamoille where clasts sampled from the moraine of the oldest advance have ages ranging between 20 and 40 ka with a single outlier age of ~ 80 ka. The underestimations are attributed to the degradation and denudation of older moraine crests. Noting that boulder ages on the older advances at each site overlap significantly with MIS 2. We speculate that erosion of the older moraines has been episodic, with a pulse of denudation accompanying the inception of MIS 2 glaciation.

  14. [Modeling of species distribution using topography and remote sensing data, with vascular plants of the Tukuringra Range low mountain belt (Zeya state Nature Reserve, Amur Region) as a case study].

    PubMed

    Dudov, S V

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of maximum entropy method embedded in MaxEnt software, the cartographic models are designed for spatial distribution of 63 species of vascular plants inhabiting low mountain belt of the Tukuringra Range. Initial data for modeling were actual points of a species occurrence, data on remote sensing (multispectral space snapshots by Landsat), and a digital topographic model. It is found out that the structure of factors contributing to the model is related to species ecological amplitude. The distribution of stenotopic species is determined, mainly, by the topography, which thermal and humidity conditions of habitats are associated with. To the models for eurytopic species, variables formed on the basis of remote sensing contribute significantly, those variables encompassing the parameters of the soil-vegetable cover. In course of the obtained models analyzing, three principal groups of species are revealed that have similar distribution pattern. Species of the first group are restricted in their distribution by the slopes of the. River Zeya and River Giluy gorges. Species of the second group are associated with the southern macroslope of the range and with southern slopes of large rivers' valleys. The third group incorporates those species that are distributed over the whole territory under study.

  15. [Modeling of species distribution using topography and remote sensing data, with vascular plants of the Tukuringra Range low mountain belt (Zeya state Nature Reserve, Amur Region) as a case study].

    PubMed

    Dudov, S V

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of maximum entropy method embedded in MaxEnt software, the cartographic models are designed for spatial distribution of 63 species of vascular plants inhabiting low mountain belt of the Tukuringra Range. Initial data for modeling were actual points of a species occurrence, data on remote sensing (multispectral space snapshots by Landsat), and a digital topographic model. It is found out that the structure of factors contributing to the model is related to species ecological amplitude. The distribution of stenotopic species is determined, mainly, by the topography, which thermal and humidity conditions of habitats are associated with. To the models for eurytopic species, variables formed on the basis of remote sensing contribute significantly, those variables encompassing the parameters of the soil-vegetable cover. In course of the obtained models analyzing, three principal groups of species are revealed that have similar distribution pattern. Species of the first group are restricted in their distribution by the slopes of the. River Zeya and River Giluy gorges. Species of the second group are associated with the southern macroslope of the range and with southern slopes of large rivers' valleys. The third group incorporates those species that are distributed over the whole territory under study. PMID:27266017

  16. Geologic map of the Mohave Mountains area, Mohave County, western Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; Nielson, J.E.; Wilshire, W.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Goodge, J.W.; Reneau, S.L.; John, Barbara E.; Hansen, V.L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The Mohave Mountains area surrounds Lake Havasu City, Arizona, in the Basin and Range physiographic province. The Mohave Mountains and the Aubrey Hills form two northwest-trending ranges adjacent to Lake Havasu (elevation 132 m; 448 ft) on the Colorado River. The low Buck Mountains lie northeast of the Mohave Mountains in the alluviated valley of Dutch Flat. Lowlands at Standard Wash separate the Mohave Mountains from the Bill Williams Mountains to the southeast. The highest point in the area is Crossman Peak in the Mohave Mountains, at an elevation of 1519 m (5148 ft). Arizona Highway 95 is now rerouted in the northwestern part of the map area from its position portrayed on the base map; it now also passes through the southern edge of the map area. Geologic mapping was begun in 1980 as part of a program to assess the mineral resource potential of Federal lands under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (Light and others, 1983). Mapping responsibilities were as follows: Proterozoic and Mesozoic rocks, K.A. Howard; dikes, J.K. Nakata; Miocene section, J.E. Nielson; and surficial deposits, H.G. Wilshire. Earlier geologic mapping includes reconnaissance mapping by Wilson and Moore (1959). The present series of investigations has resulted in reports on the crystalline rocks and structure (Howard and others, 1982a), dikes (Nakata, 1982), Tertiary stratigraphy (Pike and Hansen, 1982; Nielson, 1986; Nielson and Beratan, 1990), surficial deposits (Wilshire and Reneau, 1992), tectonics (Howard and John, 1987; Beratan and others, 1990), geophysics (Simpson and others, 1986), mineralization (Light and McDonnell, 1983; Light and others, 1983), field guides (Nielson, 1986; Howard and others, 1987), and geochronology (Nakata and others, 1990; Foster and others, 1990).

  17. Bedrock geologic map of the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Detailed bedrock geologic maps form an integral part of the site characterization program by providing the fundamental framework for research into the geologic hazards and hydrologic behavior of the mountain. This bedrock geologic map provides the geologic framework and structural setting for the area in and adjacent to the site of the potential repository. The study area comprises the northern and central parts of Yucca Mountain, located on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex, which was the source for many of the volcanic units in the area. The Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex is part of the Miocene southwestern Nevada volcanic field, which is within the Walker Lane belt. This tectonic belt is a northwest-striking megastructure lying between the more active Inyo-Mono and Basin-and-Range subsections o f the southwestern Great Basin.

  18. Timing of Pleistocene glacial oscillations recorded in the Cantabrian Mountains (North Iberia): correlation of glacial and periglacial sequences from both sides of the range using a multiple-dating method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimón; Bourlès, Didier

    2015-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a coastal mountain range up to 2648 m altitude located at 43oN latitude and directly influenced by the North Atlantic climate oscillations. Although nowadays it is fully deglaciatied, glacial sediments and landforms are clearly preserved elsewhere above 1600 m. Particularly, glacial evidence in the central Cantabrian Mountains suggests the formation of an icefield in the headwaters of the Porma and Esla catchments drained by glaciers up to 1-6 km in length in the northern slope and 19 km-long in the southern slope, with their fronts at minimum altitudes of 900 and 1150 m asl respectively (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2014). Numerical ages obtained from the base of the Brañagallones ice-dammed deposit and one of the lateral moraines that are damming this deposit suggest that the local glacial maximum was prior to ca 33.5 cal ka BP in the Monasterio Valley (see data compiled in Rodriguez-Rodríguez et al., in press). Currently, our research is focused on developing a full chronology of glacial oscillations in both sides of the range and investigating their paleoclimate significance and relationship with glacial asymmetry through the combined use of surface exposure, OSL and radiocarbon dating methods. In this work, we present 47 10Be surface exposure ages obtained from boulders in moraines, glacial erratic boulders and rock glaciers in the Monasterio and Porma valleys. The glacial record of these valleys was chosen because of: (i) its good preservation state; (ii) the occurrence of a quartz-rich sandstone formation; and (iii) the availability of previous 14C and OSL numerical ages. Sampling sites were selected considering the relative age of glacial stages to cover as complete as possible the history of Pleistocene glaciations in the studied area, from the glacial maximum stage to the prevalence of periglacial conditions. Preliminary results suggest the occurrence of several glacial advances of similar extent at ca 150 - 50 ka followed

  19. Chloroplast phylogeny and phylogeography of Stellera chamaejasme on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and in adjacent regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Hong; Volis, Sergei; Sun, Hang

    2010-12-01

    Historic events such as the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Q-T Plateau) and climatic oscillations in the Quaternary period greatly affected the evolution and modern distribution of Sino-Tibetan flora. Stellera chamaejasme, a perennial herb with flower color polymorphism that is distributed from the mountainous southeastern Q-T Plateau (Hengduan Mountains, H-D Mountains) to the vast platform of the Q-T Plateau and the adjacent plain of northern China, provides an excellent model to explore the effects of historic events on the origination and variation of species. In this study, we conducted a phylogenetic and phylogeographical study using three chloroplast sequences (trnT-L, trnL-F and rpL16) in 26 populations of S. chamaejasme and 12 outgroups from the Thymeleaceae. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular clock estimation revealed that the monophyletic origin of S. chamaejasme occurred ca. 6.5892 Ma, which is consistent with the radical environment changes caused by the rapid uplift of the Q-T Plateau ca. 7 Ma. Intra-specific differentiation of S. chamaejasme is estimated to have occurred after ca. 2.1 Ma. Twelve haplotypes were revealed from combined trnL-F and rpL16 sequences. High genetic diversity (h(T)=0.834) and population differentiation (N(ST)=0.997 and G(ST)=0.982) imply restricted gene flow among populations and significant geographical or environmental isolation. All populations from the vast plain of northern China were dominated by one haplotype (H1), and the same haplotype was fixed in most populations from the high elevation platform of the western and northern Q-T Plateau. In contrast, the majority of the haplotypes were found in the relatively narrow area of the H-D Mountains, in the southeastern distribution of S. chamaejasme. The contrasting haplotype distribution patterns suggested that the H-D Mountains were either a refugium for S. chamaejasme during the Quaternary climatic oscillations or a diversification center of this species. The present

  20. Himalayan Mountain Range, Taklimakan Desert, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Looking north from Kashmir India (27.5N, 76.5E) into the Tibetan Plateau and beyond, the Taklimakan Desert of far western China appears to be covered with an extensive layer of haze that blankets the entire region. Reaching even into the western Siberian Plains of the CIS. This rugged land is one of the world's richest treasure troves of mineral wealth but the accessability into this remote area is so difficult that it is not yet economically feasible.

  1. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. PMID:26546596

  2. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  3. The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, MacAlpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    2000-01-01

    chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized in Table 1. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

  4. The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, Macalpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1999-01-01

    number of ordinary chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

  5. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, E.

    1987-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains, a major continental range, extend approximately 3,000 kilometers, vary from less than 50 to more than 400 kilometers wide, and have elevations of up to 4,500 meters. Earth scientists have generally defined the stratigraphy of the range and recognize that uplift of the region occurred after the Jurassic period but still know very little about the processes that effected uplift. Unlike other major mountain chains, the Transantarctic Mountains show no evidence of thrusting, folding, regional metamorphism, and andesitic volcanism associated with their uplift. The objectives during austral summer 1987-1988 are to map the uplift geometry of the Transantarctic Mountains using erosion surfaces (pre-Devonian Kukir peneplain) and widespread terrace levels as datum planes and to determine the uplift rates for the mountain range using fission-track dating of apatites. Presently, fission-track dating provides only quantitative data on the initiation time, amount, and rate of uplift. Through research, the authors hopes to extend data from Victoria Land through 1,600 kilometers of the Transantarctic Mountains. This study also has implications for the glacial history of Antarctica, because the uplift occurred during the inception, growth, and subsequent fluctuations of the east and west antarctic ice sheets. It will also add to our understanding of the nature of the East-West Antarctic boundary and to the knowledge of the sedimentation history in the Ross embayment and the basins beneath polar plateau.

