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Sample records for adjacent non-glacierized basin

  1. Petroleum basins of Sakhalin and adjacent shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Mavrinski, Y.; Koblov, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sixty-seven oil and gas fields have been discovered on Sakhalin and the adjacent shelf but the distribution of fields is uneven in north Sakhalin, south Sakhalin, and the Tatar basins. The sedimentary cover is composed of sandy, clayey, and siliceous rocks, with volcanogenic and coal-bearing deposits of Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene 8-12 km thick. Marine clayey and siliceous oil source rocks are regionally developed in the section at different stratigraphic levels; the organic matter is of mixed type and the content varies from 0.5 to 1.5%. The upper Oligocene and middle-upper Miocene source rocks in the north Sakhalin basin are typical, and the organic carbon content ranges from 1 to 5%. The level of organic matter catagenesis and conversion into hydrocarbons is high because of the high differential geothermal gradient in the basins, 30-50[degrees]C per km. Porous sandstones in the Miocene form the reservoirs in all fields with the exception of Okruzhnoye, where the pay zone is a siliceous claystone. Growth-fault rollovers and anticlines form the main traps ranging in area from 5 to 300 km[sup 2], with amplitudes between 100 and 600 m. both stratigraphic and structural traps have been identified. Considerable volumes of reserves are associated with the Miocene deposits of north Sakhalin, which are characterized by an optimum combination of oil source rocks, focused migration paths, and thick sequences of reservoirs and cap rocks. Six large fields have been discovered in the past 15 yr. Oil and condensate reserves stand at over 300 million MT, and gas reserves are about 900 billion m[sup 3].

  2. Radargrams of Buried Basin from Two Adjacent Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    These two radargrams from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) show echoes from an approximately 250-kilometer (155-mile) diameter circular structure below the surface of Mars. The circular structure is interpreted to be a buried impact basin.

    In two orbits spaced about 50 kilometers (31 miles) apart, MARSIS detected a series of arc-shaped reflectors that have no apparent source in the surface topography or geology. In the lower image, a linear reflector nearly parallel to the surface is seen embedded in the arcs. This reflection may be coming from the floor of the basin. The time delay to the linear reflector suggests a depth of 1.5 to 2.5 kilometers (0.9 to 1.6 miles).

    MARSIS is an instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. NASA and the Italian Space Agency jointly funded the instrument.

  3. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false TRIDENT Basin adjacent to... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.600 TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape... at latitude 28°24′37″, longitude 80°35′26″ and the entire basin. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  4. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false TRIDENT Basin adjacent to... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.600 TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape... at latitude 28°24′37″, longitude 80°35′26″ and the entire basin. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  5. Mesozoic tectonics and paleogeography of the western U. S. and the adjacent Pacific basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dilek, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent geological, geochemical, and geochronological information from Jurassic and older ophiolite complexes and arc rocks in northern California provides new interpretations for Mesozoic tectonics of the western US and the adjacent Pacific basin. This information is discussed in conjunction with the Mesozoic tectonics and paleogeography of the western United States and the Pacific Ocean.

  6. Paleogeographic evolution of foldbelts adjacent to petroleum basins of Venezuela and Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, E.D.; Koch, P.S.; Summa, L.L.

    1996-08-01

    The foldbelts of Venezuela and Trinidad have shaped the history of adjacent sedimentary basins. A set of paleogeographic maps on reconstructed bases depict the role of foldbelts in the development of the sedimentary basins of Venezuela. Some of the foldbelts are inverted, pre-Tertiary graben/passive margin systems. Other foldbelts are allochthonous nappes or parautochthons that override the Mesozoic passive margin hinge without inversion. The emergence of these foldbelts changed the course of existing river systems and provided a new source for sediments and maturation in adjacent deeps. The Merida Andes area was remobilized beginning in the Early Miocene as a zone of lateral shear, along which the Bonaire Block has moved over 200 km to the northeast, dismembering the Maracaibo and Barinas basins. Late Miocene to Recent transpression and fault reactivation have driven rapid Andean uplift with thrust-related subsidence and maturation (e.g., SE Maracaibo foredeep). To the east, uplift and erosion of the Serrania del Interior (1) curtailed mid-Tertiary fluvial systems flowing northward from the igneous and sedimentary rocks of the Guyana Shield, deflecting them eastward, and (2) removed the thick early Miocene foredeep fill into a younger foredeep. Thus, the fold-thrust belts and sedimentary basins in this region are linked in their evolutionary histories.

  7. Gulf of California analogue for origin of Late Paleozoic ocean basins adjacent to western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Murchey, B.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Ocean crust accreted to the western margin of North America following the Late Devonian to earliest Missippian Antler orogeny is not older than Devonian. Therefore, ocean crust all along the margin of western North America may have been very young following the Antler event. This situation can be compared to the present-day margin of North America which lies adjacent to young ocean crust as a result of the subduction of the Farallon plate and arrival of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Syn- and post-Antler rifting that occurred along the North American margin may well be analogous to the formation of the Gulf of California by the propagation of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Black-arc rifting associated with the subduction of very old ocean crust seems a less likely mechanism for the early stages of ocean basin formation along the late Paleozoic margin of western North America because of the apparent absence of old ocean crust to the west of the arc terranes. The eastern Pacific basins were as long-lived as any truly oceanic basins and may have constituted, by the earliest Permian, a single wedge-shaped basin separated from the western Pacific by rifted fragments of North American arc-terranes. In the Permian, the rifted arcs were once again sites of active magmatism and the eastern Pacific basins began to close, from south (Golconda terrane) to north. Final closure of the northernmost eastern Pacific basin (Angayucham in Alaska) did not occur until the Jurassic.

  8. Correlation of sea level falls interpreted from atoll stratigraphy with turbidites in adjacent basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Past sea levels can be derived from any atoll subsurface sediments deposited at or near sea level by determining the ages of deposition and correcting the present depths to the sediments for subsidence of the underlying edifice since the times of deposition. A sea level curve constructed by this method consists of discontinuous segments, each corresponding to a period of rising relative sea level and deposition of a discrete sedimentary package. Discontinuities in the sea level curve derived by this method correspond to relative sea level falls and stratigraphic hiatuses in the atoll subsurface. During intervals of relative sea level fall an atoll emerges to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence without depositing sediments on top of the atoll. Furthermore, subaerial erosion may remove a substantial part of the depositional record of previous sea level fluctuations. For these reasons the authors must look to the adjacent basins to complement the incomplete record of sea level change recorded beneath atolls. During lowstands of sea level, faunas originally deposited near sea level on an atoll may be eroded and redeposited as turbidites in deep adjacent basins. Three such turbidites penetrated during deep-sea drilling at Sites 462 and 315 in the central Pacific correlate well with a late Tertiary sea level curve based on biostratigraphic ages and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr chronostratigraphy for core from Enewetak Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands. Further drilling of the archipelagic aprons adjacent to atolls will improve the sea level history that may be inferred from atoll stratigraphy.

  9. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  10. Geophysical observations on northern part of Georges Bank and adjacent basins of Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.; Hathaway, J.C.; Dillon, William P.; Hendricks, J.D.; Robb, James M.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous-seismic-reflection and magnetic-intensity profiles provide data for inferences about the geology of the northern part of Georges Bank and the basins of the Gulf of Maine adjacent to the bank. Basement is inferred to be mostly sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Paleozoic age that were metamorphosed and intruded locally by felsic and mafic plutons near the end of the Paleozoic Era. During Late Triassic time, large fault basins formed within the Gulf of Maine and probably beneath Georges Bank. The fault basins and a possible major northeast-trending fault zone beneath the northern part of the bank probably formed as a result of the opening Atlantic during the Mesozoic. Nonmarine sediments, associated with mafic flows and intrusive rocks, were deposited in the fault basins as they formed. The upper surface of the Triassic and pre-Triassic rocks that comprise basement is an unconformity that makes up much of the bottom of the Gulf of Maine. Depth to the basement surface beneath the gulf differ greatly because of fluvial erosion in Tertiary time and glacial erosion in Pleistocene time. Beneath the northern part of Georges Bank the basement surface is smoother and slopes southward. Prominent valleys, cut before Late Cretaceous time, are present beneath this part of the bank. Cretaceous, Tertiary, and possibly Jurassic times were characterized by episodes of coastal-plain deposition and fluvial erosion. During this time a very thick wedge of sediment, mostly of Jurassic(?) and Cretaceous ages, was deposited on the shelf. Major periods of erosion took place at the close of the Cretaceous and during the Pliocene. Fluvial erosion during the Pliocene removed much of the coastal-plain sedimentary wedge and formed the Gulf of Maine. Pleistocene glaciers eroded all but a few remnants of the coastal-plain sediments within the gulf and deposited a thick section of drift against the north slope of Georges Bank and a thin veneer of outwash on the bank. Marine sediments were

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-8:4 Fuel Storage Basin West Side Adjacent and Side Slope Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. D. Habel

    2008-03-18

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-8:4 Fuel Storage Basin West Side Adjacent and Side Slope Soils. The rectangular-shaped concrete basin on the south side of the 105-F Reactor building served as an underwater collection, storage, and transfer facility for irradiated fuel elements discharged from the reactor.

  12. Hydrogeologic framework of the Great Basin region of Nevada, Utah, and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifer systems in the Great Basin consist of carbonate-rock aquifers in the eastern Great Basin and basin-fill aquifers throughout the region. In the carbonate-rock aquifers, barriers to regional flow include Precambrian crystalline basement, upper Precambrian and Lower Cambrian clastic sedimentary rocks, and Jurassic to Tertiary granitic rocks. Basin-fill aquifers are connected to carbonate-rock aquifers in the eastern Great Basin and can be hydraulically connected with each other throughout the Great Basin.

  13. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  14. Late Miocene - Pliocene exhumation of the Qinghai Nan Shan (Northeastern Tibetan Plateau) constrained by adjacent Chaka basin magnetostratigraphic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Yuan, D.; Craddock, W.; Zhang, P.; Zheng, D.; Zheng, W.; Molnar, P.; Lease, R.

    2008-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphy from the Chaka basin in northeastern Tibet suggests that sedimentation began near 10 Ma, and sedimentary facies suggest that the adjacent Qinghai Nan Shan immediately north developed at that time, tens of millions of years after India and Eurasia collided. A fining-upward sequence and provenance analysis indicate a growing transport distance for southeastward flowing paleo-drainages from ~10 Ma to 6.4 Ma. The disappearance of granite gravel at 7.4 Ma, eroded from the southern Qinghai Nan Shan to the north, indicates that the paleo-Qinghai Nan Shan temporarily became isolated from the Chaka basin, potentially by burial or partial burial of the lacustrine sediment. A change in paleocurrent direction, from south-southeastward to southwestward flow, along the mapped section at 6.4 Ma agrees with the reappearance of granite clasts provided by the southern Qinghai Nan Shan. Following this re-exhumation signal within the basin deposits, a coarsening-upward architecture, together with enhanced granite gravel input into the Chaka basin, indicates the decrease in transport distance from 6.4 Ma to ~3.0 Ma, which might represent increased relief and/or horizontal shortening during that period, even until present. Finally, by preliminary comparison of landscape characteristics for four nearby basin sections in northeastern Tibet, we suggest that the temporal variations of conglomerate deposition might reflect slightly different responses to regional climate change due to differences of transport distances and/or in relief. The onsets of conglomerate deposition at 4.2 Ma in Chaka basin, 3.6 Ma in Guide basin, and at 3.6 - 4.5 Ma in Linxia basin precede that at 2.5 Ma in Qaidam basin perhaps due to shorter transportation distances between ranges and the first three basins and higher local relief than those for the much wider Qaidam basin.

  15. Controls on bacterial gas accumulations in thick Tertiary coal beds and adjacent channel sandstones, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Flores, R.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Coal beds, as much as 250 ft thick, and adjacent sandstones in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation are reservoirs for coal-derived natural gas in the Powder River basin. The discontinuous coal beds were deposited in raised, ombrotrophic peat bogs about 3 mi{sup 2} in size, adjoining networks of fluvial channels infilled by sand. Coal-bed thickness was controlled by basin subsidence and depositional environments. The average maceral composition of the coals is 88% huminite (vitrinite), 5% liptinite, and 7% inertinite. The coals vary in rank from subbituminous C to A (R{sub o} values of 0.4 to 0.5%). Although the coals are relatively low rank, they display fracture systems. Natural gas desorbed and produced from the coal beds and adjacent sandstones is composed mainly of methane with lesser amount of Co{sub 2} ({lt}10%). The methane is isotopically light and enriched in deuterium. The gases are interpreted to be generated by bacterial processes and the fermentation pathway, prior to the main phase of thermogenic methane generation by devolatilization. Large amounts of bicarbonate water generated during early stages of coalification will have to be removed from the fracture porosity in the coal beds before desorption and commercial gas production can take place. Desorbed amounts of methane-rich, bacterial gas in the Powder River basin are relatively low ({lt}60 Scf/ton) compared to amounts of thermogenic coal-bed gases (hundreds of Scf/ton) from other Rocky Mountain basins. However, the total coal-bed gas resource in both the coal beds and the adjacent sandstones is considered to be large (as much as 40 Tcf) because of the vast coal resources (as much as 1.3 trillion tons).

  16. The concentration of radionuclides and metals in vegetation adjacent to and in the SRL Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C. E. Jr.

    1992-12-14

    In 1991 the trees on the dikes surrounding the SRL Seepage Basins were sampled and analyzed to inventory the contaminants transported from the basins into the vegetation. Tree leaves and wood were collected and analyzed for [sup 90]Sr, [sup 60]Co, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 239,240]Pu, [sup 242,244]Cm, [sup 241]Am, Ba, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The concentrations of contaminants were influenced by sample type (leaves versus wood), species type (pines versus hardwoods), and location relative to distance from the basin. The total inventory of each contaminant in the trees was estimated. The relationships between leaf and wood, pines and hardwood, location, and mass of the material in each of these classes were used to weight the total inventory estimate. The radionuclide with the largest inventory was 0.7 mCi for [sup 90]Sr. The metallic contaminant with the largest inventory was Mn at 200 gm.

  17. The concentration of radionuclides and metals in vegetation adjacent to and in the SRL Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C. E. Jr.

    1992-12-14

    In 1991 the trees on the dikes surrounding the SRL Seepage Basins were sampled and analyzed to inventory the contaminants transported from the basins into the vegetation. Tree leaves and wood were collected and analyzed for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 242,244}Cm, {sup 241}Am, Ba, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The concentrations of contaminants were influenced by sample type (leaves versus wood), species type (pines versus hardwoods), and location relative to distance from the basin. The total inventory of each contaminant in the trees was estimated. The relationships between leaf and wood, pines and hardwood, location, and mass of the material in each of these classes were used to weight the total inventory estimate. The radionuclide with the largest inventory was 0.7 mCi for {sup 90}Sr. The metallic contaminant with the largest inventory was Mn at 200 gm.

  18. Tectonic origin of Lower Mesozoic regional unconformities: Southern Colorado Plateau and adjacent Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Palinspastic restoration of Basin and Range structural blocks to early Mesozoic positions relative to the Colorado Plateau permits correlation of lower Mesozoic regional unconformities of the Colorado Plateau across the southern Basin and Range. These unconformities correlate with tectonic reconfiguration of sedimentary basins in which enclosed depositional sequences were deposited. Lesser recognized intraformational unconformities are related to relative sea level change. The Tr-1 unconformity developed on subaerially exposed, karsted, and deeply incised Leonardian carbonates. The overlying Lower Triassic Moenkopi Formation and equivalent strata display a narrow, north-south aligned, passive-margin-type architecture subdivided by Smithian and Spathian intraformational unconformities into three depositional sequences. From basinal to inner shelf facies, Tr-1 truncates folds in Permian rocks. Initial deposition of the lowest sequence began with sea level at the base of the continental slope. Basal conglomerates of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation were deposited in northward-trending paleovalleys incised within and parallel to the Early Triassic shelf. Distribution of fluvial deposition, orientation of paleovalleys, paleocurrent indicators, and provenance indicate change from the passive-margin-bordered Early Triassic basin to an offshore active-margin basin. Continental and marine facies suggest two depositional sequences separated by an early Norian type 2( ) sequence boundary. The J-O unconformity at the base of the Lower Jurassic Glen Canyon Group marks a major change in tectonic setting of western North America as evidenced by (1) progressive southwestward downcutting of the unconformity to deformed Paleozoic rocks and Precambrian basement, (2) coincidence in time and space with Late Triassic to Early Jurassic thrust faults, and (3) initiation of calcalkaline volcanism.

  19. Hydrogeochemistry and stable isotopes of ground and surface waters from two adjacent closed basins, Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, C.N.; Whittemore, D.O.

    1990-01-01

    The geochemistry and stable isotopes of groundwaters, surface waters, and precipitation indicate different sources of some dissolved constituents, but a common source of recharge and other constituents in two adjacent closed basins in the Atacama Desert region of northern Chile (24??15???-24??45???S). Waters from artesian wells, trenches, and ephemeral streams in the Punta Negra Basin are characterized by concentrations of Na>Ca>Mg and Cl ???SO4, with TDS Mg ??? Ca and SO4 > Cl, with TDS also Mg ??? Ca and SO4 > Cl, but with TDS up to 40 g/l. The deep mine waters have pH between 3.2 and 3.9, and are high in dissolved CO2 (??13 C = -4.8%PDB), indicating probable interaction with oxidizing sulfides. The deep mine waters have ??18O values of ???-1.8%.compared with values < -3.5??? for other Hamburgo Basin waters; thus the mine waters may represent a mixture of meteoric waters with deeper "metamorphic" waters, which had interacted with rocks and exchanged oxygen isotopes at elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the deep mine waters may represent fossil meteoric waters which evolved isotopically along an evaporative trend starting from values quite depleted in ??18O and ??Dd relative to either precipitation or shallow groundwaters. High I/Br ratios in the Hamburgo Basin waters and La Escondida mine waters are consistent with regionally high I in surficial deposits in the Atacama Desert region and may represent dissolution of a wind-blown evaporite component. Rain and snow collected during June 1984, indicate systematic ??18O and ??D fractionation with increasing elevation between 3150 and 4180 m a.s.l. (-0.21??.??18O and -1.7??.??D per 100 m). Excluding the deep mine waters from La Escondida, the waters from the Hamburgo and Punta Negra Basins have similar ??D and ??18O values and together show a distinct evaporative trend (??D = 5.0 ??18O - 20.2). Snowmelt from the central Andes Cordillera to the east is the most likely source of recharge to both basins. Some of the

  20. An ecological study of the KSC Turning Basin and adjacent waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, T. A.; Lasater, J. A.; Clark, K. B.; Kalajian, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The conditions existing in the waters and bottoms of the Turning Basin, the borrow pit near Pad 39A, and the Barge Canal connecting them were investigated to determine the ecological significance of the chemical, biological, and microbiological parameters. The water quality, biological, microbiological findings are discussed. It is recommended that future dredging activities be limited in depth, and that fill materials should not be removed down to the clay strata.

  1. Aquifer systems in the Great Basin region of Nevada, Utah, and adjacent states; a study plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrill, James R.; Welch, A.H.; Prudic, D.E.; Thomas, J.M.; Carman, R.L.; Plume, R.W.; Gates, J.S.; Mason, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Great Basin Regional Aquifer Study includes about 140,000 square miles in parts of Nevada, Utah, California, Idaho, Oregon , and Arizona within which 240 hydrographic areas occupy structural depressions formed primarily by basin-and-range faulting. The principal aquifers are in basin-fill deposits; however, significant carbonate-rock aquifers underlie much of eastern Nevada and western Utah. In October 1980, the U.S. Geological Survey started a 4-year study to: (1) describe the ground-water systems, (2) analyze the changes that have led to the systems ' present conditions, (3) tie the results of this and previous studies together in a regional analysis, and (4) provide means by which effects of future ground-water development can be estimated. A plan of work is presented that describes the general approach to be taken. It defines the major tasks necessary to meet objectives and defines constraints on the scope of work. The approach has been influenced by the diverse nature of ground water flow systems and the large number of basins. A detailed appraisal of 240 individual areas would require more resources than are available. Consequently, the general approach is to study selected ' typical ' areas and key hydrologic processes. Effort during the first three years will be directed toward describing the regional hydrology, conducting detailed studies of ' type ' areas and studying selected hydrologic processes. Effort during the final year will be directed toward developing a regional analysis of results. Special studies will include evaluation of regional geochemistry , regional hydrogeology, recharge, ground-water discharge, and use of remote sensing. Areas to be studied using ground-water flow models include the regional carbonate-rock province in eastern Nevada and western Utah, six valleys--Las Vegas, Carson, Paradise, Dixie, Smith Creek, and Stagecoach--Nevada, plus Jordan Valley, the Millford area, and Tule Valley in Utah. The results will be presented in a

  2. A tectogenetic mechanism controlling the evolution of the Texel-IJsselmeer High (northern Netherlands) and adjacent basins

    SciTech Connect

    Rijkers, R.; Geluk, M. )

    1993-09-01

    Geological studies around the Texel-IJsselmeer High have been carried out for the regional subsurface mapping project of the Geological Survey of The Netherlands. The Texel-IJsselmeer High, in the northern part of the Netherlands, is a northwest-southeast-trending structural unit, slightly tilted to the northeast. The geological evolution of the Texel-IJsselmeer High and the adjacent areas can be linked to an extensional tectonic regime during which several Jurassic basins in the Netherlands originated. During the Late Jurassic, the southern border of the Texel-IJsselmeer High was characterized by normal faulting. Main faults are dipping southwest and are generally part of a half-graben structure. Faulting is accompanied by subsidence of the hanging wall (Jurassic basin area), while the footwall (the Texel-IJsselmeer High) is isostatically uplifted and eroded. The proposed model is based on thinning of the lower crust beneath the basins during Jurassic extension by pure shear. This mechanism is coupled locally with shear zones (simple shear) as a result of lower crustal failure. The model is supported by observations on deep regional seismics at the southern margin of the basin area. During the Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary, transpressional intraplate stresses reactivated the structural weakness zones in the lower and upper crust in a reversed way (inversion). During this tectonic inversion the northwest-southeast-trending Texel-IJsselmeer High acted as a buffer zone perpendicular to the direction of maximum principal stress. Paleogeographical studies and geohistory analysis support the proposed tectogenetic model of the Texel-IJsselmeer High.

  3. A modern analog for carbonate source-to-sink sedimentary systems: the Glorieuses archipelago and adjacent basin (SW Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorry, S.; Jouet, G.; Prat, S.; Courgeon, S.; Le Roy, P.; Camoin, G.; Caline, B.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the geomorphological and sedimentological analysis of a modern carbonate source-to-sink system located north of Madagascar (SW Indian Ocean). The sedimentary system is composed of an isolated carbonate platform sited on top of a seamount rising steeply from the seabed located at 3000 m water depth. The slope of the seamount is incised by canyons, and meandering channels occur above lobbed sedimentary bodies at the foot of the slope. The dataset consists of dredges, sediment piston cores, swath bathymetry and seismic (sparker and 2D high-resolution) lines collected from inner platform (less than 5 m deep) to the adjacent deep sedimentary basin. Particle size analysis and composition of carbonate grains are used to characterize the distribution and heterogeneity of sands accumulated on the archipelago. Main results show that composition of carbonate sediments is dominated by segments of Halimeda, large benthic foraminifera, coral debris, molluscs, echinoderms, bryozoans and sponges. According to the shape and the position of sandwaves and intertidal sandbars developed in the back-barrier reef, the present organization of these well-sorted fine-sand accumulations appears to be strongly influenced by flood tidal currents. Seismic lines acquired from semi-enclosed to open lagoon demonstrate that most of the sediment is exported and accumulated along the leeward margin of the platform, which is connected to a canyon network incising the outer slope. Following the concept of highstand shedding of carbonate platforms (Schlager et al., 1994), excess sediment is exported by plumes and gravity flows to the adjacent deep sea where it feeds a carbonate deep-sea fan. Combined observations from platform to basin allow to explain how the Glorieuses carbonate source to sink system has evolved under the influence of climate and of relative sea-level changes since the last interglacial.

  4. Climatic and hydrologic oscillations in the Owens Lake basin and adjacent Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Burdett, J.W.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Lund, S.P.; Phillips, F.M.; Rye, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen isotope and total inorganic carbon values of cored sediments from the Owens Lake basin, California, indicate that Owens Lake overflowed most of the time between 52,500 and 12,509 carbon-14 (14C) years before present (B.P.). Owens Lake desiccated during or after Heinrich event H1 and was hydrologically closed during Heinrich event H2. The magnetic susceptibility and organic carbon content of cored sediments indicate that about 19 Sierra Nevada glaciations occurred between 52,500 and 23,500 14C years B.P. Most of the glacial advances were accompanied by decreases in the amount of discharge reaching Owens Lake. Comparison of the timing of glaciation with the lithic record of North Atlantic core V23-81 indicates that the number of mountain glacial cycles and the number of North Atlantic lithic events were about equal between 39,000 and 23,500 14C years B.P.

  5. Comparison of phylogeographic structure and population history of two Phrynocephalus species in the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Xia, Lin; He, Jingbo; Wu, Yonghua; Fu, Jinzhong; Yang, Qisen

    2010-12-01

    An aridification of the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas since middle Pleistocene has produced significant genetic structuring of the local fauna. We examined the phylogeographic patterns, population structure and history of Phrynocephalus axillaris and Phrynocephalus forsythii using a mitochondrial fragment ND4-tRNA(LEU). Phylogenetic hypotheses were constructed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference, and the divergence times of major lineages were estimated by BEAST. Population structure and history were inferred by nested clade analysis, neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, and isolation by distance analysis. The two species might have experienced different evolutionary history throughout their current distribution. For P. forsythii, a vicariant event, as a consequence of geological isolation and desert expansion, might have produced the significant divergence between the Tarim and the Yanqi populations. For P. axillaris, populations of the Yanqi, Turpan and Hami Basins might have been established through dispersal during demographic expansion. Climatic fluctuations caused alternate expansion and shrinkage of rivers and oases several times, which likely led to habitat fragmentation for both species. Interaction between vicariance, dispersal and habitat fragmentation produced the current distribution and genetic diversity. The observed difference between the two species may be due partially to their different reproductive modes (ovoviviparous vs. oviparous). PMID:20955804

  6. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas in the Great Basin of Nevada and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkham, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Great Basin is a region of about 210,000 square miles having no surface drainage to the ocean; it includes most of Nevada and parts of Utah, California, Oregon, Idaho, and Wyoming. The area is characterized by many parallel mountain ranges and valleys trending north-south. Stream channels usually are well defined and steep within the mountains, but on reaching the alluvial fan at the canyon mouth, they may diverge into numerous distributary channels, be discontinuous near the apex of the fan, or be deeply entrenched in the alluvial deposits. Larger rivers normally have well-defined channels to or across the valley floors, but all terminate at lakes or playas. Major floods occur in most parts of the Great Basin and result from snowmelt, frontal-storm rainfall, and localized convective rainfall. Snowmelt floods typically occur during April-June. Floods resulting from frontal rain and frontal rain on snow generally occur during November-March. Floods resulting from convective-type rainfall during localized thunderstorms occur most commonly during the summer months. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas are grouped into five general categories: Detailed, historical, analytical, physiographic, and reconnaissance. The detailed and historical methods are comprehensive methods; the analytical and physiographic are intermediate; and the reconnaissance method is only approximate. Other than the reconnaissance method, each method requires determination of a T-year discharge (the peak rate of flow during a flood with long-term average recurrence interval of T years) and T-year profile and the development of a flood-boundary map. The procedure is different, however, for each method. Appraisal of the applicability of each method included consideration of its technical soundness, limitations and uncertainties, ease of use, and costs in time and money. Of the five methods, the detailed method is probably the most accurate, though most expensive. It is applicable to

  7. Sulfonylurea herbicides in an agricultural catchment basin and its adjacent wetland in the St. Lawrence River basin.

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Yves; Beauvais, Conrad; Cessna, Allan J; Gagnon, Pierre; Hudon, Christiane; Poissant, Laurier

    2014-05-01

    The use of sulfonylurea herbicides (SU) has increased greater than 100 times over the past 30 years in both Europe and North America. Applied at low rates, their presence, persistence and potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems remain poorly studied. During late-spring to early fall in 2009-2011, concentrations of 9 SU were assessed in two agricultural streams and their receiving wetland, an enlargement of the St. Lawrence River (Canada). Six SU in concentrations >LOQ (10 ng L(-1)) were detected in 10% or less of surface water samples. Rimsulfuron was detected each year, sulfosulfuron and nicosulfuron in two years and the others in one year only, suggesting that application of specific herbicides varied locally between years. Detection frequency and concentrations of SU were not significantly associated with total precipitation which occurred 1 to 5d before sampling. Concentrations and fate of SU differed among sites due to differences in stream dynamics and water quality characteristics. The persistence of SU in catchment basin streams reflected the dissipation effects associated with stream discharge. Maximum concentrations of some SU (223 and 148 ng L(-1)) were occasionally above the baseline level (100 ng L(-1)) for aquatic plant toxicity, implying potential toxic stress to flora in the streams. Substantially lower concentrations (max 55 ng L(-1)) of SU were noted at the downstream wetland site, likely as a result from dilution and mixing with St. Lawrence River water, and represent less toxicological risk to the wetland flora. Sporadic occurrence of SU at low concentrations in air and rain samples indicated that atmospheric deposition was not an important source of herbicides to the study area. PMID:24534695

  8. Integrated geophysical data processing and interpretation of crustal structure in Ethiopia with emphasis on the Ogaden Basin and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Ketsela

    ties these results together to form a complete picture of the axial structure of the rift. The cross profiles, which are interlocked with the axial rift profile, indicate that thick (˜45km) crust is present beneath a broad region of the western plateau. The EAGLE seismic results indicate that the part of the western plateau adjacent to the rift is thickened via underplating. The Bale Mountain region on the eastern rift flank has relatively thick (˜40 km) crust, which is in agreement with receiver function results. In general, asthenospheric upwelling affects a wide zone near Afar and the southern Ethiopian rift, whereas the area of upwelling is narrower around the MER. The Abbay or Blue Nile basin was another target of my study. Integrated geophysical (seismic, remote sensing, and gravity) and geological data suggest that the sedimentary section of Abbay basin extends well to the east of the known extent of its sedimentary fill. Gravity modeling results suggest approximately 3 km of sub-volcanic sedimentary strata exist over a wide area. I also undertook an integrated analysis of the Ogaden basin that lies east of the rift valley and is associated with the break-up of Gondwanaland by Karroo rifting. Seismic reflection data were processed and interpreted and combined with gravity and magnetic data to study the evolution of the basin and its geometry. The existence of a tri-radial rift that connects to the Abbay basin is suggested by the isostatic residual gravity anomaly map produced in this study. This result provides new evidence for the relationship of the Ogaden and Abbay basins via a northwest-southeast trending Permo-Triassic rift system. The northeastern part of the Ogaden basin shows distinct gravity anomalies trending in a northeast-southwest direction that appear to be due to a series of grabens and horsts. 3D Euler deconvolution of gravity data and modeling results suggest a sedimentary thickness of about 5 km sedimentary strata in some of the grabens

  9. Geohydrology of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River Basin, south-central Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.; Peck, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Major streams and tributaries located in the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee (ASO) River Basin of south-central Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida drain about 8,000 square miles of a layered sequence of clastic and carbonate sediments and carbonate Coastal Plain sediments consisting of the surficial aquifer system, upper semiconfining unit, Upper Floridan aquifer, and lower confining unit. Streams either flow directly on late-middle Eocene to Oligocene karst limestone or carve a dendritic drainage pattern into overlying Miocene to Holocene sand, silt, and clay, facilitating water exchange and hydraulic connection with geohydrologic units. Geologic structures operating in the ASO River Basin through time control sedimentation and influence geohydrology and water exchange between geohydrologic units and surface water. More than 300 feet (ft) of clastic sediments overlie the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Gulf Trough-Apalachicola Embayment, a broad area extending from the southwest to the northeast through the center of the basin. These clastic sediments limit hydraulic connection and water exchange between the Upper Floridan aquifer, the surficial aquifer system, and surface water. Accumulation of more than 350 ft of low-permeability sediments in the Southeast Georgia Embayment and Suwannee Strait hydraulically isolates the Upper Floridan aquifer from land-surface hydrologic processes in the Okefenokee Basin physiographic district. Burial of limestone beneath thick clastic overburden in these areas virtually eliminates karst processes, resulting in low aquifer hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient despite an aquifer thickness of more than 900 ft. Conversely, uplift and faulting associated with regional tectonics and the northern extension of the Peninsular Arch caused thinning and erosion of clastic sediments overlying the Upper Floridan aquifer southeast of the Gulf Trough-Apalachicola Embayment near the Florida-Georgia State line. Limestone dissolution in

  10. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  11. Occurrence and source apportionment of sulfonamides and their metabolites in Liaodong Bay and the adjacent Liao River basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ai; Hu, Jianying; Wu, Xiaoqin; Peng, Hui; Wu, Shimin; Dong, Zhaomin

    2011-06-01

    The presence of antibiotics in the environment is of great concern because of their potential for resistance selection among pathogens. In the present study we investigated the occurrence of 19 sulfonamides, five N-acetylated sulfonamide metabolites, and trimethoprim in the Liao River basin and adjacent Liaodong Bay, China, as well as 10 human/agricultural source samples. Within the 35 river samples, 12 sulfonamides, four acetylated sulfonamides, and trimethoprim were detected, with the dominant being sulfamethoxazole (66.6 ng/L), N-acetylsulfamethoxazole (63.1 ng/L), trimethoprim (29.0 ng/L), sulfadiazine (14.0 ng/L), and sulfamonomethoxine (8.4 ng/L); within the 36 marine samples, 10 chemicals were detected, with the main contributions from sulfamethoxazole (25.2 ng/L) and N-acetylsulfamethoxazole (28.6 ng/L). Sulfamethoxazole (25.9%), N-acetylsulfamethoxazole (46.6%), trimethoprim (22.9%), and sulfapyridine (1.4%) were the main chemicals from human sources, while sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfaguanidine, sulfadiazine, sulfanilamide, and sulfamethoxypyridazine were dominant in the animal husbandry sources, specifically, swine and poultry farms, and sulfamethoxazole (91%) was dominant in the mariculture source. A principal component analysis with multiple linear regression was performed to evaluate the source apportionment of total sulfonamides in Liaodong Bay. It was found that animal husbandry contributed 15.2% of total sulfonamides, while human sources contributed 28.5%, and combined human and mariculture sources contributed 56.3%. In addition, the mariculture contribution was 24.1% of total sulfonamides into the sea based on mass flux estimation. The present study is the first report that the environmental levels of sulfonamide metabolites were comparable to the corresponding parents; therefore, we should pay attention to their environmental occurrence. Source apportionment showed human discharge (60.7%) significantly

  12. Spring Database for the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavelko, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    A database containing nearly 3,400 springs was developed for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The spring database provides a foundation for field verification of springs in the study area. Attributes in the database include location, geographic and general geologic settings, and available discharge and temperature data for each spring.

  13. Lance water injection tests adjacent to the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, B.; Myer, L.; Moridis, G.; Cook, P.; James, A.; Pellerin, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-09-01

    A pilot-scale field demonstration of waste isolation using viscous- liquid containment barriers has been planned for the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. The 281-3H basin is a shallow retention/seepage basin contaminated mainly by radionuclides. The viscous-liquid containment barrier utilizes the permeation of liquid grout to either entomb the contaminants within a monolithic grout structure or to isolate the waste by drastically reducing the permeability, of the soils around the plume. A clear understanding of the hydrogeologic setting of the retention basin is necessary for proper design of the viscous liquid barrier. To aid in the understanding of the hydrogeology of the 281-3H retention basin, and to obtain critical parameters necessary for grout injection design, a series of tests were undertaken in a region immediately adjacent to the basin. The objectives of the LWIT were: 1. To evaluate the general performance of the Lance Injection Technique for grout emplacement at the site, including the range and upper limits of injection pressures, the flow rates applicable for site conditions, as well as the mechanical forces needed for lance penetration. 2. To obtain detailed information on the injectability of the soils immediately adjacent to the H-area retention basin. 3. To identify any high permeability zones suitable for injection and evaluate their spatial distribution. 4. To perform ground penetrating radar (GPR) to gain information on the structure of the soil column and to compare the results with LWIT data. This report will focus on results pertinent to these objectives.

  14. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-06-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  15. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-04-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  16. Fault-block structure and state of stress in the Earth's crust of the Gusinoozersky Basin and the adjacent territory, western Transbaikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunina, O. V.; Gladkov, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    The geological structure and tectonophysics of the Gusinoozersky Basin—a tectonotype of Mesozoic depressions in the western Transbaikal region—is discussed. New maps of the fault-block structure and state of stress in the Earth’s crust of the studied territory are presented. It is established that the Gusinoozersky Basin was formed in a transtensional regime with the leading role of extension oriented in the NW-SE direction. The transtensional conditions were caused by paths of regional tension stresses oriented obliquely to the axial line of the basin, which created a relatively small right-lateral strike-slip component of separation (in comparison with normal faulting) along the NE-trending master tectonic lines. The widespread shear stress tensors of the second order with respect to extension are related to inhomogeneities in the Earth’s crust, including those that are arising during displacement of blocks along normal faults. Folding at the basin-range boundary was brought about by gravity effects of normal faulting. The faults and blocks in the Gusinoozersky Basin remained active in the Neogene and Quaternary; however, it is suggested that their reactivation was a response to tectonic processes that occurred in the adjacent Baikal Rift Zone rather than to the effect of a local mantle source.

  17. Distinct groundwater recharge sources and geochemical evolution of two adjacent sub-basins in the lower Shule River Basin, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liheng; Dong, Yanhui; Xie, Yueqing; Song, Fan; Wei, Yaqiang; Zhang, Jiangyi

    2016-08-01

    Based on analysis of groundwater hydrogeochemical and isotopic data, this study aims to identify the recharge sources and understand geochemical evolution of groundwater along the downstream section of the Shule River, northwest China, including two sub-basins. Groundwater samples from the Tashi sub-basin show markedly depleted stable isotopes compared to those in the Guazhou sub-basin. This difference suggests that groundwater in the Tashi sub-basin mainly originates from meltwater in the Qilian Mountains, while the groundwater in the Guazhou sub-basin may be recharged by seepage of the Shule River water. During the groundwater flow process in the Tashi sub-basin, minerals within the aquifer material (e.g., halite, calcite, dolomite, gypsum) dissolve in groundwater. Mineral dissolution leads to strongly linear relationships between Na+ and Cl- and between Mg2++ Ca2+ and SO4 2- + HCO3 -, with stoichiometry ratios of approximately 1:1 in both cases. The ion-exchange reaction plays a dominant role in hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the Guazhou sub-basin and causes a good linear relationship between (Mg2++ Ca2+)-(SO4 2- + HCO3 -) and (Na++ K+)-Cl- with a slope of -0.89 and also results in positive chloroalkaline indices CAI 1 and CAI 2. The scientific results have implications for groundwater management in the downstream section of Shule River. As an important irrigation district in Hexi Corridor, groundwater in the Guazhou sub-basin should be used sustainably and rationally because its recharge source is not as abundant as expected. It is recommended that the surface water should be used efficiently and routinely, while groundwater exploitation should be limited as much as possible.

  18. Gas desorption and adsorption isotherm studies of coals in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; McGarry, Dwain E.; Stillwell, Dean P.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Stillwell, Cathy R.; Ochs, Alan M.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Osvald, Karl S.; Taylor, Sharon L.; Thorvaldson, Marjorie C.; Trippi, Michael H.; Grose, Sherry D.; Crockett, Fred J.; Shariff, Asghar J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG), of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper (Wyoming), investigated the coalbed methane resources (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, from 1999 to the present. Beginning in late 1999, the study also included the Williston Basin in Montana and North and South Dakota and Green River Basin and Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. The rapid development of CBM (referred to as coalbed natural gas by the BLM) during the early 1990s, and the lack of sufficient data for the BLM to fully assess and manage the resource in the Powder River Basin, in particular, gave impetus to the cooperative program. An integral part of the joint USGS-BLM project was the participation of 25 gas operators that entered individually into confidential agreements with the USGS, and whose cooperation was essential to the study. The arrangements were for the gas operators to drill and core coal-bed reservoirs at their cost, and for the USGS and BLM personnel to then desorb, analyze, and interpret the coal data with joint funding by the two agencies. Upon completion of analyses by the USGS, the data were to be shared with both the BLM and the gas operator that supplied the core, and then to be released or published 1 yr after the report was submitted to the operator.

  19. A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R.W. King; S.A. Kattenhorn

    2012-04-01

    We evaluate horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities together with geologic, volcanic, and seismic data to interpret extension, shear, and contraction within the Snake River Plain and the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. We estimate horizontal surface velocities using GPS data collected at 385 sites from 1994 to 2009 and present an updated velocity field within the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF). Our results show an ENE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Centennial Tectonic belt and an E-oriented extensional strain rate of 6.2 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Intermountain Seismic belt combined with the northern Great Basin. These extensional strain rates contrast with the regional north-south contraction of -2.6 {+-} 1.1 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} calculated in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau over a 125 x 650 km region. Tests that include dike-opening reveal that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones does not occur in the Snake River Plain at present. This slow internal deformation in the Snake River Plain is in contrast to the rapidly-extending adjacent Basin and Range provinces and implies shear along boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of <0.5 to 1.7 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic belt. The fastest lateral shearing occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional GPS velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic belt, Idaho batholith, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and central Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is driven by extension to the

  20. Megascopic lithologic studies of coals in the Powder River basin in Wyoming and in adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stanton, Ronald W.; Chiehowsky, Lora A.; Moore, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated coalbed methane (CBM) resources in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The study also included the CBM resources in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin of North Dakota and the Wyoming portion of the Green River Basin of Wyoming. This project involved the cooperation of the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper, Wyo., and 16 independent gas operators in the Powder River, Williston, and Green River Basins. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with these CBM operators to supply samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, timely results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high-pressure methane adsorption isotherm data. This program resulted in the collection of 963 cored coal samples from 37 core holes. This report presents megascopic lithologic descriptive data collected from canister samples extracted from the 37 wells cored for this project.

  1. Evidence that the crystalline cores of uplifts adjacent to the Powder River Basin were breached during Paleocene time

    SciTech Connect

    Merin, I.S.; Lindholm, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    Sandstones in the upper part of the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River basin are dominantly sublitharenite. These rocks contain abundant rock fragments of non-ferroan calcite, dolomite, chert, and foliated fine-grained metamorphic rock (phyllite). The carbonate and chert rock fragments were probably eroded from paleozoic carbonate sequences flanking the Bighorn Mountains or the Black Hills. The phyllitic rock fragments indicate that the crystalline cores of these uplifts were exposed during Paleocene time, which is earlier during the Laramide Orogeny than has been previously demonstrated.

