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Sample records for adjacent non-glacierized basin

  1. MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST TOWARD NORTH SIDE OF PUMP HOUSE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2690. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Mesozoic tectonics and paleogeography of the western U. S. and the adjacent Pacific basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dilek, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent geological, geochemical, and geochronological information from Jurassic and older ophiolite complexes and arc rocks in northern California provides new interpretations for Mesozoic tectonics of the western US and the adjacent Pacific basin. This information is discussed in conjunction with the Mesozoic tectonics and paleogeography of the western United States and the Pacific Ocean.

  4. The sedimentary and crustal velocity structure of Makarov Basin and adjacent Alpha Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelatos, John; Funck, Thomas; Mosher, David C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the velocity structure of Makarov Basin and the adjacent Alpha Ridge to determine the tectonic origins of these features and link them to the larger Amerasia Basin. Seismic data from sonobuoys distributed along a 650 km-long line extending from Alpha Ridge and across Makarov Basin to the Lomonosov Ridge were analyzed for this purpose. Forward modelling of traveltimes, supported by coincident multi-channel seismic reflection and shipborne gravity data, were used to determine the P-wave velocity structure along the line. The sedimentary cover averages 0.5 km-thick on Alpha Ridge and 1.9 km-thick in Makarov Basin, but reaches up to 5 km-thick at the base of Lomonosov Ridge. Velocities in the sedimentary section range from 1.6 to 4.3 km s- 1. As suggested by relatively high velocities, interbedded volcaniclastic or volcanic rock may occur in the deep sedimentary section. The shallow basement of Alpha Ridge (3.3 to 3.6 km s- 1) is characterized by semi-continuous high amplitude reflections and is interpreted as volcanic rock possibly intercalated with sedimentary rock. Velocities do not vary significantly in the upper and mid-crustal layers between Alpha Ridge and Makarov Basin. Total crustal thickness decreases from 27 km beneath Alpha Ridge to 5 km-thick in Makarov Basin then thickens to > 20 km over a short distance as part of Lomonosov Ridge. The crustal structure of Alpha Ridge is consistent with previous studies suggesting that the Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex is part of a large igneous province (LIP) with thick igneous crust. The lack of change in crustal velocities between Alpha Ridge and Makarov Basin suggests that the basin, at least partly, either formed during or was influenced by LIP-related magmatism. The rapid transition of crustal thicknesses from Makarov Basin to Lomonosov Ridge supports the interpretation that this section of the ridge is a transform margin.

  5. Gulf of California analogue for origin of Late Paleozoic ocean basins adjacent to western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Murchey, B.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Ocean crust accreted to the western margin of North America following the Late Devonian to earliest Missippian Antler orogeny is not older than Devonian. Therefore, ocean crust all along the margin of western North America may have been very young following the Antler event. This situation can be compared to the present-day margin of North America which lies adjacent to young ocean crust as a result of the subduction of the Farallon plate and arrival of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Syn- and post-Antler rifting that occurred along the North American margin may well be analogous to the formation of the Gulf of California by the propagation of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Black-arc rifting associated with the subduction of very old ocean crust seems a less likely mechanism for the early stages of ocean basin formation along the late Paleozoic margin of western North America because of the apparent absence of old ocean crust to the west of the arc terranes. The eastern Pacific basins were as long-lived as any truly oceanic basins and may have constituted, by the earliest Permian, a single wedge-shaped basin separated from the western Pacific by rifted fragments of North American arc-terranes. In the Permian, the rifted arcs were once again sites of active magmatism and the eastern Pacific basins began to close, from south (Golconda terrane) to north. Final closure of the northernmost eastern Pacific basin (Angayucham in Alaska) did not occur until the Jurassic.

  6. Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains and adjacent Raton Basin, southern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Culebra Range) is interpreted as a system of west-dipping, basement-involved thrusts and reverse faults. The Culebra thrust is the dominant structure in the central part of the range; it dips 30 -55?? west and brings Precambrian metamorphic base-ment rocks over unmetamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. East of the Culebra thrust, thrusts and reverse faults break the basement and overlying cover rocks into north-trending fault blocks; these boundary faults probably dip 40-60?? westward. The orientation of fault slickensides indicates oblique (northeast) slip on the Culebra thrust and dip-slip (ranging from eastward to northward) movement on adjacent faults. In sedimentary cover rocks, east-vergent anticlines overlie and merge with thrusts and reverse faults; these anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds. Minor east-dipping thrusts and reverse faults (backthrusts) occur in both the hanging walls and footwalls of thrusts. The easternmost faults and folds of the Culebra Range form a continuous structural boundary between the Laramide Sangre de Cristo highland and the Raton Basin. Boundary structures consist of west-dipping frontal thrusts flanked on the basinward side by poorly exposed, east-dipping backthrusts. The backthrusts are interpreted to overlie structural wedges that have been emplaced above blind thrusts in the basin margin. West-dipping frontal thrusts and blind thrusts are interpreted to involve basement, but backthrusts are rooted in basin-margin cover rocks. At shallow structural levels where erosion has not exposed a frontal thrust, the structural boundary of the basin is represented by an anticline or monocline. Based on both regional and local stratigraphic evidence, Laramide deformation in the Culebra Range and accompanying synorogenic sedimentation in the western Raton Basin probably took place from latest Cretaceous through early Eocene time. The earliest evidence of uplift and

  7. Selected ground-water information for the Pasco basin and adjacent areas, Washington, 1986-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, B.W.; Schurr, K.M.; Lum, W. E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, conducted a study of the Pasco basin and adjacent areas, Washington, in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project at the Hanford site, Washington. The purpose of the study was to develop a data set that would help define the groundwater-flow system of the Pasco Basin. This report contains the basic data, without interpretation, that were collected from the start of the project in February 1986 through January 1989. Information presented is from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, State of Washington Department of Ecology , US Army Corps of Engineers, Kennewick Irrigation District, and the Survey, and consists of well location and construction data, records of water levels in the wells, and aquifer designations for each well. The aquifer designation represents the geohydrologic unit to which the well is reported to be open. (USGS)

  8. Correlation of sea level falls interpreted from atoll stratigraphy with turbidites in adjacent basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Past sea levels can be derived from any atoll subsurface sediments deposited at or near sea level by determining the ages of deposition and correcting the present depths to the sediments for subsidence of the underlying edifice since the times of deposition. A sea level curve constructed by this method consists of discontinuous segments, each corresponding to a period of rising relative sea level and deposition of a discrete sedimentary package. Discontinuities in the sea level curve derived by this method correspond to relative sea level falls and stratigraphic hiatuses in the atoll subsurface. During intervals of relative sea level fall an atoll emerges to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence without depositing sediments on top of the atoll. Furthermore, subaerial erosion may remove a substantial part of the depositional record of previous sea level fluctuations. For these reasons the authors must look to the adjacent basins to complement the incomplete record of sea level change recorded beneath atolls. During lowstands of sea level, faunas originally deposited near sea level on an atoll may be eroded and redeposited as turbidites in deep adjacent basins. Three such turbidites penetrated during deep-sea drilling at Sites 462 and 315 in the central Pacific correlate well with a late Tertiary sea level curve based on biostratigraphic ages and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr chronostratigraphy for core from Enewetak Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands. Further drilling of the archipelagic aprons adjacent to atolls will improve the sea level history that may be inferred from atoll stratigraphy.

  9. Spatio-temporal evolution of a Tertiary carbonate platform margin and adjacent basinal deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Moyra E. J.; Chambers, John L. C.; Manning, Christina; Nas, Dharma S.

    2012-10-01

    The variability in low to moderate energy carbonate platform margins is poorly known from the geological record. Here, the spatial and temporal evolution of platform margin and adjacent basinal deposits is evaluated from the little known Tertiary Kedango Limestone that developed in a semi-enclosed marine embayment in SE Asia. The hypothesis here is that platform margin development will reflect regional and perhaps global influences, such as tectonics, eustasy or biotic change, rather than windward-leeward effects and storms that typically impact strongly upon open oceanic platforms. The development of the carbonate platform was determined through logging, petrography, facies evaluation, provenance and high-resolution dating studies. Eleven carbonate facies were identified from the 30 km long western margin of the > 600 m thick platform and its adjacent slope and basinal deposits. Larger benthic foraminifera and coralline algal packstones and wackestones dominated in shallow waters. During the Oligo-Miocene, coral patch reef-related floatstones, rudstones and less commonly boundstones were also present on the platform top. Perhaps surprisingly for a low energy platform there was considerable variation along the platform margin and much reworking of material into slope and basinal deposits during the Oligo-Miocene. Reworked material includes shallow water bioclasts, clasts from older siliciclastics, fresh feldspars, lithified slope and platform top carbonate clasts, some of the latter showing evidence for karstification. The western platform margin varied laterally over a few kilometres from a gently sloping unrimmed platform, to a probable bank top, with in places coral-fringed, bypass and erosional faulted escarpment margins. Eustasy may have influenced shallowing and deepening trends on the platform top, but apparently had little impact on mass wasting. Instead platform margin development was strongly impacted by tectonics (including active faulting), terrestrial

  10. Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope, northeast Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.

    1989-01-01

    Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope include canyons, primary fan valleys, deep-sea valleys, and remnant valley segments. Long-range sidescan sonographs and associated seismic-reflection profiles indicate that the canyons may originate along a mid-slope escarpment and grow upslope by mass wasting and downslope by valley erosion or aggradation. Most canyons are partly filled with sediment, and Quillayute Canyon is almost completely filled. Under normal growth conditions, the larger canyons connect with primary fan valleys or deep-sea valleys in Cascadia Basin, but development of accretionary ridges blocks or re-routes most canyons, forcing abandonment of the associated valleys in the basin. Astoria Fan has a primary fan valley that connects with Astoria Canyon at the fan apex. The fan valley is bordered by parallel levees on the upper fan but becomes obscure on the lower fan, where a few valley segments appear on the sonographs. Apparently, Nitinat Fan does not presently have a primary fan valley; none of the numerous valleys on the fan connect with a canyon. The Willapa-Cascadia-Vancouver-Juan de Fuca deep-sea valley system bypasses the submarine fans and includes deeply incised valleys to broad shallow swales, as well as within-valley terraces and hanging-valley confluences. ?? 1989.

  11. A review of sediment quantity issues: examples from the River Ebro and adjacent basins (Northeastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Batalla, Ramon J; Vericat, Damià

    2011-04-01

    Sediment flows naturally through the drainage network, from source areas to deposition zones. Sedimentary disequilibrium in rivers and coastlines is related to the imbalance within the fluvial system caused mostly by dams, instream mining, and changes in land use. This phenomenon is also responsible for ecological perturbations in rivers and streams. A broad need exists to establish comprehensive management strategies (soft measures) that would go beyond site-specific engineering practices (technical measures) typically taken to solve particular problems. Long-term programs are also required to monitor sediment transport in river basins, in order to assess the magnitude and variability of sediment transfer and potential deficits. This paper shows examples of rivers with important sediment disequilibrium in the Ebro and adjacent basins. These basins, like most in the Iberian Peninsula, experience sediment discontinuity in the catchment-river-coast system. Reservoir siltation is the main quantitative issue. Land use change and especially gravel mining downstream from dams accentuate the process. We also present and discuss recent developments on water and sediment management undertaken to improve the morphosedimentary dynamics of rivers.

  12. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  13. Geophysical observations on northern part of Georges Bank and adjacent basins of Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.; Hathaway, J.C.; Dillon, William P.; Hendricks, J.D.; Robb, James M.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous-seismic-reflection and magnetic-intensity profiles provide data for inferences about the geology of the northern part of Georges Bank and the basins of the Gulf of Maine adjacent to the bank. Basement is inferred to be mostly sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Paleozoic age that were metamorphosed and intruded locally by felsic and mafic plutons near the end of the Paleozoic Era. During Late Triassic time, large fault basins formed within the Gulf of Maine and probably beneath Georges Bank. The fault basins and a possible major northeast-trending fault zone beneath the northern part of the bank probably formed as a result of the opening Atlantic during the Mesozoic. Nonmarine sediments, associated with mafic flows and intrusive rocks, were deposited in the fault basins as they formed. The upper surface of the Triassic and pre-Triassic rocks that comprise basement is an unconformity that makes up much of the bottom of the Gulf of Maine. Depth to the basement surface beneath the gulf differ greatly because of fluvial erosion in Tertiary time and glacial erosion in Pleistocene time. Beneath the northern part of Georges Bank the basement surface is smoother and slopes southward. Prominent valleys, cut before Late Cretaceous time, are present beneath this part of the bank. Cretaceous, Tertiary, and possibly Jurassic times were characterized by episodes of coastal-plain deposition and fluvial erosion. During this time a very thick wedge of sediment, mostly of Jurassic(?) and Cretaceous ages, was deposited on the shelf. Major periods of erosion took place at the close of the Cretaceous and during the Pliocene. Fluvial erosion during the Pliocene removed much of the coastal-plain sedimentary wedge and formed the Gulf of Maine. Pleistocene glaciers eroded all but a few remnants of the coastal-plain sediments within the gulf and deposited a thick section of drift against the north slope of Georges Bank and a thin veneer of outwash on the bank. Marine sediments were

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-8:4 Fuel Storage Basin West Side Adjacent and Side Slope Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. D. Habel

    2008-03-18

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-8:4 Fuel Storage Basin West Side Adjacent and Side Slope Soils. The rectangular-shaped concrete basin on the south side of the 105-F Reactor building served as an underwater collection, storage, and transfer facility for irradiated fuel elements discharged from the reactor.

  15. Morphologic Variability of two Adjacent Mass-Transport Deposits: Twin Slides, Gela Basin (Sicily Channel).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minisini, D.; Trincardi, F.; Asioli, A.; Canu, M.; Foglini, F.

    2006-12-01

    Integrating geophysical, sedimentological, structural and paleontological data, we reconstruct the age, size and internal geometry of two adjacent and recent mass-transport deposits (Twin Slides) exposed on the seafloor of Gela Basin (Sicily Channel). Twin Slides are coeval (late-Holocene), and were likely triggered by an earthquake. Twin Slides originated from the mobilization of Pleistocene slope units, are only 6 km apart from each other, have their headscarps in similar water depth (230 m), and have a comparable run out distance (ca. 10 km). Both slides suggest a multistage evolution, but differ in internal organization and morphological expression. The northern slide shows a deposit characterised by pressure ridges in the toe region suggesting a component of plastic deformation, while the southern slide is characterised by large blocks and a reduced thickness of displaced masses. We ascribe the difference in deformation style and resulting morphology to the stratigraphic architecture of the Pleistocene progradational units involved in failure. In the case of the blocky southern slide the units affected by failure are slightly older (Eemian or pre-Emian) and more consolidated; furthermore, in the area where the headscarp is located these units appear affected by shallow faulting likely resulting in the definition of large blocks. The northern slide, instead, affects progradational units of the Last Glacial Maximum in an area where these units are more than 100 m thick and, possibly, underconsolidated.

  16. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  17. Comparing the spatial variability of snow depth on glacierized and non- glacierized surfaces using a geostatistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, K.; Schöber, J.; Stötter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Snow water storage is crucial for discharge generation in alpine headwater catchments. Hence, information on the snow pack and its spatial distribution and variation is of vital importance for the application of hydrological models. However, the assessment and quantification of the water equivalent stored in the snow cover is complicated due to several factors: i) wind or gravity driven relocation of snow results in heterogeneous spatial snow cover and snow depth patterns; ii) measuring snow characteristics (e.g. snow depth or snow water equivalent) and their spatial distribution is difficult in high alpine catchments and often limited to few point measurements only. Remote sensing can provide area-wide information on snow, but often the spatial resolution is too coarse and the temporal coverage is too low. Furthermore, sensors like MODIS or Landsat provide information on snow cover distribution only, but not on snow depth which is highly relevant for hydrological applications. Airborne Laser Scan (ALS) data can bridge this lack of information as there precise information on both distribution and depth of the snow cover is provided. In this paper, we analyse the spatial distribution of snow depth using data from ALS flights in the glacierized parts of the Oetztal Alps, Austria. Snow depth is calculated from consecutive ALS flights at the beginning and the end of the snow accumulation period. The analysis of the spatial distribution of snow depth on both glacierized and non-glacierized surfaces is based on a geostatistical approach. From ALS snow depth data, six subsets (350 m x 350 m, 1 m raster width) were selected for the analysis: two subsets from Hintereisferner glacier, two subsets from Kesselwandferner glacier, and two subsets from adjacent, non- glacierized areas. In order to avoid biased results, the subsets from glacierized surfaces were chosen on areas without crevasses. The variability of snow depth is analysed with respect to surface properties (i

  18. Radiolarian paleo-oceanographic studies of Humboldt basin and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.O.

    1986-04-01

    Miocene-Pliocene samples from land-based sections along an east-west transect of the Humboldt basin were analyzed for microfossil content. The microfossil populations reflect the gradual infilling and shoaling of the basin. Radiolarian fauna indicate that initial deposition occurred in a basin open to deep marine waters. The shelfal characteristics of the radiolarian populations increase through time in a west-east direction. Fauna appear to be sourced from cooler waters of the North Pacific and deep Central Pacific.

  19. Controls on bacterial gas accumulations in thick Tertiary coal beds and adjacent channel sandstones, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Flores, R.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Coal beds, as much as 250 ft thick, and adjacent sandstones in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation are reservoirs for coal-derived natural gas in the Powder River basin. The discontinuous coal beds were deposited in raised, ombrotrophic peat bogs about 3 mi{sup 2} in size, adjoining networks of fluvial channels infilled by sand. Coal-bed thickness was controlled by basin subsidence and depositional environments. The average maceral composition of the coals is 88% huminite (vitrinite), 5% liptinite, and 7% inertinite. The coals vary in rank from subbituminous C to A (R{sub o} values of 0.4 to 0.5%). Although the coals are relatively low rank, they display fracture systems. Natural gas desorbed and produced from the coal beds and adjacent sandstones is composed mainly of methane with lesser amount of Co{sub 2} ({lt}10%). The methane is isotopically light and enriched in deuterium. The gases are interpreted to be generated by bacterial processes and the fermentation pathway, prior to the main phase of thermogenic methane generation by devolatilization. Large amounts of bicarbonate water generated during early stages of coalification will have to be removed from the fracture porosity in the coal beds before desorption and commercial gas production can take place. Desorbed amounts of methane-rich, bacterial gas in the Powder River basin are relatively low ({lt}60 Scf/ton) compared to amounts of thermogenic coal-bed gases (hundreds of Scf/ton) from other Rocky Mountain basins. However, the total coal-bed gas resource in both the coal beds and the adjacent sandstones is considered to be large (as much as 40 Tcf) because of the vast coal resources (as much as 1.3 trillion tons).

  20. Correlations between the Lomonosov Ridge, Marvin Spur and adjacent basins of the Arctic Ocean based on seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langinen, A. E.; Lebedeva-Ivanova, N. N.; Gee, D. G.; Zamansky, Yu. Ya.

    2009-07-01

    Seismic profiles across the Lomonosov Ridge, Marvin Spur and adjacent basins, acquired near the North Pole by the drifting ice-station NP-28, provide a reflection image of the upper parts of the Ridge that is readily correlatable with those acquired by the Alfred Wegner Institute closer to the Siberian margin. A prominent flat-lying composite reflection package is seen in most parts of the Ridge at a few hundred meters below the sea bottom. Underlying reflections are variable in intensity and also in dip. The base of this reflection package is often accompanied by a sharp increase in P-velocity and defines a major angular discontinuity, referred to here as the Lomonosov Unconformity. The Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) cored the first c. 430 m section on the Lomonosov Ridge near the North Pole, in 2004 defining the deeper water character of the Neogene and the shallower water Paleogene sediments. These boreholes penetrated the composite reflection package towards the base of the hole and identified sediments (our Unit III) of late Paleocene and early Eocene age. Campanian beds at the very base of the hole were thought to be representative of the units below the Lomonosov Unconformity, but the P-velocity data suggest that this is unlikely. Correlation of the lithologies along the top of the Lomonosov Ridge and to the Marvin Spur indicates that the Marvin Spur is a sliver of continental crust closely related to, and rifted off the Ridge. This narrow (50 km wide) linear basement high can be followed into, beneath and across the Makarov Basin, supporting the interpretation that this Basin is partly resting on thinned continental crust. In the Makarov Basin, the Paleogene succession is much thicker than on the Ridge. Thus, the condensed, shallow water succession (with hiati) was deposited on the Ridge during rapid Eocene to Miocene subsidence of the Basin. In the Amundsen Basin, adjacent to the Lomonosov Ridge, the sedimentary successions thicken towards the Canadian

  1. Hydrology and snowmelt simulation of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas, Summit County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.; Susong, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing residential and commercial development is placing increased demands on the ground- and surface-water resources of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas in the southwestern corner of Summit County, Utah. Data collected during 1993-95 were used to assess the quantity and quality of the water resources in the study area.Ground water within the study area is present in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated valley fill. The complex geology makes it difficult to determine the degree of hydraulic connection between different blocks of consolidated rocks. Increased ground-water withdrawal during 1983- 95 generally has not affected ground-water levels. Ground-water withdrawal in some areas, however, caused seasonal fluctuations and a decline in ground-water levels from 1994 to 1995, despite greater-than-normal recharge in the spring of 1995.Ground water generally has a dissolved-solids concentration that ranges from 200 to 600 mg/L. Higher sulfate concentrations in water from wells and springs near Park City and in McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek than in other parts of the study area are the result of mixing with water that discharges from the Spiro Tunnel. The presence of chloride in water from wells and springs near Park City and in streams and wells near Interstate Highway 80 is probably caused by the dissolution of applied road salt. Chlorofluorocarbon analyses indicate that even though water levels rise within a few weeks of snowmelt, the water took 15 to 40 years to move from areas of recharge to areas of discharge.Water budgets for the entire study area and for six subbasins were developed to better understand the hydrologic system. Ground-water recharge from precipitation made up about 80 percent of the ground-water recharge in the study area. Ground-water discharge to streams made up about 40 percent of the surface water in the study area and ground-water discharge to springs and mine tunnels made up about 25 percent. Increasing use of

  2. Geochemistry of ground water in alluvial basins of Arizona and adjacent parts of Nevada, New Mexico, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Frederick N.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical and isotope analyses of ground water from 28 basins in the Basin and Range physiographic province of Arizona and parts of adjacent States were used to evaluate ground-water quality, determine processes that control ground-water chemistry, provide independent insight into the hydrologic flow system, and develop information transfer. The area is characterized by north- to northwest-trending mountains separated by alluvial basins that form a regional topography of alternating mountains and valleys. On the basis of ground-water divides or zones of minimal basin interconnection, the area was divided into 72 basins, each representing an individual aquifer system. These systems are joined in a dendritic pattern and collectively constitute the major water resource in the region. Geochemical models were developed to identify reactions and mass transfer responsible for the chemical evolution of the ground water. On the basis of mineralogy and chemistry of the two major rock associations of the area, a felsic model and a mafic model were developed to illustrate geologic, climatic, and physiographic effects on ground-water chemistry. Two distinct hydrochemical processes were identified: (1) reactions of meteoric water with minerals and gases in recharge areas and (2) reactions of ground water as it moves down the hydraulic gradient. Reactions occurring in recharge and downgradient areas can be described by a 13-component system. Major reactions are the dissolution and precipitation of calcite and dolomite, the weathering of feldspars and ferromagnesian minerals, the formation of montmorillonite, iron oxyhydroxides, and probably silica, and, in some basins, ion exchange. The geochemical modeling demonstrated that relatively few phases are required to derive the ground-water chemistry; 14 phases-12 mineral and 2 gas-consistently account for the chemical evolution in each basin. The final phases were selected through analysis of X-ray diffraction and fluorescence data

  3. The concentration of radionuclides and metals in vegetation adjacent to and in the SRL Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C. E. Jr.

    1992-12-14

    In 1991 the trees on the dikes surrounding the SRL Seepage Basins were sampled and analyzed to inventory the contaminants transported from the basins into the vegetation. Tree leaves and wood were collected and analyzed for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 242,244}Cm, {sup 241}Am, Ba, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The concentrations of contaminants were influenced by sample type (leaves versus wood), species type (pines versus hardwoods), and location relative to distance from the basin. The total inventory of each contaminant in the trees was estimated. The relationships between leaf and wood, pines and hardwood, location, and mass of the material in each of these classes were used to weight the total inventory estimate. The radionuclide with the largest inventory was 0.7 mCi for {sup 90}Sr. The metallic contaminant with the largest inventory was Mn at 200 gm.

  4. The concentration of radionuclides and metals in vegetation adjacent to and in the SRL Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C. E. Jr.

    1992-12-14

    In 1991 the trees on the dikes surrounding the SRL Seepage Basins were sampled and analyzed to inventory the contaminants transported from the basins into the vegetation. Tree leaves and wood were collected and analyzed for [sup 90]Sr, [sup 60]Co, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 239,240]Pu, [sup 242,244]Cm, [sup 241]Am, Ba, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The concentrations of contaminants were influenced by sample type (leaves versus wood), species type (pines versus hardwoods), and location relative to distance from the basin. The total inventory of each contaminant in the trees was estimated. The relationships between leaf and wood, pines and hardwood, location, and mass of the material in each of these classes were used to weight the total inventory estimate. The radionuclide with the largest inventory was 0.7 mCi for [sup 90]Sr. The metallic contaminant with the largest inventory was Mn at 200 gm.

  5. Tectonic origin of Lower Mesozoic regional unconformities: Southern Colorado Plateau and adjacent Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Palinspastic restoration of Basin and Range structural blocks to early Mesozoic positions relative to the Colorado Plateau permits correlation of lower Mesozoic regional unconformities of the Colorado Plateau across the southern Basin and Range. These unconformities correlate with tectonic reconfiguration of sedimentary basins in which enclosed depositional sequences were deposited. Lesser recognized intraformational unconformities are related to relative sea level change. The Tr-1 unconformity developed on subaerially exposed, karsted, and deeply incised Leonardian carbonates. The overlying Lower Triassic Moenkopi Formation and equivalent strata display a narrow, north-south aligned, passive-margin-type architecture subdivided by Smithian and Spathian intraformational unconformities into three depositional sequences. From basinal to inner shelf facies, Tr-1 truncates folds in Permian rocks. Initial deposition of the lowest sequence began with sea level at the base of the continental slope. Basal conglomerates of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation were deposited in northward-trending paleovalleys incised within and parallel to the Early Triassic shelf. Distribution of fluvial deposition, orientation of paleovalleys, paleocurrent indicators, and provenance indicate change from the passive-margin-bordered Early Triassic basin to an offshore active-margin basin. Continental and marine facies suggest two depositional sequences separated by an early Norian type 2( ) sequence boundary. The J-O unconformity at the base of the Lower Jurassic Glen Canyon Group marks a major change in tectonic setting of western North America as evidenced by (1) progressive southwestward downcutting of the unconformity to deformed Paleozoic rocks and Precambrian basement, (2) coincidence in time and space with Late Triassic to Early Jurassic thrust faults, and (3) initiation of calcalkaline volcanism.

  6. Deformation Rates in the Snake River Plain and Adjacent Basin and Range Regions Based on GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    We estimate horizontal velocities for 405 sites using Global Positioning System (GPS) phase data collected from 1994 to 2010 within the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. The velocities reveal a slowly-deforming region within the Snake River Plain in Idaho and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau in Oregon separated from the actively extending adjacent Basin and Range regions by shear. Our results show a NE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.6 ± 0.7 nanostrain/yr in the Centennial Tectonic Belt and an ~E-oriented extensional strain rate of 3.5 ± 0.2 nanostrain/yr in the Great Basin. These extensional rates contrast with the very low strain rate within the 125 km x 650 km region of the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau which is not distinguishable from zero (-0.1 ± 0.4 x nanostrain/yr). Inversions of Snake River Plain velocities with dike-opening models indicate that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones, as previously hypothesized, is not currently occurring. GPS data also disclose that rapid extension in the surrounding regions adjacent to the slowly-deforming region of the Snake River Plain drives shear between them. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.3-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic Belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic Belt. The fastest lateral shearing evident in the GPS occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where earthquakes with right-lateral strike-slip focal mechanisms are within a NE-trending zone of seismicity. The regional velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic Belt, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and eastern Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is not locally driven by Yellowstone hotspot volcanism, but instead by extension to the south across the Wasatch fault possibly due to gravitational

  7. Hydrogeochemistry and stable isotopes of ground and surface waters from two adjacent closed basins, Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, C.N.; Whittemore, D.O.

    1990-01-01

    The geochemistry and stable isotopes of groundwaters, surface waters, and precipitation indicate different sources of some dissolved constituents, but a common source of recharge and other constituents in two adjacent closed basins in the Atacama Desert region of northern Chile (24??15???-24??45???S). Waters from artesian wells, trenches, and ephemeral streams in the Punta Negra Basin are characterized by concentrations of Na>Ca>Mg and Cl ???SO4, with TDS Mg ??? Ca and SO4 > Cl, with TDS also Mg ??? Ca and SO4 > Cl, but with TDS up to 40 g/l. The deep mine waters have pH between 3.2 and 3.9, and are high in dissolved CO2 (??13 C = -4.8%PDB), indicating probable interaction with oxidizing sulfides. The deep mine waters have ??18O values of ???-1.8%.compared with values < -3.5??? for other Hamburgo Basin waters; thus the mine waters may represent a mixture of meteoric waters with deeper "metamorphic" waters, which had interacted with rocks and exchanged oxygen isotopes at elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the deep mine waters may represent fossil meteoric waters which evolved isotopically along an evaporative trend starting from values quite depleted in ??18O and ??Dd relative to either precipitation or shallow groundwaters. High I/Br ratios in the Hamburgo Basin waters and La Escondida mine waters are consistent with regionally high I in surficial deposits in the Atacama Desert region and may represent dissolution of a wind-blown evaporite component. Rain and snow collected during June 1984, indicate systematic ??18O and ??D fractionation with increasing elevation between 3150 and 4180 m a.s.l. (-0.21??.??18O and -1.7??.??D per 100 m). Excluding the deep mine waters from La Escondida, the waters from the Hamburgo and Punta Negra Basins have similar ??D and ??18O values and together show a distinct evaporative trend (??D = 5.0 ??18O - 20.2). Snowmelt from the central Andes Cordillera to the east is the most likely source of recharge to both basins. Some of the

  8. An ecological study of the KSC Turning Basin and adjacent waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, T. A.; Lasater, J. A.; Clark, K. B.; Kalajian, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The conditions existing in the waters and bottoms of the Turning Basin, the borrow pit near Pad 39A, and the Barge Canal connecting them were investigated to determine the ecological significance of the chemical, biological, and microbiological parameters. The water quality, biological, microbiological findings are discussed. It is recommended that future dredging activities be limited in depth, and that fill materials should not be removed down to the clay strata.

  9. Aquifer systems in the Great Basin region of Nevada, Utah, and adjacent states; a study plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrill, James R.; Welch, A.H.; Prudic, D.E.; Thomas, J.M.; Carman, R.L.; Plume, R.W.; Gates, J.S.; Mason, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Great Basin Regional Aquifer Study includes about 140,000 square miles in parts of Nevada, Utah, California, Idaho, Oregon , and Arizona within which 240 hydrographic areas occupy structural depressions formed primarily by basin-and-range faulting. The principal aquifers are in basin-fill deposits; however, significant carbonate-rock aquifers underlie much of eastern Nevada and western Utah. In October 1980, the U.S. Geological Survey started a 4-year study to: (1) describe the ground-water systems, (2) analyze the changes that have led to the systems ' present conditions, (3) tie the results of this and previous studies together in a regional analysis, and (4) provide means by which effects of future ground-water development can be estimated. A plan of work is presented that describes the general approach to be taken. It defines the major tasks necessary to meet objectives and defines constraints on the scope of work. The approach has been influenced by the diverse nature of ground water flow systems and the large number of basins. A detailed appraisal of 240 individual areas would require more resources than are available. Consequently, the general approach is to study selected ' typical ' areas and key hydrologic processes. Effort during the first three years will be directed toward describing the regional hydrology, conducting detailed studies of ' type ' areas and studying selected hydrologic processes. Effort during the final year will be directed toward developing a regional analysis of results. Special studies will include evaluation of regional geochemistry , regional hydrogeology, recharge, ground-water discharge, and use of remote sensing. Areas to be studied using ground-water flow models include the regional carbonate-rock province in eastern Nevada and western Utah, six valleys--Las Vegas, Carson, Paradise, Dixie, Smith Creek, and Stagecoach--Nevada, plus Jordan Valley, the Millford area, and Tule Valley in Utah. The results will be presented in a

  10. A tectogenetic mechanism controlling the evolution of the Texel-IJsselmeer High (northern Netherlands) and adjacent basins

    SciTech Connect

    Rijkers, R.; Geluk, M. )

    1993-09-01

    Geological studies around the Texel-IJsselmeer High have been carried out for the regional subsurface mapping project of the Geological Survey of The Netherlands. The Texel-IJsselmeer High, in the northern part of the Netherlands, is a northwest-southeast-trending structural unit, slightly tilted to the northeast. The geological evolution of the Texel-IJsselmeer High and the adjacent areas can be linked to an extensional tectonic regime during which several Jurassic basins in the Netherlands originated. During the Late Jurassic, the southern border of the Texel-IJsselmeer High was characterized by normal faulting. Main faults are dipping southwest and are generally part of a half-graben structure. Faulting is accompanied by subsidence of the hanging wall (Jurassic basin area), while the footwall (the Texel-IJsselmeer High) is isostatically uplifted and eroded. The proposed model is based on thinning of the lower crust beneath the basins during Jurassic extension by pure shear. This mechanism is coupled locally with shear zones (simple shear) as a result of lower crustal failure. The model is supported by observations on deep regional seismics at the southern margin of the basin area. During the Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary, transpressional intraplate stresses reactivated the structural weakness zones in the lower and upper crust in a reversed way (inversion). During this tectonic inversion the northwest-southeast-trending Texel-IJsselmeer High acted as a buffer zone perpendicular to the direction of maximum principal stress. Paleogeographical studies and geohistory analysis support the proposed tectogenetic model of the Texel-IJsselmeer High.

  11. Magnetotelluric studies in and adjacent to the Northumberland Basin, Northern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, R. S.; Hutton, V. R. S.

    1993-12-01

    During the past decade broadband magnetotelluric (MT) soundings, with d.c. resistivity soundings at some sites, have been undertaken in three separate field studies in and around the Northumberland Basin, a region of great interest to earth scientists on account of the proposed location there of the Iapetus Suture. As a result of an increase in cultural noise during this period, the data from the last two studies have been processed using a new robust constrained impedance tensor estimation program. The resulting apparent resistivity and phase data from these studies, together with those from the first broadband study and some earlier MT responses from the region, have now all been modelled using an interpretative modelling procedure. New information has been provided by the MT models on basement depths and, by integrating these new estimates with those from gravity modelling and seismic studies both on land and offshore, a detailed basement topography map has been compiled for the region. The deep eletrical resistivity structure has been modelled along a NW-SE traverse from the Weardale Granite of the Alston Block across the Northumberland Basin to the Southern Uplands of Scotland. Underlying the more conductive sedimentary rocks, the basement rock is found to have resistivities which range from about 100 μ m in the Northumberland Basin to more than 1000 μ m in the Alston Block and probably of the same order in the Southern Uplands. A mid-crustal conductor exists along the whole traverse, which is well resolved and has a southward dip beneath the Weardale Granite. Under the Northumberland Basin, the conductor is less well resolved and thus an apparent northward dip can only be regarded as tentative. Comparison of the pseudo-2D and full 2D models resulting from this study and from earlier MT and magnetovariational (MV) studies in Southern Scotland with new MT and joint MT and MV inversions of Livelybrooks et al. (Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 81: 67-84 (1993)) for

  12. Heat flow in the Lesser Antilles island arc and adjacent back arc Grenada basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manga, Michael; Hornbach, Matthew J.; Le Friant, Anne; Ishizuka, Osamu; Stroncik, Nicole; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Boudon, Georges; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Fraass, Andrew; Fujinawa, Akihiko; Hatfield, Robert; Jutzeler, Martin; Kataoka, Kyoko; Lafuerza, Sara; Maeno, Fukashi; Martinez-Colon, Michael; McCanta, Molly; Morgan, Sally; Palmer, Martin R.; Saito, Takeshi; Slagle, Angela; Stinton, Adam J.; Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Talling, Peter J.; Villemant, Benoit; Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Wang, Fei

    2012-08-01

    Using temperature gradients measured in 10 holes at 6 sites, we generate the first high fidelity heat flow measurements from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program drill holes across the northern and central Lesser Antilles arc and back arc Grenada basin. The implied heat flow, after correcting for bathymetry and sedimentation effects, ranges from about 0.1 W/m2 on the crest of the arc, midway between the volcanic islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, to <0.07 W/m2 at distances >15 km from the crest in the back arc direction. Combined with previous measurements, we find that the magnitude and spatial pattern of heat flow are similar to those at continental arcs. The heat flow in the Grenada basin to the west of the active arc is 0.06 W/m2, a factor of 2 lower than that found in the previous and most recent study. There is no thermal evidence for significant shallow fluid advection at any of these sites. Present-day volcanism is confined to the region with the highest heat flow.

  13. Heat flow in the Lesser Antilles island arc and adjacent back arc Grenada basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manga, M.; Hornbach, M. J.; Le Friant, A.; Ishizuka, O.; Stroncik, N.

    2012-12-01

    Using temperature gradients measured in 10 holes at 6 sites, we generate the first high fidelity heat flow measurements from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program drill holes across the northern and central Lesser Antilles arc and back arc Grenada basin. The implied heat flow, after correcting for bathymetry and sedimentation effects, ranges from about 0.1 W/m2 on the crest of the arc, midway between the volcanic islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, to < 0.07 W/m2 at distances > 15 km from the crest in the back arc direction. Combined with previous measurements, we find that the magnitude and spatial pattern of heat flow are similar to those at continental arcs. The heat flow in the Grenada basin to the west of the active arc is 0.06 W/m2, a factor of 2 lower than that found in the previous and most recent study. There is no thermal evidence for significant shallow fluid advection at any of these sites. Present day volcanism is confined to the region with the highest heat flow.

  14. Heat flow in the Lesser Antilles island arc and adjacent back arc Grenada basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manga, Michael; Hornbach, Matt; Le Friant, Anne; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2014-05-01

    Using temperature gradients measured in 10 holes at 6 sites, we generate the first high fidelity heat flow measurements from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program drill holes across the northern and central Lesser Antilles arc and back arc Grenada basin. The implied heat flow, after correcting for bathymetry and sedimentation effects, ranges from about 0.1 W/m2 on the crest of the arc, midway between the volcanic islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, to < 0.07 W/m2 at distances > 15 km from the crest in the back arc direction. Combined with previous measurements, we find that the magnitude and spatial pattern of heat flow are similar to those at continental arcs. The heat flow in the Grenada basin to the west of the active arc is 0.06 W/m2, a factor of 2 lower than that found in the previous and most recent study. There is no thermal evidence for significant shallow fluid advection at any of these sites. Present day volcanism is confined to the region with the highest heat flow.

  15. A modern analog for carbonate source-to-sink sedimentary systems: the Glorieuses archipelago and adjacent basin (SW Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorry, S.; Jouet, G.; Prat, S.; Courgeon, S.; Le Roy, P.; Camoin, G.; Caline, B.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the geomorphological and sedimentological analysis of a modern carbonate source-to-sink system located north of Madagascar (SW Indian Ocean). The sedimentary system is composed of an isolated carbonate platform sited on top of a seamount rising steeply from the seabed located at 3000 m water depth. The slope of the seamount is incised by canyons, and meandering channels occur above lobbed sedimentary bodies at the foot of the slope. The dataset consists of dredges, sediment piston cores, swath bathymetry and seismic (sparker and 2D high-resolution) lines collected from inner platform (less than 5 m deep) to the adjacent deep sedimentary basin. Particle size analysis and composition of carbonate grains are used to characterize the distribution and heterogeneity of sands accumulated on the archipelago. Main results show that composition of carbonate sediments is dominated by segments of Halimeda, large benthic foraminifera, coral debris, molluscs, echinoderms, bryozoans and sponges. According to the shape and the position of sandwaves and intertidal sandbars developed in the back-barrier reef, the present organization of these well-sorted fine-sand accumulations appears to be strongly influenced by flood tidal currents. Seismic lines acquired from semi-enclosed to open lagoon demonstrate that most of the sediment is exported and accumulated along the leeward margin of the platform, which is connected to a canyon network incising the outer slope. Following the concept of highstand shedding of carbonate platforms (Schlager et al., 1994), excess sediment is exported by plumes and gravity flows to the adjacent deep sea where it feeds a carbonate deep-sea fan. Combined observations from platform to basin allow to explain how the Glorieuses carbonate source to sink system has evolved under the influence of climate and of relative sea-level changes since the last interglacial.

  16. Sulfonylurea herbicides in an agricultural catchment basin and its adjacent wetland in the St. Lawrence River basin.

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Yves; Beauvais, Conrad; Cessna, Allan J; Gagnon, Pierre; Hudon, Christiane; Poissant, Laurier

    2014-05-01

    The use of sulfonylurea herbicides (SU) has increased greater than 100 times over the past 30 years in both Europe and North America. Applied at low rates, their presence, persistence and potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems remain poorly studied. During late-spring to early fall in 2009-2011, concentrations of 9 SU were assessed in two agricultural streams and their receiving wetland, an enlargement of the St. Lawrence River (Canada). Six SU in concentrations >LOQ (10 ng L(-1)) were detected in 10% or less of surface water samples. Rimsulfuron was detected each year, sulfosulfuron and nicosulfuron in two years and the others in one year only, suggesting that application of specific herbicides varied locally between years. Detection frequency and concentrations of SU were not significantly associated with total precipitation which occurred 1 to 5d before sampling. Concentrations and fate of SU differed among sites due to differences in stream dynamics and water quality characteristics. The persistence of SU in catchment basin streams reflected the dissipation effects associated with stream discharge. Maximum concentrations of some SU (223 and 148 ng L(-1)) were occasionally above the baseline level (100 ng L(-1)) for aquatic plant toxicity, implying potential toxic stress to flora in the streams. Substantially lower concentrations (max 55 ng L(-1)) of SU were noted at the downstream wetland site, likely as a result from dilution and mixing with St. Lawrence River water, and represent less toxicological risk to the wetland flora. Sporadic occurrence of SU at low concentrations in air and rain samples indicated that atmospheric deposition was not an important source of herbicides to the study area.

  17. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas in the Great Basin of Nevada and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkham, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Great Basin is a region of about 210,000 square miles having no surface drainage to the ocean; it includes most of Nevada and parts of Utah, California, Oregon, Idaho, and Wyoming. The area is characterized by many parallel mountain ranges and valleys trending north-south. Stream channels usually are well defined and steep within the mountains, but on reaching the alluvial fan at the canyon mouth, they may diverge into numerous distributary channels, be discontinuous near the apex of the fan, or be deeply entrenched in the alluvial deposits. Larger rivers normally have well-defined channels to or across the valley floors, but all terminate at lakes or playas. Major floods occur in most parts of the Great Basin and result from snowmelt, frontal-storm rainfall, and localized convective rainfall. Snowmelt floods typically occur during April-June. Floods resulting from frontal rain and frontal rain on snow generally occur during November-March. Floods resulting from convective-type rainfall during localized thunderstorms occur most commonly during the summer months. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas are grouped into five general categories: Detailed, historical, analytical, physiographic, and reconnaissance. The detailed and historical methods are comprehensive methods; the analytical and physiographic are intermediate; and the reconnaissance method is only approximate. Other than the reconnaissance method, each method requires determination of a T-year discharge (the peak rate of flow during a flood with long-term average recurrence interval of T years) and T-year profile and the development of a flood-boundary map. The procedure is different, however, for each method. Appraisal of the applicability of each method included consideration of its technical soundness, limitations and uncertainties, ease of use, and costs in time and money. Of the five methods, the detailed method is probably the most accurate, though most expensive. It is applicable to

  18. Geohydrology of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River Basin, south-central Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.; Peck, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Major streams and tributaries located in the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee (ASO) River Basin of south-central Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida drain about 8,000 square miles of a layered sequence of clastic and carbonate sediments and carbonate Coastal Plain sediments consisting of the surficial aquifer system, upper semiconfining unit, Upper Floridan aquifer, and lower confining unit. Streams either flow directly on late-middle Eocene to Oligocene karst limestone or carve a dendritic drainage pattern into overlying Miocene to Holocene sand, silt, and clay, facilitating water exchange and hydraulic connection with geohydrologic units. Geologic structures operating in the ASO River Basin through time control sedimentation and influence geohydrology and water exchange between geohydrologic units and surface water. More than 300 feet (ft) of clastic sediments overlie the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Gulf Trough-Apalachicola Embayment, a broad area extending from the southwest to the northeast through the center of the basin. These clastic sediments limit hydraulic connection and water exchange between the Upper Floridan aquifer, the surficial aquifer system, and surface water. Accumulation of more than 350 ft of low-permeability sediments in the Southeast Georgia Embayment and Suwannee Strait hydraulically isolates the Upper Floridan aquifer from land-surface hydrologic processes in the Okefenokee Basin physiographic district. Burial of limestone beneath thick clastic overburden in these areas virtually eliminates karst processes, resulting in low aquifer hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient despite an aquifer thickness of more than 900 ft. Conversely, uplift and faulting associated with regional tectonics and the northern extension of the Peninsular Arch caused thinning and erosion of clastic sediments overlying the Upper Floridan aquifer southeast of the Gulf Trough-Apalachicola Embayment near the Florida-Georgia State line. Limestone dissolution in

  19. Climatic and hydrologic oscillations in the Owens Lake basin and adjacent Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, L.V.; Burdett, J.W.; Phillips, F.M.