  6. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  7. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: the importance of topography and geographical location in supporting higher biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason's richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM's area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM's area was in the 10°-20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM.

  8. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: The Importance of Topography and Geographical Location in Supporting Higher Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason’s richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM’s area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM’s area was in the 10°–20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM. PMID:25763820

  9. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Calophaca (Fabaceae) Reveals Multiple Dispersals in Central Asian Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Wen, Zhi-Bin; Fritsch, Peter W.; Sanderson, Stewart C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried out in order to confirm its taxonomic status and reconstruct its evolutionary history. Methodology/Principal Finding We employed BEAST Bayesian inference for dating, and S-DIVA and BBM for ancestral area reconstruction, to study its spatiotemporal evolution. Our results show that Calophacais monophyletic and nested within Caragana. The divergence time of Calophaca is estimated at ca. 8.0 Ma, most likely driven by global cooling and aridification, influenced by rapid uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau margins. Conclusions/Significance According to ancestral area reconstructions, the genus most likely originated in the Pamir Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot and hypothesized Tertiary refugium of many Central Asian plant lineages. Dispersals from this location are inferred to the western Tianshan Mountains, then northward to the Tarbagatai Range, eastward to East Asia, and westward to the Caucasus, Russia, and Europe. The spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca provides a case contributing to an understanding of the flora and biodiversity of the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions. PMID:25849146

  10. Mountains: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

  11. Unsteady late Pleistocene incision of streams bounding the Colorado Front Range from measurements of meteoric and in situ 10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dühnforth, Miriam; Anderson, Robert S.; Ward, Dylan J.; Blum, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Dating of gravel-capped strath terraces in basins adjacent to western U.S. Laramide Ranges is one approach to document the history of late Cenozoic fluvial exhumation. We use in situ 10Be measurements to date the broad surfaces adjacent to the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, and compare these calculated ages with results from meteoric 10Be measurements. We analyze three sites near Boulder, Colorado (Gunbarrel Hill, Table Mountain, and Pioneer) that have been mapped as the oldest terrace surfaces with suggested ages ranging from 640 ka to the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Our in situ 10Be results reveal abandonment ages of 95 ± 129 ka at Table Mountain, 175 ± 27 ka at Pioneer, and ages of 251 ± 10 ka and 307 ± 15 ka at Gunbarrel Hill. All are far younger than previously thought. Inventories of meteoric 10Be support this interpretation, yielding ages that are comparable to Table Mountain and ˜20% lower than Pioneer in situ ages. We argue that lateral beveling by rivers dominated during protracted times of even moderate glacial climate, and that vertical incision rates of several mm/yr likely occurred during times of very low sediment supply during the few interglacials that were characterized by particularly warm climate conditions. In contrast to the traditional age chronology in the area, our ages suggest that the deep exhumation of the western edge the High Plains occurred relatively recently and at an unsteady pace.

  12. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  13. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  14. Analysis of adjacent segment reoperation after lumbar total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Scott; Blumenthal, Scott L.; Zigler, Jack E.; Guyer, Richard D.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusion has long been used for treating chronic back pain unresponsive to nonoperative care. However, potential development of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation is a concern. Total disc replacement (TDR) has been proposed as a method for addressing back pain and preventing or reducing adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of the study was to determine the reoperation rate at the segment adjacent to a level implanted with a lumbar TDR and to analyze the pre-TDR condition of the adjacent segment. Methods This study was based on a retrospective review of charts and radiographs from a consecutive series of 1000 TDR patients to identify those who underwent reoperation because of adjacent segment degeneration. Some of the patients were part of randomized studies comparing TDR with fusion. Adjacent segment reoperation data were also collected from 67 patients who were randomized to fusion in those studies. The condition of the adjacent segment before the index surgery was compared with its condition before reoperation based on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography. Results Of the 1000 TDR patients, 20 (2.0%) underwent reoperation. The mean length of time from arthroplasty to reoperation was 28.3 months (range, 0.5–85 months). Of the adjacent segments evaluated on preoperative MRI, 38.8% were normal, 38.8% were moderately diseased, and 22.2% were classified as having severe degeneration. None of these levels had a different grading at the time of reoperation compared with the pre-TDR MRI study. Reoperation for adjacent segment degeneration was performed in 4.5% of the fusion patients. Conclusions The 2.0% rate of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation in this study is similar to the 2.0% to 2.8% range in other studies and lower than the published rates of 7% to 18% after lumbar fusion. By carefully assessing the presence of pre-existing degenerative changes before performing arthroplasty

  15. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  16. Mountain Goats (Oreamnos americanum) at the livestock/wildlife interface: A susceptible species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) were first introduced into the East Humboldt and Ruby Mountains of Elko County, Nevada in the 1960’s. These contiguous mountain ranges are also home to introduced Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and native mule deer and are surrounded by both public and private rang...

  17. Fault-related fluid flow, Beech Mountain thrust sheet, Blue Ridge Province, Tennessee-North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, W.K.; Mora, C.I. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The latest proterozoic Beech Granite is contained within the Beech Mountain thrust sheet (BMTS), part of a middle-late Paleozoic thrust complex located between Mountain City and Grandfather Mountain windows in the western Blue Ridge of TN-NC. At the base of the BMTS, Beech Granite is juxtaposed against lower Paleozoic carbonate and elastics of the Rome Fm. along the Stone Mountain thrust on the southeaster margin of the Mountain City window. At the top of the BMTS, Beech Granite occurs adjacent to Precambrian mafic rocks of the Pumpkin Patch thrust sheet (PPTS). The Beech Granite is foliated throughout the BMTS with mylonitization and localized cataclasis occurring within thrust zones along the upper and lower margins of the BMTS. Although the degree of mylonitization and cataclasis increases towards the thrusts, blocks of relatively undeformed granite also occur within these fault zones. Mylonites and thrusts are recognized as conduits for fluid movement, but the origin of the fluids and magnitude and effects of fluid migration are not well constrained. This study was undertaken to characterize fluid-rock interaction within the Beech Granite and BMTS. Extensive mobility of some elements/compounds within the thrust zones, and the isotopic and mineralogical differences between the thrust zones and interior of the BMTS indicate that fluid flow was focused within the thrust zones. The wide range of elevated temperatures (400--710 C) indicated by qz-fsp fractionations suggest isotopic disequilibrium. Using a more likely temperature range of 300--400 C for Alleghanian deformation, calculated fluid compositions indicate interactions with a mixture of meteoric-hydrothermal and metamorphic water with delta O-18 = 2.6--7.5[per thousand] for the upper thrust zone and 1.3 to 6.2[per thousand] for the lower thrust zone. These ranges are similar to isotopic data reported for other Blue Ridge thrusts and may represent later periods of meteoric water influx.

  18. [Population and distribution of western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) at Ailao Mountain, Xinping, Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Song; Yang, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Li, Wei

    2011-12-01

    The western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) is mainly distributed in Yunnan, China. Ailao Mountain is located in central Yunnan and divided into three prefectures and six counties. This mountain forms the principle distribution range for western black crested gibbon; however, there are no published data on the gibbon population inhabiting the Xinping administrative. Take the interview results conducted in 2007 and 2009 with local people as the reference, this study conducted an extensive field survey covering all possible habitats from November 2009 to January 2010 using call surveys. Among the one hundred and twenty-four gibbon groups which were confirmed across the Ailao Mountain, the largest known population of western black crested gibbons yet, 85 groups inhabit the national nature reserve and adjacent national forest, 30 groups inhabit the provincial nature reserve and nine groups inhabit the collective forest located outside the reserve and national forest. We found that the western black crested gibbons here have a patchy distribution pattern and occur at higher densities in certain areas. Moreover, the population distribution density and elevation gradient distribution decline from north to south. The results also demonstrated the importance of Ailao Mountain in the western black crested gibbon protection.

  19. Oxygen isotope, fluid inclusion, microprobe and petrographic studies of the preCambrian granites from the southern Wind River range and the Granite Mountains, central Wyoming, U.S.A.: Constraints on origin, hydrothermal alteration and uranium genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang, K. K.

    The Granite Mountain is comprised of the granite of Long Creek Mountain and the volumetrically dominant granite of Lankin Dome. Average delta 018 O values in per mil deg/00 of the granite of Long Creek Mountain is 8.2 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 4) and average delta 018 8.5 + or - -0.5 deg/00 (N = 37), values of the two phases from the granite of Lankin Dome are: biotite granites = delta 018 8.5 + or 0.5 deg/00 (N = 37), leucocratic graphite = 8.4 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 12). The average delta 018 values for Louis Lake Batholith are: hornblende-biotite granodiorite = 7.3 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 13) and leucocratic biotite granite = 7.7 + or - 0.1 deg/00 (N = 6). It is concluded from the whole rock oxygen isotopic, mineralogical, chemical and strontium isotopic data that the unaltered granites in the Granite Mountains were probably derived from a uranium enriched source with some peraluminous metasedimentary component which favoured the preconcentration of uranium and thorium, whereas the Louis Lake Batholith was formed by partial melting of igneous source materials that are not strongly enriched in uranium.

  20. Mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge, which generally occurs along the margins of alluvial basins, can be a large part of total recharge to the aquifer system in such basins. Mountain-front recharge occurs as the result of infiltration of flow from streams that have headwaters in the mountainous areas adjacent to alluvial basins and ground- water flow from the aquifers in the mountainous areas to the aquifer in the alluvial basin. This report presents estimates of mountain-front recharge to the basin-fill aquifer along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. The basin is a structural feature that contains a large thickness of basin-fill deposits, which compose the main aquifer in the basin. The basin is bounded along the eastern side by mountains composed of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. Precipitation is much larger in the mountains than in the basin; many stream channels debouch from the mountainous area to the basin. Chloride-balance and water-yield regression methods were used to estimate mountain-front recharge. The chloride-balance method was used to calculate a chloride balance in watersheds in the mountainous areas along the eastern side of the basin (subareas). The source of chloride to these watersheds is bulk precipitation (wet and dry deposition). Chloride leaves these watersheds as mountain-front recharge. The water-yield regression method was used to determine the streamflow from the mountainous watersheds at the mountain front. This streamflow was assumed to be equal to mountain-front recharge because most of this streamflow infiltrates and recharges the basin-fill aquifer. Total mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin was estimated to be about 11,000 acre- feet per year using the chloride-balance method and about 36,000 and 38,000 acre-feet per year using two water-yield regression equations. There was a large range in the recharge estimates in a

  1. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Gerlach, Terrance M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Evans, William C.; Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Rogie, John D.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, geologists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  2. 76 FR 29264 - Minor Boundary Revision at Rocky Mountain National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Rocky Mountain National Park AGENCY: National Park Service....S.C. 4601-9(c)(1), the boundary of Rocky Mountain National Park is modified to include an additional... in Grand County, Colorado, immediately adjacent to the current western boundary of Rocky...