  2. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater-treatment plant discharges during base flow, which elevated specific conductance and nutrient concentrations, combined sewer overflows, and nonpoint sources likely contributed to water-quality impairment and lower aquatic-life status at the Blue River Basin sites. Releases from upstream reservoirs to the Little Blue River likely decreased specific conductance, suspended-sediment, and dissolved constituent concentrations and may have benefitted water quality and aquatic life of main-stem sites. Chloride concentrations in base-flow samples, attributable to winter road salt application, had the highest correlation with the SUII (Spearman’s ρ equals 0.87), were negatively correlated with the SCI (Spearman’s ρ equals -0.53) and several pollution sensitive Ephemeroptera plus Plecoptera plus Trichoptera abundance and percent richness metrics, and were positively correlated with pollution tolerant Oligochaeta abundance and percent richness metrics. Study results show that the easily calculated SUII and the selected modeled multimetric indices are effective for comparing urban basins and for evaluation of water quality in the Kansas City metropolitan area.

  3. Timing the structural events in the Palaeoproterozoic Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane and adjacent Maluwe basin, West African craton, in central-west Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kock, G. S.; Théveniaut, H.; Botha, P. M. W.; Gyapong, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Maluwe basin, north-adjacent to the Sunyani basin, is the northernmost of the northeast-trending Eburnean volcaniclastic depositories in Ghana. These basins are separated from one another by remnants of Eoeburnean crust, all formed during the evolution of an arc-backarc basins complex in a Palaeoproterozoic intraoceanic environment. The Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane to the northwest, of mostly Eoeburnean crust is fault bounded with the Maluwe basin along the northeast-trending Bolé-Navrongo fault zone. The stratigraphic sequence, which was the key to unravelling the structural evolution of the study area, was established by means of field observations aided by precision SHRIMP geochronology. The quartzitic, pelitic, quartzofeldspathic and granitic gneisses of the Eoeburnean crust (>2150 Ma) experienced complex metamorphic mineral growth and migmatitization, mostly under static crustal conditions and were subjected to several deformation episodes. The foliated mafic and metasedimentary enclaves within the Ifanteyire granite establish deformation to have taken place prior to ˜2195 Ma, while the tectonically emplaced Kuri amphibolites within the 2187-Ma gneissic Gondo granite indicate a stage of rifting followed by collision. Deformation of granite dykes in the Gondo granites at ˜2150 Ma concluded the development of the Eoeburnean orogenic cycle (DEE). The Sawla Suite, contemporaneous with the deposition of the Maluwe Group, intruded the tectonic exhumed Bolé-Nangodi terrane during extension between ˜2137 and 2125 Ma. The rifting separated the Abulembire fragment from the Bolé-Nangodi terrane. During subsequent northwestward subduction of young back-arc basin oceanic crust the volcaniclastic strata of the Maluwe Group and Sawla granitoids were deformed (DE1) under chlorite/sericite greenschist-grade conditions. The NE-trending folds had subhorizontal axes and subvertical axial planes. Simultaneous to the DE1 orogenesis the molasses of the Banda Group was

  4. Characterization of surface-water resources in the Great Basin National Park area and their susceptibility to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Beck, David A.; Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Eight drainage basins and one spring within the Great Basin National Park area were monitored continually from October 2002 to September 2004 to quantify stream discharge and assess the natural variability in flow. Mean annual discharge for the stream drainages ranged from 0 cubic feet per second at Decathon Canyon to 9.08 cubic feet per second at Baker Creek. Seasonal variability in streamflow generally was uniform throughout the network. Minimum and maximum mean monthly discharges occurred in February and June, respectively, at all but one of the perennial streamflow sites. Synoptic-discharge, specific-conductance, and water- and air-temperature measurements were collected during the spring, summer, and autumn of 2003 along selected reaches of Strawberry, Shingle, Lehman, Baker, and Snake Creeks, and Big Wash to determine areas where surface-water resources would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys. Comparison of streamflow and water-property data to the geology along each stream indicated areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals. These areas consist of reaches where streams (1) are in contact with permeable rocks or sediments, or (2) receive water from either spring discharge or ground-water inflow.

  5. More than one way to stretch: A tectonic model for extension along the plume track of the Yellowstone hotspot and adjacent Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Thompson, G.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain of southern Idaho poses a paradoxical problem because it is nearly aseismic and unfaulted although it appears to be actively extending in a SW-NE direction continuously with the adjacent block-faulted Basin and Range Province. The plain represents the 100-km-wide track of the Yellowstone hotspot during the last ???16-17 m.y., and its crust has been heavily intruded by mafic magma, some of which has erupted to the surface as extensive basalt flows. Outside the plain's distinct topographic boundaries is a transition zone 30-100 km wide that has variable expression of normal faulting and magmatic activity as compared with the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Many models for the evolution of the Snake River Plain have as an integral component the suggestion that the crust of the plain became strong enough through basaltic intrusion to resist extensional deformation. However, both the boundaries of the plain and its transition zone lack any evidence of zones of strike slip or other accommodation that would allow the plain to remain intact while the Basin and Range Province extended around it; instead, the plain is coupled to its surroundings and extending with them. We estimate strain rates for the northern Basin and Range Province from various lines of evidence and show that these strains would far exceed the elastic limit of any rocks coupled to the Basin and Range; thus, if the plain is extending along with its surroundings, as the geologic evidence indicates, it must be doing so by a nearly aseismic process. Evidence of the process is provided by volcanic rift zones, indicators of subsurface dikes, which trend across the plain perpendicular to its axis. We suggest that variable magmatic strain accommodation, by emplacement and inflation of dikes perpendicular to the least principal stress in the elastic crust, allows the crust of the plain to extend nearly aseismically. Dike injection releases accumulated elastic strain but

  6. Subsurface geology and porosity distribution, Madison Limestone and underlying formations, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James A.

    1978-01-01

    To evaluate the Madison Limestone and associated rocks as potential sources for water supplies in the Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, an understanding of the geologic framework of these units, their lithologic facies patterns, the distribution of porosity zones, and the relation between porosity development and stratigraphic facies is necessary. Regionally the Madison is mainly a fossiliferous limestone. However, in broad areas of the eastern Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains, dolomite is a dominant constituent and in places the Madison is almost entirely dolomite. Within these areas maximum porosity development is found and it seems to be related to the coarser crystalline dolomite facies. The porosity development is associated with tabular and fairly continuous crystalline dolomite beds separated by non-porous limestones. The maximum porosity development in the Bighorn Dolomite, as in the Madison, is directly associated with the occurrence of a more coarsely crystalline sucrosic dolomite facies. Well data indicate, however, that where the Bighorn is present in the deeper parts of the Powder River Basin, it may be dominated by a finer crystalline dolomite facies of low porosity. The 'Winnipeg Sandstone' is a clean, generally well-sorted, medium-grained sandstone. It shows good porosity development in parts of the northern Powder River Basin and northwestern South Dakota. Because the sandstone is silica-cemented and quartzitic in areas of deep burial, good porosity is expected only where it is no deeper than a few thousand feet. The Flathead Sandstone is a predominantly quartzose, slightly feldspathic sandstone, commonly cemented with iron oxide. Like the 'Winnipeg Sandstone,' it too is silica-cemented and quartzitic in many places so that its porosity is poor in areas of deep burial. Illustrations in this report show the thickness, percent dolomite, and porosity-feet for the Bighorn Dolomite and the Madison Limestone and its subdivisions. The

  7. Seismic structure of the crust and uppermost mantle of north America and adjacent oceanic basins: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chulick, G.S.; Mooney, W.D.

    2002-01-01

    We present a new set of contour maps of the seismic structure of North America and the surrounding ocean basins. These maps include the crustal thickness, whole-crustal average P-wave and S-wave velocity, and seismic velocity of the uppermost mantle, that is, Pn and Sn. We found the following: (1) The average thickness of the crust under North America is 36.7 km (standard deviation [s.d.] ??8.4 km), which is 2.5 km thinner than the world average of 39.2 km (s.d. ?? 8.5) for continental crust; (2) Histograms of whole-crustal P- and S-wave velocities for the North American crust are bimodal, with the lower peak occurring for crust without a high-velocity (6.9-7.3 km/sec) lower crustal layer; (3) Regions with anomalously high average crustal P-wave velocities correlate with Precambrian and Paleozoic orogens; low average crustal velocities are correlated with modern extensional regimes; (4) The average Pn velocity beneath North America is 8.03 km/sec (s.d. ?? 0.19 km/sec); (5) the well-known thin crust beneath the western United States extends into northwest Canada; (6) the average P-wave velocity of layer 3 of oceanic crust is 6.61 km/ sec (s.d. ?? 0.47 km/sec). However, the average crustal P-wave velocity under the eastern Pacific seafloor is higher than the western Atlantic seafloor due to the thicker sediment layer on the older Atlantic seafloor.

  8. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H., (Edited By); Bright, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  9. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H., (Edited By); Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  10. Placing Absolute Timing on Basin Incision Adjacent to the Colorado Front Range: Results from Meteoric and in Situ 10BE Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duehnforth, M.; Anderson, R. S.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    A sequence of six levels of gravel-capped surfaces, mapped as Pliocene to Holocene in age, are cut into Cretaceous shale in the northwestern part of the Denver Basin immediately adjacent to the Colorado Front Range (CFR). The existing relative age constraints and terrace correlations suggest that the incision of the Denver Basin occurred at a steady and uniform rate of 0.1 mm yr-1 since the Pliocene. As absolute ages in this landscape are rare, they have the potential to test the reliability of the existing chronology, and to illuminate the detailed history of incision. We explore the timing of basin incision and the variability of geomorphic process rates through time by dating the three highest surfaces at the northwestern edge of the Denver Basin using both in situ and meteoric 10Be concentrations. As the tectonic conditions have not changed since the Pliocene, much of the variability of generation and abandonment of alluvial surfaces likely reflects the influence of glacial-interglacial climate variations. We selected Gunbarrel Hill (mapped as pre-Rocky Flats (Pliocene)), Table Mountain (mapped as Rocky Flats (early Pleistocene)), and the Pioneer surface (mapped as Verdos (Pleistocene, ~640 ka)) as sample locations. We took two amalgamated clast samples on the Gunbarrel Hill surface, and dated depth profiles using meteoric and in situ 10Be on the Table Mountain and Pioneer surfaces. In addition, we measured the in situ 10Be concentrations of 6 boulder samples from the Table Mountain surface. We find that all three surfaces are significantly younger than expected and that in situ and meteoric age measurements largely agree with each other. The samples from the pre-Rocky Flats site (Gunbarrel Hill) show ages of 250 and 310 ka, ignoring post-depositional surface erosion. The ages of the Table Mountain and Pioneer sites fall within the 120 to 150 ka window. These absolute ages overlap with the timing of the penultimate glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) 6

  11. Characterization of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures in the offshore Santa Maria Basin, south-central California: Chapter CC of Evolution of sedimentary basins/onshore oil and gas investigations - Santa Maria province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willingham, C. Richard; Rietman, Jan D.; Heck, Ronald G.; Lettis, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone trends subparallel to the south-central California coast for 110 km from north of Point Estero to south of Purisima Point and forms the eastern margin of the present offshore Santa Maria Basin. Knowledge of the attributes of the Hosgri Fault Zone is important for petroleum development, seismic engineering, and environmental planning in the region. Because it lies offshore along its entire reach, our characterizations of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures are primarily based on the analysis of over 10,000 km of common-depth-point marine seismic reflection data collected from a 5,000-km2 area of the central and eastern parts of the offshore Santa Maria Basin. We describe and illustrate the along-strike and downdip geometry of the Hosgri Fault Zone over its entire length and provide examples of interpreted seismic reflection records and a map of the structural trends of the fault zone and adjacent structures in the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. The seismic data are integrated with offshore well and seafloor geologic data to describe the age and seismic appearance of offshore geologic units and marker horizons. We develop a basin-wide seismic velocity model for depth conversions and map three major unconformities along the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. Accompanying plates include maps that are also presented as figures in the report. Appendix A provides microfossil data from selected wells and appendix B includes uninterpreted copies of the annotated seismic record sections illustrated in the chapter. Features of the Hosgri Fault Zone documented in this investigation are suggestive of both lateral and reverse slip. Characteristics indicative of lateral slip include (1) the linear to curvilinear character of the mapped trace of the fault zone, (2) changes in structural trend along and across the fault zone that diminish in magnitude toward the ends of the fault zone, (3) localized compressional and extensional structures

  12. The regional structural setting of the 2008 Wells earthquake and Town Creek Flat Basin: implications for the Wells earthquake fault and adjacent structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Christopher S.; Colgan, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Wells earthquake occurred on a northeast-striking, southeast-dipping fault that is clearly delineated by the aftershock swarm to a depth of 10-12 km below sea level. However, Cenozoic rocks and structures around Wells primarily record east-west extension along north- to north-northeast-striking, west-dipping normal faults that formed during the middle Miocene. These faults are responsible for the strong eastward tilt of most basins and ranges in the area, including the Town Creek Flat basin (the location of the earthquake) and the adjacent Snake Mountains and western Windermere Hills. These older west-dipping faults are locally overprinted by a younger generation of east-dipping, high-angle normal faults that formed as early as the late Miocene and have remained active into the Quaternary. The most prominent of these east-dipping faults is the set of en-échelon, north-striking faults that bounds the east sides of the Ruby Mountains, East Humboldt Range, and Clover Hill (about 5 km southwest of Wells). The northeastern-most of these faults, the Clover Hill fault, projects northward along strike toward the Snake Mountains and the approximately located surface projection of the Wells earthquake fault as defined by aftershock locations. The Clover Hill fault also projects toward a previously unrecognized, east-facing Quaternary fault scarp and line of springs that appear to mark a significant east-dipping normal fault along the western edge of Town Creek Flat. Both western and eastern projections may be northern continuations of the Clover Hill fault. The Wells earthquake occurred along this east-dipping fault system. Two possible alternatives to rupture of a northern continuation of the Clover Hill fault are that the earthquake fault (1) is antithetic to an active west-dipping fault or (2) reactivated a Mesozoic thrust fault that dips east as a result of tilting by the west-dipping faults along the west side of the Snake Mountains. Both alternatives are

  13. Application of the Basin Characterization Model to Estimate In-Place Recharge and Runoff Potential in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2007-01-01

    A regional-scale water-balance model was used to estimate recharge and runoff potential and support U.S. Geological Survey efforts to develop a better understanding of water availability for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The water-balance model, or Basin Characterization Model (BCM), was used to estimate regional ground-water recharge for the 13 hydrographic areas in the study area. The BCM calculates recharge by using a distributed-parameter, water-balance method and monthly climatic boundary conditions. The BCM requires geographic information system coverages of soil, geology, and topographic information with monthly time-varying climatic conditions of air temperature and precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration, snow accumulation, and snowmelt are distributed spatially with process models. When combined with surface properties of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock and alluvium, the potential water available for in-place recharge and runoff is calculated using monthly time steps using a grid scale of 866 feet (270 meters). The BCM was used with monthly climatic inputs from 1970 to 2004, and results were averaged to provide an estimate of the average annual recharge for the BARCAS study area. The model estimates 526,000 acre-feet of potential in-place recharge and approximately 398,000 acre-feet of potential runoff. Assuming 15 percent of the runoff becomes recharge, the model estimates average annual ground-water recharge for the BARCAS area of about 586,000 acre-feet. When precipitation is extrapolated to the long-term climatic record (1895-2006), average annual recharge is estimated to be 530,000 acre-feet, or about 9 percent less than the recharge estimated for 1970-2004.

  14. Active deformation in the frontal part of the Northern Apennines: insights from the lower Metauro River basin area (northern Marche, Italy) and adjacent Adriatic off-shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bucci, D.; Mazzoli, S.; Nesci, O.; Savelli, D.; Tramontana, M.; De Donatis, M.; Borraccini, F.

    2003-09-01

    An integration of seismological data with geological and geomorphological information aided by seismic interpretation was performed to characterise the Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Metauro River basin area (northern Marche) and adjacent off-shore sector of the external Northern Apennines. On-shore, along the Adriatic coast, the youngest age of thrusting and folding post-dates the Early-Middle Pliocene, while Pleistocene deposits appear to be, at least in part, not involved in the deformation. Recent (i.e. post-thrusting) tectonic structures have been recognised both in pre-Quaternary substratum rocks and in Upper Quaternary continental deposits (Upper Pleistocene terrace alluvium, Upper Pleistocene-Holocene slope deposits). These faults are all compatible with a WSW-ENE oriented extension. In the Metauro River basin area, preserved flights of stream terraces have been categorised according to the presence or absence of alluvial suites in relationship to each terrace level. Here, based on both the heights above the valley floor and the areal distribution of stream terraces, a generalised vertical tectonic uplift can be inferred, particularly during the Middle-Late Pleistocene. Moreover, the along-valley distribution of stream terraces provides further constraints on the age of thrusting and folding. In fact, the reconstructed terrace-levels are substantially parallel, and no evidence for any significant deformation by fold activity has been recognised. Local deformation displayed by both terrace surfaces and alluvial/slope-waste deposits suggests, instead, the intervening of some minor differential movements associated with the generalised uplift and/or to Middle-Late Pleistocene normal faulting. Their occurrence appears anyhow to be unrelated with the pattern of folds and associated thrusts. The present-day seismic activity of the study area was considered by analysing 83 seismic events that occurred from 1987 to 2000. The epicentre distribution is very

  15. Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, S.H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4000m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, late Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. -from Author

  16. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  17. Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: Implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.H. Jr. )

    1992-02-01

    Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4,000 m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, later Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. Youthful tectonic activity related to Gorda-North American plate convergence indicates an active Cascadia subduction zone and strong partial coupling between these plates. Structures of the northeastern margin of the Eel River basin are principally north-northwest-trending, east-northeast-dipping thrust and reverse faults that form imbricate thrust fans. The Coastal belt fault, the early Tertiary accretionary suture between the Franciscan Central and Coastal belts, can be traced from Arcata Bay northward offshore to the southern Oregon border. It is tentatively extended farther northward based on aeromagnetic data to an offshore position west of Cape Blanco. Thereafter, it may coincide with the offshore Fulmar fault. The Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) does not join the Mendocino transform fault at the commonly depicted offshore location of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ). Instead, the CSZ extends southeastward around the southern Eel River basin and shoreward along Mendocino Canyon to join the Petrolia shear zone. Similarly, the Mendocino fault may extend shoreward via Mattole Canyon and join the Cooskie shear zone. These two shear zones intersect onshore north of the King Range, and the area of their intersection is the probable location of the MTJ.

  18. Estimation of groundwater use for a groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin and adjacent areas, 1864-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Luukkonen, Carol L.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, at the request of Congress, is assessing the availability and use of the Nation's water resources to help characterize how much water is available now, how water availability is changing, and how much water can be expected to be available in the future. The Great Lakes Basin Pilot project of the U.S. Geological Survey national assessment of water availability and use focused on the Great Lakes Basin and included detailed studies of the processes governing water availability in the Great Lakes Basin. One of these studies included the development of a groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin. This report describes the compilation and estimation of the groundwater withdrawals in those areas in Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois that were needed for the Lake Michigan Basin study groundwater-flow model. These data were aggregated for 12 model time intervals spanning 1864 to 2005 and were summarized by model area, model subregion, category of water use, aquifer system, aquifer type, and hydrogeologic unit model layer. The types and availability of information on groundwater withdrawals vary considerably among states because water-use programs often differ in the types of data collected and in the methods and frequency of data collection. As a consequence, the methods used to estimate and verify the data also vary. Additionally, because of the different sources of data and different terminologies applied for the purposes of this report, the water-use data published in this report may differ from water-use data presented in other reports. These data represent only a partial estimate of groundwater use in each state because estimates were compiled only for areas in Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois within the Lake Michigan Basin model area. Groundwater-withdrawal data were compiled for both nearfield and farfield model areas in Wisconsin and Illinois, whereas these data were compiled primarily for the nearfield model

  19. New data on mammoth fauna mammals in the central Lena River basin (Yakutia, Lenskie Stolby National Nature Park and adjacent areas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeskorov, G. G.; Nogovitsyn, P. R.; Mashchenko, E. N.; Belolyubsky, I. N.; Stepanov, A. D.; Plotnikov, V. V.; Protopopov, A. V.; Shchelchkova, M. V.; van der Plicht, J.; Solomonov, N. G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the data on new findings of mammoth fauna remains in the Middle Lena basin used to specify the species composition of large Late Neopleistocene mammals represented by eleven species. The obtained range of radiocarbon dates made it possible to state that mass burials of Pleistocene mammal remains were formed in the region during the Karginsk Interstadial (24 000-55 000 years ago).

  20. Crustal structure of the eastern Algerian continental margin and adjacent deep basin: implications for late Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyahiaoui, B.; Sage, F.; Abtout, A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Yelles-Chaouche, K.; Schnürle, P.; Marok, A.; Déverchère, J.; Arab, M.; Galve, A.; Collot, J. Y.

    2015-06-01

    We determine the deep structure of the eastern Algerian basin and its southern margin in the Annaba region (easternmost Algeria), to better constrain the plate kinematic reconstruction in this region. This study is based on new geophysical data collected during the SPIRAL cruise in 2009, which included a wide-angle, 240-km-long, onshore-offshore seismic profile, multichannel seismic reflection lines and gravity and magnetic data, complemented by the available geophysical data for the study area. The analysis and modelling of the wide-angle seismic data including refracted and reflected arrival travel times, and integrated with the multichannel seismic reflection lines, reveal the detailed structure of an ocean-to-continent transition. In the deep basin, there is an ˜5.5-km-thick oceanic crust that is composed of two layers. The upper layer of the crust is defined by a high velocity gradient and P-wave velocities between 4.8 and 6.0 km s-1, from the top to the bottom. The lower crust is defined by a lower velocity gradient and P-wave velocity between 6.0 and 7.1 km s-1. The Poisson ratio in the lower crust deduced from S-wave modelling is 0.28, which indicates that the lower crust is composed mainly of gabbros. Below the continental edge, a typical continental crust with P-wave velocities between 5.2 and 7.0 km s-1, from the top to the bottom, shows a gradual seaward thinning of ˜15 km over an ˜35-km distance. This thinning is regularly distributed between the upper and lower crusts, and it characterizes a rifted margin, which has resulted from backarc extension at the rear of the Kabylian block, here represented by the Edough Massif at the shoreline. Above the continental basement, an ˜2-km-thick, pre-Messinian sediment layer with a complex internal structure is interpreted as allochthonous nappes of flysch backthrusted on the margin during the collision of Kabylia with the African margin. The crustal structure, moreover, provides evidence for Miocene

  1. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. The network currently (2014) consists of 125 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2014) measures and reports water levels from the 125 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 125 sites through water year 2014 (October 1, 2013, to September 30, 2014).

  2. Patterns of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin and adjacent southern waters: an approach based on records from the R/V Pillsbury expeditions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of deep-water corals in the Caribbean Sea was studied using records from oceanographic expeditions performed by the R/V Pillsbury. Sampled stations were sorted according to broad depth ranges and ecoregions and were analyzed in terms of species accumulation curves, variance in the species composition and contributions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity. According to the analysis of species accumulation curves using the Chao2 estimator, more diversity occurs on the continental slope (200-2000 m depth) than on the upper continental shelf (60-200 m depth). In addition to the effect of depth sampling, differences in species composition related to depth ranges were detected. However, the differences between ecoregions are dependent on depth ranges, there were fewer differences among ecoregions on the continental slope than on the upper continental shelf. Indicator species for distinctness of ecoregions were, in general, Alcyonaria and Antipatharia for the upper continental shelf, but also the scleractinians Madracis myriabilis and Cladocora debilis. In the continental slope, the alcyonarian Placogorgia and the scleractinians Stephanocyathus and Fungiacyathus were important for the distinction of ecoregions. Beta diversity was the most important component of gamma diversity in the Caribbean Basin. The contribution of ecoregions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity differed with depth range. On the upper continental shelf, the Southern Caribbean ecoregion contributed substantially to all components of diversity. In contrast, the northern ecoregions contributed substantially to the diversity of the Continental Slope. Strategies for the conservation of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin must consider the variation between ecoregions and depth ranges. PMID:24671156

  3. Patterns of Deep-Water Coral Diversity in the Caribbean Basin and Adjacent Southern Waters: An Approach based on Records from the R/V Pillsbury Expeditions

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of deep-water corals in the Caribbean Sea was studied using records from oceanographic expeditions performed by the R/V Pillsbury. Sampled stations were sorted according to broad depth ranges and ecoregions and were analyzed in terms of species accumulation curves, variance in the species composition and contributions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity. According to the analysis of species accumulation curves using the Chao2 estimator, more diversity occurs on the continental slope (200–2000 m depth) than on the upper continental shelf (60–200 m depth). In addition to the effect of depth sampling, differences in species composition related to depth ranges were detected. However, the differences between ecoregions are dependent on depth ranges, there were fewer differences among ecoregions on the continental slope than on the upper continental shelf. Indicator species for distinctness of ecoregions were, in general, Alcyonaria and Antipatharia for the upper continental shelf, but also the scleractinians Madracis myriabilis and Cladocora debilis. In the continental slope, the alcyonarian Placogorgia and the scleractinians Stephanocyathus and Fungiacyathus were important for the distinction of ecoregions. Beta diversity was the most important component of gamma diversity in the Caribbean Basin. The contribution of ecoregions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity differed with depth range. On the upper continental shelf, the Southern Caribbean ecoregion contributed substantially to all components of diversity. In contrast, the northern ecoregions contributed substantially to the diversity of the Continental Slope. Strategies for the conservation of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin must consider the variation between ecoregions and depth ranges. PMID:24671156

  4. Geology, Geochemistry and Re-Os systematics of manganese deposits from the Santa Rosalía Basin and adjacent areas in Baja California Sur, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio Salas, R.; Ruiz, J.; Ochoa-Landín, L.; Noriega, O.; Barra, F.; Meza-Figueroa, D.; Paz-Moreno, F.

    2008-06-01

    The manganese ores in the Santa Rosalía region, western Mexico, are mainly stratiform horizons or mantos, constrained to the initial stages of sedimentary cycles of the Miocene Boléo Formation. The manganese mineralization is generally restricted to isolated paleo-basins and related to NW-SE faults formed during the early stages of the opening of the Gulf of California. Jasper, Fe, and Mn oxides associated to the NW-SE structures may represent feeder zones for the mineralized system. The manganese oxide minerals include pyrolusite, cryptomelane, todorokite, hollandite, jacobsite, and pyrochroite. Trace elements in the manganese ores indicate a hydrothermal origin for the deposits of the Santa Rosalía area. Rare earth elements (REE) patterns obtained for manganese minerals from the Lucifer and El Gavilán deposits also support a hydrothermal origin, whereas the middle REE enrichment observed in samples from the Boléo district indicates mixing between hydrothermal and hydrogenous sources. Osmium and rhenium concentrations of the manganese minerals range between 33-173 ppt and 0.14-89 ppb, respectively. The initial 187Os/188Os ratios in the manganese oxides from Lucifer and the Boléo district range between 0.43 to 0.51 and 0.70 to 0.74, respectively. These ratios are different from seawater at 7 Ma (0.84-0.89), which suggests important contributions of osmium from underlying rocks such as the Miocene volcanic rocks and the Cretaceous quartz-monzonite basement. Field evidence, manganese oxide mineralogy coupled with major and trace element geochemistry and Re-Os systematics support a hydrothermal origin for the manganese deposits from the Santa Rosalía region. The ore deposition style indicates an exhalative-intraformational environment restricted to isolated basins in a diagenetic stage related to the initial evolution of the Gulf of California.

  5. The Taili-Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex corridor: Diachronous exhumation and relationships to the adjacent basins based on new 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th-Sm)/He mineral ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenyue; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Yongjiang; Genser, Johann; Dunkl, István; Heberer, Bianca; Jin, Wei; Zeng, Zuoxun; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone (western Liaoning Province in China) formed during latest Jurassic to Early Cretaceous crustal extension of the eastern North China craton, and exhumed low to medium metamorphic grade Archean, Upper Triassic and Upper Jurassic granitic rocks. The Mesozoic Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex (Yiwulüshan MCC) is dominated by a NNE-SSW elongated dome with a left-lateral shear zone, which is located in the northeastern part of Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone, and combine as Taili-Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex corridor. To the east, it is bounded by the NNE-trending Cretaceous to Eocene Liaohe basin (the northern extension of the Bohai Bay basin), and to the west by the Cretaceous-aged Fuxin-Yixian basin, which could potentially interpreted as supra-detachment basins. Here, we present results from a multi-method thermochronological study and coupled with structural investigations and sections of adjacent supra-detachment basins, which constrain the timing of regional deformation as well as the cooling history and exhumation processes of the low- to middle-grade metamorphic complex in the Taili-Yiwulüshan MCC corridor, in order to understand the mode of lithospheric scale reactivation, extension and thinning of the North China craton. The new40Ar/39Ar muscovite, biotite, K-feldspar and (U-Th)/He apatite ages from granitic rocks help constrain the thermal evolution during its exhumation. The thermochronologic studies have shown at least three stages of exhumation and cooling from late Jurassic to Eocene in Xingcheng-Taili shear zone should be distinguished, e.g., ~ 150-130 Ma, 130-115 Ma and 115-52 Ma, respectively. Diachronous onset and subsequent parallel cooling and exhumation characterize the early thermal history. The Yiwulüshan MCC has a similar exhumation history from 135 to 97 Ma with a similar cooling history. The development of Taili-Yiwulüshan MCC corridor is associated with synkinematic emplacement

  6. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and petrology of neogene rocks in the Deschutes Basin, Central Oregon: a record of continental-margin volcanism and its influence on fluvial sedimentation in an arc-adjacent basin

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    Neogene rocks of the Deschutes basin include the middle Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group and Simtustus Formation, and late Miocene to early Pliocene Deschutes Formation. Assignment of Prineville chemical-type flows to the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group is based on correlation of these lavas from their type area through the Deschutes basin and onto the Columbia Plateau, where they have been previously mapped as Grande Ronde Basalt. Simtustus Formation is a newly defined unit intercalated with and conformable upon these basalts, and is unconformably overlain by Deschutes Formation. Burial of mature topography by middle Miocene basalts raised local base levels and initiated aggradation by low-gradient streams within the basin represented by the tuffaceous sandstones and mudstones of the Simtustus Formation. These sediments are enriched in pyroclastic constituents relative to contemporaneous Western Cascades volcanics, reflecting preferential incorporation of easily eroded and more widespread pyroclastic debris in distal sedimentary sequences compared to epiclastic contributions from lavas. The abundance of basalts, combined with the paucity of hydrous minerals and FeO and TiO/sub 2/ enrichment in intermediate lavas, characterizes early High Cascade volcanics as atypical for convergent-margin arcs. These petrologic characteristics are consistent with high-level fractionation in an extensional regime. Extension culminated in the development of an intra-arc graben, which ended Deschutes Formation deposition by structurally isolating the basin from the High Cascade source area.

  7. Diagenesis in Okavango fan and adjacent dune deposits with implications for the record of palaeo-environmental change in Makgadikgadi Okavango Zambezi basin, northern Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringrose, Susan; Huntsman-Mapila, Philippa; Downey, William; Coetzee, Stephan; Fey, Martin; Vanderpost, Cornelis; Vink, Bernard; Kemosidile, Thebe; Kolokose, Dikitso

    2008-11-01

    This work considers the spatial distribution and ages of western MOZ basin siliclastic sediments prior to providing insights into the diagenesis of degraded dune and alluvial fan sands. Previously published and new TL/OSL ages imply that extensive over-washing of dune sands took place at least 100 ka ago while ages on Okavango floodplains imply that the fan was formed ca. 40 ka and has since undergone periods of higher and lower flood regimes. Sediment analyses indicate that both dune and fan sands contain a diagenetic matrix of clay-enhanced amorphous silica (CEAS) which bonds weakly formed aggregates. The time of formation of diagenetic matrix products is inconclusive but may have been accelerated during or shortly after events dated using OSL/TL techniques. Hence earlier dune over-washing may have led to greater porewater of an acidic to near neutral nature which in turn promoted smectite formation and silicic acid precipitation > 100 000 years ago. The relatively abundant CEAS matrix in floodplain sands implies more recent semi-continuous flood events again of an acidic-near neutral nature leading to the formation of smectite. In this case the floodplain sediments are dated as having been deposited around 40 and 11 ka, when porewater content may have accelerated clay formation and silica dissolution. The dual nature of the CEAS in the islands reflects a changing environment from smectite-dominated flooding events to sepiolite-dominated desiccation events. Flooding may also correspond to TL/OSL ages over the past 40 000 years which contributed to accelerated CEAS formation. The sepiolite is associated with a Ca-rich matrix implying desiccation which may relate to drying events over the 40 000 year period or to riparian tree root pumping and selective salt accumulation. This work shows that sedimentation in incipient rifts is complex and rarely explained totally in terms of primary depositional events. The implications of different stages of sand diagenesis may

  8. U-Pb ages on single detrital zircon grains from the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa: Constraints on the age of sedimentation and on the evolution of granites adjacent to the basin

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, L.J. ); Davis, D.W.; Kamo, S.L. )

    1990-05-01

    U-Pb ages of single detrital zircon grains from various stratigraphic horizons in the Dominion and Witwatersrand sequences provide constraints on the maximum age of sedimentation as well as indicating the pattern of age distribution in the (granitoid) source area providing detritus into the basin. Zircon ages in the Dominion sediments range from 3,191-3,105 Ma with a geometric mean ({bar X}) t 3,153 Ma. Those from the lower Witwatersrand sediments (West Rand Group) range from 3,305-3,044 Ma with {bar X} = 3,097 Ma, and zircons in the upper Witwatersrand sediments (Central Rand Group) are between 3,207-2,894 Ma old with {bar X} = 3,053 Ma. Ages of detrital zircons generally decrease upward in the stratigraphic record, and <3,000 Ma old zircons are only found in the Central Rand Group. This trend implies that younger granites may have formed at some time subsequent to lower Witwatersrand deposition, or that continued erosion of the hinterland resulted in the unroofing of successively younger granites. The wide spread of zircon ages (411 Ma) evident in the data set indicates that granites formed virtually continuously between circa 3,300-2.900 Ma in the Witwatersrand source area. Of the zircon ages 45% fall within 30 m.y. of the geometric mean of the total data set, suggesting that a major crust-forming event occurred at 3,073 {plus minus} 30 Ma. Granitoids in the source area can be divided into (i) pre-Dominion basement; (ii) Dominion granites, whose emplacement coincided with the extrusion of Dominion volcanics, and (iii) Randian granites, which were emplaced synchronously with Witwatersrand deposition. This sequence of events supports recent tectonic models that view the Witwatersrand sequence as having been deposited in a foreland basin.

  9. Contribution of allochthonous organic carbon across the Serrano River Basin and the adjacent fjord system in Southern Chilean Patagonia: Insights from the combined use of stable isotope and fatty acid biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Alejandra; Silva, Nelson; Vargas, Cristian A.

    2014-12-01

    Chilean Patagonia is characterized by an irregular geography involving many islands, peninsulas, channels, sounds and fjords, that prevent direct interaction between oceanic water masses and freshwater river discharges at the head of the continental fjords. In this paper, we evaluate the potential sources and composition of organic matter along the Serrano River basin and the adjacent channels and fjords in Southern Chilean Patagonia (51-52°S), as well as their importance for marine planktonic organisms. In spring of 2009, evidence of C:N ratio, δ13C, δ15N and fatty acids composition in particulate organic carbon (POC), surface sediment, soil, plankton, and vegetal tissue, as well some physical and chemical characteristics (i.e. salinity, dissolved oxygen, NO3-, NH4+, PO4-3, Si(OH)4), were measured in samples collected during the CIMAR 14 Fiordos oceanographic cruise. Significant differences in δ13C-POC were found between the terrestrial and marine environments but not within fjord stations. Along the fjord region, the high C:N ratio and depleted δ13C values in POC samples suggest that particulate organic matter (POM) in the upper level of the water column (0-10 m depth) is supported by different sources. Terrestrial organic carbon exported by rivers may constitute a significant subsidy, up to 70% based on two end-member mixing model, to the fjord ecosystem. Furthermore, terrestrial carbon might account for a significant percentage of the zooplankton body carbon, estimated both by using isotopic (∼24-61%) and fatty acid analysis (∼14-61%). Isotopic analyses in marine sediment samples suggest that POC seems to be decoupled from terrestrial-influenced surface sources at the fjord stations, and the contribution of surrounding vegetation seemingly unimportant for carbon export to the benthos. Local hydrographic and geomorphological characteristics might determine the presence of oceanographic frontal zones, which in turn might explain differences in carbon

  10. Crustal architecture and deep structure of the Namibian continental shelf and adjacent oceanic basins around the landfall of Walvis Ridge from wide-angle seismic and marine magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planert, L.; Behrmann, J.; Jegen, M.; Heincke, B.; Jokat, W.; Bialas, J.; Marti, A.

    2012-12-01

    results for a marine magnetotelluric profile. Tomographic analysis of the seismic data reveals the velocity structure of the crust down into the uppermost mantle. The probably most striking feature of our models is the sharp lateral transition in crustal structure and thickness associated with the northern boundary zone of Walvis Ridge towards the Angola Basin. Here, the rather thin oceanic crust in the basin lies opposite to the ~35 km thick igneous crustal root founding the highest elevated northern portions of Walvis Ridge. In contrast, the southern termination of Walvis Ridge and the corresponding transition towards the adjacent 25-30 km thick crustal portions further south is much more subdued. Due to the presence of a high-velocity (6.5-7.2 km/s) lower crust we argue that the Namibian shelf south of Walvis Ridge comprises a transitional igneous origin. We suggest that the northern boundary zone close to the landfall of Walvis Ridge represents an important transtensional tectonic feature which may have provoked the preferential extraction of melts into the footwall of this structure.

  11. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  12. Integrated analysis of environmental drivers, spatiotemporal variability and rates of contemporary chemical and mechanical fluvial denudation in selected glacierized and non-glacierized cold climate catchment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2016-04-01

    There is, by today, an impressive number of quantitative process geomorphic studies presenting contemporary chemical or mechanical fluvial denudation rates from a wide range of cold climate catchment geo-systems worldwide. However, the number of quantitative studies that actually considers and includes all three main components of fluvial transport, i.e. solute transport, suspended sediment transport and bedload transport, is actually rather small. Most of the existing studies include one or, at best, two of these main components. At the same time, it is generally accepted that a knowledge of the quantitative shares of fluvial solute, suspended sediment and bedload transport of the total fluvial transport, together with detailed information on sediment sources and sediment storage, is needed for the reliable quantitative construction and understanding of present-day sedimentary budgets. In this contribution, results from longer-term process geomorphic work conducted in selected glacierized and non-glacierized high-latitude and high-altitude cold climate catchment systems in Norway, Iceland, Sweden and Finland are compared. The size of the six studied catchment geo-systems ranges from 7.0 km2 to 79.5 km2. Contemporary chemical and mechanical fluvial denudation rates measured in the defined catchment systems with different cold climates, varying degrees of glacier coverage, different lithologies and general sediment availabilities, different catchment morphometries, and varying degrees of vegetation cover are presented. By direct comparisons between the six different catchments environmental controls of the computed annual denudation rates are detected and the spatial variability of the contemporary chemical and mechanical fluvial denudation rates found across the different cold climate catchment systems is explained. Annual fluvial denudation rates generally increase with increasing topographic relief, increasing mean slope angles, increasing annual precipitation

  13. Response to memorandum by Rowley and Dixon regarding U.S. Geological Survey report titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Applications pending for permanent permits to pump large quantities of ground water in Spring and Snake Valleys adjacent to Great Basin National Park (the Park) prompted the National Park Service to request a study by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the susceptibility of the Park's surface-water resources to pumping. The result of this study was published as U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5099 'Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada,' by P.E. Elliott, D.A. Beck, and D.E. Prudic. That report identified areas within the Park where surface-water resources are susceptible to ground-water pumping; results from the study showed that three streams and several springs near the eastern edge of the Park were susceptible. However, most of the Park's surface-water resources likely would not be affected by pumping because of either low-permeability rocks or because ground water is sufficiently deep as to not be directly in contact with the streambeds. A memorandum sent by Peter D. Rowley and Gary L. Dixon, Consulting Geologists, to the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) on June 29, 2006 was critical of the report. The memorandum by Rowley and Dixon was made available to the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the public during the Nevada State Engineer's 'Evidentiary Exchange' process for the recent hearing on applications for ground-water permits by SNWA in Spring Valley adjacent to Great Basin National Park. The U.S. Geological Survey was asked by the National Park Service to assess the validity of the concerns and comments contained in the Rowley and Dixon memorandum. An Administrative Letter Report responding to Rowley and Dixon's concerns and comments was released to the National Park Service on October 30, 2006. The National Park Service subsequently requested that the

  14. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermotectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range and adjacent North Slope foreland basin, Alaska: Including fission track results from the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Sullivan, P. B.; Murphy, J.M.; Blythe, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Apatite fission track data are used to evaluate the thermal and tectonic history of the central Brooks Range and the North Slope foreland basin in northern Alaska along the northern leg of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT). Fission track analyses of the detrital apatite grains in most sedimentary units resolve the timing of structures and denudation within the Brooks Range, ranging in scale from the entire mountain range to relatively small-scale folds and faults. Interpretation of the results indicates that rocks exposed within the central Brooks Range cooled rapidly from paleotemperatures 110?? to 50??C during discrete episodes at ???100??5 Ma, ???60??4 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma, probably in response to kilometer-scale denudation. North of the mountain front, rocks in the southern half of the foreland basin were exposed to maximum paleotemperatures 110??C in the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene as a result of burial by Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Rapid cooling from these elevated paleotemperatures also occurred due to distinct episodes of kilometer-scale denudation at ???60??4 Ma, 46??3 Ma, 35??2 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma. Combined, the apatite analyses indicate that rocks exposed along the TACT line through the central Brooks Range and foreland basin experienced episodic rapid cooling throughout the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in response to at least three distinct kilometer-scale denudation events. Future models explaining orogenic events in northern Alaska must consider these new constraints from fission track thermochronology. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Geological and environmental controls on the change of eruptive style (phreatomagmatic to Strombolian-effusive) of Late Pleistocene El Caracol tuff cone and its comparison with adjacent volcanoes around the Zacapu basin (Michoacán, México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kshirsagar, Pooja; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie Noëlle; Salinas, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    The 28,300 year BP (cal 32,300 BP) El Caracol tuff cone complex is one of the few phreatomagmatic volcanoes in the scoria-cone dominated Plio-Quaternary Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (MGVF). It displays a shallow circular crater of ~ 1 km in diameter that is filled with several meter-thick lava flows and is located between two NE-SW trending normal faults dipping NW. It lies directly on top of Pliocene lavas of the San Lorenzo shield volcano that forms part of a tectonic horst (topographic high) separating the Zacapu lake basin (1980 m) in the south from the Río Angulo river valley (1760 m) to the north. Detailed study of the tephra sequence indicates that the eruption occurred in two stages: 1) Weak phreatomagmatic, in which about 0.1-0.5 km3 dense rock equivalent (DRE) of magma was issued within ~ 1 to 3 months at the rate of 4-40 m3/s, and 2) purely magmatic (Strombolian-effusive) during which the vent shifted slightly its position toward the NW, forming a small scoria cone (~ 100 m high) on the crater rim of the tuff cone. From this scoria cone lava flows were issued, first into the tuff cone crater occupying its bottom, and subsequently toward the NW, down the outer flank of the tuff cone and into the plain, where they reached a distance of ~ 3.5 km. During this stage ~ 0.6 km3 DRE of magma was produced at the rate of ~ 4 m3/s in a period of ~ 5 months. Although El Caracol displays many features that are characteristic for a phreatomagmatic vent, its morphology, types of deposits, and its complex process of formation makes it strikingly different from the more typical case of the ~ 21,000 year BP (cal 25,300 BP) Alberca de Guadalupe maar volcano, situated not far at the SE margin of the Zacapu basin. The latter was solely phreatomagmatic during the course of its eruption and is formed in its entirety by surge and fallout breccias consisting largely of xenolithic material. In contrast, at El Caracol the hydrogeological environment (namely the low

  16. Hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and parts of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and Alabama during drought conditions, July 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of the Interior sustainable water strategy, WaterSMART, the U.S. Geological Survey documented hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and western and central Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia during low-flow conditions in July 2011. Moderate-drought conditions prevailed in this area during early 2011 and worsened to exceptional by June, with cumulative rainfall departures from the 1981-2010 climate normals registering deficits ranging from 17 to 27 inches. As a result, groundwater levels and stream discharges measured below median daily levels throughout most of 2011. Water-quality field properties including temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were measured at selected surface-water sites. Record-low groundwater levels measured in 12 of 43 surficial aquifer wells and 128 of 312 Upper Floridan aquifer wells during July 2011 underscored the severity of drought conditions in the study area. Most wells recorded groundwater levels below the median daily statistic, and 7 surficial aquifer wells were dry. Groundwater-level measurements taken in July 2011 were used to determine the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Groundwater generally flows to the south and toward streams except in reaches where streams discharge to the aquifer. The degree of connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and streams decreases east of the Flint River where thick overburden hydraulically separates the aquifer from stream interaction. Hydraulic separation of the Upper Floridan aquifer from streams located east of the Flint River is shown by stream-stage altitudes that differ from groundwater levels measured in close proximity to streams. Most streams located in the study area during 2011 exhibited below normal flows (streamflows less than the 25th percentile), substantiating the severity of drought conditions that year. Streamflow

  17. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  18. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  19. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  20. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  1. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  2. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  3. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  4. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  5. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  6. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  7. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  8. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  10. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  11. SOLIDS TRANSPORT BETWEEN ADJACENT CAFB FLUIDIZED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of a pulsed, dense-phase pneumatic transport system for controlled circulation between adjacent fluidized beds. A model was developed to predict performance. The program provides technical support for EPA's program to demo...