    1996-11-01

    Oxygen isotope and total organic carbon values of cored sediments from the Owens Lake basin, California, indicate that Owens Lake overflowed most of the time between 52,500 and 12,500 carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) years before present (B.P.). Owens Lake desiccated during or after Heinrich event H1 and was hydrologically closed during Heinrich event H2. The magnetic susceptibility and organic carbon content of cored sediments indicate that about 19 Sierra Nevada glaciations occurred between 52,500 and 23,500 {sup 14}C years B.P. Most of glacial advances were accompanied by decreases in the amount of discharge reaching Owens Lake. Comparison of the timing of glaciation with the lithic record of North Atlantic core V23-81 indicates that the number of mountain glacial cycles and the number of North Atlantic lithic events were about equal between 39,000 and 23,500 {sup 14}C years B.P. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Origin, transport and deposition of leaf-wax biomarkers in the Amazon Basin and the adjacent Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, Christoph; Sawakuchi, André O.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Baker, Paul A.; Zabel, Matthias; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-11-01

    -chain n-alkanes from the Amazon estuary and plume represent an integrated signal of different regions of the onshore basin. Our results also imply that n-alkanes are not extensively remineralized during transport and that the signal at the Amazon estuary and plume includes refractory compounds derived from the western sector of the Basin. These findings will aid in the interpretation of plant wax-based records of marine sediment cores collected from the adjacent ocean.

  1. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  2. Overview of mine drainage geochemistry at historical mines, Humboldt River basin and adjacent mining areas, Nevada. Chapter E.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    Reconnaissance hydrogeochemical studies of the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas of northern Nevada have identified local sources of acidic waters generated by historical mine workings and mine waste. The mine-related acidic waters are rare and generally flow less than a kilometer before being neutralized by natural processes. Where waters have a pH of less than about 3, particularly in the presence of sulfide minerals, the waters take on high to extremely high concentrations of many potentially toxic metals. The processes that create these acidic, metal-rich waters in Nevada are the same as for other parts of the world, but the scale of transport and the fate of metals are much more localized because of the ubiquitous presence of caliche soils. Acid mine drainage is rare in historical mining districts of northern Nevada, and the volume of drainage rarely exceeds about 20 gpm. My findings are in close agreement with those of Price and others (1995) who estimated that less than 0.05 percent of inactive and abandoned mines in Nevada are likely to be a concern for acid mine drainage. Most historical mining districts have no draining mines. Only in two districts (Hilltop and National) does water affected by mining flow into streams of significant size and length (more than 8 km). Water quality in even the worst cases is naturally attenuated to meet water-quality standards within about 1 km of the source. Only a few historical mines release acidic water with elevated metal concentrations to small streams that reach the Humboldt River, and these contaminants and are not detectable in the Humboldt. These reconnaissance studies offer encouraging evidence that abandoned mines in Nevada create only minimal and local water-quality problems. Natural attenuation processes are sufficient to compensate for these relatively small sources of contamination. These results may provide useful analogs for future mining in the Humboldt River basin, but attention must be given to

  3. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  4. The curious case of Hermodice carunculata (Annelida: Amphinomidae): evidence for genetic homogeneity throughout the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent basins.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Joseph B; Borda, Elizabeth; Barroso, Rômulo; Paiva, Paulo C; Campbell, Alexandra M; Wolf, Alexander; Nugues, Maggy M; Rouse, Greg W; Schulze, Anja

    2013-04-01

    Over the last few decades, advances in molecular techniques have led to the detection of strong geographic population structure and cryptic speciation in many benthic marine taxa, even those with long-lived pelagic larval stages. Polychaete annelids, in particular, generally show a high degree of population divergence, especially in mitochondrial genes. Rarely have molecular studies confirmed the presence of 'cosmopolitan' species. The amphinomid polychaete Hermodice carunculata was long considered the sole species within its genus, with a reported distribution throughout the Atlantic and adjacent basins. However, recent studies have indicated morphological differences, primarily in the number of branchial filaments, between the East and West Atlantic populations; these differences were invoked to re-instate Hermodice nigrolineata, formerly considered a junior synonym of H. carunculata. We utilized sequence data from two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 16S rDNA) markers and one nuclear (internal transcribed spacer) marker to examine the genetic diversity of Hermodice throughout its distribution range in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of Guinea. Our analyses revealed generally low genetic divergences among collecting localities and between the East and West Atlantic, although phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial data indicate the presence of a private lineage in the Mediterranean Sea. A re-evaluation of the number of branchial filaments confirmed differences between East and West Atlantic populations; however, the differences were not diagnostic and did not reflect the observed genetic population structure. Rather, we suspect that the number of branchial filaments is a function of oxygen saturation in the environment. Our results do not support the distinction between H. carunculata in the West Atlantic and H. nigrolineata in the East Atlantic. Instead, they re-affirm the

  5. Pliocene transpressional modification of depositional basins by convergent thrusting adjacent to the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault: An example from Lockwood Valley, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California is a left stepping flexure in the dextral fault system and has long been recognized as a zone of relatively high transpression compared to adjacent regions. The Lockwood Valley region, just south of the Big Bend, underwent a profound change in early Pliocene time (???5 Ma) from basin deposition to contraction, accompanied by widespread folding and thrusting. This change followed the recently determined initiation of opening of the northern Gulf of California and movement along the southern San Andreas fault at about 6.1 Ma, with the concomitant formation of the Big Bend. Lockwood Valley occupies a 6-km-wide, fault-bounded structural basin in which converging blocks of Paleoproterozoic and Cretaceous crystalline basement and upper Oligocene and lower Miocene sedimentary rocks (Plush Ranch Formation) were thrust over Miocene and Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks (in ascending order, Caliente Formation, Lockwood Clay, and Quatal Formation). All the pre-Quatal sedimentary rocks and most of the Pliocene Quatal Formation were deposited during a mid-Tertiary period of regional transtension in a crustal block that underwent little clockwise vertical-axis rotation as compared to crustal blocks to the south. Ensuing Pliocene and Quaternary transpression in the Big Bend region began during deposition of the poorly dated Quatal Formation and was marked by four converging thrust systems, which decreased the areal extent of the sedimentary basin and formed the present Lockwood Valley structural basin. None of the thrusts appears presently active. Estimated shortening across the center of the basin was about 30 percent. The fortnerly defined eastern Big Pine fault, now interpreted to be two separate, oppositely directed, contractional reverse or thrust faults, marks the northwestern structural boundary of Lockwood Valley. The complex geometry of the Lockwood Valley basin is similar

  6. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-06-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  7. A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Within the Northern Basin and Range Province, USA, we estimate horizontal velocities for 405 sites using Global Positioning System (GPS) phase data collected from 1994 to 2010. The velocities, together with geologic, volcanic, and earthquake data, reveal a slowly deforming region within the Snake River Plain in Idaho and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau in Oregon separated from the actively extending adjacent Basin and Range regions by shear. Our results show a NE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.6 ± 0.7 × 10-9 yr-1 in the Centennial Tectonic Belt and an ˜E-oriented extensional strain rate of 3.5 ± 0.2 × 10-9 yr-1 in the Great Basin. These extensional rates contrast with the very low strain rate within the 125 km × 650 km region of the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, which is indistinguishable from zero (-0.1 ± 0.4 × 10-9 yr-1). Inversions of the velocities with dyke-opening models indicate that rapid extension by dyke intrusion in volcanic rift zones, as previously hypothesized, is not currently occurring in the Snake River Plain. This slow internal deformation, in contrast to the rapidly extending adjacent Basin and Range regions, indicates shear along the boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.3-1.4 mm yr-1 along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic Belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm yr-1 along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic Belt. The fastest lateral shearing evident in the GPS occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic Belt, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and eastern Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is not locally driven by Yellowstone hotspot volcanism, but instead by extension to the

  8. Distinct groundwater recharge sources and geochemical evolution of two adjacent sub-basins in the lower Shule River Basin, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liheng; Dong, Yanhui; Xie, Yueqing; Song, Fan; Wei, Yaqiang; Zhang, Jiangyi

    2016-12-01

    Based on analysis of groundwater hydrogeochemical and isotopic data, this study aims to identify the recharge sources and understand geochemical evolution of groundwater along the downstream section of the Shule River, northwest China, including two sub-basins. Groundwater samples from the Tashi sub-basin show markedly depleted stable isotopes compared to those in the Guazhou sub-basin. This difference suggests that groundwater in the Tashi sub-basin mainly originates from meltwater in the Qilian Mountains, while the groundwater in the Guazhou sub-basin may be recharged by seepage of the Shule River water. During the groundwater flow process in the Tashi sub-basin, minerals within the aquifer material (e.g., halite, calcite, dolomite, gypsum) dissolve in groundwater. Mineral dissolution leads to strongly linear relationships between Na+ and Cl- and between Mg2++ Ca2+ and SO4 2- + HCO3 -, with stoichiometry ratios of approximately 1:1 in both cases. The ion-exchange reaction plays a dominant role in hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the Guazhou sub-basin and causes a good linear relationship between (Mg2++ Ca2+)-(SO4 2- + HCO3 -) and (Na++ K+)-Cl- with a slope of -0.89 and also results in positive chloroalkaline indices CAI 1 and CAI 2. The scientific results have implications for groundwater management in the downstream section of Shule River. As an important irrigation district in Hexi Corridor, groundwater in the Guazhou sub-basin should be used sustainably and rationally because its recharge source is not as abundant as expected. It is recommended that the surface water should be used efficiently and routinely, while groundwater exploitation should be limited as much as possible.

  9. We are in need of sampling the sedimentary cover and bedrock in the Amerasia Basin. (Suggested site locations in the Makarov Basin, the Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges and adjacent areas.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, N. N.

    2010-12-01

    The Amerasia Basin has a complex origin; alone, the geophysical data can support very different hypotheses. For understanding the tectonic evolution of the Basin and origin of the ridges and troughs it is important to collect geological samples. Based on analyzed seismic data (NP-28 and 26, HOTRAX, Arctic-2000 and TransArctic) over the Makarov Basin, the Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges and adjacent areas, numbers of key drill sites are proposed. All proposed sites in combinations with other geophysical research of the area are fit well with most of the Site Survey Data Requirements (IODP) for a drilling site. Bedrock samples from key locations are especially needed, with full video or photo documentation of the sampling for avoiding later debates about whether bedrock or ice-drift was collected. Due to close locations to a sea bottom, bedrock can be sampled by gravity piston-cores or shallow drilling. Full stratigraphic sections though the Cenozoic and older sedimentary successions are needed at other proposed key locations for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Amerasia Basin. The depositional environment of the key reflections related to Cenozoic shallow water environments, as recorded in the ACEX drillholes, needs to be investigated in other locations. We will then be able to define better the nature of particular morphological features and construct more reliable tectonic models of the Amerasia Basin, in general.

  10. Gas desorption and adsorption isotherm studies of coals in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; McGarry, Dwain E.; Stillwell, Dean P.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Stillwell, Cathy R.; Ochs, Alan M.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Osvald, Karl S.; Taylor, Sharon L.; Thorvaldson, Marjorie C.; Trippi, Michael H.; Grose, Sherry D.; Crockett, Fred J.; Shariff, Asghar J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG), of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper (Wyoming), investigated the coalbed methane resources (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, from 1999 to the present. Beginning in late 1999, the study also included the Williston Basin in Montana and North and South Dakota and Green River Basin and Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. The rapid development of CBM (referred to as coalbed natural gas by the BLM) during the early 1990s, and the lack of sufficient data for the BLM to fully assess and manage the resource in the Powder River Basin, in particular, gave impetus to the cooperative program. An integral part of the joint USGS-BLM project was the participation of 25 gas operators that entered individually into confidential agreements with the USGS, and whose cooperation was essential to the study. The arrangements were for the gas operators to drill and core coal-bed reservoirs at their cost, and for the USGS and BLM personnel to then desorb, analyze, and interpret the coal data with joint funding by the two agencies. Upon completion of analyses by the USGS, the data were to be shared with both the BLM and the gas operator that supplied the core, and then to be released or published 1 yr after the report was submitted to the operator.

  11. A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R.W. King; S.A. Kattenhorn

    2012-04-01

    We evaluate horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities together with geologic, volcanic, and seismic data to interpret extension, shear, and contraction within the Snake River Plain and the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. We estimate horizontal surface velocities using GPS data collected at 385 sites from 1994 to 2009 and present an updated velocity field within the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF). Our results show an ENE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Centennial Tectonic belt and an E-oriented extensional strain rate of 6.2 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Intermountain Seismic belt combined with the northern Great Basin. These extensional strain rates contrast with the regional north-south contraction of -2.6 {+-} 1.1 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} calculated in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau over a 125 x 650 km region. Tests that include dike-opening reveal that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones does not occur in the Snake River Plain at present. This slow internal deformation in the Snake River Plain is in contrast to the rapidly-extending adjacent Basin and Range provinces and implies shear along boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of <0.5 to 1.7 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic belt. The fastest lateral shearing occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional GPS velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic belt, Idaho batholith, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and central Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is driven by extension to the

  12. Geochemistry and isotope hydrology of representative aquifers in the Great Basin region of Nevada, Utah, and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.M.; Welch, A.H.; Dettinger, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report briefly describes the general quality and chemical character of the ground water, discusses in detail the geochemical and hydrologic processes that produce the chemical and isotopic compositions of water in the two principal types of aquifers (basin fill and carbonate rock), delineates flow systems in carbonate-rock aquifers of southern Nevada, and discusses ground-water ages and flow velocities within the carbonate-rock systems.

  13. Structure and tectonic evolution of the Tornquist Zone and adjacent sedimentary basins in Scania and the southern Baltic Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlström, M.; Thomas, S. A.; Deeks, N.; Sivhed, U.

    1997-04-01

    Southernmost Sweden, Bornholm and the surrounding Baltic Sea region are located on a large-scale releasing bend in the dextral strike-slip system of the Tornquist Zone, with its resulting pull-apart basins. The well constrained geology of Scania and Bornholm has been combined with detailed on- and offshore borehole data and three proprietary marine seismic surveys. This in conjunction with supplementary BABEL deep seismic reflection findings allows a combined 3D interpretation of sediment/structure interactions. As a result, a regional interpretation has emerged which gives a new understanding of the interplay between structural movement on a complex strike-slip fault system (Tornquist Zone) and its intrazonal depressions (Vomb Trough and Colonus Shale Trough) as well as the sedimentation history of associated areas of sediment accumulation (Rønne and Arnager Grabens, Höllviken Halfgraben, Hanö Bay Basin and Skurup Platform). Detailed sequential litho- and seismo-stratigraphic descriptions have been possible by combination of the various data sets. This resulted in the clarification or recognition of previously unknown structural limits to sub-basins and highs in the study area. A 3D chronological (4D) model for the development of the region is proposed. This model takes into account the long-lived structural history combining elements of strike-slip, extension and inversion tectonics. The deep-seated faulting controlling these structures is integrated with the deep structure as revealed by the BABEL line in this area.

  14. Megascopic lithologic studies of coals in the Powder River basin in Wyoming and in adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stanton, Ronald W.; Chiehowsky, Lora A.; Moore, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated coalbed methane (CBM) resources in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The study also included the CBM resources in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin of North Dakota and the Wyoming portion of the Green River Basin of Wyoming. This project involved the cooperation of the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper, Wyo., and 16 independent gas operators in the Powder River, Williston, and Green River Basins. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with these CBM operators to supply samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, timely results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high-pressure methane adsorption isotherm data. This program resulted in the collection of 963 cored coal samples from 37 core holes. This report presents megascopic lithologic descriptive data collected from canister samples extracted from the 37 wells cored for this project.

  15. Timing the structural events in the Palaeoproterozoic Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane and adjacent Maluwe basin, West African craton, in central-west Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kock, G. S.; Théveniaut, H.; Botha, P. M. W.; Gyapong, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Maluwe basin, north-adjacent to the Sunyani basin, is the northernmost of the northeast-trending Eburnean volcaniclastic depositories in Ghana. These basins are separated from one another by remnants of Eoeburnean crust, all formed during the evolution of an arc-backarc basins complex in a Palaeoproterozoic intraoceanic environment. The Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane to the northwest, of mostly Eoeburnean crust is fault bounded with the Maluwe basin along the northeast-trending Bolé-Navrongo fault zone. The stratigraphic sequence, which was the key to unravelling the structural evolution of the study area, was established by means of field observations aided by precision SHRIMP geochronology. The quartzitic, pelitic, quartzofeldspathic and granitic gneisses of the Eoeburnean crust (>2150 Ma) experienced complex metamorphic mineral growth and migmatitization, mostly under static crustal conditions and were subjected to several deformation episodes. The foliated mafic and metasedimentary enclaves within the Ifanteyire granite establish deformation to have taken place prior to ˜2195 Ma, while the tectonically emplaced Kuri amphibolites within the 2187-Ma gneissic Gondo granite indicate a stage of rifting followed by collision. Deformation of granite dykes in the Gondo granites at ˜2150 Ma concluded the development of the Eoeburnean orogenic cycle (DEE). The Sawla Suite, contemporaneous with the deposition of the Maluwe Group, intruded the tectonic exhumed Bolé-Nangodi terrane during extension between ˜2137 and 2125 Ma. The rifting separated the Abulembire fragment from the Bolé-Nangodi terrane. During subsequent northwestward subduction of young back-arc basin oceanic crust the volcaniclastic strata of the Maluwe Group and Sawla granitoids were deformed (DE1) under chlorite/sericite greenschist-grade conditions. The NE-trending folds had subhorizontal axes and subvertical axial planes. Simultaneous to the DE1 orogenesis the molasses of the Banda Group was

  16. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater-treatment plant discharges during base flow, which elevated specific conductance and nutrient concentrations, combined sewer overflows, and nonpoint sources likely contributed to water-quality impairment and lower aquatic-life status at the Blue River Basin sites. Releases from upstream reservoirs to the Little Blue River likely decreased specific conductance, suspended-sediment, and dissolved constituent concentrations and may have benefitted water quality and aquatic life of main-stem sites. Chloride concentrations in base-flow samples, attributable to winter road salt application, had the highest correlation with the SUII (Spearman’s ρ equals 0.87), were negatively correlated with the SCI (Spearman’s ρ equals -0.53) and several pollution sensitive Ephemeroptera plus Plecoptera plus Trichoptera abundance and percent richness metrics, and were positively correlated with pollution tolerant Oligochaeta abundance and percent richness metrics. Study results show that the easily calculated SUII and the selected modeled multimetric indices are effective for comparing urban basins and for evaluation of water quality in the Kansas City metropolitan area.

  17. Mapping of the air-sea CO2 flux in the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas: Basin-wide distribution and seasonal to interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunaka, Sayaka; Murata, Akihiko; Watanabe, Eiji; Chierici, Melissa; Fransson, Agneta; van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Ishii, Masao; Johannessen, Truls; Kosugi, Naohiro; Lauvset, Siv K.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Nishino, Shigeto; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Olsen, Are; Sasano, Daisuke; Takahashi, Taro; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2016-09-01

    We produced 204 monthly maps of the air-sea CO2 flux in the Arctic north of 60°N, including the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas, from January 1997 to December 2013 by using a self-organizing map technique. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface water data were obtained by shipboard underway measurements or calculated from alkalinity and total inorganic carbon of surface water samples. Subsequently, we investigated the basin-wide distribution and seasonal to interannual variability of the CO2 fluxes. The 17-year annual mean CO2 flux shows that all areas of the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas were net CO2 sinks. The estimated annual CO2 uptake by the Arctic Ocean was 180 TgC yr-1. The CO2 influx was strongest in winter in the Greenland/Norwegian Seas (>15 mmol m-2 day-1) and the Barents Sea (>12 mmol m-2 day-1) because of strong winds, and strongest in summer in the Chukchi Sea (∼10 mmol m-2 day-1) because of the sea-ice retreat. In recent years, the CO2 uptake has increased in the Greenland/Norwegian Sea and decreased in the southern Barents Sea, owing to increased and decreased air-sea pCO2 differences, respectively.

  18. Characterization of surface-water resources in the Great Basin National Park area and their susceptibility to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Beck, David A.; Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Eight drainage basins and one spring within the Great Basin National Park area were monitored continually from October 2002 to September 2004 to quantify stream discharge and assess the natural variability in flow. Mean annual discharge for the stream drainages ranged from 0 cubic feet per second at Decathon Canyon to 9.08 cubic feet per second at Baker Creek. Seasonal variability in streamflow generally was uniform throughout the network. Minimum and maximum mean monthly discharges occurred in February and June, respectively, at all but one of the perennial streamflow sites. Synoptic-discharge, specific-conductance, and water- and air-temperature measurements were collected during the spring, summer, and autumn of 2003 along selected reaches of Strawberry, Shingle, Lehman, Baker, and Snake Creeks, and Big Wash to determine areas where surface-water resources would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys. Comparison of streamflow and water-property data to the geology along each stream indicated areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals. These areas consist of reaches where streams (1) are in contact with permeable rocks or sediments, or (2) receive water from either spring discharge or ground-water inflow.

  19. More than one way to stretch: A tectonic model for extension along the plume track of the Yellowstone hotspot and adjacent Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Thompson, G.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain of southern Idaho poses a paradoxical problem because it is nearly aseismic and unfaulted although it appears to be actively extending in a SW-NE direction continuously with the adjacent block-faulted Basin and Range Province. The plain represents the 100-km-wide track of the Yellowstone hotspot during the last ???16-17 m.y., and its crust has been heavily intruded by mafic magma, some of which has erupted to the surface as extensive basalt flows. Outside the plain's distinct topographic boundaries is a transition zone 30-100 km wide that has variable expression of normal faulting and magmatic activity as compared with the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Many models for the evolution of the Snake River Plain have as an integral component the suggestion that the crust of the plain became strong enough through basaltic intrusion to resist extensional deformation. However, both the boundaries of the plain and its transition zone lack any evidence of zones of strike slip or other accommodation that would allow the plain to remain intact while the Basin and Range Province extended around it; instead, the plain is coupled to its surroundings and extending with them. We estimate strain rates for the northern Basin and Range Province from various lines of evidence and show that these strains would far exceed the elastic limit of any rocks coupled to the Basin and Range; thus, if the plain is extending along with its surroundings, as the geologic evidence indicates, it must be doing so by a nearly aseismic process. Evidence of the process is provided by volcanic rift zones, indicators of subsurface dikes, which trend across the plain perpendicular to its axis. We suggest that variable magmatic strain accommodation, by emplacement and inflation of dikes perpendicular to the least principal stress in the elastic crust, allows the crust of the plain to extend nearly aseismically. Dike injection releases accumulated elastic strain but

  20. From source to sink in central Gondwana: Exhumation of the Precambrian basement rocks of Tanzania and sediment accumulation in the adjacent Congo basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanzu, Charles Happe; Linol, Bastien; Wit, Maarten J.; Brown, Roderick; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay M.

    2016-09-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronometry data are reported and used to unravel the exhumation history of crystalline basement rocks from the elevated (>1000 m above sea level) but low-relief Tanzanian Craton. Coeval episodes of sedimentation documented within adjacent Paleozoic to Mesozoic basins of southern Tanzania and the Congo basin of the Democratic Republic of Congo indicate that most of the cooling in the basement rocks in Tanzania was linked to erosion. Basement samples were from an exploration borehole located within the craton and up to 2200 m below surface. Surface samples were also analyzed. AFT dates range between 317 ± 33 Ma and 188 ± 44 Ma. Alpha (Ft)-corrected AHe dates are between 433 ± 24 Ma and 154 ± 20 Ma. Modeling of the data reveals two important periods of cooling within the craton: one during the Carboniferous-Triassic (340-220 Ma) and a later, less well constrained episode, during the late Cretaceous. The later exhumation is well detected proximal to the East African Rift (70 Ma). Thermal histories combined with the estimated geothermal gradient of 9°C/km constrained by the AFT and AHe data from the craton and a mean surface temperature of 20°C indicate removal of up to 9 ± 2 km of overburden since the end of Paleozoic. The correlation of erosion of the craton and sedimentation and subsidence within the Congo basin in the Paleozoic may indicate regional flexural geodynamics of the lithosphere due to lithosphere buckling induced by far-field compressional tectonic processes and thereafter through deep mantle upwelling and epeirogeny tectonic processes.

  1. Subsurface geology and porosity distribution, Madison Limestone and underlying formations, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James A.

    1978-01-01

    To evaluate the Madison Limestone and associated rocks as potential sources for water supplies in the Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, an understanding of the geologic framework of these units, their lithologic facies patterns, the distribution of porosity zones, and the relation between porosity development and stratigraphic facies is necessary. Regionally the Madison is mainly a fossiliferous limestone. However, in broad areas of the eastern Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains, dolomite is a dominant constituent and in places the Madison is almost entirely dolomite. Within these areas maximum porosity development is found and it seems to be related to the coarser crystalline dolomite facies. The porosity development is associated with tabular and fairly continuous crystalline dolomite beds separated by non-porous limestones. The maximum porosity development in the Bighorn Dolomite, as in the Madison, is directly associated with the occurrence of a more coarsely crystalline sucrosic dolomite facies. Well data indicate, however, that where the Bighorn is present in the deeper parts of the Powder River Basin, it may be dominated by a finer crystalline dolomite facies of low porosity. The 'Winnipeg Sandstone' is a clean, generally well-sorted, medium-grained sandstone. It shows good porosity development in parts of the northern Powder River Basin and northwestern South Dakota. Because the sandstone is silica-cemented and quartzitic in areas of deep burial, good porosity is expected only where it is no deeper than a few thousand feet. The Flathead Sandstone is a predominantly quartzose, slightly feldspathic sandstone, commonly cemented with iron oxide. Like the 'Winnipeg Sandstone,' it too is silica-cemented and quartzitic in many places so that its porosity is poor in areas of deep burial. Illustrations in this report show the thickness, percent dolomite, and porosity-feet for the Bighorn Dolomite and the Madison Limestone and its subdivisions. The

  2. Tectonic pattern of the Mendeleev Ridge and adjacent basins: results of joint analysis of potential fields and recent Russian seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernykh, Andrey; Astafurova, Ekaterina; Korneva, Maria; Egorova, Alena; Redko, Anton; Glebovsky, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    The work was performed under Russian Federation State Geological mapping at a scale of 1:1 000 000 and UNCLOS programs. The study area is located between 76N-84N and 156E-168W and covers the Mendeleev Ridge, adjacent Podvodnikov, Mendeleev, Chukchi Basins and northern part of the East-Siberian Sea shelf. It is characterized by very poor magnetic and gravity data coverage. Majority of airborne magnetic and on-ice gravity surveys were carried out in the region about 40 years ago and have low spatial resolution and poor navigation. Seismic data collected earlier in the study area are presented by sparse lines of historical seismic reflection soundings and by results of deep seismic refraction and reflection observations along several geotransects. Hence, conclusions concerning tectonic structure and spatial relation of the Mendeleev Ridge with adjacent geological structures up to present day remain speculative. Joint analysis of recent seismic reflection and refraction data collected during Russian expeditions «Arctic-2011» and «Arctic-2012» with mentioned above geophysical information allowed to clarify the contours of geological structures in the study area and reveal some new peculiarities of their tectonic pattern. Particularly complex tectonic structure of the Mendeleev Ridge, changing from it's southern to the northern part and represented by two main systems of tectonic displacements is discovered. The first fault system comprises horsts/graben-bounding faults oriented preferably in N-S direction. The second system is presented by faults of NW-SE direction disturbing the first one. In the southern part of the Mendeleev Ridge such faults are the strike-slip faults with small horizontal displacements. Starting from the central part of the ridge and further to the north, displacements along strike-slip faults become progressively more pronounced and have sinistral character. In the northern part of the ridge a pull-apart structures are recognized which

  3. Tectonic structure of Dokdo and adjacent area in the northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin of the East Sea using geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Jeong, E.; Park, C.; Kwon, B.; Park, G.; Park, J.

    2008-12-01

    The northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea is composed of volcanic islands (Ulleungdo and Dokdo), seamounts (the Anyongbok Seamount, the Simheungtaek and the Isabu Tablemounts), and a deep pathway (Korea Gap). To understand tectonic structure and geophysical characteristics of Dokdo and adjacent area, We analysed geophysical potential data of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute), KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources), and NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute of Korea) around the Dokdo volcanic body except Ulleung Do because of empty data of its large island. Also, we eliminate the effect of water and sediments from the free-air gravity data to process 3D Moho depth inversion. 3D tectonic structure modelling of the study area was developed using Moho depth inversion result and sediment thickness data of NGDC(National Geophysical Data Center). The free-air gravity anomalies of the study area generally reflect bathymetric effects. Although the Dokdo seamounts have a similar topographic size, the decrease of free-air anomaly toward Isabu suggest that Isabu is oldest among the seaounts and have high degree of isostatic compensation. High Bouguer anomalies in the central part of the Ulleung Basin gradually decreases toward the Oki Bank. This feature suggests that the crust/mantle boundary is shallow in the central part of the Ulleung Basin. The complex magnetic pattern of Dokdo suggests that it might have erupted several times during its formation. The magnetic anomaly amplitude of Isabu is much smaller than that of Dokdo. Such low magnetic anomalies are attributed to a secondary change caused by the metamorphism or weathering of ferromagnetic minerals of the seamount during a long period of time after its formation. Analytic signals show high anomalous zones over volcanoes. Also, there are high analytic signal values in Korea Gap indicating magmatic intrusion in thick sediments. The power spectrum analysis

  4. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  5. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  6. Characterization of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures in the offshore Santa Maria Basin, south-central California: Chapter CC of Evolution of sedimentary basins/onshore oil and gas investigations - Santa Maria province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willingham, C. Richard; Rietman, Jan D.; Heck, Ronald G.; Lettis, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone trends subparallel to the south-central California coast for 110 km from north of Point Estero to south of Purisima Point and forms the eastern margin of the present offshore Santa Maria Basin. Knowledge of the attributes of the Hosgri Fault Zone is important for petroleum development, seismic engineering, and environmental planning in the region. Because it lies offshore along its entire reach, our characterizations of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures are primarily based on the analysis of over 10,000 km of common-depth-point marine seismic reflection data collected from a 5,000-km2 area of the central and eastern parts of the offshore Santa Maria Basin. We describe and illustrate the along-strike and downdip geometry of the Hosgri Fault Zone over its entire length and provide examples of interpreted seismic reflection records and a map of the structural trends of the fault zone and adjacent structures in the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. The seismic data are integrated with offshore well and seafloor geologic data to describe the age and seismic appearance of offshore geologic units and marker horizons. We develop a basin-wide seismic velocity model for depth conversions and map three major unconformities along the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. Accompanying plates include maps that are also presented as figures in the report. Appendix A provides microfossil data from selected wells and appendix B includes uninterpreted copies of the annotated seismic record sections illustrated in the chapter. Features of the Hosgri Fault Zone documented in this investigation are suggestive of both lateral and reverse slip. Characteristics indicative of lateral slip include (1) the linear to curvilinear character of the mapped trace of the fault zone, (2) changes in structural trend along and across the fault zone that diminish in magnitude toward the ends of the fault zone, (3) localized compressional and extensional structures

  7. The regional structural setting of the 2008 Wells earthquake and Town Creek Flat Basin: implications for the Wells earthquake fault and adjacent structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Christopher S.; Colgan, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Wells earthquake occurred on a northeast-striking, southeast-dipping fault that is clearly delineated by the aftershock swarm to a depth of 10-12 km below sea level. However, Cenozoic rocks and structures around Wells primarily record east-west extension along north- to north-northeast-striking, west-dipping normal faults that formed during the middle Miocene. These faults are responsible for the strong eastward tilt of most basins and ranges in the area, including the Town Creek Flat basin (the location of the earthquake) and the adjacent Snake Mountains and western Windermere Hills. These older west-dipping faults are locally overprinted by a younger generation of east-dipping, high-angle normal faults that formed as early as the late Miocene and have remained active into the Quaternary. The most prominent of these east-dipping faults is the set of en-échelon, north-striking faults that bounds the east sides of the Ruby Mountains, East Humboldt Range, and Clover Hill (about 5 km southwest of Wells). The northeastern-most of these faults, the Clover Hill fault, projects northward along strike toward the Snake Mountains and the approximately located surface projection of the Wells earthquake fault as defined by aftershock locations. The Clover Hill fault also projects toward a previously unrecognized, east-facing Quaternary fault scarp and line of springs that appear to mark a significant east-dipping normal fault along the western edge of Town Creek Flat. Both western and eastern projections may be northern continuations of the Clover Hill fault. The Wells earthquake occurred along this east-dipping fault system. Two possible alternatives to rupture of a northern continuation of the Clover Hill fault are that the earthquake fault (1) is antithetic to an active west-dipping fault or (2) reactivated a Mesozoic thrust fault that dips east as a result of tilting by the west-dipping faults along the west side of the Snake Mountains. Both alternatives are

  8. Application of the Basin Characterization Model to Estimate In-Place Recharge and Runoff Potential in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2007-01-01

    A regional-scale water-balance model was used to estimate recharge and runoff potential and support U.S. Geological Survey efforts to develop a better understanding of water availability for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The water-balance model, or Basin Characterization Model (BCM), was used to estimate regional ground-water recharge for the 13 hydrographic areas in the study area. The BCM calculates recharge by using a distributed-parameter, water-balance method and monthly climatic boundary conditions. The BCM requires geographic information system coverages of soil, geology, and topographic information with monthly time-varying climatic conditions of air temperature and precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration, snow accumulation, and snowmelt are distributed spatially with process models. When combined with surface properties of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock and alluvium, the potential water available for in-place recharge and runoff is calculated using monthly time steps using a grid scale of 866 feet (270 meters). The BCM was used with monthly climatic inputs from 1970 to 2004, and results were averaged to provide an estimate of the average annual recharge for the BARCAS study area. The model estimates 526,000 acre-feet of potential in-place recharge and approximately 398,000 acre-feet of potential runoff. Assuming 15 percent of the runoff becomes recharge, the model estimates average annual ground-water recharge for the BARCAS area of about 586,000 acre-feet. When precipitation is extrapolated to the long-term climatic record (1895-2006), average annual recharge is estimated to be 530,000 acre-feet, or about 9 percent less than the recharge estimated for 1970-2004.

  9. Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4000m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, late Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. -from Author

  10. Local climate differences between the adjacent Linxia and Xunhua basins, NE Tibet reveal 11 Ma history of relief in the intervening Jishi Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, B.; Garzione, C.; Wang, Z.; Zheng, W.; Yuan, D.; Zhang, P.; Molnar, P.

    2008-12-01

    The 3500-4000 m high Jishi Shan located on the boarder between Gansu and Qinghai Provinces along the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau stands as an orographic barrier to easterly derived summer rainfall. Comparison of stable isotope compositions of modern rainfall (δ18O and δ2H) and paleo-soil carbonate (δ18O and δ13C) from the leeward Xunhua basin and the windward Linxia basin provides a method for the interpretation of changes in local climate related to the formation of relief in the intervening Jishi Shan. Rayleigh distillation models suggest that a vapor mass experiencing orographic rainout should be relatively depleted in 18O on the lee side of the range. However, increased aridity in the rain shadow of the Jishi Shan results in a net 2‰ enrichment in the δ18O values of modern rainfall in the Xunhua basin due to evaporative enrichment of 18O. Using the stable isotope compositions of pedogenic and lacustrine carbonates in the Xunhua and Linxia basins as a proxy for paleoclimate, we find that the aridity difference between these basins has existed throughout at least the past 11 Ma, implying the presence of the Jishi Shan. These data indicate that intra- basin comparisons of the stable isotope composition of sedimentary carbonates can be used to assess the timing of emergence of basin-segmenting mountain ranges between the sub-basins of northeastern Tibet.

  11. Evaluating upper versus lower crustal extension through structural reconstructions and subsidence analysis of basins adjacent to the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitz, Guy; Mann, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The D'Entrecasteaux Island (DEI) gneiss domes are fault-bounded domes with ~2.5 km of relief exposing ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and high-pressure (HP) metamorphic gneisses and migmatites exhumed in an Oligocene-Miocene arc-continent collision and subduction zone subject to late Miocene to recent continental extension. Multichannel seismic reflection data and well data show the Trobriand basin formed as a fore-arc basin caused by southward Miocene subduction at the Trobriand trench. Subduction slowed at ~8 Ma as the margin transitioned to an extensional tectonic environment. Since then, the Trobriand basin has subsided 1-2.5 km as a broad sag basin with few normal faults deforming the basin fill. South of the DEI, the Goodenough rift basin developed after extension began (~8 Ma) as the hanging wall of the north-dipping Owen-Stanley normal fault that bounds the basin's southern margin. The lack of upper crustal extension accompanying subsidence in the Trobriand and Goodenough basins suggests depth-dependent lithospheric extension since 8 Ma has accompanied uplift of the DEI gneiss domes. Structural reconstructions of seismic profiles show 2.3-13.4 km of basin extension in the upper crust, while syn-rift basin subsidence values indicate at least 20.7-23.6 km of extension occurred in the entire crust since ~8 Ma. Results indicating thinning is preferentially accommodated in the lower crust surrounding the DEI are used to constrain a schematic model of uplift of the DEI domes involving vertical exhumation of buoyant, postorogenic lower crust, far-field extension from slab rollback, and an inverted two-layer crustal density structure.

  12. Reevaluation of the Bedford--Berea sequence on Ohio and adjacent states: New perspectives on sedimentation and tectonics in foreland basins

    SciTech Connect

    Pashin, J.C. ); Ettensohn, F.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The Late Devonian Bedford-Berea (BB) sequence provided an early basis for models of epeiric sedimentation, but controversy regarding its origin has arisen in recent years. This study was designed to resolve this controversy and to identify factors that control depositional architecture in foreland basins on the basis of outcrop and subsurface data. The BB is a siliciclastic succession that was deposited in the Appalachian foreland basin during a relaxational phase of the Acadian orogeny. Among the salient features of the BB are an eastern platform and a western basin. The platform was characterized largely by erosion of Catskill sediment and subsequent deposition of aggradational valley-fill sequences, whereas the basin was characterized mainly by progradational delta and shelf deposits that overlie conformably the distalmost part of the Catskill clastic wedge. BB depositional history and paleogeography is divided into two episodes: (1) basin filling and (2) delta destruction. Basin filling was characterized by regressive fluvial-deltaic systems that eroded the Catskill wedge and supplied prograding deltaic and shelf sediment to the western basin. Delta destruction began after the basin was full with sediment and was dominated by flexural relaxation, which gave rise to unusual facies patterns. Delta-front deposits in the western basin were uplifted and reworked, and a shelf silt blanket prograded back toward the incised valleys on the rapidly subsiding eastern platform where estuaries were forming. Reevaluation of the BB sequence demonstrates that the depositional architecture and paleogeographic history of foreland basins is much more elaborate than is commonly recognized. Tectonism, relict topography, differential compaction, and relative sea-level variation functioned collectively to determine the complex depositional history and paleogeography of the BB sequence.

  13. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25-40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. A population increase of about 20 percent in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water. An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2012), the network consists of 126 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA), currently (2012) measures and reports water levels from the 126 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 126 sites through water year 2012.

  14. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25-40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the basin human population from 1990 to 2000 and about a 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2010), the network consists of 124 wells and piezometers (a piezometer is a small-diameter subwell usually nested within a larger well). To better help the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority manage water use, this report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2010.

  15. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the basin human population from 1990 to 2000 and of about 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2011), the network consists of 126 wells and piezometers (a piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer and is often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths). This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at those 126 sites through water year 2011 to better help the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority manage water use.

  16. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande began. A population increase of about 20 percent in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water. An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2013), the network consists of 123 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2013) measures and reports water levels from the 123 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 123 sites through water year 2013.

  17. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.; Torres, Leeanna T.

    2010-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25 to 40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompass the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the population from 1990 to 2000 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2009), the network consists of 131 wells and piezometers. This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at 123 sites through water year 2009. In addition, data from four wells (Sites 140, 147, 148, and 149) owned, maintained, and measured by Sandia National Laboratories and three from Kirtland Air Force Base (Sites 119, 125, and 126) are presented in this report.

  18. Water-Level Data for the Albuquerque Basin and Adjacent Areas, Central New Mexico, Period of Record Through September 30, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25 to 40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompass the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin are currently (2008) obtained soley from ground-water resources. An increase of about 20 percent in the population from 1990 to 2000 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2008), the network consists of 144 wells and piezometers. This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at 125 sites through water-year 2008. In addition, data from 19 wells (Sites 127-30, 132-134, 136, 138-142 and 144-149) owned, maintained, and measured by Sandia National Laboratories are presented in this report.

  19. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  20. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-12-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  1. BASINS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) is a multipurpose environmental analysis system designed to help regional, state, and local agencies perform watershed- and water quality-based studies.

  2. Estimation of groundwater use for a groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin and adjacent areas, 1864-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Luukkonen, Carol L.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, at the request of Congress, is assessing the availability and use of the Nation's water resources to help characterize how much water is available now, how water availability is changing, and how much water can be expected to be available in the future. The Great Lakes Basin Pilot project of the U.S. Geological Survey national assessment of water availability and use focused on the Great Lakes Basin and included detailed studies of the processes governing water availability in the Great Lakes Basin. One of these studies included the development of a groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin. This report describes the compilation and estimation of the groundwater withdrawals in those areas in Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois that were needed for the Lake Michigan Basin study groundwater-flow model. These data were aggregated for 12 model time intervals spanning 1864 to 2005 and were summarized by model area, model subregion, category of water use, aquifer system, aquifer type, and hydrogeologic unit model layer. The types and availability of information on groundwater withdrawals vary considerably among states because water-use programs often differ in the types of data collected and in the methods and frequency of data collection. As a consequence, the methods used to estimate and verify the data also vary. Additionally, because of the different sources of data and different terminologies applied for the purposes of this report, the water-use data published in this report may differ from water-use data presented in other reports. These data represent only a partial estimate of groundwater use in each state because estimates were compiled only for areas in Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois within the Lake Michigan Basin model area. Groundwater-withdrawal data were compiled for both nearfield and farfield model areas in Wisconsin and Illinois, whereas these data were compiled primarily for the nearfield model

  3. A geodynamic model of the evolution of the Arctic basin and adjacent territories in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic and the outer limit of the Russian Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Kononov, M. V.; Dobretsov, N. L.; Vernikovsky, V. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Shipilov, E. V.

    2013-01-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Arctic Region in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic is considered with allowance for the Paleozoic stage of evolution of the ancient Arctida continent. A new geodynamic model of the evolution of the Arctic is based on the idea of the development of upper mantle convection beneath the continent caused by subduction of the Pacific lithosphere under the Eurasian and North American lithospheric plates. The structure of the Amerasia and Eurasia basins of the Arctic is shown to have formed progressively due to destruction of the ancient Arctida continent, a retained fragment of which comprises the structural units of the central segment of the Arctic Ocean, including the Lomonosov Ridge, the Alpha-Mendeleev Rise, and the Podvodnikov and Makarov basins. The proposed model is considered to be a scientific substantiation of the updated Russian territorial claim to the UN Commission on the determination of the Limits of the Continental Shelf in the Arctic Region.