  3. Plight of the Cabinet Mountains grizzlies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mineral and petroleum exploration and development and logging on grizzly bears in the Cabinet Mountains region of Montana is discussed. The author points out that such activities might cut the bears off from other bear populations in the Glacier National park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness. It is maintained, that in order for the bears to survive, they must range beyond the Cabinet Mountains and that extensive human activities in the area would damage their range. (JMT)

  4. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  5. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Jason D; Lee, Monica D; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  6. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  7. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  8. Influence of mountains on Arctic tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring of 2008 using a differential absorption lidar. The observations were carried out at Eureka Weather Station, which is located between various mountain ranges. Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the midtroposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies from spring of 2008 are described.

  9. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  10. Correlation of lava flows on Cascade volcanoes: Tool development and example from Burney Spring Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Timothy Michael

    Bedrock mapping in volcanic terrains is a challenge, and generally requires extensive field work and petrographic and geochemical analysis. Paleomagnetism, when used in conjunction with field, geochemical and petrographic data offers a complimentary geophysical tool to field mapping, assisting in the correlation of lava flows across faults and aiding in determination of fault kinematics. Secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field imprints individually distinguishable magnetic orientations in igneous rocks emplaced >100 years apart, resulting in magnetic fingerprints that can be used to correlate lava flows across eroded areas, or that have been displaced by faulting or modified by weathering. A successful paleomagnetic study requires establishment of a well constrained magnetic orientation for individual lava flows, against which structural corrections can be made for sample sites in rotated blocks. The resulting structural corrections provide insight into the mode and degree of movement along the fault since emplacement of the lava flows. This methodology was applied to mapping a tectonically modified Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic edifice, Burney Spring Mountain, within the Hat Creek Graben of northeastern California. The establishment of a general range of paleomagnetic orientations for Burney Spring Mountain serves to distinguish between lava flows sourced from Burney Spring Mountain and those that overlap the edifice from surrounding volcanic vents. Paleomagnetic results have thus assisted in delineating the areal extent of Burney Spring Mountain and have furthermore revealed the presence of local block rotations adjacent to the fault, clarifying the kinematics of the faults themselves. Supporting geochemical analyses were conducted to assist in the correlation of Burney Spring Mountain lava flows involving the use of an electron-dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS) outfitted scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a portable x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) device

  11. Debris Flows and Record Floods from Extreme Mesoscale Convective Thunderstorms over the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Shoemaker, Craig; Webb, Robert H.; Schaffner, Mike; Griffiths, Peter G.; Pytlak, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Ample geologic evidence indicates early Holocene and Pleistocene debris flows from the south side of the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona, but few records document historical events. On July 31, 2006, an unusual set of atmospheric conditions aligned to produce record floods and an unprecedented number of debris flows in the Santa Catalinas. During the week prior to the event, an upper-level area of low pressure centered near Albuquerque, New Mexico generated widespread heavy rainfall in southern Arizona. After midnight on July 31, a strong complex of thunderstorms developed over central Arizona in a deformation zone that formed on the back side of the upper-level low. High atmospheric moisture (2.00' of precipitable water) coupled with cooling aloft spawned a mesoscale thunderstorm complex that moved southeast into the Tucson basin. A 15-20 knot low-level southwesterly wind developed with a significant upslope component over the south face of the Santa Catalina Mountains advecting moist and unstable air into the merging storms. National Weather Service radar indicated that a swath of 3-6' of rainfall occurred over the lower and middle elevations of the southern Santa Catalina Mountains. This intense rain falling on saturated soil triggered over 250 hillslope failures and debris flows throughout the mountain range. Sabino Canyon, a heavily used recreation area administered by the U.S. Forest Service, was the epicenter of mass wasting, where at least 18 debris flows removed structures, destroyed the roadway in multiple locations, and closed public access for months. The debris flows were followed by streamflow floods which eclipsed the record discharge in the 75-year gaging record of Sabino Creek. In five canyons adjacent to Sabino Canyon, debris flows approached or excited the mountain front, compromising floow conveyance structures and flooding some homes.

  12. Thermal effects of overthrusting, Little Mountains thrust belt, eastern New York

    SciTech Connect

    Zadins, Z.; Mitra, G.

    1986-05-01

    Thermal models constrained by clay mineral assemblages, vitrinite reflectance, and palinspatic restoration are used to interpret the thermal history of the Appalachian thrust belt of eastern New York. The deformed Appalachian foreland of eastern New York is comprised of two adjacent north-south-trending thrust belts: (1) the Taconic Mountains, allochthons emplaced during the Late Ordovician Taconic orogeny; and (2) Little Mountains thrust belt, faulted and folded Lower Devonian carbonates exhibiting well-developed solution cleavage, deformed during the Devonian Acadian or Pennsylvanian Alleghenian orogeny. Conodont alteration index from the Little Mountains range from 4.0 to 4.5, suggesting temperatures of 190/sup 0/-240/sup 0/C. This thermal imprint may be attributed to burial heating from 8 km of post-Lower Devonian molasse in the Catskill Mountains, whose present thickness is 2.3 km. Elevated temperature-pressure conditions resulting from an overriding thrust sheet would facilitate formation of solution cleavage in the Little Mountains, in a manner similar to that demonstrated in the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt. X-ray analysis of clay minerals from Catskill shales in the undeformed foreland show: (1) there is little or no discrete smectite; (2) illite predominates, with illite peaks being asymmetric toward lower 28 suggesting a minor component of random interstratified illite-smectite; and (3) illite has decreasing crystallinity with increasing burial depth. These results indicate sedimentary overburden has had little effect on illite crystallinity, as crystallinity should systematically increase with increasing temperatures (i.e., increasing depth). Catskill illites exhibiting decreasing crystallinites may reflect that they are detrital and are derived from progressive erosion of a Taconic thrust sheet, resulting in an inverted illite stratigraphy.

  13. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  14. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  15. Geology of the Yucca Mountain site area, southwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, W.R.; Whitney, J.W.; Buesch, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Pleistocene and Holocene times; these paleoseismic studies form the basis for evaluating the potential for future earthquakes and fault displacements. Thermoluminescence and U-series analyses were used to date the surficial materials involved in the Quaternary faulting events. The rate of erosional downcutting of bedrock on the ridge crests and hillslopes of Yucca Mountain, being of particular concern with respect to the potential for breaching of the proposed underground storage facility, was studied by using rock varnish cation-ratio and 10Be and 36Cl cosmogenic dating methods to determine the length of time bedrock outcrops and hillslope boulder deposits were exposed to cosmic rays, which then served as a basis for calculating long-term erosion rates. The results indicate rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 cm/k.y., which represent the maximum downcutting along the summit of Yucca Mountain under all climatic conditions that existed there during most of Quaternary time. Associated studies include the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in Fortymile Wash, the major drainage course in the area, which record a complex history of four to five cut-and-fill cycles within the channel during middle to late Quaternary time. The last 2-4 m of incision probably occurred during the last pluvial climatic period, 22-18 ka, followed by aggradation to the present time. Major faults at Yucca Mountain-from east to west, the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, Stagecoach Road, Solitario Canyon, Fatigue Wash, Windy Wash, and Northern and Southern Crater Flat Faults-trend predominantly north, are spaced 1-5 km apart, have bedrock displacements ranging from 125 m to as much as 500 m, and exhibit Quaternary movements of several centimeters to a few meters. Displacements are predominantly down to the west, and bedrock/alluvium contacts commonly are marked by fault-line scarps. The predominant northerly fault trend changes to a more northeasterly trend in adjacent areas south

  16. Ungulate herbivory on alpine willow in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Schoenecker, K.A.; Amburg, L.K.V.

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the Rocky Mountains, elk (Cervus elaphus) migrate from low-elevation mountain valleys during spring to high-elevation subalpine and alpine areas for the summer. Research has focused on the impacts of elk herbivory on winter-range plant communities, particularly on woody species such as willow and aspen; however, little information is available on the effects of elk herbivory on alpine willows. In the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south central Colorado, select alpine areas appear to receive high levels of summer elk herbivory, while other areas are nearly unbrowsed. In 2005 and 2008, we measured willow height, cover, and utilization on sites that appeared to be used heavily by elk, as well as on sites that appeared to be used lightly, to determine differences between these communities over time. We found less willow cover and shorter willows at sites that received higher levels of browsing compared to those that had lower levels of browsing. Human recreational use was greater at lightly browsed sites than at highly browsed sites. From 2005 to 2008, willow utilization declined, and willow cover and height increased at sites with heavy browsing, likely owing to ownership change of adjacent valley land which led to (1) removal of grazing competition from, cattle at valley locations and (2) increased human use in alpine areas, which displaced elk. We discuss the implications of increased human use and climate change on elk use of these alpine habitats. ?? 2011.

  17. Stratigraphy and structural setting of Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation, western Centennial Mountains, southwestern Montana and southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Nichols, D.J.; Obradovich, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and palynologic data were used to correlate the Frontier Formation of the western Centennial Mountains with time-equivalent rocks in the Lima Peaks area and other nearby areas in southwestern Montana. The stratigraphic interval studied is in the middle and upper parts (but not uppermost) of the formation based on a comparison of sandstone petrography, palynologic age data, and our interpretation of the structure using a seismic line along the frontal zone of the Centennial Mountains and the adjacent Centennial Valley. The Frontier Formation is comprised of sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, limestone, and silty shale in fluvial and coastal depositional settings. A distinctive characteristic of these strata in the western Centennial Mountains is the absence of conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstone beds. Absence of conglomerate beds may be due to lateral facies changes associated with fluvial systems, a distal fining of grain size, and the absence of both uppermost and lower Frontier rocks in the study area. Palynostratigraphic data indicate a Coniacian age for the Frontier Formation in the western Centennial Mountains. These data are supported by a geochronologic age from the middle part of the Frontier at Lima Peaks indicating a possible late Coniacian-early Santonian age (86.25 ?? 0.38 Ma) for the middle Frontier there. The Frontier Formation in the western Centennial Mountains is comparable in age and thickness to part of the Frontier at Lima Peaks. These rocks represent one of the thickest known sequences of Frontier strata in the Rocky Mountain region. Deposition was from about 95 to 86 Ma (middle Cenomanian to at least early Santonian), during which time, shoreface sandstone of the Telegraph Creek Formation and marine shale of the Cody Shale were deposited to the east in the area now occupied by the Madison Range in southwestern Montana. Frontier strata in the western Centennial Mountains are structurally isolated from other

  18. Mesozoic and early Tertiary paleostructure and sedimentology of central Wasatch Mountains, Uinta Mountains, and Uinta basin

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, M.D.; Bruhn, R.L.; Beck, S.L.