  12. Border separation for adjacent orthogonal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Khan, F.M.; Sharma, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, T.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Field border separations for adjacent orthogonal fields can be calculated geometrically, given the validity of some important assumptions such as beam alignment and field uniformity. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were used to investigate dose uniformity across field junctions as a function of field separation and, in particular, to review the CCSG recommendation for the treatment of medulloblastoma with separate head and spine fields.

  13. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting and its dynamic setting in Eastern China and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jianye; Tamaki, Kensaku; Li, Sitian; Junxia, Zhang

    2002-02-01

    During the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic, extension was widespread in Eastern China and adjacent areas. The first rifting stage spanned in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times and covered an area of more than 2 million km 2 of NE Asia from the Lake Baikal to the Sikhot-Alin in EW direction and from the Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt to North China in NS direction. This rifting was characterized by intracontinental rifts, volcanic eruptions and transform extension along large-scale strike-slip faults. Based on the magmatic activity, filling sequence of basins, tectonic framework and subsidence analysis of basins, the evolution of this area can be divided into three main developmental phases. The first phase, calc-alkaline volcanics erupted intensely along NNE-trending faults, forming Daxing'anling volcanic belt, NE China. The second phase, Basin and Range type fault basin system bearing coal and oil developed in NE Asia. During the third phase, which was marked by the change from synrifting to thermal subsidence, very thick postrift deposits developed in the Songliao basin (the largest oil basin in NE China). Following uplift and denudation, caused by compressional tectonism in the near end of Cretaceous, a Paleogene rifting stage produced widespread continental rift systems and continental margin basins in Eastern China. These rifted basins were usually filled with several kilometers of alluvial and lacustrine deposits and contain a large amount of fossil fuel resources. Integrated research in most of these rifting basins has shown that the basins are characterized by rapid subsidence, relative high paleo-geothermal history and thinned crust. It is now accepted that the formation of most of these basins was related to a lithospheric extensional regime or dextral transtensional regime. During Neogene time, early Tertiary basins in Eastern China entered a postrifting phase, forming regional downwarping. Basin fills formed in a thermal subsidence period onlapped the fault

  14. Denitrification in restored and constructed wetlands adjacent to crop fields on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer applications on crop fields are a significant source of nitrate (NO3), and groundwater concentrations are frequently 500-1000 µM. We show that groundwater transport of agricultural NO3 results in significant denitrification in adjacent wetlands in the Choptank Basin on the Delmarva Penins...

  15. Precambrian shield and basement tectonics in sedimentary basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Touborg, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    This study focused on the use of (1) regional structural analysis of basement and Precambrian rocks surrounding a sedimentary basin, and (2) tracing basement structures into the sedimentary basin. The structural analysis of the Precambrian shield has a fundamental bearing on interpretation of overlying sedimentary cover rocks. This is expressed in the southern part of the Hudson's Bay basin and its southeastern arm, the Moose River basin. For instance, the rims of both basins are controlled by faults or graben structures. Approximately 13 major fault systems with strike lengths of 200-300 km (125-186 mi) or more can be traced from the exposed Precambrian shield into the basin in terms of lineament arrays and/or aeromagnetic and/or gravity signature. The data suggest reactivation of faults during basin sedimentation. This type of basement structural analysis in areas adjacent to sedimentary basins can provide a valuable interpretation base for subsequent seismic surveys and basin evaluation.

  16. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  17. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  18. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  19. Regional geophysics and the basement of cratonic basins: a comparative study with the Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hinze, W.J.; Lidiak, E.G.

    1986-08-01

    The basement of the Michigan basin consists of four major provinces - the complex metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and igneous rocks of the Penokean orogenic assemblage in the north, the felsic anorogenic igneous rocks to the south, the highly metamorphosed schists, gneisses, and related igneous intrusions of the Grenville province in the east, and a middle Proterozoic rift zone, which transects the basin from the north to the southeast margin. Sparse basement drill holes and characteristic geophysical patterns support this interpretation. The direct geologic information on the basement of other cratonic basins is not as well known. However, regional geophysical surveys and sparse, poorly distributed basement drill holes provide information on the complex character and structural relationships of the basement of other basins. Like the Michigan basin, many cratonic basins (e.g., Illinois, Williston, and Paris basins) are underlain by dense and commonly more magnetic rocks than adjacent areas. As in the Michigan basin, these rocks are interpreted to have a profound effect on the origin and tectonic development of the basins. Geologic and geophysical evidence indicates that many of these dense basement rocks originated in rifts that formed hundreds of millions of years prior to basin development. A comparison of the basement in cratonic basins provides important constraints on the origin and tectonic development of the Michigan basin.

  20. Reconstructing genome mixtures from partial adjacencies.

    PubMed

    Mahmoody, Ahmad; Kahn, Crystal L; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer genome sequencing efforts are underway with the goal of identifying the somatic mutations that drive cancer progression. A major difficulty in these studies is that tumors are typically heterogeneous, with individual cells in a tumor having different complements of somatic mutations. However, nearly all DNA sequencing technologies sequence DNA from multiple cells, thus resulting in measurement of mutations from a mixture of genomes. Genome rearrangements are a major class of somatic mutations in many tumors, and the novel adjacencies (i.e. breakpoints) resulting from these rearrangements are readily detected from DNA sequencing reads. However, the assignment of each rearrangement, or adjacency, to an individual cancer genome in the mixture is not known. Moreover, the quantity of DNA sequence reads may be insufficient to measure all rearrangements in all genomes in the tumor. Motivated by this application, we formulate the k-minimum completion problem (k-MCP). In this problem, we aim to reconstruct k genomes derived from a single reference genome, given partial information about the adjacencies present in the mixture of these genomes. We show that the 1-MCP is solvable in linear time in the cases where: (i) the measured, incomplete genome has a single circular or linear chromosome; (ii) there are no restrictions on the chromosomal content of the measured, incomplete genome. We also show that the k-MCP problem, for k ≥ 3 in general, and the 2-MCP problem with the double-cut-and-join (DCJ) distance are NP-complete, when there are no restriction on the chromosomal structure of the measured, incomplete genome. These results lay the foundation for future algorithmic studies of the k-MCP and the application of these algorithms to real cancer sequencing data. PMID:23282028

  1. The carbonate system of the amur estuary and the adjacent marine aquatic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltunov, A. M.; Tishchenko, P. Ya.; Zvalinskii, V. I.; Chichkin, R. V.; Lobanov, V. B.; Nekrasov, D. A.

    2009-10-01

    In July 2007, integrated studies of the Amur Estuary and the adjacent aquatic areas were performed on board R/V Professor Gagarinskii within the project of the Amur River basin exploration. On the basis of the data obtained during the cruise, the carbonate system of the Amur Estuary in the summer period was considered. It was shown that the distribution of the carbonate parameters in the Amur Estuary and the adjacent aquatic areas points to the high intensity of the bio-geochemical processes of production and mineralization of organic matter. It was found that the organic matter destruction is prevailing over the photosynthesis in the riverine part of the estuary. This aquatic area is a source of carbon dioxide for the atmosphere and rates as a heterotrophic basin. On the contrary, the surface waters at the outer boundaries of the estuary (the Gulf of Sakhalin and the Tatar Strait) act as a sink of the atmospheric carbon dioxide, which is caused by the intense photosynthesis in this area. This part of the estuary is treated as an autotrophic basin.

  2. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  3. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  4. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  5. Geomechanical analysis of a welding salt layer and its effects on adjacent sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Mahdi; Nikolinakou, Maria A.; Hudec, Michael R.; Flemings, Peter B.

    2016-06-01

    We simulate welding of the source layer of a salt diapir with a forward finite-element model and study stresses and deformation in the salt layer and the diapir, as well as in their adjacent sediments. Welded salt layers are abundant in mature salt basins, where most or all of the salt has withdrawn into diapirs. However, there is little understanding of the stress field in these layers and their adjacent sediments. We show that salt flow along the source layer leads to significant stress anomalies inside the layer and in adjacent sediments. In the source layer, salt pressure becomes higher than overburden stress in nearly welded areas and becomes lower than overburden stress in adjacent thicker areas. When the source layer welds, stresses increase significantly in sediments near the weld tip, which helps compaction of these sediments and possibly their fracturing and faulting. Our model illustrates that all sediments overlying the weld experience this stress increase and the associated material changes as the weld tip propagates along the weld. We present natural examples fitting our predictions and discuss the importance of our results for the exploration, characterization, and production of reservoirs near welded salt layers.

  6. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  7. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  8. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  9. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  10. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  15. Active transtensional intracontinental basins: Walker Lane in the western Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, Angela S.; Bursik, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The geometry and dimensions of sedimentary basins within the Walker Lane are a result of Plio-Pleistocene transtensive deformation and partial detachment of the Sierra Nevada crustal block from the North American plate. Distinct morpho-tectonic domains lie within this active transtensive zone. The northeast end of the Walker Lane is partly buried by active volcanism of the southern Cascades, and adjacent basins are filled or poorly developed. To the south, the basin sizes are moderate, 25–45km × 15–10 km, with narrow 8-12km wide mountain ranges mainly oriented N-S to NNE. These basins form subparallel arrays in discrete zones trending about 300° and have documented clockwise rotation. This is succeeded to the south by a releasing stepover domain ∼85-100km wide, where the basins are elongated E-W to ENE, small (∼15-30km long, 5-15km wide), and locally occupied by active volcanic centers. The southernmost part of the Walker Lane is structurally integrated, with high to extreme relief. Adjacent basins are elongate, 50-200km long and ∼5 -20km wide. Variations in transtensive basin orientations in the Walker Lane are largely attributable to variations in strain partitioning. Large basins in the Walker Lane have 2-6km displacement across basin bounding faults with up to 3 km of clastic accumulation based on gravity and drill hole data. The sedimentary deposits of the basins may include interbedded volcanic deposits with bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic associations. The basins may include lacustrine deposits that record a wide range of water chemistry from cold fresh water conditions to saline-evaporative

  16. The thermal environment of Cascadia Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. Paul; Hautala, Susan L.; Bjorklund, Tor A.

    2012-07-01

    Located adjacent to the NE Pacific convergent boundary, Cascadia Basin has a global impact well beyond its small geographic size. Composed of young oceanic crust formed at the Juan de Fuca Ridge, igneous rocks underlying the basin are partially insulated from cooling of their initial heat of formation by a thick layer of pelagic and turbidite sediments derived from the adjacent North American margin. The igneous seafloor is eventually consumed at the Cascadia subduction zone, where interactions between the approaching oceanic crust and the North American continental margin are partially controlled by the thermal environment. Within Cascadia Basin, basement topographic relief varies dramatically, and sediments have a wide range of thickness and physical properties. This variation produces regional differences in heat flow and basement temperatures for seafloor even of similar age. Previous studies proposed a north-south thermal gradient within Cascadia Basin, with high geothermal flux and crustal temperatures measured in the heavily sedimented northern portion near Vancouver Island and lower than average heat flux and basement temperatures predicted for the central and southern portions of the basin. If confirmed, this prediction has implications for processes associated with the Cascadia subduction zone, including the location of the "locked zone" of the megathrust fault. Although existing archival geophysical data in the central and southern basin are sparse, nonuniformly distributed, and derived from a wide range of historical sources, a substantial N-S geothermal gradient appears to be confirmed by our present compilation of combined water column and heat flow measurements.

  17. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  18. Plio-Pleistocene drainage development in an inverted sedimentary basin: Vera basin, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin

    2008-08-01

    fluvial incision into the underlying basin fill sediments and basin margin mountainous topography. Fluvial incision, headwards erosion, expansion and modification of the consequent drainage network is documented within a series of up to four major inset river terrace levels and associated landforms. Fluvial incision and drainage network expansion are attributed to differential uplift and the creation of regional gradients between adjacent basins. The relatively low Plio-Pleistocene uplift rate of the Vera basin (11-21 m Ma - 1 ) in comparison to adjacent basins (Sorbas: 80-160 m Ma - 1 ; Huercal-Overa: > 50 m Ma - 1 ) resulted in a switch from internal to external basin drainage. Ancestral forms of the principal drainage systems within the Vera basin: the Ríos Almanzora, Aguas and Antas, captured basins and mountain catchment areas to the north (Huercal-Overa basin), southwest (Sorbas basin) and west (Sierra de los Filabres range). The switch from basin infilling to fluvial dissection is coincident with a phase of Early-Mid Pleistocene compressional tectonics, expressed by extensional faulting. This deformation is probably linked to accelerated strike-slip movement along the Palomares Fault Zone. The faulting is superimposed onto the longer term pattern of Plio-Pleistocene uplift and basin inversion.

  19. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  20. Interaction between adjacent lightning discharges in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Guangshu; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yajun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Tinglong

    2013-07-01

    Using a 3D lightning radiation source locating system (LLS), three pairs of associated lightning discharges (two or more adjacent lightning discharges following an arbitrary rule that their space-gap was less than 10 km and their time-gap was less than 800 ms) were observed, and the interaction between associated lightning discharges was analyzed. All these three pairs of associated lightning discharges were found to involve three or more charge regions (the ground was considered as a special charge region). Moreover, at least one charge region involved two lightning discharges per pair of associated lightning discharges. Identified from electric field changes, the subsequent lightning discharges were suppressed by the prior lightning discharges. However, it is possible that the prior lightning discharge provided a remaining discharge channel to facilitate the subsequent lightning discharge. The third case provided evidence of this possibility. Together, the results suggested that, if the charges in the main negative charge region can be consumed using artificial lightning above the main negative charge regions, lightning accidents on the ground could be greatly reduced, on the condition that the height of the main negative charge region and the charge intensity of the lower positive charge region are suitable.

  1. Paleogeographic and paleotectonic setting of sedimentary basins in the Sevier thrust belt and hinterland, eastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Suydam, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern Great Basin contains a sparse record of broadly distributed Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which record: evolution of intermontane basins during development of the Sevier (Sv)contractional orogen and incipient extensional collapse of the elevated Sv hinterland (east-central NV), and complex tectono-sedimentary interactions between frontal thrust belt structures and the western margin of the adjacent foreland basin. Palinspastic restoration of these strata and associated structures to pre-Tertiary extension positions reveals a clearer pictures of Cretaceous basin paleogeography and allows comparison with the Puna/Altiplano plateau and precordillera thrust belt of the Neogene Andean orogen. Two syntectonic stratal assemblages are present in east-central NV. Lower Cretaceous alluvial strata (Newark Canyon Fm) record basin development coeval with emergence of contractional structures in the Sv hinterland. Localized early Cretaceous basins were possibly piggyback immature; periods of open drainage to the to the east and south suggest connection with the nascent Sv foreland basin to the east (Cedar Mountain/Sanpete Fms) prior to major thrust loading in central Utah. Development of hinterland structures is almost recorded by Aptian-Albian foreland basin alluvial deposits in SW Utah (Dakota Fm) and southern Nevada (Willow Tank Fm). Upper Cretaceous to Eocene strata (Sheep Pass Fm) record inception of regionally abundant alluvial-lacustrine basins which developed in response to onset of latest Cretaceous extension and associated collapse of the Sv hinterland. Evolution of the structurally complex western margin of the Sv foreland basin is recorded in Cretaceous through Eocene strata deposited in: piggyback basins which were at times hydrologically connected to the adjacent foreland basins, and thrust-proximal portions of the foreland basin. These proximal areas are characterized by folding and faulting of basin fill and development of intrabasinal unconformities.

  2. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  3. Petroleum exploration in Absaroka basin of northwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Sundell, K.A.

    1986-08-01

    A new, virtually unexplored petroleum province with large potential resources can be defined in northwestern Wyoming. Structurally, the Absaroka basin is bounded on the north by the Beartooth uplift, to the west by the Gallatin and Washakie uplifts, to the south by the Washakie and Owl Creek uplifts, and to the east by the Cody arch. The Cody arch connects the southern Beartooth uplift with the northwesternmost Owl Creek uplift and separates the Bighorn basin to the east from the Absaroka basin to the west. The eastern flank of the cody arch is bounded by a major west-dipping thrust fault. The western flank is locally a subhorizontal shelf but overall gently dips to the west-southwest into deeper parts of the Absaroka basin. In contrast to most petroleum basins, the Absaroka basin is topographically a rugged mountain range, created by erosion of a thick sequence of Eocene volcanic rocks that fill the center of the basin and lap onto the adjacent uplifts. Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks that have produced several billion barrels of oil from the adjacent Bighorn and Wind River basins are probably present within the Absaroka basin and should have similar production capabilities. The Absaroka basin may have greater potential than adjacent basins because the volcanics provide additional traps and reservoirs. Domes in Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks beneath the volcanics and stratigraphic traps at the angular unconformity between the volcanics and underlying reservoirs are primary exploration targets. Unique geologic, geophysical, permitting, access, and drilling problems are encountered in all aspects of exploration.

  4. Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Neogene San Joaquin basin in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc basin. The transition from forearc basin to the more restricted Neogene marine basin occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the basin include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the Basin and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the west side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene basin history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-west compression in the basin, resulting from extension in the Basin and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the west side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the basin, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the basin paleogeography through the Cenozoic.

  5. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  6. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  7. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  9. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  10. Pn wave velocity and anisotropy beneath Pamir and its adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Biao; Pei, Shunping

    2012-12-01

    As the western end point of continental collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates, Pamir is an ideal place to research uplifting mechanisms in the Tibetan plateau. In this study, 141 644 Pn arrivals were used to obtain seismic wave velocities and anisotropy in the uppermost mantle beneath Pamir and its adjacent regions by performing tomographic inversion of Pn travel times. The data were selected from multiple databases, including ISC/EHB, the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes, and regional bulletins of Xinjiang. The tomography results reveal significant features with high resolution and correlate well with geological structures. The main results are as follows: (1) The Pn wave velocities are particularly high in the old stable blocks such as Tarim basin, Indian plate and Tajik basin, while the low Pn velocities always lie in tectonically active regions like the western Tibetan plateau, Pamir, Tianshan and Hindu Kush. (2) Strong Pn anisotropy is found beneath the Indian-Eurasian collision zone; its direction is parallel to the collision arc and nearly perpendicular to both the direction of maximum compression stress and relative crustal movement. The result is probably caused by the pure shear deformation in the uppermost mantle of the collision zone. (3) A geodynamic continent-continent collision model is proposed to show anisotropy and collision mechanisms between the Indian plate and the Tarim and Tajik basins.

  11. Groundwater Characterization of Cihaur Watershed Basin, Batujajar and Adjacent, West Bandung District, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azy, Fikri Noor; Sapari Dwi Hadian, Mohamad; Ismawan

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted based on data from outcrop, well data, and springs with field orientation method assisted by the use of GPS and measurement tool physical and chemical properties of groundwater. Geological conditions investigated were geomorphology and stratigraphy, geomorphology unit study area consists of four units, namely geomorphology unit of strato volcano body, foot of strato volcano, intrusion units, and plains units and the river drainage patterns are parallel and subparallel. Stratigraphy in the study area are volcanic breccia (Qbv), Unit Andesite (Qa), Unit Tuff (Qtf) and Unit Clay Tuffan (Qlt). The characteristics of the groundwater of the study area are in form of the physico-chemical, major elements, and hydrolic parameter of the groundwater aquifers. From 27 locations, the water quality assesment by physico-chemical properties is classified as fresh water category and based on chemical major elements, has been classified 8 facies which are located in the study area. Then, there are two lithologies which act as aquifers ie, tuff and volcanic breccias. Conductivity values in the range of volcanic breccia aquifers respectively 0,128 m/day and 0,288 m/day, transmitivity (T) ranges respectively 1,9296 m2/day and 4,32 m2/day. The value of conductivity in tuff aquifer is 0,063 m/day, transmitivity (T) is 0,95 m2/day. While lithology Qlt (Clay tuffan) is lithology with very low productivity of groundwater or called groundwater rare area (akiclud) and the rock units Qa (Andesite) is a non-aquifer that is the absence of groundwater in these rock units (akifug).

  12. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Purves, W.J. ); Ting, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  13. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  14. Using isotope, hydrochemical methods and energy-balance modelling to estimate contribution of different components to flow forming process in a high-altitude catchment (Dzhancuat river basin case study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rets, Ekaterina; Loshakova, Nadezhda; Chizhova, Julia; Kireeva, Maria; Frolova, Natalia; Tokarev, Igor; Budantseva, Nadine; Vasilchuk, Yurij

    2016-04-01

    A multicomponent structure of sources of river runoff formation is characteristic of high-altitude territories: ice and firn melting; seasonal snow melting on glacier covered and non-glacier area of a watershed; liquid precipitation; underground waters. In addition, each of these components can run off the watershed surface in different ways. Use of isotopic, hydrochemical methods and energy balance modelling provides possibility to estimate contribution of different components to river runoff that is an essential to understand the mechanism of flow formation in mountainious areas. A study was carried out for Dzhancuat river basin that was chosen as representative for North Caucasus in course of the International Hydrological Decade. Complex glaciological, hydrological and meteorological observation have been carried in the basin since 1965. In years 2013-2015 the program also included daily collecting of water samples on natural stable isotopes on the Dzhancuat river gauging station, and sampling water nourishment sources (ice, snow, firn, liquid precipitation) within the study area. More then 800 water samples were collected. Application of an energy balance model of snow and ice melt with distributed parameters provided an opportunity to identify Dzhancuat river runoff respond to glaciers melt regime and seasonal redistribution of melt water. The diurnal amplitude of oscillation of the Dzhakuat river runoff in the days without precipitation is formed by melting at almost snow-free areas of the Dzhancuat glacier tongues. Snowmelt water from the non-glacierized part contributes to the formation of the next day runoff. A wave of snow and firn melt in upper zones of glacier flattens considerably during filtration through snow and run-off over the surface and in the body of the glacier. This determines a general significant inertia of the Dzhacuat river runoff. Some part of melt water is stored into natural regulating reservoirs of the watershed that supply the

  15. Deformation microstructures and diagenesis in sandstone adjacent to an extensional fault: Implications for the flow and entrapment of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hippler, S.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Microstructural and diagenetic analyses of the North Scapa Sandstone in the hanging wall of the North Scapa fault, Orkney, Scotland, provide insight into the relationship between faulting and fluid flow during basin development. The results demonstrate the influence of this relationship on fault sealing processes and hydrocarbon migration. During development of the Orcadian basin in the Middle Devonian, the fault moved in an extensional sense. Dilatancy associated with cataclastic deformation caused localization of fluid flow and resulted in the precipitation of quartz and illite cement in the North Scapa Sandstone up to 1 m from the fault plane. This diagenetic event, coupled with cataclastic grain-size reduction, significantly reduced the porosity and permeability of the sandstone directly adjacent to the fault. These processes are effective sealing mechanisms within the sandstone. Lacustrine source rocks in the Orcadian basin reached maturation during the latest Devonian to middle Carboniferous. At the end of this time, the basin was uplifted, and the North Scapa fault was reactivated in a normal, but dominantly oblique-slip sense. This later deformation was accommodated directly outside the sealed zone and resulted in the development of broad (10-20 cm) breccia zones and narrow (<10 cm) cataclastic bands. Further dilatancy associated with the cataclastic deformation channelized hydrocarbon flow through the high-strain breccia zones and cataclastic bands. These observations indicate that fault activity that is broadly coincident with maturation and expulsion of hydrocarbons within a basin can directly influence the location of migration pathways. 81 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Heat flow distribution and thermal structure of the Philippine Sea Plate and its adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, C.; Liang, Q.; Sun, S.

    2013-12-01

    Research on the present geothermal state is an important way to understand the lithospheric geodynamics. We studied the heat flow (HF) distribution and the geothermal structure of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and its adjacent area (100°E~155°E, 5°S~45°N) surrounded by the East China Sea, South China Sea and the West Pacific Ocean, which is aimed to provide thermal constraints for the dynamic mechanism and tectonic evolution of the PSP. Based on the observed seafloor HF data of the study area with the latest release of CRUST1.0 crustal layered model, the lithospheric geotherm was calculated using 1D steady-state heat conduction equation. However, the obtained numerous geotherms derived from the extrapolation through heat conduction equation strongly depended on the accuracy of the measured HF data, which is limited, unevenly distributed and easily affected by local factors. Therefore, as a meaningful comparison, the temperature distributions at 25 km and 50 km depth inferred from the upper mantle shear wave velocities structure (S2.9EA) are inverted. The HF distribution shows relatively high values in Ryuku Trench and nearby Izu-Boning Trench, where the crust thicken and the mantle uplift obviously as typical transition zones. The Mariana Trench located in the east (southeast) part and the Philippine Trench in the southwest both are with low HF, which is also illustrated in the upper mantle gravity map after temperature correction. The Central Basin Ridge is with unquestionable high HF, being perpendicular to which the value decreasing. The calculated temperature maps (at depth of 25 km and 50 km) by the two methods both present that the temperature in PSP is higher than that in the Western Pacific Ocean and the west Philippine Basin is lower than the east one, which consists well with the crust age. The west half parts both of the Philippine Basin and Parece Vela Basin show low temperature, but high value in Ryuku Trench, Nankai Through, Shikoku Basin, Amami

  17. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  19. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  20. 1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 193.75. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. 3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 195.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  3. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  6. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  8. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  9. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Complications in exodontia--accidental dislodgment to adjacent anatomical areas.

    PubMed

    Grandini, S A; Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Rosa, A L; Soares, U N

    1993-01-01

    The authors report 4 cases of accidental dislodgement of teeth to adjacent anatomical areas during extraction. The causes and their prevention are discussed and solutions for the problem are suggested. PMID:8241759

  12. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  13. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL. LOOKING NORTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  14. Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west end of the complex near Highway 101. Detail of Holloshaft pump. View to the south. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  15. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO BRADLEY HAMMER; NOTE THIS IS THE SAME TOOL AS BEING FORGED ABOVE - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  17. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  18. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  20. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  1. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  2. VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURE (DOWNSTREAM SIDE). LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  3. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  4. Approximating the largest eigenvalue of network adjacency matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2007-11-01

    The largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network plays an important role in several network processes (e.g., synchronization of oscillators, percolation on directed networks, and linear stability of equilibria of network coupled systems). In this paper we develop approximations to the largest eigenvalue of adjacency matrices and discuss the relationships between these approximations. Numerical experiments on simulated networks are used to test our results.

  5. Geologic evolution of Uinta-Piceance basin province, northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.Y.; Tuttle, M.L.; Bryant, B.H.; Dubiel, R.F.; Fouch, T.D.; Franczyk, K.J.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Grout, M.A.; Johnson, R.C.; Molenaar, C.M.; Nichols, D.J.; Nichols, K.M.; Nuccio, V.F.; Peterson, F.; Pitman, J.K.; Perry, W.J. Jr.; Potter, C.J.; Sawatzky, D.L.; Scott, R.W. Jr.; Verbeek, E.R.; Wanty, R.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The Uinta-Piceance basin province (UPBP) has a complex Phanerozoic history characterized by five distinct phases of basin development (1) The UPBP formed part of a continental platform shelf on the northwestern flank of North America during the early and middle Paleozoic. Cambrian through Mississippian strata consist mainly of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite; contain major unconformities; and thicken westward. (2) Pennsylvanian-Permian uplifts of the ancestral Rocky Mountain orogeny segmented this continental platform shelf into the Eagle, Paradox, and Oquirrh basins. Basin-margin tectonics and cyclic eustatic-climatic fluctuations strongly controlled deposition of the clastic, carbonate, and evaporitic fill of these basins. (3) During the early Mesozoic, the UPBP formed part of a slowly subsiding continental platform. Triassic-Jurassic rocks include eolian, alluvial, and lacustrine deposits that thicken and grade westward into marine facies. (4) Paleozoic and early Mesozoic strata in the westernmost part of the UPBP were thrust eastward during the late Mesozoic Sevier orogeny, causing subsidence in the adjacent foreland basin. The history of the UPBP part of this foreland basin is recorded by thick nonmarine deposits within and adjacent to the thrust belt that grade eastward into thinner accumulations of marine rocks. (5) The geometry and style of regional compressional deformation changed markedly with onset of the latest Cretaceous-Paleogene Laramide orogeny. Laramide uplifts segmented the UPBP foreland basin into the Uinta and Piceance intermontane lacustrine basins. The geometry of these lacustrine basins is notably different from that of the late Paleozoic segment basins.

  6. Late Cenozoic history of Humboldt basin, Cape Mendocino area, California

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Humboldt basin is a filled Neogene trench-slope basin within the accretionary complex immediately north of the Mendocino triple junction and adjacent to the underthrusting Juan de Fuca plate. This particular basin provides a unique opportunity for studying the transition from convergent to transform motion because of its proximity to the Mendocino triple junction. Moreover, the basin experienced almost continuous sedimentation throughout the late Neogene, and therefore yields a detailed stratigraphic record of basin deformation due to plate motion. Basin stratigraphy has recorded deformation of the upper surface of the Juan de Fuca accretionary complex as it was uplifted from lower bathyal to littoral depths during the Neogene. Geohistory analysis of Humboldt basin is based on key Neogene surface sections and detailed micropaleontologic and sedimentologic studies that are used to evaluate age and changing climate, water depth, and depositional environment through time along a trend perpendicular to the paleomargin. Oldest basin sediments consist mainly of hemipelagic mudstones deposited in a deep-water setting during elevated sea level 14-8 Ma. Turbidite sandstone intervals become common after about 3.5 Ma and can be divided into several discrete megasequence packages. Deposition of these megasequences was apparently influenced by climatically induced lowering of sea level and tectonic uplift of the adjacent coastal area. Turbidite deposition was followed by slope deposition starting about 2.2 Ma. A stratigraphic section near the eastern margin of the basin contains a thick slope, shelf, beach, fluvial sequence clearly influenced by eustatic sea level events. Humboldt basin has experienced uplift and deformation due to tectonic underthrusting and outbuilding of the accretionary prism associated with convergence of the Juan de Fuca plate.

  7. Pn tomographic velocity and anisotropy beneath the Tibetan Plateau and the adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Y.; Ni, S.; Liu, B.; Sun, Y.

    2011-11-01

    We present a tomographic velocity and anisotropy model of the uppermost mantle beneath the Tibetan Plateau and the adjacent regions. The investigation analyzed 105,385 Pn phase readings from the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and the China Earthquake Data Center. The average Pn velocity under the study area is approximately 8.15 km/s, with velocity perturbations up to 3-4%. We find high Pn velocities under the Indian Plate and in the Tarim and Sichuan basins, low Pn velocities under the Hindu Kush and in Myanmar and the adjacent region, and especially low Pn velocities under the area north of the Indus-Yarlung Zangbo suture. The high Pn velocity anomalies of the Indian Plate are discontinuous at the collision region in the east-west direction, indicating that the Indian Plate probably subducts in a piecewise manner. Distributions of Pn velocities are used to validate mechanisms for the subduction of the Indian Plate presented in previous studies. In addition, Pn anisotropy is obtained simultaneously with Pn velocity. At plate collision zones, the fast Pn anisotropy direction is parallel to the direction of the collision edge. We validate the existence of Pn anisotropy under these regions and discuss the relationship of anisotropy with tectonic structure and plate movement.

  8. Ambient seismic noise tomography of Canada and adjacent regions: Part I. Crustal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Honn; Behr, Yannik; Currie, Claire A.; Hyndman, Roy; Townend, John; Lin, Fan-Chi; Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Shan, Shao-Ju; He, Jiangheng

    2013-11-01

    paper presents the first continental-scale study of the crust and upper mantle shear velocity (Vs) structure of Canada and adjacent regions using ambient noise tomography. Continuous waveform data recorded between 2003 and 2009 with 788 broadband seismograph stations in Canada and adjacent regions were used in the analysis. The higher primary frequency band of the ambient noise provides better resolution of crustal structures than previous tomographic models based on earthquake waveforms. Prominent low velocity anomalies are observed at shallow depths (<20 km) beneath the Gulf of St. Lawrence in east Canada, the sedimentary basins of west Canada, and the Cordillera. In contrast, the Canadian Shield exhibits high crustal velocities. We characterize the crust-mantle transition in terms of not only its depth and velocity but also its sharpness, defined by its thickness and the amount of velocity increase. Considerable variations in the physical properties of the crust-mantle transition are observed across Canada. Positive correlations between the crustal thickness, Moho velocity, and the thickness of the transition are evident throughout most of the craton except near Hudson Bay where the uppermost mantle Vs is relatively low. Prominent vertical Vs gradients are observed in the midcrust beneath the Cordillera and beneath most of the Canadian Shield. The midcrust velocity contrast beneath the Cordillera may correspond to a detachment zone associated with high temperatures immediately beneath, whereas the large midcrust velocity gradient beneath the Canadian Shield probably represents an ancient rheological boundary between the upper and lower crust.

  9. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous rocks, which are widespread throughout the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) and adjacent areas north of the Brooks Range, make up the major part of the thick sedimentary fill of the Colville basin. Much seismic and well information obtained since 1974 has aided considerably in understanding these rocks. These data include about 20,000 km of seismic lines, covering much of the NPRA with a grid spacing of 10-20 km, and 28 exploratory wells that bring the total to more than 50 wells in and adjacent to the NPRA. The purpose of this chapter is to interpret the depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the NPRA and adjacent areas on the basis of the latest seismic and well data and well data and on information from outcrops in the southern part of the Colville basin. The basin geometry and depositional history described in earlier reports are repeated here in the context of the overall Lower Cretaceous depositional history. Well data (including paleontology) and seismic data are used almost exclusively to interpret relations in the northern foothills and coastal plain areas. Surface data and some well data are used in the southern parts of the northern foothills, and surface data are used exclusively to interpret the depositional history in the southern foothills and Brooks Range. The quality of seismic data is fair to good in most of the coastal plain, where the structure is simple. In the northern foothills, tracing seismic reflections is more difficult, especially in the shallower part of the section because of structural complications in the thrust-faulted anticlines. The quality of seismic data across the structurally complex southern foothills area is inadequate to correlate stratigraphic units of the outcrop area of the southern foothills with subsurface units to the north.

  10. Malaria Vectors in Lake Victoria and Adjacent Habitats in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Minakawa, Noboru; Dida, Gabriel O.; Sonye, George O.; Futami, Kyoko; Njenga, Sammy M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control. PMID:22412913

  11. Crustal anisotropy and ductile flow beneath the eastern Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fansheng; Wu, Jing; Liu, Kelly H.; Gao, Stephen S.

    2016-05-01

    Crustal anisotropy beneath 71 broadband seismic stations situated at the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin is investigated based on the sinusoidal moveout of P-to-S conversions from the Moho and an intra-crustal discontinuity. Significant crustal anisotropy is pervasively detected beneath the study area with an average splitting time of 0.39 ± 0.18 s. The resulting fast orientations are mostly parallel to the major shear zones in the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane, and can be explained by fluid-filled fractures, favoring the model of rigid block motion with deformations concentrated on the block boundaries. In the vicinity of the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang Fault Zone in the southern Songpan-Ganzi Terrane, our results, when combined with previously revealed high crustal Poisson's ratio in the area, support the existence of mid/lower crustal flow. The Longmenshan Fault Zone and adjacent areas are dominated by strike-orthogonal fast orientations, which are consistent with alignments of cracks associated with compressional stress between the Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. The observations suggest that crustal thickening is the main cause of the high topographic relief across the Longmenshan Fault Zone.

  12. Regional prospectivity of Mesozoic and Tertiary in the eastern Adriatic and adjacent area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Dolan, P.; Lunn, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Post-Hercynian deposits in the eastern Adriatic and the adjacent external zones of the Dinarides and Albanian Hellenides may be subdivided into four facies groups. (1) Permian-Lower Triassic clastics and carbonates with some evaporites, (2) Middle Triassic-lower Tertiary carbonate platform facies with associated continental margin deeper marine sequences, (3) Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary flysch, and (4) middle Tertiary molasse and postorogenic Neogene sediments. The Permian to lower Tertiary section was deposited during the complex Alpine cycle, while the upper Tertiary section is the product of post-Alpine deposition. This depositional history during markedly different tectonic regimes creates two groups of petroleum plays in the eastern Adriatic: (1) Alpine cycle plays in the Permian to lower Tertiary in the thrust-faulted and folded foreland of Adria and (2) post-Alpine plays in upper Tertiary postorogenic or late synorogenic basins. Around the Adriatic, the post-Alpine plays have so far proved the most successful. Major production occurs in the onshore Po basin and its extension beneath the Adriatic. Some of this production is from deep Alpine-cycle reservoirs, but the bulk is from the upper Tertiary-Quaternary. Similar horizons produce onshore and offshore the central-southern Adriatic coast of Italy. Major Tertiary production also occurs to the northeast in the Pannonian basin of Yugoslavia and Hungary from Miocene and younger sequences. Onshore Albania produces significant quantities of hydrocarbons; although data are scarce, much of this production is presumably from upper Tertiary molasse or lower Tertiary flysch.

  13. Contrasting rainfall generated debris flows from adjacent watersheds at Forest Falls, southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Douglas M.; Alvarez, Rachel M.; Ruppert, Kelly R.; Goforth, Brett

    2008-04-01

    Debris flows are widespread and common in many steeply sloping areas of southern California. The San Bernardino Mountains community of Forest Falls is probably subject to the most frequently documented debris flows in southern California. Debris flows at Forest Falls are generated during short-duration high-intensity rains that mobilize surface material. Except for debris flows on two consecutive days in November 1965, all the documented historic debris flows have occurred during high-intensity summer rainfall, locally referred to as 'monsoon' or 'cloudburst' rains. Velocities of the moving debris range from about 5 km/h to about 90 km/h. Velocity of a moving flow appears to be essentially a function of the water content of the flow. Low velocity debris flows are characterized by steep snouts that, when stopped, have only small amounts of water draining from the flow. In marked contrast are high-velocity debris flows whose deposits more resemble fluvial deposits. In the Forest Falls area two adjacent drainage basins, Snow Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, have considerably different histories of debris flows. Snow Creek basin, with an area about three times as large as Rattlesnake Creek basin, has a well developed debris flow channel with broad levees. Most of the debris flows in Snow Creek have greater water content and attain higher velocities than those of Rattlesnake Creek. Most debris flows are in relative equilibrium with the geometry of the channel morphology. Exceptionally high-velocity flows, however, overshoot the channel walls at particularly tight channel curves. After overshooting the channel, the flows degrade the adjacent levee surface and remove trees and structures in the immediate path, before spreading out with decreasing velocity. As the velocity decreases the clasts in the debris flows pulverize the up-slope side of the trees and often imbed clasts in them. Debris flows in Rattlesnake Creek are relatively slow moving and commonly stop in the channel

  14. Contrasting rainfall generated debris flows from adjacent watersheds at Forest Falls, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Alvarez, R.M.; Ruppert, K.R.; Goforth, B.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows are widespread and common in many steeply sloping areas of southern California. The San Bernardino Mountains community of Forest Falls is probably subject to the most frequently documented debris flows in southern California. Debris flows at Forest Falls are generated during short-duration high-intensity rains that mobilize surface material. Except for debris flows on two consecutive days in November 1965, all the documented historic debris flows have occurred during high-intensity summer rainfall, locally referred to as 'monsoon' or 'cloudburst' rains. Velocities of the moving debris range from about 5??km/h to about 90??km/h. Velocity of a moving flow appears to be essentially a function of the water content of the flow. Low velocity debris flows are characterized by steep snouts that, when stopped, have only small amounts of water draining from the flow. In marked contrast are high-velocity debris flows whose deposits more resemble fluvial deposits. In the Forest Falls area two adjacent drainage basins, Snow Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, have considerably different histories of debris flows. Snow Creek basin, with an area about three times as large as Rattlesnake Creek basin, has a well developed debris flow channel with broad levees. Most of the debris flows in Snow Creek have greater water content and attain higher velocities than those of Rattlesnake Creek. Most debris flows are in relative equilibrium with the geometry of the channel morphology. Exceptionally high-velocity flows, however, overshoot the channel walls at particularly tight channel curves. After overshooting the channel, the flows degrade the adjacent levee surface and remove trees and structures in the immediate path, before spreading out with decreasing velocity. As the velocity decreases the clasts in the debris flows pulverize the up-slope side of the trees and often imbed clasts in them. Debris flows in Rattlesnake Creek are relatively slow moving and commonly stop in the

  15. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  16. Geochemistry of waters from springs, wells, and snowpack on and adjacent to Medicine Lake volcano, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical analyses of waters from cold springs and wells of the Medicine Lake volcano and surrounding region indicate small chloride anomalies that may be due to water-rock interaction or limited mixing with high-temperature geothermal fluids. The Fall River Springs (FRS) with a combined discharge of approximately 37 m3/s, show a negative correlation between chloride (Cl) and temperature, implying that the Cl is not derived from a high-temperature geothermal fluid. The high discharge from the FRS indicates recharge over a large geographic region. Chemical and isotopic variations in the FRS show that they contain a mixture of three distinct waters. The isotopic composition of recharge on and adjacent to the volcano are estimated from the isotopic composition of snow and precipitation amounts adjusted for evapotranspiration. Enough recharge of the required isotopic composition (-100 parts per thousand ??D) is available from a combination of the Medicine Lake caldera, the Fall River basin and the Long Bell basin to support the slightly warmer components of the FRS (32 m3/s). The cold-dilute part of the FRS (approximately 5 m3/s) may recharge in the Bear Creek basin or at lower elevations in the Fall River basin.