  4. New data on mammoth fauna mammals in the central Lena River basin (Yakutia, Lenskie Stolby National Nature Park and adjacent areas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeskorov, G. G.; Nogovitsyn, P. R.; Mashchenko, E. N.; Belolyubsky, I. N.; Stepanov, A. D.; Plotnikov, V. V.; Protopopov, A. V.; Shchelchkova, M. V.; van der Plicht, J.; Solomonov, N. G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the data on new findings of mammoth fauna remains in the Middle Lena basin used to specify the species composition of large Late Neopleistocene mammals represented by eleven species. The obtained range of radiocarbon dates made it possible to state that mass burials of Pleistocene mammal remains were formed in the region during the Karginsk Interstadial (24 000-55 000 years ago).

  5. Crustal structure of the eastern Algerian continental margin and adjacent deep basin: implications for late Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyahiaoui, B.; Sage, F.; Abtout, A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Yelles-Chaouche, K.; Schnürle, P.; Marok, A.; Déverchère, J.; Arab, M.; Galve, A.; Collot, J. Y.

    2015-06-01

    We determine the deep structure of the eastern Algerian basin and its southern margin in the Annaba region (easternmost Algeria), to better constrain the plate kinematic reconstruction in this region. This study is based on new geophysical data collected during the SPIRAL cruise in 2009, which included a wide-angle, 240-km-long, onshore-offshore seismic profile, multichannel seismic reflection lines and gravity and magnetic data, complemented by the available geophysical data for the study area. The analysis and modelling of the wide-angle seismic data including refracted and reflected arrival travel times, and integrated with the multichannel seismic reflection lines, reveal the detailed structure of an ocean-to-continent transition. In the deep basin, there is an ˜5.5-km-thick oceanic crust that is composed of two layers. The upper layer of the crust is defined by a high velocity gradient and P-wave velocities between 4.8 and 6.0 km s-1, from the top to the bottom. The lower crust is defined by a lower velocity gradient and P-wave velocity between 6.0 and 7.1 km s-1. The Poisson ratio in the lower crust deduced from S-wave modelling is 0.28, which indicates that the lower crust is composed mainly of gabbros. Below the continental edge, a typical continental crust with P-wave velocities between 5.2 and 7.0 km s-1, from the top to the bottom, shows a gradual seaward thinning of ˜15 km over an ˜35-km distance. This thinning is regularly distributed between the upper and lower crusts, and it characterizes a rifted margin, which has resulted from backarc extension at the rear of the Kabylian block, here represented by the Edough Massif at the shoreline. Above the continental basement, an ˜2-km-thick, pre-Messinian sediment layer with a complex internal structure is interpreted as allochthonous nappes of flysch backthrusted on the margin during the collision of Kabylia with the African margin. The crustal structure, moreover, provides evidence for Miocene

  6. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2015-10-21

    An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. The network currently (2014) consists of 125 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2014) measures and reports water levels from the 125 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 125 sites through water year 2014 (October 1, 2013, to September 30, 2014).

  7. Patterns of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin and adjacent southern waters: an approach based on records from the R/V Pillsbury expeditions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of deep-water corals in the Caribbean Sea was studied using records from oceanographic expeditions performed by the R/V Pillsbury. Sampled stations were sorted according to broad depth ranges and ecoregions and were analyzed in terms of species accumulation curves, variance in the species composition and contributions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity. According to the analysis of species accumulation curves using the Chao2 estimator, more diversity occurs on the continental slope (200-2000 m depth) than on the upper continental shelf (60-200 m depth). In addition to the effect of depth sampling, differences in species composition related to depth ranges were detected. However, the differences between ecoregions are dependent on depth ranges, there were fewer differences among ecoregions on the continental slope than on the upper continental shelf. Indicator species for distinctness of ecoregions were, in general, Alcyonaria and Antipatharia for the upper continental shelf, but also the scleractinians Madracis myriabilis and Cladocora debilis. In the continental slope, the alcyonarian Placogorgia and the scleractinians Stephanocyathus and Fungiacyathus were important for the distinction of ecoregions. Beta diversity was the most important component of gamma diversity in the Caribbean Basin. The contribution of ecoregions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity differed with depth range. On the upper continental shelf, the Southern Caribbean ecoregion contributed substantially to all components of diversity. In contrast, the northern ecoregions contributed substantially to the diversity of the Continental Slope. Strategies for the conservation of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin must consider the variation between ecoregions and depth ranges.

  8. Patterns of Deep-Water Coral Diversity in the Caribbean Basin and Adjacent Southern Waters: An Approach based on Records from the R/V Pillsbury Expeditions

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of deep-water corals in the Caribbean Sea was studied using records from oceanographic expeditions performed by the R/V Pillsbury. Sampled stations were sorted according to broad depth ranges and ecoregions and were analyzed in terms of species accumulation curves, variance in the species composition and contributions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity. According to the analysis of species accumulation curves using the Chao2 estimator, more diversity occurs on the continental slope (200–2000 m depth) than on the upper continental shelf (60–200 m depth). In addition to the effect of depth sampling, differences in species composition related to depth ranges were detected. However, the differences between ecoregions are dependent on depth ranges, there were fewer differences among ecoregions on the continental slope than on the upper continental shelf. Indicator species for distinctness of ecoregions were, in general, Alcyonaria and Antipatharia for the upper continental shelf, but also the scleractinians Madracis myriabilis and Cladocora debilis. In the continental slope, the alcyonarian Placogorgia and the scleractinians Stephanocyathus and Fungiacyathus were important for the distinction of ecoregions. Beta diversity was the most important component of gamma diversity in the Caribbean Basin. The contribution of ecoregions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity differed with depth range. On the upper continental shelf, the Southern Caribbean ecoregion contributed substantially to all components of diversity. In contrast, the northern ecoregions contributed substantially to the diversity of the Continental Slope. Strategies for the conservation of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin must consider the variation between ecoregions and depth ranges. PMID:24671156

  9. Irrigated Acreage Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welborn, Toby L.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate delineations of irrigated acreage are needed for the development of water-use estimates and in determining water-budget calculations for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study. Irrigated acreage is estimated routinely for only a few basins in the study area. Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper platforms were used to delineate irrigated acreage on a field-by-field basis for the entire study area. Six hundred and forty-three fields were delineated. The water source, irrigation system, crop type, and field activity for 2005 were identified and verified through field reconnaissance. These data were integrated in a geodatabase and analyzed to develop estimates of irrigated acreage for the 2000, 2002, and 2005 growing seasons by hydrographic area and subbasin. Estimated average annual potential evapotranspiration and average annual precipitation also were estimated for each field.The geodatabase was analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of field locations, the total amount of irrigated acreage by potential irrigation water source, by irrigation system, and by crop type. Irrigated acreage in 2005 totaled nearly 32,000 acres ranging from less than 200 acres in Butte, Cave, Jakes, Long, and Tippett Valleys to 9,300 acres in Snake Valley. Irrigated acreage increased about 20 percent between 2000 and 2005 and increased the most in Snake and White River Valleys. Ground-water supplies as much as 80 percent of irrigation water during dry years. Almost 90 percent of the irrigated acreage was planted with alfalfa.

  10. Mapping Evapotranspiration Units in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Laczniak, Randell J.; Moreo, Michael T.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area. One common method used throughout the southwestern United States is to estimate ground-water discharge from evapotranspiration (ET). ET is a process by which water from the Earth's surface is transferred to the atmosphere. The volume of water lost to the atmosphere by ET can be computed as the product of the ET rate and the acreage of vegetation, open water, and moist soil through which ET occurs. The procedure used in the study groups areas of similar vegetation, water, and soil conditions into different ET units, assigns an average annual ET rate to each unit, and computes annual ET from each ET unit within the outer extent of potential areas of ground-water discharge. Data sets and the procedures used to delineate the ET-unit map used to estimate ground-water discharge from the study area and a qualitative assessment of the accuracy of the map are described in this report.

  11. Dissolved organic carbon content and characteristics in relation to carbon dioxide partial pressure across Poyang Lake wetlands and adjacent aquatic systems in the Changjiang basin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaxin; Jiao, Ruyuan; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Lu; Yan, Weijin

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays diverse roles in carbon biogeochemical cycles. Here, we explored the link between DOC and pCO2 using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) with UV254 detection and excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy to determine the molecular weight distribution (MW) and the spectral characteristics of DOC, respectively. The relationship between DOC and pCO2 was investigated in the Poyang Lake wetlands and their adjacent aquatic systems. The results indicated significant spatial variation in the DOC concentrations, MW distributions, and pCO2. The DOC concentration was higher in the wetlands than in the rivers and lakes. pCO2 was high in wetlands in which the dominant vegetation was Phragmites australis, whereas it was low in wetlands in which Carex tristachya was the dominant species. DOC was divided into five fractions according to MW, as follows: super-low MW (SLMW, <1 kDa); low MW (LMW, 1-2.5 kDa); intermediate MW (IMW, 2.5-3.5 kDa); high MW (HMW, 3.5-6 kDa); and super-high MW (SMW, > 40 kDa). Rivers contained high proportions of HMW and extremely low amounts of SLMW, whereas wetlands had relatively high proportions of SLMW. The proportion of SMW (SMWp) was particularly high in wetlands. We found that pCO2 significantly positively correlated with the proportion of IMW, and significantly negatively correlated with SMWp. These data improve our understanding of the MW of bioavailable DOC and its conversion to CO2. The present results demonstrate that both the content and characteristics of DOC significantly affect pCO2. pCO2 and DOC must be studied further to help understanding the role of the wetland on the regional CO2 budget.

  12. U-Pb ages on single detrital zircon grains from the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa: Constraints on the age of sedimentation and on the evolution of granites adjacent to the basin

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, L.J. ); Davis, D.W.; Kamo, S.L. )

    1990-05-01

    U-Pb ages of single detrital zircon grains from various stratigraphic horizons in the Dominion and Witwatersrand sequences provide constraints on the maximum age of sedimentation as well as indicating the pattern of age distribution in the (granitoid) source area providing detritus into the basin. Zircon ages in the Dominion sediments range from 3,191-3,105 Ma with a geometric mean ({bar X}) t 3,153 Ma. Those from the lower Witwatersrand sediments (West Rand Group) range from 3,305-3,044 Ma with {bar X} = 3,097 Ma, and zircons in the upper Witwatersrand sediments (Central Rand Group) are between 3,207-2,894 Ma old with {bar X} = 3,053 Ma. Ages of detrital zircons generally decrease upward in the stratigraphic record, and <3,000 Ma old zircons are only found in the Central Rand Group. This trend implies that younger granites may have formed at some time subsequent to lower Witwatersrand deposition, or that continued erosion of the hinterland resulted in the unroofing of successively younger granites. The wide spread of zircon ages (411 Ma) evident in the data set indicates that granites formed virtually continuously between circa 3,300-2.900 Ma in the Witwatersrand source area. Of the zircon ages 45% fall within 30 m.y. of the geometric mean of the total data set, suggesting that a major crust-forming event occurred at 3,073 {plus minus} 30 Ma. Granitoids in the source area can be divided into (i) pre-Dominion basement; (ii) Dominion granites, whose emplacement coincided with the extrusion of Dominion volcanics, and (iii) Randian granites, which were emplaced synchronously with Witwatersrand deposition. This sequence of events supports recent tectonic models that view the Witwatersrand sequence as having been deposited in a foreland basin.

  13. Geology and ground-water features of salt springs, seeps, and plains in the Arkansas and Red River basins of western Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Kansas and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.E.

    1963-01-01

    The salt springs, seeps, and plains described in this report are in the Arkansas and Red River basins in western Oklahoma and adjacent areas in Kansas and Texas. The springs and seeps contribute significantly to the generally poor water quality of the rivers by bringing salt (HaCI) to the surface at an estimated daily rate of more than 8,000 tons. The region investigated is characterized by low hills and rolling plains. Many of the rivers are eroded 100 feet or more below the .surrounding upland surface and in places the valleys are bordered by steep bluffs. The alluvial plains of the major rivers are wide and the river channels are shallow and unstable. The flow of many surface streams is intermittent, especially in the western part of the area. All the natural salt-contributing areas studied are within the outcrop area of rocks of Permian age. The Permian rocks, commonly termed red beds, are composed principally of red and gray gypsiferous shale, siltstone, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. Many of the formations contain halite in the subsurface. The halite occurs mostly as discontinuous lenses in shale, although some of the thicker, more massive beds are extensive. It underlies the entire region studied at depths ranging from about 30 feet to more than 2,000 feet. The salt and associated strata show evidence of extensive removal of salt through solution by ground water. Although the salt generally occurs in relatively impervious shale small joints and fractures ,allow the passage of small quantities of water which dissolves the salt. Salt water occurs in the report area at depths ranging from less than 100 feet to more than 1,000 feet. Salt water occurs both as meteoric and connate, but the water emerging as salt springs is meteoric. Tritium analyses show that the age of the water from several springs is less than 20 years. The salt springs, seeps, and plains are confined to 13 local areas. The flow of the springs and seeps is small, but the chloride

  14. Response to memorandum by Rowley and Dixon regarding U.S. Geological Survey report titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Applications pending for permanent permits to pump large quantities of ground water in Spring and Snake Valleys adjacent to Great Basin National Park (the Park) prompted the National Park Service to request a study by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the susceptibility of the Park's surface-water resources to pumping. The result of this study was published as U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5099 'Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada,' by P.E. Elliott, D.A. Beck, and D.E. Prudic. That report identified areas within the Park where surface-water resources are susceptible to ground-water pumping; results from the study showed that three streams and several springs near the eastern edge of the Park were susceptible. However, most of the Park's surface-water resources likely would not be affected by pumping because of either low-permeability rocks or because ground water is sufficiently deep as to not be directly in contact with the streambeds. A memorandum sent by Peter D. Rowley and Gary L. Dixon, Consulting Geologists, to the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) on June 29, 2006 was critical of the report. The memorandum by Rowley and Dixon was made available to the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the public during the Nevada State Engineer's 'Evidentiary Exchange' process for the recent hearing on applications for ground-water permits by SNWA in Spring Valley adjacent to Great Basin National Park. The U.S. Geological Survey was asked by the National Park Service to assess the validity of the concerns and comments contained in the Rowley and Dixon memorandum. An Administrative Letter Report responding to Rowley and Dixon's concerns and comments was released to the National Park Service on October 30, 2006. The National Park Service subsequently requested that the

  15. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermotectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range and adjacent North Slope foreland basin, Alaska: Including fission track results from the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Sullivan, P. B.; Murphy, J.M.; Blythe, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Apatite fission track data are used to evaluate the thermal and tectonic history of the central Brooks Range and the North Slope foreland basin in northern Alaska along the northern leg of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT). Fission track analyses of the detrital apatite grains in most sedimentary units resolve the timing of structures and denudation within the Brooks Range, ranging in scale from the entire mountain range to relatively small-scale folds and faults. Interpretation of the results indicates that rocks exposed within the central Brooks Range cooled rapidly from paleotemperatures 110?? to 50??C during discrete episodes at ???100??5 Ma, ???60??4 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma, probably in response to kilometer-scale denudation. North of the mountain front, rocks in the southern half of the foreland basin were exposed to maximum paleotemperatures 110??C in the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene as a result of burial by Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Rapid cooling from these elevated paleotemperatures also occurred due to distinct episodes of kilometer-scale denudation at ???60??4 Ma, 46??3 Ma, 35??2 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma. Combined, the apatite analyses indicate that rocks exposed along the TACT line through the central Brooks Range and foreland basin experienced episodic rapid cooling throughout the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in response to at least three distinct kilometer-scale denudation events. Future models explaining orogenic events in northern Alaska must consider these new constraints from fission track thermochronology. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Geological and environmental controls on the change of eruptive style (phreatomagmatic to Strombolian-effusive) of Late Pleistocene El Caracol tuff cone and its comparison with adjacent volcanoes around the Zacapu basin (Michoacán, México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kshirsagar, Pooja; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie Noëlle; Salinas, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    The 28,300 year BP (cal 32,300 BP) El Caracol tuff cone complex is one of the few phreatomagmatic volcanoes in the scoria-cone dominated Plio-Quaternary Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (MGVF). It displays a shallow circular crater of ~ 1 km in diameter that is filled with several meter-thick lava flows and is located between two NE-SW trending normal faults dipping NW. It lies directly on top of Pliocene lavas of the San Lorenzo shield volcano that forms part of a tectonic horst (topographic high) separating the Zacapu lake basin (1980 m) in the south from the Río Angulo river valley (1760 m) to the north. Detailed study of the tephra sequence indicates that the eruption occurred in two stages: 1) Weak phreatomagmatic, in which about 0.1-0.5 km3 dense rock equivalent (DRE) of magma was issued within ~ 1 to 3 months at the rate of 4-40 m3/s, and 2) purely magmatic (Strombolian-effusive) during which the vent shifted slightly its position toward the NW, forming a small scoria cone (~ 100 m high) on the crater rim of the tuff cone. From this scoria cone lava flows were issued, first into the tuff cone crater occupying its bottom, and subsequently toward the NW, down the outer flank of the tuff cone and into the plain, where they reached a distance of ~ 3.5 km. During this stage ~ 0.6 km3 DRE of magma was produced at the rate of ~ 4 m3/s in a period of ~ 5 months. Although El Caracol displays many features that are characteristic for a phreatomagmatic vent, its morphology, types of deposits, and its complex process of formation makes it strikingly different from the more typical case of the ~ 21,000 year BP (cal 25,300 BP) Alberca de Guadalupe maar volcano, situated not far at the SE margin of the Zacapu basin. The latter was solely phreatomagmatic during the course of its eruption and is formed in its entirety by surge and fallout breccias consisting largely of xenolithic material. In contrast, at El Caracol the hydrogeological environment (namely the low

  17. Hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and parts of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and Alabama during drought conditions, July 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of the Interior sustainable water strategy, WaterSMART, the U.S. Geological Survey documented hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and western and central Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia during low-flow conditions in July 2011. Moderate-drought conditions prevailed in this area during early 2011 and worsened to exceptional by June, with cumulative rainfall departures from the 1981-2010 climate normals registering deficits ranging from 17 to 27 inches. As a result, groundwater levels and stream discharges measured below median daily levels throughout most of 2011. Water-quality field properties including temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were measured at selected surface-water sites. Record-low groundwater levels measured in 12 of 43 surficial aquifer wells and 128 of 312 Upper Floridan aquifer wells during July 2011 underscored the severity of drought conditions in the study area. Most wells recorded groundwater levels below the median daily statistic, and 7 surficial aquifer wells were dry. Groundwater-level measurements taken in July 2011 were used to determine the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Groundwater generally flows to the south and toward streams except in reaches where streams discharge to the aquifer. The degree of connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and streams decreases east of the Flint River where thick overburden hydraulically separates the aquifer from stream interaction. Hydraulic separation of the Upper Floridan aquifer from streams located east of the Flint River is shown by stream-stage altitudes that differ from groundwater levels measured in close proximity to streams. Most streams located in the study area during 2011 exhibited below normal flows (streamflows less than the 25th percentile), substantiating the severity of drought conditions that year. Streamflow

  18. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  19. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  20. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  1. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  2. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  4. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  5. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  6. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  7. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  8. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  11. Response to Memorandum by Rowley and Dixon Regarding U.S. Geological Survey Report Titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    mountains to evaluate effects caused by ground- water pumping in adjacent valleys. 7 Rowley and Dixon failed to recognize when they stated “Seepage tests...measurements: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92–144, 21 p. Sophocleous, Marious, 2000, From safe yield to sustainable development of water ...surface- water and ground- water quality , southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara counties, California, 1996–97: U.S. Geological Survey Water -Resources

  12. Precambrian shield and basement tectonics in sedimentary basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Touborg, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    This study focused on the use of (1) regional structural analysis of basement and Precambrian rocks surrounding a sedimentary basin, and (2) tracing basement structures into the sedimentary basin. The structural analysis of the Precambrian shield has a fundamental bearing on interpretation of overlying sedimentary cover rocks. This is expressed in the southern part of the Hudson's Bay basin and its southeastern arm, the Moose River basin. For instance, the rims of both basins are controlled by faults or graben structures. Approximately 13 major fault systems with strike lengths of 200-300 km (125-186 mi) or more can be traced from the exposed Precambrian shield into the basin in terms of lineament arrays and/or aeromagnetic and/or gravity signature. The data suggest reactivation of faults during basin sedimentation. This type of basement structural analysis in areas adjacent to sedimentary basins can provide a valuable interpretation base for subsequent seismic surveys and basin evaluation.

  13. Thermal evolution of sedimentary basins in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, Mark J.; Howell, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The complex tectonic collage of Alaska is reflected in the conjunction of rocks of widely varying thermal maturity. Indicators of the level of thermal maturity of rocks exposed at the surface, such as vitrinite reflectance and conodont color alteration index, can help constrain the tectonic evolution of such complex regions and, when combined with petrographic, modern heat flow, thermogeochronologic, and isotopic data, allow for the detailed evaluation of a region?s burial and uplift history. We have collected and assembled nearly 10,000 vitrinite-reflectance and conodont-color-alteration index values from the literature, previous U.S. Geological Survey investigations, and our own studies in Alaska. This database allows for the first synthesis of thermal maturity on a broadly regional scale. Post-accretionary sedimentary basins in Alaska show wide variability in terms of thermal maturity. The Tertiary interior basins, as well as some of the forearc and backarc basins associated with the Aleutian Arc, are presently at their greatest depth of burial, with immature rocks exposed at the surface. Other basins, such as some backarc basins on the Alaska Peninsula, show higher thermal maturities, indicating modest uplift, perhaps in conjunction with higher geothermal gradients related to the arc itself. Cretaceous ?flysch? basins, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk basin, are at much higher thermal maturity, reflecting great amounts of uplift perhaps associated with compressional regimes generated through terrane accretion. Many sedimentary basins in Alaska, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk and Colville basins, show higher thermal maturity at basin margins, perhaps reflecting greater uplift of the margins in response to isostatic unloading, owing to erosion of the hinterland adjacent to the basin or to compressional stresses adjacent to basin margins.

  14. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  15. Denitrification in restored and constructed wetlands adjacent to crop fields on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer applications on crop fields are a significant source of nitrate (NO3), and groundwater concentrations are frequently 500-1000 µM. We show that groundwater transport of agricultural NO3 results in significant denitrification in adjacent wetlands in the Choptank Basin on the Delmarva Penins...

  16. Digital depth horizon compilations of the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent Arctic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Data have been digitized and combined to create four detailed depth horizon grids spanning the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent offshore areas. These map horizon compilations were created to aid in petroleum system modeling and related studies. Topography/bathymetry is extracted from a recent Arctic compilation of global onshore DEM and satellite altimetry and ship soundings offshore. The Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU), the top of the Triassic Shublik Formation, and the pre-Carboniferous acoustic basement horizon grids are created from numerous seismic studies, drill hole information, and interpolation. These horizons were selected because they mark critical times in the geologic evolution of the region as it relates to petroleum. The various horizons clearly show the major tectonic elements of this region including the Brooks Range, Colville Trough, Barrow Arch, Hanna Trough, Chukchi Platform, Nuwuk Basin, Kaktovik Basin, and Canada Basin. The gridded data are available in a variety of data formats for use in regional studies.

  17. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  18. BASINS Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Although BASINS has been in use for the past 10 years, there has been limited modeling guidance on its applications for complex environmental problems, such as modeling impacts of hydro modification on water quantity and quality.

  19. Active transtensional intracontinental basins: Walker Lane in the western Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, Angela S.; Bursik, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The geometry and dimensions of sedimentary basins within the Walker Lane are a result of Plio-Pleistocene transtensive deformation and partial detachment of the Sierra Nevada crustal block from the North American plate. Distinct morpho-tectonic domains lie within this active transtensive zone. The northeast end of the Walker Lane is partly buried by active volcanism of the southern Cascades, and adjacent basins are filled or poorly developed. To the south, the basin sizes are moderate, 25–45km × 15–10 km, with narrow 8-12km wide mountain ranges mainly oriented N-S to NNE. These basins form subparallel arrays in discrete zones trending about 300° and have documented clockwise rotation. This is succeeded to the south by a releasing stepover domain ∼85-100km wide, where the basins are elongated E-W to ENE, small (∼15-30km long, 5-15km wide), and locally occupied by active volcanic centers. The southernmost part of the Walker Lane is structurally integrated, with high to extreme relief. Adjacent basins are elongate, 50-200km long and ∼5 -20km wide. Variations in transtensive basin orientations in the Walker Lane are largely attributable to variations in strain partitioning. Large basins in the Walker Lane have 2-6km displacement across basin bounding faults with up to 3 km of clastic accumulation based on gravity and drill hole data. The sedimentary deposits of the basins may include interbedded volcanic deposits with bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic associations. The basins may include lacustrine deposits that record a wide range of water chemistry from cold fresh water conditions to saline-evaporative

  20. Plio-Pleistocene drainage development in an inverted sedimentary basin: Vera basin, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin

    2008-08-01

    fluvial incision into the underlying basin fill sediments and basin margin mountainous topography. Fluvial incision, headwards erosion, expansion and modification of the consequent drainage network is documented within a series of up to four major inset river terrace levels and associated landforms. Fluvial incision and drainage network expansion are attributed to differential uplift and the creation of regional gradients between adjacent basins. The relatively low Plio-Pleistocene uplift rate of the Vera basin (11-21 m Ma - 1 ) in comparison to adjacent basins (Sorbas: 80-160 m Ma - 1 ; Huercal-Overa: > 50 m Ma - 1 ) resulted in a switch from internal to external basin drainage. Ancestral forms of the principal drainage systems within the Vera basin: the Ríos Almanzora, Aguas and Antas, captured basins and mountain catchment areas to the north (Huercal-Overa basin), southwest (Sorbas basin) and west (Sierra de los Filabres range). The switch from basin infilling to fluvial dissection is coincident with a phase of Early-Mid Pleistocene compressional tectonics, expressed by extensional faulting. This deformation is probably linked to accelerated strike-slip movement along the Palomares Fault Zone. The faulting is superimposed onto the longer term pattern of Plio-Pleistocene uplift and basin inversion.

  1. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  2. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  3. Paleogeographic and paleotectonic setting of sedimentary basins in the Sevier thrust belt and hinterland, eastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Suydam, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern Great Basin contains a sparse record of broadly distributed Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which record: evolution of intermontane basins during development of the Sevier (Sv)contractional orogen and incipient extensional collapse of the elevated Sv hinterland (east-central NV), and complex tectono-sedimentary interactions between frontal thrust belt structures and the western margin of the adjacent foreland basin. Palinspastic restoration of these strata and associated structures to pre-Tertiary extension positions reveals a clearer pictures of Cretaceous basin paleogeography and allows comparison with the Puna/Altiplano plateau and precordillera thrust belt of the Neogene Andean orogen. Two syntectonic stratal assemblages are present in east-central NV. Lower Cretaceous alluvial strata (Newark Canyon Fm) record basin development coeval with emergence of contractional structures in the Sv hinterland. Localized early Cretaceous basins were possibly piggyback immature; periods of open drainage to the to the east and south suggest connection with the nascent Sv foreland basin to the east (Cedar Mountain/Sanpete Fms) prior to major thrust loading in central Utah. Development of hinterland structures is almost recorded by Aptian-Albian foreland basin alluvial deposits in SW Utah (Dakota Fm) and southern Nevada (Willow Tank Fm). Upper Cretaceous to Eocene strata (Sheep Pass Fm) record inception of regionally abundant alluvial-lacustrine basins which developed in response to onset of latest Cretaceous extension and associated collapse of the Sv hinterland. Evolution of the structurally complex western margin of the Sv foreland basin is recorded in Cretaceous through Eocene strata deposited in: piggyback basins which were at times hydrologically connected to the adjacent foreland basins, and thrust-proximal portions of the foreland basin. These proximal areas are characterized by folding and faulting of basin fill and development of intrabasinal unconformities.

  4. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  5. Petroleum exploration in Absaroka basin of northwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Sundell, K.A.

    1986-08-01

    A new, virtually unexplored petroleum province with large potential resources can be defined in northwestern Wyoming. Structurally, the Absaroka basin is bounded on the north by the Beartooth uplift, to the west by the Gallatin and Washakie uplifts, to the south by the Washakie and Owl Creek uplifts, and to the east by the Cody arch. The Cody arch connects the southern Beartooth uplift with the northwesternmost Owl Creek uplift and separates the Bighorn basin to the east from the Absaroka basin to the west. The eastern flank of the cody arch is bounded by a major west-dipping thrust fault. The western flank is locally a subhorizontal shelf but overall gently dips to the west-southwest into deeper parts of the Absaroka basin. In contrast to most petroleum basins, the Absaroka basin is topographically a rugged mountain range, created by erosion of a thick sequence of Eocene volcanic rocks that fill the center of the basin and lap onto the adjacent uplifts. Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks that have produced several billion barrels of oil from the adjacent Bighorn and Wind River basins are probably present within the Absaroka basin and should have similar production capabilities. The Absaroka basin may have greater potential than adjacent basins because the volcanics provide additional traps and reservoirs. Domes in Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks beneath the volcanics and stratigraphic traps at the angular unconformity between the volcanics and underlying reservoirs are primary exploration targets. Unique geologic, geophysical, permitting, access, and drilling problems are encountered in all aspects of exploration.

  6. Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Neogene San Joaquin basin in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc basin. The transition from forearc basin to the more restricted Neogene marine basin occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the basin include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the Basin and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the west side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene basin history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-west compression in the basin, resulting from extension in the Basin and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the west side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the basin, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the basin paleogeography through the Cenozoic.

  7. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  8. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  9. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  10. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  11. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  12. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  17. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  18. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  19. Geology of the Mother Load gold belt and adjacent foothills metamorphic belt, California

    SciTech Connect

    Landefeld, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The late Jurassic Mother Lode gold-quartz vein system south of the Consumnes River is hosted by portions of 1) a submarine volcanic arc and overlying epiclastic basin, and 2) the ultramafic-mafic plutonic subarc basement. During accretion to the Paleozoic shelf of western North America, the subarc basement tectonically intruded the disrupted arc basin, incorporating hanging wall lithologies to produce the tectonic melange of the Melones fault zone (MFZ). Late orogenic dikes intrude the margins of the MFZ and adjacent wall rocks. These dikes were altered during the gold-quartz vein formation. The proximal to medial volcanic strata are, from oldest to youngest: 1) island arc tholeiitic pillow basalts, 2) a thin radiolarian chert bed grading into 3) a submarine volcaniclastic sequence, and 4) sporadically distributed flows of calc-alkaline basalt through boninite. Cessation of volcanic activity is marked by the deposition of an organic carbon-rich epiclastic sequence. The intensely folded strata in JT rocks east of the MFZ may be basinward lateral equivalents of the JT strata west of the MFZ. Differences in style of deformation and metamorphic rank in the strata are typical of vertical and lateral variations in basins where one part is passive and another part is tectonically active as the basin closes.

  20. Tectonic model for Eocene Formation of the Columbia basin

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, L.H. ); Fritts, S.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Evidence suggests that a major sedimentary basin underlies the Columbia plateau in Oregon and Washington; however, the Miocene Columbia River Basalts conceal critical structural relationships between adjacent exotic terranes. To date, no interpretations have been published that adequately address the three related questions of the architecture, age, and mechanism of formation of the Columbia basin. The authors interpret residual gravity and aerial photographic data to show, within the basin, a pattern of deep fault architecture consistent with northwest-southeast-oriented rifting. Paleotectonic reconstructions for the Pacific Northwest suggest that rifting may have begun during the Cretaceous, as interpreted previously, but stratigraphic, geophysical and well data point to an early Eocene age for initiation of dramatic rifting and basin subsidence resulting from oblique subduction of the Farallon plate. Their tectonic model for Eocene formation of rift basins underlying the Columbia River Basalt addresses important, previously unanswered questions regarding the tectonics of the Pacific Northwest and rationally relates tectonics and sedimentation over the full extent of the basin from north-central Washington to north-central Oregon. The rifting event(s) they propose explain that the formation of the Columbia basin is consistent in timing and geometry with tectonic events in areas adjacent to the Columbia basin, and thus is but a part of a much larger picture of dramatic extension affecting the entire Pacific Northwest in the Eocene.

  1. Effective monitoring of small river basins.

    PubMed

    Symader, W; Bierl, R; Gasparini, F; Krein, A

    2002-04-13

    As the transport of many pollutants occurs during high floods monitoring programs must focus on these intermittent events. In small rivers the pollutants start their travel as short pulses often associated with fine particles, but disperse on their way downstreams. Therefore the chemical data of a flood event are only representative of a small part of the basin adjacent to the monitoring station. This is usually not taken into account by evaluating water quality data.

  2. RETENTION BASIN, ASSOCIATED WITH PUMP HOUSE, TRA636. TWO REINFORCED CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RETENTION BASIN, ASSOCIATED WITH PUMP HOUSE, TRA-636. TWO REINFORCED CONCRETE BASINS ARE ADJACENT TO ONE ANOTHER. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2397A. Unknown Photographer, 5/13/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Thermal conditions in the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, S.A.; Gallardo, J.D.; Carter, L.C.; Blackwell, D.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Heat flow, bottom-hole temperature (BHT), and thermal conductivity data are used to evaluate the present thermal conditions in the Anadarko basin. Heat flow values decrease from 54-62 mWm{sup {minus}2} in the northern part of the basin to 39-53 mWm{sup {minus}2} in the southern portion of the basin. The variation in the regional conductive heat flow is controlled by basin geometry and by the distribution of radiogenic elements in the basement. The heat flow, thermal conductivity, and lithologic information were combined to construct a 3-D model of the temperature structure of the Anadarko basin. The highest temperatures sedimentary rocks older than Pennsylvanian are offset 35 km north-northwest of the deepest part of the basin. This offset is related to the regional increase in heat flow to the north and to the presence of high thermal conductivity granite wash adjacent to the Wichita Mountains. A plot of the temperature difference between the equilibrium temperatures estimated from the model and the measured BHTs as a function of depth is remarkably similar to the published correction curve for BHTs for wells in Oklahoma. Vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission-track (FT) data are used to estimate the paleogeothermal conditions in the basin. Published vitrinite reflectance values are consistent with a past geographic temperature distribution comparable to the observed distribution with the maximum values offset from the basin axis. FT analysis of sandstones from wells in the southeastern portion of the basin indicates that subsurface temperatures were at least 30C higher than at present, suggest the possibility of substantial erosion in this area.

  4. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  5. Comparison of Methylmercury Ecology in Adjacent Coastal Plain Rivers in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C. A.; Chapelle, F. H.; Lowery, M. A.; Conrads, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Fish-tissue mercury concentrations (approximately 2 micrograms per gram) in the Edisto River basin of South Carolina are among the highest recorded in the United States. Substantially lower mercury concentrations (approximately 0.2 microgram per gram) are reported in fish from the adjacent Congaree River sub-basin and the Congaree National Park. Concentrations of total mercury were statistically higher in sediments from the Congaree River compared with those in sediments from the Edisto River. No statistically significant differences were observed in concentrations of methylmercury or in the range of net methylation potentials in sediments collected from various Edisto and Congaree hydrologic settings. In both systems, net methylation potentials were an order of magnitude or more lower in stream-channel sediments than in wetland sediments. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that differences in fish-tissue mercury between the Edisto and Congaree basins reflect fundamental differences in the potential for each system to methylate mercury. The marked differences in net methylation potential observed between the wetland and in-stream settings suggested an alternative hypothesis: differences in the efficiency of methylmercury transport from zones of production (wetlands) to points of entry into the food chain (channels) contribute to the observed differences in fish-tissue mercury concen¬trations between the two river systems. An assessment of the flood hydrodynamics of these two rivers is consistent with the alternative hypothesis.

  6. Geologic framework of the offshore region adjacent to Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.N.; Roberts, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Several multichannel, common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection profiles concentrated in the area of the entrance to Delaware Bay provide a tie between the known onshore geology of the Coastal Plain of Delaware and the offshore geology of the Baltimore Canyon Trough. The data provide a basis for understanding the geologic framework and petroleum resource potential of the area immediately offshore Delaware. Our research has focused on buried early Mesozoic rift basins and their geologic history. Assuming that the buried basins are analogous to the exposed Newark Supergroup basins of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic age, the most likely possibility for occurrence of hydrocarbon source beds in the area of the landward margin of the Baltimore Canyon Trough is presumed to be lacustrine, organic-rich shales probably present in the basins. Although buried basins mapped offshore Delaware are within reach of drilling, no holes have been drilled to date; therefore, direct knowledge of source, reservoir, and sealing beds is absent. Buried rift basins offshore Delaware show axial trends ranging from NW-SE to NNE-SSW. Seismic reflection profiles are too widely spaced to delineate basin boundaries accurately. Isopleths of two-way travel time representing basin fill suggest that, structurally, the basins are grabens and half-grabens. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, bounding faults of the basins intersect or merge with low-angle fault surfaces that cut the pre-Mesozoic basement. The rift basins appear to have formed by Mesozoic extension that resulted in reverse motion on reactivated basement thrust faults that originated from compressional tectonics during the Paleozoic. Computer-plotted structure contour maps derived from analysis of seismic reflection profiles provide information on the burial history of the rift basins. The postrift unconformity bevels the rift basins and, in the offshore area mapped, ranges from 2000 to 12,000 m below present sea level. The oldest

  7. Groundwater Characterization of Cihaur Watershed Basin, Batujajar and Adjacent, West Bandung District, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azy, Fikri Noor; Sapari Dwi Hadian, Mohamad; Ismawan

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted based on data from outcrop, well data, and springs with field orientation method assisted by the use of GPS and measurement tool physical and chemical properties of groundwater. Geological conditions investigated were geomorphology and stratigraphy, geomorphology unit study area consists of four units, namely geomorphology unit of strato volcano body, foot of strato volcano, intrusion units, and plains units and the river drainage patterns are parallel and subparallel. Stratigraphy in the study area are volcanic breccia (Qbv), Unit Andesite (Qa), Unit Tuff (Qtf) and Unit Clay Tuffan (Qlt). The characteristics of the groundwater of the study area are in form of the physico-chemical, major elements, and hydrolic parameter of the groundwater aquifers. From 27 locations, the water quality assesment by physico-chemical properties is classified as fresh water category and based on chemical major elements, has been classified 8 facies which are located in the study area. Then, there are two lithologies which act as aquifers ie, tuff and volcanic breccias. Conductivity values in the range of volcanic breccia aquifers respectively 0,128 m/day and 0,288 m/day, transmitivity (T) ranges respectively 1,9296 m2/day and 4,32 m2/day. The value of conductivity in tuff aquifer is 0,063 m/day, transmitivity (T) is 0,95 m2/day. While lithology Qlt (Clay tuffan) is lithology with very low productivity of groundwater or called groundwater rare area (akiclud) and the rock units Qa (Andesite) is a non-aquifer that is the absence of groundwater in these rock units (akifug).

  8. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  9. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  11. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  12. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  2. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  3. Using isotope, hydrochemical methods and energy-balance modelling to estimate contribution of different components to flow forming process in a high-altitude catchment (Dzhancuat river basin case study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rets, Ekaterina; Loshakova, Nadezhda; Chizhova, Julia; Kireeva, Maria; Frolova, Natalia; Tokarev, Igor; Budantseva, Nadine; Vasilchuk, Yurij

    2016-04-01

    A multicomponent structure of sources of river runoff formation is characteristic of high-altitude territories: ice and firn melting; seasonal snow melting on glacier covered and non-glacier area of a watershed; liquid precipitation; underground waters. In addition, each of these components can run off the watershed surface in different ways. Use of isotopic, hydrochemical methods and energy balance modelling provides possibility to estimate contribution of different components to river runoff that is an essential to understand the mechanism of flow formation in mountainious areas. A study was carried out for Dzhancuat river basin that was chosen as representative for North Caucasus in course of the International Hydrological Decade. Complex glaciological, hydrological and meteorological observation have been carried in the basin since 1965. In years 2013-2015 the program also included daily collecting of water samples on natural stable isotopes on the Dzhancuat river gauging station, and sampling water nourishment sources (ice, snow, firn, liquid precipitation) within the study area. More then 800 water samples were collected. Application of an energy balance model of snow and ice melt with distributed parameters provided an opportunity to identify Dzhancuat river runoff respond to glaciers melt regime and seasonal redistribution of melt water. The diurnal amplitude of oscillation of the Dzhakuat river runoff in the days without precipitation is formed by melting at almost snow-free areas of the Dzhancuat glacier tongues. Snowmelt water from the non-glacierized part contributes to the formation of the next day runoff. A wave of snow and firn melt in upper zones of glacier flattens considerably during filtration through snow and run-off over the surface and in the body of the glacier. This determines a general significant inertia of the Dzhacuat river runoff. Some part of melt water is stored into natural regulating reservoirs of the watershed that supply the

  4. Deformation microstructures and diagenesis in sandstone adjacent to an extensional fault: Implications for the flow and entrapment of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hippler, S.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Microstructural and diagenetic analyses of the North Scapa Sandstone in the hanging wall of the North Scapa fault, Orkney, Scotland, provide insight into the relationship between faulting and fluid flow during basin development. The results demonstrate the influence of this relationship on fault sealing processes and hydrocarbon migration. During development of the Orcadian basin in the Middle Devonian, the fault moved in an extensional sense. Dilatancy associated with cataclastic deformation caused localization of fluid flow and resulted in the precipitation of quartz and illite cement in the North Scapa Sandstone up to 1 m from the fault plane. This diagenetic event, coupled with cataclastic grain-size reduction, significantly reduced the porosity and permeability of the sandstone directly adjacent to the fault. These processes are effective sealing mechanisms within the sandstone. Lacustrine source rocks in the Orcadian basin reached maturation during the latest Devonian to middle Carboniferous. At the end of this time, the basin was uplifted, and the North Scapa fault was reactivated in a normal, but dominantly oblique-slip sense. This later deformation was accommodated directly outside the sealed zone and resulted in the development of broad (10-20 cm) breccia zones and narrow (<10 cm) cataclastic bands. Further dilatancy associated with the cataclastic deformation channelized hydrocarbon flow through the high-strain breccia zones and cataclastic bands. These observations indicate that fault activity that is broadly coincident with maturation and expulsion of hydrocarbons within a basin can directly influence the location of migration pathways. 81 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Oil shale resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. The oil shale interval was subdivided into eighteen roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and each interval was assessed for variations in gallons per ton, barrels per acre, and total barrels in each township. The Radial Basis Function extrapolation method was used to generate isopach and isoresource maps, and to calculate resources. The total inplace resource for the Uinta Basin is estimated at 1.32 trillion barrels. This is only slightly lower than the estimated 1.53 trillion barrels for the adjacent Piceance Basin, Colorado, to the east, which is thought to be the richest oil shale deposit in the world. However, the area underlain by oil shale in the Uinta Basin is much larger than that of the Piceance Basin, and the average gallons per ton and barrels per acre values for each of the assessed oil shale zones are significantly lower in the depocenter in the Uinta Basin when compared to the Piceance Basin. These relations indicate that the oil shale resources in the Uinta Basin are of lower grade and are more dispersed than the oil shale resources of the Piceance Basin.

  6. Heat flow distribution and thermal structure of the Philippine Sea Plate and its adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, C.; Liang, Q.; Sun, S.