    1983-08-01

    During latest Cretaceous-Eocene time, 5,000 m (16,000 ft) of beds were deposited in central and northeast Utah. In the Late Cretaceous, sediment derived from the Sevier-Laramide thrust belt was transported to the east and southeast. Southerly paleocurrent directions in the base of the Currant Creek Formation (Maestrichtian) raise the possibility that uplift of the Uintas may have begun by then. The thrust belt continued as a major highland during the early Paleocene, and major uplift of the Uintas occurred. By the middle Paleocene there was an extensive lake which regressed during the late Paleocene as uplift of the Uintas continued. Lake Uinta reached its maximum size during the middle Eocene. Lower (early Duchesnean) and upper (Late Duchesnean) conglomeratic intervals record major episodes of uplift in the Uintas during latest Eocene. Structurally, the Wasatch Mountains are part of a marginal foreland fold and thrust belt. In the northern Wasatch Mountains, pre-Late Cretaceous thrust fault plates were folded in part of a large, ramp-anticline that is cored by allochthonous, crystalline basement . Foreland thrust belt structures in the central Wasatch Mountains were folded about the east-trending Uinta axis as the Uinta Mountains formed. Eastward movement on the Hogsback thrust during the Paleocene was transferred onto the adjacent Uinta axis and Uinta Mountains structure, causing about 20 km (12 mi) of sinistral slip in the western Uinta Mountains. A south-dipping fault ramp was located beneath the Uinta Mountains and extended to depths of 15 to 20 km (9 to 12 mi). Oblique-slip on this ramp probably resulted in about 20 km (12 mi) of crustal shortening perpendicular to the trend of the mountains.

  19. Climate and lithological control on fluvial bedrock incision in an active mountain belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshorn, K.; Hovius, N.; Dade, W. B.; Slingerland, R.

    2003-04-01

    Of all geomorphological processes, the creation of mountain landscapes is among the most spectacular. Tectonic uplift, climate, and denudation of active mountain belts are in themselves large-scale processes, but the link between these, bedrock river channel incision, can be measured at the rate of millimetres per year. Fluvial bedrock incision creates relief, controls local base-level, and drives mass wasting of adjacent hillslopes. Key questions in the study of fluvial bedrock incision include the mechanisms and processes driving fluvial bedrock incision, and how bedrock incision shapes relief and affects local hillslopes. The focus of this study is on precise real-time measurement of bedrock incision rates, observation of wear styles, processes and distribution in bedrock channels, and connection between bedrock channel erosion and the surrounding landscapes. Erosion rates were measured in three lithologies over two wet seasons and two dry seasons in a catchment in the eastern Central Mountain Range in Taiwan. As well as keeping pace with longer-term estimations of uplift and denudation, our results show variable patterns of wear style and distribution under different flow conditions. Rare, large floods tend to widen the channel, while common low to moderate flows incise and deepen the channel. We also observe a strong lithological control on process and style of wear, which in turn affects the resulting geometry of the bedrock channel. Narrower, steeper channels tend to be associated with massive lithologies, and wider channels with foliated or jointed lithologies. Both of these observations have implications for connection of the bedrock channel to the adjacent hillslopes, and therefore control in some part the process of hillslope mass-wasting.

  20. MINARETS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N. King; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Minarets Wilderness and adjacent areas in the central Sierra Nevada, California was conducted. The results of the survey indicate that the study area has a substantiated resource potential for small deposits of copper, silver, zinc, lead, and iron, and a probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum. No energy-resource potential was identified in the study.

  1. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  2. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  4. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  5. The importance of fires and floods on tree ages along mountainous gravel-bed streams.

    PubMed

    Charron, I; Johnson, E A

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines the commonly accepted assumption in the riparian literature that areas adjacent to streams do not burn. Using time-since-fire distributions, derived from stand-origin maps for a watershed in the front ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, we found that the areas adjacent to streams and the whole study watershed have similar fire frequencies. In addition, the relative importance of fires and floods is regulated by a change in channel morphology associated with the creation of bars. The results demonstrate that fires solely control tree establishment along straight streams without bars, while the influence of floods is observed at the onset of lateral- and point-bar formation. This occurs because bars are formed in-channel and require smaller discharges in order to be flooded, compared to higher terraces. Consequently, bars are the only surfaces being flooded more frequently than they are being burned. Thus, overall the results indicate that, on this watershed, areas adjacent to streams are not less likely to burn than the uplands, except for lateral and point bars. The generality of these results to other systems should be tested as they have important implications for current forest ecological definition of "riparian zones," which typically include all fluvially derived landforms, from the channel banks to the terraces. Indeed, this study suggests that along smaller, headwater, gravel-bed mountain watersheds, the forests found on terraces are only influenced by fire and not fluvial processes and should therefore not be included in the riparian zone, while the forests on bars are the only surfaces currently being influenced by fluvial processes. Such a change in definition has implications for both ecologists and forest managers aiming to protect areas along streams as they now must take into account the effects of two disturbances on these small gravel-bed streams. PMID:17069369

  6. The importance of fires and floods on tree ages along mountainous gravel-bed streams.

    PubMed

    Charron, I; Johnson, E A

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines the commonly accepted assumption in the riparian literature that areas adjacent to streams do not burn. Using time-since-fire distributions, derived from stand-origin maps for a watershed in the front ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, we found that the areas adjacent to streams and the whole study watershed have similar fire frequencies. In addition, the relative importance of fires and floods is regulated by a change in channel morphology associated with the creation of bars. The results demonstrate that fires solely control tree establishment along straight streams without bars, while the influence of floods is observed at the onset of lateral- and point-bar formation. This occurs because bars are formed in-channel and require smaller discharges in order to be flooded, compared to higher terraces. Consequently, bars are the only surfaces being flooded more frequently than they are being burned. Thus, overall the results indicate that, on this watershed, areas adjacent to streams are not less likely to burn than the uplands, except for lateral and point bars. The generality of these results to other systems should be tested as they have important implications for current forest ecological definition of "riparian zones," which typically include all fluvially derived landforms, from the channel banks to the terraces. Indeed, this study suggests that along smaller, headwater, gravel-bed mountain watersheds, the forests found on terraces are only influenced by fire and not fluvial processes and should therefore not be included in the riparian zone, while the forests on bars are the only surfaces currently being influenced by fluvial processes. Such a change in definition has implications for both ecologists and forest managers aiming to protect areas along streams as they now must take into account the effects of two disturbances on these small gravel-bed streams.

  7. Mountain Permafrost in the Yukon Territory, Canada: Mapping and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkowicz, A. G.; Bonnaventure, P.; Schultz, E.; Etzelmuller, B.

    2006-12-01

    The distribution and characteristics of mountain permafrost in North America are poorly known compared to lowland permafrost, and predictions of climatic change impacts are therefore subject to a higher degree of uncertainty. Recent DC resistivity soundings in association with borehole temperature information in the Yukon Territory, show the wide range of permafrost conditions that can exist at sites separated by short distances. To provide baseline information for future modelling, efforts are underway to produce a detailed map of permafrost probability in the mountains of the southern half of the Yukon Territory (60-65°N), an area greater than 200 x 103km2. The methodology is based on the Basal Temperature of Snow (BTS) technique, first developed in the European Alps. Ground surface temperatures measured at the base of snow > 80 cm thick in late winter are an indicator of permafrost presence or absence. We have used this method successfully in three study areas of about 200 km2: first, Wolf Creek basin near Whitehorse (Lewkowicz and Ednie, 2004) and now the western side of the Ruby Range adjacent to Kluane Lake, and the Haines Summit area in northwestern British Columbia. In each area, (1) we installed miniature temperature loggers at the ground surface and in the air to check on the timing of the BTS measurements; (2) we measured BTS values in the elevation zone across which permafrost was expected to become widespread; (3) we modelled the BTS spatial field using elevation (from a 30 m DEM) and potential incoming solar radiation (PISR) as the independent variables; and (4) we used logistic regression to compare the modelled BTS values with pit observations made in late-summer of the presence or absence of frozen ground. Both elevation and PISR were significant in the Wolf Creek and Ruby Range sites which have relatively continental climates and fall within the Upper Yukon-Stikine Basin climatic region (Wahl et al., 1987). For the Haines Summit area, however

  8. WILD CATTLE MOUNTAIN AND HEART LAKE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Denton, David K.

    1984-01-01

    The results of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas in California indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or fossil fuel resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and noncompetitive geothermal lease applications have been filed on much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park. Geochemical and geologic data indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Growler and Morgan Hot Springs just southwest of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, the entire Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of the Heart Lake Roadless Area have a substantiated geothermal resource potential; the rest of the Heart Lake Roadless Area has a probable geothermal resource potential.

  9. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  10. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  11. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  12. Contrasting rainfall generated debris flows from adjacent watersheds at Forest Falls, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Alvarez, R.M.; Ruppert, K.R.; Goforth, B.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows are widespread and common in many steeply sloping areas of southern California. The San Bernardino Mountains community of Forest Falls is probably subject to the most frequently documented debris flows in southern California. Debris flows at Forest Falls are generated during short-duration high-intensity rains that mobilize surface material. Except for debris flows on two consecutive days in November 1965, all the documented historic debris flows have occurred during high-intensity summer rainfall, locally referred to as 'monsoon' or 'cloudburst' rains. Velocities of the moving debris range from about 5??km/h to about 90??km/h. Velocity of a moving flow appears to be essentially a function of the water content of the flow. Low velocity debris flows are characterized by steep snouts that, when stopped, have only small amounts of water draining from the flow. In marked contrast are high-velocity debris flows whose deposits more resemble fluvial deposits. In the Forest Falls area two adjacent drainage basins, Snow Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, have considerably different histories of debris flows. Snow Creek basin, with an area about three times as large as Rattlesnake Creek basin, has a well developed debris flow channel with broad levees. Most of the debris flows in Snow Creek have greater water content and attain higher velocities than those of Rattlesnake Creek. Most debris flows are in relative equilibrium with the geometry of the channel morphology. Exceptionally high-velocity flows, however, overshoot the channel walls at particularly tight channel curves. After overshooting the channel, the flows degrade the adjacent levee surface and remove trees and structures in the immediate path, before spreading out with decreasing velocity. As the velocity decreases the clasts in the debris flows pulverize the up-slope side of the trees and often imbed clasts in them. Debris flows in Rattlesnake Creek are relatively slow moving and commonly stop in the

  13. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides along the plain-mountain transect in central China: Regional source vs. long-range transport and air-soil exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengkai; Xing, Xinli; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Huang, Huanfang; Lima, Annamaria; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed to measure spatiality and seasonality of atmospheric OCPs in Jianghan Plain (JHP) and Western Hubei Mountain (WHM), to make a preliminary explorative study of the source-sink relationship of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their association with the monsoon. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the JHP were generally higher than those in the WHM. Significantly high levels of DDTs and Endosulfan were found in the spring and summer, HCB was found in autumn and winter, and HCHs displayed uniform distributions. Compared with the levels of 2005, a significant decrease of atmospheric HCHs, DDTs and HCB was observed, whereas an increase in Endosulfan was observed. The air-soil equilibrium status of OCPs suggested that Dajiuhu (DJH) soils are likely to be a sink for OCPs, and JHP soils are acting as the emitter, contaminating the atmosphere at certain monitoring stations. Backward air trajectory analysis demonstrated that the seasonal fluctuation of atmospheric DDTs, HCB and Endosulfan at the DJH site were closely associated with the variations of the East Asian monsoon.