  17. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  18. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  19. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  20. Playa basin development, southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, T.C. ); Holliday, V.T. )

    1992-01-01

    More than 20,000 playa basins have formed on fine-grained eolian sediments of the Quaternary Blackwater Draw and Tertiary Ogallala Formations on the High Plains of TX and NM. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the development of playa basins: (1) subsidence due to dissolution of underlying Permian bedded salt, (2) dissolution of soil carbonate and piping of clastic sediment into the subsurface, (3) animal activity, and (4) deflation. Evidence of eolian processes includes lee dunes and straightened shorelines on the eastern and southern margins of many playas. Lee dunes, which occur on the eastern side of ca 15% of playa basins and contain sediment deflated from adjacent playas, are cresentic to oval in plain view and typically account for 15--40% of the volume of the playa basin. Quaternary fossil biotas and buried calcic soils indicate that grasslands and semi-arid to aid climatic conditions prevailed as these basins formed. Evidence of fluviolacustrine processes in playa basins includes centripetal drainage leading to fan deltas at playa margins and preserved deltaic and lacustrine sediments. Playa basins expanded as fluvial processes eroded basin slopes and carried sediment to the basin floor where, during periods of minimal vegetation cover, loose sediment was removed by deflation. Other processes that played secondary roles in the development of certain playa basins include subsidence induced by dissolution of deeply buried Permian salt, dissolution of soil carbonate and piping, and animal activity. Two small lake basins in Gray County, TX, occur above strata affected by dissolution-induced subsidence. Dissolution of soil carbonate was observed in exposures and cores of strata underlying playa basins. Cattle, and in the past vast numbers of migrating buffalo, destroy soil crusts in dry playas, making these sediments more susceptible to deflation, and carry sediment out of flooded playas on their hooves.

  1. Seepage basin radionuclide transport in sediments and vegetation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Jerome, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Radionuclide concentrations were measured in soil and vegetation growing adjacent to and in the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins as part of the plan for closure of the basin system. The results of the measurements provide some information about the mobility of the radionuclides introduced into the basins. {sup 90}Sr is the most mobile of the radionuclides in soil. Its high mobility and high relative uptake by vegetation cause {sup 90}Sr to be distributed throughout the basin system. {sup 137}Cs is not as mobile in the basin soil, limiting its uptake by vegetation growing on the edge of the seepage basins; however, it is readily taken up by the vegetation growing in the basins. Soil mobility and vegetation uptake is relatively low for all of the transuranic radionuclides. For the most part these radionuclides remain near the surface of the basin soils where they were absorbed from the waste-water. The relative role of soil mobility and vegetation uptake on the distribution of radionuclide at the basins was futher evaluated by comparing the vegetation concentration ratio and the half-depth of penetration of the radionuclides in the basin soil. The results suggest that vegetation processes dominate in determining the concentration of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in the vegetation. The influences of soil and vegetation are more balanced for {sup 90}Sr. The other radionuclides exhibit both low soil mobility and low vegetation uptake. The lack of soil mobility is seen in the lower concentrations found in vegetation growing on the edge of the basin compared to those growing in the basin.

  2. Tectonic and geodynamic setting of oil and gas basins of the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Khain, V.E.; Sokolov, B.A. ); Kleshchev, K.A.; Shein, V.S. )

    1991-02-01

    Within the territory of the Soviet Union and its off-shore economic zone are about 70 sedimentary basins containing oil and gas. The basins include almost all basin types described in present-day plate-tectonic classifications, namely (1) intracontinental and pericontinental rifts, suprarift syneclises, and zones of pericratonic downwarps; (2) ancient passive margins of continents with adjacent overthrust fold system; (3) modern passive margins of continents; (4) zones of convergence of lithospheric plates (i.e., zones of subduction of oceanic plates below continental plates); and (5) zones of collision of continental lithospheric plates. So, far, the only type of basin not identified within the territory of the Soviet Union is the pull-apart basin. The location and distribution of oil and gas deposits in the section of a basin, prevailing types of traps, and scale of potential resources are all features influenced by the geodynamic type of the basin.

  3. Stratigraphic reference section for Georges Bank Basin - depositional model for New England passive margin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    A multichannel seismic reflection profile (US Geological Survey line 19), calibrated with the COST G-1, COST G-2, and Shell Mohican I-100 wells, and seismic-sequence analysis shows that the chronostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic units and depositional history of the Georges Bank basin are similar to those of the Scotian basin. Tentative correlation between the Georges Bank basin sequences and those of the adjacent, deep N American basin suggests that the deep-sea facies were strongly influenced by depositional events on the shelf. Deposition in both areas has been sensitive to changes in sea level and the palaeoclimatic cycles.-Author

  4. Runoff, precipitation, mass balance, and ice velocity measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1993 balance year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Wash., to determine the winter and net balance for the 1993 balance year. The 1993 winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 1.98 meters, and the net balance was -1.23 meters. This negative valance continued a trend of negative balance years beginning in 1977. Air temperature, barometric pressure, and runoff from this glacier basin and an adjacent non-glacierized basin were also continuously measured. Surface ice velocity was measured over an annual period. This report makes all these data available to users throughout the glaciological and climato1ogical community.

  5. Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

  6. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. Colposcopy of vaginal and vulvar human papillomavirus and adjacent sites.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K

    1993-03-01

    Human papillomaviral infections can affect the entire lower female genital tract as multifocal or multicentric disease as well as the surrounding anatomic and adjacent sites. The traditional colposcopic methods are necessary to assist in the diagnosis and help differentiate these infections from other disease mimics. PMID:8392676

  8. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  9. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  10. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  12. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  13. Effects on stink bugs of field edges adjacent to woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  14. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  19. Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent 1001-1007 East First Street (James K. Hill and Sons Pickle Works Building), facing east - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

  2. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  4. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points. 236.404 Section 236.404 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  5. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  6. From foreland rift to forearc basin: Tectono-thermal controls on subsidence and stratigraphic development in the Mesozoic-Recent Salar de Atacama basin, Chilean Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S. ); Turner, P. ); Hartley, A. ); Jolley, E. )

    1991-03-01

    The Salar de Atacama and westerly adjacent Domeyko basins originated as Permian foreland rifts, containing some 2 km of Triassic synrift red beds. Continued extension and volcanic are establishment resulted in deposition of important Jurassic marine source rocks in the Domeyko basin. Rift basin subsidence was controlled by extension, followed by thermal sagging. Middle Cretaceous contraction (opening of the south Atlantic) inverted the Domeyko back-arc basin as a thrustbelt. To the east, the Salar basin subsequently accommodated 4 km of Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene continental detritus. Accommodation space reflected the interplay between limited flexural loading and thermal effects related to a 150 km eastward jump of the Andean volcanic arc to the margin of the arc-related, foreland-style basin. Late Eocene transpression (high rate of oblique convergence between the Farallon and South American plates) inverted the western basin margin, sourcing a 2 km thick Oligocene intra-arc basin-fill component. Accommodation space was controlled by thermal sagging associated with a further 100 km eastward arc jump. The Salar de Atacama basin thus provides a model for the evolution of complex, mixed origin basins associated with a migrating volcanic arc and varying crustal stress regime. The complex interplay between variable tectonic style and thermal processes in controlling subsidence and resultant stratigraphic development is not yet adequately constrained. However, simple, single stage tectono-sedimentary models commonly used in play definition may not be appropriate in complex, arc-related basin settings.

  7. Hydrologic data for Soldier Creek Basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data collected in the Soldier Creek basin in northeastern Kansas are available on magnetic tape in card-image format. Data on the tape include water discharge in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; rainfall in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; concentrations and particle sizes of suspended sediment; particle sizes of bed material; ground-water levels; and chemical quality of water in concentrations of selected constituents. The data-collection system includes: (1) 7 recording streamflow stations; (2) 5 recording rainfall stations; (3) 51 nonrecording rainfall stations located within and adjacent to the basin; (4) 31 ground-water observation wells (two recording); and (5) intermittent chemical quality of water and sediment sampling sites. Examples of the information on magnetic tape for each type of data collected are presented in computer-printout format. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Water utilization in the White River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helland, R.O.

    1946-01-01

    This report presents briefly the results of an investigation of the water and power resources of the White river made in 1943 primarily for the purpose of classification of lands adjacent to the stream that have been withdrawn for power purposes. About three days were spent by the writer in field examination of the river basin during August and September. A survey of the river from its confluence with the Deschutes River to the Mt. Hood Loop Highway is published by the Survey. Nearly all of this map was surveyed in 1932. The entire basin is shown on quadrangle sheets. A record of discharge is available for the period 1917-43 at a station near the mouth of the river, and several short records are available at points upstream and on tributary streams.

  9. Calibration of paired basins prior to streambank fencing of pasture land

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Streambank fencing is a best management practice that is targeted to reduce suspended sediment and nutrient inputs to streams by reducing direct inputs from animals, eliminating streambank trampling, and promoting streambank revegetation. A paired basin study is being conducted in two small adjacent basins to determine the water quality effects of streambank fencing. This article documents the 3-yr calibration period between control and treatment basins prior to fence installation. Approximately 70% of land adjacent to streambanks in the study area is used as pasture. Nutrient quantities applied as manure, benthic-macroinvertebrate communities, and the physical habitat of each stream were similar in both basins. Total N, P, and suspended sediment yields measured at the outlet of each basin averaged about 56, 2.8, and 2650 kg ha-1 on an annual basis. For both basins, about 90% of the total N yield was attributable to dissolved NO3-N and about 90% of the total N yield occurred during nonstormflow; conversely, about 90% of the total P yield was attributable to stormflow and 60 to 65% of the total P yield was suspended. Regression equations developed between both basins for low flow and stormflow samples for nutrients, suspended sediment, and discharge indicated a significant relation for most constituents. Pretreatment relation between basins for low flow and stormflow samples would need to change by 6 and 14% for total N concentrations and 24 and 9% for total P concentrations in order for streambank fencing to significantly affect water quality in the treatment basin.

  10. Tectonic history of the Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolata, D.R.; Nelson, J.W. )

    1990-05-01

    The Illinois basin began as a failed rift that developed during breakup of a supercontinent approximately 550 Ma. A rift basin in the southernmost part of the present Illinois basin subsided rapidly and filled with about 3,000 m of probable Early and Middle Cambrian sediments. By the Late Cambrian, the rift-bounding faults became inactive and a broad relatively slowly subsiding embayment, extending well beyond the rift and open to the Iapetus Ocean, persisted through most of the Paleozoic Era. Widespread deformation swept through the proto-Illinois basin beginning in the latest Mississippian, continuing to the end of the Paleozoic Era. Uplift of basement fault blocks resulted in the formation of many major folds and faults. The timing of deformation and location of these structures in the forelands of the Ouachita and Alleghanian orogenic belts suggest that much of the deformation resulted from continental collision between North America and Gondwana. The associated compressional stress reactivated the ancient rift-bounding faults, upthrusting the northern edge of a crustal block approximately 1,000 m within the rift. Concurrently, dikes (radiometrically dated as Early Permian), sills, and explosion breccias formed in or adjacent to the reactivated rift. Subsequent extensional stress, probably associated with breakup of Pangea, caused the crustal block within the rift to sink back to near its original position. High-angle, northeast- to east-west-trending normal faults, with as much as 1,000 m of displacement, formed in the southern part of the basin. These faults displace some of the northwest trending Early Permian dikes. Structural closure of the southern end of the Illinois basin was caused by uplift of the Pascola arch sometime between the Late Pennsylvanian and Late Cretaceous.

  11. Evidence for a thick oceanic crust adjacent to the Norwegian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, John C.; Talwani, Manik; Stoffa, Paul L.

    1984-01-01

    The oceanic crust created during this first few million years of accretion in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea lies at an unusually shallow depth for its age, has a smooth upper surface, and in many places the results of multichannel seismic reflection profiling reveal that its upper layers comprise a remarkable sequence of arcuate, seaward-dipping reflectors. These have been attributed to lava flows generated during a brief period of subaerial seafloor spreading. We describe the results of inversions of digitally recorded sonobuoy measurements and two-ship expanded spread profiles collected over the oceanic crust adjacent to the Norwegian passive margin. We find that the crust of the deep Lofoten Basin is indistinguishable from normal oceanic crust in thickness and structure. Closer to the margin we observe up to a four times expansion in thickness of layers with velocities equal to those of oceanic layer 2, while the layer 3 region retains approximately the same thickness. The area over which the seaward-dipping reflectors can be observed on reflection profiles corresponds to the region of greatest expansion in "Layer 2" thickness. In the very oldest crust immediately adjacent to an escarpment that probably marks the continent-ocean boundary, we see evidence for a low velocity zone overlying an indistinct reflector that may mark the dyke-lava interface in the thick crust. Comparing the structure of the thick crust to that of eastern Iceland, we find a strong resemblance, especially in the expansion in thickness of material with layer 2 velocities. These results support the suggestion that during the earliest stages of spreading extrusive volcanism at the ridge crest was unusually voluminous, building a thick pile of lavas erupted from a subaerial spreading center.

  12. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  13. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. Epithelial dysplasia immediately adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Shear, M

    1985-08-01

    A number of workers have attempted to identify dysplastic features which may be predictors of malignant change, by prospective studies of dysplastic lesions. In the present study we have looked at dysplastic changes immediately adjacent to established squamous carcinomas in an attempt to determine whether any predictors can be identified in this way. Eighty cases were included in the study for whom information on tobacco usage was known. Clinical details were recorded. Histological features in epithelium immediately adjacent to the carcinoma were studied in representative sections. Eighteen specific histological characteristics were noted as present or absent. Data were transferred by Conversational Monitoring System (CMS) terminal, processed and analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Computer package. Only 8 patients were non-smokers (10%). Dysplastic changes in adjacent epithelium were frequently multicentric. Changes appear to occur first in the basal layer in the form of disturbance of polarity or basal cell hyperplasia, while other dysplastic features are absent. The feature referred to as basal cell hyperplasia appears, in fact, to represent disturbed epithelial maturation. In 80% of cases increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appears to result from a decrease in cytoplasmic volume rather than increased nuclear size. A defect in RNA synthesis may be a factor. A sharp decrease in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of adjacent epithelium, compared with that of the carcinoma, was observed. Russell bodies were noted in 5 of the 8 lesions in non-smokers (63%) and in 16 of 72 lesions in smokers (22%) (p less than 0.001; Chi2 17.65). PMID:3928850

  15. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-06-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  17. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  18. FMRI evidence of acupoints specificity in two adjacent acupoints.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Xu, Jian-Yang; Li, Lin; Shan, Bao-Ci; Nie, Bin-Bin; Xue, Jing-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 (Neiting), and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI) and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII), contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints. PMID:23762172

  19. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S; Dipersio, John F; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  20. Osteochondroma of the hip with adjacent bursal chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elaine S; Baker, Kevin S; Huang, Mingqian; Khan, Fazel; Hoda, Syed

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that irregular bursae can form adjacent to an osteochondroma (bursa exostotica) as a result of mechanical irritation and that these bursae can be complicated by inflammation, hemorrhage, or infection. Bursal chondromatosis is a rare complication, with only seven published cases in the literature according to our searches. We present the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with slowly progressive left hip/thigh pain and was found to have an osteochondroma arising from the lesser trochanter with numerous ossified bodies in the adjacent soft tissues. MRI demonstrated osteochondral bodies in a fluid-filled bursa adjacent to the osteochondroma, with several of the bodies noted to be fairly displaced from the osteochondroma cartilaginous cap. At surgery, the osteochondroma was removed and numerous bodies of varying sizes were excised, some of which were noted to be adherent to the bursal lining and others that were separated/distant from the cartilage cap. The question arises as to whether this process represents bursal chondromatosis resulting from benign neoplasia of cells lining the abnormal bursa, "cartilage shedding" from the osteochondromatous cap, or both. The purpose in presenting this case is to introduce a rare complication of an osteochondroma, demonstrate that soft tissue calcification and osteochondral densities displaced from an underlying osteochondroma are not always the result of sarcomatous degeneration, and provide support for the theory that cells lining a bursa in a nonphysiologic location can undergo benign neoplasia with subsequent formation of osteochondral bodies. PMID:25001874

  1. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  2. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  3. Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All

  4. Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All these

  5. Geochemical Differences between two adjacent streams in the Tenaya Lake region of Yosemite National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, R.; Andrews, E. D.

    2010-12-01

    Tenaya and Murphy Creeks are two small, intermittent streams with drainage basins adjacent to each other in the Tenaya Lake region of Yosemite National Park. Tenaya Creek has a drainage basin area of 3.49 km2 ranging in elevation from 2491 to 3012 m; Murphy Creek has a drainage basin size of 7.07 km2 ranging in elevation from 2485 to 2990 m. Both basins are underlain by the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites (Bateman et al, 1983), with chemical compositions that are practically indistinguishable (Bateman et al, 1988). Both streams derive all of their water from snowmelt and rainfall, normally going dry by early August each year. Tenaya Creek flows primarily south-southwest, whereas Murphy Creek predominantly flows south. For nearly all of Tenaya Creek’s length it is bordered by the Tioga Pass Road, the only highway in Yosemite National Park which crosses the Sierras; on the other hand, all of Murphy Creek (except its mouth) is wilderness. During the summers of 2009 and 2010, both creeks were sampled along most of their lengths for major and trace elements. In addition, both streams have been sampled near their mouths periodically during the spring and summer (until they go dry) since 2007. Water discharge has been continuously monitored during this time. Because these streams derive all of their water from snowmelt and rainfall, the water chemistry of each must originate from atmospheric deposition, weathering of the bedrock and/or human or animal inputs. These factors, along with the similarity of the geology, topography and basin orientation, suggest that the water chemistries of the creeks should be similar. Instead, while measured sulfate concentrations in Tenaya and Murphy Creeks are similar in their upper reaches, Tenaya Creek sulfate values are almost double in the lower reaches. No other major or trace element showed a similar pattern, although sodium, potassium, calcium and rubidium showed modest increases. Other concentration differences between

  6. Functional angiocoupling between follicles and adjacent corpus luteum in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M

    2016-07-15

    In single ovulating cattle, ipsilateral versus contralateral interovarian relationships refer to a dominant follicle (DF) and CL in the same versus opposite ovaries. The ipsilateral relationship consists of the DF-CL and the devoid (no DF or CL) intraovarian pattern, and the contralateral relationship consists of the DF pattern and the CL pattern. The DF-CL pattern involves positive effects on both the DF and CL when adjacent (≤3-mm apart) versus separated as follows: greater diameter of DF (e.g., 10.5 ± 0.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.4 mm), greater percentage of the DF wall with color Doppler signals of blood flow (40.2% ± 2.0% vs. 24.5% ± 1.9%), greater cross-sectional area of the CL (2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 cm(2)), and greater percentage of the entire CL with blood flow signals (51.8% ± 1.2% vs. 42.5% ± 3.1%). Additional examples of positive coupling are (1) future DF on Day 0 (day of ovulation) is closer to the CL than the future largest subordinate and (2) diameter of growing follicles on Day 0 and the growth rate on Days 0 to 2 are greater for follicles that are adjacent than separated from the CL. An example of a negative intraovarian effect is decreasing diameter and loss of future DF status of a largest follicle when adjacent to a regressing CL. The impact of the continuity of ovarian angioarchitecture during the periovulatory follicular wave was exemplified in 17 of 18 waves by conversion of an ovary with only the preovulatory follicle to the postovulatory DF-CL pattern. Functional angiocoupling from commonality in angioarchitecture of the DF and adjacent CL would account for both the positive two-way coupling between DF and CL during the luteal phase and the negative effect of a regressing CL on an adjacent follicle during luteolysis. PMID:27056414

  7. Using the stratigraphic record to document tectonic-geomorphologic interactions in a foreland basin setting: outcrop study of the Ainsa Basin, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyles, D. R.; Moody, J.; Gordon, G.; Hoffman, M.; Moss-Russell, A.; Silalahi, H.; Setiawan, P.; Clark, J.; Bracken, B.; Guzofski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Eocene strata of the Ainsa Basin (Spain) contain clastic and carbonate strata deposited in a relatively small (100 km^2), structurally active piggyback foreland basin. The basin is bounded by the Mediano Anticline to the east and the Boltana Anticline to the west. Clastic strata were sourced by an eastern fluvial-deltaic system whereas carbonate strata were sourced from shallow-water carbonate systems that rimmed the southern and western margins of the basin. Four time-stratigraphic units, which form an upward transect through the basin-fill succession, were studied in detail: Ainsa, Morillo, Guaso, Sobrarbe-Escanilla. The study uses the stratigraphic record to document linkages between progressive uplift of the basin-bounding structures, spatial-temporal changes in the amount and location of subsidence, and temporal changes in the landscape. The Ainsa unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east and exited the basin to the northwest, although some channels locally transfer to lobes near the northwest end of the basin. The Morillo unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east, dispersed onto the basin floor, then converged at the western end of the basin where they continued onto the longitudinally adjacent Jaca Basin. The Guaso unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east and transfer to a ponded distributive submarine fan at the center of the basin. The Escanilla-Sobrarbe unit contains a linked shelf-to-basin system that prograded from south to north and records the final filling of the basin. Four lines of evidence collectively support the basin-fill succession was deposited during structural growth. First, the depocenter, which is interpreted to reflect the position of maximum subsidence during deposition, of the systems systematically shifted westward as the basin filled. Second, the axial part of the clastic sediment systematically shifted southward as the basin filled. Third, the

  8. Divergent/passive margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.D. ); Santogrossi, P.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the detailed geology of the four divergent margin basins and establishes a set of analog scenarios which can be used for future petroleum exploration. The divergent margin basins are the Campos basin of Brazil, the Gabon basin, the Niger delta, and the basins of the northwest shelf of Australia. These four petroleum basins present a wide range of stratigraphic sequences and structural styles that represent the diverse evolution of this large and important class of world petroleum basins.

  9. Crustal rifting and subsidence of Sirte basin, Libya: a mature hydrocarbon Province

    SciTech Connect

    Gumati, Y.; Schamel, S.; Nairn, A.E.M.

    1985-02-01

    The complex rifting and subsidence history of the Sirte basin serves as an instructive case study of the tectonic evolution of an intercratonic extensional basin. The Sirte basin formed by collapse of the Sirte arch in the mid-Cretaceous. Marine sediments accumulated following initial crustal arching and rifting as the basin was flooded from the north. Upper Cretaceous strata lie unconformably on igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Precambrian basement complex, Cambrian-Ordovician Gargaf Group, or the pre-Cretaceous continental Nubian Sandstone. The most rapid subsidence and accumulation of basinal strata occurred in the early Cenozoic; however, the basin has been relatively stable since the Oligocene. The basin is floored by a northwest-southeast-trending mosaic of narrow horsts and grabens, an important structural characteristic that distinguishes it from the adjacent intracratonic Kufra, Murzuk, and Ghadames basins. The details of basin subsidence, sediment accumulation rates, and facies variations have been reconstructed for the northern Sirte basin from a suite of approximately 100 well logs and numerous seismic lines. Subsidence-rate maps for short time intervals from the mid-Cretaceous through the Eocene show a continual shifting of the loci of maximum and minimum subsidence. The nonsteady character of basin subsidence may reflect a periodicity of movement on the major basement-rooted growth faults bounding the underlying horsts and grabens.

  10. Influence of spatial discretization, underground water storage and glacier melt on a physically-based hydrological model of the Upper Durance River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Etchevers, P.; Martin, E.; Obled, C.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model ( Habets et al., 2008) presents severe limitations for alpine catchments. Here we propose possible model adaptations. For the catchment discretization, Relatively Homogeneous Hydrological Units (RHHUs) are used instead of the classical 8 km square grid. They are defined from the dilineation of hydrological subbasins, elevation bands, and aspect classes. Glacierized and non-glacierized areas are also treated separately. In addition, new modules are included in the model for the simulation of glacier melt, and retention of underground water. The improvement resulting from each model modification is analysed for the Upper Durance basin. RHHUs allow the model to better account for the high spatial variability of the hydrological processes (e.g. snow cover). The timing and the intensity of the spring snowmelt floods are significantly improved owing to the representation of water retention by aquifers. Despite the relatively small area covered by glaciers, accounting for glacier melt is necessary for simulating the late summer low flows. The modified model is robust over a long simulation period and it produces a good reproduction of the intra and interannual variability of discharge, which is a necessary condition for its application in a modified climate context.

  11. The South Westland Basin: seismic stratigraphy, basin geometry and evolution of a foreland basin within the Southern Alps collision zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircombe, Keith N.; Kamp, Peter J. J.

    1998-12-01

    This paper develops further the case for a foreland basin origin of South Westland Basin, located adjacent to the Southern Alps mountain belt. Geohistory analyses show Middle Miocene initiation of subsidence in the basin, with marked increases at 5-6 Ma. Five seismic reflection horizons, including basement, Middle Miocene (top Awarua Limestone), top Miocene, mid-Pliocene (PPB) and mid-Pleistocene (PPA) have been mapped through the grid of seismic data. A series of five back-stripped structure contour maps taken together with five isopach maps show that prior to the Middle Miocene, subsidence and sedimentation occurred mainly along the rifted continental margin of the Challenger Plateau facing the Tasman Sea; subsequently it shifted to a foredeep trending parallel to the Southern Alps and located northwest of them. Through the Late Miocene-Recent this depocentre has progressively widened, and the loci of thickest sediment accumulation have moved northwestward, most prominently during the Late Pliocene and Pleistocene with the progradation of a shelf-slope complex. At the northern end of the basin the shelf-slope break is currently located over the forebulge, which appears not to have migrated significantly, probably because the mountain belt is not advancing significantly northwestwards. Modelling of the lithospheric flexure of the basement surface normal to the trend of the basin establishes values of 3.1 to 9.8×10 20 N m for the flexural rigidity of the Australia Plate. This is at the very low end of rigidities for plates, and 1-2 orders of magnitude less than for the Australia Plate beneath the Taranaki Basin. Maps of tectonic subsidence where the influence of sediment loading is removed also clearly identify the source of the loading as lying within or beneath the mountain belt. The basin fill shows a stratigraphic architecture typical of underfilled ancient peripheral foreland basins. This comprises transgressive (basal unconformity, thin limestone, slope

  12. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  13. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F. )

    1996-01-01

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  14. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  15. Exophytic Atheroma Mimicking Papillary Fibroelastoma Adjacent to the Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tomoki; Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Yasuda, Shota; Izubuchi, Ryo; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-09-01

    Follow-up echocardiography in a 69-year-old man with alcoholic cardiomyopathy showed a mass above the aortic valve near the left coronary ostium. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography suggested a papillary fibroelastoma with a high risk of embolism. At operation we found an exophytic atheroma adjacent to the left coronary artery orifice. The atheroma was removed, and the patient made an uneventful recovery. We describe this very rare case of an exophytic atheroma mimicking a papillary fibroelastoma situated at the left coronary orifice. PMID:26354633

  16. Compression of adjacent anatomical structures by pulmonary artery dilation.

    PubMed

    Dakkak, Wael; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is the commonest condition leading to dilated pulmonary artery. We describe three different types of compression of adjacent anatomical structures by dilated pulmonary arteries. We included involvement of the left main coronary artery, left recurrent laryngeal nerve and tracheobronchial tree. Compression of these structures can cause major complications such as myocardial ischemia, hoarseness and major airway stenosis. We present a case for each scenario and review the literature for each of these complications, focusing on patients' characteristics and contemporary management. PMID:26898826

  17. Synthesis of a Molecule with Four Different Adjacent Pnictogens.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-08-22

    The synthesis of a molecule containing four adjacent different pnictogens was attempted by conversion of a Group 15 allyl analogue anion [Mes*NAsPMes*](-) (Mes*=2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl) with antimony(III) chloride. A suitable precursor is Mes*N(H)AsPMes* (1) for which several syntheses were investigated. The anions afforded by deprotonation of Mes*N(H)AsPMes* were found to be labile and, therefore, salts could not be isolated. However, the in situ generated anions could be quenched with SbCl3 , yielding Mes*N(SbCl2 )AsPMes* (4). PMID:27377437

  18. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-01

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R. PMID:26033441

  19. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  20. Climatic controls on arid continental basin margin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Amy; Clarke, Stuart; Richards, Philip; Milodowski, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    models suggest that the deposits of the Brockram alluvial fans have the potential to contain numerous preferential flow zones. Where these flow zones are adjacent to the unique deposits of the zone of interaction it affects basin-scale fluid flow by: 1) interconnecting decent reservoirs in the distal extent of the basin; 2) creating flow pathways away from these reservoirs; 3) introducing secondary baffles into the system; and, 4) creating a bypass to charge these distal reservoirs.

  1. Image registration using a weighted region adjacency graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hasan, Muhannad; Fisher, Mark

    2005-04-01

    Image registration is an important problem for image processing and computer vision with many proposed applications in medical image analysis.1, 2 Image registration techniques attempt to map corresponding features between two images. The problem is particularly difficult as anatomy is subject to elastic deformations. This paper considers this problem in the context of graph matching. Firstly, weighted Region Adjacency Graphs (RAGs) are constructed from each image using an approach based on watershed saliency. 3 The vertices of the RAG represent salient regions in the image and the (weighted) edges represent the relationship (bonding) between each region. Correspondences between images are then determined using a weighted graph matching method. Graph matching is considered to be one of the most complex problems in computer vision, due to its combinatorial nature. Our approach uses a multi-spectral technique to graph matching first proposed by Umeyama4 to find an approximate solution to the weighted graph matching problem (WGMP) based on the singular value decomposition of the adjacency matrix. Results show the technique is successful in co-registering 2-D MRI images and the method could be useful in co-registering 3-D volumetric data (e.g. CT, MRI, SPECT, PET etc.).

  2. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  3. Adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Binbin

    2012-03-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lip. It is a common benign lesion in the oral region. Although there are many conservative treatments such as the creation of a pouch (marsupialization), freezing (cryosurgery), micromarsupialization, and CO2 laser vaporization, surgical resection is the most commonly used means. Generally speaking, an elliptic incision was made to fully enucleate the lesion along with the overlying mucosa and the affected glands, then direct suturing is adequate. However, in some cases, direct suturing could cause lower lip deformity, and adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection might be quite necessary. Based on our experience, adjacent mucosal flaps could be used when lesions were close to or even break through the vermilion border or their diameters were much more than 1 cm. A-T advancement flaps and transposition flaps were the mostly applied ones. Follow-up showed that all patients realized primary healing after 1 week postoperatively with satisfactory lower lip appearance, and there was no sign of increasing incidence of relapse. PMID:22421867

  4. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: What is revisited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, A.; Jrbashyan, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagyan, A.; Baghdassaryan, H.; Davtian, V.

    2006-07-01

    The validity of some data in Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62] that are revisited by R. Haroutiunian is considered. A conclusion is made that the revisions suggested by Haroutiunian concern unessential parts of the content of work by Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62]. This article presents new evidence and re-proves the earlier conclusions that are disputed or revised by R. Haroutiunian.

  5. Catastrophic flood sediments in Chryse Basin, Mars, and Quincy Basin, Washington: Application of sandar facies model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James W., Jr.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    Viking visible and thermal infrared observations and terrestrial catastrophic flood deposits provide clues to identify the outflow channel sediments that went into Chryse Basin on Mars. On Earth, sandar (outwash plains formed by coalescence of many jökulhlaup floods) are described in terms of three laterally adjacent facies: proximal, midfan, and distal. The Missoula Flood sediments deposited in Quincy Basin, Washington, comprise a miniature analog of Chryse Basin. The terminology and general characteristics of the sandar facies model are applied to Quincy Basin, although the depositional environment and clast sizes are somewhat different (higher-energy flood, larger clasts, subaqueous rather than subaerial deposition). For example, the Ephrata Fan (a deposit of boulders, cobbles, and pebbles) forms the midfan facies analog; a downfan sandy deposit (reworked into a dune field) comprises the distal facies analog. In Chryse Basin the midfan is defined by a heterogeneous rocky (0-25%), intermediate-albedo (0.21-0.26), intermediate thermal inertia (260-460Jm-2s-0.5K-1) surface, while the distal facies has a low albedo (0.14-0.16) and higher thermal inertia (340-700Jm-2s-0.5K-1). The Chryse midfan unit has rocks and windblown dust exposed at the surface. The sand of the distal facies in Chryse/Acidalia is reworked by the wind, as in Quincy Basin. The Viking 1 and Mars Pathfinder landing sites are located on the midfan unit. Observations that can be made at the Mars Pathfinder site might help in reevaluating whether or not Viking 1 landed on outflow channel sediments.

  6. Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of Bolivia and adjacent regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sempere, T. )

    1993-02-01

    Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of the Pacific margin of western South America, particularly the Bolivian section, has been completed and new interpretations and hypotheses have been proposed as a result of data analyses of this information. The Paleozoic margin was initially passive (late Cambrian-Llanvirn, [open quotes]Puna aulacogen[close quotes]), but became active during a middle Ordovician compressional episode. Most of late Cambrian to early Triassic Bolivian rocks are of marine origin, with dark shale units recording sea level rises, whereas middle Triassic to Recent rocks were mainly deposited in continental environments (except six restricted-marine ingressions in the late Cretaceous-Danian, and one in the late Miocene, all with hydrocarbon potential). A noteworthy similarity exists between the Devonian to Jurassic stratigraphies of Bolivia and the Parana basin, suggesting that Bolivia behaved as part of the Brazilian craton from late Cambrian to late Jurassic, when it was captured into the Pacific margin geotectonic system. Organic-rich units correlate with Paleozoic highstand deposits and younger ingressions. The Bolivian Phanerozoic strata is characterized by thick layers, partly due to middle Ordovician-Carboniferous and late Cretaceous-Cenozoic foreland basins. Paleozoic foreland geometries include northeastern onlaps and, potentially, stratigraphic traps. Hydrocarbon generation, migration and trapping mainly depended on Cenozoic structural loading and burial and on propagation of Andean deformation which are comprised of Paleozoic shale decollements. Precise knowledge of the evolution of the Phanerozoic geodynamic contexts and basin geometries through sedimentation and subsequent deformations is crucial for hydrocarbon exploration strategies in these regions.

  7. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  8. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  9. Passive margins: U.S. Geological Survey Line 19 across the Georges Bank basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klitgord, Kim D.; Schlee, John S.; Grow, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Georges Bank is a shallow part of the Atlantic continental shelf southeast of New England (Emery and Uchupi, 1972, 1984). This bank, however, is merely the upper surface of several sedimentary basins overlying a block-faulted basement of igneous and metamorphic crystalline rock. Sedimentary rock forms a seaward-thickening cover that has accumulated in one main depocenter and several ancillary depressions, adjacent to shallow basement platforms of paleozoic and older crystalline rock. Georges Bank basin contains a thickness of sedimentary rock greater than 10 km, whereas the basement platforms that flank the basin are areas of thin sediment accumulation (less than 5 km).

  10. Basin richness and source rock disruption - a fundamental relationship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Primary petroleum migration (expulsion from source rocks) remains the least understood parameter controlling the genesis of oil deposits. It is hypothesised that source rocks must be physically disrupted before meaningful expulsion can occur. Faulting, with accompanying significant fracturing, would appear to be the optimum naturally-occurring process for physical disruption of source rocks. If these hypotheses are valid, intensity of faulting in deeply-buried HC "kitchens' containing mature source rocks should strongly correlate with increasing basin richness. This possible relationship is examined in this paper; it is found that there is a strong correlation of increasing basin richness with increasing structural intensity over and adjacent to basin depocentres. This correlation thus supports the hypothesis that physical disruption of mature source rocks is a necessary, and previously unappreciated, controlling parameter for oil expulsion. -from Author

  11. Event sedimentation in low-latitude deep-water carbonate basins, Anegada passage, northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2015-01-01

    The Virgin Islands and Whiting basins in the Northeast Caribbean are deep, structurally controlled depocentres partially bound by shallow-water carbonate platforms. Closed basins such as these are thought to document earthquake and hurricane events through the accumulation of event layers such as debris flow and turbidity current deposits and the internal deformation of deposited material. Event layers in the Virgin Islands and Whiting basins are predominantly thin and discontinuous, containing varying amounts of reef- and slope-derived material. Three turbidites/sandy intervals in the upper 2 m of sediment in the eastern Virgin Islands Basin were deposited between ca. 2000 and 13 600 years ago, but do not extend across the basin. In the central and western Virgin Islands Basin, a structureless clay-rich interval is interpreted to be a unifite. Within the Whiting Basin, several discontinuous turbidites and other sand-rich intervals are primarily deposited in base of slope fans. The youngest of these turbidites is ca. 2600 years old. Sediment accumulation in these basins is low (−1) for basin adjacent to carbonate platform, possibly due to limited sediment input during highstand sea-level conditions, sediment trapping and/or cohesive basin walls. We find no evidence of recent sediment transport (turbidites or debris flows) or sediment deformation that can be attributed to the ca. M7.2 1867 Virgin Islands earthquake whose epicentre was located on the north wall of the Virgin Islands Basin or to recent hurricanes that have impacted the region. The lack of significant appreciable pebble or greater size carbonate material in any of the available cores suggests that submarine landslide and basin-wide blocky debris flows have not been a significant mechanism of basin margin modification in the last several thousand years. Thus, basins such as those described here may be poor recorders of past natural hazards, but may provide a long-term record of past oceanographic

  12. Neotectonics of the Surma Basin, Bangladesh from GPS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, M. A. U.

    2015-12-01

    The Surma Basin is a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin situated at the northeastern corner of Bangladesh. The tectonically-active basin lies at the junction of three tectonic plates: the Indian plate, the Eurasian plate and the Burma platelet. The Surma Basin is bounded on the north by the Shillong Massif, east and southeast by CTFB of the Indo-Burman Ranges, west by the Indian Shield and to the south and southeast it is open to the main part of Bengal Basin. The Surma basin is subsiding at a high rate, which is controlled by flexure loading along the southern margin of the 2-km high Shillong Massif because of Dauki thrust fault system. The objective of this study is to explore and reconstruct the present scenario of the tectonically active zone of the northeastern Bangladesh, identify the active faults, identify the relation between the neotectonic activities and seismicity, relation between neotectonic activities and natural hazards and describe the nature of the possible future earthquakes. The present effort to establish the tectonics of the Surma basin mainly utilizes the horizontal and vertical movements of the area using GPS geodetic data and other constraints on the structure of the region. We also make use historical seismologic data, field geology, and satellite image data. The GPS data has been processed using GAMIT-GLOBK. The analysis of 5 continuous GPS geodetic stations installed in the Surma Basin are combined with published data from the adjacent parts of India. While the area is moving northeast at a rate of 50-52 mm/year relative to ITRF2008 reference frame, it is moving south in an Indian reference frame. The velocities reflect that the Surma Basin being overthrust by both Shillong Plateau from the north and Burmese microplate from the east, respectively. The combined GPS velocity data indicates shortening across Dauki Fault and Indo Burman Ranges at a rate of 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr, respectively. The complex anticlinal structures in and around the

  13. The Oquirrh basin revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    The upper Paleozoic succession in the Oquirrh basin in unusually thick, up to 9300 m, and consists mainly of a Pennsylvanian-middle Permian miogeocline of northwestern Utah. Previous workers have suggested a tectonic origin for the Oquirrh basin that is incompatible with the basin location in both time and space. There is no evidence for Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian tectonism in the middle of the miogeocline. Thermal evidence from the Mississippian Mission Canyon shale does no support the implied deep burial of the crustal sag models of basin formation. Stratigraphic and facies evidence indicates a growth fault origin for the basin. Regional isopach maps and facies maps are powerful tools in interpreting depositional environments and in reconstructing fold-and-thrust belts. However, the location of measured sections relative to the location of the growth fault basin. The Charleston-Nebo thrust may have essentially reversed the movement on a growth fault. Thick Oquirrh basin sedimentary rocks may not be required to balance structural sections across this thrust fault. A thin-skinned, extensional growth fault origin for the Oquirrh basin implies that the Cordilleran miogeocline did not participate in the Pennsylvanian north-vergent uplifts of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF AN INFILTRATION BASIN AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND FOR REMOVAL OF PATHOGENS FROM FEEDLOT RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of an infiltration basin and constructed wetland to treat process wastewater from a cattle feedlot prior to discharge to an adjacent waterway was explored in regards to fecal pathogens. Weekly sampling of typical operating conditions and rainfall-generated runoff during 2...

  15. APPLICATION OF THE ECOTONE CONCEPT IN DEFINING NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR THE UPPER POTOMAC RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of the ecotone concept in nutrient management studies of the Potomac River basin, a large USA watershed, is examined. he MAB hypothesis suggesting that the influence of an ecotone or adjacent system is proportional to the length and scope of the interfaces (Naiman et ...

  16. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  17. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  18. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  19. Preventing Proximal Adjacent Level Kyphosis With Strap Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Khaled M; Matoian, Brett J; Denardin, Nicholas B; Patel, Vikas V

    2016-07-01

    A substantial proportion of patients develop proximal junctional kyphosis following spinal surgery. To combat this postoperative change, several techniques have focused on maintaining the structural integrity of adjacent spinal levels and adapting the proximal end of the fusion construct to accommodate the increased mechanical stressors produced by long spinal fusion. The use of Mersilene tape (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey) for spine and orthopedic surgery is well documented, although considerably less is known about its use for preventing proximal junctional kyphosis. This article describes a proposed technique using Mersilene tape to provide a check-rein strap stabilization at the proximal end of fusion constructs. Initial data suggest that use of this technique may prevent formation of proximal junctional kyphosis. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e794-e799.]. PMID:27158827

  20. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  1. Geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dilamarter, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas in Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee is presented as a background for interpreters evaluating the present land surface using remotely sensed imagery. Eight physiographic units were analyzed and are briefly discussed with reference to topography and surface deposits. Great diversity was found to be characteristic of the region, the result of different structural influences and geomorphic processes. The landscape bears the marks of fluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine and karstic environments, so a regional geomorphic history was compiled from the literature as an aid to understanding the land surface. Three smaller zones in Kentucky were analyzed in greater detail regarding topography and geomorphic development because of their potential importance in subsurface exploration.