    2013-12-01

    Research on the present geothermal state is an important way to understand the lithospheric geodynamics. We studied the heat flow (HF) distribution and the geothermal structure of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and its adjacent area (100°E~155°E, 5°S~45°N) surrounded by the East China Sea, South China Sea and the West Pacific Ocean, which is aimed to provide thermal constraints for the dynamic mechanism and tectonic evolution of the PSP. Based on the observed seafloor HF data of the study area with the latest release of CRUST1.0 crustal layered model, the lithospheric geotherm was calculated using 1D steady-state heat conduction equation. However, the obtained numerous geotherms derived from the extrapolation through heat conduction equation strongly depended on the accuracy of the measured HF data, which is limited, unevenly distributed and easily affected by local factors. Therefore, as a meaningful comparison, the temperature distributions at 25 km and 50 km depth inferred from the upper mantle shear wave velocities structure (S2.9EA) are inverted. The HF distribution shows relatively high values in Ryuku Trench and nearby Izu-Boning Trench, where the crust thicken and the mantle uplift obviously as typical transition zones. The Mariana Trench located in the east (southeast) part and the Philippine Trench in the southwest both are with low HF, which is also illustrated in the upper mantle gravity map after temperature correction. The Central Basin Ridge is with unquestionable high HF, being perpendicular to which the value decreasing. The calculated temperature maps (at depth of 25 km and 50 km) by the two methods both present that the temperature in PSP is higher than that in the Western Pacific Ocean and the west Philippine Basin is lower than the east one, which consists well with the crust age. The west half parts both of the Philippine Basin and Parece Vela Basin show low temperature, but high value in Ryuku Trench, Nankai Through, Shikoku Basin, Amami

  7. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  8. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  9. Petroleum geology of Solimoes Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, J.N.P.; Meister, E.M.; Pereira, C.A.G.; Murakami, C.Y. )

    1993-02-01

    Solimoes basin is located at the northwestern portion of the South American continent, adjacent to a subandean pericratonic belt. It constitutes a Paleozoic intracratonic basin covering an area of about 600,000 km[sup 2] and displaying a maximum sedimentary thickness of 3400 m. The tectono-sedimentary evolution can be largely related with important events that occurred at the western border of the continent. The regional flexural subsidence and tectonic deformation observed are correlated to two major phases: Pre-Andean (Paleozoic) and Andean (Mesozoic and Cenozoic). In the Andean phase, compression with shear components, of Triassic age, known as the Jurua Tectonism, became very important for oil exploration of the basin. The stratigraphic conditions considered of greatest interest for petroleum exploration comprise Devonian gas and oil sourcing shales and Carboniferous sandstones reservoirs with an evaporitic seal. The main traps are anticlines related to reverse faults. In this context, Petrobras discovered Jurua gas field in 1978 and the Rio Urucu gas and oil field in 1986. These were the first fields discovered in Brazilian Paleozoic basins. Total petroleum fields discovered in Brazilian Paleozoic basins. Total petroleum reserves discovered represent 400 million bbl of equivalent oil. Present migration and accumulation call for previous accumulation in intrabasinal Paleozoic highs and related stratigraphic traps. Late tectonism seems to have resulted in redistribution and/or escape of fluids into new traps. Less disturbed areas are expected to contain original accumulations.

  10. The Canada Basin compared to the southwest South China Sea: Two marginal ocean basins with hyper-extended continent-ocean transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Stephenson, Randell; Clift, Peter D.

    2016-11-01

    Both the Canada Basin (a sub-basin within the Amerasia Basin) and southwest (SW) South China Sea preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterized by broad COT zones with hyper-extended continental crust. We have investigated strain accommodation in the regions immediately adjacent to the oceanic spreading centres in these two basins using 2-D backstripping subsidence reconstructions, coupled with forward modelling constrained by estimates of upper crustal extensional faulting. Modelling is better constrained in the SW South China Sea but our results for the Canada Basin are analogous. Depth-dependent extension is required to explain the great depth of both basins because only modest upper crustal faulting is observed. A weak lower crust in the presence of high heat flow and, accordingly, a lower crust that extends far more the upper crust are suggested for both basins. Extension in the COT may have continued even after seafloor spreading has ceased. The analogous results for the two basins considered are discussed in terms of (1) constraining the timing and distribution of crustal thinning along the respective continental margins, (2) defining the processes leading to hyper-extension of continental crust in the respective tectonic settings and (3) illuminating the processes that control hyper-extension in these basins and more generally.

  11. High resolution regional seismic attenuation tomography in eastern Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xueyang; Sandvol, Eric; Ni, James; Hearn, Thomas; Chen, Yongshun John; Shen, Yang

    2011-08-01

    The Q of regional seismic phases Lg and Pg within the crust is assumed as a proxy for crustal Qβ and Qα, which is used as a constraint of crustal rheology. We measure regional-phase Q of the eastern Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas. This method eliminates contributions from source and site responses and is an improvement on the Two-Station Method (TSM). We have generated tomographic images of crustal attenuation anomalies with resolution as high as 1°. In general we observe low Q in the northernmost portions of the Tibetan Plateau and high Q in the more tectonically stable regions such as the interior of the Qaidam basin. The calculated site responses appear to correlate with topography or sediment thickness. Furthermore the relationship between earthquake magnitudes and calculated source terms suggest that the RTM method effectively removes the source response and may be used as an alternative to source magnitude.

  12. Playa basin development, southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, T.C. ); Holliday, V.T. )

    1992-01-01

    More than 20,000 playa basins have formed on fine-grained eolian sediments of the Quaternary Blackwater Draw and Tertiary Ogallala Formations on the High Plains of TX and NM. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the development of playa basins: (1) subsidence due to dissolution of underlying Permian bedded salt, (2) dissolution of soil carbonate and piping of clastic sediment into the subsurface, (3) animal activity, and (4) deflation. Evidence of eolian processes includes lee dunes and straightened shorelines on the eastern and southern margins of many playas. Lee dunes, which occur on the eastern side of ca 15% of playa basins and contain sediment deflated from adjacent playas, are cresentic to oval in plain view and typically account for 15--40% of the volume of the playa basin. Quaternary fossil biotas and buried calcic soils indicate that grasslands and semi-arid to aid climatic conditions prevailed as these basins formed. Evidence of fluviolacustrine processes in playa basins includes centripetal drainage leading to fan deltas at playa margins and preserved deltaic and lacustrine sediments. Playa basins expanded as fluvial processes eroded basin slopes and carried sediment to the basin floor where, during periods of minimal vegetation cover, loose sediment was removed by deflation. Other processes that played secondary roles in the development of certain playa basins include subsidence induced by dissolution of deeply buried Permian salt, dissolution of soil carbonate and piping, and animal activity. Two small lake basins in Gray County, TX, occur above strata affected by dissolution-induced subsidence. Dissolution of soil carbonate was observed in exposures and cores of strata underlying playa basins. Cattle, and in the past vast numbers of migrating buffalo, destroy soil crusts in dry playas, making these sediments more susceptible to deflation, and carry sediment out of flooded playas on their hooves.

  13. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  14. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  15. 10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  16. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  17. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  18. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  19. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  20. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature.

  2. 15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 5 and portion of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  3. 7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 1 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  4. 8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 2 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  5. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  7. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  8. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  9. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  11. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  14. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  15. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  19. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous rocks, which are widespread throughout the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) and adjacent areas north of the Brooks Range, make up the major part of the thick sedimentary fill of the Colville basin. Much seismic and well information obtained since 1974 has aided considerably in understanding these rocks. These data include about 20,000 km of seismic lines, covering much of the NPRA with a grid spacing of 10-20 km, and 28 exploratory wells that bring the total to more than 50 wells in and adjacent to the NPRA. The purpose of this chapter is to interpret the depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the NPRA and adjacent areas on the basis of the latest seismic and well data and well data and on information from outcrops in the southern part of the Colville basin. The basin geometry and depositional history described in earlier reports are repeated here in the context of the overall Lower Cretaceous depositional history. Well data (including paleontology) and seismic data are used almost exclusively to interpret relations in the northern foothills and coastal plain areas. Surface data and some well data are used in the southern parts of the northern foothills, and surface data are used exclusively to interpret the depositional history in the southern foothills and Brooks Range. The quality of seismic data is fair to good in most of the coastal plain, where the structure is simple. In the northern foothills, tracing seismic reflections is more difficult, especially in the shallower part of the section because of structural complications in the thrust-faulted anticlines. The quality of seismic data across the structurally complex southern foothills area is inadequate to correlate stratigraphic units of the outcrop area of the southern foothills with subsurface units to the north.

  1. Metal content of biopsies adjacent to dental cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Garhammer, Pauline; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T

    2003-06-01

    Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.

  2. Stratigraphic reference section for Georges Bank Basin - depositional model for New England passive margin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    A multichannel seismic reflection profile (US Geological Survey line 19), calibrated with the COST G-1, COST G-2, and Shell Mohican I-100 wells, and seismic-sequence analysis shows that the chronostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic units and depositional history of the Georges Bank basin are similar to those of the Scotian basin. Tentative correlation between the Georges Bank basin sequences and those of the adjacent, deep N American basin suggests that the deep-sea facies were strongly influenced by depositional events on the shelf. Deposition in both areas has been sensitive to changes in sea level and the palaeoclimatic cycles.-Author

  3. Malaria vectors in Lake Victoria and adjacent habitats in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Noboru; Dida, Gabriel O; Sonye, George O; Futami, Kyoko; Njenga, Sammy M

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control.

  4. Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

  5. From foreland rift to forearc basin: Tectono-thermal controls on subsidence and stratigraphic development in the Mesozoic-Recent Salar de Atacama basin, Chilean Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S. ); Turner, P. ); Hartley, A. ); Jolley, E. )

    1991-03-01

    The Salar de Atacama and westerly adjacent Domeyko basins originated as Permian foreland rifts, containing some 2 km of Triassic synrift red beds. Continued extension and volcanic are establishment resulted in deposition of important Jurassic marine source rocks in the Domeyko basin. Rift basin subsidence was controlled by extension, followed by thermal sagging. Middle Cretaceous contraction (opening of the south Atlantic) inverted the Domeyko back-arc basin as a thrustbelt. To the east, the Salar basin subsequently accommodated 4 km of Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene continental detritus. Accommodation space reflected the interplay between limited flexural loading and thermal effects related to a 150 km eastward jump of the Andean volcanic arc to the margin of the arc-related, foreland-style basin. Late Eocene transpression (high rate of oblique convergence between the Farallon and South American plates) inverted the western basin margin, sourcing a 2 km thick Oligocene intra-arc basin-fill component. Accommodation space was controlled by thermal sagging associated with a further 100 km eastward arc jump. The Salar de Atacama basin thus provides a model for the evolution of complex, mixed origin basins associated with a migrating volcanic arc and varying crustal stress regime. The complex interplay between variable tectonic style and thermal processes in controlling subsidence and resultant stratigraphic development is not yet adequately constrained. However, simple, single stage tectono-sedimentary models commonly used in play definition may not be appropriate in complex, arc-related basin settings.

  6. A simulation model of water depth in mangrove basin forests.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, S A

    1990-06-01

    The construction and validation of a model simulating the water depth within mangrove basin forests is described. Rainfall, water table, water depth and tide data collected from a red mangrove basin forest on Marco Island, FL, was used to estimate model parameters. These included the basin spillover height, evapotranspiration-infiltration rate and the functional relationship of water depth change to rainfall, tide and basin spillover. The model was constructed with LOTUS 123 and calibrated from staff gauge water depth records. The model proved accurate and adaptable. Water depths from the model and staff gauge were correlated highly (r = 0.98). Data from an adjacent black mangrove forest featuring complex wet-dry cycling were used to modify the model. After calibration, the model provided an accurate record of water depths at the site (r = 0.89). This model will provide water depths used in a model of Aedes taeniorhynchus population dynamics.

  7. Geochemistry of waters from springs, wells, and snowpack on and adjacent to Medicine Lake volcano, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical analyses of waters from cold springs and wells of the Medicine Lake volcano and surrounding region indicate small chloride anomalies that may be due to water-rock interaction or limited mixing with high-temperature geothermal fluids. The Fall River Springs (FRS) with a combined discharge of approximately 37 m3/s, show a negative correlation between chloride (Cl) and temperature, implying that the Cl is not derived from a high-temperature geothermal fluid. The high discharge from the FRS indicates recharge over a large geographic region. Chemical and isotopic variations in the FRS show that they contain a mixture of three distinct waters. The isotopic composition of recharge on and adjacent to the volcano are estimated from the isotopic composition of snow and precipitation amounts adjusted for evapotranspiration. Enough recharge of the required isotopic composition (-100 parts per thousand ??D) is available from a combination of the Medicine Lake caldera, the Fall River basin and the Long Bell basin to support the slightly warmer components of the FRS (32 m3/s). The cold-dilute part of the FRS (approximately 5 m3/s) may recharge in the Bear Creek basin or at lower elevations in the Fall River basin.

  8. Regional prospectivity of Mesozoic and Tertiary in the eastern Adriatic and adjacent area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Dolan, P.; Lunn, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Post-Hercynian deposits in the eastern Adriatic and the adjacent external zones of the Dinarides and Albanian Hellenides may be subdivided into four facies groups. (1) Permian-Lower Triassic clastics and carbonates with some evaporites, (2) Middle Triassic-lower Tertiary carbonate platform facies with associated continental margin deeper marine sequences, (3) Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary flysch, and (4) middle Tertiary molasse and postorogenic Neogene sediments. The Permian to lower Tertiary section was deposited during the complex Alpine cycle, while the upper Tertiary section is the product of post-Alpine deposition. This depositional history during markedly different tectonic regimes creates two groups of petroleum plays in the eastern Adriatic: (1) Alpine cycle plays in the Permian to lower Tertiary in the thrust-faulted and folded foreland of Adria and (2) post-Alpine plays in upper Tertiary postorogenic or late synorogenic basins. Around the Adriatic, the post-Alpine plays have so far proved the most successful. Major production occurs in the onshore Po basin and its extension beneath the Adriatic. Some of this production is from deep Alpine-cycle reservoirs, but the bulk is from the upper Tertiary-Quaternary. Similar horizons produce onshore and offshore the central-southern Adriatic coast of Italy. Major Tertiary production also occurs to the northeast in the Pannonian basin of Yugoslavia and Hungary from Miocene and younger sequences. Onshore Albania produces significant quantities of hydrocarbons; although data are scarce, much of this production is presumably from upper Tertiary molasse or lower Tertiary flysch.

  9. GIS Analysis of Size Relationships between Drainage Basins and Alluvial Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. N.; Scuderi, L. A.; Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Imagery from the global database of modern sedimentary basins compiled by Weissman et al. (2010) allows us to test whether a size relationship between drainage basin area and distributive fluvial system (DFS) area exists. We are testing this hypothesis using a combination of SRTM-based digital elevation models and Landsat satellite imagery in ArcGIS. Sedimentary basins are delineated by preforming a Gaussian smoothing on the DEM, followed by optimal edge detection through application of a modified Canny edge detector. The pour points defining the link between contributing hydrologic basins and these sedimentary basins are then located by generating a stream network in ArcGIS and intersecting the stream network arcs with the sedimentary basin polygons. From these pour points we delineate the adjacent contributing drainage basin using the watershed tool in ArcGIS. We manually digitize the boundary and geometry of the DFS identified for each drainage basin, using the higher resolution imagery found on Google Earth for visual confirmation if the scale or resolution of the Landsat imagery requires it. We then extract drainage basins and DFS polygon parameters and calculate areal extents in order to evaluate whether such a size relationship exists within basins, regionally across several basins, or across different basin types (e.g., endorheic vs exhoreic). A limitation of this approach is that we cannot evaluate sediment volumes, only aerial coverage. Results from this study may provide a better understanding of extrabasinal processes that control DFS shape and size.

  10. Detention Basins may Help Reduce Nutrient Loads to Lake Tahoe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    Water clarity in Lake Tahoe has been declining at a rate of about one foot per year for more than 35 years. In an attempt to decrease sediment and associated nutrients from reaching the lake, many detention basins have been installed, although their efficiency was uncertain. Many basins were constructed near alpine streams. This setting effectively reduces sediments from reaching surface water, but may allow transport of nutrients by ground water beneath the detention basins possibly discharging to streams farther downgradient or directly to Lake Tahoe. Determining the effectiveness of detention basins in the Lake Tahoe area requires an understanding of the shallow subsurface environment in which nutrients travel. A study was carried out at Cattlemans detention basin, situated adjacent to Cold Creek, a tributary to Lake Tahoe. Ground-water and solute transport models were used to evaluate complex ground-water interactions with Cold Creek near Cattlemans detention basin. Based on observations that urban runoff entering the basin rarely exited as surface water, each model assumes all water entering the basin either infiltrates or is consumed by evapotranspiration. Modeling results indicated that the detention basin has altered the local ground-water flow system while efficiently reducing suspended sediments, although nutrients are not filtered out as readily. Nutrient discharge points were tracked by calculating ground-water flow paths and endpoints. Approximately 45 percent of ground water originating from the detention basin discharges to Cold Creek within the modeled area downstream of the detention basin. The remaining 55 percent of ground water could discharge to evapotranspiration, to Cold Creek farther downstream, or to Lake Tahoe.

  11. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: deep basin evidence and application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Leigh C.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the model of a hot deep origin of oil places rigid constraints on the migration and entrapment of crude oil. Specifically, oil originating from depth migrates vertically up faults and is emplaced in traps at shallower depths. Review of petroleum-producing basins worldwide shows oil occurrence in these basins conforms to the restraints of and therefore supports the hypothesis. Most of the world's oil is found in the very deepest sedimentary basins, and production over or adjacent to the deep basin is cut by or directly updip from faults dipping into the basin deep. Generally the greater the fault throw the greater the reserves. Fault-block highs next to deep sedimentary troughs are the best target areas by the present concept. Traps along major basin-forming faults are quite prospective. The structural style of a basin governs the distribution, types, and amounts of hydrocarbons expected and hence the exploration strategy. Production in delta depocenters (Niger) is in structures cut by or updip from major growth faults, and structures not associated with such faults are barren. Production in block fault basins is on horsts next to deep sedimentary troughs (Sirte, North Sea). In basins whose sediment thickness, structure and geologic history are known to a moderate degree, the main oil occurrences can be specifically predicted by analysis of fault systems and possible hydrocarbon migration routes. Use of the concept permits the identification of significant targets which have either been downgraded or ignored in the past, such as production in or just updip from thrust belts, stratigraphic traps over the deep basin associated with major faulting, production over the basin deep, and regional stratigraphic trapping updip from established production along major fault zones.

  12. Application of REE geochemical signatures for Mesozoic sediment provenance to the Gettysburg Basin, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Johanna M.; Peters, Stephen C.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2017-03-01

    Rift basins adjacent to accreted terranes provide accommodation space for sediments eroded from these terranes. Despite similar depositional environments and geologic age, rocks of the Triassic Gettysburg Basin have approximately half the arsenic concentrations of the adjacent Newark Basin. Quartz-feldspar-lithics (QFL) diagrams and rare earth element (REE) geochemical signatures can inform sediment provenance. Here we investigate REE geochemical signatures of the sedimentary rocks in the Triassic Gettysburg rift basin, with the goal of distinguishing the main sources of siliciclastic sediment among the Appalachian foreland in the rift footwall from Piedmont arc and Iapetan continental margin rocks exposed in the hanging wall and ultimately understanding the geochemical cycling of arsenic to the Gettysburg Basin. Shale-normalized REE spider diagrams and Mann-Whitney tests on trace element ratios suggest that the Gettysburg Basin samples show patterns that most closely resemble those of the Iapetus Continental Slope Rise Iapetus Rift Volcanic, and Accretionary Complex deposits. Mann-Whitney Rank Sum analysis suggest that the Iapetus Continental Slope Rise terrane is the main source of sediments to the basin, which confirms results from prior QFL analysis and shows the utility of REE fingerprinting in provenance analysis. The main sources of sediment have smaller minimum and maximum arsenic concentrations than other terranes and the Newark Basin sediments, additionally suggesting the source of arsenic to the Gettysburg Basin is based upon specific terranes.

  13. BASINS Technical Notes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed several technical notes that provide in depth information on a specific function in BASINS. Technical notes can be used to answer questions users may have, or to provide additional information on the application of features in BASINS.

  14. BASINS Tutorials and Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A series of lectures and exercises on how to use BASINS for water quality modeling and watershed assessment. The lectures follow sequentially. Companion exercises are provided for users to practice different BASINS water quality modeling techniques.

  15. Contrasting rainfall generated debris flows from adjacent watersheds at Forest Falls, southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Douglas M.; Alvarez, Rachel M.; Ruppert, Kelly R.; Goforth, Brett

    2008-04-01

    Debris flows are widespread and common in many steeply sloping areas of southern California. The San Bernardino Mountains community of Forest Falls is probably subject to the most frequently documented debris flows in southern California. Debris flows at Forest Falls are generated during short-duration high-intensity rains that mobilize surface material. Except for debris flows on two consecutive days in November 1965, all the documented historic debris flows have occurred during high-intensity summer rainfall, locally referred to as 'monsoon' or 'cloudburst' rains. Velocities of the moving debris range from about 5 km/h to about 90 km/h. Velocity of a moving flow appears to be essentially a function of the water content of the flow. Low velocity debris flows are characterized by steep snouts that, when stopped, have only small amounts of water draining from the flow. In marked contrast are high-velocity debris flows whose deposits more resemble fluvial deposits. In the Forest Falls area two adjacent drainage basins, Snow Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, have considerably different histories of debris flows. Snow Creek basin, with an area about three times as large as Rattlesnake Creek basin, has a well developed debris flow channel with broad levees. Most of the debris flows in Snow Creek have greater water content and attain higher velocities than those of Rattlesnake Creek. Most debris flows are in relative equilibrium with the geometry of the channel morphology. Exceptionally high-velocity flows, however, overshoot the channel walls at particularly tight channel curves. After overshooting the channel, the flows degrade the adjacent levee surface and remove trees and structures in the immediate path, before spreading out with decreasing velocity. As the velocity decreases the clasts in the debris flows pulverize the up-slope side of the trees and often imbed clasts in them. Debris flows in Rattlesnake Creek are relatively slow moving and commonly stop in the channel

  16. Contrasting rainfall generated debris flows from adjacent watersheds at Forest Falls, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Alvarez, R.M.; Ruppert, K.R.; Goforth, B.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows are widespread and common in many steeply sloping areas of southern California. The San Bernardino Mountains community of Forest Falls is probably subject to the most frequently documented debris flows in southern California. Debris flows at Forest Falls are generated during short-duration high-intensity rains that mobilize surface material. Except for debris flows on two consecutive days in November 1965, all the documented historic debris flows have occurred during high-intensity summer rainfall, locally referred to as 'monsoon' or 'cloudburst' rains. Velocities of the moving debris range from about 5??km/h to about 90??km/h. Velocity of a moving flow appears to be essentially a function of the water content of the flow. Low velocity debris flows are characterized by steep snouts that, when stopped, have only small amounts of water draining from the flow. In marked contrast are high-velocity debris flows whose deposits more resemble fluvial deposits. In the Forest Falls area two adjacent drainage basins, Snow Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, have considerably different histories of debris flows. Snow Creek basin, with an area about three times as large as Rattlesnake Creek basin, has a well developed debris flow channel with broad levees. Most of the debris flows in Snow Creek have greater water content and attain higher velocities than those of Rattlesnake Creek. Most debris flows are in relative equilibrium with the geometry of the channel morphology. Exceptionally high-velocity flows, however, overshoot the channel walls at particularly tight channel curves. After overshooting the channel, the flows degrade the adjacent levee surface and remove trees and structures in the immediate path, before spreading out with decreasing velocity. As the velocity decreases the clasts in the debris flows pulverize the up-slope side of the trees and often imbed clasts in them. Debris flows in Rattlesnake Creek are relatively slow moving and commonly stop in the

  17. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p < 0.05), and the maximal torque in the fusion model was about threefold (p < 0.05) that in the control model. And in axial rotation, the ROM of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was increased by about 100 % (p < 0.001), and the maximal torque was about sixfold (p < 0.01) that in the control model. The ROM of adjacent segments was significantly increased after pedicle screw fixation as assessed by biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, but not in those regulated by torque. We present the results of biomechanical tests regulated by torque and angular displacement and show that the maximum torque of the fusion model was larger than that of the control model in the biomechanical test regulated by an angular displacement load, suggesting that mechanical stress on the segments adjacent to the fused segment is large. We think that ASD arises after spinal fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically

  18. Soledad Basin, Baja California: a Twin to Cariaco Basin for Monitoring the Eastern Tropical Pacific Today and the Past?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriquiry, J.; van Geen, A.; Levi, C.; Ortiz, J. D.; Zheng, Y.; Marchitto, T. M.; Dean, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Soledad Basin, a semi-enclosed basin on the Pacific margin of southern Baja California at 25oN, is ideally located to document past variations of ocean/atmosphere interactions responding to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This presentation focuses on the hydrography and geochemistry of the basin in the context of a potential monitoring program that could reach the scale of current activities in Cariaco Basin. Soledad Basin (sometimes referred to as Magdalena Basin or San Lazaro Basin) has been studied intermittently since the 1970's although detailed studies to exploit its paleoceanographic potential have started only recently. A very flat bottom with a maximum depth of 540 m was mapped with SeaBeam. A comparison of hydrographic profiles collected inside and outside the basin indicates a sill depth of 290 m. Bioturbation is currently inhibited within the basin primarily because of low oxygen concentration in adjacent source waters, rather than oxygen consumption within the basin as is the case for Cariaco and Santa Barbara Basins. Radiocarbon dating of planktonic foraminifera indicates a very high sedimentation rates of ~108 cm/kyr up through the end of the Bolling/Allerod 13 kyr ago (van Geen et al., Paleoceanography, v. 8, no. 4, 2003). A non-bioturbated section, characterized by sub-cm dark brown to black, coarse, mm- to cm-scale laminations rather than by mm-scale fine laminations, extends almost continuously from the top of a piston core to ~9 m depth, an interval dated at 10.0 ka. In addition, thin white mm-scale laminae composed almost entirely of coccoliths packed in faecal pellets extend to a depth of ~11 m (11.3 ka). A selection of promising results based on diffuse spectral reflectance records obtained at 1-cm resolution, planktonic Mg/Ca data, and the acccumulation of authigenic Mo will be presented.

  19. Runoff, precipitation, mass balance, and ice velocity measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1993 balance year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Wash., to determine the winter and net balance for the 1993 balance year. The 1993 winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 1.98 meters, and the net balance was -1.23 meters. This negative valance continued a trend of negative balance years beginning in 1977. Air temperature, barometric pressure, and runoff from this glacier basin and an adjacent non-glacierized basin were also continuously measured. Surface ice velocity was measured over an annual period. This report makes all these data available to users throughout the glaciological and climato1ogical community.

  20. Tectonic history of the Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolata, D.R.; Nelson, J.W. )

    1990-05-01

    The Illinois basin began as a failed rift that developed during breakup of a supercontinent approximately 550 Ma. A rift basin in the southernmost part of the present Illinois basin subsided rapidly and filled with about 3,000 m of probable Early and Middle Cambrian sediments. By the Late Cambrian, the rift-bounding faults became inactive and a broad relatively slowly subsiding embayment, extending well beyond the rift and open to the Iapetus Ocean, persisted through most of the Paleozoic Era. Widespread deformation swept through the proto-Illinois basin beginning in the latest Mississippian, continuing to the end of the Paleozoic Era. Uplift of basement fault blocks resulted in the formation of many major folds and faults. The timing of deformation and location of these structures in the forelands of the Ouachita and Alleghanian orogenic belts suggest that much of the deformation resulted from continental collision between North America and Gondwana. The associated compressional stress reactivated the ancient rift-bounding faults, upthrusting the northern edge of a crustal block approximately 1,000 m within the rift. Concurrently, dikes (radiometrically dated as Early Permian), sills, and explosion breccias formed in or adjacent to the reactivated rift. Subsequent extensional stress, probably associated with breakup of Pangea, caused the crustal block within the rift to sink back to near its original position. High-angle, northeast- to east-west-trending normal faults, with as much as 1,000 m of displacement, formed in the southern part of the basin. These faults displace some of the northwest trending Early Permian dikes. Structural closure of the southern end of the Illinois basin was caused by uplift of the Pascola arch sometime between the Late Pennsylvanian and Late Cretaceous.

  1. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  2. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  3. Management of adjacent segment disease after cervical spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) was described after long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical fusion. The term describes new-onset radiculopathy or myelopathy referable to a motion segment adjacent to previous arthrodesis and often attributed to alterations in the biomechanical environment after fusion. Evidence suggests that ASD affects between 2% and 3% of patients per year. Although prevention of ASD was one major impetus behind the development of motion-sparing surgery, the literature does not yet clearly distinguish a difference in the rate of ASD between fusion and disk replacement. Surgical techniques during index surgery may reduce the rate of ASD.

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality of the Tatlicay aquifer and relation to the adjacent evaporitic formations (Cankiri, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Apaydın, Ahmet; Aktaş, Sibel Demirci

    2012-04-01

    One of the most important hydrogeologic problems in and adjacent areas of evaporitic formations is severe quality degradation of groundwaters. These kinds of groundwaters contain high content of dissolved solids and generally have some limitations for use. Tatlicay basin (north-central Turkey) is an example to effects of the evaporites on groundwater quality in the adjacent alluvium aquifer. Gypsum and anhydrites in the two evaporite formations (Bayindir and Bozkir) effect of the groundwater quality in the alluvium adversely, by dissolution of the evaporites by surface drainage and infiltration into the alluvium aquifer (widespread effect) and by infiltration of low quality gypsum springs (local effect) into the aquifer. Evaporitic formations significantly increased EC, TDS, Ca and SO(4) parameters in the alluvium aquifer in the central and downstream regions. EC has increased roughly from 500-800 to 1,700-2,000 μS/cm, Ca has roughly increased from 3-4 to 10 meq/l, SO(4) has increased 0.5-1 to 11-12 meq/l. Consequently, three clusters were distinguished in the basin; (1) nonevaporitic waters in low TDS, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and SO(4), (2) diluted waters in high TDS and relatively high Cl, moderate-relatively high Na, Ca, Mg, SO(4), (3) gypsum springs in highest TDS, Ca, SO(4), but moderate Mg and low Na, Cl.

  5. Water resources of the Bighorn basin, northwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, Marlin E.; Lowham, H.W.; Lines, Gregory C.

    1976-01-01

    This 2-sheet map report includes the part of the Bighorn Basin and adjacent mountains in northwestern Wyoming. Water-bearing properties of the geologic units are summarized. The hydrogeologic map illustrates the distribution of wells in the different units and gives basic data on the yields of wells, depth of wells, depth to water, and dissolved solids and conductance of the water. Aquifers capable of yielding more than 1,000 gpm (gallons per minute) underlie the area everywhere, except in the mountains on the periphery of the basin. In 1970, approximately 29,500 of the 40,475 people living in the Bighorn Basin were served by municipal water supplies. The municipal supply for about 6,300 of these people was from ground water. The natural flows of streams in the Bighorn Basin differ greatly due to a wide range in the meteorologic, topographic, and geologic conditions of the basin. The station locations and the average discharge per square mile are shown on the map and give an indication of the geographic variation of basin yields. The maximum instantaneous discharge that has occurred at each station during its period of record is shown. Most of the runoff in the basin is from snowmelt in the mountains. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Walled Sedimentary Basins of China: Perpetrators or Victims of Plateau Growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, A. R.; Graham, S. A.; Smith, M. E.

    2004-12-01

    Western China and adjacent areas of central Asia are characterized by low relief, internally drained sedimentary basins that are divided by actively uplifting mountain ranges. The margins of these basins often show evidence for extensive contractional deformation, yet their interiors are surprisingly stable. Basins such as the Tarim and Junggar also exhibit long and apparently continuous histories of closed drainage in the same approximate location (over 250 my in the case of Junggar). In contrast to traditional foreland basins, these basins are not uniquely associated with a specific thrust belt, nor do they show evidence for underlying decollements. We therefore propose the new term "walled basin", in recognition of the essential role of peripheral orogenic walls in creating and maintaining closed drainage and impounding sediments. Walled basins in Asia currently are restricted to areas that receive less than 40 cm/yr precipitation, suggesting that aridity plays a role in preventing fluvial breach of the basin walls (cf., Sobel et al., 2003). Entrapment of sediment within the closed Qaidam basin in the northeast Tibetan plateau has been implicated as a potential mechanism of plateau growth, based on the observations that the basin retains mass within the orogen and creates level topography. However, we propose that the Qaidam instead represents a walled basin that has been elevated due to underplating of the plateau, and is fated to eventual destruction as deformation continues. Several lines of reasoning support this conclusion. First, DEM analysis shows that modern drainage divides for the Qaidam and other walled basins never rise more than 1-2 km above the basin floors, limiting the amount of possible topgraphic infill. Second, the Tarim and Junggar basins presently remain well below 2000 m and probably have never been higher, despite receiving large influxes of detritus from adjacent ranges. Third, the Qaidam basin, like the Tarim and Junggar basins, has an

  7. Crustal rifting and subsidence of Sirte basin, Libya: a mature hydrocarbon Province

    SciTech Connect

    Gumati, Y.; Schamel, S.; Nairn, A.E.M.

    1985-02-01

    The complex rifting and subsidence history of the Sirte basin serves as an instructive case study of the tectonic evolution of an intercratonic extensional basin. The Sirte basin formed by collapse of the Sirte arch in the mid-Cretaceous. Marine sediments accumulated following initial crustal arching and rifting as the basin was flooded from the north. Upper Cretaceous strata lie unconformably on igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Precambrian basement complex, Cambrian-Ordovician Gargaf Group, or the pre-Cretaceous continental Nubian Sandstone. The most rapid subsidence and accumulation of basinal strata occurred in the early Cenozoic; however, the basin has been relatively stable since the Oligocene. The basin is floored by a northwest-southeast-trending mosaic of narrow horsts and grabens, an important structural characteristic that distinguishes it from the adjacent intracratonic Kufra, Murzuk, and Ghadames basins. The details of basin subsidence, sediment accumulation rates, and facies variations have been reconstructed for the northern Sirte basin from a suite of approximately 100 well logs and numerous seismic lines. Subsidence-rate maps for short time intervals from the mid-Cretaceous through the Eocene show a continual shifting of the loci of maximum and minimum subsidence. The nonsteady character of basin subsidence may reflect a periodicity of movement on the major basement-rooted growth faults bounding the underlying horsts and grabens.

  8. Structural relations between Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware basins of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.R.; Smith, K.J.

    1985-02-01

    The Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware basins and related uplifts formed the major structural elements of the southwestern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic. In contrast with the relatively simple relationships where the southern Oklahoma aulacogen intersects the Ouachita orogenic belt, structural relationships in the area of these basins are very complex. Various geologic evidence points to an allochthonous Marathon basin. However, a prominent gravity anomaly is associated with the Ouachita system as it extends from western Arkansas through Oklahoma and Texas into northern Mexico. If this anomaly is the signature of the early Paleozoic continental margin, then the location of the Marathon basin with respect to this anomaly suggests lateral displacements have been only on the scale of tens of kilometers. The Delaware basin seems clearly analogous to the Anadarko basin in that it formed as a result of reactivation of a major crustal flaw (not necessarily a rift). This reactivation was a result of the Ouachita orogeny. The Marfa basin is also flanked by a linear gravity high and basement uplift. The relationship of this anomaly to the gravity high associated with the Ouachita system suggests that the Marfa basin may be more analogous to the Delaware basin that foreland basins such as the Ft. Worth and Arkoma. A prominent gravity high that extends into northern Mexico is associated with the Devil's River uplift, and the relationships between this feature, the Val Verde basin, and adjacent structures suggest major deformation on a crustal scale.

  9. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  10. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  11. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  12. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Price, Phillip N.

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  13. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  15. 11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  16. 12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  17. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  18. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  19. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  20. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  1. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent property. Original wood siding and trim is visible. Note: later addition to rear of house is shown in right side of photograph. - 322 South Fifteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  6. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  7. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN BUILDING (BASSIN'S RESTAURANT) (HABS No. DC-357), 501-511 14TH STREET (THE LOCKER ROOM) HABS No. DC-356) ON CORNER, AND MUNSEY BUILDING (HABS No. DC-358) - William J. Stone Building, 1345 E Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  9. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. Wastewater effects on a waterhyacinth marsh and adjacent impoundment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Alberto; Ewel, Katherine Carter

    1981-11-01

    A waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) marsh occupying two-thirds of the basin of a small Florida impoundment has received sewage effluent for nearly 20 years. Water from the marsh flows into an area that is maintained free of waterhyacinths, and is discharged through wells at the far end of the impoundment. A water budget for the basin was estimated, and phosphorus concentrations were measured monthly at three stations in the marsh and at the discharge wells in the lake. Productivity levels were measured monthly where the marsh joins the lake and at the discharge wells. Only 16% of the phosphorus that enters the basin is stored. Gross primary productivity levels in the open-water areas are very high (22 gO2m2day), but high respiration rates appear to keep the lake in steady-state.

  11. Determining Crustal Structure beneath the New Madrid Seismic Zone and Adjacent Areas: Application of a Reverberation-removal Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) and some of the adjacent areas are covered by a low-velocity sedimentary sequence, giving rise to strong reverberations in the P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) and making it difficult to reliably determine crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio using the conventional H-k stacking technique. Here we apply a newly developed technique (Yu et al., 2015; doi: 10.1002/2014JB011610) to effectively remove or reduce the reverberations from the sedimentary layer to obtain more reliable results. Stacking of a total of 38528 radial RFs recorded by 343 stations in the study area shows systematic spatial variations in crustal thickness (H), Vp/Vs ratio and amplitude (R; relative to the direction P) of the converted Moho phases. Our results indicate that the upper Mississippi Embayment (ME), a broad southwest-plunging trough with the thickest sedimentary layer in the study area, is characterized by a thin crustal thickness (~32 km), while adjacent areas have relatively thicker crust (>40 km). This area also possesses relatively large Vp/Vs (>1.85) values, suggesting possible intrusion of mantle-derived mafic rocks. Most part of the Ozark Uplift is characterized by relatively small Vp/Vs (<1.79) values which indicate an overall felsic crust. In contrast to the NMSZ which is part of the Reelfoot rift, the southern Illinois Basin, which is an intracontinental sag basin, is characterized by a crust of about 45 km which is a few km thicker than the surrounding areas, and a normal Vp/Vs, suggesting sharp differences in crustal structure between rift and sag basins.

  12. Climatic controls on arid continental basin margin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Amy; Clarke, Stuart; Richards, Philip; Milodowski, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    models suggest that the deposits of the Brockram alluvial fans have the potential to contain numerous preferential flow zones. Where these flow zones are adjacent to the unique deposits of the zone of interaction it affects basin-scale fluid flow by: 1) interconnecting decent reservoirs in the distal extent of the basin; 2) creating flow pathways away from these reservoirs; 3) introducing secondary baffles into the system; and, 4) creating a bypass to charge these distal reservoirs.

  13. Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All these

  14. Influence of spatial discretization, underground water storage and glacier melt on a physically-based hydrological model of the Upper Durance River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Etchevers, P.; Martin, E.; Obled, C.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model ( Habets et al., 2008) presents severe limitations for alpine catchments. Here we propose possible model adaptations. For the catchment discretization, Relatively Homogeneous Hydrological Units (RHHUs) are used instead of the classical 8 km square grid. They are defined from the dilineation of hydrological subbasins, elevation bands, and aspect classes. Glacierized and non-glacierized areas are also treated separately. In addition, new modules are included in the model for the simulation of glacier melt, and retention of underground water. The improvement resulting from each model modification is analysed for the Upper Durance basin. RHHUs allow the model to better account for the high spatial variability of the hydrological processes (e.g. snow cover). The timing and the intensity of the spring snowmelt floods are significantly improved owing to the representation of water retention by aquifers. Despite the relatively small area covered by glaciers, accounting for glacier melt is necessary for simulating the late summer low flows. The modified model is robust over a long simulation period and it produces a good reproduction of the intra and interannual variability of discharge, which is a necessary condition for its application in a modified climate context.

  15. Surgical treatment of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xia, Tian; Dong, Shuanghai; Zhao, Qinghua; Tian, Jiwei

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the clinical and radiographic characteristics of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability and describes the outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients (14 male, seven female; mean age=34 years) with complex axis fractures and adjacent segment instability who were treated between August 2003 and June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment selection was based on fracture type and stability of the upper cervical segments. All patients were immobilized with a hard collar for three months after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (range=6-36 months). No intraoperative surgery-related complications were observed and fusion was achieved in all patients. The outcome was excellent for 17 patients, good for two patients, fair for one patient, and poor for one patient. The upper cervical segments that can become unstable due to complex axis fractures include the atlantoaxial and C2-3 joints. Recommended surgical treatments produce good results.

  16. On the Circulation Manifold for Two Adjacent Lifting Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetti, Luca; Iollo, Angelo

    1998-01-01

    The circulation functional relative to two adjacent lifting sections is studied for two cases. In the first case we consider two adjacent circles. The circulation is computed as a function of the displacement of the secondary circle along the axis joining the two centers and of the angle of attack of the secondary circle, The gradient of such functional is computed by deriving a set of elliptic functions with respect both to their argument and to their Period. In the second case studied, we considered a wing-flap configuration. The circulation is computed by some implicit mappings, whose differentials with respect to the variation of the geometrical configuration in the physical space are found by divided differences. Configurations giving rise to local maxima and minima in the circulation manifold are presented.

  17. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  18. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  19. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Four-body central configurations with adjacent equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiyang; Li, Bingyu; Zhang, Shiqing

    2017-04-01

    For any convex non-collinear central configuration of the planar Newtonian 4-body problem with adjacent equal masses m1 =m2 ≠m3 =m4, with equal lengths for the two diagonals, we prove it must possess a symmetry and must be an isosceles trapezoid; furthermore, which is also an isosceles trapezoid when the length between m1 and m4 equals the length between m2 and m3.

  1. Processing multiple non-adjacent dependencies: evidence from sequence learning.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Meinou H; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Geukes, Sebastian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-07-19

    Processing non-adjacent dependencies is considered to be one of the hallmarks of human language. Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)B(2)B(1)) and crossed dependencies (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)B(2)B(3)), containing either three or two dependencies. Both reaction times and prediction errors highlighted problems with processing the middle dependency in nested structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)_B(1)), reminiscent of the 'missing-verb effect' observed in English and French, but not with crossed structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)_B(3)). Prior linguistic experience did not play a major role: native speakers of German and Dutch-which permit nested and crossed dependencies, respectively-showed a similar pattern of results for sequences with three dependencies. As for sequences with two dependencies, reaction times and prediction errors were similar for both nested and crossed dependencies. The results suggest that constraints on the processing of multiple non-adjacent dependencies are determined by the specific ordering of the non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed), as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved (i.e. two or three). Furthermore, these constraints may not be specific to language but instead derive from limitations on structured sequence learning.

  2. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  3. Catastrophic flood sediments in Chryse Basin, Mars, and Quincy Basin, Washington: Application of sandar facies model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James W., Jr.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    Viking visible and thermal infrared observations and terrestrial catastrophic flood deposits provide clues to identify the outflow channel sediments that went into Chryse Basin on Mars. On Earth, sandar (outwash plains formed by coalescence of many jökulhlaup floods) are described in terms of three laterally adjacent facies: proximal, midfan, and distal. The Missoula Flood sediments deposited in Quincy Basin, Washington, comprise a miniature analog of Chryse Basin. The terminology and general characteristics of the sandar facies model are applied to Quincy Basin, although the depositional environment and clast sizes are somewhat different (higher-energy flood, larger clasts, subaqueous rather than subaerial deposition). For example, the Ephrata Fan (a deposit of boulders, cobbles, and pebbles) forms the midfan facies analog; a downfan sandy deposit (reworked into a dune field) comprises the distal facies analog. In Chryse Basin the midfan is defined by a heterogeneous rocky (0-25%), intermediate-albedo (0.21-0.26), intermediate thermal inertia (260-460Jm-2s-0.5K-1) surface, while the distal facies has a low albedo (0.14-0.16) and higher thermal inertia (340-700Jm-2s-0.5K-1). The Chryse midfan unit has rocks and windblown dust exposed at the surface. The sand of the distal facies in Chryse/Acidalia is reworked by the wind, as in Quincy Basin. The Viking 1 and Mars Pathfinder landing sites are located on the midfan unit. Observations that can be made at the Mars Pathfinder site might help in reevaluating whether or not Viking 1 landed on outflow channel sediments.

  4. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  5. Predicting Agenesis of the Mandibular Second Premolar from Adjacent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of agenesis of the mandibular second premolar (P2) enhances management of the dental arch in the growing child. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship in the development of the mandibular first molar (M1) and first premolar (P1) at early stages of P2 (second premolar). Specifically, we ask if the likelihood of P2 agenesis can be predicted from adjacent developing teeth. We selected archived dental panoramic radiographs with P2 at crown formation stages (N = 212) and calculated the likelihood of P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ given the tooth stage of adjacent teeth. Our results show that the probability of observing mandibular P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ decreased as both the adjacent P1 and M1 matured. The modal stage at P2 ‘Ci’ was P1 ‘Coc’ (cusp outline complete) and M1 ‘Crc’ (crown complete). Initial mineralisation of P2 was observed up to P1 ‘Crc’ and M1 stage ‘R½’ (root half). The chance of observing P2 at least ‘Coc’ (coalescence of cusps) was considerably greater prior to these threshold stages compared to later stages of P1 and M1. These findings suggest that P2 is highly unlikely to develop if P1 is beyond ‘Crc’ and M1 is beyond ‘R½’. PMID:26673218

  6. Adjacent Segment Disease in the Cervical and Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Tobert, Daniel G; Antoci, Valentin; Patel, Shaun P; Saadat, Ehsan; Bono, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is disappointing long-term outcome for both the patient and clinician. In contrast to adjacent segment degeneration, which is a common radiographic finding, ASD is less common. The incidence of ASD in both the cervical and lumbar spine is between 2% and 4% per year, and ASD is a significant contributor to reoperation rates after spinal arthrodesis. The etiology of ASD is multifactorial, stemming from existing spondylosis at adjacent levels, predisposed risk to degenerative changes, and altered biomechanical forces near a previous fusion site. Numerous studies have sought to identify both patient and surgical risk factors for ASD, but a consistent, sole predictor has yet to be found. Spinal arthroplasty techniques seek to preserve physiological biomechanics, thereby minimizing the risk of ASD, and long-term clinical outcome studies will help quantify its efficacy. Treatment strategies for ASD are initially nonoperative, provided a progressive neurological deficit is not present. The spine surgeon is afforded many surgical strategies once operative treatment is elected. The goal of this manuscript is to consider the etiologies of ASD, review its manifestations, and offer an approach to treatment.