  14. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  15. The structure of mountain fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, I. R.; Graham, R. H.; Hayward, A. B.

    Commonly the part of a mountain front which is visible at the surface consists of foreland-dipping thrust belt rocks elevated above their regional structural position and overlain more or less conformably by molasse. Several explanations for their geometry are possible. (1) Major detachments exist within or beneath the molasse resulting in transport of the foreland basin. Examples of this geometry come from the Swiss Molasse Plain, the Southern Pyrenees and the Mackenzie Mountains of Canada. (2) Displacement is lost on major backthrusts beneath the frontal monocline. Examples cited here are the Rockies of Alberta, the Sulaiman Ranges of Pakistan, the Mackenzies, and the Andes in Peru. (3) Thrust sheets travelled over an old land surface and syntectonic molasse contemporaneously offlaps the topographic high of the thrust front. This phenomenon occurs along the Alpine thrust front in Haute Provence. (4) The frontal fold represents deformation above a large-scale thrust tip. No unequivocal example of tip line strain at this scale has been recorded although this type of deformation may occur in the Brooks Range of Alaska. In many areas mountain fronts show a combination of these idealized geometries.

  16. Field guide to geologic excursions in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, William R.; Lund, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This field guide contains road logs for field trips planned in conjunction with the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America held at Southern Utah University in Cedar City, Utah. There are a total of eight field trips, covering various locations and topics in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada. In addition, the field guide contains a road log for a set of Geological Engineering Field Camp Exercises run annually by the University of Missouri at Rolla in and around Cedar City. Two of the field trips address structural aspects of the geology in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona; two trips deal with ground water in the region; and along with the Field Camp Exercises, one trip, to the Grand Staircase, is designed specifically for educators. The remaining trips examine the volcanology and mineral resources of a large area in and around the Tusher Mountains in Utah; marine and brackish water strata in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument; and the Pine Valley Mountains, which are cored by what may be the largest known laccolith in the world. The "Three Corners" area of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada is home to truly world-class geology, and I am confident that all of the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting attendees will find a field trip suited to their interests.

  17. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  18. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Chul

    2015-01-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  19. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Volcanism and uplift in the northern Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, Jordan H.; Adams, Aubreya N.; Hansen, Samantha E.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hackworth, Lauren; Park, Yongcheol

    2016-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range on Earth, and while a variety of uplift mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the TAMs is still a matter of great debate. Most previous seismic investigations of the TAMs have focused on a central portion of the mountain range, near Ross Island, providing little along-strike constraint on the upper mantle structure, which is needed to better assess competing uplift models. Using data recorded by the recently deployed Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, as well as data from the Transantarctic Mountains Seismic Experiment and from five stations operated by the Korea Polar Research Institute, we investigate the upper mantle structure beneath a previously unexplored portion of the mountain range. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are calculated using a two-plane wave approximation and are inverted for shear wave velocity structure. Our model shows a low velocity zone (LVZ; ∼4.24 km s-1) at ∼160 km depth offshore and adjacent to Mt. Melbourne. This LVZ extends inland and vertically upwards, with more lateral coverage above ∼100 km depth beneath the northern TAMs and Victoria Land. A prominent LVZ (∼4.16-4.24 km s-1) also exists at ∼150 km depth beneath Ross Island, which agrees with previous results in the TAMs near the McMurdo Dry Valleys, and relatively slow velocities (∼4.24-4.32 km s-1) along the Terror Rift connect the low velocity anomalies. We propose that the LVZs reflect rift-related decompression melting and provide thermally buoyant support for the TAMs uplift, consistent with proposed flexural models. We also suggest that heating, and hence uplift, along the mountain front is not uniform and that the shallower LVZ beneath northern Victoria Land provides greater thermal support, leading to higher bedrock topography in the northern TAMs. Young (0-15 Ma) volcanic rocks associated with the Hallett and the Erebus Volcanic Provinces are situated directly

  20. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  1. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  2. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-01-01

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent. PMID:27353861

  3. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-01-01

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent. PMID:27353861

  4. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-01

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  5. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-29

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  6. MIDDLE MOUNTAIN-TOBACCO ROOT ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Cather, Eric E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the northern part of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana determined that the area included in or enclosed by the Middle Mountain-Tobacco Root Roadless Area contains serveral areas of probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineralized areas are located in or adjacent to intrusive rocks of Late Cretaceous age. Mineral resources are probably of three types: disseminated and stockwork copper and molybdenum in porphyry-type deposits; gold-silver-quartz veins; and gold-bearing silicified zones. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  7. Hydrogeology of recharge areas and water quality of the principal aquifers along the Wasatch Front and adjacent areas, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, P.B.; Susong, D.D.; Wold, S.R.; Heilweil, V.M.; Baskin, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The principal basin-fill aquifers in Cache Valley, the lower Bear River area, and along the Wasatch Front provide ground water to about 84 percent of the population of Utah. Recharge areas for the principal aquifers were mapped to provide information needed for the implementation of ground-water quality regulations and a State ground-water protection plan. Water samples were collected and analyzed to provide baseline water- quality data for the principal aquifers. The study area includes five subareas: Cache Valley, the 1ower Bear River area, the East Shore area, Salt Lake Valley, and Utah and Goshen Valleys. Basin-fill deposits in each subarea are lithologically heterogeneous. The principal aquifers in most of the subareas are composed of multiple discontinuous unconfined and confined aquifers and confining layers. Primary recharge areas generally are located along adjacent mountain fronts and extend into the valleys at the mouths of major drainages. Secondary recharge areas are located on the benches and uplands of the valleys. Ground-water flow generally is from these recharge areas to the discharge areas in the topographically low parts of the valleys. In general, dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water range from less than 500 mg/L to about 3,000 mg/L. Of 73 water samples, 5 contained inorganic constituents in concentrations that exceeded State of Utah water-quality standards. None of the samples contained concentrations of organic compounds that exceeded State standards.

  8. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Benson, John F.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Riley, Seth P. D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance. PMID:27411098

  9. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Sikich, Jeff A; Riley, Seth P D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance. PMID:27411098

  10. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Sikich, Jeff A; Riley, Seth P D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance.

  11. Geology of the Yucca Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; O'Leary, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began ca. 10 Ma and continued as recently as ca. 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, ???10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  12. Remote mineral mapping using AVIRIS data at Summitville, Colorado and the adjacent San Juan Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Trude V. V.; Clark, Roger N.; Ager, Cathy; Swayze, Gregg A.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated the unique utility of imaging spectroscopy in mapping mineral distribution. In the Summitville mining region we have shown that the mine site does not contribute clay minerals to the Alamosa River, but does contribute Fe-bearing minerals. Such minerals have the potential to carry heavy metals. This application illustrates only one specific environmental application of imaging spectroscopy data. For instance, the types of minerals we can map with confidence are those frequently associated with environmental problems related to active and abandoned mine lands. Thus, the potential utility of this technology to the field of environmental science has yet to be fully explored.

  13. Black Mountains crustal section, Death Valley extended terrain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, D.K.; Wernicke, B. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent reconstructions of Cenozoic extension in the southern Great Basin juxtapose the Panamint Range above the Black Mountains and indicate major tectonic denudation of the Black Mountains during Tertiary extension. Structural and geologic characteristics of the Black Mountains and consideration of the regional geology of surrounding ranges suggest that the Black Mountains block may represent a 10 to 30 km preextensional crustal section that has been uplifted along a major detachment zone. Geobarometry and ductile deformation features in a synrift, intermediate to mafic batholith and metamorphism of Eocambrian sedimentary rock on the western side of the range appear to support this hypothesis. These data suggest that the Black Mountains block is one of the youngest and perhaps among the deepest exposed examples of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes.

  14. Radiologic Changes of Operated and Adjacent Segments after Anterior Cervical Microforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jang Ho; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Seong Min; Chung, Seung Young; Lee, Do Sung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anterior cervical microforaminotomy (ACMF) is a motion-preserving surgical procedure. The purpose of this study is to assess radiologic changes of operated and adjacent segments after ACMF. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 52 patients who underwent ACMF between 1998 and 2008. From X-ray film-based changes, disc height and sagittal range of motion (ROM) of operated and adjacent segments were compared at preoperative and last follow-up periods. Radiological degeneration of both segments was analyzed as well. Results The mean follow-up period was 48.2 months. There were 78 operated, 52 upper adjacent, and 38 lower adjacent segments. There were statistically significant differences in the ROM and disc height of operated segment between preoperative and last follow-up periods. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the ROM and disc height of adjacent segment between both periods. Radiological degenerative changes of operated segments were observed in 30%. That of adjacent segments was observed in 11 and 11% at upper and lower segments, respectively. Conclusion After mean 4-year follow-up periods, there were degenerative changes of operated segments. However, ACMF preserved motion and prevented degenerative changes of adjacent segments. PMID:27799993

  15. Habitat selection by mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the breeding range of the mountain plover occurs in shortgrass steppe and mixed-grass prairie in the western Great Plains of North America. Studies of mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe during the 1970s and 1990s focused on public lands in Weld County, Colorado, which were considered to ...

  16. Fault terminations, Seminoe Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dominic, J.B.; McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Two basement-involved faults terminate in folds in the Seminoe Mountains. Mesoscopic and macroscopic structures in sedimentary rocks provide clues to the interrelationship of faults and folds in this region, and on the linkage between faulting and folding in general. The Hurt Creek fault trends 320[degree] and has maximum separation of 1.5 km measured at the basement/cover contact. Separation on the fault decreases upsection to zero within the Jurassic Sundance Formation. Unfaulted rock units form an anticline around the fault tip. The complementary syncline is angular with planar limbs and a narrow hinge zone. The syncline axial trace intersects the fault in the footwall at the basement/cover cut-off. Map patterns are interpreted to show thickening of Mesozoic units adjacent to the syncline hinge. In contrast, extensional structures are common in the faulted anticline within the Permian Goose Egg and Triassic Chugwater Formations. A hanging wall splay fault loses separation into the Goose Egg formation which is thinned by 50% at the fault tip. Mesoscopic normal faults are oriented 320--340[degree] and have an average inclination of 75[degree] SW. Megaboudins of Chugwater are present in the footwall of the Hurt Creek fault, immediately adjacent to the fault trace. The Black Canyon fault transported Precambrian-Pennsylvanian rocks over Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone. This fault is layer-parallel at the top of the Tensleep and loses separation along strike into an unfaulted syncline in the Goose Egg Formation. Shortening in the pre-Permian units is accommodated by slip on the basement-involved Black Canyon fault. Equivalent shortening in Permian-Cretaceous units occurs on a system of thin-skinned'' thrust faults.