  2. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  3. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-01-01

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented. PMID:27515618

  4. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  5. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Grieken, N C T; Meijer, G A; zur Hausen, A; Meuwissen, S G M; Baak, J P A; Kuipers, E J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections has facilitated the analysis of the role of apoptosis in the gastritis–atrophy–intestinal metaplasia sequence. Methods: Archival material from 40 gastric resection specimens with normal mucosa (n = 5), chronic active gastritis (n = 17), or intestinal metaplasia (n = 18) was studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against cleaved cytokeratin 18 and active caspase 3. Slides were scored on a 0–3 scale for the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: Normal gastric mucosa contained low numbers of apoptotic cells at the surface epithelium (mean score, 0.20). This number was significantly increased in cases with chronic gastritis (mean score, 1.06) and in those with intestinal metaplasia (mean score, 2.56). Within the intestinal metaplasia cases, 44 different foci of intestinal metaplasia were identified. In 39 of these 44 areas, concentrations of apoptotic cells were seen immediately adjacent to the foci of intestinal metaplasia, but not in the metaplastic epithelium itself. Conclusions: Apoptosis is uncommon in normal gastric mucosa. Chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia are associated with increased apoptosis, but occur mainly at the mucosal surface and not in the deeper layers. These findings do not support the concept that apoptosis underlies the loss of gastric glands and leads to atrophy, but the observed concentration of apoptotic epithelial cells adjacent to foci of intestinal metaplasia could be related to heterogeneity of epithelial damage, causing apoptosis, to which intestinal metaplasia is a response. PMID:12719456

  6. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ciara; Ged, Yasser; Quinn, Fiona; Walker, Jan; Kennedy, John; Gillham, Charles; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDermott, Ronan; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Grant, Cliona; Flavin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Breast implant-associated lymphoma has recently gained wide recognition. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most frequently diagnosed subtype in this setting but the spectrum is broadening. A 66-year-old woman developed swelling and itch around her saline implant 6 years after its insertion. Imaging revealed a fluid collection surrounding the implant with an adjacent mass. Microscopy showed sclerotic tissue punctuated by discrete cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry. Small T-lymphocytes formed rosettes around HRS-like cells. Appearances were consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction demonstrated no clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, however, a t(14;18)(q32;q21)BCL2-JH translocation involving the major breakpoint region of the bcl2 gene was present. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed FDG-avid masses in the right axilla and pelvis. Subsequent pathological examination identified low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) translocation at these sites. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HL arising adjacent to a breast implant. An awareness of this diagnosis is important as classical HL, with its prominent mixed inflammatory background, may be overlooked as a reactive process when histologically assessing capsulectomy specimens. It is also important in the differential diagnosis for implant-associated ALCL as both contain large atypical CD30-positive cells highlighting the need for full immunohistochemical and molecular workup in such cases. This case also adds to the large body of literature regarding the association between HL and FL. PMID:26888955

  7. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  8. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 35744, June 20, 2011. (a... adjacent waters, Mass. (a) * * * (2) Anchorage B. All waters bounded by a line beginning at 41°36′42.3″...

  9. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  10. The Effectiveness of Cattlemans Detention Basin, South Lake Tahoe, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Jena M., (Edited By)

    2006-01-01

    Lake Tahoe (Nevada-California) has been designated as an 'outstanding national water resource' by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in part, for its exceptional clarity. Water clarity in Lake Tahoe, however, has been declining at a rate of about one foot per year for more than 35 years. To decrease the amount of sediment and nutrients delivered to the lake by way of alpine streams, wetlands and stormwater detention basins have been installed at several locations around the lake. Although an improvement in stormwater and snowmelt runoff quality has been measured, the effectiveness of the detention basins for increasing the clarity of Lake Tahoe needs further study. It is possible that poor ground-water quality conditions exist beneath the detention basins and adjacent wetlands and that the presence of the basins has altered ground-water flow paths to nearby streams. A hydrogeochemical and ground-water flow modeling study was done at Cattlemans detention basin, situated adjacent to Cold Creek, a tributary to Lake Tahoe, to determine whether the focusing of storm and snowmelt runoff into a confined area has (1) modified the ground-water flow system beneath the detention basin and affected transport of sediment and nutrients to nearby streams and (2) provided an increased source of solutes which has changed the distribution of nutrients and affected nutrient transport rates beneath the basin. Results of slug tests and ground-water flow modeling suggest that ground water flows unrestricted northwest across the detention basin through the meadow. The modeling also indicates that seasonal flow patterns and flow direction remain similar from year to year under transient conditions. Model results imply that about 34 percent (0.004 ft3/s) of the total ground water within the model area originates from the detention basin. Of the 0.004 ft3/s, about 45 percent discharges to Cold Creek within the modeled area downstream of the detention basin. The remaining 55 percent

  11. Oil, gas potential in shallow water: Peru`s continental shelf basins

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H.

    1998-11-16

    This third article of a series highlights the three sedimentary basins that underlie the 16 million acres of continental shelf adjacent to a 650-mile stretch of Peruvian coastline. This area lies roughly between the ports of Chiclayo and Pisco. These basins offer a variety of reservoirs, traps, and source-rock potential in water depths of less than 1,000 ft. They are characterized by a thick sequence of Neogene strata, underlain by Paleogene, Mesozoic, and Upper Paleozoic sediments down to as much as 7 sec two-way time on modern seismic records. In some places the sedimentary section may reach an aggregate thickness in excess of 50,000 ft. From north to south these contiguous shelf basins are the Sechura-Salaverry, Huacho, and Pisco basins. All three basins are described.

  12. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  13. Transtensional arm of the early Mesozoic Fundy rift basin: Penecontemporaneous faulting and sedimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.E.; Schlische, R.W. )

    1990-08-01

    Formed as a major right-lateral fault zone during Paleozoic collisional orogenies and reactivated as a left-oblique system during the early Mesozoic, the east-striking Minas fault zone of Atlantic Canada controlled adjacent sedimentation in the Fundy rift basin, producing a series of synsedimentary microbasins. Northeast-striking boundary faults of the Fundy basin underwent mostly early Mesozoic normal slip and are reactivated Paleozoic thrusts. The adjacent basin has a much thicker section, transverse folds, and synthetic rider blocks. Contrasts in structural and stratigraphic styles are a response to local deformation controlled by reactivated fault zones of differing orientation under consistent northwest-southeast early Mesozoic extension rather than responses to a sequence of changing stress patterns.

  14. Hand-Hewn Granite Basins at Native American Saltworks, Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, James G.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    This site in the northern Sierra Nevada contains about 369 circular basins carved in fresh, glaciated granodioritic bedrock, with 325 basins crowded together in an area of 2,700 m2 on the main terrace. These terrace basins have a median average diameter of 125 cm (80 percent between 100 and 160 cm) and a median depth of 75-80 cm. They show a strong congruity to similar granitic basins in the southern Sierra Nevada apparently of Native American origin that are generally shallower. The basins are not of natural origin, as indicated by uniformity in size and nonoverlapping character of the basins; their common arrangement in lineaments; details of the shape of the basins; features in common with granite basins in the Southern Sierra Nevada; and, most compelling, the clustering of all the basins adjacent to (within 20 m of) two saline streams fed from a nearby salt spring. Native Americans apparently excavated them for the purpose of collecting saline water to evaporate and make salt for their use, and also as an animal attractant and a trade commodity. The flow of the salty streams delivers about 2.9 metric tons of salt per summer season to the basin area, and evaporation rates and the holding capacity of the basins indicate that about 2.5 tons of salt could be produced per season. This correspondence shows that the Indians made enough basins to exploit the resource. The site is the most impressive prehistoric saltworks yet discovered in North America and represents a unique departure from traditional hunter-gatherer activities to that of manufacturing. The actual grinding of so many basins in granite could not have been done without the labor of a concentrated population. It is believed that the work was accomplished over a long time by many people and with the use of fire to help disaggregate the bedrock.

  15. Seismic response of a deep continental basin including velocity inversion: the Sulmona intramontane basin (Central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giulio, Giuseppe; de Nardis, Rita; Boncio, Paolo; Milana, Giuliano; Rosatelli, Gianluigi; Stoppa, Francesco; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2016-01-01

    The Sulmona plain (central Italy) is an intramontane basin of the Abruzzi Apennines that is known in the literature for its high seismic hazard. We use extensive measurements of ambient noise to map the fundamental frequency and to detect the presence of geological heterogeneities in the basin. We perform noise measurements along two basin-scale orthogonal transects, in conjunction with 2-D array experiments in specific key areas. The key areas are located in different positions with respect to the basin margins: one at the eastern boundary (fault-controlled basin margin) and one in the deepest part of the basin. We also collect independent data by using active seismic experiments (MASW), down-hole and geological surveys to characterize the near-surface geology of the investigated sites. In detail, the H/V noise spectral ratios and 2-D array techniques indicate a fundamental resonance (f0) in the low-frequency range (0.35-0.4 Hz) in the Sulmona Basin. Additionally, our results highlight the important role that is played by the alluvial fans near the edge-sectors of the basin, which are responsible for a velocity inversion in the uppermost layering of the soil profile. The H/V ratios and the dispersion curves of adjacent measurements strongly vary over a few dozens of meters in the alluvial fan area. Furthermore, we perform 1-D numerical simulations that are based on a linear-equivalent approach to estimate the site response in the key areas, using realistic seismic inputs. Finally, we perform a 2-D simulation that is based on the spectral element method to propagate surface waves in a simple model with an uppermost stiff layer, which is responsible for the velocity inversion. The results from the 2-D modelling agree with the experimental curves, showing deamplified H/V curves and typical shapes of dispersion curves of a not normally dispersive site.

  16. Lithostratigraphy and geochronology of fills in small playa basins on the Southern High Plains, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, V.T.; Hovorka, S.D.; Gustavson, T.C.

    1996-08-01

    Playa basins are small depressions (typically <=1.5 km{sup 2}) on the Southern High Plains of northwestern Texas and eastern New Mexico. There are about 25000 playas in the region; they lie on the Blackwater Draw Formation (Pleistocene), a widespread eolin deposit, and locally on the Ogallala Formation (Miocene-Pliocene). Understanding the lithostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy of the fill in the basins is important because it should (1) provide clues to the origin and evolution of playas, which have been long debated; (2) yield a paleoenvironmental record for the region; and (3) aid in understanding the history and future of the regional aquifer because playas are the principal source of recharge. Data from 19 playa basins, combined with published data from 4 other basins, show that the basin fill is composed of six distinctive facies: (1) lacustrine mud; (2) lacustrine carbonate; (3) lacustrine delta deposits; (4) eolian sand and silt; (5) eolian loam; and (6) accretionary eolian deposits (Blackwater Draw Formation). Dating is based on radiocarbon ages from the fill in 12 basins and from lunettes adjacent to 5 basins. All dated basins were present at the end of the Pleistocene and some were present in some form throughout the Pleistocene. These lithostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic relationships show that some basins have a prolonged history as depressions. 96 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Basement structures of East and South China Seas and adjacent regions from gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Dongliang; Ke, Xiaoping; Wang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The satellite-derived gravity gives us an opportunity to investigate the basement structures of the East and South China Seas since the satellite gravimetry could provide large scale gravity data with high resolution of 1 arc-min by 1 arc-min. We isolate the residual gravity anomaly corresponding to the basement by subtracting the gravity anomalies of sediments and Moho undulations from satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies. Two methods, namely gravity inversion method and convolution method based on flexure isostasy model, are used to calculate the Moho undulations in order to guarantee the accuracy of the Moho undulations since it occupies large percentages of the gravity anomalies. We invert the isolated gravity anomaly for the basement depths of East and South China Seas and adjacent areas with resolution of 1 arc-min by 1 arc-min. The basement depths of East and South China Seas range from 0.5 km to 12 km and the Moho depths vary between 6 km and 32 km. The basement topography reveals many tectonic depressions and two spreading axes concealed by the sediments, which are unseen in the bathymetry. The two spreading axes correspond to the spreading ridges derived from magnetic anomaly and the SW-NE oriented spreading axis extends SW much farther than that identified from magnetic anomaly, almost reaching to the Nam Con Son Basin. We also find that the faults constrain the distributions of basement depressions since the faults usually lie along the places where large changes of basement depth take place. Reversely, the basement map could be used to identify the unknown faults. Besides, according to the four profiles in the East and South China Seas, the mirror-image relation was found between the basement topography and the underlying Moho undulations that when the basement depth increases or decreases, the corresponding Moho depth decreases or increases.

  18. Extensional Basins in a Convergent Margin: Oligocene-Early Miocene Salar de Atacama and Calama basins, Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. E.; Mpodozis, C.; Blanco, N.; Pananont, P.; Dávila, F.

    2004-12-01

    The Salar de Atacama Basin (SdAB) is the largest and most persistent sedimentary basin of northern Chile, accumulating nonmarine sediment from Cretaceous to modern times. Its northwestern neighbor, the Calama, was a Cenozoic basin. Although SdAB was in the backarc zone early in the Andean orogeny, both are now forearc basins. Others demonstrated that the basins overlie anomalously cold, strong, and dense crust and lithosphere. We focus on an extensional Oligocene basin stage. Interpretation of the basin-controlling faults is based on seismic reflection studies supported by field relations. The SdAB is limited to the west by the NNE-trending, steeply east-dipping, Paciencia Fault (PF). The PF experienced 5-7 km of down-to-the-east offset during the Oligocene-early Miocene. Syntectonic strata, an arid succession of siliciclastics and evaporites, are asymmetric, with thicknesses of 5000 m and abundant halite adjacent to the PF, and of 1000 m with fine detrital clastic strata 25 km farther east. Relations in conglomeratic growth strata that overlap the PF also demonstrate normal displacement during sediment accumulation. Seismic data reveal that a buried normal fault with 1-1.5 km down-to-the-east displacement limits the western margin of the Oligocene-Miocene Calama siliciclastic basin fill. Regionally, Oligocene-early Miocene margin-parallel strike-slip deformation dominated northwest of the basins, contributing sinistral offset (West Fissure Fault) to the northern segment of the long-lived Domeyko Fault System. The new SdAB and Calama data reveal that a 20,000 km2 domain of extensional basins existed within the dominantly strike-slip region. Even if PF and the fault in the Calama Basin were transtensional, the proportion of extension to strike-slip displacement is much greater in these basins than elsewhere in northern Chile. Further study is required to understand what combination of factors caused this kinematic distinction as well as delayed the onset of CVZ

  19. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  20. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  1. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  2. DRY DEPOSITION OF AIRBORNE TRACE METALS ON THE LOS ANGELES BASIN AND ADJACENT COASTAL WATERS - ART. NO. 4074. (R825381)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. The Current Tectonics of the Yukon and Adjacent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.; Leonard, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current tectonics across the Yukon and adjacent areas of western Northwest Territories (NWT) and northern British Columbia appear to be driven primarily by the Yakutat Terrane collision, an "indenter" in the corner of the Gulf of Alaska. GPS data show 1-10 mm/yr northward and eastward, decreasing inland. The rates from earthquake statistics are similar although there are important discrepancies. The eastern Cordillera earthquake mechanisms are mainly thrust in the Mackenzie Mountains of southwestern NWT where the Cordillera upper crust is overthrusting the craton. To the north, the mechanisms are mainly strike-slip in the Richardson Mountains that appear to lie along the edge of the craton. The deformation appears to be limited to the hot and weak Cordillera with the strong craton providing an irregular eastern boundary. For example, there is an eastward bow in the craton edge and the deformation in the Mackenzie Mountains. On the Beaufort Sea margin in the region of the Mackenzie Delta there appears to be a type of "subduction zone" with the continent very slowly overthrusting the oceanic plate, a process that has continued since at least the Cretaceous. A northward moving continental margin block is bounded by left lateral faulting in the west (Canning Displacement Zone of eastern Alaska) and right lateral faulting in the east (Richardson Mountains in eastern Yukon). There is almost no seismicity on this thrust belt but as for some other subduction zones such as Cascadia there is the potential for very infrequent great earthquakes.

  4. [Comparative proteomic analysis of cancerous and adjacent normal lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Beom; Pi, Kyung Bae

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, most lung cancers are found too late for a cure, therefore early detection and treatment is very important. We have applied proteomic analysis by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques for examination of cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous lung tissues from the same patient. The aim of the study was to find proteins, which could be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. Indeed, we found differences in expression of several proteins, related to various cellular activities, such as, chaperoning (e.g., GRP96, GRP78, HSP27), metabolism and oxidation stress (e.g., L-fucose, GST), cytoskeleton (e.g., tubulin beta 2/3, beta actin), cell adhesion (e.g., annexin A5/3), binding proteins (e.g., 14-3-3 theta) and signal transduction. These changes may be important for progression of carcinogenesis; they may be used as the molecular-support for future diagnostic markers. PMID:21395069

  5. Snow Distribution Patterns in Clearings and Adjacent Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Douglas L.; Swanson, Robert H.

    1986-12-01

    Snow accumulation patterns were determined for clearings and adjacent forest at Marmot Creek experimental watershed and James River, Alberta. At maximum accumulation snow water equivalent (SWE) was greater in clearings than in forest whether clearings were large, as in 8- to 13-ha blocks where SWE averaged 20% more than in the forest, or small as in the ¼ to 6-H (height) diameter circular clearings where SWE was 13-45% greater than in the forest. SWE was 42 to 52% less in north than in south sectors of 2-6 H clearings. These differences increased with clearing size and time since beginning of accumulation period and are caused by snow ablation (melt and evaporation), a function of direct solar radiation reaching the snowpack. In such situations the snow that has accumulated on the ground cannot be considered a measure of the snow that has actually fallen there. For water balances and hydrologic modeling, snow measurements in partially cleared watersheds must be adjusted for temporal and spatial factors specific to the watershed.

  6. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  7. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  8. Macrobenthos of Yenisei Bay and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Trawl samples were collected in the northern region of Yenisei Bay and adjacent parts of the Kara Sea shelf. A total of eight stations were taken. We found more than 200 species of benthic organisms. A consecutive replacement of benthic communities is observed when going to the north from the Ob and Yenisei estuaries to the open parts of the sea. We could distinguish four different species complexes in the investigated area: a brackish-water complex where Saduria entomon is dominant; an intermediate complex where S. sibirica, S. sabini and Portlandia aestuariorum are dominant; a transitional complex with P. arctica as a dominant species and with a small amount of Ophiocten sericeum; a marine complex where O. sericeum is dominant. When salinity increased, some brackish-water species were replaced by related euryhaline species. One such example was the replacement of brackish-water Saduria entomon isopods by two euryhaline species: S. sibirica and S. sabini. The consecutive replacement of benthic communities showed a break near Sverdrup Island. In this area the marine complex was replaced by a transitional complex with P. arctica.

  9. Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

    1994-01-01

    Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  10. Apical infection spreading to adjacent teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Jiang, Jin; Zhu, Qiang

    2011-06-01

    This case report describes apical infection on tooth number 24 that spread to adjacent teeth, resulting in devitalized teeth numbers 23 and 25. The 25-year-old Caucasian female patient was referred to the endodontic resident clinic because of uncontrolled apical infection. Root-end surgery and root-end filling of teeth numbers 23, 24, and 25 were performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a periapical cyst; however, the clinical surgical finding of a purulence-filled bone cavity also revealed a periapical abscess. After root-end surgery and regenerative therapy using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Bio-Oss xenograft material, and Bio-Gide resorbable collagen membrane, the patient had no symptoms. Radiographs showed the apical lesion had healed satisfactorily at the 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-ups. The clinical implication of this rare case suggests the importance of standard endodontic diagnostic procedures for pulpal and apical diagnosis, prevention of apical periodontitis exacerbation by reducing bacterial factors, and the effectiveness of healing large bone defects using regenerative materials. PMID:21458327

  11. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. I. Data and analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    In this two-part paper, responses of two, adjacent, seven-story buildings in Norwalk, California, to the Whittier-Narrows, Calif, earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987 are studied. Building A, instrumented according to code recommendations, and building B, extensively instrumented, are offset by 16.3 m from one another. The data set includes motions from the superstructure of both buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of building B, and from three free-field sites. Part I of the paper includes descriptions of the buildings, site, instrumentation, and analysis of the data of each building. System identification and spectral analysis techniques are employed in part I. Building A has identical first-mode frequencies of 0.65 Hz for both building axes. The strong-motion response characteristics of building A are considerably different than those determined from low-amplitude tests. Building B has fundamental modes at 0.76 Hz and 0.83 Hz in the major and minor axes, respectively. Torsional and diaphragm effects in building B are negligible.

  12. Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Silva, Filipi N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2015-06-01

    Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the words do not display symmetric patterns of connectivity. More specifically, the merged symmetry displayed a distribution similar to the ubiquitous power-law distribution. Our experiments also revealed that the studied metrics do not correlate with other traditional network measurements, such as the degree or the betweenness centrality. The discriminability power of the symmetry measurements was verified in the authorship attribution task. Interestingly, we found that specific authors prefer particular types of symmetric motifs. As a consequence, the authorship of books could be accurately identified in 82.5% of the cases, in a dataset comprising books written by 8 authors. Because the proposed measurements for text analysis are complementary to the traditional approach, they can be used to improve the characterization of text networks, which might be useful for applications based on stylistic classification.

  13. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. II. Interaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    Presented in this part of the two-part paper is a study of the relations between earthquake motions recorded from two, adjacent, seven-story buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of one of the buildings and from three free-field sites, all within one city block. This unique data set was obtained during the Whittier-Narrows, Calif. earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987, Part I includes background information on the two buildings, the site, and the data set. Building response characteristics of a code-type instrumented building (A) and an extensively instrumented building (B) are also studied. In this part, spectral analysis techniques are used to study the relationships between the motions of the roofs and basements, the downhole and the free-field sites. It is asserted that there is building-soil-building interaction between the two buildings at a frequency of 2.35 Hz. Furthermore, the free-field motions are shown to be influenced by the presence of the buildings.

  14. Parasites of two native fishes in adjacent Adirondack lakes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eric F; Whipps, Christopher M

    2013-08-01

    This survey of parasites in 2 adjacent lakes is the first of its kind in the Adirondack Park of New York State. Wolf Lake is designated as a heritage lake whereas nearby Deer Lake is limnologically similar but has at least 5 introduced fish species. Both lakes have 2 native species, i.e., white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), which were the focus of this study. Parasite communities of both hosts were surveyed and compared between each lake and were statistically evaluated for differences in species similarity, prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. Between lakes, white suckers had significant differences in the prevalence of 4 parasite species (Myxobolus sp. 2, Myxobolus bibulatus, Octospinifer macilentis, and Pomphorhynchus bulbocoli) and mean abundances of 4 parasites (neascus larvae, Octospinifer macilentis, Pomphorhynchus bulbocoli, and Glaridacris confusus). Redbreast sunfish had significant differences in the prevalence of 3 species (Myxobolus uvuliferis, a coccidian species, and Spinitectus carolini) and differences in parasite mean abundance of 5 species (neascus larvae, Clinostomum marginatum , Leptorhynchoides thecatus, Spinitectus carolini, and Eustrongylides sp.). Differences in component communities between lakes were found and, although the exact causes cannot be determined by this study, we speculate on several possible explanations. PMID:23384764

  15. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  16. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  17. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  18. The southwestern Nansen Basin: Crustal stretching and sea floor spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglar, Kai; Ehrhardt, Axel; Damm, Volkmar; Heyde, Ingo; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Barckhausen, Udo

    2014-05-01

    New geophysical data were collected in August/September 2013 north of Svalbard in the zone from the North Barents shelf towards the oceanic Nansen Basin. We acquired 1056 km of multi-channel seismic data, 2658 km of magnetic data and more than 5000 km of gravity, bathymetric and sediment echosounder data. In the east of the working area, the transition from the Yermak Plateau to the Nansen Basin is characterized by block faulting and well developed syn-rift basins. A large crustal block located about 80 km east of the Yermak Plateau and 120 km north of the slope of the Barents shelf indicates extensive rifting and east-west directed crustal stretching and the absence of oceanic crust in that area. A different picture is found north of Kvitoya Island, in the western part of the working area. There, the slope of the Barents shelf is very steep and a distinct continent-ocean-boundary seems to be located directly at the foot of the slope where we interpret oceanic crust characterized by irregular topography based on the multi-channel seismic data. This will be tested by an analysis of the gravity and magnetic data which is currently work in progress. The combination of east-west-directed continental stretching east of the Yermak Plateau and adjacent oceanic crust to the west points to an opening of the southwesternmost part of the Nansen Basin prior to the spreading of the Gakkel Ridge, possibly related to the opening of the Amerasian Basin.

  19. Thermal history of Michigan Basin and southern Canadian Shield from apatite fission track analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, K.D. )

    1991-01-10

    Apatite fission track ages and confined-length distributions were collected from 38 basement outcrop and 5 basement drillcore samples in order to reconstruct the Phanerozoic thermal history of the Michigan Basin and southern Canadian Shield. The apatite data indicate two periods of thermal activity in the region: Triassic heating/cooling that affected the basin and adjacent shield and Cretaceous or post-Cretaceous heating/cooling that primarily affected the basin. The magnitude, timing, and cause of Cretaceous thermal activity cannot be identified with the present data. Model calculations suggest that some of the shield samples and probably all of the basin samples were heated to temperatures of at least 90C just prior to relatively rapid cooling in the Triassic. Available stratigraphic and geochemical constraints suggest that these elevated temperatures were the result of burial by an additional 2-5 km of late Paleozoic (probably Pennsylvanian and Permian) sediments. It is likely that the basin was buried during the Alleghenian Orogeny as observed for the adjacent Appalachian Basin.

  20. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  1. Rayleigh wave tomography of China and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongxian; Su, Wei; Peng, Yanju; Zheng, Yuejun; Li, Hongyi

    2003-02-01

    This paper presents a tomographic study on the S wave velocity structure of China and adjacent regions. Group velocity dispersions of fundamental Rayleigh waves along more than 4000 paths were determined with frequency-time analysis. The study region was divided into a 1° × 1° grid, and velocities in between grid nodes were calculated by bilinear interpolation. The Occam's inversion scheme was adopted to invert for group velocity distributions. This method is robust and allows us to use a fine grid in model parameterization and thus helps to restore a more realistic velocity pattern. Checkerboard tests were carried out, and the lateral resolution was estimated to be 4°-6° in China and its eastern continental shelves. The resulting group velocity maps from 10 to 184 s showed good correlation with known geological and tectonic features. The pure path dispersion curves at each node were inverted for shear wave velocity structures. The three-dimensional velocity model indicates thick lithospheres in the Yangtze and Tarim platforms and hot upper mantles in Baikal and western Mongolia, coastal area and continental shelves of eastern China, and Indochina and South China Sea regions. The Tibetan Plateau has a very thick crust with a low-velocity zone in its middle. Beneath the crust a north dipping high-velocity zone, mimicking a subducting plate, reaches to 200 km in depth and reaches to the Kunlun Mountains northward. In northern Tibet a low-velocity zone immediately below the Moho extends eastward then turns southward along the eastern edge of the plateau until it connects to the vast low-velocity area in Indochina and the South China Sea.

  2. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-03-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ˜150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (˜1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  3. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  4. Basin-ring spacing on the Moon, Mercury, and Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, R.J.; Spudis, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Radial spacing between concentric rings of impact basins that lack central peaks is statistically similar and nonrandom on the Moon, Mercury, and Mars, both inside and outside the main ring. One spacing interval, (2.0 ?? 0.3)0.5D, or an integer multiple of it, dominates most basin rings. Three analytical approaches yield similar results from 296 remapped or newly mapped rings of 67 multi-ringed basins: least-squares of rank-grouped rings, least-squares of rank and ring diameter for each basin, and averaged ratios of adjacent rings. Analysis of 106 rings of 53 two-ring basins by the first and third methods yields an integer multiple (2 ??) of 2.00.5D. There are two exceptions: (1) Rings adjacent to the main ring of multi-ring basins are consistently spaced at a slightly, but significantly, larger interval, (2.1 ?? 0.3)0.5D; (2) The 88 rings of 44 protobasins (large peak-plus-inner-ring craters) are spaced at an entirely different interval (3.3 ?? 0.6)0.5D. The statistically constant and target-invariant spacing of so many rings suggests that this characteristic may constrain formational models of impact basins on the terrestrial planets. The key elements of such a constraint include: (1) ring positions may not have been located by the same process(es) that formed ring topography; (2) ring location and emplacement of ring topography need not be coeval; (3) ring location, but not necessarily the mode of ring emplacement, reflects one process that operated at the time of impact; and (4) the process yields similarly-disposed topographic features that are spatially discrete at 20.5D intervals, or some multiple, rather than continuous. These four elements suggest that some type of wave mechanism dominates the location, but not necessarily the formation, of basin rings. The waves may be standing, rather than travelling. The ring topography itself may be emplaced at impact by this and/or other mechanisms and may reflect additional, including post-impact, influences. ?? 1987

  5. Hydrology, water quality, and simulation of ground-water flow at a taconite-tailings basin near Keewatin, Minnesota. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Myette, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to describe the hydrology of a 2.5-sq mi taconite-tailings basin near Keewatin, Minnesota. The report describes (1) the hydrogeologic setting of the basin, including a description of the tailings within the basin, (2) the surface-water discharge at the outlet of the basin and its response to rainfall on the basin, (3) the ground-water system at the tailings basin and its response to rainfall on the basin, (4) the quality of the ground water beneath the basin and in the surrounding drift, (5) the quality of surface water and sediment discharging from the basin, and (6) the results of a finite-difference-model simulation of the ground-water flow system. Model simulation of ground-water flow was limited to deposits in the tailings basin and parts of the adjacent and underlying glacial-drift aquifers. The model was developed to evaluate estimates of hydraulic properties obtained from field data and to provide a better understanding of the effects of climatic stresses on ground-water levels and ground-water flow in the basin and on discharge from the basin. It has been suggested, however, that the filling and abandonment of these basins may create long-term pollution problems resulting from sediment erosion and chemical leaching of heavy metals.

  6. Delineation of the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley groundwater basin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Halford, Keith J.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    This report delineates the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley (PMOV) groundwater basin, where recharge occurs, moves downgradient, and discharges to Oasis Valley, Nevada. About 5,900 acre-feet of water discharges annually from Oasis Valley, an area of springs and seeps near the town of Beatty in southern Nevada. Radionuclides in groundwater beneath Pahute Mesa, an area of historical underground nuclear testing at the Nevada National Security Site, are believed to be migrating toward Oasis Valley. Delineating the boundary of the PMOV groundwater basin is necessary to adequately assess the potential for transport of radionuclides from Pahute Mesa to Oasis Valley.The PMOV contributing area is defined based on regional water-level contours, geologic controls, and knowledge of adjacent flow systems. The viability of this area as the contributing area to Oasis Valley and the absence of significant interbasin flow between the PMOV groundwater basin and adjacent basins are shown regionally and locally. Regional constraints on the location of the contributing area boundary and on the absence of interbasin groundwater flow are shown by balancing groundwater discharges in the PMOV groundwater basin and adjacent basins against available water from precipitation. Internal consistency for the delineated contributing area is shown by matching measured water levels, groundwater discharges, and transmissivities with simulated results from a single-layer, steady-state, groundwater-flow model. An alternative basin boundary extending farther north than the final boundary was rejected based on a poor chloride mass balance and a large imbalance in the northern area between preferred and simulated recharge.

  7. Phanerozoic stratigraphy of Northwind Ridge, magnetic anomalies in the Canada Basin, and the geometry and timing of rifting in the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Clark, D.L.; Phillips, R.L.; Srivastava, S.P.; Blome, C.D.; Gray, L.-B.; Haga, H.; Mamet, B.L.; McIntyre, D.J.; McNeil, D.H.; Mickey, M.B.; Mullen, M.W.; Murchey, B.I.; Ross, C.A.; Stevens, C.H.; Silberling, Norman J.; Wall, J.H.; Willard, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Cores from Northwind Ridge, a high-standing continental fragment in the Chukchi borderland of the oceanic Amerasia basin, Arctic Ocean, contain representatives of every Phanerozoic system except the Silurian and Devonian systems. Cambrian and Ordovician shallow-water marine carbonates in Northwind Ridge are similar to basement rocks beneath the Sverdrup basin of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Upper Mississippian(?) to Permian shelf carbonate and spicularite and Triassic turbidite and shelf lutite resemble coeval strata in the Sverdrup basin and the western Arctic Alaska basin (Hanna trough). These resemblances indicate that Triassic and older strata in southern Northwind Ridge were attached to both Arctic Canada and Arctic Alaska prior to the rifting that created the Amerasia basin. Late Jurassic marine lutite in Northwind Ridge was structurally isolated from coeval strata in the Sverdrup and Arctic Alaska basins by rift shoulder and grabens, and is interpreted to be a riftogenic deposit. This lutite may be the oldest deposit in the Canada basin. A cape of late Cenomanian or Turonian rhyodacite air-fall ash that lacks terrigenous material shows that Northwind Ridge was structurally isolated from the adjacent continental margins by earliest Late Cretaceous time. Closing Amerasia basin by conjoining seafloor magnetic anomalies beneath the Canada basin or by uniting the pre-Jurassic strata of Northwind Ridge with kindred sections in the Sverdrup basin and Hanna trough yield simular tectonic reconstructions. Together with the orientation and age of rift-marine structures, these data suggest that: 1) prior to opening of the Amerasia basin, both northern Alaska and continental ridges of the Chukchi borderland were part of North America, 2) the extension that created the Amerasia basin formed rift-margin graben beginning in Early Jurassic time and new oceanic crust probably beginning in Late Jurassic or early Neocomian time. Reconstruction of the Amerasia basin on the

  8. Seismic sequence stratigraphy of the Lower Congo, Kwanza, and Benguela Basins, offshore Angola, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollnberger, Elle Marie

    2001-07-01

    Sequences are recognized throughout the geologic record. The Angolan margin provides an excellent opportunity to examine the factors that control the deposition and preservation of sediments in sequences, as well as the factors that create the erosion or non-deposition along sequence boundaries. The Angolan sequences can be compared to global sequence charts and used to investigate the effects of local events versus global events on the area's sequences. Using seismic sequence stratigraphic principles, a 2D regional seismic data set covering three basins offshore Angola, the Lower Congo, Kwanza, and Benguela Basins, was interpreted. Sequences and their unconformities were correlated within each basin as well as between basins. Major sequences could be interpreted throughout and between the three basins with a high degree of confidence. Additional sequences within these major sequences were interpreted within a basin, but could not be correlated to the adjacent basin with a high degree of confidence. Detailed interpretation of the sequence stratigraphic significance of each reflector was performed on three profiles, one for each basin. Chronostratigraphic charts were constructed using the detailed interpretation of the profiles. Within the interpreted sequence stratigraphic framework, the timing and mechanics of the formation of salt structures was examined. The Angolan basins contain a variety of salt tectonic features. The reflectors of strata adjacent to the salt features were used to determine the timing and mechanics of the salt structure formation. This study accomplished several objectives. The tectonic evolution of the Angolan margin was reviewed. This study established a sequence stratigraphic framework for Angola. The process of deposition and preservation of sediments as depositional sequences was examined. The sequences were compared with the global sequence charts as well as with eustatic, tectonic, and oceanic circulation events. The formation of the

  9. Comparison of geoelectric and seismic reflection models of the Zambezi Valley basins, northern Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, David; Whaler, Kathy; Zengeni, Teddy

    2000-09-01

    The Mana Pools and Lower Zambezi Karoo sedimentary basins lie within the Zambezi mobile belt in northern Zimbabwe. The subsurface apparent resistivities measured at both locations are extremely low. Magnetotelluric (MT) data along a profile across part of the Lower Zambezi basin have been inverted using Rapid Relaxation Inversion (Smith & Booker 1991) to find the minimum structure needed to fit the data and compare with an earlier forward model. The resistivity models of both the Mana Pools and the Lower Zambezi basins are then compared with their structure revealed from seismic reflection data. The resistivity structure of the Mana Pools basin is well modelled as a series of different resistivity layers whose boundaries are defined by the seismic data. However, the resistivity structure of the Lower Zambezi basin cannot be matched easily to the seismic structure; additional structure with no seismic expression is required. There is a conductive feature in the two basins in the Upper Karoo sandstone layer that extends below the seismic basement beneath the Lower Zambezi basin. This indicates that the conductors may represent different types of features in the two basins, consistent with their proposed different tectonic origins. A resistive unit is present within the sediments in the Lower Zambezi basin that may represent intercalated basalt dykes, giving an anisotropic MT response. It has been suggested that there might be similar thin basalt layers within the sediments of the Mana Pools basin, but these could not be resolved by MT methods. The low resistivity of the basement, particularly beneath the Lower Zambezi basin, is remarkable and may result from a high degree of either chemical or tectonic alteration to the underlying rocks due to metamorphic processes and tectonic disruption during rift formation. The presence of the Lower Zambezi basin conductor at depths greater than the seismic basement is consistent with observations to the west, in the adjacent

  10. Tectonosedimentary evolution of the Crotone basin, Italy: Implications for Calabrian Arc geodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Smale, J.L. ); Rio, D. ); Thunell, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of outcrop, well, and offshore seismic data has allowed the Neogene tectonosedimentary evolution of an Ionian Sea satellite basin to be outlined. The Crotone basin contains a series of postorogenic sediments deposited since Serravallian time atop a complex nappe system emplaced in the early Miocene. The basin's evolution can be considered predominantly one of distension in a fore-arc setting punctuated by compressional events. The earliest sediments (middle-late Miocene) consist of conglomerates, marls, and evaporites infilling a rapidly subsiding basin. A basin-wide Messinian unconformity and associated intraformational folding mark the close of this sedimentary cycle. Reestablishment of marine conditions in the early Pliocene is documented by sediments which show a distinct color banding and apparent rhythmicity, which may represent the basin margin to lowermost Pliocene marl/limestone rhythmic couplets present in southern Calabria. A bounding unconformity surface of middle Pliocene age (3.0 Ma), which corresponds to a major northwest-southeast compressional event, closes this depositional sequence. The basin depocenter shifted markedly toward the southeast, and both chaotic and strong subparallel reflector seismic facies of wide-ranging thicknesses fill the depositional topography created during this tectonic episode. Basin subsidence decreases dramatically in the late Pliocene and cessates in response to basin margin uplift in the early Pleistocene. The chronostratigraphic hierarchy of these depositional sequences allows them to constrain the deformational history of the basin. In addition, similar depositional hierarchies in adjacent basins (i.e., Paola, Cefalu, and Tyrrhenian Sea) allow them to tie the stratigraphy and evolution of the Crotone basin to the geodynamic evolution of the Calabrian arc system.

  11. Bulge Migration and Pinnacle Reef Development, Devonian Appalachian Foreland Basin.

    PubMed

    Ver Straeten CA; Brett

    2000-05-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analyses of Late Emsian and Early Eifelian (Lower to Middle Devonian) carbonate-dominated strata in the northern Appalachian Basin indicate anomalous, locally varying relative sea level changes and inversions of topography. The distribution of a major basal-bounding unconformity, basinal pinnacle reefs, local absence of parasequences, and eastward migration of shallow marine carbonate lithofacies and related biofacies in the Onondaga Limestone and underlying strata mark the retrograde migration of an elongate, northeast-southwest-trending area of positive relief, bordered on its cratonward side by a similarly migrating basin of intermediate depth. These features are thought to represent the forebulge and back-bulge basin of the Appalachian foreland basin system as it developed during a time of relative quiescence within the Acadian Orogeny. However, the relatively small size of the bulgelike feature (ca. 80-100-km-wide, 20-50-m positive relief), its great distance from the probable deformation front (>400 km), and the lack of a well-developed foredeep immediately adjacent to the bulgelike feature may indicate that it represents a smaller-scale flexural high ("flexural welt") superposed over the cratonward edge of the larger-scale classical forebulge of the basin. Development of shallow-water reefs on the crest of the bulge during sea level lowstand, followed by migration of the bulge and widespread transgression, permitted growth of economically significant pinnacle reefs in the deep basin center. Further subsurface reef exploration should concentrate along the projected position of the bulge during the basal Onondaga lowstand. PMID:10769160

  12. Diagenesis of Oligocene continental sandstones in salt-walled mini-basins-Sivas Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2016-06-01

    The recent discovery of Oligo-Miocene salt-walled continental mini-basins in the Sivas Basin (central Anatolia, Turkey) provides the opportunity to unravel the influence of halokinesis on the diagenesis of continental mini-basin infilling. In this study, petrographic and geochemical analyses are used to define the diagenetic sequences recorded by two mini-basins filled mainly by fluvial clastic sediments of the upper Oligocene Karayün Formation. The initial diagenetic features are those commonly encountered in arid to semi-arid continental environments, i.e. clay infiltration, hematite precipitation and vadose calcite cement. Other early cements were strongly controlled by sandstone detrital composition in the presence of saline/alkaline pore water. In feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses, near-surface alterations were characterized by the precipitation of analcime (up to 10%), albite and quartz overgrowths (< 1%). These events were followed by extensive calcite cementation (up to 30%) during shallow burial diagenesis which prevented further mesogenetic alteration phenomena such as compaction. In feldsarenites, early diagenesis differs by (i) the absence of analcime, (ii) better developed albite cements, (iii) thin smectite-illite coatings forming pore linings and (iv) patchy calcite cementation (< 5%). The limited development of calcite cement allowed mesogenetic alterations to occur, such as late quartz overgrowths, albitization of feldspar grains and chemical compaction. All these phases are responsible for the low porosity of feldsarenites (< 2%). The greater abundance of carbonate cement in feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses is related to a greater proportion of detrital limestone in these sandstones. Early precipitation of analcime, albite, smectite-illite and quartz was likely triggered by the alteration of reactive grains by near-surface saline/alkaline brines originating from the dissolution of adjacent diapiric structures. Mini-basin

  13. Fracture character and distribution in the Nenana basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, A. J.; Hanks, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    The NE-SW trending Tertiary aged Nenana basin is located in the southeastern portion of central Alaska, north of Alaska Range. Forming adjacent to the Alaska Range, the tectonic setting resembles a foreland or strike-slip basin. This seismically active basin is estimated to be ~20,000 ft deep and is filled with non-marine sediments and coal-bearing sequences. Fracture character and distribution studies have been used to determine reservoir properties of the basin. By analyzing characteristics such as aperture, height, length and orientation, the origin of the fractures can be better understood. The seal integrity and extent of fracturing throughout the basin can aid in the understanding of the basin's history and its capability to be used for CO2 sequestration. The tectonic setting of central Alaska consists of two master right-lateral strike-slip faults that are proposed to create a shear zone with subsidiary left-lateral strike-slip faults. The southeastern margin of the basin is characterized by one of the subsidiary left-lateral faults proposed due to the master faults acting as major slip surfaces; the Minto fault, a predominately normal fault with a left-lateral strike-slip component. Available seismic data throughout the basin shows a strong extensional component with some possible flower structures. The orientation of the basin and its location in respect to both the Tintina-Kaltag and Denali right-lateral fault systems suggest that the basin is extending in the NE-SW direction. A fracture model has been proposed suggesting fractures related to the extensional component of the basin, but also tied to the fold and thrust belt located in the northern foothills of the Alaska Range. Data was obtained from a variety of locations in central Alaska in relation to the location of the basin. Fracture data was collected along the southeastern and southern portions of the basin in predominately metamorphic basement rocks and sedimentary sequences along the margin

  14. Shallow ground-water quality adjacent to burley tobacco fields in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia, spring 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.C.; Connell, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey began an assessment of the upper Tennessee River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. A ground-water land-use study conducted in 1996 focused on areas with burley tobacco production in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Land-use studies are designed to focus on specific land uses and to examine natural and human factors that affect the quality of shallow ground water underlying specific types of land use. Thirty wells were drilled in shallow regolith adjacent to and downgradient of tobacco fields in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of the upper Tennessee River Basin. Ground-water samples were collected between June 4 and July 9, 1997, to coincide with the application of the majority of pesticides and fertilizers used in tobacco production. Ground-water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, 79 pesticides, 7 pesticide degradation products, 86 volatile organic compounds, and dissolved organic carbon. Nutrient concentrations were lower than the levels found in similar NAWQA studies across the United States during 1993-95. Five of 30 upper Tennessee River Basin wells (16.7 percent) had nitrate levels exceeding 10 mg/L while 19 percent of agricultural land-use wells nationally and 7.9 percent in the Southeast had nitrate concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. Median nutrient concentrations were equal to or less than national median concentrations. All pesticide concentrations in the basin were less than established drinking water standards, and pesticides were detected less frequently than average for other NAWQA study units. Atrazine was detected at 8 of 30 (27 percent) of the wells, and deethylatrazine (an atrazine degradation product) was found in 9 (30 percent) of the wells. Metalaxyl was found in 17 percent of the wells, and prometon, flumetralin, dimethomorph, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, dichlorprop, and silvex were detected once each (3 percent). Volatile organic compounds

  15. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  16. Large Circular Basin - 1300-km diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Close-up view of one-half of a 1300-km diameter circular basin the largest observed on Mercury. The other half is hidden beyond the terminator to the left. Hills and valleys extend in a radial fashion outward from the main ring. Interior of the large basin is completely flooded by plains materials; adjacent lowlands are also partially flooded and superimposed on the plains are bowl shaped craters. Wrinkle ridges are abundant on the plains materials. The area shown is 1008 miles (1600 km) from the top to the bottom of the picture. Sun's illumination is from the right. Blurred linear lines extending across the picture near bottom are missing data lines that have been filled in by the computer. Mariner 10 encountered Mercury on Friday, March 29th, 1974, passing the planet on the darkside 431 miles (690-km) from the surface.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    NOTE: This image was scanned from physical media.