  7. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  8. Perceptual processing of adjacent and nonadjacent tactile nontargets.

    PubMed

    Evans, P M; Craig, J C; Rinker, M A

    1992-11-01

    Previous research has shown that subjects appear unable to restrict processing to a single finger and ignore a stimulus presented to an adjacent finger. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that, at least for moving stimuli, an adjacent nontarget is fully processed to the level of incipient response activation. The present study replicated and expanded upon these original findings. The results of Experiment 1 showed that an equally large response-competition effect occurred when the nontarget was presented to adjacent and nonadjacent fingers (on the same hand). The results of Experiment 2 showed that the effects observed in Experiment 1 (and in previous studies) were also obtained with stationary stimuli. Although small, there was some indication in the results of Experiment 2 that interference may dissipate more rapidly with distance with stationary stimuli. An additional finding was that interference effects were observed in both experiments with temporal separations between the target and nontarget of up to 100 msec. In Experiment 3, target and nontarget stimuli were presented to opposite hands. Although reduced, interference was still evident with target and nontarget stimuli presented to opposite hands. Varying the physical distance between hands did not produce any change in the amount of interference. The results suggest that the focus of attention on the skin extends nearly undiminished across the fingers of one hand and is not dependent upon the physical distance between sites of stimulation.

  9. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  10. The geology and petroleum potential of the Queen Charlotte Basin, Pacific Continental Margin, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, J.R.; Higgs, R.; Rohr, K. )

    1990-05-01

    The Queen Charlotte basin is a 40,000 km{sup 2} late Paleogene-Neogene basin underlying the Queen Charlotte Islands, Hecate Strait, and Queen Charlotte Sound region of the Canadian Pacific continental margin. The basin formed during Eocene to Pliocene extension along and adjacent to a transform segment of the Pacific-North American plate boundary. Oblique subduction along the plate boundary in the late Cenozoic resulted in uplift and folding of portions of the northern half of the basin. In detail, the basin consists of numerous, variably oriented half-grabens and subbasins separated and underlain by complexly structured Mesozoic rocks of the Wranellia terrane. Most of the offshore subbasins contain clastic sediments in excess of 3,000 m thick and strata as thick as 6,000 m are known to occur in the deepest depocenters. The older (pre-Pliocene) portions of the basin locally contain volcanics, often interbedded with clastics. Potential hydrocarbon reservoirs within the basin include alluvial-fan fan-delta and tidal-shelf sandstones. Potential hydrocarbon source rocks include Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic shales and limestones locally preserved below the basin and Tertiary shales within the deeper portions of the basin fill. Possible hydrocarbon traps include folds, rollover anticlines, basement fault blocks, and a variety of combined structural-stratigraphic traps. The Queen Charlotte basin is considered to be one of the most prospective areas for significant hydrocarbon resources along the northeast Pacific margin.

  11. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  12. Seismic stratigraphy, sediments, and basin history of Tonga forearc basin, late Eocene to Pleistocene

    SciTech Connect

    Herzer, R.H.; Ballance, P.F.; Cole, J.W.; Exon, N.F.; Stevenson, A.J.; Tappin, D.

    1986-07-01

    Four seismic reflectors (A, B, C, V) define primarily unconformity-bounded sedimentary sequences. Basement (V) is a block-faulted surface, apparently of Eocene volcanics. Above this, an upper Eocene sequence (CV) mainly buries the fault topography, pinching out locally on fault-block and volcanic highs along the eastern side of the basin. This sequence includes volcaniclastics and, on paleohighs, shallow-water limestones. Overlying this is a widespread upper Oligocene-lower Miocene sequence (BC), which also thins and pinches out locally against the high eastern side of the basin. Volcaniclastics are common, but limestones may occur locally. Seismic interpretations indicate little faulting during deposition of this sequence; prominent lenticular bodies could be either sills or reefs. Sequence AB, of middle and late Miocene to early Pliocene age, is composed of volcanopelagics deposited when the Lau arc was active, adjacent to the Tonga platform. No volcanic centers are seen in this sequence in the forearc, but shallow intrusions are common. Major tensional faulting developed toward the end of this depositional cycle. The uppermost sequence (SBA), of late Pliocene to Pleistocene age, also comprises volcanopelagic sediments. The volcanics are derived from the nearby Tofua arc, which developed with the opening of the Lau back-arc basin. Doming and tensional faulting in the late Pliocene-Pleistocene raised parts of the Tonga forearc basin, allowing wide reef platforms to develop.

  13. Basin richness and source rock disruption - a fundamental relationship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Primary petroleum migration (expulsion from source rocks) remains the least understood parameter controlling the genesis of oil deposits. It is hypothesised that source rocks must be physically disrupted before meaningful expulsion can occur. Faulting, with accompanying significant fracturing, would appear to be the optimum naturally-occurring process for physical disruption of source rocks. If these hypotheses are valid, intensity of faulting in deeply-buried HC "kitchens' containing mature source rocks should strongly correlate with increasing basin richness. This possible relationship is examined in this paper; it is found that there is a strong correlation of increasing basin richness with increasing structural intensity over and adjacent to basin depocentres. This correlation thus supports the hypothesis that physical disruption of mature source rocks is a necessary, and previously unappreciated, controlling parameter for oil expulsion. -from Author

  14. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  15. Event sedimentation in low-latitude deep-water carbonate basins, Anegada passage, northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2015-01-01

    The Virgin Islands and Whiting basins in the Northeast Caribbean are deep, structurally controlled depocentres partially bound by shallow-water carbonate platforms. Closed basins such as these are thought to document earthquake and hurricane events through the accumulation of event layers such as debris flow and turbidity current deposits and the internal deformation of deposited material. Event layers in the Virgin Islands and Whiting basins are predominantly thin and discontinuous, containing varying amounts of reef- and slope-derived material. Three turbidites/sandy intervals in the upper 2 m of sediment in the eastern Virgin Islands Basin were deposited between ca. 2000 and 13 600 years ago, but do not extend across the basin. In the central and western Virgin Islands Basin, a structureless clay-rich interval is interpreted to be a unifite. Within the Whiting Basin, several discontinuous turbidites and other sand-rich intervals are primarily deposited in base of slope fans. The youngest of these turbidites is ca. 2600 years old. Sediment accumulation in these basins is low (−1) for basin adjacent to carbonate platform, possibly due to limited sediment input during highstand sea-level conditions, sediment trapping and/or cohesive basin walls. We find no evidence of recent sediment transport (turbidites or debris flows) or sediment deformation that can be attributed to the ca. M7.2 1867 Virgin Islands earthquake whose epicentre was located on the north wall of the Virgin Islands Basin or to recent hurricanes that have impacted the region. The lack of significant appreciable pebble or greater size carbonate material in any of the available cores suggests that submarine landslide and basin-wide blocky debris flows have not been a significant mechanism of basin margin modification in the last several thousand years. Thus, basins such as those described here may be poor recorders of past natural hazards, but may provide a long-term record of past oceanographic

  16. Neotectonics of the Surma Basin, Bangladesh from GPS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, M. A. U.

    2015-12-01

    The Surma Basin is a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin situated at the northeastern corner of Bangladesh. The tectonically-active basin lies at the junction of three tectonic plates: the Indian plate, the Eurasian plate and the Burma platelet. The Surma Basin is bounded on the north by the Shillong Massif, east and southeast by CTFB of the Indo-Burman Ranges, west by the Indian Shield and to the south and southeast it is open to the main part of Bengal Basin. The Surma basin is subsiding at a high rate, which is controlled by flexure loading along the southern margin of the 2-km high Shillong Massif because of Dauki thrust fault system. The objective of this study is to explore and reconstruct the present scenario of the tectonically active zone of the northeastern Bangladesh, identify the active faults, identify the relation between the neotectonic activities and seismicity, relation between neotectonic activities and natural hazards and describe the nature of the possible future earthquakes. The present effort to establish the tectonics of the Surma basin mainly utilizes the horizontal and vertical movements of the area using GPS geodetic data and other constraints on the structure of the region. We also make use historical seismologic data, field geology, and satellite image data. The GPS data has been processed using GAMIT-GLOBK. The analysis of 5 continuous GPS geodetic stations installed in the Surma Basin are combined with published data from the adjacent parts of India. While the area is moving northeast at a rate of 50-52 mm/year relative to ITRF2008 reference frame, it is moving south in an Indian reference frame. The velocities reflect that the Surma Basin being overthrust by both Shillong Plateau from the north and Burmese microplate from the east, respectively. The combined GPS velocity data indicates shortening across Dauki Fault and Indo Burman Ranges at a rate of 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr, respectively. The complex anticlinal structures in and around the

  17. ASSESSMENT OF AN INFILTRATION BASIN AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND FOR REMOVAL OF PATHOGENS FROM FEEDLOT RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of an infiltration basin and constructed wetland to treat process wastewater from a cattle feedlot prior to discharge to an adjacent waterway was explored in regards to fecal pathogens. Weekly sampling of typical operating conditions and rainfall-generated runoff during 2...

  18. Statistical summaries of streamflow in Montana and adjacent areas, water years 1900 through 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the need to have more current information about streamflow characteristics in Montana, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, and Bureau of Land Management, conducted a study to analyze streamflow data. Updated statistical summaries of streamflow characteristics are presented for 286 streamflow-gaging sites in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record for water years 1900 through 2002. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high flow, the magnitude and probability of low flow for three seasons (March-June, July-October, and November-February), flow duration of the daily mean discharge, and the monthly and annual mean discharges. For streamflow-gaging stations where 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin is affected by dams or other large-scale human modification, streamflow is considered regulated. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for sites with sufficient data.

  19. Cenomanian-Turonian organic facies in the western Mediterranean and along the adjacent Atlantic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnt, W.; Herbin, J.P.; Thurow, J.; Wiedmann, J.

    1988-08-01

    Pre-Cenomanian sediments of the western Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic margin are characterized by low total organic content (TOC) with an important terrestrial component. During the Cenomanian, TOC increased and the marine component became dominant, culminating around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary with TOC up to 40%. After the Turonian, organic-rich sediments progressively disappeared and were replaced by more oxygenated sediments. Study methods include considering data from outcrops, DSDP/ODP sites, or petroleum wells. Detailed data from onshore locations allowed the development of high-resolution stratigraphy, analysis of depositional environment, and calculation of sedimentation rates. Analysis of these data indicates Cenoamnian-Turonian organic-rich sediments can be observed in a wide range of bathymetric settings. They are widespread in the western Mediterranean and Atlantic and have been especially studied in Italy (Apennines, southern Alps), Tunisia (Bahloul), Algeria, Morocco (Rif Mountains, Atlas Mountains, Tarfaya), Gibraltar arch, Spain (Betics, Bay of Biscay, Galicia margin), Senegal (Cape Verde basin, Casamance), and Nigeria (Benue, Calabar flank).

  20. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  1. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F. )

    1996-01-01

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  2. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  3. A comparison of the South China Sea and Canada Basin: two small marginal ocean basins with hyper-extended margins and central zones of sea-floor spreading.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    Both the South China Sea and Canada Basin preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterized by broad COT zones with hyper-extended continental crust. We have investigated the nature of strain accommodation in the regions immediately adjacent to the oceanic spreading centres in these two basins using 2-D backstripping subsidence reconstructions, coupled with forward modelling constrained by estimates of upper crustal extensional faulting. Modelling is better constrained in the South China Sea but our results for the Beaufort Sea are analogous. Depth-dependent extension is required to explain the great depth of both basins because only modest upper crustal faulting is observed. A weak lower crust in the presence of high heat flow is suggested for both basins. Extension in the COT may continue even after sea-floor spreading has ceased. The analogous results for the two basins considered are discussed in terms of (1) constraining the timing and distribution of crustal thinning along the respective continental margins, (2) defining the processes leading to hyper-extension of continental crust in the respective tectonic settings and (3) illuminating the processes that control hyper-extension in these basins and more generally.

  4. Oil, gas potential in shallow water: Peru`s continental shelf basins

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H.

    1998-11-16

    This third article of a series highlights the three sedimentary basins that underlie the 16 million acres of continental shelf adjacent to a 650-mile stretch of Peruvian coastline. This area lies roughly between the ports of Chiclayo and Pisco. These basins offer a variety of reservoirs, traps, and source-rock potential in water depths of less than 1,000 ft. They are characterized by a thick sequence of Neogene strata, underlain by Paleogene, Mesozoic, and Upper Paleozoic sediments down to as much as 7 sec two-way time on modern seismic records. In some places the sedimentary section may reach an aggregate thickness in excess of 50,000 ft. From north to south these contiguous shelf basins are the Sechura-Salaverry, Huacho, and Pisco basins. All three basins are described.

  5. The Effectiveness of Cattlemans Detention Basin, South Lake Tahoe, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Jena M.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Tahoe (Nevada-California) has been designated as an 'outstanding national water resource' by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in part, for its exceptional clarity. Water clarity in Lake Tahoe, however, has been declining at a rate of about one foot per year for more than 35 years. To decrease the amount of sediment and nutrients delivered to the lake by way of alpine streams, wetlands and stormwater detention basins have been installed at several locations around the lake. Although an improvement in stormwater and snowmelt runoff quality has been measured, the effectiveness of the detention basins for increasing the clarity of Lake Tahoe needs further study. It is possible that poor ground-water quality conditions exist beneath the detention basins and adjacent wetlands and that the presence of the basins has altered ground-water flow paths to nearby streams. A hydrogeochemical and ground-water flow modeling study was done at Cattlemans detention basin, situated adjacent to Cold Creek, a tributary to Lake Tahoe, to determine whether the focusing of storm and snowmelt runoff into a confined area has (1) modified the ground-water flow system beneath the detention basin and affected transport of sediment and nutrients to nearby streams and (2) provided an increased source of solutes which has changed the distribution of nutrients and affected nutrient transport rates beneath the basin. Results of slug tests and ground-water flow modeling suggest that ground water flows unrestricted northwest across the detention basin through the meadow. The modeling also indicates that seasonal flow patterns and flow direction remain similar from year to year under transient conditions. Model results imply that about 34 percent (0.004 ft3/s) of the total ground water within the model area originates from the detention basin. Of the 0.004 ft3/s, about 45 percent discharges to Cold Creek within the modeled area downstream of the detention basin. The remaining 55 percent

  6. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  7. Adjacent segment disease and C-ADR: promises fulfilled?

    PubMed Central

    Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312

  8. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-06

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R.

  9. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  10. Astronaut Charles Duke stands at rock adjacent to 'House Rock'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, stands at a rock adjacent (south) to the huge 'House Rock' (barely out of view at right edge). Note shadow at extreme right center where the two moon-exploring crewmen of the mission sampled what they referred to as the 'eastwest split of House Rock' or the open space between this rock and 'House Rock'. Duke has a sample bag in his hand, and a lunar surface rake leans against the large boulder.

  11. Empires and percolation: stochastic merging of adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldous, D. J.; Ong, J. R.; Zhou, W.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a stochastic model in which adjacent planar regions A, B merge stochastically at some rate λ(A, B) and observe analogies with the well-studied topics of mean-field coagulation and of bond percolation. Do infinite regions appear in finite time? We give a simple condition on λ for this hegemony property to hold, and another simple condition for it to not hold, but there is a large gap between these conditions, which includes the case λ(A, B) ≡ 1. For this case, a non-rigorous analytic argument and simulations suggest hegemony.

  12. Transtensional arm of the early Mesozoic Fundy rift basin: Penecontemporaneous faulting and sedimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.E.; Schlische, R.W. )

    1990-08-01

    Formed as a major right-lateral fault zone during Paleozoic collisional orogenies and reactivated as a left-oblique system during the early Mesozoic, the east-striking Minas fault zone of Atlantic Canada controlled adjacent sedimentation in the Fundy rift basin, producing a series of synsedimentary microbasins. Northeast-striking boundary faults of the Fundy basin underwent mostly early Mesozoic normal slip and are reactivated Paleozoic thrusts. The adjacent basin has a much thicker section, transverse folds, and synthetic rider blocks. Contrasts in structural and stratigraphic styles are a response to local deformation controlled by reactivated fault zones of differing orientation under consistent northwest-southeast early Mesozoic extension rather than responses to a sequence of changing stress patterns.

  13. Hand-Hewn Granite Basins at Native American Saltworks, Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, James G.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    This site in the northern Sierra Nevada contains about 369 circular basins carved in fresh, glaciated granodioritic bedrock, with 325 basins crowded together in an area of 2,700 m2 on the main terrace. These terrace basins have a median average diameter of 125 cm (80 percent between 100 and 160 cm) and a median depth of 75-80 cm. They show a strong congruity to similar granitic basins in the southern Sierra Nevada apparently of Native American origin that are generally shallower. The basins are not of natural origin, as indicated by uniformity in size and nonoverlapping character of the basins; their common arrangement in lineaments; details of the shape of the basins; features in common with granite basins in the Southern Sierra Nevada; and, most compelling, the clustering of all the basins adjacent to (within 20 m of) two saline streams fed from a nearby salt spring. Native Americans apparently excavated them for the purpose of collecting saline water to evaporate and make salt for their use, and also as an animal attractant and a trade commodity. The flow of the salty streams delivers about 2.9 metric tons of salt per summer season to the basin area, and evaporation rates and the holding capacity of the basins indicate that about 2.5 tons of salt could be produced per season. This correspondence shows that the Indians made enough basins to exploit the resource. The site is the most impressive prehistoric saltworks yet discovered in North America and represents a unique departure from traditional hunter-gatherer activities to that of manufacturing. The actual grinding of so many basins in granite could not have been done without the labor of a concentrated population. It is believed that the work was accomplished over a long time by many people and with the use of fire to help disaggregate the bedrock.

  14. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  15. South American sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  16. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  17. Coexistence Analysis of Adjacent Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Olama, Mohammed M

    2013-01-01

    As the licensing and deployment of Long term evolution (LTE) systems are ramping up, the study of coexistence of LTE systems is an essential topic in civil and military applications. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of adjacent LTE systems aiming at evaluating the effect of inter-system interference on system capacity and performance as a function of some of the most common mitigation techniques: frequency guard band, base station (BS) antenna coupling loss, and user equipment (UE) antenna spacing. A system model is constructed for two collocated macro LTE networks. The developed model takes into consideration the RF propagation environment, power control scheme, and adjacent channel interference. Coexistence studies are performed for a different combination of time/frequency division duplex (TDD/FDD) systems under three different guard-bands of 0MHz, 5MHz, and 10MHz. Numerical results are presented to advice the minimum frequency guard band, BS coupling loss, and UE antenna isolation required for a healthy system operation.

  18. Plume Structures in the Central Aleutian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovsky, E. A.; Terry, D. A.; Knapp, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    It is widely accepted that deep ocean basins are suitable for gas hydrate formation with appropriate temperature and pressure conditions but the assumption has been that they lack a sufficient source of methane and thus cannot generate gas hydrates. The Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea, however, may be an exception due to the influx of methane-generating sediment in the region. The basin is unique in this respect because it is enclosed by the Aleutian Arc on the south as well as land on the north. Terrigenous sediments from these land masses reach the basin, and through accumulation over time, become sources of methane. In this study, we are analyzing a newly acquired seismic data set (Scholl et al, 2012) from the central Aleutian Basin to test for the presence of gas hydrates in the region. Previous seismic evidence from the region led to the discovery of VAMPs - velocity amplitude anomaly structures - characterized by pull-ups and push-downs in the seismic horizons. This study is aimed at testing the hypothesis first proposed by Scholl and Hart (1993) that methane plumes are responsible for the velocity push-downs, while gas hydrates (which condense above the plume) cause the pull-ups. We have constructed geologic models based on a velocity analysis obtained from performing inversions on the pre-stack CMP gathers (using GDMI, a recently developed inversion code from the Naval Research Laboratory). We present a one-dimensional geologic model of rock properties for a region within the study area adjacent to a VAMP structure (but itself lacking the characteristic velocity anomalies). We also show a two-dimensional geologic model for the region in which the VAMP structure is present. The interpretation of a flat-lying geology incorporating a methane hydrate plume guided the creation of the two-dimensional model from the velocity analysis. Our next goal, using full-waveform forward seismic modeling (TESSERAL software), is to generate a synthetic seismic section that

  19. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  20. Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of Bolivia and adjacent regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sempere, T. )

    1993-02-01

    Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of the Pacific margin of western South America, particularly the Bolivian section, has been completed and new interpretations and hypotheses have been proposed as a result of data analyses of this information. The Paleozoic margin was initially passive (late Cambrian-Llanvirn, [open quotes]Puna aulacogen[close quotes]), but became active during a middle Ordovician compressional episode. Most of late Cambrian to early Triassic Bolivian rocks are of marine origin, with dark shale units recording sea level rises, whereas middle Triassic to Recent rocks were mainly deposited in continental environments (except six restricted-marine ingressions in the late Cretaceous-Danian, and one in the late Miocene, all with hydrocarbon potential). A noteworthy similarity exists between the Devonian to Jurassic stratigraphies of Bolivia and the Parana basin, suggesting that Bolivia behaved as part of the Brazilian craton from late Cambrian to late Jurassic, when it was captured into the Pacific margin geotectonic system. Organic-rich units correlate with Paleozoic highstand deposits and younger ingressions. The Bolivian Phanerozoic strata is characterized by thick layers, partly due to middle Ordovician-Carboniferous and late Cretaceous-Cenozoic foreland basins. Paleozoic foreland geometries include northeastern onlaps and, potentially, stratigraphic traps. Hydrocarbon generation, migration and trapping mainly depended on Cenozoic structural loading and burial and on propagation of Andean deformation which are comprised of Paleozoic shale decollements. Precise knowledge of the evolution of the Phanerozoic geodynamic contexts and basin geometries through sedimentation and subsequent deformations is crucial for hydrocarbon exploration strategies in these regions.

  1. BASINS Framework and Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  2. Gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban, adjacent coastal, and continental background sites of western Greece.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Eleni; Samara, Constantini

    2004-10-01

    Particle- and gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected from an urban, an adjacent coastal, and a continental background site located in Eordea basin, western Greece, to investigate their gas/ particle distributions. Thirteen two- to six-ring PAHs, included in the U.S. EPA priority pollutant list, were determined in 24-h integrated glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam samples. At the prevailing ambient temperature levels, the three-ringed species (phenanthrene, anthracene) and the four-ringed fluoranthene and pyrene were primarily found in the gas phase. Conversely, the five- and six-ring PAHs were mainly associated with the particle phase. Gas/particle partitioning coefficients, Kp, were calculated, and their relationship with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure p degrees L of individual PAHs was investigated. Despite the large variability among samples, a good linear relationship between log Kp and log p degrees L was obtained for all sampling sites following the equation log Kp = m(r) log p degrees L + b(r). In the majority of sampling events, particularly in the adjacent coastal and the continental background sites, slopes (m(r)) were found to be shallower than the value of -1, which has been suggested as reflecting equilibrium partitioning. The deviations from predicted aerosol behavior observed in the present study may be attributed to several reasons, such as the presence of nonexchangeable PAH fraction, nonequilibrium as well as different particle characteristics.

  3. The southwestern Nansen Basin: Crustal stretching and sea floor spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglar, Kai; Ehrhardt, Axel; Damm, Volkmar; Heyde, Ingo; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Barckhausen, Udo

    2014-05-01

    New geophysical data were collected in August/September 2013 north of Svalbard in the zone from the North Barents shelf towards the oceanic Nansen Basin. We acquired 1056 km of multi-channel seismic data, 2658 km of magnetic data and more than 5000 km of gravity, bathymetric and sediment echosounder data. In the east of the working area, the transition from the Yermak Plateau to the Nansen Basin is characterized by block faulting and well developed syn-rift basins. A large crustal block located about 80 km east of the Yermak Plateau and 120 km north of the slope of the Barents shelf indicates extensive rifting and east-west directed crustal stretching and the absence of oceanic crust in that area. A different picture is found north of Kvitoya Island, in the western part of the working area. There, the slope of the Barents shelf is very steep and a distinct continent-ocean-boundary seems to be located directly at the foot of the slope where we interpret oceanic crust characterized by irregular topography based on the multi-channel seismic data. This will be tested by an analysis of the gravity and magnetic data which is currently work in progress. The combination of east-west-directed continental stretching east of the Yermak Plateau and adjacent oceanic crust to the west points to an opening of the southwesternmost part of the Nansen Basin prior to the spreading of the Gakkel Ridge, possibly related to the opening of the Amerasian Basin.

  4. Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in a Shallow Coastal Tidal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohn, S.; Voelker, C. D.; van Beusekom, J.; Schartau, M.

    2008-12-01

    The biogeochemical fluxes of carbon and nitrogen are tightly coupled via the production of biomass. The degree of this coupling is known to vary under different environmental conditions. Nitrogen limitation of phytoplankton organisms leads to increased C:N biomass ratios whereas light limitation at nutrient replete conditions causes a decrease in intracellular C:N ratios. The biogeochemical fluxes of carbon and nitrogen within and between a shallow coastal tidal basin in the danish-german Wadden Sea, the List tidal basin, and the adjacent North Sea are calculated with an ecosystem model that allows for variable C:N ratios in phytoplankton biomass. Differences in plankton C:N biomass ratios between both water boxes affect the net transport budgets of carbon and nitrogen between the North Sea and the List tidal basin and may also change the sign of the C:N ratio of biomass exchange, i.e. leading to net nitrogen export and net import of carbon into the tidal basin over an annual cycle. Benthic filterfeeding organisms consume phytoplankton biomass and release fresh nutrients to the water column. In the List tidal basin, the promoting effect on primary production due to nutrient release by benthic filterfeeders is found to outweigh the limiting effect due to grazing pressure on phytoplankton biomass.

  5. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  6. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  7. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Southern Funeral Mountains and Adjacent Ground-Water Discharge Sites, Inyo County, California, and Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Slate, Janet L.; Berry, M.E.; Machette, Michael N.

    2008-01-01

    This map covers the southern part of the Funeral Mountains, and adjacent parts of four structural basins - Furnace Creek, Amargosa Valley, Opera House, and central Death Valley. It extends over three full 7.5-minute quadrangles, and parts of eleven others - a total area of about 950 square kilometers. The boundaries of this map were drawn to include all of the known proximal hydrogeologic features that may affect the flow of ground water that discharges from the springs of the Furnace Creek wash area, in the west-central part of the map. These springs provide the major potable water supply for Death Valley National Park.

  8. Thermal history of Michigan Basin and southern Canadian Shield from apatite fission track analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, K.D. )

    1991-01-10

    Apatite fission track ages and confined-length distributions were collected from 38 basement outcrop and 5 basement drillcore samples in order to reconstruct the Phanerozoic thermal history of the Michigan Basin and southern Canadian Shield. The apatite data indicate two periods of thermal activity in the region: Triassic heating/cooling that affected the basin and adjacent shield and Cretaceous or post-Cretaceous heating/cooling that primarily affected the basin. The magnitude, timing, and cause of Cretaceous thermal activity cannot be identified with the present data. Model calculations suggest that some of the shield samples and probably all of the basin samples were heated to temperatures of at least 90C just prior to relatively rapid cooling in the Triassic. Available stratigraphic and geochemical constraints suggest that these elevated temperatures were the result of burial by an additional 2-5 km of late Paleozoic (probably Pennsylvanian and Permian) sediments. It is likely that the basin was buried during the Alleghenian Orogeny as observed for the adjacent Appalachian Basin.

  9. Hydrology, water quality, and simulation of ground-water flow at a taconite-tailings basin near Keewatin, Minnesota. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Myette, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to describe the hydrology of a 2.5-sq mi taconite-tailings basin near Keewatin, Minnesota. The report describes (1) the hydrogeologic setting of the basin, including a description of the tailings within the basin, (2) the surface-water discharge at the outlet of the basin and its response to rainfall on the basin, (3) the ground-water system at the tailings basin and its response to rainfall on the basin, (4) the quality of the ground water beneath the basin and in the surrounding drift, (5) the quality of surface water and sediment discharging from the basin, and (6) the results of a finite-difference-model simulation of the ground-water flow system. Model simulation of ground-water flow was limited to deposits in the tailings basin and parts of the adjacent and underlying glacial-drift aquifers. The model was developed to evaluate estimates of hydraulic properties obtained from field data and to provide a better understanding of the effects of climatic stresses on ground-water levels and ground-water flow in the basin and on discharge from the basin. It has been suggested, however, that the filling and abandonment of these basins may create long-term pollution problems resulting from sediment erosion and chemical leaching of heavy metals.

  10. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  11. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  12. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  13. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  14. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  15. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  16. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  17. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  18. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  19. Coastal marine basins as records of continental palaeoenvironments (Gulf of Guinea and Iullemmeden cretaceous and tertiary basins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rat, P.; Lang, J.; Alzouma, K.; Dikouma, M.; Johnson, A.; Laurin, B.; Mathey, B.; Pascal, A.

    Deposits in nearshore marine basins provide data about the adjacent emerged lands. Examples are taken from the Togo coastal basin, on an ocean margin, and the Iullemmeden intracratonic basin (Niger). A continental landscape is fossilized by the onlapping layers of the transgressions: an eroded crystalline basement (Togo) or a broad and complex alluvial plain (Iullemmeden). Clastics, trapped in the marine deposits, provide information on the source area. Two types of information can be obtained from the sands: the nature of the parent rocks, and the environment at the time of genesis, storage and transportation (tectonic and climatic stability or change). The significance of clays is more complex; they can be formed or modified in the marine environment. However their elastic or chemical components originate from biochemical weathering and provide information on climate, morphology, vegetation cover and drainage of the emerged lands. In the Iullemmeden basin, the important change between Maastrichtian and Paleocene probably reflects a change to a drier climate in accordance with a slight shift of the equator to the south. The properties of marine waters are dependent on climate and morphology of the emergent lands which determines runoff. These properties may be inferred from the analysis of the clastic/carbonate conflict and indicators of salinity (mangrove). In conclusion, the Togo and Iullemmeden basins were located downstream of tectonically quiecent, large continental areas of gentle relief. Transgressions were migrations of a broad littoral system upon very flat continental surfaces caused by erosion or river-dominated deposition.

  20. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  1. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  2. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  3. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-08-04

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented.

  4. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  5. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  6. Phanerozoic stratigraphy of Northwind Ridge, magnetic anomalies in the Canada Basin, and the geometry and timing of rifting in the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Clark, D.L.; Phillips, R.L.; Srivastava, S.P.; Blome, C.D.; Gray, L.-B.; Haga, H.; Mamet, B.L.; McIntyre, D.J.; McNeil, D.H.; Mickey, M.B.; Mullen, M.W.; Murchey, B.I.; Ross, C.A.; Stevens, C.H.; Silberling, Norman J.; Wall, J.H.; Willard, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Cores from Northwind Ridge, a high-standing continental fragment in the Chukchi borderland of the oceanic Amerasia basin, Arctic Ocean, contain representatives of every Phanerozoic system except the Silurian and Devonian systems. Cambrian and Ordovician shallow-water marine carbonates in Northwind Ridge are similar to basement rocks beneath the Sverdrup basin of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Upper Mississippian(?) to Permian shelf carbonate and spicularite and Triassic turbidite and shelf lutite resemble coeval strata in the Sverdrup basin and the western Arctic Alaska basin (Hanna trough). These resemblances indicate that Triassic and older strata in southern Northwind Ridge were attached to both Arctic Canada and Arctic Alaska prior to the rifting that created the Amerasia basin. Late Jurassic marine lutite in Northwind Ridge was structurally isolated from coeval strata in the Sverdrup and Arctic Alaska basins by rift shoulder and grabens, and is interpreted to be a riftogenic deposit. This lutite may be the oldest deposit in the Canada basin. A cape of late Cenomanian or Turonian rhyodacite air-fall ash that lacks terrigenous material shows that Northwind Ridge was structurally isolated from the adjacent continental margins by earliest Late Cretaceous time. Closing Amerasia basin by conjoining seafloor magnetic anomalies beneath the Canada basin or by uniting the pre-Jurassic strata of Northwind Ridge with kindred sections in the Sverdrup basin and Hanna trough yield simular tectonic reconstructions. Together with the orientation and age of rift-marine structures, these data suggest that: 1) prior to opening of the Amerasia basin, both northern Alaska and continental ridges of the Chukchi borderland were part of North America, 2) the extension that created the Amerasia basin formed rift-margin graben beginning in Early Jurassic time and new oceanic crust probably beginning in Late Jurassic or early Neocomian time. Reconstruction of the Amerasia basin on the

  7. Tectonosedimentary evolution of the Crotone basin, Italy: Implications for Calabrian Arc geodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Smale, J.L. ); Rio, D. ); Thunell, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of outcrop, well, and offshore seismic data has allowed the Neogene tectonosedimentary evolution of an Ionian Sea satellite basin to be outlined. The Crotone basin contains a series of postorogenic sediments deposited since Serravallian time atop a complex nappe system emplaced in the early Miocene. The basin's evolution can be considered predominantly one of distension in a fore-arc setting punctuated by compressional events. The earliest sediments (middle-late Miocene) consist of conglomerates, marls, and evaporites infilling a rapidly subsiding basin. A basin-wide Messinian unconformity and associated intraformational folding mark the close of this sedimentary cycle. Reestablishment of marine conditions in the early Pliocene is documented by sediments which show a distinct color banding and apparent rhythmicity, which may represent the basin margin to lowermost Pliocene marl/limestone rhythmic couplets present in southern Calabria. A bounding unconformity surface of middle Pliocene age (3.0 Ma), which corresponds to a major northwest-southeast compressional event, closes this depositional sequence. The basin depocenter shifted markedly toward the southeast, and both chaotic and strong subparallel reflector seismic facies of wide-ranging thicknesses fill the depositional topography created during this tectonic episode. Basin subsidence decreases dramatically in the late Pliocene and cessates in response to basin margin uplift in the early Pleistocene. The chronostratigraphic hierarchy of these depositional sequences allows them to constrain the deformational history of the basin. In addition, similar depositional hierarchies in adjacent basins (i.e., Paola, Cefalu, and Tyrrhenian Sea) allow them to tie the stratigraphy and evolution of the Crotone basin to the geodynamic evolution of the Calabrian arc system.

  8. Comparison of geoelectric and seismic reflection models of the Zambezi Valley basins, northern Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, David; Whaler, Kathy; Zengeni, Teddy

    2000-09-01

    The Mana Pools and Lower Zambezi Karoo sedimentary basins lie within the Zambezi mobile belt in northern Zimbabwe. The subsurface apparent resistivities measured at both locations are extremely low. Magnetotelluric (MT) data along a profile across part of the Lower Zambezi basin have been inverted using Rapid Relaxation Inversion (Smith & Booker 1991) to find the minimum structure needed to fit the data and compare with an earlier forward model. The resistivity models of both the Mana Pools and the Lower Zambezi basins are then compared with their structure revealed from seismic reflection data. The resistivity structure of the Mana Pools basin is well modelled as a series of different resistivity layers whose boundaries are defined by the seismic data. However, the resistivity structure of the Lower Zambezi basin cannot be matched easily to the seismic structure; additional structure with no seismic expression is required. There is a conductive feature in the two basins in the Upper Karoo sandstone layer that extends below the seismic basement beneath the Lower Zambezi basin. This indicates that the conductors may represent different types of features in the two basins, consistent with their proposed different tectonic origins. A resistive unit is present within the sediments in the Lower Zambezi basin that may represent intercalated basalt dykes, giving an anisotropic MT response. It has been suggested that there might be similar thin basalt layers within the sediments of the Mana Pools basin, but these could not be resolved by MT methods. The low resistivity of the basement, particularly beneath the Lower Zambezi basin, is remarkable and may result from a high degree of either chemical or tectonic alteration to the underlying rocks due to metamorphic processes and tectonic disruption during rift formation. The presence of the Lower Zambezi basin conductor at depths greater than the seismic basement is consistent with observations to the west, in the adjacent

  9. Basin-ring spacing on the Moon, Mercury, and Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, R.J.; Spudis, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Radial spacing between concentric rings of impact basins that lack central peaks is statistically similar and nonrandom on the Moon, Mercury, and Mars, both inside and outside the main ring. One spacing interval, (2.0 ?? 0.3)0.5D, or an integer multiple of it, dominates most basin rings. Three analytical approaches yield similar results from 296 remapped or newly mapped rings of 67 multi-ringed basins: least-squares of rank-grouped rings, least-squares of rank and ring diameter for each basin, and averaged ratios of adjacent rings. Analysis of 106 rings of 53 two-ring basins by the first and third methods yields an integer multiple (2 ??) of 2.00.5D. There are two exceptions: (1) Rings adjacent to the main ring of multi-ring basins are consistently spaced at a slightly, but significantly, larger interval, (2.1 ?? 0.3)0.5D; (2) The 88 rings of 44 protobasins (large peak-plus-inner-ring craters) are spaced at an entirely different interval (3.3 ?? 0.6)0.5D. The statistically constant and target-invariant spacing of so many rings suggests that this characteristic may constrain formational models of impact basins on the terrestrial planets. The key elements of such a constraint include: (1) ring positions may not have been located by the same process(es) that formed ring topography; (2) ring location and emplacement of ring topography need not be coeval; (3) ring location, but not necessarily the mode of ring emplacement, reflects one process that operated at the time of impact; and (4) the process yields similarly-disposed topographic features that are spatially discrete at 20.5D intervals, or some multiple, rather than continuous. These four elements suggest that some type of wave mechanism dominates the location, but not necessarily the formation, of basin rings. The waves may be standing, rather than travelling. The ring topography itself may be emplaced at impact by this and/or other mechanisms and may reflect additional, including post-impact, influences. ?? 1987

  10. Delineation of the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley groundwater basin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Halford, Keith J.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2016-01-22

    This report delineates the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley (PMOV) groundwater basin, where recharge occurs, moves downgradient, and discharges to Oasis Valley, Nevada. About 5,900 acre-feet of water discharges annually from Oasis Valley, an area of springs and seeps near the town of Beatty in southern Nevada. Radionuclides in groundwater beneath Pahute Mesa, an area of historical underground nuclear testing at the Nevada National Security Site, are believed to be migrating toward Oasis Valley. Delineating the boundary of the PMOV groundwater basin is necessary to adequately assess the potential for transport of radionuclides from Pahute Mesa to Oasis Valley.The PMOV contributing area is defined based on regional water-level contours, geologic controls, and knowledge of adjacent flow systems. The viability of this area as the contributing area to Oasis Valley and the absence of significant interbasin flow between the PMOV groundwater basin and adjacent basins are shown regionally and locally. Regional constraints on the location of the contributing area boundary and on the absence of interbasin groundwater flow are shown by balancing groundwater discharges in the PMOV groundwater basin and adjacent basins against available water from precipitation. Internal consistency for the delineated contributing area is shown by matching measured water levels, groundwater discharges, and transmissivities with simulated results from a single-layer, steady-state, groundwater-flow model. An alternative basin boundary extending farther north than the final boundary was rejected based on a poor chloride mass balance and a large imbalance in the northern area between preferred and simulated recharge.

  11. Bulge Migration and Pinnacle Reef Development, Devonian Appalachian Foreland Basin.

    PubMed

    Ver Straeten CA; Brett

    2000-05-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analyses of Late Emsian and Early Eifelian (Lower to Middle Devonian) carbonate-dominated strata in the northern Appalachian Basin indicate anomalous, locally varying relative sea level changes and inversions of topography. The distribution of a major basal-bounding unconformity, basinal pinnacle reefs, local absence of parasequences, and eastward migration of shallow marine carbonate lithofacies and related biofacies in the Onondaga Limestone and underlying strata mark the retrograde migration of an elongate, northeast-southwest-trending area of positive relief, bordered on its cratonward side by a similarly migrating basin of intermediate depth. These features are thought to represent the forebulge and back-bulge basin of the Appalachian foreland basin system as it developed during a time of relative quiescence within the Acadian Orogeny. However, the relatively small size of the bulgelike feature (ca. 80-100-km-wide, 20-50-m positive relief), its great distance from the probable deformation front (>400 km), and the lack of a well-developed foredeep immediately adjacent to the bulgelike feature may indicate that it represents a smaller-scale flexural high ("flexural welt") superposed over the cratonward edge of the larger-scale classical forebulge of the basin. Development of shallow-water reefs on the crest of the bulge during sea level lowstand, followed by migration of the bulge and widespread transgression, permitted growth of economically significant pinnacle reefs in the deep basin center. Further subsurface reef exploration should concentrate along the projected position of the bulge during the basal Onondaga lowstand.

  12. Hydrocarbon resources of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, P.R.

    1986-03-01

    In the Palo Duro Basin, Pennsylvanian and Permian organic shales are present in sufficient richness and volume to generate large amounts of oil and some natural gas. However, the relatively low geothermal gradient and shallow burial depth have combined so that hydrocarbons have probably not been generated in most of the basin. Most fields produce from Pennsylvanian and Permian shelf carbonates and sandstone reservoirs developed in fault-related anticlinal structures adjacent to areas where source rocks have been down-warped to depths in excess of 8000 ft (2438 m) and heated to temperatures in the 160 to 200/sup 0/F (71 to 93/sup 0/C) range. Structurally controlled migration pathways from these ''hot spots'' converge remarkably on existing productive fields. Petroleum production is concentrated around the northern and southern margins of the Palo Duro Basin, leaving the central basin virtually nonproductive. The potential for future oil and gas discoveries is quite modest. At the 95% confidence level, at least 51 million barrels of oil (anti MBO) and 60 billion cubic feet (BCF) of gas are forecast; at the 50% confidence level, at least 81 anti MBO and 136 BCF of gas are predicted; and there is a 5% chance that at least 324 anti MBO and 521 BCF of gas are present. For its size, the Palo Duro Basin, and particularly the central part of the basin, appears to be an extremely ''lean'' petroleum basin. The production potential of two areas that contain potentially acceptable sites for nuclear waste disposal facilities is extremely low.

  13. Tectonic history and structural development of the Zallah-Dur al Abd Sub-basin, western Sirt Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdunaser, Khalifa M.; McCaffrey, Ken J. W.