  17. Environmental geochemical study of Red Mountain--an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska range, east-central Alaska: Chapter I in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Giles, Stuart A.; Gough, Larry P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2007-01-01

    Water samples with the lowest pH values, highest specific conductances, and highest major- and trace-element concentrations are from springs and streams within the quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zone. Aluminum, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Y, and particularly Zn and the REEs are all found in high concentrations, ranging across four orders of magnitude. Waters collected upstream from the alteration zone have near-neutral pH values, lower specific conductances, lower metal concentrations, and measurable alkalinities. Water samples collected downstream of the alteration zone have pH values and metal concentrations intermediate between these two extremes. Stream sediments are anomalous in Zn, Pb, S, Fe, Cu, As, Co, Sb, and Cd relative to local and regional background abundances. Red Mountain Creek and its tributaries do not support, and probably never have supported, significant megascopic faunal aquatic life.

  18. The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocke, F. M.; Science Teams, F A D A

    2015-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ) was designed to quantify the factors controlling surface ozone in the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) and determine whether current and planned emission controls are sufficient to reduce ozone levels below standards. The experiment was conducted simultaneously with the 2014 DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) intensive, and employed a coordinated set of ground-based, aircraft-based and satellite measurements. The NFRMA is subject to emissions from a wide variety of very diverse sources such as transportation, power generation, agriculture and livestock operations, oil and gas extraction activities, and natural emissions from vegetation. Inflow into the state can contain elevated ozone brought about from emissions originating from other Western states, Canada or Asia. Terrain-induced, complex mountain-valley circulation patterns, can, to some extent, recirculate polluted air and exacerbate high ozone events. This transport also contributes to high ozone, visibility degradation, and deposition of pollution into Rocky Mountain National Park and other pristine areas. Fifteen flights were performed between July 26 and August 17, 2014, on board the NCAR/NSF C-130 research aircraft, which was equipped with a comprehensive gas phase photochemistry and aerosol payload. The C-130 flights covered much of the State of Colorado. Numerous ground sites and mobile labs were taking measurements simultaneously, and the NASA P3, B-200, and Falcon aircraft flight operations were concentrated on the NFRMA itself. This presentation will summarize the FRAPPÉ activities and present first results with respect to emission characterization of the area and comparison with inventories, contributions of emission source types to ozone production and particle composition, transport and chemical evolution of air masses

  19. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at

  20. Defining Hydrogeological Boundaries for Mountain Front Recharge (MFR) Predictions in Multi-Catchment Mountainous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson-Welch, L. A.; Allen, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Cross-catchment groundwater flow in mountainous watersheds results from the development of local, intermediate, and regional groundwater flow pathways in multi-catchment systems. As such, hydrogeological analysis (e.g. water balance calculations and numerical modelling) to assess contributions of groundwater to mountain front recharge (MFR) must consider the choice of boundaries based on hydrological divides. Numerical 3-dimensional hydrogeological modelling was completed using FeFlow (DHI-WASY), for conceptual regional-scale multi-catchment systems; extending from a watershed boundary to a mountain front. The modelled systems were designed to represent major ridge and valley configurations observed in mountainous watersheds including: nested, adjacent, disconnected, non-parallel, and parallel catchments. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity scenarios were simulated; with the heterogeneous scenario including a shallow zone of higher hydraulic conductivity bedrock overlying less permeable bedrock. The influence of cross-catchment flow in the development of groundwater flow pathways contributing to MFR was examined. The results provide a basis for identifying topographic scenarios where contributions to MFR may originate outside hydrological divides. This understanding will contribute to improving MFR predictions using both the numerical modelling approach and the water balance approach.

  1. SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  2. Possible reactivation of the Vincent-Chocolate Mountains thrust in the Gavilan Hills area, southeasternmost California

    SciTech Connect

    Oyarzabal, F.R.; Jacobson, C.E. ); Haxel, G.B. )

    1993-04-01

    The Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary Orocopia Schist (OS) of southeasternmost California consists of metamorphosed continental margin sedimentary and basaltic rocks, overlain by an upper plate of continental crust along the Vincent-Chocolate Mountains fault (VCMF). Previous analysis of late folds and shear band in OS and upper plate in the Gavilan Hills and adjacent ares indicated that the direction of transport of the upper plate was northeastward. This has been considered evidence of a SW dipping subduction zone, along which an outboard continental fragment was sutured to North America. Another view is that the VCMF was formed by underplating of the OS in an Andean continental margin, and that the NE-vergent late structures formed during uplift of the OS. The authors' continuing work in the Gavilan Hills confirm the NE sense of vergence but suggests a more complex structural history. The schist is characterized by refolded folds, shear bands, and two penetrative lineations. An older lineation that ranges from N10[degree]E to N30[degree]E is widespread in the area, but is more evident at low structural levels. A second lineation ranges from N40[degree]E to N70[degree]E and is strongly developed in rocks near the VCMF. The complex folding pattern, presence of mylonitic schist, relative thinness of upper-plate mylonite, and possible retrogressive character of the shear bands suggest that the VCMF in the Gavilan Hills area may have been reactivated after original thrusting. The VCMF in the Gavilan Hills is intermediate in character between the probable subduction thrust in the San Gabriel Mountains and the reactivated faults in the Orocopia Mountains and areas surrounding the Gavilan Hills.

  3. 1983 biotic studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    O`Farrell, T.P.; Collins, E.

    1984-04-01

    A 27.5-square-mile portion of Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, is being considered as a potential location for a national high-level radioactive waste repository. Preliminary geologic and environmental characterization studies have been supported and more extensive studies are planned. Goals of the biotic surveys were to identify species of concern, describe major floral and faunal associations, and assess possible impacts of characterization and operational activities. Floral associations observed were characteristic of either the Mojave or Transition deserts that are widely distributed in southern Nevada. Diversity, in terms of total number of perennial species represented, was higher in Transition Desert associations than in Mojave Desert associations. Canopy coverage of associations fell within the range of reported values, but tended to be more homogeneous than expected. Annual vegetation was found to be diverse only where the frequency of Bromus rubens was low. Ground cover of winter annuals, especially annual grasses, was observed to be very dense in 1983. The threat of range fires on Yucca Mountain was high because of the increased amount of dead litter and the decreased amount of bare ground. Significant variability was observed in the distribution and relative abundance of several small mammal species between 1982 and 1983. Desert tortoise were found in low densities comparable with those observed in 1982. Evidence of recent activity, which included sighting of two live tortoises, was found in five areas on Yucca Mountain. Two of these areas have a high probability of sustaining significant impacts if a repository is constructed. Regeneration of aboveground shrub parts from root crowns was observed in areas damaged in 1982 by seismic testing with Vibroseis machines. These areas, which had been cleared to bare dirt by passage of the machines, also supported lush stands of winter annuals.

  4. Stratigraphic relations and U-Pb geochronology of the Upper Cretaceous upper McCoy Mountains Formation, southwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tosdal, R.M.; Stone, P.

    1994-01-01

    A previously unrecognized angular unconformity divides the Jurassic and Cretaceous McCoy Mountains Formation into a lower and an upper unit in the Dome Rock Mountains and Livingston Hills of western Arizona. The intraformation unconformity in the McCoy Mountains Formation developed where rocks of the lower unit were deformed adjacent to the southern margin of the Maria fold and thrust belt. The upper unit of the formation is interpreted as a foreland-basin deposit that was shed southward from the actively rising and deforming fold and thrust belt. The apparent absence of an equivalent unconformity in the McCoy Mountains Formation in adjacent California is presumably a consequence of the observed westward divergence of the outcrop belt from the fold and thrust belt. Tectonic burial beneath the north-vergent Mule Mountains thrust system in the latest Late Cretaceous (~70 Ma) marked the end of Mesozoic contractile deformation in the area. -from Authors

  5. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    PubMed

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  7. Thrombosis at mountain altitudes.

    PubMed

    Cucinell, S A; Pitts, C M

    1987-11-01

    Victims of high-altitude pulmonary edema often have clots obstructing the pulmonary vessels. This, together with an apparent high incidence of thrombophlebitis and cerebral emboli at altitude suggests that mountain travel may predispose to hypercoagulability. A critical analysis of the available data suggests that, although thrombosis may be a late event complicating various forms of mountain sickness, the laboratory techniques of characterizing hypercoagulability are not sufficient to define and characterize the mechanism.

  8. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Bernstein, G. H.; Porod, W.

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing.

  9. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  10. Rocky Mountain acidification study

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.H.; Galloway, J.N.; Schofield, C.; McFee, W.; Johnson, R.; McCarley, S.; Dise, N.; Herzog, D.

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of this report were to determine the sensitivity of watersheds characteristic of the Rocky Mountain Region and the relationship of watershed sensitivity to geology and soils; to evaluate the extent of current acidification and the potential for increasing acidification with increasing deposition of nitrate and sulfate; to evaluate the results of the preceding in terms of impacts on fish populations; and to develop recommendations for assessment of future trends in both changing water chemistry and impacts on fish populations. Areas selected for study included the Rocky Mountain National Ppark and Yellowstone National Park, exemplifying two different geologic types that are representative of a large portion of the Rocky Mountain region. Rocky Mountain National Park is primarily underlain by granite and Yellowstone National Park by volcanic materials. Sensitivity is primarily determined by bedrock geology and varies inversely with elevation. High-elevation lakes and streams in the central Rocky Mountain region are very sensitive to acidic deposition. With respect to fish populations there is currently no evidence of chronic acidification and thus no apparent impact on fisheries. However, the very low base cation concentration observed in the headwater drainages of Rocky Mountain National Park suggests extreme sensitivity to acidification. Waters in volcanic areas such as Yellowstone National Park are generally of high alkalinity and do not represent potentially sensitive habitats. 109 references, 31 figures, 24 tables.

  11. Antarctica: Geology of the Ellsworth Mountains.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J J; Bastien, T W; Schmidt, P G; Splettstoesser, J F; Craddock, C

    1962-11-16

    Geologic reconnaissance indicates that the Ellsworth Mountains consist mainly of thousands of feet of folded, slightly metamorphosed, clastic sedimentary rocks of unknown age. Three major stratigraphic units are recognized, but only fragmentary fossils have been found. The folding is asymmetric, overturned, or recumbent; fold axes strike north, 10 degrees to 20 degrees west. Basic igneous sills occur in the northern Heritage Range.