  17. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  18. Pedogenic and groundwater processes in a closed Miocene basin (northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenteros, Ildefonso; Angeles Bustillo, M. A.; Blanco, Jose Antonio

    1995-09-01

    The Sepúlveda-Ayllón Basin (SAB) was an episodically closed Miocene basin adjacent to the Tertiary Duero Basin (northern Spain). The sediments studied here represent a depositional system developed from the margin to the centre of the basin by alluvial fan, mud flat and saline mud flat/ ephemeral lacustrine environments. An assemblage of authigenic lithotypes was formed in the basin, their distribution being influenced by that of the depositional environments within the basin. Authigenesis took place mainly before sedimentation of the next set of beds. In the distal alluuial fan, authigenesis of smectite (outer part), palygorskite (inner part) and calcrete predominates, and the original muddy deposits are still recognizable. In the mud flat, a more intense transformation of the sediments took place, with predominant formation of palygorskite (outer part), interstitial gypsum, calcrete (outer part), dolocrete (inner part) and brown silcrete. In the saline mud flat /ephemeral lake, original sediment was extensively disturbed and replaced by magnesian clays (sepiolite and magnesian smectite), interstitial gypsum, dolocrete and cream and white silcrete. Authigenic alteration within each cycle varied in time and place, and was both pedogenic and groundwater-related. The authigenic assemblages point to a closed basin under evaporation in a seasonally dry climate. At the end of this period the SAB became connected with the Duero Basin to the northeast, thus losing the endoreic regime. Consequently, the authigenic evaporitic assemblages were then unstable and were partially replaced by a late sparry calcrete.

  19. Organic matter in the Paleogene west European rift: Bresse and Valence salt basins (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Curial, A.; Dumas, D.; Moretto, R.

    1988-08-01

    The Bresse and Valence basins are two adjacent segments of the West European rift. They contain thick Paleogene halite sequences including intercalated and interfingering siliciclastic material and carbonate and sulfate deposits. Source rock samples in this study were mainly taken from the depocenters because of maximum sampling coverage. Organic matter (OM) is generally immature and occurs primarily within intercalated nonhalitic beds. The Bresse basin seems to contain more OM in (1) the Intermediate Salt Formation (Priabonian), composed of alternating laminated carbonate and halite beds; (2) the upper part of the Upper Salt Formation (clayey carbonate beds; Rupelian), affected by synsedimentary halite solution; and (3) the solution breccia which immediate overlies the salt sequence. In the Valence basin, the organic-rich layers are concentrated in the Subsalt Formation (carbonate beds; Priabonian), and the upper part of the Lower Salt Formation (laminates; Rupelian). In both basins, type III organic matter is associated with terrigenous facies. Type I is abundant in the Valence basin (laminites), and type II seems to be more abundant in the Bresse basin. The amount of OM varies considerably, and we suppose it is higher toward the basin margins. From studies made in evaporite basins in other region, which are also known to have significant amounts of organic matter, we find a similar range of organic composition. Such studies are of interest because of their petroleum potential and for understanding precise depositional environments and waste disposal problems (gas generation with local heat source).

  20. Regional Stratigraphy and Petroleum Systems of the Michigan Basin, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Although more than 100 years of research have gone into deciphering the stratigraphy of the Michigan basin of North America, it remains a challenge to visualize the basin stratigraphy on a regional scale and to describe stratigraphic relations within the basin. Similar difficulties exist for visualizing and describing the regional distribution of petroleum source rocks and reservoir rocks. This publication addresses these difficulties by combining data on Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the Michigan basin. The areal extent of this structural basin is presented along with data in eight schematic chronostratigraphic sections arranged from north to south, with time denoted in equal increments along the sections. The stratigraphic data are modified from American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) (1984), Johnson and others (1992), Sanford (1993), and Cross (1998), and the time scale is taken from Harland and others (1990). Informal North American chronostratigraphic terms from AAPG (1984) are shown in parentheses. Stratigraphic sequences as defined by Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963) also are included, as well as the locations of major petroleum source rocks and major petroleum plays. The stratigraphic units are colored according to predominant lithology, in order to emphasize general lithologic patterns and to provide a broad overview of the Michigan basin. For purposes of comparison, schematic depictions of stratigraphy and interpreted events in the Michigan basin and adjacent Appalachian basin are shown. The paper version of this map is available for purchase from the USGS Store.

  1. SURVEY OF CROSS-BASIN BOAT TRAFFIC, ATCHAFALAYA BASIN, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For flood control and for the preservation and enhancement of environmental quality of overflow swamp habitats, introduction of sediment from the Atchafalaya Basin Main Channel into backwater areas of the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway should be minimized. This introduction occurs ma...

  2. Results of en bloc resection for hepatocellular carcinoma extending to adjacent organs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Sui, Cheng-Jun; Li, Bin; Xu, Feng; Kan, Tong; Yang, Jia-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background To curatively resect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adjacent organ extension, the combined resection of these organs is inevitable. We analyzed the safety and effectiveness of en bloc resection for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Methods From December 2002 to May 2006, we compared the surgical outcomes of patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs with those of closely matched, randomly selected patients with HCC without adjacent organ extension. Results We included 42 patients whose HCC extended to adjacent organs and 126 patients whose HCC did not extend to adjacent organs. There was no significant difference in survival, operative morbidity or mortality between the groups. In patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs, histopathological examination of the specimen revealed true tumour invasion in 13 and adhesion in 29 patients. Those with tumour invasion were more likely to have a high incidence of capsule infiltration, microvascular invasion and early intrahepatic recurrence (≤ 1 yr after hepatectomy). The 5-year overall survival of patients with tumour invasion was 11.5%, whereas that of patients with tumour adhesion was 38.1% (p = 0.033). Conclusion En bloc resection is a safe and effective therapy for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Tumour invasion to adjacent organs exhibits a more aggressive clinical behaviour and is associated with worse survival than tumour adhesion. PMID:22617536

  3. Contribution of the upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea to the heavy metal pollution in the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Su; Wu, Yuehan; Xu, Wei; Li, Yangyang; Shen, Zhenyao; Feng, Chenghong

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether the discharge control of heavy metals in the Yangtze River basin can significantly change the pollution level in the estuary, this study analyzed the sources (upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea) of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in dissolved and particulate phases in the surface water of the estuary during wet, normal, and dry seasons. Metal sources inferred from section fluxes agree with those in statistical analysis methods. Heavy metal pollution in the surface water of Yangtze Estuary primarily depends on the sediment suspension and the wastewater discharge from estuary cities. Upper river only constitutes the main source of dissolved heavy metals during the wet season, while the estuarine region and the adjacent sea (especially the former) dominate the dissolved metal pollution in the normal and dry seasons. Particulate metals are mainly derived from sediment suspension in the estuary and the adjacent sea, and the contribution of the upper river can be neglected. Compared with the hydrologic seasons, flood-ebb tides exert a more obvious effect on the water flow directions in the estuary. Sediment suspension, not the upper river, significantly affects the suspended particulate matter concentration in the estuary. PMID:27155472

  4. Thermal maturation and petroleum source rocks in Forest City and Salina basins, mid-continent, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D.; Watney, W.L.; Hatch, J.R.; Xiaozhong, G.

    1986-05-01

    Shales in the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group are probably the source rocks for a geochemically distinct group of lower pristane and low phytane oils produced along the axis of the Forest City basin, a shallow cratonic Paleozoic basin. These oils, termed Ordovician-type oils, occur in some fields in the southern portion of the adjacent Salina basin. Maturation modeling by time-temperature index (TTI) calculations indicate that maturation of both basins was minimal during the early Paleozoic. The rate of maturation significantly increased during the Pennsylvanian because of rapid regional subsidence in response to the downwarping of the nearby Anadarko basin. When estimated thicknesses of eroded Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Cretaceous strata are considered, both basins remain relatively shallow, with maximum basement burial probably not exceeding 2 km. According to maturation modeling and regional structure mapping, the axes of both basins should contain Simpson rocks in the early stages of oil generation. The probability of finding commercial accumulations of Ordovician-type oil along the northwest-southeast trending axis of the Salina basin will decrease in a northwestward direction because of (1) westward thinning of the Simpson Group, and (2) lesser maturation due to lower geothermal gradients and shallower paleoburial depths. The optimum localities for finding fields of Ordovician-type oil in the southern Salina basin will be in down-plunge closures on anticlines that have drainage areas near the basin axis.

  5. Reflux Brines and Saline Groundwater, Murray Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, I.; Weaver, T. R.; Swane, I.

    2001-12-01

    , locally discontinuous, contain lenses of sand, and form relatively poor aquitards. This is in keeping with observations that hydrographs from adjacent deep and shallow wells are generally in phase and that the chemistry of shallow and deeper wells is often similar. Overall, recharge to both shallow and deep aquifer systems may locally occur throughout the basin. The results of this study show the control that surface processes have on the deeper groundwater in this basin. Recent land clearing has increased the salinity of shallow groundwater across the basin, which may begin to impact the deeper groundwater.

  6. The evolution of the East Java Basin, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Martin L.

    The East Java Basin has a geological life span of more than 50 Ma, with a diverse structural and stratigraphic development history. The basin originated during the Eocene on continental crust and developed northeast to southwest trending linear paleo-highs at its inception. These antiformal uplifts are cored by contractional structures, but also exhibit minor crestal extension. The parallel and convex paleo-highs are separated at a spatial wavelength of 80--100 km. The well and sediment information is recorded and evaluated herein as subsidence histories. By coupling the convex profiles from geohistory information with low heat flows recorded in well bottomhole temperatures, the evidence points to an origin of lithospheric flexure and buckling of the continental crust. The stratigraphy documented in well and outcrop samples indicates a preponderance of shelfal carbonate deposits with an influx of quartz sandstone during the Miocene. The quartzite source is north of the basin in Borneo associated with an exposed granite massif. Only Pliocene-Recent sediments (<5 Ma) are sourced from adjacent volcanic eruptions to the south. In contrast to previous studies where rifting is proposed as the mechanism for basin initiation, the evidence uncovered in this research points to crustal buckling of continental crust as the correct mechanism. Well subsidence histories indicate folding or flexure of the continental crust caused by contraction of the lithosphere appears to be responsible for Eocene-Miocene basin subsidence. The research evidence suggests the basin developed in four stages identified in the structure and stratigraphy captured in the geohistory profiles. The first stage of East Java Basin development, crustal buckling originated with Middle Eocene with sediments deposited in geographic lows on folded continental crust. Stage two, the flexural deepening phase started in the Late Oligocene with gradual subsidence until the Lower Miocene. The third phase, foreland

  7. Impact of structural and autocyclic basin-floor topography on the depositional evolution of the deep-water Valparaiso forearc basin, central Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laursen, J.; Normark, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Valparaiso Basin constitutes a unique and prominent deep-water forearc basin underlying a 40-km by 60-km mid-slope terrace at 2.5-km water depth on the central Chile margin. Seismic-reflection data, collected as part of the CONDOR investigation, image a 3-3.5-km thick sediment succession that fills a smoothly sagged, margin-parallel, elongated trough at the base of the upper slope. In response to underthrusting of the Juan Ferna??ndez Ridge on the Nazca plate, the basin fill is increasingly deformed in the seaward direction above seaward-vergent outer forearc compressional highs. Syn-depositional growth of a large, margin-parallel monoclinal high in conjunction with sagging of the inner trough of the basin created stratal geometries similar to those observed in forearc basins bordered by large accretionary prisms. Margin-parallel compressional ridges diverted turbidity currents along the basin axis and exerted a direct control on sediment depositional processes. As structural depressions became buried, transverse input from point sources on the adjacent upper slope formed complex fan systems with sediment waves characterising the overbank environment, common on many Pleistocene turbidite systems. Mass failure as a result of local topographic inversion formed a prominent mass-flow deposit, and ultimately resulted in canyon formation and hence a new focused point source feeding the basin. The Valparaiso Basin is presently filled to the spill point of the outer forearc highs, causing headward erosion of incipient canyons into the basin fill and allowing bypass of sediment to the Chile Trench. Age estimates that are constrained by subduction-related syn-depositional deformation of the upper 700-800m of the basin fill suggest that glacio-eustatic sea-level lowstands, in conjunction with accelerated denudation rates, within the past 350 ka may have contributed to the increase in simultaneously active point sources along the upper slope as well as an increased

  8. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  9. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  10. The geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.E.; Keith, T.E.C. ); Hutchinson, R.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone Caldera, one of the largest volcanic features of its type in the world. Hydrothermal activity may have been continuous for {gt}100,000 years B.P. Norris Basin includes the highest erupting geyser of recent water types, colors of organisms and inorganic precipitates, frequent changes in activity and chemistry, and very high subsurface temperatures ({gt}240{degrees}C). Norris Basin is only a part of the Norris-Mammoth Corridor that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. Norris Basin has a heat flow roughly 10 percent of that of the Yellowstone Caldera and requires an estimated 0.01 km{sup 3} of rhyolitic magma per year-a quantity far greater than the corridor's rate of eruption.

  11. Effect of glacier ablation on the Snettisham Hydroelectric Project, Long Lake and Crater Lake Basins, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloan, C.E.; Emery, P.A.; Fair, Diana

    1986-01-01

    Long Lake Basin in the Snettisham Project Area southeast of Juneau, Alaska, yields water used for the production of hydroelectric power. Development of adjacent Crater Lake is planned to increase the Project 's generating capacity. Estimates of the hydroelectric potential of the lakes are based on streamflow records which are influenced by glaciers that cover 25% of the combined basins. Analysis of streamflow records shows that the quality and extent of records in the area are sufficient to predict flow from the Crater Creek basin with a fairly high degree of confidence. Comparison of aerial photographs indicates that glacier ablation and recession have been continuous since at least 1929. Estimates of ice-volume change from photogrammetric measurements indicate that less than 2.5% of the average runoff from the basins of Long and Crater Lakes has been from reduction in glacier-ice storage. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  13. Bioavailability of sinking organic matter in the Blanes canyon and the adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Fernandez, P.; Bianchelli, S.; Pusceddu, A.; Calafat, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2012-12-01

    Submarine canyons are sites of intense energy and material exchange between the shelf and the deep adjacent basins. To test the hypothesis that active submarine canyons represent preferential conduits of available food for the deep-sea benthos, two mooring lines were deployed at 1200 m depth from November 2008 to November 2009 inside the Blanes canyon and on the adjacent open slope (Catalan Margin, NW Mediterranean Sea). We investigated the fluxes, biochemical composition and food quality of sinking organic carbon (OC). OC fluxes in the canyon and the open slope varied among sampling periods, though not consistently in the two sites. In particular, while in the open slope the highest OC fluxes were observed in August 2009, in the canyon the highest OC fluxes occurred in April-May 2009. For almost the entire study period, the OC fluxes in the canyon were significantly higher than those in the open slope, whereas OC contents of sinking particles collected in the open slope were consistently higher than those in the canyon. This result confirms that submarine canyons are effective conveyors of OC to the deep sea, particles transferred are predominantly of inorganic origin, significantly higher than that reaching the open slope at a similar water depth. Using multivariate statistical tests, two major clusters of sampling periods were identified: one in the canyon that grouped trap samples collected in December 2008, concurrently with the occurrence of a major storm at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of nutritionally available particles from the upper shelf. Another cluster grouped samples from both the canyon and the open slope collected in March 2009, concurrently with the occurrence of the seasonal phytoplankton bloom at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of total phytopigments. Our results confirm the key ecological role of submarine canyons for the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and highlight the importance of canyons

  14. Are historical pollution events on the Delaware River recorded as geochemical marker horizons in adjacent marsh sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, R.; Yemane, K. . Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    In the last two hundred years of massive population and industrial growth, the Delaware River has been subjected to several minor and major pollutions. For example, as recently as June 1989 the tanker Presidente Rivera spilled an estimated hundred thousand to million gallons of oil into the river. In the Lower Delaware Basin tides affect the river and its tributaries up to a hundred kilometers inland. The freshwater marshes adjacent to the creeks that empty into the Delaware River experience diurnal tidal sedimentation. It is thus expected that the pollutants in the waterway would be transported via the tidal channels into the adjacent wetlands. The high sedimentation rate, clay-rich sediments, accumulation of terrestrial organic matter, and the low energy environments in these marshes should ensure rapid burial which may preserve some of the contaminants transported into the marshes. To test this hypothesis the authors selected a freshwater marsh along the Raccoon Creek just south of Philadelphia in New Jersey, and collected a 2 m core from a relatively undisturbed portion of the marsh, about 15 m away from the tidal channels. The pH averages around 6.2, ranges from 5.5--6.8, but, is slightly higher in the middle part of the core. The bulk mineralogy comprises chlorite, illite, kaolinite, feldspars and quartz. Vivianite and vermiculite were observed at places lower in the core. Graminae dominates the pollen/spore taxa. The organic debris is unaltered throughout the core. The authors will measure heavy metals and toxic chemicals on < 2[mu]m clay fractions. Also pristane/phytane ratios, indicative of hydrocarbons (crude oils), will be determined on organic matter extracts. The authors will compare and correlate the results to historically documented events of chemical and petroleum spills on the Delaware River.

  15. South Pole-Aitken Basin: Evidence for Post-Basin Resurfacing from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Fassett, C.; Kadish, S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.

    2010-12-01

    The lunar farside South Pole-Aitken Basin is the largest and oldest documented basin on the Moon and is thus of interest from the point of view of the scale of production of impact melt at large basin-event sizes and its ring structure and potential depth of sampling at such a large diameter. We used new LOLA data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter 1) to characterize the basin interior topography, 2) to assess the nature of the nearby and relatively pristine Orientale basin and compare it to the SPA interior, and 3) to compile a new global crater database of all lunar craters ≥20 km in diameter and to assess the population of impact craters superposed on the SPA interior and exterior. We find that impact crater size-frequency distribution plots show that the exterior of the SPA basin is similar to the most heavily cratered regions of the Moon, but that the interior of the basin has a deficiency of craters in the 20-64 km diameter crater range. One interpretation of these data is that some resurfacing process (or processes) has modified the superposed crater population. Among the candidates are 1) impact crater proximity weathering/degradation by adjacent (e.g., Apollo) and nearby (e.g., Orientale) impact basin ejecta, 2) volcanic resurfacing by early non-mare volcanism, cryptomaria and/or maria, and 3) viscous relaxation removing crater topography. We consider viscous relaxation of crater topography to be the least likely due to the wavelength dependence of the process (rim-crests should be preserved and thus detected in our crater counts). Careful analysis of the impact ejecta thickness radial decay suggests that it is an important resurfacing mechanism within a basin radius from the rim crest, but is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the observed deficiency. Morphometric analysis of impact craters, modeling, and simulations of volcanic flooding suggest that the deficiency may be related to the patchy distribution of cryptomaria, suspected from mineralogic

  16. Tectonic development, sedimentation and paleoceanography of the Scan Basin (southern Scotia Sea, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Lodolo, Emanuele; Maldonado, Andrés; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Bohoyo, Fernando; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Lobo, F. José; Burca, Mihai

    2014-12-01

    The N-S trending Scan Basin is the easternmost deep basin north of the South Scotia Ridge, which is a geologically complex structural elevation that hosts the strike-slip boundary between the Scotia and Antarctic plates. We characterized the main morpho-structural features of the basin by analyzing the available multichannel seismic reflection profiles. The reconstruction of the seismo-stratigraphy reveals the growth patterns of the Scan Basin. Seismic data and gravity modeling support the interpretation that the basin is mainly floored by oceanic crust, however its northern and southern provinces exhibit different seismic attributes. Stratigraphic calibrations with adjacent regions together with the distribution of sedimentary units indicate that this basin was formed by rifting processes and subsequent spreading accretion from the Oligocene to the Miocene. This age attribution suggests that the Scan Basin might be one of the oldest oceanic basins of the southern Scotia Sea-possibly coeval with the Eocene-Oligocene opening of the Drake Passage. The basin is the most direct connection between the Weddell Sea and the Scotia Sea, whereas the stratigraphic features reveal the occurrence of major paleoceanographic changes. The initial phases of the evolution were influenced by mass-transport and turbidite processes of sediment supply from the nearby continental margins of the eastern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. From the Middle Miocene to the Present-day, the eastward motion of the basin due to plate tectonic and the connection with the Weddell Sea through gateways enabled instauration of the overflow of Weddell Sea Deep Water (WSDW) into the Scan Basin. The WSDW forced the northward migration of the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) and became progressively dominant, controlling depositional patterns. The results that we report here should prove essential for understanding the formation of the Scotia Sea, the beginning of the Scotia Arc fragmentation, and the increasing

  17. Neotectonics and seismic hazard in the northern Alpine foreland (Northern Switzerland and adjacent France and Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, S. M.; Ustaszewski, K.; Deichmann, N.; Müller, W. H.; Slejko, D.

    2003-04-01

    The analysis of the present-day tectonic framework of the northern Alpine foreland is of great importance in terms of (1) the search for host formations for storing high-level and long-lived intermediate and high-level nuclear waste in Northern Switzerland, and, (2) a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), which re-evaluates the safety of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant Sites. The recently established close scientific cooperation between pure and applied geosciences led to a growing consensus that deformation linked to Alpine orogeny is still ongoing at present, after having propagated northwards into the Molasse basin and the Jura Mountains in Miocene to Pliocene times. It is not entirely clear yet, how this presently ongoing deformation in the Northern Alpine foreland, associated with convergence rates in the order of 1 mm/a or less, is partitioned between basement (crystalline basement, including Permo-Carboniferous troughs) and the sedimentary cover, the latter being rheologically decoupled along the Triassic evaporites. There is a consensus amongst most authors that classical Jura folding and thrusting was "thin-skinned", i.e. that shortening in the basement was confined to the northern rim of the Alps ("distant push hypothesis"). NW-SE- to N-S directed shortening within the basement migrated northward into Northern Switzerland and adjacent France and Germany since Late Pliocene times, inducing a change from former "thin"- to presently active "thick-skinned" deformation. Its precise extent, however, is uncertain. Knowledge of rate and mode of deformation within the basement is crucial for seismic hazard analysis. The remaining epistemic uncertainty will be built into a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. It is hoped that further investigations in the framework of projects EUCOR-URGENT (Upper Rhine Graben: Evolution and Neo-Tectonics) and ENTEC (Environmental Tectonics) will significantly reduce these uncertainties. Knowledge about the seismic source of

  18. Induced seismicity caused by hydraulic fracturing in deep geothermal wells in Germany and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenefisch, Thomas; Brückner, Lisa; Ceranna, Lars; Gestermann, Nicolai; Houben, Georg; Tischner, Torsten; Wegler, Ulrich; Wellbrink, Matthias; Bönnemann, Christian; Bertram, Andreas; Kirschbaum, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the BGR has worked out a study on the potential environmental impact caused by hydraulic fracturing or chemical stimulations in deep geothermal reservoirs in Germany and adjacent areas. The investigations and analyses are based on existing studies and information provided by operators. The two environmental impacts being essentially considered in the report are induced seismicity and possible contamination of the groundwater reservoirs which serve for drinking water supply. Altogether, in this study, information on 30 hydraulic frac operations and 26 chemical stimulations including information from neighboring countries were compiled and analyzed. Out of the hydraulic stimulations two thirds were carried out as waterfracs and one third as fracturing with proppants. Parameters used in the study to characterize the induced seismicity are maximum magnitude, number of seismic events, size of the seismically active volume, and the relation of this volume to fault zones and the cap rock, as well as, finally, the impacts at the Earth's surface. The response of the subsurface to hydraulic fracturing is variable: There are some activities, which cause perceptible seismic events, others, where no perceptible but instrumentally detected events occurred, and moreover activities without even any instrumentally detected events. A classification of seismic hazard with respect to tectonic region, geology, or depth of the layer is still difficult, since the number of hydraulic fracturing measures in deep geothermal wells is small making a statistically sound analysis impossible. However, there are some indications, that hydraulic fracturing in granite in tectonically active regions like the Upper Rhine Graben results in comparatively stronger, perceptible seismicity compared to hydraulic fracturing in the sedimentary rocks of the North German basin. The maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes caused by hydraulic fracturing of deep geothermal wells in Germany are

  19. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-01

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  20. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  2. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  4. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  5. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  6. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  7. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  8. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  9. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  10. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  11. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  12. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  13. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  14. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  16. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  17. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  18. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  19. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  20. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... explosives, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50. Dangerous cargo means “certain dangerous cargo” as defined in § 160... adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). 110.168 Section 110.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). (a) Anchorage Grounds—(1) Anchorage A . The waters bounded...

  1. Miocene to Recent Volcanism in NE Baja California and its Correlation to Adjacent Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. M.

    2007-05-01

    location (an accommodation zone in the rift system). The ca 3 Ma pulse of volcanism has been related to a "ridge jump" type event (relocation of the plate boundary from the Lower Tiburon basin to the Lower Delfin Basin, within a single spreading segment of the Pacific-North America rift). Both the 6 Ma pulse and the 3 Ma pulse thus seem to be controlled by local processes rather than by regional events. The ca. 12.5 Ma Tuff of San Felipe erupted before the Gulf opened, when Baja California and Sonora were adjacent; the likely vent location is on the modern Sonoran coast north of Bahia de Kino. Work by Oskin (2002), and ongoing studies, allow outcrops of this unit to be correlated over a modern distance of at least 430 km from NE Baja California to east of Hermosillo, Sonora. It has been included by Vidal-Solano and others (2005) as part of a significant episode of post-subduction peralkaline volcanism in Sonora, attributed to regional extension and lithospheric thinning.

  2. Evolution of fluvial systems in salt-walled mini-basins: A review and new insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banham, Steven G.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2013-10-01

    The preserved sedimentary expression of fluvial successions accumulated in salt-walled mini-basins records the complex history of basin subsidence, the style of sediment supply, and the pattern of sediment distribution in response to a range of fluvial processes throughout the evolution of such basins. Temporal and spatial variations in the rate of basin subsidence govern the generation of accommodation space, whereas the rate and style of sediment supply govern how available accommodation is filled; together these parameters act as principal controls that dictate the gross-scale pattern of fluvial sedimentation. Additional factors that influence fluvial stratigraphic architecture in salt-walled mini-basins are: (i) the trend and form of inherited basement lineations and faults that control the geometry, orientation and spacing of salt walls that develop in response to halokinesis; (ii) salt thickness and composition that dictate both the maximum potential basin-fill thickness within a developing mini-basin and the rate of evacuation (migration) of salt from beneath evolving mini-basins, leading to the growth of confining salt walls, uplift of which may generate surface topographic expression that influences fluvial drainage patterns; (iii) climate that dictates fluvial style and the processes by which sediment is distributed; and (iv) the inherited direction of drainage relative to the trend of elongate salt walls and locus of sediment supply that dictates how sediments are distributed both within a single mini-basin and between adjacent basins. Examples of fluvial sedimentary architectures preserved in salt-walled mini-basins from a number of geographic regions are used to illustrate and document the primary controls that influence patterns of fluvial sediment accumulation. The distribution of fluvial architectural elements preserved within mini-basins follows a predictable pattern, both within individual basin depocentres and between adjoining basins: drainage

  3. 'East Basin' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'East Basin' Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to obtain this view of the impact feature called 'East Basin' to the northeast of 'Husband Hill.' The images combined into this mosaic were taken during Spirit's 653rd Martian day, or sol (Nov. 3, 2005), just before Spirit descended eastward onto 'Haskin Ridge.' The view is about 150 degrees wide. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 480-nanometer filters.

    Dark features on the far side of the basin, just left of center in this view, are basaltic sand deposits that were emplaced on the lee sides of hills by northwesterly winds. Haskin Ridge is visible along the right margin of the image, capped by a light-toned layer of rock. Spirit investigated the light-toned rock unit after taking this image. The basaltic plains located east of the 'Columbia Hills' can be seen in the distance beyond 'East Basin.' The rim of Thira crater is just visible on the distant horizon some 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) away.

  4. The stratigraphy of the Taoudeni basin, west Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, K.T.; Moody, R.T.J. )

    1993-09-01

    The Taoudeni basin is one of the major structural units of the west African craton, with an areal extent in excess of 2,000,000 km[sup 2]. Sediment thicknesses can reach over 3000 m, but have an average thickness of 1250 m. The majority of the basin-fill sediments are Precambrian to Carboniferous, with Mesozoic rocks present in the eastern margin adjacent to the Adrar des Iforas. Due to the paucity of exploration in the Taoudoni basin, there are no detailed works on source potential, maturity, or reservoir quality. However, within the sediment pile, there are excellent potential reservoirs, in the form of poorly cemented sandstones, and apparently organic-rich sediments, which may have source potential. Three major Paleozoic tectono-sedimentary units are recognized within the basin, all of which are found in the Adrar de Mauritania, which is taken as the [open quotes]type section[close quotes] for the Taoudeni basin. Unit 1 (Upper Riphean) is composed of alternating sandstones, limestones, and mudstones, which show rapid lateral thickness variations. Units 2 and 3 are far more uniform in thickness and distribution. Unit 2 (late Precambrian-Lower Ordovician) is composed of shales and sandstones with minor limestones. The base of this unit is composed of the Triad, or the Eocambrian glacial deposits that can be correlated across west Africa. Unit 3 (Upper Oedovician-Devonian) is composed of a variety of lithofacies varying from a basal glacial unit through basinal graptolitic shales into shallow marine/continental deposits. Each of these units will be discussed in detail and the petroleum potential of the constituent lithofacies considered.

  5. Paluxy of the Central Basin-East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, M.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The Paluxy Formation (Lower Cretaceous) has been a consistent sandstone exploration objective in the central East Texas basin, occurring at moderate depths on the order of 5000-8000 ft with oil in reservoirs with good permeability and porosity and reserves in the range of 200,000 to 500,000 bbl per well. Since the 1940s, the pace of Paluxy field discovery has been steady, generally a new field or two every one or two years, and there is every reason to believe that there is continued potential for the Paluxy in the future. The central part of the East Texas basin, in Smith County and adjacent areas, has complex structure with numerous salt domes and intervening sediment wedges (turtles) that formed during movement of the salt. Paluxy oil and gas in this area occurs mainly in combination structural-stratigraphic traps along normal faults that cut turtles. Major exploration trends in the central basin include (1) the Lindale turtle with a number of widely spaced fields, generally with only a few wells but with relatively good per-well reserves, (2) the Tyler turtle with the largest fields and some of the most prolific Paluxy production in the central basin, (3) the Flint and Irene turtles with relatively thin sandstones and modest production, (4) the Lane Chapel turtle with some exciting new Paluxy discoveries, and (5) the rim areas of salt domes.

  6. Potential cretaceous play in the Rharb basin of northern Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Jobidon, G.P. )

    1993-09-01

    The autochthonous Cretaceous in the Rharb basin of northern Morocco is located underneath a cover of neogene sediments and of the Prerif nappe olistostrome, which was emplaced during the Tortonian 7 m.y. The presence of infranappe Cretaceous sediments is documented in a few onshore wells in the Rharb basin and in the adjacent Prerif Rides area, as well as in the Rif Mountains. Their presence in the deeper portion of the Rharb basin is difficult to detail because of poor seismic resolution data beneath dispersive prerif nappe. A recent study of offshore seismic data acquired by PCIAC in 1987 indicates that the infranappe interval can be more than 1500 m thick in some of the offshore Kenitra area. These sediments have seismic signatures that would correspond to Middle Cretaceous transgressions, culminating with a Turonian highstand. Their deposition systems were located on the northern and western flanks of the Meseta and were followed by a hiatus lasting until the Miocene. Regional studies of gravity and magnetic data provide and additional understanding of the Rif province, its evolution, and the possible presence of autochthonous Cretaceous sediments below the prerif nappe cover. The infranappe of Rharb basin has a good potential to develop into a major hydrocarbon play with the presence of middle Cretaceous reservoir rocks, Turonian-Cenomanian black shale source rocks, as well as the timely combination of trap formation, source rock maturation, and hydrocarbon migration.

  7. Heat flow and thermal history of the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, L.S.; Kelley, S.A.; Blackwell, D.D.; Naeser, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    New heat-flow values for seven sites in the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma, were determined using high-precision temperature logs and thermal conductivity measurements from nearly 300 core plugs. Three of the sites are on the northern shelf, three sites are in the deep basin, and one site is in the frontal fault zone of the northern Wichita Mountains. The heat flow decreased from 55 to 64 mW/m2 in the north, and from 39 to 54 mW/m2 in the south, due to a decrease in heat generation in the underlying basement rock toward the south. Lateral lithologic changes in the basin, combined with the change in heat flow across the basin, resulted in an unusual pattern of thermal maturity. The vitrinite reflectance values of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Woodford formation are highest 30-40 km north-northwest of the deepest part of the basin. The offset in highest reflectance values is due to the contrast in thermal conductivity between the Pennsylvanian "granite wash" section adjacent to the Wichita uplift and the Pennsylvanian shale section to the north. The geothermal gradient in the low-conductivity shale section is elevated relative to the geothermal gradient in the high-conductivity "granite wash" section, thus displacing the highest temperatures to the north of the deepest part of the basin. Apatite fission-track, vitrinite reflectance, and heat-flow data were used to constrain regional aspects of the burial history of the Anadarko basin. By combining these data sets, we infer that at least 1.5 km of denudation has occurred at two sites in the deep Anadarko basin since the early to middle Cenozoic (40 ?? 10 m.y.). The timing of the onset of denudation in the southern Anadarko basin coincides with the period of late Eocene erosion observed in the southern Rocky Mountains and in the northern Great Plains. Burial history models for two wells from the deep Anadarko basin predict that shales of the Woodford formation passed through the hydrocarbon maturity window by the

  8. Optimization of tuned mass damper for adjacent buildings with equal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekdaş, Gebrail; Nigdeli, Sinan Melih

    2013-10-01

    During earthquakes, adjacent structures may collide to each other because of insufficient seismic gap. By using tuned mass dampers (TMD), the sway of adjacent buildings be reduced and pounding of structures is prevented. In this case, TMDs must be tuned according to the properties of adjacent structures in order to reduce seismic gap (maximum difference of displacements). Also, adjacent structures with equal properties may collide because live-loads on structures is not constant. Change of live-load affects seismic behavior of structures. In this paper, TMDs for adjacent structures with equal properties are optimized by using harmony search algorithm. The approach is effective to reduce the value of seismic gap needed for protection of structures.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  10. Orientale Basin deposits (Riccioli area) in Apollo 16 earthshine photography, part E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, D. D.; Head, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Interpretations of photography of Orientale Basin deposits obtained under earthshine illumination conditions during the Apollo 16 mission are presented. Although the quality of these photographs is less than that obtainable in sunshine, these regions are in the dark during Apollo missions because of the locations of the Apollo landing sites. Photography of these regions under different lighting geometry and from different viewpoints is therefore a useful addition to previous photographic data. Oblique photography was obtained of Riccioli Crater and adjacent areas, which lie northeast of the Orientale Basin.

  11. Contaminants of emerging concern in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Sevigny, Jennifer M.; Pope, Judy M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of discrete water-quality samples were collected in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin near the city of Arlington, Washington, through a partnership with the Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians. These samples included surface waters of the Stillaguamish River, adjacent tributary streams, and paired inflow and outflow sampling at three wastewater treatment plants in the lower river basin. Chemical analysis of these samples focused on chemicals of emerging concern, including wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and halogenated organic compounds on solids and sediment. This report presents the methods used and data results from the chemical analysis of these samples

  12. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  13. Newly Discovered Martian Impact Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stam, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three previously unrecognized Martian impact basins were discovered through detailed mapping of landforms, structures and terrains near Cassini and Al Qahira basins. Al Qahira A lies on the Martian dichotomy boundary and intersects the older basin, Al Qahira. It has four rings that are expressed by a variety of landforms. Southwestward Al Qahira A is out by a younger Basin, Al Qahira B. Al Qahira B is a highly degraded basin with one identifiable ring. Its ring is expressed by a few massifs, knobs and inward-facing scarps, but is recognized by the distributions of wrinkle ridges and plains units. Cassini A lies southward of the younger Cassini Basin and is intersected by it. It probably has four rings. The importance of detailed mapping of various types of landforms and terrains to the discovery of basins on Mars are demonstrated.

  14. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  15. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  16. Carbonate platform, slope, and basinal deposits of Upper Oligocene, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Armin, R.A.; Cutler, W.G.; Mahadi, S.; Van de Weerd, A.

    1987-05-01

    Upper Oligocene platform carbonates (Berai Formation) occur extensively on the Barito shelf in southeastern Kalimantan (Borneo) and are flanked northward by coeval slope and basinal deposits (Bongan Formation) which accumulated in the southwestern part of the Kutei basin. Isolated carbonate buildups equivalent to the Berai Formation also occur within the Kutei basin and were probably deposited on basement highs. The distribution of these facies is fairly well constrained by the study of outcrops, wells, and seismic profiles. The Berai Formation consists of diverse limestone types with a wide range of textures and with dominant skeletal components of large foraminifera, red algae, and corals. Deposition of the Berai Formation occurred in moderate- and high-energy shallow-marine conditions. Slope and basin facies occur in extensional basins adjacent to the shelfal carbonates and peripheral to isolated carbonate buildups. Slope deposits consist of hemipelagic claystone, debris-flow conglomerate, calciturbidite, and volcaniclastic intervals. syndepositional downslope transport of slope deposits was an important process, as indicated by intervals containing redeposited debris flows, intraformational truncation surfaces, slide blocks, and associated shear planes. Recurrent movement on basin-margin faults and local volcanism probably perpetuated instability of slope deposits. Basinal deposits consist of calcareous claystone with intercalated thin, distal calciturbidite and volcaniclastic beds.

  17. Deep crustal structure of the Adare and Northern Basins, Ross Sea, Antarctica, from sonobuoy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvans, M. M.; Stock, J. M.; Clayton, R. W.; Cande, S.; Granot, R.

    2014-11-01

    Extension associated with ultraslow seafloor spreading within the Adare Basin, in oceanic crust just north of the continental shelf in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, extended south into the Northern Basin. Magnetic and gravity anomaly data suggest continuity of crustal structure across the continental shelf break that separates the Adare and Northern Basins. We use sonobuoy refraction data and multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected during research cruise NBP0701, including 71 new sonobuoy records, to provide constraints on crustal structure in the Adare and Northern Basins. Adjacent 1D sonobuoy profiles along several MCS lines reveal deep crustal structure in the vicinity of the continental shelf break, and agree with additional sonobuoy data that document fast crustal velocities (6000-8000 m/s) at shallow depths (1-6 km below sea level) from the Adare Basin to the continental shelf, a structure consistent with that of other ultraslow-spread crust. Our determination of crustal structure in the Northern Basin only extends through sedimentary rock to the basement rock, and so cannot help to distinguish between different hypotheses for formation of the basin.

  18. Structure and evolution of the Sporadhes basin of the North Aegean trough, northern Aegean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, M.; Ferentinos, G.

    1980-09-01

    Air gun and sparker profiling data from the northwest Aegean Sea provide detailed information on the structure of the Sporadhes basin (the western part of the North Aegean trough) and the adjacent shallow water area of Thermaicos Bay. Both areas are underlain by a thick postorogenic sedimentary sequence that exhibits "growth folds" (supratenuous folds attributable to synsedimentary tectonism) and associated antithetic faulting attributable to gravity creep down the limbs of the developing folds. The Sporadhes basin is an asymmetrical graben closely similar to Gulf Coast structures (down-to-basin faults) that have been modelled experimentally by Cloos (1968). Major listric faulting characterises the southern margin of the basin and the wide northern flank represents an associated downbend or reverse drag structure with antithetic faulting. Magmatism may occur in the axial zone of the basin. The Sporadhes basin has been formed in a late Cenozoic tensile stress regime and its evolution is discussed in terms of the regional tectonics and the process of back-arc extension. The structure and evolution of the northern Aegean area and the Pannonian basin are shown to be closely similar.

  19. Basin and range-age reactivation of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Texas Panhandle: evidence from Ogallala Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1984-04-01

    The Ogallala Formation (Neogene) is a widespread syntectonic alluvial apron that was shed eastward from the Rio Grande rift and related uplifts in Colorado and New Mexico during Basin and Range extension. In the Texas Panhandle, the Ogallala completely buried Ancestral Rocky Mountain (Pennsylvanian) structures. Renewed movement on these older structures during the Neogene influenced the thickness and facies distribution of the Ogallala. The Ogallala thickens into the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko basins. Major distributary channels on Ogallala alluvial fans coincide with the axes of these basins, whereas major interchannel areas overlie intervening uplifts. Second-order structures subtly influenced the unit as well. For example, the Carson basin, a Pennsylvanian rhomb graben along the Amarillo uplift, the Ogallala is over 250 m (820 ft) thick compared with 90 m (275 ft) in adjacent areas. Within the Palo Duro basin, local highs controlled the distribution of thin, interchannel flood-basin and lacustrine deposits. Thicker, braided-stream channel deposits follow local lows. Later movement on the Amarillo uplift broadly folded the Ogallala. The southern high plains surface subtly reflects basement structure, with topographic highs overlying basement highs, suggesting post-Ogallala deformation within the Palo Duro basin. The Amarillo uplift is approximately perpendicular to the Rio Grande rift and parallel to the direction of Basin and Range extension. Thus, the stress field that produced the rift may have caused strike-slip movement and reactivation of the Carson basin along the Amarillo uplift.