    2015-04-01

    The Zallah-Dur al Abd Sub-basin area lies in the western part of the Sirt Basin of Libya. 2D seismic data covering an area of about 32,000 km² were studied along with the formation tops from 240 wells. We mapped a complex network of normal and probable strike-slip faults, generally striking NNW-SSE that control the asymmetry of the basin. Subordinate NE-SW structures acted as transverse faults controlling local depocentres that segment the Zallah-Dur al Abd Sub-basin. A number of active faults in the intra-basin area have been identified in seismic sections with generally moderate to high dip angles, and displaying evidence for positive and negative flower structures. The bordering extensional fault (the Gedari fault) passes at depth into a moderately SW-dipping structure crossing most of the Upper Mesozoic to Cenozoic stratigraphic section. Thickness variations adjacent to other major faults suggest also an original extensional system where inherited high-angle faults were reactivated throughout this time. A detailed analysis of the available seismic reflection and drill hole data shows that an obliquely rifted, multi-cyclic, NNW-SSE trending basin developed during the complex Upper Mesozoic Cenozoic rearrangement of Mediterranean tectonics. Multiple phases of rifting can be observed in the study area affecting a number of different horizons from Upper Cretaceous to Eocene. In the study area, the basin was initiated as a result of a Tethyan oblique extensional rift system that began in the Early Cretaceous and peaked in the Late Cretaceous. The basin reached its rift maturation phase during the Upper Cretaceous as a result of the continuing extensional tectonics on the marginal bounding NNW-SSE trending normal growth faults. During the Alpine-related tectonic pulses of Middle-Late Eocene the Sirt Basin underwent compression resulted in northward tilting of the basin, causing abrupt subsidence in the north and uplift on the basin southern shoulders, possibly

  14. Diagenesis of Oligocene continental sandstones in salt-walled mini-basins-Sivas Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2016-06-01

    The recent discovery of Oligo-Miocene salt-walled continental mini-basins in the Sivas Basin (central Anatolia, Turkey) provides the opportunity to unravel the influence of halokinesis on the diagenesis of continental mini-basin infilling. In this study, petrographic and geochemical analyses are used to define the diagenetic sequences recorded by two mini-basins filled mainly by fluvial clastic sediments of the upper Oligocene Karayün Formation. The initial diagenetic features are those commonly encountered in arid to semi-arid continental environments, i.e. clay infiltration, hematite precipitation and vadose calcite cement. Other early cements were strongly controlled by sandstone detrital composition in the presence of saline/alkaline pore water. In feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses, near-surface alterations were characterized by the precipitation of analcime (up to 10%), albite and quartz overgrowths (< 1%). These events were followed by extensive calcite cementation (up to 30%) during shallow burial diagenesis which prevented further mesogenetic alteration phenomena such as compaction. In feldsarenites, early diagenesis differs by (i) the absence of analcime, (ii) better developed albite cements, (iii) thin smectite-illite coatings forming pore linings and (iv) patchy calcite cementation (< 5%). The limited development of calcite cement allowed mesogenetic alterations to occur, such as late quartz overgrowths, albitization of feldspar grains and chemical compaction. All these phases are responsible for the low porosity of feldsarenites (< 2%). The greater abundance of carbonate cement in feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses is related to a greater proportion of detrital limestone in these sandstones. Early precipitation of analcime, albite, smectite-illite and quartz was likely triggered by the alteration of reactive grains by near-surface saline/alkaline brines originating from the dissolution of adjacent diapiric structures. Mini-basin

  15. Geomorphology and structural geology of Saturnalia Fossae and adjacent structures in the northern hemisphere of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Yin, A.; Russell, C. T.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Williams, D. A.; Blewett, D. T.; Ruesch, O.; Hiesinger, H.; Le Corre, L.; Mercer, C.; Yingst, R. A.; Garry, W. B.; Jaumann, R.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Schröder, S. E.; Ammannito, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Vesta is a unique, intermediate class of rocky body in the Solar System, between terrestrial planets and small asteroids, because of its size (average radius of ∼263 km) and differentiation, with a crust, mantle and core. Vesta's low surface gravity (0.25 m/s2) has led to the continual absence of a protective atmosphere and consequently impact cratering and impact-related processes are prevalent. Previous work has shown that the formation of the Rheasilvia impact basin induced the equatorial Divalia Fossae, whereas the formation of the Veneneia impact basin induced the northern Saturnalia Fossae. Expanding upon this earlier work, we conducted photogeologic mapping of the Saturnalia Fossae, adjacent structures and geomorphic units in two of Vesta's northern quadrangles: Caparronia and Domitia. Our work indicates that impact processes created and/or modified all mapped structures and geomorphic units. The mapped units, ordered from oldest to youngest age based mainly on cross-cutting relationships, are: (1) Vestalia Terra unit, (2) cratered highlands unit, (3) Saturnalia Fossae trough unit, (4) Saturnalia Fossae cratered unit, (5) undifferentiated ejecta unit, (6) dark lobate unit, (7) dark crater ray unit and (8) lobate crater unit. The Saturnalia Fossae consist of five separate structures: Saturnalia Fossa A is the largest (maximum width of ∼43 km) and is interpreted as a graben, whereas Saturnalia Fossa B-E are smaller (maximum width of ∼15 km) and are interpreted as half grabens formed by synthetic faults. Smaller, second-order structures (maximum width of <1 km) are distinguished from the Saturnalia Fossae, a first-order structure, by the use of the general descriptive term 'adjacent structures', which encompasses minor ridges, grooves and crater chains. For classification purposes, the general descriptive term 'minor ridges' characterizes ridges that are not part of the Saturnalia Fossae and are an order of magnitude smaller (maximum width of <1 km vs

  16. Regional Stratigraphy and Petroleum Systems of the Michigan Basin, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Although more than 100 years of research have gone into deciphering the stratigraphy of the Michigan basin of North America, it remains a challenge to visualize the basin stratigraphy on a regional scale and to describe stratigraphic relations within the basin. Similar difficulties exist for visualizing and describing the regional distribution of petroleum source rocks and reservoir rocks. This publication addresses these difficulties by combining data on Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the Michigan basin. The areal extent of this structural basin is presented along with data in eight schematic chronostratigraphic sections arranged from north to south, with time denoted in equal increments along the sections. The stratigraphic data are modified from American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) (1984), Johnson and others (1992), Sanford (1993), and Cross (1998), and the time scale is taken from Harland and others (1990). Informal North American chronostratigraphic terms from AAPG (1984) are shown in parentheses. Stratigraphic sequences as defined by Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963) also are included, as well as the locations of major petroleum source rocks and major petroleum plays. The stratigraphic units are colored according to predominant lithology, in order to emphasize general lithologic patterns and to provide a broad overview of the Michigan basin. For purposes of comparison, schematic depictions of stratigraphy and interpreted events in the Michigan basin and adjacent Appalachian basin are shown. The paper version of this map is available for purchase from the USGS Store.

  17. Structure of the Tucson Basin, Arizona from gravity and aeromagnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rystrom, Victoria Louise

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation of gravity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data reveal the three-dimensional geometry of the Tuscson Basin, Arizona and the lithology of its basement. Limited drill hole and seismic data indicate that the maximum depth to the crystalline basement is approximately 3600 meters and that the sedimentary sequences in the upper ~2000 m of the basin were deposited during the most recent extensional episode that commenced about 13 Ma. The negative density contrasts between these upper Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary sequences and the adjacent country rock produce a Bouguer residual gravity low, whose steep gradients clearly define the lateral extent of the upper ~2000m of the basin. The aeromagnetic maps show large positive anomalies associated with deeply buried, late Cretaceous-early Tertiary and mid-Tertiary igneous rocks at and below the surface of the basin. These magnetic anomalies provide insight into the older (>13 Ma) and deeper structures of the basin. Simultaneous 2.5-dimensional modeling of both gravity and magnetic anomalies constrained by geologic and seismic data delineates the thickness of the basin and the dips of the buried faults that bound the basin. This geologic-based forward modeling approach to using geophysical data is shown to result in more information about the geologic and tectonic history of the basin as well as more accurate depth to basement determinations than using generalized geophysical inversion techniques.

  18. Ground-water hydrology of Pahvant Valley and adjacent areas, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1990-01-01

    The primary ground-water reservoir in Pahvant Valley and adjacent areas is in the unconsolidated basin fill and interbedded basalt. Recharge in 1959 was estimated to be about 70,000 acre-feet per year and was mostly by seepage from streams, canals, and unconsumed irrigation water and by infiltration of precipitation. Discharge in 1959 was estimated to be about 109,000 acre-feet and was mostly from springs, evapotranspiration, and wells.Water-level declines of more than 50 feet occurred in some areas between 1953 and 1980 because of less-than-normal precipitation and extensive pumping for irrigation. Water levels recovered most of these declines between 1983 and 1986 because of reduced withdrawals and record quantities of precipitation.The quality of ground water in the area west of Kanosh has deteriorated since large ground-water withdrawals began in about 1953. The cause of the deterioration probably is movement of poor quality water into the area from the southwest and possibly the west during periods of large ground-water withdrawals and recycling of irrigation water. The quality of water from some wells has improved since 1983, due to increased recharge and decreased withdrawals for irrigation.Water-level declines of m:>re than 80 feet in some parts of Pahvant Valley are projected if ground-water withdrawals continue for 20 years at the 1977 rate of about 96,000 acre-feet. Rises of as much as 58 feet and declines of as much as 47 feet are projected with withdrawals of 48,000 acre-feet per year for 20 years. The elimination of recharge from the Central Utah Canal is projected to cause water-level declines of up to 8 feet near the canal.

  19. Teleseismic tomography of the southern Puna plateau in Argentina and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, M.; Heit, B.; Jakovlev, A.; Yuan, X.; Kay, S. M.; Sandvol, E.; Alonso, R. N.; Coira, B.; Brown, L.; Kind, R.; Comte, D.

    2013-02-01

    We performed a teleseismic P wave tomography study using seismic events at both teleseismic and regional distances, recorded by a temporary seismic array in the Argentine Puna Plateau and adjacent regions. The tomographic images show the presence of a number of positive and negative anomalies in a depth range of 20-300 km beneath the array. The most prominent of these anomalies corresponds to a low-velocity body, located in the crust, most clearly seen in the center of the array (27°S, 67°W) between the Cerro Peinado volcano, the Cerro Blanco caldera and the Farallon Negro in the east. This anomaly (southern Puna Magmatic Body) extends from the northern most part of the array and follows the line with the highest density of stations towards the south where it becomes smaller. It is flanked by high velocities on the west and the east respectively. On the west, the high velocities might be related to the subducted Nazca plate. On the northeast the high velocity block coincides with the position of the Hombre Muerto basin in the crust and could be indicating an area of lithospheric delamination where we detected a high velocity block at 100 km depth on the eastern border of the Puna plateau, north of Galan. This block might be related to a delamination event in an area with a thick crust of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks at the border between Puna and Eastern Cordillera. In the center of the array the Southern Puna magmatic body is also flanked by high velocities but the most prominent region is located on the east and is interpreted as part of the Sierras Pampeanas lithosphere with high velocities. The position of the Sierras Pampeanas geological province is key in this area as it appears to limit the extension of the plateau towards the south.

  20. DRY DEPOSITION OF AIRBORNE TRACE METALS ON THE LOS ANGELES BASIN AND ADJACENT COASTAL WATERS - ART. NO. 4074. (R825381)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Migration of the Acadian Orogen and foreland basin across the Northern Appalachians of Maine and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight Culver; Tucker, Robert D.; Lux, Daniel R.; Harris, Anita G.; McGregor, D. Colin

    2000-01-01

    The timing of Acadian orogenesis in Maine is reassessed, on the basis of a new Silurian-Devonian time scale, new U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages of Acadian plutons, new conodont and palynomorph ages of strata that constrain the age of deformation, and published information. This analysis shows that the Acadian deformation front migrated some 240 km (present distance) from southeast to northwest during a span of about 40 million years from Late Silurian to Middle Devonian time.

  2. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  3. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  4. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  5. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  6. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  7. Middle and late quaternary oceanography and climatology of the Zaire-Congo fan and the adjacent Eastern Angola basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, J. H. F.; Van Weering, T. C. E.; Gieles, R.; Van Iperen, J.

    La stratigraphie quaternaire du delta profond du Zaïre est établie sur la base des variations verticales des teneurs en carbonate, de l'analyse micropalaéontologique et des datations 14C et 230Th de 33 carottes. La vitesse des accumulations carbonatées et non carbonatées considérée en même temps que la conservation des carbonates nous conduit à distinguer les trois principaux facteurs à l'origine des concentrations en carbonate: production, dissolution et dilution par les particules non carbonatées. Les plus fortes productions carbonatées interviennent pendant les optima climatiques des interglaciaires tandis que les plus petites teneurs en carbonates sont probablement aussi liées à une augmentation de l'accumulation calcaire. Les fluctuations sont amplifiées par les effects de la dissolution qui est intense pendant les glaciaires et par les changements du rythme de la sédimentation terrigène. Dans la partie centrale du delta profond, un lobe de forte production carbonatée est localisé en permanence, il n'est pas associé à une zone de forte production de phytoplancton. Ce lobe est la conséquence d'un fort développement du zooplancton qui, pendant l'Holocène et les périodes interglaciaires, se multiplie à partir de cette floraison côtière de phytoplancton. Pendant les glaciaires, l'intensification de la circulation océanique déplace la zone des courants ascendants vers la latitude du delta du Zaïre. Dans deux carottes voisines de la bordure externe du plateau, une forte production en carbonates est observée entre 27 000 et 15 400 ans BP, elle est liée aux courants ascendants provoqués par l'intensification du courant de Benguela, et à une diminution de la sédimentation non carbonatée de de l'enfouissement du carbone organique à ˜ 14 500 ans BP. Une forte accumulation carbonatée se prolonge jusqu'à ˜12 500 ans BP, ce qui résulte un pic de conservation carbonatée à 14 000 ans BP qui n'est pas lié à un phénomène océanique. Une bréve intensification du compensation des carbonates et de la lysocline interviennent à des profondeurs moins grandes (4400 m et 3800 m) pendant les périodes glaciaires que de nos jours (5600 m et 4800 m). Les deux profondeurs des phases interglaciaires sont plus proches des profondeurs des phases glaciaires que de l'Holocène en fonction des dissolutions post-sédimentaires qui sont intervenues pendant les épisodes glaciaires consécutifs. L'hydrographie du Bassin de l'Angola n'apporte pas de preuves quant à des fluctuations des eaux profondes antarctiques qui auraient provoqué des cycles de dissolution des carbonates du Quaternaire de ce Bassin.

  8. Thermal maturation and petroleum source rocks in Forest City and Salina basins, mid-continent, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D.; Watney, W.L.; Hatch, J.R.; Xiaozhong, G.

    1986-05-01

    Shales in the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group are probably the source rocks for a geochemically distinct group of lower pristane and low phytane oils produced along the axis of the Forest City basin, a shallow cratonic Paleozoic basin. These oils, termed Ordovician-type oils, occur in some fields in the southern portion of the adjacent Salina basin. Maturation modeling by time-temperature index (TTI) calculations indicate that maturation of both basins was minimal during the early Paleozoic. The rate of maturation significantly increased during the Pennsylvanian because of rapid regional subsidence in response to the downwarping of the nearby Anadarko basin. When estimated thicknesses of eroded Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Cretaceous strata are considered, both basins remain relatively shallow, with maximum basement burial probably not exceeding 2 km. According to maturation modeling and regional structure mapping, the axes of both basins should contain Simpson rocks in the early stages of oil generation. The probability of finding commercial accumulations of Ordovician-type oil along the northwest-southeast trending axis of the Salina basin will decrease in a northwestward direction because of (1) westward thinning of the Simpson Group, and (2) lesser maturation due to lower geothermal gradients and shallower paleoburial depths. The optimum localities for finding fields of Ordovician-type oil in the southern Salina basin will be in down-plunge closures on anticlines that have drainage areas near the basin axis.

  9. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  10. Impact of structural and autocyclic basin-floor topography on the depositional evolution of the deep-water Valparaiso forearc basin, central Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laursen, J.; Normark, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Valparaiso Basin constitutes a unique and prominent deep-water forearc basin underlying a 40-km by 60-km mid-slope terrace at 2.5-km water depth on the central Chile margin. Seismic-reflection data, collected as part of the CONDOR investigation, image a 3-3.5-km thick sediment succession that fills a smoothly sagged, margin-parallel, elongated trough at the base of the upper slope. In response to underthrusting of the Juan Ferna??ndez Ridge on the Nazca plate, the basin fill is increasingly deformed in the seaward direction above seaward-vergent outer forearc compressional highs. Syn-depositional growth of a large, margin-parallel monoclinal high in conjunction with sagging of the inner trough of the basin created stratal geometries similar to those observed in forearc basins bordered by large accretionary prisms. Margin-parallel compressional ridges diverted turbidity currents along the basin axis and exerted a direct control on sediment depositional processes. As structural depressions became buried, transverse input from point sources on the adjacent upper slope formed complex fan systems with sediment waves characterising the overbank environment, common on many Pleistocene turbidite systems. Mass failure as a result of local topographic inversion formed a prominent mass-flow deposit, and ultimately resulted in canyon formation and hence a new focused point source feeding the basin. The Valparaiso Basin is presently filled to the spill point of the outer forearc highs, causing headward erosion of incipient canyons into the basin fill and allowing bypass of sediment to the Chile Trench. Age estimates that are constrained by subduction-related syn-depositional deformation of the upper 700-800m of the basin fill suggest that glacio-eustatic sea-level lowstands, in conjunction with accelerated denudation rates, within the past 350 ka may have contributed to the increase in simultaneously active point sources along the upper slope as well as an increased

  11. Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene Hekimhan Basin (Central Eastern Turkey) as a supra-ophiolite sedimentary/magmatic basin related to the later stages of closure of Neotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Matthew G.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Tasli, Kemal; İnan, Nurdan

    2014-11-01

    alternative is consistent with the development of adjacent supra-ophiolite basins (e.g. Ülükışla and Darende Basins), and also with supra-ophiolite basins elsewhere (e.g. SE Turkey; Balkans; Oman).

  12. [Mechano-chemical self-organization and nonlinear dynamics in sedimentary basins]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The central theme of this project is that the reaction, transport and mechanical (RTM) processes affect each other so strongly that basin diagenesis takes on a qualitatively different behavior than what would be predicted by the analysis of the individual processes separately. In Figs. 1 and 2 we see schematic basin cross-sections that emphasize a few of the diagenetic phenomena arising from the strong coupling of RTM processes. Basin diagenesis allows for a great richness of phenomena (Fig. 1) including the genesis of a (formation localized) basal seal, dynamic transbasinal top seal, fault related side seals, episodic fluid release and smaller scale compartmentation within and adjacent to the basin-scale overpressured compartment and also (Fig. 2) fingered reaction fronts and upwardly migrating petroleum and auto-localized petroleum (through petroleum-induced porosity preservation). The phenomena of Figs. 1 and 2 arise through feedback loops in the RTM process network.

  13. [Mechano-chemical self-organization and nonlinear dynamics in sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The central theme of this project is that the reaction, transport and mechanical (RTM) processes affect each other so strongly that basin diagenesis takes on a qualitatively different behavior than what would be predicted by the analysis of the individual processes separately. In Figs. 1 and 2 we see schematic basin cross-sections that emphasize a few of the diagenetic phenomena arising from the strong coupling of RTM processes. Basin diagenesis allows for a great richness of phenomena (Fig. 1) including the genesis of a (formation localized) basal seal, dynamic transbasinal top seal, fault related side seals, episodic fluid release and smaller scale compartmentation within and adjacent to the basin-scale overpressured compartment and also (Fig. 2) fingered reaction fronts and upwardly migrating petroleum and auto-localized petroleum (through petroleum-induced porosity preservation). The phenomena of Figs. 1 and 2 arise through feedback loops in the RTM process network.

  14. The geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.E.; Keith, T.E.C. ); Hutchinson, R.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone Caldera, one of the largest volcanic features of its type in the world. Hydrothermal activity may have been continuous for {gt}100,000 years B.P. Norris Basin includes the highest erupting geyser of recent water types, colors of organisms and inorganic precipitates, frequent changes in activity and chemistry, and very high subsurface temperatures ({gt}240{degrees}C). Norris Basin is only a part of the Norris-Mammoth Corridor that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. Norris Basin has a heat flow roughly 10 percent of that of the Yellowstone Caldera and requires an estimated 0.01 km{sup 3} of rhyolitic magma per year-a quantity far greater than the corridor's rate of eruption.

  15. Effect of glacier ablation on the Snettisham Hydroelectric Project, Long Lake and Crater Lake Basins, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloan, C.E.; Emery, P.A.; Fair, Diana

    1986-01-01

    Long Lake Basin in the Snettisham Project Area southeast of Juneau, Alaska, yields water used for the production of hydroelectric power. Development of adjacent Crater Lake is planned to increase the Project 's generating capacity. Estimates of the hydroelectric potential of the lakes are based on streamflow records which are influenced by glaciers that cover 25% of the combined basins. Analysis of streamflow records shows that the quality and extent of records in the area are sufficient to predict flow from the Crater Creek basin with a fairly high degree of confidence. Comparison of aerial photographs indicates that glacier ablation and recession have been continuous since at least 1929. Estimates of ice-volume change from photogrammetric measurements indicate that less than 2.5% of the average runoff from the basins of Long and Crater Lakes has been from reduction in glacier-ice storage. (Author 's abstract)

  16. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  17. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  18. Sedimentation and subsidence patterns in the central and north basins of Lake Baikal from seismic stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.C.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Golmshtok, A.J.; Weber, E.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of sedimentation patterns, basement subsidence, and faulting histories in the north and central basins of Lake Baikal aids in developing an interbasinal seismic stratigraphy that reveals the early synrift evolution of the central portion of the Baikal rift, a major continental rift system. Although there is evidence that the central and northern rift basins evolved at approximately the same time, their sedimentation histories are markedly different. Primary sediment sources for the initial rift phase were from the east flank of the rift; two major deltas developed adjacent to the central basin: the Selenga delta at the south end and the Barguzin delta at the north end. The Barguzin River system, located at the accommodation zone between the central and north basins, also fed into the southern part of the north basin and facilitated the stratigraphic linkage of the two basins. A shift in the regional tectonic environment in the mid Pliocene(?) created a second rift phase distinguished by more rapid subsidence and sediment accumulation in the north basin and by increased subsidence and extensive faulting in the central basin. The Barguzin delta ceased formation and parts of the old delta system were isolated within the north basin and on Academic Ridge. These isolated deltaic deposits provide a model for the development of hydrocarbon plays within ancient rift systems. In this second tectonic phase, the dominant sediment fill in the deeper and more rapidly subsiding north basin shifted from the flexural (eastern) margin to axial transport from the Upper Angara River at the north end of the basin.

  19. BASINS Climate Assessment Tool Tutorials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The BASINS Climate Assessment Tool (CAT) provides a flexible set of capabilities for exploring the potential effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality using different watershed models in BASINS.

  20. BASINS User Information and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides links to guidance on how to use BASINS, including the User’s Manual, tutorials and training, technical notes, case studies, and publications that highlight the use of BASINS in various watershed analyses.

  1. Tissue microenvironments within functional cortical subdivisions adjacent to focal stroke.

    PubMed

    Katsman, Diana; Zheng, Jian; Spinelli, Kateri; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2003-09-01

    Stroke produces a region of complete cell death and areas of partial damage, injury, and gliosis. The spatial relationship of these regions of damage to the infarct core and within spared neuronal circuits has not been identified. A model of cortical stroke was developed within functional subsets of the somatosensory cortex. Infarct size, regions of apoptosis, oxidative DNA damage, heat shock protein induction, and subtypes of reactive gliosis were precisely mapped with the somatosensory body map, quantified, and interrelated. Three tissue microenvironments were recognized: zones of partial ischemic damage, heat shock protein induction, and distributed gliosis. These three zones involved progressively more distant cortical regions, each larger than the infarct core. The zone of partial ischemic damage represents an overlap region of apoptotic cell death, oxidative DNA damage, loss of synaptic connections, and local reactive gliosis. The zone of distributed gliosis occupies distinct functional areas of the somatosensory cortex. The tissue reorganization induced by stroke is much larger than the stroke site itself. Adjacent tissue microenvironments are sites of distinct reactive cellular signaling and may serve as a link between the processes of acute cell death and delayed neuronal plasticity after focal stroke.

  2. Varied interactions between proviruses and adjacent host chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, K F; Groudine, M

    1986-01-01

    Retroviruses integrated at unique locations in the host genome can be expressed at different levels. We have analyzed the preintegration sites of three transcriptionally competent avian endogenous proviruses (evs) to determine whether the various levels of provirus expression correlate with their location in active or inactive regions of chromatin. Our results show that in three of four cell types, the chromatin conformation (as defined by relative nuclease sensitivity) of virus preintegration sites correlates with the level of expression of the resident provirus in ev+ cells: two inactive proviruses (ev-1 and ev-2) reside in nuclease-resistant chromatin domains and one active provirus (ev-3) resides in a nuclease-sensitive domain. Nuclear runoff transcription assays reveal that the preintegration sites of the active and inactive viruses are not transcribed. However, in erythrocytes of 15-day-old chicken embryos (15d RBCs), the structure and activity of the ev-3 provirus is independent of the conformation of its preintegration site. In this cell type, the ev-3 preintegration site is organized in a nuclease-resistant conformation, while the ev-3 provirus is in a nuclease-sensitive conformation and is transcribed. In addition, the nuclease sensitivity of host sequences adjacent to ev-3 is altered in ev-3+ 15d RBCs relative to that found in 15d RBCs that lack ev-3. These data suggest that the relationship between preintegration site structure and retrovirus expression is more complex than previously described. Images PMID:3025623

  3. Light scattering by adjacent red blood cells: a mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunoglou, Nikolaos K.; Stamatakos, Georgios; Koutsouris, Dimitrios; Yova-Loukas, Dido M.

    1995-01-01

    Simple approximate scattering theories such as the Rayleigh-Gans theory are not generally applicable to the case of light scattering by red blood cell (RBC) aggregates, including thrombus. This is mainly due to the extremely short distance separating erythrocytes in the aggregates (of the order of 25 nm) as well as to the substantial size of the aggregates. Therefore, in this paper a new mathematical model predicting the electromagnetic field produced by the scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a system of two adjacent RBCs is presented. Each RBC is modeled as a homogeneous dielectric ellipsoid of complex index of refraction surrounded by transparent plasma. The relative position and orientation of the ellipsoids are arbitrary. Scattering is formulated in terms of an integral equation which, however, contains two singular kernels. The singular equation is transformed into a pair of nonsingular integral equations for the Fourier transform of the internal field of each RBC. The latter equations are solved by reducing them by quadrature into a matrix equation. The resulting solutions are used to estimate the scattering amplitude. Convergence aspects concerning the numerical calculation of the matrix elements originating from the interaction between the RBCs are also presented.

  4. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Chisa; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Nagai, Aiko; Hayashi, Naoki

    2010-06-01

    Craniopharyngioma has benign histological character. However, because of proximity to optic pathways, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus, it may cause severe and permanent damage to such critical structures and can even be life threatening. Total surgical resection is often difficult. This study aims to evaluate treatment results of Novalis stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways. Ten patients (six men, four women) with craniopharyngioma and median age of 56.5 years (range 10-74 years) were treated by SRT using Novalis from July 2006 through March 2009. Median volume of tumor was 7.9 ml (range 1.1-21 ml). Three-dimensional noncoplanar five- or seven-beam SRT or coplanar five-beam SRT with intensity modulation was performed. Total dose of 30-39 Gy in 10-15 fractions (median 33 Gy) was delivered to the target. Ten patients were followed up for 9-36 months (median 25.5 months). Response rate was 80% (8/10), and control rate was 100%. Improvement of neurological symptoms was observed in five patients. No serious complications due to SRT were found. SRT for craniopharyngioma may be a safe and effective treatment. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine long-term tumor control or late complications.

  5. Congenital stenosis and adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Jason David; Belding, Jon; Schnaser, Erik; Rowan, Andrew; Moffitt, Gable; Weaver, John; Reich, Michael S; Bechtel, Chris; Xie, Ke; Gande, Abhiram; Hohl, Justin; Braly, Brett; Hilibrand, Alan; Kang, James D

    2013-10-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF) is reported in 25% of patients at 10 years postoperatively. Debate continues as to whether this degeneration is due to the natural history of the disk or the changed biomechanics after ACF. This study explored whether congenital stenosis predisposes patients to an increased incidence of ASD after ACF. A retrospective review of 635 patients with myelopathy or radiculopathy was performed; 364 patients had complete records for review. Patients underwent 1- to 5-level ACF (94 one-level, 145 two-level, 79 three-level, 45 four-level, and 1 five-level). Radiographs were evaluated for bony congenital stenosis using validated parameters, and ASD was measured according to Hilibrand's criteria and correlated with symptomatic ASD. Congenital stenosis was found in 21.7% of patients and radiographic ASD in 33.5%, with a significant association between these parameters. However, symptomatic ASD occurred in 11.8% of patients; no association between congenital stenosis and symptomatic ASD or myelopathy and ASD was found. Clinical results demonstrated excellent or good Robinson scores in 86.2% of patients and Odom scores in 87% of patients. Despite mostly excellent to good outcomes, symptomatic ASD is common after ACF. Although congenital stenosis appears to increase the incidence of radiographic ASD, it does not appear to predict symptomatic ASD.

  6. The hydraulics of exchange flow between adjacent confined building zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Saleh; Flynn, Morris

    2012-11-01

    Buoyancy-driven flow between two finite zones containing fluid of slightly different density is investigated. The two zones are connected through a common opening that spans the channel width so that a two layer exchange flow develops once it is removed. In the zone that initially contained dense fluid, a buoyant plume of light fluid mixes with the dense fluid leading, over time, to the development of a nontrivial ambient density stratification. Meanwhile, dense fluid flows as a gravity current into the zone that initially contained light fluid. This gravity current reflects from the end wall and propagates back toward the opening in the form of an internal bore. When the bore reaches the opening, the dynamics of the exchange flow (and consequently the source conditions of the buoyant plume) are substantially altered. Such dynamics are modeled by combining elements of gravity current, internal bore, plume and exchange flow theory; model predictions, such as that the density jump across the first front steadily decreases once the exchange flow becomes transient, are corroborated by salt-bath laboratory experiments. Substantially different predictions arise when either or both of the adjacent zones are assumed to be well-mixed so that no vertical gradient of density is allowed.

  7. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  8. Snow Distribution Patterns in Clearings and Adjacent Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Douglas L.; Swanson, Robert H.

    1986-12-01

    Snow accumulation patterns were determined for clearings and adjacent forest at Marmot Creek experimental watershed and James River, Alberta. At maximum accumulation snow water equivalent (SWE) was greater in clearings than in forest whether clearings were large, as in 8- to 13-ha blocks where SWE averaged 20% more than in the forest, or small as in the ¼ to 6-H (height) diameter circular clearings where SWE was 13-45% greater than in the forest. SWE was 42 to 52% less in north than in south sectors of 2-6 H clearings. These differences increased with clearing size and time since beginning of accumulation period and are caused by snow ablation (melt and evaporation), a function of direct solar radiation reaching the snowpack. In such situations the snow that has accumulated on the ground cannot be considered a measure of the snow that has actually fallen there. For water balances and hydrologic modeling, snow measurements in partially cleared watersheds must be adjusted for temporal and spatial factors specific to the watershed.

  9. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  10. Taunton River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    This report presents in tabular form selected records of wells, test wells, and borings collected during a study of the basin from 1966 to 1968 in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission, and during earlier studies. This report is released in order to make available to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies basic ground-water information that may aid in planning water-resources development. Basic records contained in this report will complement an interpretative report on the Taunton River basin to be released at a later date.

  11. Evolution of fluvial systems in salt-walled mini-basins: A review and new insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banham, Steven G.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2013-10-01

    The preserved sedimentary expression of fluvial successions accumulated in salt-walled mini-basins records the complex history of basin subsidence, the style of sediment supply, and the pattern of sediment distribution in response to a range of fluvial processes throughout the evolution of such basins. Temporal and spatial variations in the rate of basin subsidence govern the generation of accommodation space, whereas the rate and style of sediment supply govern how available accommodation is filled; together these parameters act as principal controls that dictate the gross-scale pattern of fluvial sedimentation. Additional factors that influence fluvial stratigraphic architecture in salt-walled mini-basins are: (i) the trend and form of inherited basement lineations and faults that control the geometry, orientation and spacing of salt walls that develop in response to halokinesis; (ii) salt thickness and composition that dictate both the maximum potential basin-fill thickness within a developing mini-basin and the rate of evacuation (migration) of salt from beneath evolving mini-basins, leading to the growth of confining salt walls, uplift of which may generate surface topographic expression that influences fluvial drainage patterns; (iii) climate that dictates fluvial style and the processes by which sediment is distributed; and (iv) the inherited direction of drainage relative to the trend of elongate salt walls and locus of sediment supply that dictates how sediments are distributed both within a single mini-basin and between adjacent basins. Examples of fluvial sedimentary architectures preserved in salt-walled mini-basins from a number of geographic regions are used to illustrate and document the primary controls that influence patterns of fluvial sediment accumulation. The distribution of fluvial architectural elements preserved within mini-basins follows a predictable pattern, both within individual basin depocentres and between adjoining basins: drainage

  12. The stratigraphy of the Taoudeni basin, west Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, K.T.; Moody, R.T.J. )

    1993-09-01

    The Taoudeni basin is one of the major structural units of the west African craton, with an areal extent in excess of 2,000,000 km[sup 2]. Sediment thicknesses can reach over 3000 m, but have an average thickness of 1250 m. The majority of the basin-fill sediments are Precambrian to Carboniferous, with Mesozoic rocks present in the eastern margin adjacent to the Adrar des Iforas. Due to the paucity of exploration in the Taoudoni basin, there are no detailed works on source potential, maturity, or reservoir quality. However, within the sediment pile, there are excellent potential reservoirs, in the form of poorly cemented sandstones, and apparently organic-rich sediments, which may have source potential. Three major Paleozoic tectono-sedimentary units are recognized within the basin, all of which are found in the Adrar de Mauritania, which is taken as the [open quotes]type section[close quotes] for the Taoudeni basin. Unit 1 (Upper Riphean) is composed of alternating sandstones, limestones, and mudstones, which show rapid lateral thickness variations. Units 2 and 3 are far more uniform in thickness and distribution. Unit 2 (late Precambrian-Lower Ordovician) is composed of shales and sandstones with minor limestones. The base of this unit is composed of the Triad, or the Eocambrian glacial deposits that can be correlated across west Africa. Unit 3 (Upper Oedovician-Devonian) is composed of a variety of lithofacies varying from a basal glacial unit through basinal graptolitic shales into shallow marine/continental deposits. Each of these units will be discussed in detail and the petroleum potential of the constituent lithofacies considered.

  13. Distribution of crustal types in Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chian, D.; Jackson, H. R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Shimeld, J. W.; Oakey, G. N.; Lebedeva-Ivanova, N.; Li, Q.; Saltus, R. W.; Mosher, D. C.

    2016-11-01

    Seismic velocities determined from 70 sonobuoys widely distributed in Canada Basin were used to discriminate crustal types. Velocities of oceanic layer 3 (6.7-7.1 km/s), transitional (7.2-7.6 km/s) and continental crust (5.5-6.6 km/s) were used to distinguish crustal types. Potential field data supports the distribution of oceanic crust as a polygon with maximum dimensions of 340 km (east-west) by 590 km (north-south) and identification of the ocean-continent boundary (OCB). Paired magnetic anomalies are associated only with crust that has oceanic velocities. Furthermore, the interpreted top of oceanic crust on seismic reflection profiles is more irregular and sometimes shallower than adjacent transitional crust. The northern segment of the narrow Canada Basin Gravity Low (CBGL), often interpreted as a spreading center, bisects this zone of oceanic crust and coincides with the location of a prominent valley in seismic reflection profiles. Data coverage near the southern segment of CBGL is sparse. Velocities typical of transitional crust are determined east of it. Extension in this region, close to the inferred pole of rotation, may have been amagmatic. Offshore Alaska is a wide zone of thinned continental crust up to 300 km across. Published longer offset refraction experiments in the Basin confirm the depth to Moho and the lack of oceanic layer 3 velocities. Further north, toward Alpha Ridge and along Northwind Ridge, transitional crust is interpreted to be underplated or intruded by magmatism related to the emplacement of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). Although a rotational plate tectonic model is consistent with the extent of the conjugate magnetic anomalies that occupy only a portion of Canada Basin, it does not explain the asymmetrical configuration of the oceanic crust in the deep water portion of Canada Basin, and the unequal distribution of transitional and continental crust around the basin.

  14. Seismic exploration in the Dalhart Basin, western Texas panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.P.

    1993-09-01

    The Dalhart basin, the Texas panhandle's [open quotes]other[close quotes] basin, is accountable for over 17 million bbl of oil production since the 1954 discovery of Rehm field by Standard Oil of Texas in Hartley County, Texas. The primary objective in most of the seismic exploration has been the Pennsylvanian/Missourian granite washes, one of several sequences of wash deposition that occurred in the basin. These granite washes, sourced from the Bravo dome of the extreme western Texas panhandle and eastern New Mexico, have been distributed into the Dalhart basin in both deltaic and long-shore patterns across and along carbonate shelf margins of Pennsylvania Missourian-Virgilian age. In same cases, this carbonate [open quotes]bank[close quotes] has been productive and should be considered prospective in any exploration program. More recently, production from Permian Wolfcampian granite wash has been found to exist in the form of a stratigraphic trap adjacent to the Bravo Dome. Development continues in this encouraging play. In most cases, the application of seismic in the Dalhart basin appears to reflect the concrete data of subsurface geology. Primarily, the use of seismic to delineate structure has prompted the majority of penetrations throughout the basin and has resulted in the acquisition of an estimated 6000+ mi of two-dimensional seismic data to date. Whereas anomalies of same type may be uncovered in most seismic surveys, coupling of subsurface stratigraphic information to determine fairways of clean granite washes combined with detailed, high-quality seismic data is a necessity. With the increasing prominence of three-dimensional seismic data, these goals by be achieved both in terms of cost effectiveness and technical superiority. The density of three-dimensional data collection satisfies nearly all criteria to minimize error in mapping these subtle, critical structural and stratigraphic closures.

  15. Heat flow and thermal history of the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, L.S.; Kelley, S.A.; Blackwell, D.D.; Naeser, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    New heat-flow values for seven sites in the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma, were determined using high-precision temperature logs and thermal conductivity measurements from nearly 300 core plugs. Three of the sites are on the northern shelf, three sites are in the deep basin, and one site is in the frontal fault zone of the northern Wichita Mountains. The heat flow decreased from 55 to 64 mW/m2 in the north, and from 39 to 54 mW/m2 in the south, due to a decrease in heat generation in the underlying basement rock toward the south. Lateral lithologic changes in the basin, combined with the change in heat flow across the basin, resulted in an unusual pattern of thermal maturity. The vitrinite reflectance values of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Woodford formation are highest 30-40 km north-northwest of the deepest part of the basin. The offset in highest reflectance values is due to the contrast in thermal conductivity between the Pennsylvanian "granite wash" section adjacent to the Wichita uplift and the Pennsylvanian shale section to the north. The geothermal gradient in the low-conductivity shale section is elevated relative to the geothermal gradient in the high-conductivity "granite wash" section, thus displacing the highest temperatures to the north of the deepest part of the basin. Apatite fission-track, vitrinite reflectance, and heat-flow data were used to constrain regional aspects of the burial history of the Anadarko basin. By combining these data sets, we infer that at least 1.5 km of denudation has occurred at two sites in the deep Anadarko basin since the early to middle Cenozoic (40 ?? 10 m.y.). The timing of the onset of denudation in the southern Anadarko basin coincides with the period of late Eocene erosion observed in the southern Rocky Mountains and in the northern Great Plains. Burial history models for two wells from the deep Anadarko basin predict that shales of the Woodford formation passed through the hydrocarbon maturity window by the

  16. Paluxy of the Central Basin-East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, M.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The Paluxy Formation (Lower Cretaceous) has been a consistent sandstone exploration objective in the central East Texas basin, occurring at moderate depths on the order of 5000-8000 ft with oil in reservoirs with good permeability and porosity and reserves in the range of 200,000 to 500,000 bbl per well. Since the 1940s, the pace of Paluxy field discovery has been steady, generally a new field or two every one or two years, and there is every reason to believe that there is continued potential for the Paluxy in the future. The central part of the East Texas basin, in Smith County and adjacent areas, has complex structure with numerous salt domes and intervening sediment wedges (turtles) that formed during movement of the salt. Paluxy oil and gas in this area occurs mainly in combination structural-stratigraphic traps along normal faults that cut turtles. Major exploration trends in the central basin include (1) the Lindale turtle with a number of widely spaced fields, generally with only a few wells but with relatively good per-well reserves, (2) the Tyler turtle with the largest fields and some of the most prolific Paluxy production in the central basin, (3) the Flint and Irene turtles with relatively thin sandstones and modest production, (4) the Lane Chapel turtle with some exciting new Paluxy discoveries, and (5) the rim areas of salt domes.

  17. Potential cretaceous play in the Rharb basin of northern Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Jobidon, G.P. )

    1993-09-01

    The autochthonous Cretaceous in the Rharb basin of northern Morocco is located underneath a cover of neogene sediments and of the Prerif nappe olistostrome, which was emplaced during the Tortonian 7 m.y. The presence of infranappe Cretaceous sediments is documented in a few onshore wells in the Rharb basin and in the adjacent Prerif Rides area, as well as in the Rif Mountains. Their presence in the deeper portion of the Rharb basin is difficult to detail because of poor seismic resolution data beneath dispersive prerif nappe. A recent study of offshore seismic data acquired by PCIAC in 1987 indicates that the infranappe interval can be more than 1500 m thick in some of the offshore Kenitra area. These sediments have seismic signatures that would correspond to Middle Cretaceous transgressions, culminating with a Turonian highstand. Their deposition systems were located on the northern and western flanks of the Meseta and were followed by a hiatus lasting until the Miocene. Regional studies of gravity and magnetic data provide and additional understanding of the Rif province, its evolution, and the possible presence of autochthonous Cretaceous sediments below the prerif nappe cover. The infranappe of Rharb basin has a good potential to develop into a major hydrocarbon play with the presence of middle Cretaceous reservoir rocks, Turonian-Cenomanian black shale source rocks, as well as the timely combination of trap formation, source rock maturation, and hydrocarbon migration.

  18. Shallow ground-water quality adjacent to burley tobacco fields in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia, spring 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.C.; Connell, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey began an assessment of the upper Tennessee River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. A ground-water land-use study conducted in 1996 focused on areas with burley tobacco production in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Land-use studies are designed to focus on specific land uses and to examine natural and human factors that affect the quality of shallow ground water underlying specific types of land use. Thirty wells were drilled in shallow regolith adjacent to and downgradient of tobacco fields in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of the upper Tennessee River Basin. Ground-water samples were collected between June 4 and July 9, 1997, to coincide with the application of the majority of pesticides and fertilizers used in tobacco production. Ground-water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, 79 pesticides, 7 pesticide degradation products, 86 volatile organic compounds, and dissolved organic carbon. Nutrient concentrations were lower than the levels found in similar NAWQA studies across the United States during 1993-95. Five of 30 upper Tennessee River Basin wells (16.7 percent) had nitrate levels exceeding 10 mg/L while 19 percent of agricultural land-use wells nationally and 7.9 percent in the Southeast had nitrate concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. Median nutrient concentrations were equal to or less than national median concentrations. All pesticide concentrations in the basin were less than established drinking water standards, and pesticides were detected less frequently than average for other NAWQA study units. Atrazine was detected at 8 of 30 (27 percent) of the wells, and deethylatrazine (an atrazine degradation product) was found in 9 (30 percent) of the wells. Metalaxyl was found in 17 percent of the wells, and prometon, flumetralin, dimethomorph, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, dichlorprop, and silvex were detected once each (3 percent). Volatile organic compounds

  19. America's Caribbean Basin Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasten, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    Nearly all of the countries that have succeeded in their development over the past 30 years have done so on the strength of market-oriented policies and vigorous participation in the international economy. Aid must be complemented by trade and investment. The Caribbean Basin Initiative puts these principles into practice. (RM)

  20. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  1. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  2. Contribution of the upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea to the heavy metal pollution in the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Su; Wu, Yuehan; Xu, Wei; Li, Yangyang; Shen, Zhenyao; Feng, Chenghong

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether the discharge control of heavy metals in the Yangtze River basin can significantly change the pollution level in the estuary, this study analyzed the sources (upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea) of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in dissolved and particulate phases in the surface water of the estuary during wet, normal, and dry seasons. Metal sources inferred from section fluxes agree with those in statistical analysis methods. Heavy metal pollution in the surface water of Yangtze Estuary primarily depends on the sediment suspension and the wastewater discharge from estuary cities. Upper river only constitutes the main source of dissolved heavy metals during the wet season, while the estuarine region and the adjacent sea (especially the former) dominate the dissolved metal pollution in the normal and dry seasons. Particulate metals are mainly derived from sediment suspension in the estuary and the adjacent sea, and the contribution of the upper river can be neglected. Compared with the hydrologic seasons, flood-ebb tides exert a more obvious effect on the water flow directions in the estuary. Sediment suspension, not the upper river, significantly affects the suspended particulate matter concentration in the estuary.

  3. Contaminants of emerging concern in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Sevigny, Jennifer M.; Pope, Judy M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of discrete water-quality samples were collected in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin near the city of Arlington, Washington, through a partnership with the Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians. These samples included surface waters of the Stillaguamish River, adjacent tributary streams, and paired inflow and outflow sampling at three wastewater treatment plants in the lower river basin. Chemical analysis of these samples focused on chemicals of emerging concern, including wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and halogenated organic compounds on solids and sediment. This report presents the methods used and data results from the chemical analysis of these samples

  4. Evidence of Antarctic bottom water in the Angola Basin at 32°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, L. V.; Chapman, P.