  12. Antarctica: Geology of the Ellsworth Mountains.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J J; Bastien, T W; Schmidt, P G; Splettstoesser, J F; Craddock, C

    1962-11-16

    Geologic reconnaissance indicates that the Ellsworth Mountains consist mainly of thousands of feet of folded, slightly metamorphosed, clastic sedimentary rocks of unknown age. Three major stratigraphic units are recognized, but only fragmentary fossils have been found. The folding is asymmetric, overturned, or recumbent; fold axes strike north, 10 degrees to 20 degrees west. Basic igneous sills occur in the northern Heritage Range. PMID:17821000

  13. Identification of debris-flow hazards in warm deserts through analyzing past occurrences: Case study in South Mountain, Sonoran Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2016-11-01

    After recognition that debris flows co-occur with human activities, the next step in a hazards analysis involves estimating debris-flow probability. Prior research published in this journal in 2010 used varnish microlamination (VML) dating to determine a minimum occurrence of 5 flows per century over the last 8100 years in a small mountain range of South Mountain adjacent to neighborhoods of Phoenix, Arizona. This analysis led to the conclusion that debris flows originating in small mountain ranges in arid regions like the Sonoran Desert could pose a hazard. Two major precipitation events in the summer of 2014 generated 35 debris flows in the same study area of South Mountain-providing support for the importance of probability analysis as a key step in a hazards analysis in warm desert settings. Two distinct mechanisms generated the 2014 debris flows: intense precipitation on steep slopes in the first storm; and a firehose effect whereby runoff from the second storm was funneled rapidly by cleaned-out debris-flow chutes to remobilize Pleistocene debris-flow deposits. When compared to a global database on debris flows, the 2014 storms were among the most intense to generate desert debris flows - indicating that storms of lesser intensity are capable of generating debris flows in warm desert settings. The 87Sr/86Sr analyses of fines and clasts in South Mountain debris flows of different ages reveal that desert dust supplies the fines. Thus, wetter climatic periods of intense rock decay are not needed to resupply desert slopes with fines; instead, a combination of dust deposition supplying fines and dirt cracking generating coarse clasts can re-arm chutes in a warm desert setting with abundant dust.

  14. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  19. Relict colluvial boulder deposits as paleoclimatic indicators in the Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, J.W.; Harrington, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Early to middle Pleistocene boulder deposits are common features on southern Nevada hillslopes. These darkly varnished, ancient colluvial deposits stand out in stark contrast to the underlying light-colored bedrock of volcanic tuffs, and they serve as minor divides between drainage channels on modern hillslopes. To demonstrate the antiquity of these stable hillslope features, six colluvial boulder deposits from Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, were dated by cation-ratio dating of rock varnish accreted on boulder surfaces. Estimated minimum ages of these boulder deposits range from 760 to 170 ka. Five additional older deposits on nearby Skull and Little Skull Mountains and Buckboard Mesa yielded cation-ratio minimum-age estimates of 1.38 Ma to 800 ka. An independent cosmogenic chlorine-36 surface exposure date was obtained on one deposit, which confirms an estimated early to middle Quaternary age. These deposits have provided the oldest age estimates for unconsolidated hillslope deposits in the southwestern United States. We suggest that the colluvial boulder deposits were produced during early and middle Pleistocene glacial/pluvial episodes and were stabilized during the transition to drier interglacial climates. The preservation of old, thin hillslope deposits and the less-than-2-m incision by hillslope runoff adjacent to these deposits, indicate that extremely low denudation rates have occurred on resistant volcanic hillslopes in the southern Great Basin during Quaternary time. -from Authors

  20. Detrital mineral chronology of the Uinta Mountain Group: Implications for the Grenville flood in southwestern Laurentia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, P.A.; Foster, D.A.; Mogk, D.W.; Wooden, J.L.; Kamenov, George D.; Vogl, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that large quantities of Grenville-age detritus dominate Neo-proterozoic to Cambrian arenites in southwest Laurentia (southwestern United States). U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons and 40Ar/39Ar ages of white mica from clastic sedimentary rocks of the Neoproterozoic Uinta Mountain Group also indicate significant Mesoproterozoic detritus mixed with a variably abundant Archean component. Zircons with ages representative of the Paleoproterozoic basement in the eastern Uinta Mountains or the younger Paleoproterozoic rocks of the adjacent Yavapai-Mazatzal terranes were not observed. A limited range of initial ??Hf (???90% between -3 and +3) for Mesoproterozoic zircons suggests derivation from a source region (or regions) characterized by mixing between juvenile and reworked older crust during Grenville orogenesis. The enriched Grenville-age basement proposed to underlie much of southeastern North America may be this source based on similarities of Hf isotopic data from Mesoproterozoic zircons in Mississippi River sand and available paleocurrent data. If so, then disruption of this supply in the Cambrian may be related to Iapetan rifting and, perhaps, the separation of the Precordillera terrane from Laurentia. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  1. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  2. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  3. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr‑1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr‑1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm‑2 yr‑1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment.

  4. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    PubMed

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr(-1) in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr(-1) in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm(-2) yr(-1) in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment. PMID:27600881

  5. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr−1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr−1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm−2 yr−1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment. PMID:27600881

  6. Geological map of Bare Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Monsen, S.A.; Carr, M.D.; Reheis, M.C.; Orkild, P.P.

    1992-12-31

    Bare Mountain comprises the isolated complex of mountain peaks southeast of the town of Beatty in southern Nye County, Nevada. This small mountain range lies between the alluvial basins of Crater Flat to the east and the northern Amargosa Desert to the southwest. The northern boundary of the range is less well defined, but for this report, the terrane of faulted Miocene volcanic rocks underlying Beatty Mountain and the unnamed hills to the east are considered to be the northernmost part of Bare Mountain. The southern tip of the mountain range is at Black Marble, the isolated hill at the southeast corner of the map. The main body of the range, between Fluorspar Canyon and Black Marble, is a folded and complexly faulted, but generally northward-dipping (or southward-dipping and northward-overturned), sequence of weakly to moderately metamorphosed upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic marine strata, mostly miogeoclinal (continental shelf) rocks. The geology of Bare Mountain is mapped at a scale of 1:24,000.

  7. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, J. St; Kysela, R.F.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Primers for 15 microsatellite loci were developed for Mountain Plover, a species whose distribution and abundance have been reduced drastically in the past 30 years. In a screen of 126 individuals collected from four breeding locales across the species' range, levels of polymorphism ranged from two to 13 alleles per locus. No two loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci can be used in population genetic studies, ultimately aiding in management efforts for Mountain Plover. Additionally, these markers can potentially be used in studies investigating the mating system of Mountain Plover. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. High altitude pulmonary edema in mountain climbers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Guzek, Aneta; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-04-01

    Every year thousands of ski, trekking or climbing fans travel to the mountains where they stay at the altitude of more than 2500-3000m above sea level or climb mountain peaks, often exceeding 7000-8000m. High mountain climbers are at a serious risk from the effects of adverse environmental conditions prevailing at higher elevations. They may experience health problems resulting from hypotension, hypoxia or exposure to low temperatures; the severity of those conditions is largely dependent on elevation, time of exposure as well as the rate of ascent and descent. A disease which poses a direct threat to the lives of mountain climbers is high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). It is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in rapidly climbing unacclimatized lowlanders usually within 2-4 days of ascent above 2500-3000m. It is the most common cause of death resulting from the exposure to high altitude. The risk of HAPE rises with increased altitude and faster ascent. HAPE incidence ranges from an estimated 0.01% to 15.5%. Climbers with a previous history of HAPE, who ascent rapidly above 4500m have a 60% chance of illness recurrence. The aim of this article was to present the relevant details concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, prevention, and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema among climbers in the mountain environment.

  9. Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam Basin, Northern Tibet: A framework for examining the links between glaciation, lake level changes and alluvial fan formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, L.A.; Finkel, R.C.; Haizhou, M.; Barnard, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Qaidam Basin in Northern Tibet is one of the largest hyper-arid intermontane basins on Earth. Alluvial fans, pediment surfaces, shorelines and a thick succession of sediments within the basin, coupled with moraines and associated landforms in the adjacent high mountain catchments of the Kunlun Mountains, record a complex history of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental change and landscape evolution. The region provides an ideal natural laboratory to examine the interaction between tectonics and climate within a continent-continent collision zone, and to quantify rates of landscape evolution as controlled by climate and the associated glacial and hydrological changes in hyper-arid and adjacent high-altitude environments. Geomorphic mapping, analysis of landforms and sediments, and terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure and optically stimulated luminescence dating serve to define the timing of formation of Late Quaternary landforms along the southern and northwestern margins of the Qaidam Basin, and in the Burhan Budai Shan of the Kunlun Mountains adjacent to the basin on the south. These dates provide a framework that suggests links between climatic amelioration, deglaciation, lake desiccation and alluvial fan evolution. At least three glacial advances are defined in the Burham Budai Shan of the Kunlun Mountains. On the northern side of this range these occurred in the penultimate glacial cycle or early in the last glacial cycle, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)/Lateglacial and during the Holocene. On the south side of the range, advances occurred during the penultimate glacial cycle, MIS-3, and possibly the LGM, Lateglacial or Holocene. Several distinct phases of alluvial fan sedimentation are likewise defined. Alluvial fans formed on the southern side of the Kunlun Mountains prior to 200 ka. Ice-contact alluvial fans formed during the penultimate glacial and during MIS-3. Extensive incised alluvial fans that form the main valley fills north of

  10. Objective climate classification as a framework for assessing projected climate change in High Mountain Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Fowler, Hayley; Pritchard, David; Blenkinsop, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    This study builds upon foundational work by Forsythe et al (2015, doi: 10.5194/esd-6-311-2015) which used principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering to derive objective present climate classifications over High Mountain Asia and adjacent regions (60E to 100E, 20N to 40N) based on global meteorological reanalyses' estimates of the drivers of water resources availability and variability (precipitation, surface shortwave radiation, daily mean near surface air temperature and its diurnal range). This study refines Forsythe et al (2015) by testing the potential for spatially disaggregating coarse global reanalyses (and climate model outputs) using iterative classification and regression processing to achieve a 5km (0.05 decimal degree) horizontal resolution in order better capture the severe topographic range and gradients of the HMA domain. This spatial refinement should allow for better intercomparability of resultant classifications derived from datasets with different native resolutions. This intercomparability is critical because the second stage of this assesses climate change projections from a range regional climate model experiments - UK Hadley Centre RQUMP 25km South Asia perturbed physics ensemble, CORDEX South Asia domain and (pending dataset availability) NextData EC-Earth 15km high resolution HMA domain - using derived objective classifications as a framework for aggregation. By establishing sub-regional units of relative homogeneity, the objective classification approach allows twofold assessment of project future climate scenarios, i.e. change can be quantified not only as perturbation of key variables (e.g. precipitation, temperature, etc) but also in terms of the spatial descriptors (areal extent, surface elevation range and mean, latitudinal and longitudinal bounds) of the identified climate zones. It is expected that this novel approach, and in particular the very high target spatial resolution, will yield important insights into the

  11. Gravity and Magnetic Investigations of the Mojave National Preserve and Adjacent Areas, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Biehler, S.; Negrini, R.; Mickus, K.; Miller, D.M.; Miller, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data provide the underpinnings of a hydrogeologic framework for the Mojave National Preserve by estimating the thickness of Cenozoic deposits and locating inferred structural features that influence groundwater flow. An inversion of gravity data indicates that thin (<1 km) basin deposits cover much of the Preserve, except for Ivanpah Valley and the Woods Mountains volcanic center. Localized areas of Cenozoic deposits thicker than 500 m are predicted beneath parts of Lanfair Valley, Fenner Valley, near Kelso, Soda Lake, and southeast of Baker. Along the southern margin of the Mojave National Preserve, basins greater than 1 km deep are located between the Clipper and Marble Mountains, between the Marble and Bristol Mountains, and south of the Bristol Mountains near Amboy. Both density and magnetization boundaries defined by horizontal-gradient analyses coincide locally with Cenozoic faults and can be used to extend these faults beneath cover. Magnetization boundaries also highlight the structural grain within the crystalline rocks and may serve as a proxy for fracturing, an important source of permeability within the generally impermeable basement rocks, thus mapping potential groundwater pathways through and along the mountain ranges in the study area.