  20. On the tectonic problems of the southern East China Sea and adjacent regions: Evidence from gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Luning; Zhang, Xunhua; Han, Bo; Du, Runlin

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two sets of gravity and magnetic data were used to study the tectonics of the southern East China Sea and Ryukyu trench-arc system: one data set was from the `Geological-geophysical map series of China Seas and adjacent areas' database and the other was newly collected by R/V Kexue III in 2011. Magnetic and gravity data were reorganized and processed using the software MMDP, MGDP and RGIS. In addition to the description of the anomaly patterns in different areas, deep and shallow structure studies were performed by using several kinds of calculation, including a spectrum analysis, upward-continuation of the Bouguer anomaly and horizontal derivatives of the total-field magnetic anomaly. The depth of the Moho and magnetic basement were calculated. Based on the above work, several controversial tectonic problems were discussed. Compared to the shelf area and Ryukyu Arc, the Okinawa Trough has an obviously thinned crust, with the thinnest area having thickness less than 14 km in the southern part. The Taiwan-Sinzi belt, which terminates to the south by the NW-SE trending Miyako fault belt, contains the relic volcanic arc formed by the splitting of the paleo Ryukyu volcanic arc as a result of the opening of the Okinawa Trough. As an important tectonic boundary, the strike-slip type Miyako fault belt extends northwestward into the shelf area and consists of several discontinuous segments. A forearc terrace composed of an exotic terrane collided with the Ryukyu Arc following the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. Mesozoic strata of varying thicknesses exist beneath the Cenozoic strata in the shelf basin and significantly influence the magnetic pattern of this area. The gravity and magnetic data support the existence of a Great East China Sea, which suggests that the entire southern East China Sea shelf area was a basin in the Mesozoic without alternatively arranged uplifts and depressions, and might have extended southwestward and connected with the

  1. Global analysis of intraplate basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; Mueller, D. R.; Dyksterhuis, S.

    2005-12-01

    Broad intraplate sedimentary basins often show a mismatch of lithospheric extension factors compared to those inferred from sediment thickness and subsidence modelling, not conforming to the current understanding of rift basin evolution. Mostly, these basins are underlain by a very heterogeneous and structurally complex basement which has been formed as a product of Phanerozoic continent-continent or terrane/arc-continent collision and is usually referred to as being accretionary. Most likely, the basin-underlying substrate is one of the key factors controlling the style of extension. In order to investigate and model the geodynamic framework and mechanics controlling formation and evolution of these long-term depositional regions, we have been analysing a global set of more than 200 basins using various remotely sensed geophysical data sets and relational geospatial databases. We have compared elevation, crustal and sediment thickness, heatflow, crustal structure, basin ages and -geometries with computed differential beta, anomalous tectonic subsidence, and differential extension factor grids for these basins. The crust/mantle interactions in the basin regions are investigated using plate tectonic reconstructions in a mantle convection framework for the last 160 Ma. Characteristic parameters and patterns derived from this global analysis are then used to generate a classification scheme, to estimate the misfit between models derived from either crustal thinning or sediment thickness, and as input for extension models using particle-in-cell finite element codes. Basins with high differential extension values include the ``classical'' intraplate-basins, like the Michigan Basin in North America, the Zaire Basin in Africa, basins of the Arabian Penisula, and the West Siberian Basin. According to our global analysis so far, these basins show, that with increasing basin age, the amount of crustal extension vs. the extension values estimated from sediment thickness

  2. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  3. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  4. Multivariate morphological characteristics and classification of first-order basins in the Siwaliks, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Motilal

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies and analyzes a group of interrelated morphometric variables that contribute to the morphology of first-order basins in the Siwaliks and the adjacent part of the Lesser Himalaya in the Far West Nepal. First-order basins were identified and their various morphometric indices (21 variables) such as shape, area, pattern, roughness, height, gradient, angle, and distance were obtained from topographic maps (scale 1:25,000) and a digital elevation model using a geographic information system. The study also identifies the basin types based on morphometric properties and assesses their association with lithology, structure, and uplift rates. A principal component analysis identified seven major components that accounted for 78% of the total variance explained by the original 21 morphometric variables. Variables' loading reveals that the components are the expressions of slope, size, valley/depression, basin shape, relative massiveness, the convergence index, and basin asymmetry. Of these, slope and size components explain 48% of the total variance. The sets of variables represented by each major component for the entire study area were mostly common to all lithostratigraphic units. Some variables such as drainage density, junction angle, and the sediment transport index have associations with more than one group. This implies that complex geomorphic processes are involved in the development of basin morphology. Using the seven major components, five basin types were recognized by cluster analysis. The distributions of these basin types are similar in the Lower and Middle Siwaliks which have similar geological structures. The geometric relationship between the dip and the topography of a homoclinal structure significantly affects the proportion of basin types, as evidenced by the contrasting proportions between the cuesta and hogback and among dip, anti-dip and orthoclinal slopes. Correlation analysis also confirmed the effect of structure (dipping) on

  5. Geologic controls on oil and gas occurrence in Taranaki basin, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.R.; Beggs, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Taranaki basin contains all the commercial oil and gas fields in New Zealand as well as several marginal and subeconomic accumulations. The basin has a polyphase tectonic history, with different phases controlling specific aspects of hydrocarbon occurrence. Basin formation began with oblique rifting in the mid-Late Cretaceous. Principal petroleum source rocks are coal measures deposited in southern, central, and eastern parts of the basin during the rift and immediate postrift phase. In the Latest Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, the Taranaki basin was part of a western passive margin bordering proto-New Zealand, a large region of thinned continental crust separating from Australia and Antarctica. Clastic sediment supply to the basin progressively diminished as the sea transgressed the land to the south and east. Coastal and fluvial sandstones deposited during this phase are major petroleum reservoirs; a late Eocene turbidite reservoir in the north contains a noncommercial accumulation. In the mid-Cenozoic, the modern plate boundary began to propagate through New Zealand. In initial response, the Taranaki basin evolved into a submerged foreland basin. A recent significant oil discovery is reservoired in fractured limestones deposited in the foredeep. Taranaki basin Neogene development is characterized by structure reactivation, eversion, overthrusting, and differential subsidence along its eastern margin and in the south. Mountain building adjacent to the basin caused an increase in clastic sediment supply and concomitant regression, during which some minor reservoirs were deposited. However, the major significance of the Neogene tectonic phase lies in the formation of all proven traps, and in maturation of source rocks with increasing burial.

  6. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve bores were sunk adjacent to three stormwater infiltration basins in the Perth metropolitan area to examine the impact of runoff from a light industrial area, a medium-density residential area, and a major arterial road on groundwater quality, and to examine the hydrological response of the aquifer to runoff recharge. Automatic and manual water level monitoring between April and November 1990 indicated that groundwater levels responded within minutes to recharge from the infiltration basins. Peak water levels of up to 2.5 m above rest levels occurred 6 24 h after the commencement of ponding in the infiltration basins. There was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins. Concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were low and generally well within Australian drinking water guidelines. However, sediment in the base of an infiltration basin draining a major road contained in excess of 3500 ppm of lead. Phthalates, which are US EPA priority pollutants, were detected in all but one bore near the infiltration basins. Their detection may be a sampling artifact, but they may also be derived from the plastic litter that accumulates in the infiltration basins. The concentration of iron in groundwater near the infiltration basins appears to be controlled by dissolved oxygen concentrations, with high iron concentrations occurring where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. Pumping bores located near infiltration basins may suffer from iron encrustation problems caused by the mixing of shallow, oxygenated groundwater with water containing higher concentrations of iron from deeper in the aquifer.

  7. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    (unconfined turbidite or amalgamated channel deposits), interbedded with low amplitude reflections (hemipelagic deposits) that lie in the oil or gas window, 3) basinward dipping onlap unconformities against Northwind Escarpment that are overlain by turbidite or amalgamated channel deposits interbedded with hemipelagic deposits, 4) serpentinized peridotite (?) diapirs with marginal onlap unconformities and overlying domes or anticlines, and 5) supratenuous (compaction) folds in the lower half of the Canada Basin adjacent to Northwind Escarpment. The extent of Canada Basin (>700.000 square km) and its diverse and numerous potential structural and stratigraphic traps offer many targets to hydrocarbon exploration. However deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.

  8. Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

  9. Geothermal regime and Jurassic source rock maturity of the Junggar basin, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nansheng, Qiu; Zhihuan, Zhang; Ershe, Xu

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the thermal gradient distribution of the Junggar basin based on oil-test and well-logging temperature data. The basin-wide average thermal gradient in the depth interval of 0-4000 m is 22.6 °C/km, which is lower than other sedimentary basins in China. We report 21 measured terrestrial heat flow values based on detailed thermal conductivity data and systematical steady-state temperature data. These values vary from 27.0 to 54.1 mW/m 2 with a mean of 41.8 ± 7.8 mW/m 2. The Junggar basin appears to be a cool basin in terms of its thermal regime. The heat flow distribution within the basin shows the following characteristics. (1) The heat flow decreases from the Luliang Uplift to the Southern Depression; (2) relatively high heat flow values over 50 mW/m 2 are confined to the northern part of the Eastern Uplift and the adjacent parts of the Eastern Luliang Uplift and Central Depression; (3) The lowest heat flow of smaller than 35 mW/m 2 occurs in the southern parts of the basin. This low thermal regime of the Junggar basin is consistent with the geodynamic setting, the extrusion of plates around the basin, the considerably thick crust, the dense lithospheric mantle, the relatively stable continental basement of the basin, low heat generation and underground water flow of the basin. The heat flow of this basin is of great significance to oil exploration and hydrocarbon resource assessment, because it bears directly on issues of petroleum source-rock maturation. Almost all oil fields are limited to the areas of higher heat flows. The relatively low heat flow values in the Junggar basin will deepen the maturity threshold, making the deep-seated widespread Permian and Jurassic source rocks in the Junggar basin favorable for oil and gas generation. In addition, the maturity evolution of the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Group (J 1b) and Middle Jurassic Xishanyao Group (J 2x) were calculated based on the thermal data and burial depth. The maturity of the Jurassic

  10. Fracture history of the Divide Creek and Wolf Creek anticlines and its relation to Laramide basin-margin tectonism, southern Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, M.A.; Verbeek, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Divide Creek and Wolf Creek anticlines are two north-northwest-trending, gas-producing intrabasin folds near the eastern margin of the Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado. Natural gas is produced principally from fractured sandstone reservoirs and coals of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, the uppermost part of which is exposed sparingly on both folds. The southern part of the Piceance basin was selected for study because it contains obvious intrabasin folds, the Divide Creek and Wolf Creek anticlines, of previously unknown origin adjacent to the tectonically thrusted and folded eastern basin margin. The origin and tectonics of the anticlines are explored in this paper. New seismic and gravity data show that the anticlines are products of late Laramide thrusting. The distribution of several fracture sets discussed in this report are related to this deformation.

  11. Mercury's Caloris Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Mercury: Computer Photomosaic of the Caloris Basin

    The largest basin on Mercury (1300 km or 800 miles across) was named Caloris (Greek for 'hot') because it is one of the two areas on the planet that face the Sun at perihelion.

    The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged the region during its initial flyby of the planet.

    The Mariner 10 spacecraft was launched in 1974. The spacecraft took images of Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 images of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon during its mission.

    The Mariner 10 Mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C.

  12. Unusual Radar Backscatter Properties Along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    In general, radar backscatter from the lunar terrae is 2-4 times that of the maria. One exception to this is the terra terrain along the northern rim of Imbrium Basin. The highlands that surround Sinus Iridum and crater Plato have long-wavelength (70-cm) radar backscatter that is comparable to or lower than that from the adjacent maria. We are studying new 70-cm radar images and earlier multispectral data to better constrain the regional geology.

  13. Middle Miocene hiatus in volcanic activity in the Great Basin area of the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, E.H.; Noble, D.C.; Silberman, M.L.

    1970-01-01

    A summary of potassium-argon dates shows that a high level of igneous activity in the Great Basin and adjacent regions during middle Tertiary time (40 to 20 my ago) was followed by a period of relative quiescence in middle Miocene time that lasted for several million years (from 20 to 17 my ago). Volcanism resumed 16 my ago mainly at the margins of the region and has continued to the present. ?? 1970.

  14. Potiguar basin: geologic model and habitat of oil of a Brazilian equatorial basin

    SciTech Connect

    Falkenhein, F.U.; Barros, R.M.; Da Costa, I.G.; Cainelli, C.

    1984-04-01

    The Potiguar basin integrates the eastern part of the Brazilian equatorial Atlantic-type margin. The rifting stage of this basin occurred during the Neocomian and Aptian. The drifting stage and sea-floor spreading began in the Late Albian. The rifting stage clearly was intracratonic during the Neocomian and is recognized as a mosaic of half-grabens trending mostly northeast-southwest and filled with syntectonic lacustrine siliciclastics. The half-graben pattern exhibits rotation of beds into the major fault zone, and the preserved uplifted margins display either paleostructures of paleogeomorphic features with hydrocarbons. A regional pre-Aptian unconformity preceded the Aptian proto-oceanic rifting stage which was characterized by syntectonic fluvio-deltaic sediments. The Aptian tectonics were represented by reactivation of former lineaments superimposed by predominant east-west normal faulting. Structural highs during this stage are so far the most prolific oil accumulations. The most important source beds and reservoir rocks are both Neocomian and Aptian sediments. Geochemistry and hydrodynamics have shown that hydrocarbon migration was driven through fracture or fault zones in both Aptian or Albian plays. Lithofacies maps support this interpretation because pools occur whenever adjacent downthrown blocks present a high shale content.

  15. ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard III; Lawrence Cathles III; Mario Blanco; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2004-05-01

    The advanced Chemistry Basin Model project has been operative for 48 months. During this period, about half the project tasks are on projected schedule. On average the project is somewhat behind schedule (90%). Unanticipated issues are causing model integration to take longer then scheduled, delaying final debugging and manual development. It is anticipated that a short extension will be required to fulfill all contract obligations.

  16. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  17. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  18. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  19. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  20. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  1. 5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards west. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Y Trestle, South side of Monongahela River between Thirty-fourth & Twenty-ninth Streets, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND INTERNAL POLICE POST, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley off U.S. Highway 395, 6 miles South of Independence, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  3. Divergent parasite faunas in adjacent populations of West Greenland caribou: suggested natural and anthropogenic influences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal parasite diversity was characterized for two adjacent populations of west Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) through examinations of abomasa and small intestines of adult and subadult females collected during late winter. Three trichostrongyline (Trichostrongylina: ...

  4. Multi-focal histiocytosis X of bone in two adjacent vertebrae causing paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Turgut, M; Gurçay, O

    1992-03-01

    This report describes a case of multi-focal histiocytosis X of bone in two adjacent vertebrae that caused a spinal cord compression. This case was treated radically with combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT). PMID:1550511

  5. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  6. Monitoring Land Use/Land Cover Changes in a River Basin due to Urbanization using Remote Sensing and GIS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Khire, M. V.; Gedam, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    Faster pace of urbanization, industrialization, unplanned infrastructure developments and extensive agriculture result in the rapid changes in the Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) of the sub-tropical river basins. Study of LU/LC transformations in a river basin is crucial for vulnerability assessment and proper management of the natural resources of a river basin. Remote sensing technology is very promising in mapping the LU/LC distribution of a large region on different spatio-temporal scales. The present study is intended to understand the LU/LC changes in the Upper Bhima river basin due to urbanization using modern geospatial techniques such as remote sensing and GIS. In this study, the Upper Bhima river basin is divided into three adjacent sub-basins: Mula-Mutha sub-basin (ubanized), Bhima sub-basin (semi-urbanized) and Ghod sub-basin (unurbanized). Time series LU/LC maps were prepared for the study area for a period of 1980, 2002 and 2009 using satellite datasets viz. Landsat MSS (October, 1980), Landsat ETM+ (October, 2002) and IRS LISS III (October 2008 and November 2009). All the satellite images were classified into five LU/LC classes viz. built-up lands, agricultural lands, waterbodies, forests and wastelands using supervised classification approach. Post classification change detection method was used to understand the LU/LC changes in the study area. Results reveal that built up lands, waterbodies and agricultural lands are increasing in all the three sub-basins of the study area at the cost of decreasing forests and wastelands. But the change is more drastic in urbanized Mula-Mutha sub-basin compared to the other two sub-basins.

  7. Three extensional basin types associated with detachment-style faulting, early Miocene of the central Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Fillmore, R.P.; Walker, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Three distinct extensional basin types, formed synchronously in different structural settings, have been identified in the central Mojave Desert and provide a basis for the paleogeographic reconstruction of extension of the central Mojave metamorphic core complex (CMMCC). From west to east, the Tropico, Pickhandle, and Clews basins formed in the footwall, on the breakaway, and well within the hanging wall of the east-rooting detachment fault system of the CMMCC. The Tropico basin was created by crustal-scale flexure of the little extended footwall behind the breakaway of the detachment. The basin was shallow and areally extensive. Lower strata on the eastern margin comprise fluvial sandstone derived from the adjacent highland; these grade up into lacustrine deposits. The Pickhandle rift basin is a half graben that was bounded to the west by the detachment escarpment. Initially the basin was deep and narrow, and elongate parallel to the detachment. Basin fill consists of megabreccia, conglomerate derived from both the footwall and hanging wall, and synextensional volcanic rocks. The Clews basin developed within the hanging wall, and synextensional volcanic rocks. The Clews basin developed within the hanging wall. Basal lacustrine strata record initial downwarping. The overlying coarsening-upwards clastic sequence, derived from the east, reflects the propagation of a west-dipping normal fault on the east basin margin that is interpreted to sole into the detachment that probably extended beneath the area from the west. Sediment deposited in extensional basins contain a record of early phase extension that is not obtainable by other types of studies. The recognition of footwall-uplift, breakaway rift, and intra-hanging wall basin types in highly extended terranes may aid in the reconstruction of features that have been modified, such as the position of the detachment breakaway zone, and the areal extent of extensional deformation.

  8. Minimally invasive treatment for esthetic enhancement of white spot lesion in adjacent tooth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the treatment provided to a patient with the maxillary anterior teeth exhibiting severe secondary caries beneath the previous restoration and a white spot lesion on the adjacent incisor. Two implants were placed after extraction of hopeless teeth with the guided bone regeneration technique. A white spot lesion of the adjacent incisor was treated with minimally invasive treatment. This clinical report describes the multidisciplinary treatment for the white spot lesion and esthetic restoration of missing anterior teeth. PMID:24049579

  9. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs via Dynamic Instrumentation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castellvi, Antonio E.; Huang, Hao; Vestgaarden, Tov; Saigal, Sunil; Pienkowski, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional (rigid) fusion instrumentation is believed to accelerate the degeneration of adjacent discs by increasing stresses caused by motion discontinuity. Fusion instrumentation that employs reduced rod stiffness and increased axial motion, or dynamic instrumentation, may partially alleviate this problem, but the effects of this instrumentation on the stresses in the adjacent disc are unknown. We used a finiteelement model to calculate and compare the stresses in the adjacent-level disc that are induced by rigid and dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation. Methods A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the lumbar spine was obtained that simulated flexion and extension. The L5–S1 segment of this model was fused, and the L4–L5 segment was fixed with rigid or dynamic instrumentation. The mechanical properties of the dynamic instrumentation were determined by laboratory testing and then used in the finite-element model. Peak stresses in the lumbar discs were calculated and compared. Results The reduced-stiffness component of the dynamic instrumentation was associated with a 1% to 2% reduction in peak compressive stresses in the adjacent-level disc (at 45° flexion), and the increased axial motion component of this instrumentation reduced peak disc stress by 8% to 9%. Areas of disc tissue exposed to 80% of peak stresses of 6.17 MPa were 47% less for discs adjacent to dynamic instrumentation than for those adjacent to rigid instrumentation. Conclusions Reduced stiffness and increased axial motion of dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation designs result in an approximately 10% cumulative stress reduction for each flexion cycle. The effect of this stress reduction over many cycles may be substantial. Clinical Relevance The cumulative effect of this reduced amplitude and distribution of peak stresses in the adjacent disc may partially alleviate the problem of adjacent-level disc degeneration. PMID:25802582

  10. Feasibility of simultaneous operation of passive remote microwave sensors and active services occupying adjacent frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    To ensure proper sensor operations, it is necessary to understand the situation of potential interference to sensors due to active equipment sharing common frequency bands as well as equipment occupying adjacent bands. The feasibility of sharing common frequency bands between passive sensors and other active services was analyzed. Potential interference to sensors due to equipment in bands adjacent to sensor frequency bands is examined and criteria to avoid interference is developed.

  11. Seismic stratigraphy of western Colombian basin, Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bowland, C.

    1984-04-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection profiles disclose the regional stratigraphy of the western Colombian basin. The basement complex is the seismic unit below the deepest, continuous reflection horizon that can be traced throughout the basin. The basement complex reflection signature on the flanks of the Mono Rise and adjacent areas is smooth, continuous, and characterized by local occurrences of internal reflectors, and is equivalent to the Late Cretaceous Horizon B in the Venezuelan basin. In the central basin, the reflection signature is rough with abundant diffractions typical of normal oceanic crust. The sediment overlying the basement complex is subdivided into five mapping units. Unit CB5, which directly overlies the basement complex, is thickest on the Mono Rise and thins down the flanks of the rise. This unit is equivalent to the Upper Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene pelagic unit bounded by seismic horizons A'' and B'' in the Venezuelan basin. Unit CB4, characterized by pervasive, small offset faulting, is restricted to the crest of the Mono Rise. Units CB3 and CB2 contain subparallel, variable amplitude, continuous reflectors that fill the regional basement complex relief. They are Middle Tertiary terrigenous distal turbidites and hemipelagic deposits. Unit CB1 thickens toward southern Central America and shows complicated reflection patterns typical of a deep-sea fan complex. A jump correlation to Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 154 is used to assign a Late Miocene to Quaternary age to unit CB1. Development of unit CB1 was concurrent with the uplift of and magmatic activity in southern Central America.

  12. Geophysical Evidence for the Tectonic Evolution of the Inverted Belt-Purcell Basin, Northwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, B. S.; Speece, M. A.; Constenius, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The geometry of the Precambrian Belt-Purcell basin and subsequent allochthon, that dominates the geology of northwestern Montana, played a critical role in the development of compressional structures during orogenesis and their ensuing reactivation during the later phase of extensional collapse. Five reprocessed seismic reflection profiles provide images in the Swan Range and adjacent valleys that we have correlated to published seismic data north into Canada. Reflections from syndepositional sills encased within Lower Belt rocks offer clues to the configuration of the basin prior to its tectonic inversion. Thick basinal facies of the Lewis salient are contrasted by thin shelfal facies found in hanging wall rocks of frontal Belt carrying thrusts south of the salient. The along strike change in hanging wall rocks reflects the original configuration of the Belt basin margin. Rocks of the Lewis salient were deposited in an embayment on the northeastern margin of the Belt basin. Shelfal accumlations of the embayment comprise an autochthonous wedge that has remained in the footwall of the Lewis thrust system. South of the embayment and related salient, nearly the entire Belt basin was detached from pre-Belt crystalline rocks and inverted at the latitude of the Sawtooth Range. Deeply exhumed Phanerozoic rocks of the Sawtooth Range are a direct consequence of the thin wedge geometry of the detached basin south of the Lewis salient that required growth of a substantial orogenic wedge to obtain critical taper values. We offer an alternate interpretation of a >10 km high, west facing décollement ramp that coincides with the Belt-Purcell basin margin. Previous interpretations in Montana have inferred the location of the basin margin ramp to approximate the trace of the Purcell Anticlinorium. Seismic data and cross-section balancing suggest the Rocky Mountain Trench as a more accurate location. Based on our proposed position of the basin margin the Belt-Purcell allocthon

  13. Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: consequences for area-wide integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, Issa; Vreysen, Marc J B; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s). PMID:20060501

  14. Seasonal variation of methane in the water column of Arkona and Bornholm Basin, western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülzow, W.; Gräwe, U.; Kedzior, S.; Schmale, O.; Rehder, G.

    2014-11-01

    Methane and the hydrographic parameters temperature, salinity and oxygen (T, Sal, O2) were surveyed at several stations and along selected transects in the Arkona and Bornholm Basin, western Baltic Sea, between 2009 and 2012. The methane distribution in the two adjacent basins show annually reoccurring as well as seasonal variations, governed by stratification of the water column during the summer period, enhanced vertical mixing during winter and the frequent inflow of oxygen-rich saline water from the North Sea. The Arkona Basin is characterized by low methane concentrations in the surface water with increasing values towards the bottom water layer. Elevated methane concentrations were found in the bottom layer during the summer period. The Bornholm Basin also shows low methane concentrations in the surface water, but high values in the bottom water layer throughout the year. For anoxic conditions, often prevailing in the Bornholm Basin in summer, a positive correlation between methane and hydrogen sulfide concentrations was observed. Strong depletion in the stable isotopic ratio of methane in the deeper waters of the Bornholm Basin reveals effective oxidation processes. The midwater region from 50 to 70 m water depth in the Bornholm Basin is characterized by a methane-enriched water layer, persistent throughout the survey period. High-resolution hydrographic modelling of the physical driving forces suggest this finding to be caused by intrusion of methane-rich waters originating from the Arkona Basin into the water column of the Bornholm Basin and is shown to be a powerful tool for the interpretation of the development of the methane distribution in space and time.

  15. Can the South China Sea tell us anything about Canada Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Randell; Li, Lu

    2016-04-01

    The Canada Basin (a sub-basin within the Amerasia Basin) and the South China Sea both preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterised by broad continent-ocean transition zones with hyper-extended continental crust. There are indications that hyper-extension in the South China Sea occurred mainly as a result of flow within a weak lower crustal layer and that it occurred both before and after plate break-up and the onset of ocean lithosphere formation at the sea-floor spreading axis. Available geophysical data from Canada Basin permit similar inferences. Both basins are about the same size and the oceanic segment in both is about the same size. Seafloor spreading in the South China Sea took place in the Cenozoic whereas in Canada Basin it is widely believed to have occurred during the Cretaceous. Widespread magmatism expressed as the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP) may or may not have played an intrinsic, linked, role in Canada Basin formation. No similar LIP is associated with the South China Sea although one mechanism proposed to have driven its formation is ascribed to mantle plume activity in its northernmost part. More conventionally the mechanism of opening of the South China Sea is considered to be "passive" rather than "active", related to plate reconfigurations in the southeast Asia region linked or not linked to the nearby collision of India and Eurasia and/or subduction of a "proto-South China Sea". The driving mechanism for opening of Canada Basin is poorly discussed in the literature but is generally ascribed to paleo-tectonic plate reconfigurations and subduction in the northern Pacific (Eurasia-North America plates) region in the Mesozoic. Can the South China Sea tell us anything about Canada Basin in terms of the pre-existing lithosphere of each and the geodynamic processes leading to its hyper-extension and eventual break-up?

  16. Structure and geologic history of late Cenozoic Eel River basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.H. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    The Eel River basin formed as a late Cenozoic forearc basin floored by late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic allochthonous terranes (central and coastal belts of the Franciscan complex). Regionally, basement rocks are unconformably overlain on land by a sedimentary sequence as much as about 4200 m thick that comprises the Bear River Formation (early and middle Miocene) and the Wildcat Group (late Miocene to middle Pleistocene) and offshore by broadly coeval upper Tertiary and Quaternary deposits as much as 3300 m thick. Offshore, the southern part of the basin is typified by the seaward extensions of youthful northeast-dipping thrust and reverse faults and northwest-trending anticlines. The latest period of deformation in this part of the basin began during the middle Pleistocene and probably reflects north-northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and encroachment of the Pacific plate. Farther north, the western basin margin and adjacent upper continental slope are separated from the axial part of the offshore basin by a narrow zone of north-northwest-trending, right-stepping en echelon folds. These folds indicate that northeast-southwest compression characteristic of the southern part of the basin is accompanied toward the north by right-lateral shear between the accretionary complex to the west and the basin to the east. The northeastern margin of the offshore basin is cut by north to north-northwest-trending high-angle reverse faults that vertically offset basement rocks as much as 1300 m, west side down. These faults, which may merge northward, coincide with older terrane boundaries and locally show evidence of late Cenozoic reactivation with possible right-lateral slip.

  17. A quantitative study of the petroleum generation and migration development in the Tarim Basin, northwest of China

    SciTech Connect

    Jianchang Liu; Leonard, C.; Cao, Song; Tang, Jie

    1996-12-31

    The Tarim Basin is the largest undeveloped petroliferous basin in China. Sediments in the basin range from Precambrian to Tertiary in age and from marine carbonate to non-marine clastic in depositional environment. Investigations indicate that there are potential structural, stratigraphic and unconformity traps for oil and gas in the basin. Applying one and two dimensional basin modelling systems to the well data and cross section, a number of different geologic scenarios such as sedimentary compactions, diagenesis, unconformities, faults, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and accumulation are modeled. The modelling results in the basin reveal: (1) there is a vast amount of source rock which is thermally mature or overmatured, (2) there are multiple peaks of hydrocarbon generation and a continuous expulsion process in the basin`s history, (3) the Carboniferous rocks which have undergone severe diagenesis are the major oil-producing rocks in both structural and lithological reservoirs in the Paleozoic strata; while the isolated clastic sediments are the major traps in the younger strata, (4) oil in the stratigraphic reservoirs comes mainly from the adjacent source rocks, and, (5) diagenesis and faulting are the major controlling factors for the hydrocarbon accumulations in the Paleozoic reservoirs.

  18. Late cenozoic uplift of the southwestern colorado plateau and adjacent lower colorado river region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, I.

    1979-01-01

    Rocks deposited near sea level under marine, estuarine, and lacustrine conditions, and located along the course of the lower Colorado River from the mouth of the Grand Canyon as far as the Mexican border, have been displaced to present positions as high as 880 m a.s.l. and as low as 1600 m b.s.l. The rocks include the marine and estuarine Bouse Formation and the lacustrine or marine Hualapai Limestone Member of the Muddy Creek Formation. A profile joining spot elevations that represent the highest erosional remnants of these rocks preserved at any one locality gives an approximation (in most cases a minimum value) for the uplift or downdropping of the region relative to sea level since about 5.5 m.y. ago, the K/Ar age of the most widespread and critical unit. The profile shows that most of the lower Colorado region has risen at least 550 m through broad and rather uniform upwarping and at an average rate of about 100 m/m.y. In addition to these 550 m, the nearby Colorado Plateau has risen by discrete movement along Wheeler fault, which is parallel to and about 8 km west of the plateau's edge, to a total uplift of at least 880 m, at a rate that may be as high as 160 m/m.y. Before warping and faulting, the top of the plateau was about 1100 m above the fill of adjacent basins; the top of this fill probably was at or a little below sea level. p]The profile shows two major south-facing rises in slope. The bigger one, near Yuma, occurs where the profile intersects the northwest-trending San Andreas-Salton trough system of faults; it is interpreted as rifting resulting from transcurrent movement along the faults. At the Mexican border, the base of the Bouse Formation is 1600 m b.s.l., which corresponds to a rate of subsidence since the beginning of Bouse time that may be as high as 290 m/.m.y. The top of the Bouse is at 1000 m b.s.l., corresponding to a rate of subsidence of about 180 m/m.y. In this area, the "older marine sedimentary rocks" of Olmsted et al., (1973

  19. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  20. The linkage between longitudinal sediment routing systems and basin types in the northern South China Sea in perspective of source-to-sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Zhang, Cuimei; Xie, Xinong; Yu, Ho-Shing; Wang, Zhenfeng

    2015-11-01

    Using bathymetric and seismic data, this study describes the morpho-sedimentary features in Qiongdongnan basin and southwest Taiwan collision basin, northern South China Sea and reveals the linkages between sediment routing system and basin types. The modern Central Canyon in the Qiongdongnan basin is located along the rift margin, and subparallel to the shelf-break southeast of Hainan Island. The modern Central Canyon develops along the basin axis (i.e., Xisha Trough) and longitudinally transports sediments eastward which are mainly supplied by northern continental slope. The Penghu Canyon in the southwest Taiwan collision basin is located along the collision boundary parallel to the strike of the adjacent uplifted Taiwan orogen. The Penghu Canyon develops along the tilting basin axis transporting sediments longitudinally southward to the deep-sea basin and Manila Trench. The Penghu Canyon is supplied with sediments from both flank Kaoping and South China Sea slopes where tributary canyons and channels transport sediments down-slope and feed the axial canyon. The certain basin types may be occupied by particular styles of sediment routing system. By comparing the morpho-sedimentary features and basin characteristics associated with the modern Central Canyon to that of the Valencia Channel in NW Mediterranean Sea, the longitudinal sediment routing system in rift basin type can be determined. In contrast, the longitudinal sediment routing systems in collision setting can be represented by the comparable examples of Penghu Canyon in southwest Taiwan collision basin and Markham Canyon in western Solomon Sea. The rift type sediment routing system is characterized by an axial canyon with a single sediment supply from land drainage margin. In contrast, sediment routing system in collision type basins consists of an axial canyon and dual sediment supplies from flank adjacent slopes. The axial canyons in collision basins are more active than that of the rift basin due to

  1. Tectonic implications of Paleocene-Eocene Foreland Basin, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. ); Mann, P. )

    1993-02-01

    A compilation of industry geological and geophysical data indicates that Paleocene-Eocene clastic sedimentation in the Maracaibo basin records the first manifestation of Cenozoic foreland basin tectonics in northern South America. Isopach maps based on industry seismic data and well logs suggest that the Maracaibo foreland basin formed a 100 to 200 km wide elongate trough along the northeastern edge of the present-day Lake Maracaibo. The basin is asymmetric with a deep (7 km) northeastern margin adjacent to an exposed southwest-verging thrust belt mapped by previous workers. Isopach mapping of seven seismic units within the Eocene suggest a nor-northwest to southeast migration of the depocenter from Paleocene to Middle Eocene time at a rate of 0.6 cm/year. A similar style of foreland basin has been previously identified over a distance of 1000 Km from western central Venezuela to Trinidad. Eocene to Pliocene ages of foreland basin sedimentation in these areas suggest time transgressive, oblique collision of the Caribbean plate along the northern margin of South America. Comparison of the age of deformation along both the northern and southern edges of the pro-Caribbean plate yield reasonable estimates for the rate of relative motion of this small plate relative to the larger America plates.

  2. Interactions between ground water and surface water in the Suwannee River basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; DeHan, R.S.; Hirten, J.J.; Catches, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water and surface water constitute a single dynamic system in roost parts of the Suwannee River basin due to the presence of karat features that facilitate the interaction between the surface and subsurface. Low radon-222 concentrations (below background levels) and enriched amounts of oxygen-18 and deuterium in ground water indicate mixing with surface water in parts of the basin. Comparison of surface water and regional ground water flow patterns indicate that boundaries for ground water basins typically do not coincide with surface water drainage subbasins. There are several areas in the basin where ground water flow that originates outside of the Suwannee River basin crosses surface water basin boundaries during both low-flow and high-flow conditions. In a study area adjacent to the Suwannee River that consists predominantly of agricultural land use, 18 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer and 7 springs were sampled three times during 1990 through 1994 for major dissolved inorganic constituents, trace elements, and nutrients. During a period of above normal rainfall that resulted in high river stage and high ground water levels in 1991, the combination of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and decreased levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water created conditions favorable for the natural reduction of nitrate by denitrification reactions in the aquifer. As a result, less nitrate was discharged by ground water to the Suwannee River.

  3. Genetic diversity and divergence among freshwater mussel (Anodonta) populations in the Bonneville Basin of Utah.

    PubMed

    Mock, K E; Brim-Box, J C; Miller, M P; Downing, M E; Hoeh, W R

    2004-05-01

    Populations of the freshwater mussel genus Anodonta appear to be in a state of rapid decline in western North America, following a trend that unfortunately seems to be prevalent among these animals (Mollusca: Unionoida). Here we describe the patterns of molecular divergence and diversity among Anodonta populations in the Bonneville Basin, a large sub-basin of the Great Basin in western North America. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, we found a striking lack of nuclear diversity within some of these populations, along with a high degree of structuring among populations (FST = 0.61), suggesting post-Pleistocene isolation, due either to a long-term loss of hydrologic connectivity among populations or to more recent fish introductions. We also found evidence of recent hybridization in one of these populations, possibly mediated by fish-stocking practices. Using mitochondrial sequence data, we compared the Bonneville Basin populations to Anodonta in several other drainages in western North America. We found a general lack of resolution in these phylogenetic reconstructions, although there was a tendency for the Bonneville Basin Anodonta (tentatively A. californiensis) to cluster with A. oregonensis from the adjacent Lahontan Basin in Nevada. We recommend further investigation of anthropogenic factors that may be contributing to the decline of western Anodonta and a broad-scale analysis and synthesis of genetic and morphological variation among Anodonta in western North America. PMID:15078447

  4. Testing wetland axioms at a watershed scale: Case studies of the aggregate hydrologic effects of non-adjacent wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands not adjacent to streams (i.e. “non-adjacent wetlands”) are hypothesized to affect downgradient hydrology in a number of ways. Non-adjacent wetlands may, for example, attenuate peak flows, serve as focal points for groundwater recharge, and decrease streamflow...

  5. Erosional landform map of the Redwood Creek drainage basin, Humboldt County, California, 1947-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K.M.; Harden, D.M.; Colman, Steven M.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides and actively eroding stream channels disrupt roads, damage valuable timberland, and increase stream sediment loads in northwestern California. This 1:62,500 photointerpretative map shows the distribution of ten common types of fluvial and mass-movement erosional landforms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek in 1947 and 1974. The mapped landforms include slides, slumps, large compound earthflows, debris avalanches, unstable streambanks and adjacent hillslopes, small mass-movement features, questionable or inactive landslides, deeply incised amphitheater shaped drainage basins, small actively eroding water courses, and actively eroding main channel stream banks. The map legend describes these landforms and the techniques used in preparing the map. The amount and diversity of erosional activity increased greatly between 1947 and 1974. This increased activity apparently reflects major floods in 1953, 1955, 1964, and 1972, as well as the start of large scale, tractor-yarded clearcut timber harvest in the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Bioavailability of sinking organic matter in the Blanes canyon and the adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Fernandez, P.; Bianchelli, S.; Pusceddu, A.; Calafat, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2013-05-01

    Submarine canyons are sites of intense energy and material exchange between the shelf and the deep adjacent basins. To test the hypothesis that active submarine canyons represent preferential conduits of available food for the deep-sea benthos, two mooring lines were deployed at 1200 m depth from November 2008 to November 2009 inside the Blanes canyon and on the adjacent open slope (Catalan Margin, NW Mediterranean Sea). We investigated the fluxes, biochemical composition and food quality of sinking organic carbon (OC). OC fluxes in the canyon and the open slope varied among sampling periods, though not consistently in the two sites. In particular, while in the open slope the highest OC fluxes were observed in August 2009, in the canyon the highest OC fluxes occurred in April-May 2009. For almost the entire study period, the OC fluxes in the canyon were significantly higher than those in the open slope, whereas OC contents of sinking particles collected in the open slope were consistently higher than those in the canyon. This result confirms that submarine canyons are effective conveyors of OC to the deep sea. Particles transferred to the deep sea floor through the canyons are predominantly of inorganic origin, significantly higher than that reaching the open slope at a similar water depth. Using multivariate statistical tests, two major clusters of sampling periods were identified: one in the canyon that grouped trap samples collected in December 2008, concurrently with the occurrence of a major storm at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of nutritionally available particles from the upper shelf. Another cluster grouped samples from both the canyon and the open slope collected in March 2009, concurrently with the occurrence of the seasonal phytoplankton bloom at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of total phytopigments. Our results confirm the key ecological role of submarine canyons for the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems

  7. Late compressional features, East China Sea Shelf Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, A.E.; Prebish, M.R.; Eisenstadt, G. ); Norris, J.W.; Letsch, D.K. )

    1994-07-01

    Many anticlinal folds observed in the East China Sea Shelf Basin are interpreted to result from a change in regional stress from tensional to compressional. This compression is interpreted to have occurred during the late Eocene to Oligocene Yuquan movement. These features were observed most frequently south of the Mingyuefeng 1 well within China's recently offered Fourth Round Acreage. Many of these structures are interpreted to be related to reverse and strike-slip motion along reactivated, Late Cretaceous to late Eocene, synrift, normal faults. An early to middle Miocene regional unconformity truncates the crest of most anticlinal features, and does not appear to be involved in the folding episode. Late Eocene to Oligocene compressional highs present attractive structural targets in the East China Sea Shelf Basin. The deformed sedimentary section thickens toward the rift-basin boundary faults, suggesting synrift sedimentation. Consequently, there is no thinning of the synrift section across the crest of the structural highs formed by postrift compression. The timing of these compressional structural highs, however, must be compared with the hydrocarbon generation and migration history from source rocks in adjacent half grabens to properly assess accumulation potential.

  8. Subsurface sequence stratigraphy of Devonian carbonates, Canning basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Southgate, P.N.; Jackson, J.; Kennard, J.M.; O'Brien, P.E.; Passmore, V.L.; Lindsay, J.F. ); Holmes, A.E.; Christie-Blick, N. )

    1991-03-01

    The Canning basin of Western Australia is best known for its Devonian reef complexes. in 1990 the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) began a sequence stratigraphic study of key parts of the basin. This work integrates industry seismic and well data with two deep-crustal, regional seismic lines acquired by BMR in 1988. Initial work on the Lennard Shelf and adjacent Fitzroy trough has established a new sequence stratigraphy. At the margin of the Fitzroy trough, the most prominent features on seismic sections are alternating wedge-shaped and tabular bodies up to 150 m and 50 m thick, respectively. Internal reflections in the wedge-shaped bodies show downlap toward the basin and onlap toward the platform margin. On strike lines these wedges exhibit complex lensoidal geometries. Drillcore indicates that the wedges comprise basement-derived conglomerates with a sandy calcareous matrix. Seismic and well data suggest five Late Devonian sequences. The wedges and oblique prograding units are thickest and most easily recognized in the upper three sequences (Late Frasnian-Famennian ). The underlying thinner sequences probably correlate with the classic back-stepping Frasnian reefs identified in outcrop by Playford. Recognition of lowstand deposits in the Devonian reef complexes represent a new hydrocarbon exploration play.