    1991-10-01

    Recent measurements in the South Atlantic provide the first evidence of relatively pure Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Angola Basin at 32°S, 3°W, adjacent to the Walvis Ridge. The temperature-salinity-nutrient signature of this water closely resembles that of AABW in the Walvis Kom (a convuluted extension of the Cape Basin), suggesting that leakage of AABW across the Walvis Ridge occurs near 32°S in addition to that through the Walvis Passage at 37°S.

  5. San Juan sag: A newly discovered basin beneath San Juan volcanic field of south-central Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    The San Juan sag is a Laramide foreland basin formerly adjacent to and west of the Laramide northern Sangre de Cristo/San Luis highland. Wrench faulting (Eocene ) and rifting (Oligocene and Miocene) split this bounding uplift and formed the San Luis basin adjacent to and east of the sag. Volcanism concealed the San Juan sag with over 10,000 ft of intermediate volcanic deposits, and its presence remained in doubt until oil in the volcanic rocks encouraged exploration for the underlying sedimentary rocks. Drilling through the volcanic field since 1984 has revealed the presence of Paleocene and Eocene( ) clastic sediments, the Cretaceous Lewis, Mancos, and Dakota formations, and the Jurassic Morrison and Junction Creek formations. Additionally, oil and gas shows abound, and minor production has been established. Exploratory drilling and geophysical acquisitions have helped to define basin geometry, reservoir rocks, source rocks, and maturation and burial history.

  6. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  7. Basin and range-age reactivation of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Texas Panhandle: evidence from Ogallala Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1984-04-01

    The Ogallala Formation (Neogene) is a widespread syntectonic alluvial apron that was shed eastward from the Rio Grande rift and related uplifts in Colorado and New Mexico during Basin and Range extension. In the Texas Panhandle, the Ogallala completely buried Ancestral Rocky Mountain (Pennsylvanian) structures. Renewed movement on these older structures during the Neogene influenced the thickness and facies distribution of the Ogallala. The Ogallala thickens into the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko basins. Major distributary channels on Ogallala alluvial fans coincide with the axes of these basins, whereas major interchannel areas overlie intervening uplifts. Second-order structures subtly influenced the unit as well. For example, the Carson basin, a Pennsylvanian rhomb graben along the Amarillo uplift, the Ogallala is over 250 m (820 ft) thick compared with 90 m (275 ft) in adjacent areas. Within the Palo Duro basin, local highs controlled the distribution of thin, interchannel flood-basin and lacustrine deposits. Thicker, braided-stream channel deposits follow local lows. Later movement on the Amarillo uplift broadly folded the Ogallala. The southern high plains surface subtly reflects basement structure, with topographic highs overlying basement highs, suggesting post-Ogallala deformation within the Palo Duro basin. The Amarillo uplift is approximately perpendicular to the Rio Grande rift and parallel to the direction of Basin and Range extension. Thus, the stress field that produced the rift may have caused strike-slip movement and reactivation of the Carson basin along the Amarillo uplift.

  8. Deep crustal structure of the Adare and Northern Basins, Ross Sea, Antarctica, from sonobuoy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvans, M. M.; Stock, J. M.; Clayton, R. W.; Cande, S.; Granot, R.

    2014-11-01

    Extension associated with ultraslow seafloor spreading within the Adare Basin, in oceanic crust just north of the continental shelf in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, extended south into the Northern Basin. Magnetic and gravity anomaly data suggest continuity of crustal structure across the continental shelf break that separates the Adare and Northern Basins. We use sonobuoy refraction data and multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected during research cruise NBP0701, including 71 new sonobuoy records, to provide constraints on crustal structure in the Adare and Northern Basins. Adjacent 1D sonobuoy profiles along several MCS lines reveal deep crustal structure in the vicinity of the continental shelf break, and agree with additional sonobuoy data that document fast crustal velocities (6000-8000 m/s) at shallow depths (1-6 km below sea level) from the Adare Basin to the continental shelf, a structure consistent with that of other ultraslow-spread crust. Our determination of crustal structure in the Northern Basin only extends through sedimentary rock to the basement rock, and so cannot help to distinguish between different hypotheses for formation of the basin.

  9. Adjacent tooth trauma in complicated mandibular third molar surgery: Risk degree classification and digital surgical simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhou-Xi; Yang, Chi; Ge, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of adjacent tooth resistance is essential in wisdom teeth extraction to prevent adjacent tooth trauma, however it lacks adequate attention nowadays. This study aims at suggesting special extraction methods based on adjacent tooth resistance analysis for prevention of adjacent tooth damage. In this study, 136 complicated mandibular third molars extracted using piezosurgery were reviewed and classified based on the adjacent teeth resistances shown in orthopantomogram (OPG) during their mesio-distal rotations: degree I refers to teeth with no adjacent teeth resistance; degree II refers to teeth with resistance released after mesial-half crown sectioning; degree III refers to teeth which still had resistance after mesial-half crown sectioning. With the use of surgical simulations using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) reconstruction, all teeth in degree I were designed to rotate mesio-distally; 86.36%(38/44) teeth in degree II were designed to rotate mesio-distally after mesio-half crown sectioning; 69.09%(36/55) teeth in degree III were designed to rotate bucco-lingually. All teeth were extracted successfully, and only one adjacent tooth was subluxated due to the incomplete bone removal. Our study suggested that in order to prevent adjacent teeth trauma, complete bone removal is of importance, and impacted teeth with higher adjacent teeth trauma risks should consider bucco-lingual rotations. PMID:27974819

  10. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon input to urban wetlands in relation to adjacent land use.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, K L; Dickhut, R M

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland surface sediments and adjacent land use was assessed in the Elizabeth River, VA, an urbanized sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Significant differences (p<0.05) in surface sediment PAH concentration between sites indicated adjacent land use had a substantial influence on PAH concentration in wetland sediments. Wetlands adjacent to parking lots and petroleum industrial sites exhibited the highest PAH concentrations of all wetlands examined. Overall, commercial land uses had the highest PAH concentrations and automotive sources dominated (52-69%) PAH input to wetland surface sediments irrespective of adjacent land use.

  11. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m−2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest. PMID:28186151

  12. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m‑2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest.

  13. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  14. Revisiting a classification scheme for U.S.-Mexico alluvial basin-fill aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Barry J; Darling, Bruce K

    2005-01-01

    Intermontane basins in the Trans-Pecos region of westernmost Texas and northern Chihuahua, Mexico, are target areas for disposal of interstate municipal sludge and have been identified as possible disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste. Understanding ground water movement within and between these basins is needed to assess potential contaminant fate and movement. Four associated basin aquifers are evaluated and classified; the Red Light Draw Aquifer, the Northwest Eagle Flat Aquifer, the Southeast Eagle Flat Aquifer, and the El Cuervo Aquifer. Encompassed on all but one side by mountains and local divides, the Red Light Draw Aquifer has the Rio Grande as an outlet for both surface drainage and ground water discharge. The river juxtaposed against its southern edge, the basin is classified as a topographically open, through-flowing basin. The Northwest Eagle Flat Aquifer is classified as a topographically closed and drained basin because surface drainage is to the interior of the basin and ground water discharge occurs by interbasin ground water flow. Mountains and ground water divides encompass this basin aquifer on all sides; yet, depth to ground water in the interior of the basin is commonly >500 feet. Negligible ground water discharge within the basin indicates that ground water discharges from the basin by vertical flow and underflow to a surrounding basin or basins. The most likely mode of discharge is by vertical, cross-formational flow to underlying Permian rocks that are more porous and permeable and subsequent flow along regional flowpaths beneath local ground water divides. The Southeast Eagle Flat Aquifer is classified as a topographically open and drained basin because surface drainage and ground water discharge are to the adjacent Wildhorse Flat area. Opposite the Eagle Flat and Red Light Draw aquifers is the El Cuervo Aquifer of northern Chihuahua, Mexico. The El Cuervo Aquifer has interior drainage to Laguna El Cuervo, which is a phreatic

  15. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    (unconfined turbidite or amalgamated channel deposits), interbedded with low amplitude reflections (hemipelagic deposits) that lie in the oil or gas window, 3) basinward dipping onlap unconformities against Northwind Escarpment that are overlain by turbidite or amalgamated channel deposits interbedded with hemipelagic deposits, 4) serpentinized peridotite (?) diapirs with marginal onlap unconformities and overlying domes or anticlines, and 5) supratenuous (compaction) folds in the lower half of the Canada Basin adjacent to Northwind Escarpment. The extent of Canada Basin (>700.000 square km) and its diverse and numerous potential structural and stratigraphic traps offer many targets to hydrocarbon exploration. However deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.

  16. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  17. Cenozoic North American Drainage Basin Evolution, Sediment Yield, and Accumulation in the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, W.; Ganey-Curry, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    ) areal extent of river drainage basins, (2) source area relief, (3) climate of the source areas and tributary systems, (4) source lithology, and (5) sediment storage within the upper drainage basin. Climate has played an important and complex role in modulating supply. In wet tropical to temperate climate regimes, abundant runoff efficiently removed entrained sediment. Arid climate limited runoff; resultant transport-limited tributaries and trunk streams deposited aggradational alluvial aprons, storing sediment in the drainage basin even in the absence of a structural depression. Eolian deposition commonly accompanied such alluvial aggradation. In contrast, seasonality and consequent runoff variability favored erosion and efficient sediment evacuation from the upper parts of drainage basins. Tectonism has played a prominent but equally complex role. Elevation of uplands by compression, crustal heating, or extrusive volcanism created primary loci of erosion and high sediment yield. At the same time, accompanying subsidence sometimes created long-lived sediment repositories that intercepted and sequestered sediment adjacent to sources. Regional patterns of uplift and subsidence relocated drainage divides and redirected trunk stream paths to the Gulf margin.

  18. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  19. Are historical pollution events on the Delaware River recorded as geochemical marker horizons in adjacent marsh sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, R.; Yemane, K. . Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    In the last two hundred years of massive population and industrial growth, the Delaware River has been subjected to several minor and major pollutions. For example, as recently as June 1989 the tanker Presidente Rivera spilled an estimated hundred thousand to million gallons of oil into the river. In the Lower Delaware Basin tides affect the river and its tributaries up to a hundred kilometers inland. The freshwater marshes adjacent to the creeks that empty into the Delaware River experience diurnal tidal sedimentation. It is thus expected that the pollutants in the waterway would be transported via the tidal channels into the adjacent wetlands. The high sedimentation rate, clay-rich sediments, accumulation of terrestrial organic matter, and the low energy environments in these marshes should ensure rapid burial which may preserve some of the contaminants transported into the marshes. To test this hypothesis the authors selected a freshwater marsh along the Raccoon Creek just south of Philadelphia in New Jersey, and collected a 2 m core from a relatively undisturbed portion of the marsh, about 15 m away from the tidal channels. The pH averages around 6.2, ranges from 5.5--6.8, but, is slightly higher in the middle part of the core. The bulk mineralogy comprises chlorite, illite, kaolinite, feldspars and quartz. Vivianite and vermiculite were observed at places lower in the core. Graminae dominates the pollen/spore taxa. The organic debris is unaltered throughout the core. The authors will measure heavy metals and toxic chemicals on < 2[mu]m clay fractions. Also pristane/phytane ratios, indicative of hydrocarbons (crude oils), will be determined on organic matter extracts. The authors will compare and correlate the results to historically documented events of chemical and petroleum spills on the Delaware River.

  20. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  1. Trend and dynamic cause of sediment particle size on the adjacent continental shelf of the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun-ping; Zhang, Ming-jin; Li, Yi-tian; Fan, Yong-yang

    2016-12-01

    Based on the measured data in recent 20 years, the variation trends of the median grain size of the surface sediment, the sand-silt boundary and the mud area on the adjacent continental shelf of the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed in depth, and the effects of natural mechanism and human activities were discussed. The results show that: (1) In recent years (2006-2013), the median grain size of sediment and the distribution pattern of grouped sediments in the adjacent continental shelf area to the Yangtze Estuary have presented no obvious change compared with those before 2006; (2) The median diameter of the surface sediment in the continental shelf area displayed a coarsening trend with the decrease of sediment discharge from the basin and the drop in suspended sediment concentration in the shore area; (3) In 2004-2007, the sand-silt boundary in the north part (31°30'N) of the continental shelf area presented no significant changes, while that in the south part (31°30'S) moved inwards; In 2008-2013, both the sand-silt boundaries in the north and south parts of the continental shelf area moved inwards, mainly due to the fact that in the dry season, a relatively enhanced hydrodynamic force of the tides was generated in the Yangtze River, as well as a decreased suspended sediment concentration and a flow along the banks in North Jiangsu; (4) The mud area where the maximum deposition rate is found in the Yangtze Estuary, tends to shrink due to the drop in sediment discharge from the basin, and the decrease in suspended sediment concentration in the shore area and erosion in the delta. Moreover, it tended to shift to the south at the same time because the implement of the training works on the deep-water channel of the North Passage changed the split ratio between the North and South Passages with an increase in the power of the discharged runoff in the South Passage.

  2. Foundation Report, Dam & Spillway, Taylorsville Lake, Ohio River Basin, Salt River, Kentucky.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    earth core, rock-filled dam ; an operating tower; conduit and stilling basin in the right abutment; an open cut uncon- trolled spillway through the right...Engineering Company (Rural Route 3, Harrisburg, Illinois 62946). It involved construction of an earth core, rock-filled dam ; an open cut uncontrolled... earth materials for later use in the dam . These stockpiles were located adjacent to the spillway and in the upstream area so designated above the dam

  3. Unusual Radar Backscatter Properties Along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    In general, radar backscatter from the lunar terrae is 2-4 times that of the maria. One exception to this is the terra terrain along the northern rim of Imbrium Basin. The highlands that surround Sinus Iridum and crater Plato have long-wavelength (70-cm) radar backscatter that is comparable to or lower than that from the adjacent maria. We are studying new 70-cm radar images and earlier multispectral data to better constrain the regional geology.

  4. Middle Miocene hiatus in volcanic activity in the Great Basin area of the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, E.H.; Noble, D.C.; Silberman, M.L.

    1970-01-01

    A summary of potassium-argon dates shows that a high level of igneous activity in the Great Basin and adjacent regions during middle Tertiary time (40 to 20 my ago) was followed by a period of relative quiescence in middle Miocene time that lasted for several million years (from 20 to 17 my ago). Volcanism resumed 16 my ago mainly at the margins of the region and has continued to the present. ?? 1970.

  5. Potiguar basin: geologic model and habitat of oil of a Brazilian equatorial basin

    SciTech Connect

    Falkenhein, F.U.; Barros, R.M.; Da Costa, I.G.; Cainelli, C.

    1984-04-01

    The Potiguar basin integrates the eastern part of the Brazilian equatorial Atlantic-type margin. The rifting stage of this basin occurred during the Neocomian and Aptian. The drifting stage and sea-floor spreading began in the Late Albian. The rifting stage clearly was intracratonic during the Neocomian and is recognized as a mosaic of half-grabens trending mostly northeast-southwest and filled with syntectonic lacustrine siliciclastics. The half-graben pattern exhibits rotation of beds into the major fault zone, and the preserved uplifted margins display either paleostructures of paleogeomorphic features with hydrocarbons. A regional pre-Aptian unconformity preceded the Aptian proto-oceanic rifting stage which was characterized by syntectonic fluvio-deltaic sediments. The Aptian tectonics were represented by reactivation of former lineaments superimposed by predominant east-west normal faulting. Structural highs during this stage are so far the most prolific oil accumulations. The most important source beds and reservoir rocks are both Neocomian and Aptian sediments. Geochemistry and hydrodynamics have shown that hydrocarbon migration was driven through fracture or fault zones in both Aptian or Albian plays. Lithofacies maps support this interpretation because pools occur whenever adjacent downthrown blocks present a high shale content.

  6. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  7. Significance of the basin wide reverse polarity reflector in the Offshore Sydney Basin, East Australian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman Talukder, Asrarur; Nadri, Dariush; Rajput, Sanjeev; Clennell, Ben; Griffiths, Cedric; Breeze, David

    2010-05-01

    The Offshore Sydney Basin is located between latitudes 32°30'S and 34°30'S between the coastal cities of Newcastle in the north and Wollongong in the south, covering a total area of ~15,000 squire km. The structural framework of the offshore portion of the basin comprises five principal elements: the Offshore Syncline, an extension of the New England Fold Belt, an offshore extension of the Newcastle Syncline, the Offshore Uplift and the Outer Continental Shelf. The present easterly extent of the basin is the result of Cretaceous rifting and commencement of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Tasman Sea. The continental shelf is approximately 50 km wide offshore Sydney and is edged by relatively steep continental slope. This study has been carried out with 2D multichannel seismic data covering the northern half of the offshore basin. The Cenozoic sedimentary cover of the basin is characterized by two regional unconformities: one at the base of Cenozoic and another intra-Cenozoic. The unconformity at the base of Cenozoic is known as the Top Sydney Basin unconformity. In places the surface is displaced by faults and also characterized by possible mounds producing an overall highly irregular topography. Though most of the faults remained buried beneath the surface some continued up to seafloor. They seem to have NW-SE direction with significant lateral extension. The intra-Cenozoic unconformity forms a prominent reflector at about 80 to 200 msbs (TWT). It is characterized by an angular unconformity with the reflectors terminating onto it from beneath. It is also associated with prograding sequences beneath, terminating with toplap geometry, suggesting that it forms the boundary between a transgressive and regressive phase. This is interpreted as a prograding carbonate dominated shelf-edge. The most interesting aspect of this seismic reflector is that the major part of it presents reverse polarity with respect to the seafloor reflection. The amplitude of the reflector

  8. Induced seismicity caused by hydraulic fracturing in deep geothermal wells in Germany and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenefisch, Thomas; Brückner, Lisa; Ceranna, Lars; Gestermann, Nicolai; Houben, Georg; Tischner, Torsten; Wegler, Ulrich; Wellbrink, Matthias; Bönnemann, Christian; Bertram, Andreas; Kirschbaum, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the BGR has worked out a study on the potential environmental impact caused by hydraulic fracturing or chemical stimulations in deep geothermal reservoirs in Germany and adjacent areas. The investigations and analyses are based on existing studies and information provided by operators. The two environmental impacts being essentially considered in the report are induced seismicity and possible contamination of the groundwater reservoirs which serve for drinking water supply. Altogether, in this study, information on 30 hydraulic frac operations and 26 chemical stimulations including information from neighboring countries were compiled and analyzed. Out of the hydraulic stimulations two thirds were carried out as waterfracs and one third as fracturing with proppants. Parameters used in the study to characterize the induced seismicity are maximum magnitude, number of seismic events, size of the seismically active volume, and the relation of this volume to fault zones and the cap rock, as well as, finally, the impacts at the Earth's surface. The response of the subsurface to hydraulic fracturing is variable: There are some activities, which cause perceptible seismic events, others, where no perceptible but instrumentally detected events occurred, and moreover activities without even any instrumentally detected events. A classification of seismic hazard with respect to tectonic region, geology, or depth of the layer is still difficult, since the number of hydraulic fracturing measures in deep geothermal wells is small making a statistically sound analysis impossible. However, there are some indications, that hydraulic fracturing in granite in tectonically active regions like the Upper Rhine Graben results in comparatively stronger, perceptible seismicity compared to hydraulic fracturing in the sedimentary rocks of the North German basin. The maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes caused by hydraulic fracturing of deep geothermal wells in Germany are

  9. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  10. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  11. Floods of March-April 1960 in Eastern Nebraska and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brice, H.D.; West, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Snowmelt floods, record breaking on many streams and outstanding in terms of total area affected and runoff volumes generated, occurred in late March and early April 1960 on Missouri River tributaries in adjacent parts of six states. In order of area affected, the States are Nebraska, South Dakota, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, and Missouri. Five lives were lost, and the estimated damage was $14 million. Main-stem reservoirs kept Missouri River stages substantially below potential unregulated levels. Without regulation by reservoirs, the stage at Sioux City and Omaha would have been about 9 feet higher than it was and the damage would have been many millions of dollars more than actually occurred. The floods were caused by rapid melting of an extensive snow cover of unusual depth and water equivalent, augmented by light to moderate rains. Temperatures almost continuously below normal, beginning in late December and culminating in record lows at many places during the first half of March, resulted in the retention of record snow accumulations, much later and much farther south than normal. The snowfall in eastern Nebraska from December 27 to March 26 was about twice the annual average. The excessive snowfall and below-normal temperatures produced a record-breaking 75-day period of continuous snow cover at Omaha. A rapidly rising, eastward-moving temperature pattern late in March, in combination with an easterly orientation of many Nebraska streams, tended to magnify flood peaks. The rapid temperature rise started about March 18 in western Nebraska but not until March 26 in the eastern part of the State. As a consequence, flood discharges from the headwaters, often bearing heavy ice floes, arrived in the lower reaches simultaneously with or even ahead of the breakup of the unusually heavy ice cover and caused serious jamming. Comparisons of the peak discharges of the 1960 snowmelt floods with those of previous floods reveal several interesting facts. Peak discharges on

  12. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  13. Novel use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify cellular DNA adjacent to an integrated provirus.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, J; Keerikatte, V

    1989-01-01

    We describe a modification of the polymerase chain reaction technique which allows amplification of cellular DNA adjacent to an integrated provirus given sequence information for the provirus only. The modified technique should be generally useful for studies of insertional mutagenesis and other situations in which one wishes to isolate DNA adjacent to a region of known sequence. Images PMID:2704070

  14. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  15. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  16. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  17. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  18. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  19. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  20. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  1. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  2. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  3. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  4. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  5. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  6. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  7. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  8. Monitoring Land Use/Land Cover Changes in a River Basin due to Urbanization using Remote Sensing and GIS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Khire, M. V.; Gedam, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    Faster pace of urbanization, industrialization, unplanned infrastructure developments and extensive agriculture result in the rapid changes in the Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) of the sub-tropical river basins. Study of LU/LC transformations in a river basin is crucial for vulnerability assessment and proper management of the natural resources of a river basin. Remote sensing technology is very promising in mapping the LU/LC distribution of a large region on different spatio-temporal scales. The present study is intended to understand the LU/LC changes in the Upper Bhima river basin due to urbanization using modern geospatial techniques such as remote sensing and GIS. In this study, the Upper Bhima river basin is divided into three adjacent sub-basins: Mula-Mutha sub-basin (ubanized), Bhima sub-basin (semi-urbanized) and Ghod sub-basin (unurbanized). Time series LU/LC maps were prepared for the study area for a period of 1980, 2002 and 2009 using satellite datasets viz. Landsat MSS (October, 1980), Landsat ETM+ (October, 2002) and IRS LISS III (October 2008 and November 2009). All the satellite images were classified into five LU/LC classes viz. built-up lands, agricultural lands, waterbodies, forests and wastelands using supervised classification approach. Post classification change detection method was used to understand the LU/LC changes in the study area. Results reveal that built up lands, waterbodies and agricultural lands are increasing in all the three sub-basins of the study area at the cost of decreasing forests and wastelands. But the change is more drastic in urbanized Mula-Mutha sub-basin compared to the other two sub-basins.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  10. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  11. Seismic analysis of adjacent buildings subjected to double pounding considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghaly, Ahmed Abdelraheem

    2017-02-01

    A 2D model of two adjacent buildings with different heights (6 and 12 floors) and foundation levels without separation distance under seismic load and considering SSI is investigated. A special arrangement of contact elements (gap elements) each 1 m of the low height building in the contact zone is taken into consideration to fulfill all possible deformation contact modes which take place under seismic load (earthquake). Soil is modeled by 2D shell elements in contact with foundations of the two adjacent buildings. This paper focuses on the study of double pounding that takes place between the two adjacent buildings in some upper points at superstructure in the contact zone and also at foundation level. The forces of double pounding between the two adjacent buildings, which increase by softening of the soil, give a valuable assessment of straining actions of the two adjacent buildings and change the behavior of soil under the foundations and around basement floor.

  12. Seismic analysis of adjacent buildings subjected to double pounding considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghaly, Ahmed Abdelraheem

    2017-03-01

    A 2D model of two adjacent buildings with different heights (6 and 12 floors) and foundation levels without separation distance under seismic load and considering SSI is investigated. A special arrangement of contact elements (gap elements) each 1 m of the low height building in the contact zone is taken into consideration to fulfill all possible deformation contact modes which take place under seismic load (earthquake). Soil is modeled by 2D shell elements in contact with foundations of the two adjacent buildings. This paper focuses on the study of double pounding that takes place between the two adjacent buildings in some upper points at superstructure in the contact zone and also at foundation level. The forces of double pounding between the two adjacent buildings, which increase by softening of the soil, give a valuable assessment of straining actions of the two adjacent buildings and change the behavior of soil under the foundations and around basement floor.

  13. Sequences, cycles, and basin dynamics in the Silurian of the Appalachian Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, Carlton E.; Goodman, William M.; LoDuca, Steven T.

    1990-12-01

    Field stratigraphic analysis of the Early and medial Silurian strata of Ontario, New York and Pennsylvania permits recognition of six major sequences, reflecting 3rd-order cycles, in the Niagaran (Llandoverian-Ludlovian) of New York and adjacent regions. These sequences correspond approximately to the Medina, lower Clinton, middle Clinton, upper Clinton (two sequences) and Lockport Groups. Each is bounded by widespread unconformities produced by the interplay of eustatic sea-level drop and local tectonic uplift. In general, erosional sequence boundaries and transgressive surfaces are merged, with no record of the lowstand wedge. Each sequence is subdivisible into two to five sub-sequences that are marked by sharp, though generally non-erosional basal discontinuities. Investigation of the Clinton and Lockport Groups corroborates earlier suggestions that carbonate and siliciclassic tongues extended basinward from opposite margins synchronously in response to sea-level drops. Analysis of the thickness and basinward extent of the progradational tongues reveals the existence of multi-scale sedimentary cycles. Sequences and component sub-sequences are correlative basinwide and are synchronous within the resolution of bio- and event-stratigraphy. Major drops in relative sea-level are represented by the sequence-bounding discontinutiies. These surfaces are overlain by siliciclastic wedges near terrigenous source areas, or winnowed carbonate pack- and grainstones on the tectonically passive margin. Overlying highstand deposits, typically shales, calcareous mudstones, and limestones, are separated from lowstand or transgressive deposits by thin condensed intervals commonly marked by phosphatic or glauconitic material and/or surfaces of maximum sediment starvation. The relative highstand deposits of sequences and sub-sequences are developed in relatively deep-water facies and are, at most, slightly progradational. Hence, most sequences and sub-sequences are sharply bounded

  14. On the tectonic problems of the southern East China Sea and adjacent regions: Evidence from gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Luning; Zhang, Xunhua; Han, Bo; Du, Runlin

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two sets of gravity and magnetic data were used to study the tectonics of the southern East China Sea and Ryukyu trench-arc system: one data set was from the `Geological-geophysical map series of China Seas and adjacent areas' database and the other was newly collected by R/V Kexue III in 2011. Magnetic and gravity data were reorganized and processed using the software MMDP, MGDP and RGIS. In addition to the description of the anomaly patterns in different areas, deep and shallow structure studies were performed by using several kinds of calculation, including a spectrum analysis, upward-continuation of the Bouguer anomaly and horizontal derivatives of the total-field magnetic anomaly. The depth of the Moho and magnetic basement were calculated. Based on the above work, several controversial tectonic problems were discussed. Compared to the shelf area and Ryukyu Arc, the Okinawa Trough has an obviously thinned crust, with the thinnest area having thickness less than 14 km in the southern part. The Taiwan-Sinzi belt, which terminates to the south by the NW-SE trending Miyako fault belt, contains the relic volcanic arc formed by the splitting of the paleo Ryukyu volcanic arc as a result of the opening of the Okinawa Trough. As an important tectonic boundary, the strike-slip type Miyako fault belt extends northwestward into the shelf area and consists of several discontinuous segments. A forearc terrace composed of an exotic terrane collided with the Ryukyu Arc following the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. Mesozoic strata of varying thicknesses exist beneath the Cenozoic strata in the shelf basin and significantly influence the magnetic pattern of this area. The gravity and magnetic data support the existence of a Great East China Sea, which suggests that the entire southern East China Sea shelf area was a basin in the Mesozoic without alternatively arranged uplifts and depressions, and might have extended southwestward and connected with the

  15. Seismic exploration in Raton basin

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.K.; Rose, P.R.

    1985-05-01

    Exploration in the Raton basin has delineated complex mountain-front structure in the asymmetric basin, and defined possible basin-centered gas. Exploration has included subsurface and surface geology, remote sensing, and seismic reflection. The Raton basin is a north-south-trending structural basin straddling the Colorado-New Mexico boundary. It is bounded on the west by the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, on the north and northeast by the Wet Mountains and Apishapa arch, and the Sierra Grande uplift on the south and southeast. The basin is asymmetric with transcurrent faulting and thrusting associated with the steeper western flank of the basin. Rocks range from Devonian-Mississippian overlying Precambrian basement to Miocene volcanics associated with the Spanish Peaks. Principal targets include the Entrada, Dakota, Codell, and Trinidad Sandstones and the Purgatoire and Raton Formations. Seismic data include explosive and Vibroseis data. Data quality is good in the basin center and is fair in the thrusted areas. Correlations are difficult from line to line. However, a strike line in the disturbed area would probably be more disrupted by out-of-the-plane reflections than the dip lines would be. Significant stratigraphic changes are seen in both the Trinidad and Dakota intervals. Integrated seismic and geological studies are keys to exploration in the basin. Subsequent work will rely heavily on improved seismic information.

  16. Structure and geologic history of late Cenozoic Eel River basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.H. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    The Eel River basin formed as a late Cenozoic forearc basin floored by late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic allochthonous terranes (central and coastal belts of the Franciscan complex). Regionally, basement rocks are unconformably overlain on land by a sedimentary sequence as much as about 4200 m thick that comprises the Bear River Formation (early and middle Miocene) and the Wildcat Group (late Miocene to middle Pleistocene) and offshore by broadly coeval upper Tertiary and Quaternary deposits as much as 3300 m thick. Offshore, the southern part of the basin is typified by the seaward extensions of youthful northeast-dipping thrust and reverse faults and northwest-trending anticlines. The latest period of deformation in this part of the basin began during the middle Pleistocene and probably reflects north-northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and encroachment of the Pacific plate. Farther north, the western basin margin and adjacent upper continental slope are separated from the axial part of the offshore basin by a narrow zone of north-northwest-trending, right-stepping en echelon folds. These folds indicate that northeast-southwest compression characteristic of the southern part of the basin is accompanied toward the north by right-lateral shear between the accretionary complex to the west and the basin to the east. The northeastern margin of the offshore basin is cut by north to north-northwest-trending high-angle reverse faults that vertically offset basement rocks as much as 1300 m, west side down. These faults, which may merge northward, coincide with older terrane boundaries and locally show evidence of late Cenozoic reactivation with possible right-lateral slip.

  17. Can the South China Sea tell us anything about Canada Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Randell; Li, Lu

    2016-04-01

    The Canada Basin (a sub-basin within the Amerasia Basin) and the South China Sea both preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterised by broad continent-ocean transition zones with hyper-extended continental crust. There are indications that hyper-extension in the South China Sea occurred mainly as a result of flow within a weak lower crustal layer and that it occurred both before and after plate break-up and the onset of ocean lithosphere formation at the sea-floor spreading axis. Available geophysical data from Canada Basin permit similar inferences. Both basins are about the same size and the oceanic segment in both is about the same size. Seafloor spreading in the South China Sea took place in the Cenozoic whereas in Canada Basin it is widely believed to have occurred during the Cretaceous. Widespread magmatism expressed as the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP) may or may not have played an intrinsic, linked, role in Canada Basin formation. No similar LIP is associated with the South China Sea although one mechanism proposed to have driven its formation is ascribed to mantle plume activity in its northernmost part. More conventionally the mechanism of opening of the South China Sea is considered to be "passive" rather than "active", related to plate reconfigurations in the southeast Asia region linked or not linked to the nearby collision of India and Eurasia and/or subduction of a "proto-South China Sea". The driving mechanism for opening of Canada Basin is poorly discussed in the literature but is generally ascribed to paleo-tectonic plate reconfigurations and subduction in the northern Pacific (Eurasia-North America plates) region in the Mesozoic. Can the South China Sea tell us anything about Canada Basin in terms of the pre-existing lithosphere of each and the geodynamic processes leading to its hyper-extension and eventual break-up?

  18. Fluvial response to foreland basin overfilling; the Late Permian Rangal Coal Measures in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, C. R.; Falkner, A. J.; Scott, S. G.

    1993-05-01

    The latest Permian Rangal Coal Measures and equivalents accumulated during a phase of declining volcanism and active thrust loading in the complex retroarc foreland Bowen Basin in eastern Queensland, Australia. The unit was formed in predominantly alluvial environments which covered the entire Bowen Basin and it represents the final phase of coal formation in the basin. Large opencut mine exposures, mainly in the Blackwater area, have allowed the establishment of a facies scheme for the Rangal Coal Measures. Seven facies have been recognised on the basis of lithology, geometrical criteria and palaeocurrent relationships. (1) Sheet-like Sandstone Channel Bodies; (2) Laterally Accreted, Heterolithic Channel Bodies; (3) Levee (Proximal Overbank) Deposits; (4) Minor Crevasse Channel Fill; (5) Floodbasin; (6) Stagnant Lake Floor; and (7) Mire. Together, these constitute an array typical of alluvial, coal-bearing systems. The depositional style of the Rangal Coal Measure channels is unusual, and considered to be related to the periodic oversupply of coarse sediment to the system. Heterolithic channel fills (Facies 2), which comprise alternations of thinly interbedded sandstone/siltstone and sharp-bounded sandstone, formed under conditions of dramatically variable sediment supply. Such channel deposits, while formed dominantly by lateral accretion, were the product of only slightly sinuous streams (less than 1.5). Facies 1 sheet sandstones, however, are interpreted to have formed during times of sand oversupply to the basin, and were the product of low-sinuosity, probably braided streams. The overall character of the Rangals is considered a response to overfilling of the basin by immature, volcanic sediment released by the uplift of thrust sheets in the adjacent orogen.

  19. Distribution and source identification of trace metals in the sediment of Yellow River Estuary and the adjacent Laizhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Ling, Min; Liu, Ru-hai; Yu, Ping; Tang, Ai-kun; Luo, Xian-xiang; Ma, Qimin

    2017-02-01

    Rapid economic development in the Yellow River basin has inevitably resulted in increase of pollution in the estuary, and concern for both the environment and protection against pollutants is increasing. Contents of trace metals (Cu, Pb Zn, Cr, Cd, As, Hg), Fe, Al, total organic carbon (TOC), and their granulometry were determined in surface sediment samples from the Yellow River estuary and its adjacent areas. Metal contents were significantly correlated each other. Clay, TOC and heavy metal contents showed similar distribution characteristics, with concentrations increased from the land to the sea. The distribution of grain size plays an important role in influencing the distribution of trace metals. Heavy metal concentrations showed a significant relationship with Fe and Al content, while most heavy metals were not enriched. These results were also confirmed by the analysis of enrichment factors and principal component analysis of the metals. The metal content of the Yellow River Estuary sediments was similar to the content observed 20 years ago, but the concentrations of most metals in Laizhou Bay decreased. The decrease in the carrying sediment of the Yellow River might be responsible for this pattern.

  20. Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

  1. Lithospheric flexure and composite tectonic loads in the foreland of the Marathon orogenic belt: Permian Basin, west Texas and southern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kenn Ming; Dorobek, S. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Lithospheric flexure caused by loading of orogenic belts is regarded as the main process that produces subsidence in foreland basins. However in some foreland areas, subsidence may be affected by synorogenic foreland uplifts that act as additional loads. The Permian Basin is located in the foreland area of the late Paleozoic Marathon orogenic belt (Mob). The Permian Basin consists of several sub-basins that are separated by several structurally complex uplifts. Uplift of the Central Basin Platform (CBP) and subsidence in adjacent basins were coeval with final stages of deformation in the Marathon orogen. The CBP is oriented at high angles to the Marathon orogen and consists of several blocks arranged in an en echelon pattern. Data suggest that uplift of the CBP was affected by clockwise rotation of crustal blocks between NNW-SSE trending boundary faults. Although both the Delaware Basin (DB) and Val Verde Basin (VVB) are adjacent to the Mob, the synorogenic geometries of these basins are different. The VVB has a typical flexural profile that apparently is due to loading of the Marathon orogen. However, the flexural profile becomes narrower and deeper toward the western end of the VVB where the basin is bordered by the southernmost block of the CBP. In contrast, synorogenic DB profiles have composite wavelengths which show maximum deflection next to the Mob and toward the uplifted blocks of the CBP. This suggests that synorogenic subsidence of the DB was affected by loading of the CBP. In addition, the loading geometry across the uplifted CBP is asymmetric, with greater uplift and basement shortening on the western side of the CBP and less uplift and basement shortening on the eastern side. This may explain greater synorogenic subsidence in the DB than the Midland Basin.

  2. The linkage between longitudinal sediment routing systems and basin types in the northern South China Sea in perspective of source-to-sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Zhang, Cuimei; Xie, Xinong; Yu, Ho-Shing; Wang, Zhenfeng

    2015-11-01

    Using bathymetric and seismic data, this study describes the morpho-sedimentary features in Qiongdongnan basin and southwest Taiwan collision basin, northern South China Sea and reveals the linkages between sediment routing system and basin types. The modern Central Canyon in the Qiongdongnan basin is located along the rift margin, and subparallel to the shelf-break southeast of Hainan Island. The modern Central Canyon develops along the basin axis (i.e., Xisha Trough) and longitudinally transports sediments eastward which are mainly supplied by northern continental slope. The Penghu Canyon in the southwest Taiwan collision basin is located along the collision boundary parallel to the strike of the adjacent uplifted Taiwan orogen. The Penghu Canyon develops along the tilting basin axis transporting sediments longitudinally southward to the deep-sea basin and Manila Trench. The Penghu Canyon is supplied with sediments from both flank Kaoping and South China Sea slopes where tributary canyons and channels transport sediments down-slope and feed the axial canyon. The certain basin types may be occupied by particular styles of sediment routing system. By comparing the morpho-sedimentary features and basin characteristics associated with the modern Central Canyon to that of the Valencia Channel in NW Mediterranean Sea, the longitudinal sediment routing system in rift basin type can be determined. In contrast, the longitudinal sediment routing systems in collision setting can be represented by the comparable examples of Penghu Canyon in southwest Taiwan collision basin and Markham Canyon in western Solomon Sea. The rift type sediment routing system is characterized by an axial canyon with a single sediment supply from land drainage margin. In contrast, sediment routing system in collision type basins consists of an axial canyon and dual sediment supplies from flank adjacent slopes. The axial canyons in collision basins are more active than that of the rift basin due to

  3. 300 million years of basin evolution - the thermotectonic history of the Ukrainian Donbas Foldbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, C.; Danisik, M.; Sachsenhofer, R.; Frisch, W.; Privalov, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Ukrainian-Russian Pripyat-Dniepr-Donets Basin is a large intracratonic rift structure formed during the Late Devonian. It is situated at the southern margin of the Precambrian East European Craton, adjacent to the Hercynian Tethyan belt in the Black Sea area and the Alpine Caucasus orogen. With a sediment thickness of more than 20 km, it is one of the deepest sedimentary basins on earth. The eastern part of the Pripyat-Dniepr-Donets Basin - called Donbas foldbelt - is strongly folded and inverted. Proposed models of basin evolution are often controversial and numerous issues are still a matter of speculation, particularly the erosion history and the timing of basin inversion. Basin inversion may have taken place during the Permian related to the Uralian orogeny, or in response to Alpine tectonics during the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary. We investigated the low-temperature thermal history of the Donbas Foldbelt and the adjacent Ukrainian shield by a combination of zircon fission track, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology. Although apatite fission track ages of all sedimentary samples were reset shortly after deposition during the Carboniferous, we took advantage of the fact that samples contained kinetically variable apatites, which are sensitive to different temperatures. By using statistic-based component analysis incorporating physical properties of individual grains we identified several distinct age population, ranging from late Permian (~265 Ma) to the Late Cretaceous (70 Ma). We could thus constrain the thermal history of the Donbas Foldbelt and the adjacent basement during a ~300 Myr long time period. The Precambrian crystalline basement of the Ukrainian shield was affected by a Permo-Triassic thermal event associated with magmatic activity, which also strongly heated the sediments of the Donbas Foldbelt. The basement rocks cooled to near-surface conditions during the Early to Middle Triassic and since then was thermally

  4. Late Wisconsinan deglaciation styles of parts of the Contoocook, Souhegan, and Piscataquog drainage basins, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, C.T.; Moore, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    This report is the guidebook for the 56th annual meeting and field conference of the Friends of the Pleistocene, held May 22 and 23, 1993. Features were examined at 11 sites in the Contoocook, Souhegan, and Piscataquog Drainage Basins to illustrate the geologic history of this area, about 14,000 years ago, during the time of deglaciation. The Contoocook River Basin is the largest river basin that drains north in New Hampshire and is similar to northwardly draining parts of the Piscataquog and Souhegan River basins. During the retreat of the ice, the drainage divide between adjacent drainage basins acted as a dam and lakes formed behind it. As the ice continued to melt farther north, drainage outlets were uncovered at progressively lower altitudes along the drainage divide. This resulted in catastrophic draining of the lakes. Evidence for the existence of the lakes includes fine-grained lake-bottom deposits and deltas at successively lower elevations. Geomorphic evidence for the catastrophic draining includes Pulpit Rock in Bedford, N.H. and V-shaped notches eroded into till and bedrock. In Henniker, N.H., further evidence of catastrophic draining of a large lake in the Contoocook River Basin is a combination alluvial fan and delta that formed when rapidly draining lake water flowed across a till slope, eroded the till, and redeposited the material where it entered a smaller, much lower lake.

  5. Population subdivision in Siamese mud carp Henicorhynchus siamensis in the Mekong River basin: implications for management.

    PubMed

    Adamson, E A S; Hurwood, D A; Baker, A M; Mather, P B

    2009-10-01

    A molecular approach was employed to investigate stock structure in Siamese mud carp Henicorhynchus siamensis populations collected from 14 sites across mainland south-east Asia, with the major focus being the lower Mekong River basin. Spatial analysis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment (ATPase 6 and 8) identified four stocks in the Mekong River basin that were all significantly differentiated from a population in the nearby Khlong River, Thailand. In the Mekong River basin, populations in northern Lao People's Democratic Republic and northern Thailand represent two independent stocks, and samples from Thai tributaries group with those from adjacent Mekong sites above the Khone Falls to form a third stock. All sites below the Khone Falls constituted a single vast stock that includes Cambodia and the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. While H. siamensis is considered currently to undertake extensive annual migrations across the Mekong River basin, the data presented here suggest that natural gene flow may occur over much more restricted geographical scales within the basin, and hence populations may need to be managed at finer spatial scales than at the whole-of-drainage-basin level.

  6. Regional Stratigraphy and Petroleum Systems of the Illinois Basin, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    The publication combines data on Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the Illinois basin, U.S.A., in order to facilitate visualizing the stratigraphy on a regional scale and visualizing stratigraphic relations within the basin. Data are presented in eight schematic chronostratigraphic sections arranged approximately from north to south, with time denoted in equal increments along the sections, in addition to the areal extent of this structural basin. The stratigraphic data are modified from Hass (1956), Conant and Swanson (1961), Wilman and others (1975), American Association of Petroleum Geologists (1984, 1986), Olive and McDowell (1986), Shaver and others (1986), Thompson (1986), Mancini and others (1996), and Harrison and Litwin (1997). The time scale is taken from Gradstein and others (2004). Additional stratigraphic nomenclature is from Harland and others (1990), Babcock and others (2007), and Bergstrom and others (2008). Stratigraphic sequences as defined by Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963) also are included, as well as the locations of major petroleum source rocks and major petroleum plays. The stratigraphic units shown are colored according to predominant lithology, in order to emphasize general lithologic patterns and to provide a broad overview of the Illinois basin. For the purpose of comparison, three columns on the right show schematic depictions of stratigraphy and interpreted events in the Illinois basin and in the adjacent Michigan and Appalachian basins.

  7. Tectonic implications of Paleocene-Eocene Foreland Basin, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. ); Mann, P. )

    1993-02-01

    A compilation of industry geological and geophysical data indicates that Paleocene-Eocene clastic sedimentation in the Maracaibo basin records the first manifestation of Cenozoic foreland basin tectonics in northern South America. Isopach maps based on industry seismic data and well logs suggest that the Maracaibo foreland basin formed a 100 to 200 km wide elongate trough along the northeastern edge of the present-day Lake Maracaibo. The basin is asymmetric with a deep (7 km) northeastern margin adjacent to an exposed southwest-verging thrust belt mapped by previous workers. Isopach mapping of seven seismic units within the Eocene suggest a nor-northwest to southeast migration of the depocenter from Paleocene to Middle Eocene time at a rate of 0.6 cm/year. A similar style of foreland basin has been previously identified over a distance of 1000 Km from western central Venezuela to Trinidad. Eocene to Pliocene ages of foreland basin sedimentation in these areas suggest time transgressive, oblique collision of the Caribbean plate along the northern margin of South America. Comparison of the age of deformation along both the northern and southern edges of the pro-Caribbean plate yield reasonable estimates for the rate of relative motion of this small plate relative to the larger America plates.