  12. Neocomian source and reservoir rocks in the western Brooks Range and Arctic Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, C.G.; Reifenstuhl, R.R.; Harris, E.E.; Crowder, R.K.

    1995-04-01

    Detailed (1:63,360) mapping of the Tingmerkpuk sandstone and associated rocks in the Misheguk Mountain and DeLong Mountains guadrangles of the western Brooks Range thrust belt documents potential hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks in the northern foothills of the western Delong Mountains and adjacent Colville basin of northwest Alaska. Neocomian (?) to Albian micaceous shale, litharenite, and graywacke that overlies the Tingmerkpuk represents the onset of deposition of orogenic sediments derived from the Brooks Range to the south, and the merging of northern and southern sediment sources in the Colville basin. Both the proximal and distal Tingmerkpuk facies contain clay shale interbeds and overlie the Upper Jurassic to Neocomian Kingak Shale. Preliminary geochemical data show that in the thrust belt, these shales are thermally overmature (Ro 1.4-1.6), but are good source rocks with total organic content (TOC) that ranges from 1.2 to 1.8 percent. Shale in the overlying Brookian rocks is also thermally overmature (Ro 1.2-1.5 percent), but contains up to 1.8 percent TOC from a dominantly terrigenous source, and has generated gas. In outcrops at Surprise Creek, in the foothills north of the thrust belt, the Kingak (1.9 percent TOC) and underlying Triassic Shublik Formation (4.6 percent TOC) are excellent oil source rocks with thermal maturity close to peak oil generation stage (Ro0.75-0.9 percent). These rocks have lower thermal maturity values than expected for their stratigraphic position within the deeper parts of the Colville basin and indicate anomalous burial and uplift history in parts of the basin. Preliminary apatite fission-track (AFTA) data from the thrust belt indicate a stage of rapid uplift and cooling at about 53.61 Ma.

  13. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  14. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  15. WILSON MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson Mountains Wilderness consists of about 68 sq mi in the San Miguel Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Based on a mineral survey two areas in the wilderness have a probable mineral-resource potential. One area is on the east margin of the area in the Trout Lake mining district, and the other is near the center of the area, the Mount Wilson mining district. Both areas have had a modest base and (or) precious metal production from narrow veins and have a probable potential for the occurrence of similar deposits. Of more significance is a probable mineral-resource potential for disseminated copper mineralization in the Mount Wilson mining district.

  16. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  17. Deposition patterns and transport mechanisms for the endocrine disruptor 4-nonylphenol across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Rebecca; Van de Bittner, Kyle; Morgan-Jones, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Dust and particulate distribution patterns are shifting as global climate change brings about longer drought periods. Particulates act as vehicles for long range transport of organic pollutants, depositing at locations far from their source. Nonylphenol, a biodegradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate, is a known endocrine disruptor. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate enters the environment as an inert ingredient in pesticide sprays, potentially traveling great distances from its application site. This is of concern when a highly agricultural region, California's Central Valley, lies adjacent to sensitive areas like the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The distribution and transport mechanisms for 4-nonylphenol were investigated in Eastern Sierra Nevada canyons. Regions close to canyon headwalls showed trace amounts of 4-nonylphenol in surface water, snow, and atmospheric deposition. Exposed areas had yearly average concentrations as high as 9 μg/L. Distribution patterns are consistent with particulate-bound transport. This suggests with increasing drought periods, higher levels of persistent organic pollutants are likely.

  18. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  19. Conodont color alteration (CAI) as an aid to structural interpretation in the Black Pine Mountains, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Fred J., Jr.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    The Black Pine Mountains, southeastern Cassia County, Idaho, consist of southern and northern blocks separated by a northeast-trending, high-angle fault. Differences in conodont color alteration values distinguish the two blocks. The southern block has significantly higher organic maturation levels than the northern block and is interpreted to have been thrust northeastward adjacent to the northern block.

  20. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  1. Nitrogen saturation in the Rocky Mountains: Linking emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects using stable isotopes of nitrogen compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, D.H.; Nanus, L.; Böhlke, J.K.; Harlin, K.; Collett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition are affecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at high elevations in Rocky Mountain National Park and adjacent areas of the Front Range of Colorado. Federal and state agencies are now working together to develop cost-effective means for reducing atmospheric N deposition. A discussion on N saturation covers the need for better understanding of N emission source areas and source types that contribute to N deposition in the Rocky Mountains Front Range of Colorado; reductions in NO emissions that resulted from Clean Air Act Amendments, which caused NO3 deposition to decrease between 1984 and 2003; factors contributing to N deposition, e.g., rapid population growth and energy development; origins of NO3, e.g., as NO emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including stationary sources (e.g. emission from coal combustion in electric generating units), and mobile sources (vehicle emissions); disperse stationary sources from energy resource development, e.g., natural gas production; and the importance of incorporating local source characterization and finer spatial and temporal sampling into future studies, which could provide additional insight into N deposition source attribution. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 100th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association (Pittsburgh, PA 6/26-29/2007).

  2. [Death by avalanche in the minor mountain range].

    PubMed

    Geisenberger, Dorothee; Kramer, Lena; Pircher, Rebecca; Pollak, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    On 30 Jan 2015, two avalanche accidents happened in the Black Forest (at the foot of the 1493 m high Feldberg and the Herzogenhorn situated next to it), in which experienced ski tourers--a 58-year-old woman and a 20-year-old man--were completely buried by snow masses. Both victims were recovered dead after nearly 2 hours under the snow. The avalanches were promoted by strong snowfalls, snowdrift by the wind and steep downwind slopes. One of the victims, the 20-year-old man, underwent a forensic autopsy. The findings suggested death by protracted asphyxiation with agonal hypothermia. A mechanical traumatization with internal injuries suspected by the emergency doctor at the scene could not be confirmed at autopsy. The possible causes of death in the avalanche are discussed using the reported case as an example and in reference to the relevant literature.

  3. Tabletop Tectonics: Diverse Mountain Ranges Using Flour and Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the frontal deformation zones where plates converge (foreland fold- and-thrust belts on continents and accretionary wedges at subduction zones) involve shortening over a decoupling layer, or decollement. A simple but successful way of explaining many aspects of their behavior is called the critical Coulomb wedge model, which regards these contractional wedges as analogous to the wedge-shaped mass of soil accreted in front of a bulldozer, or the wedge of snow that piles up in front of a snow plow. The shape and deformation history of the accreted wedge of soil or snow will depend upon the frictional strength of the material being plowed up and the surface over which it is being plowed. The same is true of `bulldozer' wedges consisting of many km thick piles of sediment at convergent plate margins. Using flour (or powdered milk), sandpaper, graphite, transparency sheets, and athletic field marker chalk, manipulated with sieves, brushes, pastry bags and blocks and sheets of wood, it is possible to demonstrate a wide variety of processes and tectonic styles observed at convergent plate boundaries. Model fold-and-thrust belts that behave like natural examples with a decollement that is strong (e.g., in rock without high pore fluid pressure) or weak (e.g., in a salt horizon or with elevated pore fluid pressure) can be generated simply by placing wither sandpaper or graphite beneath the flour that is pushed across the tabletop using a block of wood (the strong basement and hiterland rocks behind the fold-thrust belt). Depending upon the strength of the decollement, the cross-sectional taper of the deforming wedge will be thin or broad, the internal deformation mild or intense, and the structures either close to symmetric or strongly forward-vergent, just as at the analogous natural fold-thrust belts. Including a horizontal sheet of wood or Plexiglas in front of the pushing block allows generation of an accretionary wedge, outer-are high, and forearc basin, just as over a subduction zone. Any dark material emplaced (a pastry bag works well) atop the experiment before deformation in the form of football-field `hash marks' every 10 cm allows for easy calculation of strain distribution at any time during or after the experiment. Finally, the entire orogen can be excavated using a plastic photocopier transparency sheet. If the original set-up included occasional thin layers of red and blue field marker chalk within sedimentary column (the rest of which consists of white flour or powdered milk), excavation reveals (quite colorfully) many internal details of the fold-thrust belts that have been generated.

  4. [Death by avalanche in the minor mountain range].

    PubMed

    Geisenberger, Dorothee; Kramer, Lena; Pircher, Rebecca; Pollak, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    On 30 Jan 2015, two avalanche accidents happened in the Black Forest (at the foot of the 1493 m high Feldberg and the Herzogenhorn situated next to it), in which experienced ski tourers--a 58-year-old woman and a 20-year-old man--were completely buried by snow masses. Both victims were recovered dead after nearly 2 hours under the snow. The avalanches were promoted by strong snowfalls, snowdrift by the wind and steep downwind slopes. One of the victims, the 20-year-old man, underwent a forensic autopsy. The findings suggested death by protracted asphyxiation with agonal hypothermia. A mechanical traumatization with internal injuries suspected by the emergency doctor at the scene could not be confirmed at autopsy. The possible causes of death in the avalanche are discussed using the reported case as an example and in reference to the relevant literature. PMID:26548036

  5. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  6. Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

  7. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  8. Rocky Mountain High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  9. Rocky Mountain Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkiewicz, Jody Steiner, Ed.

    This publication features articles detailing the state of educational programs in the Rocky Mountain area. The articles address: 1) the impact of physical geography on culture, education, and lifestyle; 2) the education of migrant and/or agricultural workers and their children; 3) educational needs of children in rural areas; 4) outdoor education;…

  10. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  11. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  12. Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit

  13. Lithofacies and stratigraphy of the Lisburne and Etivluk groups in the Lisburne 1 well and adjacent outcrops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    The Lisburne 1 well in the thrust belt of the central Brooks Range penetrated 17,000 ft of imbricated, chiefly Ellesmerian sequence strata in the Endicott Mountains allochthon. Five thrust repeats of the Lisburne Group (Carboniferous) and overlying Etivluk Group (Permian-Jurassic) were drilled. Lithofacies analyses of >350 thin sections of cores and cuttings, and biostratigraphy based on foraminifers and conodonts, allow detailed correlation with coeval units in adjacent outcrops and p