  8. Paleoproterozoic basin development and sedimentation in the Lake Superior region, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Southwick, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The peneplaned Archean craton in the Lake Superior region was the platform upon which a continental margin assemblage was deposited. Extension resulted in localized rifts that received thicker accumulations of sediments and volcanic rocks than did adjacent parts of the platform. Seas transgressed onto the continent several times and an ocean basin opened south of the present-day Lake Superior. Island arcs that formed during subduction collided with the craton margin as the ocean basin closed; oceanic crust is poorly preserved as a dismembered ophiolite sequence. The arc volcanics are preserved as the Wisconsin magmatic terranes. The collision resulted in a fold-and-thrust belt known as the Penokean orogen. To the north of the fold-and-thrust belt, a northward-migrating foreland basin - the Animikie basin - developed. Thick turbidite successions were deposited along the basin axis, and terrigenous clastics and Lake Superior-type iron-formation were deposited on the shelf along the northern margin of the basin. The primary paleoclimatic indicators are: (1) glaciogenic rocks at the base of the Paleoproterozoic succession in Michigan indicating ice-house conditions; 2) remnants of a paleosol on the glaciogenic rocks indicative of deep weathering, probably under subtropical conditions and therefore of greenhouse conditions; and (3) carbonate minerals after gypsum, halite, and anhydrite in stromatolitic dolomite, indicative of aridity. Three second-order depositional sequences are bounded by major unconformities, and can be correlated throughout the Lake Superior region. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying the groundwater basin boundaries, using environmental isotopes: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiroğlu, Muhterem

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater, which is renewable under current climatic conditions separately from other natural sources, in fact is a finite resource in terms of quality and fossil groundwater. Researchers have long emphasized the necessity of exploiting, operating, conserving and managing groundwater in an efficient and sustainable manner with an integrated water management approach. The management of groundwater needs reliable information about changes on groundwater quantity and quality. Environmental isotopes are the most important tools to provide this support. No matter which method we use to calculate the groundwater budget and flow equations, we need to determine boundary conditions or the physical boundaries of the domain. The Groundwater divide line or basin boundaries that separate the two adjacent basin recharge areas from each other must be drawn correctly to be successful in defining complex groundwater basin boundary conditions. Environmental isotope data, as well as other methods provide support for determining recharge areas of the aquifers, especially for karst aquifers, residence time and interconnections between aquifer systems. This study demonstrates the use of environmental isotope data to interpret and correct groundwater basin boundaries giving as an example the Yeniçıkrı basin within the main Sakarya basin.

  10. Interactions between ground water and surface water in the Suwannee River basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; DeHan, R.S.; Hirten, J.J.; Catches, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water and surface water constitute a single dynamic system in roost parts of the Suwannee River basin due to the presence of karat features that facilitate the interaction between the surface and subsurface. Low radon-222 concentrations (below background levels) and enriched amounts of oxygen-18 and deuterium in ground water indicate mixing with surface water in parts of the basin. Comparison of surface water and regional ground water flow patterns indicate that boundaries for ground water basins typically do not coincide with surface water drainage subbasins. There are several areas in the basin where ground water flow that originates outside of the Suwannee River basin crosses surface water basin boundaries during both low-flow and high-flow conditions. In a study area adjacent to the Suwannee River that consists predominantly of agricultural land use, 18 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer and 7 springs were sampled three times during 1990 through 1994 for major dissolved inorganic constituents, trace elements, and nutrients. During a period of above normal rainfall that resulted in high river stage and high ground water levels in 1991, the combination of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and decreased levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water created conditions favorable for the natural reduction of nitrate by denitrification reactions in the aquifer. As a result, less nitrate was discharged by ground water to the Suwannee River.

  11. Venezuela Basin crustal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J. B.; Stoffa, P. L.; Buhl, P.; Truchan, M.

    1981-09-01

    Velocity-depth profiles derived from six two-ship expanding spread experiments, in combination with other geophysical data, define the characteristics of two distinct types of Venezuela Basin crust and the boundary between them. Each two-ship common midpoint reflection/refraction profile is automatically transformed into the τ-p plane, `picked' and interpreted to provide V(Z) functions with appropriate confidence bounds. The results, together with gravity, magnetic, and near-vertical incidence reflection data, reveal a 50,000 km2 triangle of Venezuela Basin crust which resembles normal oceanic crust in a magnetic quiet zone. North and west of this triangle lies the previously defined, thick `Caribbean' crust, having two distinct layers above the M discontinuity. Acoustic basement there appears unusually smooth due to extensive basaltic sills and flows which were cored at Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 146/149(sills), and 150 (flows); also, depths to mantle are greater than normal. Interpretations of near-vertical and wide-angle reflection data show that the extra crustal thickness is due not only to the emplacement of the flows but also to the crust below being somewhat thicker than normal. The boundary between the two crustal areas has a NE-SW trend which parallels the dominant structural and magnetic lineations.This boundary coincides in position, though not in trend, with the previously defined `central Venezuela Basin fault zone'. Further study is required to determine whether this boundary is of tectonic origin or if it represents a change in style of crustal production.

  12. Factors predisposing to adjacent 2 and 3:1 disjunctions: study of 161 human reciprocal translocations.

    PubMed Central

    Jalbert, P; Sele, B

    1979-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations produce imbalances by three types of disjunction which are, in decreasing frequency, adjacent 1, 3:1, and adjacent 2. Adjacent 1 disjunction produces duplication deficiencies of inverse topography to those of adjacent 2. The imbalanced chromosome segments in one of these types are balanced in the other. The disjunction 3:1 produces pure trisomies and monosomies. The following situations predispose to adjacent 2 disjunction: translocations between the long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes or between one of these and that of a No 9 chromosome; centric segments, either short or carrying a heterochromatic zone (9qh); a balanced translocation in the mother. The factors predisposing to the disjunction adjacent 2 operate by selection, or directly on the meiotic configuration. Some of them (shortness of the interstitial segment, shortness of the short arms of translocation chromosomes) act in both these ways. Their influence is probably responsible for the repetitive and exclusive character of this disjunction. The conditions for the occurrence of the 3:1 disjunctions seem less strict than those for adjacent 2, although they should be of the same nature (involvement of acrocentrics or a chromosome 9 in the translocation, maternal origin). Images PMID:395305

  13. Erosional landform map of the Redwood Creek drainage basin, Humboldt County, California, 1947-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K.M.; Harden, D.M.; Colman, Steven M.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides and actively eroding stream channels disrupt roads, damage valuable timberland, and increase stream sediment loads in northwestern California. This 1:62,500 photointerpretative map shows the distribution of ten common types of fluvial and mass-movement erosional landforms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek in 1947 and 1974. The mapped landforms include slides, slumps, large compound earthflows, debris avalanches, unstable streambanks and adjacent hillslopes, small mass-movement features, questionable or inactive landslides, deeply incised amphitheater shaped drainage basins, small actively eroding water courses, and actively eroding main channel stream banks. The map legend describes these landforms and the techniques used in preparing the map. The amount and diversity of erosional activity increased greatly between 1947 and 1974. This increased activity apparently reflects major floods in 1953, 1955, 1964, and 1972, as well as the start of large scale, tractor-yarded clearcut timber harvest in the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-01-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity of scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings--rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types--depositional and diagenetic--with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement. Ramp reservoirs were almost always found in Zone Y, while shelf reservoirs were most common in the grainstone shoals associated with rim or island-crest facies, or their dolomitized equivalents. Reservoirs associated with basinal evaporites were also depositional or diagenetic. Depositional reservoirs were almost all related to topography present during deposition of the carbonates in the basin, often immediately preceding or just beginning evaporitic conditions in the basin.

  15. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; He, Dengfa; Qi, Xuefeng

    2016-04-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  16. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (ΔW = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) < 0). Downstream of Orkhon river (below confluence with Tuul) ΔW = - 1145 t/day. Below Selenga-Orkhon confluence sediment yield reached 2515 t/day, which is corresponded to transboundary sediment flux. Silt sediments (0,001 - 0,05 mm) form the main portion of the transported material. The maximal value of sand flux (302 t/day) was reported for middle stream station of Selenga river (upstream from confluence with Orkhon). The increase of human activities (mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of

  17. Potentials and limits to basin stability estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Paul; Menck, Peter J.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Stability assessment methods for dynamical systems have recently been complemented by basin stability and derived measures, i.e. probabilistic statements whether systems remain in a basin of attraction given a distribution of perturbations. Their application requires numerical estimation via Monte Carlo sampling and integration of differential equations. Here, we analyse the applicability of basin stability to systems with basin geometries that are challenging for this numerical method, having fractal basin boundaries and riddled or intermingled basins of attraction. We find that numerical basin stability estimation is still meaningful for fractal boundaries but reaches its limits for riddled basins with holes.

  18. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-02-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity or scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings - rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types - depositional and diagenetic - with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement.

  19. New Light on Old Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, C. A.; Collins, M. J. S.

    2011-03-01

    Great resolution and homogeneity of LRO WAC mosaics and LOLA altimetry suggest that Moscoviense sits in an older basin, explaining its thin crust and mare lavas, Orientale and SPA overlap older basins, and Wilhelms and McCauley were right about Imbrium.

  20. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  1. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  2. Using Sequential Kinematic and Thermochronometric Modeling to Temporally and Spatially Link Thrust Belt Exhumation with Basin Development in the Bolivian Fold-Thrust-Belt-Foreland Basin System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, A. J.; McQuarrie, N.

    2014-12-01

    Applying isostasy and erosion to sequentially deformed balanced cross sections links the growth of hinterland structures to the developing foreland basins (FB) adjacent to fold-thrust belts (FTB), adding geologic constraints to modeled exhumation pathways. We sequentially deform the Rio Beni cross section in northern Bolivia (McQuarrie et al., 2008) with kinematic modeling software Move. In our model, topography evolves and basins develop for each model step as deformation, erosion, and isostasy are applied; and are a direct function of the geometry and kinematics of the cross section. The model is constrained by the depth of the foreland and hinterland basins, geology present at the surface, the depth and angle of the decollement, and the shape of the modern observed topography. Topography develops as thrusting occurs and loads the crust, producing a flexural wave and creating accommodation space in adjacent basins. Erosion of material above a newly generated topographic profile unloads the section while basin space is filled. Once the model sufficiently duplicates geologic constraints, a 0.5 km X 0.5 km grid of unique points is deformed with the model and used to determine displacement vectors for each 10 km shortening step. These displacement vectors, in conjunction with a prescribed time interval for each step, determine a velocity field that can be used in a modified version of the advection diffusion modeling software Pecube. Cooling ages predicted using this method are based on deformation rates, geometry, topography, and thermal parameters, and offer insight into possible rates of deformation, erosion, and deposition throughout FTB and FB development. Incorporating erosion, deposition, and isostasy in sequentially deformed balanced cross sections highlights the spatiotemporal aspects of sedimentary wedge propagation, identifies necessary external negative buoyancy affects, and provides additional geologic constraints to modeled exhumation pathways.

  3. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  4. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an...

  5. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  6. 7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND INTERNAL POLICE POST, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley off U.S. Highway 395, 6 miles South of Independence, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  7. Divergent parasite faunas in adjacent populations of West Greenland caribou: suggested natural and anthropogenic influences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal parasite diversity was characterized for two adjacent populations of west Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) through examinations of abomasa and small intestines of adult and subadult females collected during late winter. Three trichostrongyline (Trichostrongylina: ...

  8. 5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards west. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Y Trestle, South side of Monongahela River between Thirty-fourth & Twenty-ninth Streets, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    spring. In irrigated areas near uplands or major rivers, the annual recharge rate may be about 1.2 ? 10-3 meters per year; however, in areas at lower altitude with little irrigation, the recharge rate may average about 0.7 ? 10-3 meters per year. With increasing population, the water needs of the Kabul Basin are estimated to increase from 112,000 cubic meters per day to about 725,000 cubic meters per day by the year 2057. In some areas of the basin, particularly in the north along the western mountain front and near major rivers, water resources are generally adequate for current needs. In other areas of the basin, such as in the east and away from major rivers, the available water resources may not meet future needs. On the basis of the model simulations, increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels that may cause more than 50 percent of shallow (typically less than 50 meters deep) supply wells to become dry or inoperative. The water quality in the shallow (less than 100 meters thick), unconsolidated primary aquifer has deteriorated in urban areas because of poor sanitation. Concerns about water availability may be compounded by poor well-construction practices and lack of planning. Future water resources of the Kabul Basin will likely be reduced as a result of increasing air temperatures associated with global climate change. It is estimated that at least 60 percent of shallow groundwater-supply wells would be affected and may become dry or inoperative as a result of climate change. These effects of climate change would likely be greatest in the agricultural areas adjacent to the Paghman Mountains where a majority of springs, karezes, and wells would be affected. The water available in the shallow primary aquifer of the basin may meet future water needs in the northern areas of the Kabul Basin near the Panjsher River. Conceptual groundwater-flow simulations indicate that the basin likely has groundwater reserves in unused unconsolidate

  10. Minimally invasive treatment for esthetic enhancement of white spot lesion in adjacent tooth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the treatment provided to a patient with the maxillary anterior teeth exhibiting severe secondary caries beneath the previous restoration and a white spot lesion on the adjacent incisor. Two implants were placed after extraction of hopeless teeth with the guided bone regeneration technique. A white spot lesion of the adjacent incisor was treated with minimally invasive treatment. This clinical report describes the multidisciplinary treatment for the white spot lesion and esthetic restoration of missing anterior teeth. PMID:24049579

  11. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  12. Seismic-stratigraphic framework of the forearc basin off central Sumatra, Sunda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudry, Desiree; Moore, Gregory F.

    1981-06-01

    New multichannel seismic reflection data provide information on the stratigraphic framework and geologic history of the forearc basin west of central Sumatra. We recognize six seismic-stratigraphic sequences that reflect the Cenozoic history and development of the outer continental shelf and forearc basin southeast of Nias Island. These sequences indicate several episodes of uplift of the subduction complex and filling of the forearc basin. Early in the development of this margin, Paleogene slope deposits prograded onto the adjacent basin floor. Onlapping this assemblage are two units interpreted as younger Paleogene(?) trough deposits. Uplift associated with rejuvenation of subduction in the late Oligocene led to erosion of the Sumatra shelf and formation of a regional unconformity. The early Miocene was a period of significant progradation. A Miocene limestone unit partly downlaps and partly onlaps the older Paleogene deposits. It is characterized by shallow shelf and oblique progradational facies passing into basin floor facies. A buried reef zone occurs near the shelf edge. The cutting of an erosional unconformity on the shelf and slope in late Miocene/early Pliocene time culminated this episode of deposition. In the late Pliocene, a large flexure developed at the western boundary of the basin, displacing the outer-arc ridge upward relative to the basin. Over 1 km of Pliocene to Recent sediment was deposited as a wedge in the deep western portion of the basin landward of the outer-arc ridge. These deposits are characterized by flat-lying, high-amplitude, continuous reflections that overstep the late Miocene unconformity. Up to 800 m of shallow-water limestone have been deposited on the shelf since mid-Pliocene time.

  13. Evaluation of the seismicity of the southern Great Basin and its relationship to the tectonic framework of the region

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.M.; Harmsen, S.C.; Meremonte, M.E.

    1987-12-31

    Seismograph network recordings of local and regional earthquakes are being collected in the southern Great Basin to aid in the evaluation of the seismic hazard at a potential high-level radioactie waste repository site at Yucca Mountain in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. Data for 1522 earthquakes for the calendar years 1982 and 1983 are reported herein. In the period August, 1978 through December, 1983, 2800 earthquakes were located within and adjacent to the southern Great Basin seismograph network. Earthquake hypocenters, selected focal mechanisms, and other inferred seismicity characteristics are presented and discussed in relation to the local and regional geologic framework. 105 refs., 94 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Qi, X.; Zheng, M.

    2015-12-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  15. MOLA Topography of Impact Basins in the Northern Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Roark, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    Coverage of the northern hemisphere of Mars by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) during the aerobraking hiatus and the two Science Phasing Operation periods provides improved definition and characterization of large impact basins. Gridded MOLA data show the Utopia Basin has a pronounced bowl-like structure, as opposed to the interior rises suggested by the earlier USGS DEM. The elevation structure is concentric about the basin center as mapped by McGill. In particular, the proposed inner ring closely follows the -4 km contour over much of the southern, western and northwestern sides. Higher topography along portions of the dichotomy boundary aligns with the basin's outer ring. High topography in the polar region also occurs where the outer ring should lie, raising the possibility that perhaps some of the polar topography is due to basin structure as well as ice. Two MOLA passes near Phison Rupes provide evidence for a large "stealth" hole where Viking imagery show little evidence of any major structure. The 2 km deep, 600 km wide depression at 31OW, 3ON is as large as the Cassini impact basin 1000 km to the SW. While Cassini is easily recognized in image data, the "MOLA Hole" is not. If this depression is a deeply eroded and buried impact basin (as perhaps suggested by a decrease in the crater density and somewhat smoother terrain than in adjacent areas), it is not clear why it has managed to maintain its great depth. In Tempe at the dichotomy boundary a 300 km wide impact basin is revealed by pronounced bowl-like topography centered at 87W, 47N, even though only about 1/3 of the basin rim structure is obvious. The basin lies on a sloping boundary zone, with the more buried N rim up to 2 km below the rugged S rim. A similar N-S asymmetry in basin ring structure occurs for the much larger Isidis Basin, where the S rim rises 6 km but the subdued N rim rises barely 2 km above the floor. There is essentially no topographic expression of the main ring in the NE

  16. Sources, distributions and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Canada and Makarov Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald; Robbins, Lisa L.; Wynn, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was conducted in the Canada and Makarov Basins and adjacent seas during 2010–2012 to investigate the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Arctic Ocean. Sources and distributions of DOM in polar surface waters were very heterogeneous and closely linked to hydrological conditions. Canada Basin surface waters had relatively low DOC concentrations (69 ± 6 μmol L−1), CDOM absorption (a325: 0.32 ± 0.07 m−1) and CDOM-derived lignin phenols (3 ± 0.4 nmol L−1), and high spectral slope values (S275–295: 31.7 ± 2.3 μm−1), indicating minor terrigenous inputs and evidence of photochemical alteration in the Beaufort Gyre. By contrast, surface waters of the Makarov Basin had elevated DOC (108 ± 9 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (15 ± 3 nmol L−1), high a325 values (1.36 ± 0.18 m−1), and low S275–295 values (22.8 ± 0.8 μm−1), indicating pronounced Siberian river inputs associated with the Transpolar Drift and minor photochemical alteration. Observations near the Mendeleev Plain suggested limited interactions of the Transpolar Drift with Canada Basin waters, a scenario favoring export of Arctic DOM to the North Atlantic. The influence of sea-ice melt on DOM was region-dependent, resulting in an increase (Beaufort Sea), a decrease (Bering-Chukchi Seas), and negligible change (deep basins) in surface DOC concentrations and a325 values. Halocline structures differed between basins, but the Canada Basin upper halocline and Makarov Basin halocline were comparable in their average DOC (65–70 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (3–4 nmol L−1) and S275–295 values (22.9–23.7 μm−1). Deep-water DOC concentrations decreased by 6–8 μmol L−1 with increasing depth, water mass age, nutrient concentrations, and apparent oxygen utilization. Maximal estimates of DOC degradation rates (0.036–0.039 μmol L−1

  17. Stochastic Variations in Transport Capacity and its Role in 'Long- Runout' Gravel Progradation in Alluvial Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelder, T. M.; Pelletier, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers requires a critical shear stress. Several recent studies have used the critical shear stress criterion, together with measurements of median grain size and channel depth in ancient fluvial deposits, to infer the paleoslopes of alluvial basins in the western United States. In some applications of this method, inferred paleoslopes are sufficiently large that tectonic tilting must be invoked in order for the sediments to have been transported to their present locations. In this paper, we evaluate the robustness of the paleoslope-estimation method within the context of a coupled numerical model for the postorogenic topographic decay of a mountain belt coupled to a coarse-grained foreland sedimentary basin. In the model, critical slopes for entrainment are varied stochastically in time (to represent fluctuations in flow depth and local deviations from an equilibrium channel geometry) with a lognormal distribution characterized by a constant mean and variance equal to the values measured in a large dataset of gravel bed rivers in North America. The model shows that when critical slope values vary stochastically, foreland basin sediments can persistently prograde at slopes far below the minimum value predicted by paleoslope-estimation theory. As such, the model suggests that coarse-grained 'long-runout' gravels do not necessarily require steep slopes to form, especially in hydroclimatic regions characterized by flashy discharges, climatic changes, local deviations from channel equilibrium, and in cases when deposition occurs over long spans of geologic time. The model also suggests that postorogenic topographic decay is characterized by three distinct phases: an initial phase characterized by knickpoint retreat in the mountain belt and proximal deposition in the adjacent foreland basin (lasting ~5 Myr), a second phase in which erosion and deposition balance to maintain a constant basin aspect ratio (~5 to 10 Myr) and a third phase

  18. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  19. Large-scale Quaternary detachments in Ventura Basin, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeats, Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    The Ventura basin is an east-north-east trending trough in the California Transverse Ranges which records major Quaternary detachment faulting at three levels. The earliest thrusting occurred along weak siltstone interbeds in a sequence dominated by competent basin-plain turbidite sandstone. Because sedimentation continued during thrusting, the age, rate, and direction of thrusting can be worked out. Faulting began 1.3 m.y. ago and ceased 0.65 m.y. ago, with a maximum slip rate of 2.8 mm/yr to the southeast. The fault set moved up a 45° ramp and ended as a blind thrust. The ramp had topographic expression on the seafloor, diverting turbidites around the ramp and preserving ash beds along with other hemipelagic sediments on its crest. Following the end of deposition 0.2 m.y. ago, the competent basin-plain turbidites underwent flexural slip folding over an incompetent Miocene sequence dominated by shale; underlying competent Paleogene strata were not folded. The south flank of the Ventura Avenue anticline tilted at 3.4 μrad/yr, the anticlinal crest rose at a rate of 15-16 mm/yr decelerating to 4.3-5.2 mm/yr, and the anticline and an adjacent syncline shortened at a rate of 20 mm/yr. The high rate of folding in the Ventura Avenue oil field resulted in overpressured sandstone reservoirs and oil-water interfaces which have not had time to reach gravity equilibrium. The Red Mountain, San Cayetano, and Santa Susana faults mark the surface expression of a seismically active midcrustal detachment which produced convergence across the Ventura basin at rates as high as 23 mm/yr. Total convergence across the eastern San Cayetano fault near Fillmore is 11,600±2000 m in the last million years.

  20. Reconstructing vanished ocean basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Sdrolias, M.; Gaina, C.

    2006-05-01

    The large-scale patterns of mantle convection are mainly dependent on the history of subduction. Therefore some of the primary constraints for subduction models are given by of the location of subduction zones through time, and of the convergence vectors and age of subducted lithosphere. This requires the complete reconstruction of ocean floor through time, including the main ocean basins, back-arc basins, and now subducted ocean crust, and tying these kinematic models to geodynamic simulations. We reconstruct paleo- oceans by creating "synthetic plates", the locations and geometry of which is established on the basis of preserved ocean crust (magnetic lineations and fracture zones), geological data, paleogeography, and the rules of plate tectonics. We use a merged moving hotspot (Late Cretaceous-present) and palaeomagnetic/fixed hotspot (Early Cretaceous) reference frame, coupled with reconstructed spreading histories of the Pacific, Phoenix and Farallon plates and the plates involved in the Tethys oceanic domain. Based on this approach we have created a set of global oceanic paleo-isochrons and paleo-oceanic age grids. The grids also provide the first complete global set of paleo-basement depth maps, including now subducted ocean floor, for the last 130 million years based on a depth-age relationship. We show that the mid-Cretaceous sealevel highstand was primarily caused by two main factors: (1) the "supercontinent breakup effect", which resulted in the creation of the mid-Atlantic and Indian Ocean ridges at the expense of subducting old ocean floor in the Tethys and (2) by a changing age-area distribution of Pacific ocean floor through time, resulting from the subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi, Pacific-Phoenix and Pacific-Farallon ridges. These grids provide model constraints for subduction dynamics through time and represent a framework for backtracking biogeographic and sediment data from ocean drilling and for constraining the opening/closing of oceanic

  1. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  2. Late cenozoic uplift of the southwestern colorado plateau and adjacent lower colorado river region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, I.

    1979-01-01

    Rocks deposited near sea level under marine, estuarine, and lacustrine conditions, and located along the course of the lower Colorado River from the mouth of the Grand Canyon as far as the Mexican border, have been displaced to present positions as high as 880 m a.s.l. and as low as 1600 m b.s.l. The rocks include the marine and estuarine Bouse Formation and the lacustrine or marine Hualapai Limestone Member of the Muddy Creek Formation. A profile joining spot elevations that represent the highest erosional remnants of these rocks preserved at any one locality gives an approximation (in most cases a minimum value) for the uplift or downdropping of the region relative to sea level since about 5.5 m.y. ago, the K/Ar age of the most widespread and critical unit. The profile shows that most of the lower Colorado region has risen at least 550 m through broad and rather uniform upwarping and at an average rate of about 100 m/m.y. In addition to these 550 m, the nearby Colorado Plateau has risen by discrete movement along Wheeler fault, which is parallel to and about 8 km west of the plateau's edge, to a total uplift of at least 880 m, at a rate that may be as high as 160 m/m.y. Before warping and faulting, the top of the plateau was about 1100 m above the fill of adjacent basins; the top of this fill probably was at or a little below sea level. p]The profile shows two major south-facing rises in slope. The bigger one, near Yuma, occurs where the profile intersects the northwest-trending San Andreas-Salton trough system of faults; it is interpreted as rifting resulting from transcurrent movement along the faults. At the Mexican border, the base of the Bouse Formation is 1600 m b.s.l., which corresponds to a rate of subsidence since the beginning of Bouse time that may be as high as 290 m/.m.y. The top of the Bouse is at 1000 m b.s.l., corresponding to a rate of subsidence of about 180 m/m.y. In this area, the "older marine sedimentary rocks" of Olmsted et al., (1973

  3. Response of ground-water levels of flood control operations in three basins, south-eastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Three basins in southeastern Florida were investigated to determine the changes in ground-water levels and canal flows that occurred in response to operation of coastal water-control structures in each canal. All three basins are underlain by the Biscayne aquifer. They are, Snapper Creek Canal basin, where the Biscayne aquifer is of high permeability; the Snake Creek Canal basin, where the aquifer is of moderate permeability; and the Pompano-Cypress Canal basin, where the aquifer is of low permeability. In each basin, drainage is a function of permeability; thus, where the permeability of the aquifer is high, drainage is excellent. The coastal water-conrol structures are intended to afford flood protection in the three basins. In general the control operation criteria for flood control in newly developing areas in southeastern Florida do not provide adequate protection from flooding because of the time required for the aquifer to respond to changes in the controls. Adequate protection would require increasing the density of secondary drainage canals, but this could achieved only by reducing the quantity of water available for recharging those segments of the Biscayne aquifer adjacent to the canals. (Woodrad-USGS)

  4. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Ustyurt Basin, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    system area; therefore, the oil could have migrated from the adjacent North Caspian basin. The North Ustyurt Jurassic Total Petroleum System encompasses the rest of the basin area and includes Jurassic and younger rocks. Several oil and gas fields have been discovered in this total petroleum system. Oil accumulations are in Jurassic clastic reservoirs, in structural traps at depths of 2.5?3 km. Source rocks for the oil are lacustrine beds and coals in the continental Jurassic sequence. Gas fields are in shallow Eocene sandstones in the northern part of the total petroleum system. The origin of the gas is unknown. The North Ustyurt Paleozoic Total Petroleum System stratigraphically underlies the North Ustyurt Jurassic system and occupies the same geographic area. The total petroleum system is almost unexplored. Two commercial flows of gas and several oil and gas shows have been tested in Carboniferous shelf carbonates in the eastern part of the total petroleum system. Source rocks probably are adjacent Carboniferous deep-water facies interpreted from seismic data. The western extent of the total petroleum system is conjectural. Almost all exploration drilling in the North Ustyurt basin has been limited to Jurassic and younger targets. The underlying Paleozoic-Triassic sequence is poorly known and completely unexplored. No wells have been drilled in offshore parts of the basin. Each of three total petroleum systems was assessed as a single assessment unit. Undiscovered resources of the basin are small to moderate. Most of the undiscovered oil probably will be discovered in Jurassic and Neocomian stratigraphic and structural traps on the Buzachi arch, especially on its undrilled off-shore extension. Most of the gas discoveries are expected to be in Paleozoic carbonate reservoirs in the eastern part of the basin.

  5. Testing wetland axioms at a watershed scale: Case studies of the aggregate hydrologic effects of non-adjacent wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands not adjacent to streams (i.e. “non-adjacent wetlands”) are hypothesized to affect downgradient hydrology in a number of ways. Non-adjacent wetlands may, for example, attenuate peak flows, serve as focal points for groundwater recharge, and decrease streamflow...

  6. The Amazon basin in transition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-18

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  7. Sedimentary and crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios for the NE Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions based on dense seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilai; Wu, Jianping; Fang, Lihua; Lai, Guijuan; Cai, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The sedimentary and crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios of the NE Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions are estimated by the h- κ stacking and CCP image of receiver functions from the data of 1,317 stations. The horizontal resolution of the obtained results is as high as 0.5° × 0.5°, which can be used for further high resolution model construction in the region. The crustal thicknesses from Airy's equilibrium are smaller than our results in the Sichuan Basin, Qilian tectonic belt, northern Alxa block and Qaidam Basin, which is consistent with the high densities in the mantle lithosphere and may indicate that the high-density lithosphere drags crust down overall. High Poisson's ratios and low velocity zones are found in the mid- and lower crust beneath eastern Qilian tectonic belt and the boundary areas of the Ordos block, indicating that partial melting may exist in these regions. Low Poisson's ratios and low-velocity anomalies are observed in the crust in the NE Tibetan Plateau, implying that the mafic lower crust is thinning or missing and that the mid- and lower crust does not exhibit melting or partial melting in the NE Tibetan Plateau, and weak flow layers are not likely to exist in this region.

  8. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  9. Catastrophic erosion of Hellas basin rim on Mars induced by magmatic intrusion into volatile-rich rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Kargel, J.S.; MacKinnon, D.J.; Hare, T.M.; Hoffman, N.

    2002-01-01

    Malea and Hesperia Plana form large sectors of the rim of Hellas basin that display partly eroded volcanic shields and plains. These regions have topographic profiles that appear to be several hundred meters lower than those of adjacent rim sectors and lack prominent massifs of remnant basement that would be expected to stand above the lava plains. We interpret that before the volcanic edifices were constructed, these regions were denuded by an early stage of voluminous sill intrusion into friable, volatile-rich impact breccia. Magma-volatile interactions may have resulted in catastrophic generation of debris flows deposited into the adjacent basin, particularly if CO2 were involved. Later, lavas covered the eroded terrain; in turn, the lavas were eroded locally by volatile interactions. Across Mars, huge channel systems, erosional features in volcanic terranes, and vast layered deposits may be due to magma-volatile interactions.

  10. Water resources of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and adjacent areas, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.; White, Robert R.; Orr, Brennon R.; Roybal, R. Gary

    1981-01-01

    The Rincon and Mesilla Valleys of New Mexico extend from Caballo Reservoir to El Paso del Norte, west of El Paso, Texas. Water supplies for this area are obtained from the Rio Grande and from the saturated sediments filling the intermontane basins of south-central New Mexico. The two major aquifers are the Santa Fe Group of Miocene to middle Pleistocene age and the flood-plain alluvium of late Pleistocene and Holocene age. The Santa Fe Group is composed of thick deposits of interbedded clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The flood-plain alluvium, generally less than 80 feet thick, is composed of a basal gravel layer overlain by interbedded sand, silt, and clay. In the Rincon Valley, the flood-plain alluvium is the principal source of ground water because the underlying Santa Fe is composed predominantly of lacustrine clay deposits. In the Mesilla Valley, thick deposits of fluvial sands and gravels in the Santa Fe Group are hydraulically connected with the flood-plain alluvium. Water-table conditions occur in the flood-plain alluvium, which is recharged primarily by infiltration of surface water from the Rio Grande, irrigation canals, and irrigated fields. Recharge to the Santa Fe Group occurs primarily from downward infiltration of water from the flood-plain alluvium and secondarily from runoff infiltrating upland sediments and mountain-front fan deposits. In the short term, the Santa Fe Group responds as a leaky confined aquifer due to the presence of interbedded clays that reduce vertical permeability. Aquifer tests Were conducted on 58 wells and test holes, most of which were completed in the Santa Fe Group. Transmissivities range from 1.3 to 21,100 feet squared per day. Average well yields range from about 1,050 gallons per minute in the Rincon Valley to about 1,500 gallons per minute in the Mesilla Valley. Yields in the Jornada del Muerto generally are much smaller. Movement of ground water is generally southward in the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and toward the

  11. A study of models and controls for basin formation during continental collision: (1) Australian lithosphere along Banda orogen (Indonesia) and (2) Alboran Sea basin (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, Kush

    Mechanisms for the formation of a foreland basin at the beginning of continental collision (Pliocene-Recent Australian continental foreland along the Banda orogen) and a post-orogenic, continental, Miocene extensional basin (Alboran Sea) are studied. Such a study investigates the controls on the basin formation during the start of the Wilson cycle and later during the break up of a thickened continent in a collisional environment. Effective Elastic Thickness (EET) of the Australian continental lithosphere from Roti to the Kai Plateau ({˜}121sp°{-}137sp°E longitude) are estimated using an elastic-half beam model to match the sea floor bathymetry and the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Range of constant EET values from 27-75 km across the shelf of Australian lithosphere shows a variation of 64% with the highest value in the vicinity of central Timor where the collision is most advanced. Downdip on the Australian continental lithosphere from shelf to beneath the Banda orogen, the reduction in EET is from ˜90 km-˜30 km (66%). Variations in EET can be explained by inelastic yielding (brittle and plastic failure, crust-mantle decoupling in the lower crust and brittle-ductile decoupling in the upper-middle crust) in the Australian lithosphere. Change in EET occurred at the start of continental subduction due to change in curvature, both in map and cross-sectional view. Oroclinal bending of the continental Australian lithosphere increased the inelastic failure in the eastern end. Different mechanisms of basin formation at a site of post-orogenic collapse are studied by constraining the timing of rifting in the western, eastern, and northern parts of the Alboran Sea basin on seismic reflectors via synthetic seismograms using ODP Leg 161 and Andalucia A-1 data. Regions of adjacent coeval compression and extension are found in the Alboran Sea basin. Normal faulting continues in parts of the eastern Alboran Sea basin later than in the western Alboran Sea basin. The development

  12. Evaluation of ground-water contribution to streamflow in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priest, Sherlyn

    2004-01-01

    Stream-aquifer relations in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina were evaluated as part of the Coastal Georgia Sound Science Initiative, the Georgia Environmental Protection Division's strategy to protect the Upper Floridan aquifer from saltwater intrusion. Ground-water discharge to streams was estimated using three methods: hydrograph separation, drought-streamflow measurements, and linear-regression analysis of streamflow duration. Ground-water discharge during the drought years of 1954, 1981, and 2000 was analyzed for minimum ground-water contribution to streamflow. Hydrograph separation was used to estimate baseflow at eight streamflow gaging stations during the 31-year period 1971?2001. Six additional streamflow gaging stations were evaluated using linear-regression analysis of flow duration to determine mean annual baseflow. The study area centers on three major river systems ? the Salkehatchie?Savannah?Ogeechee, Altamaha?Satilla?St Marys, and Suwannee ? that interact with the underlying ground-water system to varying degrees, largely based on the degree of incision of the river into the aquifer and on the topography. Results presented in this report are being used to calibrate a regional ground-water flow model to evaluate ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Hydrograph separation indicated decreased baseflow to streams during drought periods as water levels declined in the aquifer. Average mean annual baseflow ranged from 39 to 74 percent of mean annual streamflow, with a mean contribution of 58 percent for the period 1971?2001. In a wet year (1997), baseflow composed from 33 to 70 percent of mean annual streamflow. Drought-streamflow analysis estimated baseflow contribution to streamflow ranged from 0 to 24 percent of mean annual streamflow. Linear-regression analysis of streamflow duration estimated the Q35 (flow that is equaled or exceeded 35 percent of the time) as the most

  13. Advection and evolution of river basins in mountain ranges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Willett, S.

    2009-04-01

    Fluvial networks determine to a large extent the structure and geometry of erosive landscapes in mountain ranges. As a consequence it is fundamental to understand how they develop in order to reconstruct and predict landscape evolution in orogens. A particularly important problem with relevance for our future ability of "inverting" landscapes is the degree to which fluvial networks and basin boundaries evolve and change with time. The key question is: are river valleys and basins largely static in the landscape or are they rather dynamic, changing and reorganizing frequently during orogen evolution? A "dynamic" view has long found support in a variety of observations (wind gaps, hanging valleys, inferred changes of sources of clastics) interpreted as evidences of river captures and drainage network changes, and has been reproduced in certain analogue and numerical models. It also seems intuitively reasonable when considered in parallel with the high magnitude and frequency of cenozoic climatic changes combined with the very high rates of vertical and horizontal movements of rocks in active orogens which suggest that landscapes may have changed congruently. However, support for a "static" view has also long existed based on the ubiquitous observation of antecedent rivers and drainage systems cutting through lithological and geological structures (folds and faults), extending behind the main drainage divide in large mountain ranges, or the preservation of superficial cover rocks adjacent to valleys deeply incised into the basement. Spectacular plane deformation of large river basins in the East Himalayan syntaxis also illustrates the possible difficulty encountered by river systems to reorganize (Hallet and Molnar 2001). In the debate over the mechanisms responsible for the consistent width-to-length aspect of the main transverse river basins observed in linear mountain belts of different ages, width and tectonic and climatic regimes (Hovius, 1996), Castelltort and

  14. Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O. )

    1988-08-01

    Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) basins and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional basins formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic basins are the onshore basins: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior basins. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride basins have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic basin, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly basins. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the west has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the west Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic basins of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian basins are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The basins formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic basins are the onshore Thrace and Adana basins, and all offshore regional basins formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore basins evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic basins and Mesozoic basins. The Thrace basin in the northwest and Adana basin in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace basin structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.

  15. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1995 balance year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice melt were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington to determine the winter and net balances for the 1995 balance year. The 1995 winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 2.86 meters, and the net balance was -0.69 meter. The winter balance was approximately 0.5 meter greater than the 1977-94 average winter balance. The net balance was approximately 0.3 meter less negative than the 1977-94 average net balance. Runoff was measured from the glacier and an adjacent non-glacierized basin. Air temperature, precipitation, barometric pressure, solar radiation, and wind speed were measured adjacent to the glacier. This report makes these data available to the glaciological and climatological community.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Hamra Basin, Libya, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Hamra Basin Province encompasses approximately 244,100 square kilometers (94,250 square miles) and is entirely within Libya. One composite total petroleum system (TPS) was defined for this assessment; it extends from Libya westward into adjacent parts of Algeria and southern Tunisia. The Hamra Basin part of the TPS was subdivided into four assessment units for the purpose of resource assessment. The assessment units cover only 172,390 square kilometers of the Hamra Basin Province; the remaining area has little potential for undiscovered petroleum resources because of the absence of petroleum source rocks. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 784 million barrels of crude oil, 4,748 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 381 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Hamra Basin of northwestern Libya. Most of the undiscovered crude oil and natural gas are interpreted to be in deeper parts of the Hamra Basin.

  17. Gravity crustal models and heat flow measurements for the Eurasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urlaub, Morelia; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita C.; Jokat, Wilfried; Kaul, Norbert

    2009-12-01

    The Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean with its adjacent Nansen and Amundsen Basins is a key region for the study of mantle melting and crustal generation at ultraslow spreading rates. We use free-air gravity anomalies in combination with seismic reflection and wide-angle data to compute 2-D crustal models for the Nansen and Amundsen Basins in the Arctic Ocean. Despite the permanent pack-ice cover two geophysical transects cross both entire basins. This means that the complete basin geometry of the world’s slowest spreading system can be analysed in detail for the first time. Applying standard densities for the sediments and oceanic crystalline crust, the gravity models reveal an unexpected heterogeneous mantle with densities of 3.30 × 103, 3.20 × 103 and 3.10 × 103 kg/m3 near the Gakkel Ridge. We interpret that the upper mantle heterogeneity mainly results from serpentinisation and thermal effects. The thickness of the oceanic crust is highly variable throughout both transects. Crustal thickness of less than 1 km dominates in the oldest parts of both basins, increasing to a maximum value of 6 km near the Gakkel Ridge. Along-axis heat flow is highly variable and heat flow amplitudes resemble those observed at fast or intermediate spreading ridges. Unexpectedly, high heat flow along the Amundsen transect exceeds predicted values from global cooling curves by more than 100%.

  18. Application of nonlinear-regression methods to a ground-water flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    flow from adjacent regions; irrigation and septic field seepage; and leakage through the Rio Grande, canal, and Cochiti Reservoir beds. Ground water is discharged from the basin by withdrawal; evapotranspiration; subsurface flow; and flow to the Rio Grande, canals, and drains. The transient, three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow to which nonlinear-regression methods were applied simulates flow in the Albuquerque Basin from 1900 to March 1995. Six different basin subsurface configurations are considered in the model. These configurations are designed to test the effects of (1) varying the simulated basin thickness, (2) including a hypothesized hydrogeologic unit with large hydraulic conductivity in the western part of the basin (the west basin high-K zone), and (3) substantially lowering the simulated hydraulic conductivity of a fault in the western part of the basin (the low-K fault zone). The model with each of the subsurface configurations was calibrated using a nonlinear least- squares regression technique. The calibration data set includes 802 hydraulic-head measurements that provide broad spatial and temporal coverage of basin conditions, and one measurement of net flow from the Rio Grande and drains to the ground-water system in the Albuquerque area. Data are weighted on the basis of estimates of the standard deviations of measurement errors. The 10 to 12 parameters to which the calibration data as a whole are generally most sensitive were estimated by nonlinear regression, whereas the remaining model parameter values were specified. Results of model calibration indicate that the optimal parameter estimates as a whole are most reasonable in calibrations of the model with with configurations 3 (which contains 1,600-ft-thick basin deposits and the west basin high-K zone), 4 (which contains 5,000-ft-thick basin de

  19. Russians to seek exploration in difficult Far East basins

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Local governments and associations in Russia hope to encourage exploration interest in lightly explored, mostly nonproducing offshore basins in the Far East. Adjacent onshore areas have experienced recurring shortages of natural gas and petroleum products. Russian authorities have been attempting to license blocks in far eastern waters for much of the 1990s, but political, bureaucratic, fiscal, and tax uncertainties have frustrated most efforts. Approval of the Russian Parliament is needed for tender offers, and no one can predict when such approvals might be forthcoming. Dalwave is offering a package of more than 40,000 km of 24--48 fold regional 2D seismic data on nearly 400 lines in the Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea. The package is being made available to give geoscientists a head start at regional evaluation outside the Sakhalin Island area. The paper describes Russian`s Far East resources, exploration prospects, and other considerations.

  20. Draft final risk assessment lime settling basins. Version 2. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-25

    The preferred alternative Lime Settling Basins (LSB) Interim Response Action (IRA) selected to inhibit further migration of contaminants from the LSB included moving the stockpiled lime sludge adjacent to the LSB back into the LSB, the construction of a subsurface barrier (i.e., slurry wall), placement of a soil cap and vegative cover, and the installation of a groundwater extraction system. This IRA is expected to be completed in approximately 6 months. The LSB IRA Risk Assessment (RA) presents the methodologies, quantitative and qualitative results, and assumptions used to determine if a potential risk exists to humans and biota from the activities of the LSB IRA. The activities associated with the relocation of the lime sludge into the LSB and the installation of the slurry wall are the focus of this RA, since they include disturbance of soils identified as contaminated.