  9. Phosphorus and water budgets in an agricultural basin.

    PubMed

    Faridmarandi, Sayena; Naja, Ghinwa M

    2014-01-01

    Water and phosphorus (P) budgets of a large agricultural basin located in South Florida (Everglades Agricultural Area, EAA) were computed from 2005 to 2012. The annual surface outflow P loading from the EAA averaged 157.2 mtons originating from Lake Okeechobee (16.4 mtons, 10.4%), farms (131.0 mtons, 83.4%), and surrounding basins (9.8 mtons, 6.2%) after attenuation. Farms, urban areas, and the adjacent C-139 basin contributed 186.1, 15.6, and 3.8 mtons/yr P to the canals, respectively. The average annual soil P retention was estimated at 412.5 mtons. Water and P budgets showed seasonal variations with high correlation between rainfall and P load in drainage and surface outflows. Moreover, results indicated that the canals acted as a P sink storing 64.8 mtons/yr. To assess the P loading impact of farm drainage on the canals and on the outflow, dimensionless impact factors were developed. Sixty-two farms were identified with a high and a medium impact factor I1 level contributing 44.5% of the total drainage P load to the canals, while their collective area represented less than 23% of the EAA area (172 farms). Optimizing the best management practice (BMP) strategies on these farms could minimize the environmental impacts on the downstream sensitive wetlands areas. PMID:24955757

  10. Evidence of Greenland Sea water in the Iceland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeansson, Emil; Olsson, K. Anders; Messias, Marie-José; Kasajima, Yoshie; Johannessen, Truls

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluates the presence of intermediate water from the Greenland Sea in the Iceland Basin deduced from the observed excess of the tracer sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), released in the central Greenland Sea in 1996. The large tracer release experiment has served a unique opportunity to follow the spread of Greenland Sea intermediate water to the adjacent basins of the Nordic Seas and to the areas bordering this region. In the present study, using data from May-June 2001, the released tracer was detected at the sill in the Faroe Bank Channel and at several locations in the Iceland Basin of the North Atlantic, just downstream the sill and southeast of Iceland. The estimated excess of the released tracer at the Icelandic slope combined with reported values of the volume flow at this location suggest an annual transport rate of approximately 1.4 kg excess SF6. The results suggest an upper transit time from the central Greenland Sea to the area southeast of Iceland of approximately 4 years.

  11. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Minimally Affects Adjacent Lumbar Segment Motion: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A.; Goel, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease is a recognized consequence of fusion in the spinal column. Fusion of the sacroiliac joint is an effective method of pain reduction. Although effective, the consequences of sacroiliac joint fusion and the potential for adjacent segment disease for the adjacent lumbar spinal levels is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments due to sacroiliac joint fusion and compare these changes to previous literature to assess the potential for adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine. Methods An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the sacroiliac joint using three laterally placed triangular implants (iFuse Implant System, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA). The range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments were calculated using a hybrid loading protocol and compared with the intact range of motion in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The range of motions of the treated sacroiliac joints were reduced in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, by 56.6%, 59.5%, 27.8%, and 53.3%, respectively when compared with the intact condition. The stiffening of the sacroiliac joint resulted in increases at the adjacent lumbar motion segment (L5-S1) for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, of 3.0%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Conclusions Fusion of the sacroiliac joint resulted in substantial (> 50%) reductions in flexion, extension, and axial rotation of the sacroiliac joint with minimal (< 5%) increases in range of motion in the lumbar spine. Although the predicted increases in lumbar range of motion are minimal after sacroiliac joint fusion, the long-term clinical results remain to be investigated. PMID:26767156

  12. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (ΔW = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) < 0). Downstream of Orkhon river (below confluence with Tuul) ΔW = - 1145 t/day. Below Selenga-Orkhon confluence sediment yield reached 2515 t/day, which is corresponded to transboundary sediment flux. Silt sediments (0,001 - 0,05 mm) form the main portion of the transported material. The maximal value of sand flux (302 t/day) was reported for middle stream station of Selenga river (upstream from confluence with Orkhon). The increase of human activities (mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of

  13. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; He, Dengfa; Qi, Xuefeng

    2016-04-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  14. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  15. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  16. MASSACHUSETTS DRAINAGE SUB-BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MassGIS has produced a statewide digital datalayer of the approximately 2300 sub-basins as defined and used by the USGS Water Resources Division and the Mass Water Resources Commission and as modified by Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) agencies. These sub-basins...

  17. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  18. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T. ); Lawrence, D.T. )

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  19. Anthropogenic and authigenic uranium in marine sediments of the central Gulf of California adjacent to the Santa Rosalía mining region.

    PubMed

    Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Griselda; Sapozhnikov, Dmitry; Sapozhnikov, Yuri; Choumiline, Konstantin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the causes of uranium (U) enrichment in marine sediments in the eastern sector of the Gulf of California, surface sediments and sediment cores were collected adjacent to the Santa Rosalía copper mining region in the Baja California peninsula. Three coastal sediment cores were found to display high concentrations of U (from 54.2 ± 7.3 mg kg(-1) to 110 ± 13 mg kg(-1)) exceeding those found in the deeper cores (1.36 ± 0.26 mg kg(-1) in the Guaymas Basin to 9.31 ± 3.03 mg kg(-1) in the SR63 core from the suboxic zone). The contribution of non-lithogenic U (estimated using scandium to normalize) to the total U content in sediments of three coastal cores varied from 97.2 ± 0.4 % to 98.82 % versus 49.8 ± 3 % (Guaymas Basin) to 84.2 ± 8.2 % (SR62 core) in the deeper cores. The U content record in a lead-210 ((210)Pb)-dated core had two peaks (in 1923 and 1967) corresponding to the history of ancient mining and smelting activities in Santa Rosalía. PMID:22722804

  20. Evolution of the Neogene Andean foreland basins of the Southern Pampas and Northern Patagonia (34°-41°S), Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folguera, Alicia; Zárate, Marcelo; Tedesco, Ana; Dávila, Federico; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampas plain (30°-41°S) has historically been considered as a sector that evolved independently from the adjacent Andean ranges. Nevertheless, the study of the Pampas showed that it is reasonable to expect an important influence from the Andes into the extraandean area. The Pampas plain can be divided into two sectors: the northern portion, adjacent to the Pampean Ranges, has been studied by Davila (2005, 2007, 2010). The southern sector (34°-41°S) is the objective of the present work. The study of this area allowed to characterize two separate foreland basins: the Southern Pampa basin and the Northern Patagonian basin. The infill is composed of Late Miocene and Pliocene units, interpreted as distal synorogenic sequences associated with the late Cenozoic Andean uplift at this latitudinal range. These foreland basins have been defined based on facies changes, distinct depositional styles, along with the analysis of sedimentary and isopach maps. The basins geometries are proposed following De Celles and Gilles (1996) taking into account the infill geometry, distribution and grain size. In both cases, these depocenters are located remarkably far away from the Andean tectonics loads. Therefore they cannot be explained with short-wave subsidence patterns. Elastic models explain the tectonic subsidence in the proximal depocenters but fail to replicate the complete distal basins. These characteristics show that dynamic subsidence is controlling the subsidence in the Southern Pampas and Northern Patagonian basins.

  1. Using Sequential Kinematic and Thermochronometric Modeling to Temporally and Spatially Link Thrust Belt Exhumation with Basin Development in the Bolivian Fold-Thrust-Belt-Foreland Basin System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, A. J.; McQuarrie, N.

    2014-12-01

    Applying isostasy and erosion to sequentially deformed balanced cross sections links the growth of hinterland structures to the developing foreland basins (FB) adjacent to fold-thrust belts (FTB), adding geologic constraints to modeled exhumation pathways. We sequentially deform the Rio Beni cross section in northern Bolivia (McQuarrie et al., 2008) with kinematic modeling software Move. In our model, topography evolves and basins develop for each model step as deformation, erosion, and isostasy are applied; and are a direct function of the geometry and kinematics of the cross section. The model is constrained by the depth of the foreland and hinterland basins, geology present at the surface, the depth and angle of the decollement, and the shape of the modern observed topography. Topography develops as thrusting occurs and loads the crust, producing a flexural wave and creating accommodation space in adjacent basins. Erosion of material above a newly generated topographic profile unloads the section while basin space is filled. Once the model sufficiently duplicates geologic constraints, a 0.5 km X 0.5 km grid of unique points is deformed with the model and used to determine displacement vectors for each 10 km shortening step. These displacement vectors, in conjunction with a prescribed time interval for each step, determine a velocity field that can be used in a modified version of the advection diffusion modeling software Pecube. Cooling ages predicted using this method are based on deformation rates, geometry, topography, and thermal parameters, and offer insight into possible rates of deformation, erosion, and deposition throughout FTB and FB development. Incorporating erosion, deposition, and isostasy in sequentially deformed balanced cross sections highlights the spatiotemporal aspects of sedimentary wedge propagation, identifies necessary external negative buoyancy affects, and provides additional geologic constraints to modeled exhumation pathways.

  2. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  3. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas.

    PubMed

    Gainetdinov, Ildar V; Kondratieva, Sofia A; Skvortsova, Yulia V; Zinovyeva, Marina V; Stukacheva, Elena A; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A; Azhikina, Tatyana L

    2016-04-19

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  4. Positive adjacency effects mediated by seed disperser birds in pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Regino; Hódar, José Antonio; Matías, Luís; Mendoza, Irene

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the consequences of adjacent elements for a given patch, through their effects on zoochorous dispersion by frugivorous birds. The case study consists of pine plantations (the focal patch) adjacent to other patches of native vegetation (mixed patches of native forest and shrublands), and/or pine plantations. Our hypothesis is that input of native woody species propagules generated by frugivorous birds within plantations strongly depends on the nature of the surrounding vegetation. To test this hypothesis, we studied frugivorous-bird abundance, seed dispersion, and seedling establishment in nine pine plantation plots in contact with patches of native vegetation. To quantify adjacency arrangement effects, we used the percentage of common border between a patch and each of its adjacent elements. Frugivorous bird occurrence in pine plantations is influenced by the adjacent vegetation: the greater the contact with native vegetation patches, the more abundant were the frugivorous birds within pine plantations. Furthermore, frugivorous birds introduce into plantations the seeds of a large sample of native fleshy-fruited species. The results confirm the hypothesis that zoochorous seed rain is strongly determined by the kind of vegetation surrounding a given plantation. This finding underlines the importance of the composition of the mosaic surrounding plantations and the availability of mobile link species as key landscape features conditioning passive restoration processes. PMID:20597289

  5. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna L.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  6. [Effects of GA, and CPPU on grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis and fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xin, Shou-peng; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Nie, Song-qing; Gao, Zhi-hong; Tao, Jian-min

    2015-06-01

    Taken the grape cultivar 'Shine Muscat' as the material, the effect of the combination of GA3 and CPPU on the light-response curves in the fruit adjacent leaves and fruit quality were investigated two weeks after blossoming. The results showed that non-rectangular hyperbolic model was more suitable for grape fruit adjacent leaf light response curve-fitting. Pn and g(s) of fruit adjacent leaves among all treatments increased with the increasing light intensity under the combination treat-ments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15, 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively, but Ci decreased. Fruit quality increased with the increasing CPPU concentration under the combination treatments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively. Grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was lower than the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment. It indicated that reasonable CPPU treatment concentration could improve fruit adjacent leaf photosynthetic ability and fruit quality. Too high concentration made the fruit quality lower instead. The 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was most appropriate in two weeks after blossoming. PMID:26572037

  7. Uplink Scheduling and Adjacent-Channel Coupling Loss Analysis for TD-LTE Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  8. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  9. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  10. Adjacent Codons Act in Concert to Modulate Translation Efficiency in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Caitlin E; Brule, Christina E; Dean, Kimberly M; Fields, Stanley; Grayhack, Elizabeth J

    2016-07-28

    Translation elongation efficiency is largely thought of as the sum of decoding efficiencies for individual codons. Here, we find that adjacent codon pairs modulate translation efficiency. Deploying an approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that scored the expression of over 35,000 GFP variants in which three adjacent codons were randomized, we have identified 17 pairs of adjacent codons associated with reduced expression. For many pairs, codon order is obligatory for inhibition, implying a more complex interaction than a simple additive effect. Inhibition mediated by adjacent codons occurs during translation itself as GFP expression is restored by increased tRNA levels or by non-native tRNAs with exact-matching anticodons. Inhibition operates in endogenous genes, based on analysis of ribosome profiling data. Our findings suggest translation efficiency is modulated by an interplay between tRNAs at adjacent sites in the ribosome and that this concerted effect needs to be considered in predicting the functional consequences of codon choice. PMID:27374328

  11. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  12. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  13. Control of sedimentation by active tectonics, glaciation and contourite-depositing currents in Endurance Basin, South Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Matthew J.; Day, Simon J.; Leat, Philip T.; Tate, Alex J.; Martin, Tara J.

    2014-12-01

    Endurance Basin is an elongate broadly WNW-ESE trending basin located on the northern margin of the Scotia Sea, adjacent to the southern margin of the South Georgia micro-continent. Bathymetric and TOPAS sub-bottom profile data acquired in 2010 by the British research ship RRS James Clark Ross map this basin and its sedimentology for the first time. Endurance Basin contains a number of sub-basins and a substantial glaciogenic fan. The northern margin of Endurance Basin is formed by a series of steep slopes and intervening troughs. These are interpreted as a left-stepping en echelon array of oblique, strike-slip faults whilst the sub-basins are separated by compressional dip-slip faults. It appears that South Georgia is moving NW with respect to the basin. We interpret five seismic facies from TOPAS data, which are associated with distinct sedimentologies. The most striking units in the basin fill are: substantial contourite drifts located in the NW of the basin and on its southern margin; and two distinct mass transport deposits that pond in the centre of the basin. Combined with the known regional oceanographic setting, the contourites provide evidence of broadly eastward flowing bottom currents, entering the basin from at least two locations. Although landslide scars are present on the steep northern basin margin, the imaged mass transport deposits are interpreted to have been sourced from the glaciogenic fan, located in the SE of the basin, and from a contourite unit located on the basin's southern margin. Sediments from these events are transported at least 40 km. The contourite drift sequence is at least 100 m thick in the west of the basin and may contain a palaeoenvironmental archive of Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) flow and the climate of South Georgia extending to the Pliocene. Such an archive would allow the reconstruction of ACC flow through the Pleistocene glaciations and provide a means of linking ocean circulation and climate records in the sub

  14. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    spring. In irrigated areas near uplands or major rivers, the annual recharge rate may be about 1.2 ? 10-3 meters per year; however, in areas at lower altitude with little irrigation, the recharge rate may average about 0.7 ? 10-3 meters per year. With increasing population, the water needs of the Kabul Basin are estimated to increase from 112,000 cubic meters per day to about 725,000 cubic meters per day by the year 2057. In some areas of the basin, particularly in the north along the western mountain front and near major rivers, water resources are generally adequate for current needs. In other areas of the basin, such as in the east and away from major rivers, the available water resources may not meet future needs. On the basis of the model simulations, increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels that may cause more than 50 percent of shallow (typically less than 50 meters deep) supply wells to become dry or inoperative. The water quality in the shallow (less than 100 meters thick), unconsolidated primary aquifer has deteriorated in urban areas because of poor sanitation. Concerns about water availability may be compounded by poor well-construction practices and lack of planning. Future water resources of the Kabul Basin will likely be reduced as a result of increasing air temperatures associated with global climate change. It is estimated that at least 60 percent of shallow groundwater-supply wells would be affected and may become dry or inoperative as a result of climate change. These effects of climate change would likely be greatest in the agricultural areas adjacent to the Paghman Mountains where a majority of springs, karezes, and wells would be affected. The water available in the shallow primary aquifer of the basin may meet future water needs in the northern areas of the Kabul Basin near the Panjsher River. Conceptual groundwater-flow simulations indicate that the basin likely has groundwater reserves in unused unconsolidate

  15. Depositional and thermal history of Lower Triassic rocks in southwestern Montana and adjacent parts of Wyoming and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.K.; Paull, R.A.; Kraemer, B.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Forty-two stratigraphic sections in Montana and adjacent parts of Wyoming and Idaho provide the framework for a conodont biostratigraphic and carbonate sedimentologic analysis of Lower Triassic marine rocks. From oldest to youngest, these units are the Dinwoody, Woodside (Red Peak to the east), and Thaynes Formations. The Dinwoody disconformably overlies Upper Permian rocks with little or no physical evidence of a 1 to 6-m.y. hiatus. The initial Triassic transgression was extensive and geologically instantaneous across the study area, and it resulted in deposition of interbedded calcareous mudstone, siltstone, and limestone. The Dinwoody varies in thickness from zero on the northeast to greater than 270 m in the southwest. Maximum thicknesses of Woodside red beds and Thaynes carbonates and siltstones are 244 and 400 m, respectively. Post-Triassic erosion progressively truncated the Thaynes, Woodside, and Dinwoody from north to south across the region. The western margin of the Triassic seaway in the study area is obscured by erosion, structural complexities, igneous activity, and younger sedimentary deposits. The sparse and scattered exposures that remain provide an intriguing mosaic of depositional environments that range from shallow marine to basinal and represent most of Early Triassic time. Lower Triassic rocks produce gas in the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt, and similar potential may exist in Montana. Conodonts recovered from surface exposures are thermally unaltered except in close proximity to intrusive bodies and within the Medicine Lodge thrust system. This establishes that subsurface units in much of the study area are within the temperature regime for dry gas generation.

  16. Lever arm extension of myosin VI is unnecessary for the adjacent binding state

    PubMed Central

    Ikezaki, Keigo; Komori, Tomotaka; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI is a processive myosin that has a unique stepping motion, which includes three kinds of steps: a large forward step, a small forward step and a backward step. Recently, we proposed the parallel lever arms model to explain the adjacent binding state, which is necessary for the unique motion. In this model, both lever arms are directed the same direction. However, experimental evidence has not refuted the possibility that the adjacent binding state emerges from myosin VI folding its lever arm extension (LAE). To clarify this issue, we constructed a myosin VI/V chimera that replaces the myosin VI LAE with the IQ3-6 domains of the myosin V lever arm, which cannot fold, and performed single molecule imaging. Our chimera showed the same stepping patterns as myosin VI, indicating the LAE is not responsible for the adjacent binding state.

  17. Summary geochemical maps, Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area, Mono and Tuolumne counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.; Sutley, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hoover Wilderness and the adjacent Hoover Extension (East), Hoover Extension (West), and Cherry Creek A Roadless Areas (the adjacent study area) encompass approximately 153,900 acres (241 mi2; 623 km2) in the Inyo, Stanislaus, and Toiyabe Naitonal Forests, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, Calif. These two areas lie along and mostly east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, along the north and east sides of Yosemite National Park. Elevations vary from a high of 12,446 ft (3,793 m) on the crest of the Sierra Nevada to a low of about 6,500 ft (1,981 m) near the Bridgeport Ranger Station. Access to the Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area is by U.S. Highway 395, California State Highways 108 (Sonora Pass) and 120 (Tioga Pass), and by other paved and graded roads that lead off of these U.S. and State highways.

  18. Association of Chromosome Loss with Centromere-Adjacent Mitotic Recombination in a Yeast Disomic Haploid

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. A.; Fogel, S.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments designed to characterize the association between disomic chromosome loss and centromere-adjacent mitotic recombination were performed. Mitotic gene convertants were selected at two heteroallelic sites on the left arm of disomic chromosome III and tested for coincident chromosome loss. The principal results are: (1) Disomic chromosome loss is markedly enhanced (nearly 40-fold) over basal levels among mitotic gene convertants selected to arise close to the centromere; no such enhancement is observed among convertants selected to arise relatively far from the centromere. (2) Chromosome loss is primarily associated with proximal allele conversion at the centromere-adjacent site, and many of these convertants are reciprocally recombined in the adjacent proximal interval. (3) Partial aneuploid exceptions provisionally identified as carrying left arm telocentrics have been found. A testable model is proposed suggesting that centromere involvement in genetic recombination may precipitate segregational disfunction leading to mitotic chromosome loss. PMID:324869

  19. The speciation of marine particulate iron adjacent to active and passive continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Marcus, Matthew A.

    2012-03-01

    We use synchrotron-based chemical-species mapping techniques to compare the speciation of suspended (1-51 μm) marine particulate iron collected in two open ocean environments adjacent to active and passive continental margins. Chemical-species mapping provides speciation information for heterogeneous environmental samples, and is especially good for detecting spectroscopically distinct trace minerals and species that could not be detectable by other methods. The average oxidation state of marine particulate iron determined by chemical-species mapping is comparable to that determined by standard bulk X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy. Using chemical-species mapping, we find that up to 43% of particulate Fe in the Northwest Pacific at the depth of the adjacent active continental margin is in the Fe(II) state, with the balance Fe(III). In contrast, particulate iron in the eastern tropical North Atlantic, which receives the highest dust deposition on Earth and is adjacent to a passive margin, is dominated by weathered and oxidized Fe compounds, with Fe(III) contributing 90% of total iron. The balance is composed primarily of Fe(II)-containing species, but we detected individual pyrite particles in some samples within an oxygen minimum zone in the upper thermocline. Several lines of evidence point to the adjacent Mauritanian continental shelf as the source of pyrite to the water column. The speciation of suspended marine particulate iron reflects the mineralogy of iron from the adjacent continental margins. Since the solubility of particulate iron has been shown to be a function of its speciation, this may have implications for the bioavailability of particulate iron adjacent to passive compared to active continental margins.

  20. Minimally invasive percutaneous endoscopic 2 levels adjacent lumbar discectomy through 1 portal skin incision: Preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Jong Gyue; Lee, Seung Myung; Kim, Byoung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute lumbar disc herniation can occur in every lumbar intervertebral disc space and in multiple levels simultaneously. In the cases of 2 levels adjacent lumbar disc herniations of severe unilateral radiculopathic leg pain caused by compression of the nerve roots, respectively, multiple incision or long incision is generally needed for simultaneous removal of disc fragment in 2 levels. Objectives: We proposed the minimally invasive one portal skin incision endoscopic discectomy is effective and safe method to treat 2 levels adjacent lumbar disc herniation. Materials and Methods: We have experimented total 8 cases of 2 levels adjacent lumbar disc herniation having unilateral radiculopathic pain respectively. All cases are 2 levels adjacent lumbar disc herniation. We have tried a percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal approach through minimal one portal skin incision and remove the two herniated disc materials in the adjacent levels. Results: The L2-L3 level was involved in 2 patients, L3-L4 level in 6 patients, while the L4-L5 level was involved in 7 patients, L5-S1 level in 1 patient. The mean follow-up was 18.5 months. The mean visual analogue score (VAS) of the patients prior to surgery was 7.75, and the mean postoperative VAS was 2.375. According to Macnab's criteria, 3 patients had excellent results, 4 patients had good results, 1 patient had fair results, and no patient had a poor result; satisfactory results were obtained in 87.5% of the cases. Conclusion: The percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal approach through 1 skin portal incision could be effective surgical method in unilateral adjacent 2 levels lumbar disc herniation. PMID:25972937

  1. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  2. Microemulsions as model fluids for enhanced oil recovery: dynamics adjacent to planar hydrophilic walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frielinghaus, H.; Holderer, O.; Lipfert, F.; Kerscher, M.; Mattauch, S.; Richter, D.

    2012-10-01

    After the dynamics of microemulsions adjacent to a planar hydrophilic wall have been characterized using grazing incidence neutron spin echo spectroscopy, the model of Seifert was employed to explain the discovered acceleration for the surface near lamellar ordered membranes. Reflections of hydrodynamic waves by the wall - or the volume conservation between the membrane and the wall - explain faster relaxations and, therefore, a lubrication effect that is important for flow fields in narrow pores. The whole scenery is now spectated by using different scenarios of a bicontinuous microemulsion exposed to clay particles and of a lamellar microemulsion adjacent to a planar wall. The Seifert concept could successfully be transferred to the new problems.

  3. Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-04-01

    The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results

  4. Sound insulation property of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials carrying different masses at adjacent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Wen, Jihong; Zhao, Honggang; Yu, Dianlong; Cai, Li; Wen, Xisen

    2013-08-01

    We present the experimental realization and theoretical understanding of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials embedded with different masses at adjacent cells, capable of increasing the transmission loss at low frequency. Owing to the reverse vibration of adjacent cells, Transmission loss (TL) peaks appear, and the magnitudes of the TL peaks exceed the predicted results of the composite wall. Compared with commonly used configuration, i.e., all cells carrying with identical mass, the nonuniformity of attaching masses causes another much low TL peak. Finite element analysis was employed to validate and provide insights into the TL behavior of the structure.

  5. Evaluation of the seismicity of the southern Great Basin and its relationship to the tectonic framework of the region

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.M.; Harmsen, S.C.; Meremonte, M.E.

    1987-12-31

    Seismograph network recordings of local and regional earthquakes are being collected in the southern Great Basin to aid in the evaluation of the seismic hazard at a potential high-level radioactie waste repository site at Yucca Mountain in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. Data for 1522 earthquakes for the calendar years 1982 and 1983 are reported herein. In the period August, 1978 through December, 1983, 2800 earthquakes were located within and adjacent to the southern Great Basin seismograph network. Earthquake hypocenters, selected focal mechanisms, and other inferred seismicity characteristics are presented and discussed in relation to the local and regional geologic framework. 105 refs., 94 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  7. Thermal state of the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funnell, Rob; Chapman, David; Allis, Rick; Armstrong, Phil

    1996-11-01

    The Taranaki Basin is an active-margin basin that has been significantly affected by Miocene subduction tectonics along the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. We have analyzed its present-day thermal state using 354 bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) from 115 wells distributed throughout the basin. The measured temperatures were corrected using an exact solution to Bullard's equation rather than the Horner approximation, thereby allowing for recovery dependence on well diameter and correction for some BHTs at early time after circulation had ceased. Thermal conductivity measurements were completed on 256 samples from eight wells, and matrix conductivities were determined for six end-member lithologies by inversion. Formation conductivities are based on the conductivity and relative proportion of each end-member component. Corrected BHTs, in situ thermal conductivity, and estimates of sediment heat production were combined to compute the present-day, steady state heat flow. The average heat flow is 60 mW m-2, but important geographic variations are present: heat flow on the Western Platform is remarkably consistent at 53-60 mW m-2, attesting to its relative stability since the Late Cretaceous; heat flow in the southern part of the basin is 65-70 mW m-2 due to as much as 3 km of late Miocene erosion; on the southern onshore and to the south of the peninsula, heat flow is 50 ± 3 mW m-2, possibly due to the heat sink effects of crustal thickening; heat flow is highest at 74 mW m-2 on the northern peninsula adjacent to the Taranaki volcanic zone, suggesting a causal relationship between Quaternary volcanism and high heat flow.

  8. MOLA Topography of Impact Basins in the Northern Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Roark, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    Coverage of the northern hemisphere of Mars by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) during the aerobraking hiatus and the two Science Phasing Operation periods provides improved definition and characterization of large impact basins. Gridded MOLA data show the Utopia Basin has a pronounced bowl-like structure, as opposed to the interior rises suggested by the earlier USGS DEM. The elevation structure is concentric about the basin center as mapped by McGill. In particular, the proposed inner ring closely follows the -4 km contour over much of the southern, western and northwestern sides. Higher topography along portions of the dichotomy boundary aligns with the basin's outer ring. High topography in the polar region also occurs where the outer ring should lie, raising the possibility that perhaps some of the polar topography is due to basin structure as well as ice. Two MOLA passes near Phison Rupes provide evidence for a large "stealth" hole where Viking imagery show little evidence of any major structure. The 2 km deep, 600 km wide depression at 31OW, 3ON is as large as the Cassini impact basin 1000 km to the SW. While Cassini is easily recognized in image data, the "MOLA Hole" is not. If this depression is a deeply eroded and buried impact basin (as perhaps suggested by a decrease in the crater density and somewhat smoother terrain than in adjacent areas), it is not clear why it has managed to maintain its great depth. In Tempe at the dichotomy boundary a 300 km wide impact basin is revealed by pronounced bowl-like topography centered at 87W, 47N, even though only about 1/3 of the basin rim structure is obvious. The basin lies on a sloping boundary zone, with the more buried N rim up to 2 km below the rugged S rim. A similar N-S asymmetry in basin ring structure occurs for the much larger Isidis Basin, where the S rim rises 6 km but the subdued N rim rises barely 2 km above the floor. There is essentially no topographic expression of the main ring in the NE

  9. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Qi, X.; Zheng, M.

    2015-12-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  10. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    lake and wetland benthic environments substantively contribute to macro- and micronutrients in the water column. Wetland areas undergoing restoration, and those being used for water storage, function very differently relatively to the established wetland within the Upper Klamath Lake National Wildlife Refuge, adjacent Upper Klamath Lake. Developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin requires recognition of the multi-year time scales associated with restoring wetlands that provide natural, seasonal ecosystem function and services.

  11. Mass balance, meteorological, and runoff measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1992 balance year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Values of winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, WA, to determine the winter and net balance for the 1992 balance year. The 1992 winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 1.91 m, and the net balance was -2.01 m. This extremely negative balance continued a trend of negative balance years beginning in 1977. Air temperature (at 1,615 m and 1,867 m), barometric pressure, precipitation, and runoff from this glacier basin and an adjacent non-glacierized basin were also continuously measured. This report makes all these data, in tabular, graphical, and machine-readable forms, available to users.

  12. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  13. Response of ground-water levels of flood control operations in three basins, south-eastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Three basins in southeastern Florida were investigated to determine the changes in ground-water levels and canal flows that occurred in response to operation of coastal water-control structures in each canal. All three basins are underlain by the Biscayne aquifer. They are, Snapper Creek Canal basin, where the Biscayne aquifer is of high permeability; the Snake Creek Canal basin, where the aquifer is of moderate permeability; and the Pompano-Cypress Canal basin, where the aquifer is of low permeability. In each basin, drainage is a function of permeability; thus, where the permeability of the aquifer is high, drainage is excellent. The coastal water-conrol structures are intended to afford flood protection in the three basins. In general the control operation criteria for flood control in newly developing areas in southeastern Florida do not provide adequate protection from flooding because of the time required for the aquifer to respond to changes in the controls. Adequate protection would require increasing the density of secondary drainage canals, but this could achieved only by reducing the quantity of water available for recharging those segments of the Biscayne aquifer adjacent to the canals. (Woodrad-USGS)

  14. A quantitative study of the petroleum generation and migration development in the Tarim Basin, northwest of China

    SciTech Connect

    Jianchang Liu; Leonard, C. ); Cao, Song; Tang, Jie )

    1996-01-01

    The Tarim Basin is the largest undeveloped petroliferous basin in China. Sediments in the basin range from Precambrian to Tertiary in age and from marine carbonate to non-marine clastic in depositional environment. Investigations indicate that there are potential structural, stratigraphic and unconformity traps for oil and gas in the basin. Applying one and two dimensional basin modelling systems to the well data and cross section, a number of different geologic scenarios such as sedimentary compactions, diagenesis, unconformities, faults, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and accumulation are modeled. The modelling results in the basin reveal: (1) there is a vast amount of source rock which is thermally mature or overmatured, (2) there are multiple peaks of hydrocarbon generation and a continuous expulsion process in the basin's history, (3) the Carboniferous rocks which have undergone severe diagenesis are the major oil-producing rocks in both structural and lithological reservoirs in the Paleozoic strata; while the isolated clastic sediments are the major traps in the younger strata, (4) oil in the stratigraphic reservoirs comes mainly from the adjacent source rocks, and, (5) diagenesis and faulting are the major controlling factors for the hydrocarbon accumulations in the Paleozoic reservoirs.

  15. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Ustyurt Basin, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    system area; therefore, the oil could have migrated from the adjacent North Caspian basin. The North Ustyurt Jurassic Total Petroleum System encompasses the rest of the basin area and includes Jurassic and younger rocks. Several oil and gas fields have been discovered in this total petroleum system. Oil accumulations are in Jurassic clastic reservoirs, in structural traps at depths of 2.5?3 km. Source rocks for the oil are lacustrine beds and coals in the continental Jurassic sequence. Gas fields are in shallow Eocene sandstones in the northern part of the total petroleum system. The origin of the gas is unknown. The North Ustyurt Paleozoic Total Petroleum System stratigraphically underlies the North Ustyurt Jurassic system and occupies the same geographic area. The total petroleum system is almost unexplored. Two commercial flows of gas and several oil and gas shows have been tested in Carboniferous shelf carbonates in the eastern part of the total petroleum system. Source rocks probably are adjacent Carboniferous deep-water facies interpreted from seismic data. The western extent of the total petroleum system is conjectural. Almost all exploration drilling in the North Ustyurt basin has been limited to Jurassic and younger targets. The underlying Paleozoic-Triassic sequence is poorly known and completely unexplored. No wells have been drilled in offshore parts of the basin. Each of three total petroleum systems was assessed as a single assessment unit. Undiscovered resources of the basin are small to moderate. Most of the undiscovered oil probably will be discovered in Jurassic and Neocomian stratigraphic and structural traps on the Buzachi arch, especially on its undrilled off-shore extension. Most of the gas discoveries are expected to be in Paleozoic carbonate reservoirs in the eastern part of the basin.

  16. Catastrophic erosion of Hellas basin rim on Mars induced by magmatic intrusion into volatile-rich rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Kargel, J.S.; MacKinnon, D.J.; Hare, T.M.; Hoffman, N.

    2002-01-01

    Malea and Hesperia Plana form large sectors of the rim of Hellas basin that display partly eroded volcanic shields and plains. These regions have topographic profiles that appear to be several hundred meters lower than those of adjacent rim sectors and lack prominent massifs of remnant basement that would be expected to stand above the lava plains. We interpret that before the volcanic edifices were constructed, these regions were denuded by an early stage of voluminous sill intrusion into friable, volatile-rich impact breccia. Magma-volatile interactions may have resulted in catastrophic generation of debris flows deposited into the adjacent basin, particularly if CO2 were involved. Later, lavas covered the eroded terrain; in turn, the lavas were eroded locally by volatile interactions. Across Mars, huge channel systems, erosional features in volcanic terranes, and vast layered deposits may be due to magma-volatile interactions.

  17. Hydrogeologic Framework and Occurrence and Movement of Ground Water in the Upper Humboldt River Basin, Northeastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, Russell W.

    2009-01-01

    The upper Humboldt River basin encompasses 4,364 square miles in northeastern Nevada, and it comprises the headwaters area of the Humboldt River. Nearly all flow of the river originates in this area. The upper Humboldt River basin consists of several structural basins, in places greater than 5,000 feet deep, in which basin-fill deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age and volcanic rocks of Tertiary age have accumulated. The bedrock of each structural basin and adjacent mountains is composed of carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age and crystalline rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. The permeability of bedrock generally is very low except for carbonate rocks, which can be very permeable where circulating ground water has widened fractures through geologic time. The principal aquifers in the upper Humboldt River basin occur within the water-bearing strata of the extensive older basin-fill deposits and the thinner, younger basin-fill deposits that underlie stream flood plains. Ground water in these aquifers moves from recharge areas along mountain fronts to discharge areas along stream flood plains, the largest of which is the Humboldt River flood plain. The river gains flow from ground-water seepage to its channel from a few miles west of Wells, Nevada, to the west boundary of the study area. Water levels in the upper Humboldt River basin fluctuate annually in response to the spring snowmelt and to the distribution of streamflow diverted for irrigation of crops and meadows. Water levels also have responded to extended periods (several years) of above or below average precipitation. As a result of infiltration from the South Fork Reservoir during the past 20 years, ground-water levels in basin-fill deposits have risen over an area as much as one mile beyond the reservoir and possibly even farther away in Paleozoic bedrock.

  18. Martian lake basins and lacustrine plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hon, R. A.

    1992-02-01

    A classification of Martian lake basins based on the location of the basin in respect to water sources is proposed. The classes are type 1: valley-head basins; type 2: intravalley basins; type 3: valley-terminal basins; and type 4: isolated basins. Martian lakes are ephemeral features. Many craters and irregular depressions impounded water only until the basins filled and overflowed. Water escaping by spillover rapidly cut crevasses in the downstream side of basins and drained the ponds. Clastic lacustrine sediments collected in the lakes as flowing water lost velocity and turbulence. Evaporitic deposits may be significant in those basins that were not rapidly drained. Sediments deposited in lake basins form smooth, featureless plains. Lacustrine plains are potentially candidate sites for Mars landings and for the search for evidence of ancient life.

  19. Non-Adjacent Dependency Learning in Infants at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie; de Bree, Elise; de Klerk, Maartje; Wijnen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder detection of such dependencies, which mark grammatical…

  20. Adjacent Lone Pair (ALP) Effect: A Computational Approach for Its Origin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei; Ahmed, Basil M; Mezei, Gellert; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-23

    The adjacent lone pair (ALP) effect is an experimental phenomenon in certain nitrogenous heterocyclic systems exhibiting the preference of the products with lone pairs separated over other isomers with lone pairs adjacent. A theoretical elucidation of the ALP effect requires the decomposition of intramolecular energy terms and the isolation of lone pair-lone pair interactions. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method within the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory to derive the strictly localized orbitals which are used to accommodate one-atom centered lone pairs and two-atom centered σ or π bonds. As such, interactions among electron pairs can be directly derived. Two-electron integrals between adjacent lone pairs do not support the view that the lone pair-lone pair repulsion is responsible for the ALP effect. Instead, the disabling of π conjugation greatly diminishes the ALP effect, indicating that the reduction of π conjugation in deprotonated forms with two σ lone pairs adjacent is one of the major causes for the ALP effect. Further electrostatic potential analysis and intramolecular energy decomposition confirm that the other key factor is the favorable electrostatic attraction within the isomers with lone pairs separated. PMID:27139318

  1. Coordinated tissue-specific regulation of adjacent alternative 3′ splice sites in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ragle, James Matthew; Katzman, Sol; Akers, Taylor F.; Barberan-Soler, Sergio; Zahler, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Adjacent alternative 3′ splice sites, those separated by ≤18 nucleotides, provide a unique problem in the study of alternative splicing regulation; there is overlap of the cis-elements that define the adjacent sites. Identification of the intron's 3′ end depends upon sequence elements that define the branchpoint, polypyrimidine tract, and terminal AG dinucleotide. Starting with RNA-seq data from germline-enriched and somatic cell-enriched Caenorhabditis elegans samples, we identify hundreds of introns with adjacent alternative 3′ splice sites. We identify 203 events that undergo tissue-specific alternative splicing. For these, the regulation is monodirectional, with somatic cells preferring to splice at the distal 3′ splice site (furthest from the 5′ end of the intron) and germline cells showing a distinct shift toward usage of the adjacent proximal 3′ splice site (closer to the 5′ end of the intron). Splicing patterns in somatic cells follow C. elegans consensus rules of 3′ splice site definition; a short stretch of pyrimidines preceding an AG dinucleotide. Splicing in germline cells occurs at proximal 3′ splice sites that lack a preceding polypyrimidine tract, and in three instances the germline-specific site lacks the AG dinucleotide. We provide evidence that use of germline-specific proximal 3′ splice sites is conserved across Caenorhabditis species. We propose that there are differences between germline and somatic cells in the way that the basal splicing machinery functions to determine the intron terminus. PMID:25922281

  2. 77 FR 13978 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... railroads' safety training schedules. In addition, since the publication of the final rule, it has come to... reconsideration. DATES: The effective date for the final rule published November 30, 2011, at 76 FR 74586, and... certain adjacent tracks. See 76 FR 74586. In particular, the rule requires that roadway workers...

  3. 78 FR 33754 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ..., as well as in consideration of the railroads' safety training schedules, FRA published a final rule... November 30, 2011, at 76 FR 74586, and delayed on March 8, 2012, at 77 FR 13978, is further delayed until... with potentially distracting equipment near certain adjacent tracks. See 76 FR 74586. In...

  4. Irreversible Electroporation Adjacent to the Rectum: Evaluation of Pathological Effects in a Pig Model

    SciTech Connect

    Schoellnast, Helmut; Monette, Sebastien; Ezell, Paula C.; Single, Gordon; Maybody, Majid; Weiser, Martin R.; Fong Yuman; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the rectum wall after IRE applied adjacent to the rectum. CT-guided IRE adjacent to the rectum wall was performed in 11 pigs; a total of 44 lesions were created. In five pigs, ablations were performed without a water-filled endorectal coil (group A); in six pigs, ablation was performed with the coil to avoid displacement of the rectum wall (group B). The pigs were killed after 7-15 days and the rectums were harvested for pathological evaluation. There was no evidence of perforation on gross postmortem examination. Perirectal muscle lesions were observed in 18 of 20 ablations in group A and in 21 of 24 ablations in group B. Inflammation and fibrosis of the muscularis propria was observed in ten of 18 lesions in group A and in ten of 21 lesions in group B. In group A, findings were limited to the external layer of the muscularis propria except for one lesion; in group B, findings were transmural in all cases. Transmural necrosis with marked suppurative mucosal inflammation was observed in seven of 21 lesions in group B and in no lesion in group A. IRE-ablation adjacent to the rectum may be uneventful if the rectum wall is mobile and able to contract. IRE-ablation of the rectum may be harmful if the rectum wall is fixed adjacent to the IRE-probe.

  5. Twist to matricing: Restoration of adjacent proximal defects in a novel manner

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Rathore, Vishnu Pratap Singh; Shah, Purnil

    2016-01-01

    The quality treatment in an efficient way is the road map to successful clinical practice. Various methods are employed to achieve goals. Refurbishment of the adequate marginal ridge, proximal contact, and contour are the prime challenges in restoring two adjacent proximal defects. This paper presents an overview of achieving satisfactory proximal restorations in a time saving innovative manner. PMID:26958530

  6. 78 FR 14411 - Notice of Proposed Policy Clarification Concerning Designation of Adjacent Coastal States for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... provided.\\23\\ \\22\\ 40 FR 52401 (Nov. 10, 1975). \\23\\ See 33 CFR 2.1(a) (``The purpose of this part is to... internal waters, to a belt of sea adjacent to its coast, described as a territorial sea.'' \\10\\ Article...

  7. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2–C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. Results: The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. Conclusions: One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible. PMID:25881597

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  9. 75 FR 65278 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger... its regulations to establish one new danger zone in Pamlico Sound near Marine Corps Air Station Cherry... existing 1.8 mile Danger Zone [as described in Sec. 334.420(b)(1)(i)] in the Pamlico Sound and...

  10. Methane Flux in Cropland and Adjacent Riparian Buffers with Different Vegetation Covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation buffers established adjacent to cropped fields are widely promoted as off-site sinks for nonpoint source sediment and nutrients. These perennial plant systems have the potential to serve as sinks of methane (CH4) or may provide favorable conditions for CH4 production. This study quantif...

  11. Oxidation of an Adjacent Methionine Residue Inhibits Regulatory Seryl-phosphorylation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Met residue is located adjacent to phosphorylation site 1 in the sequences of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase E1alpha subunits. When synthetic peptides including site 1 were treated with Hydrogen peroxide, the Met residue was oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO), and the peptides were no...

  12. Seep and stream nitrogen dynamics in two adjacent mixed land use watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many headwater catchments, streamflow originates from surface seeps and springs. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeps on nitrogen (N) dynamics within the stream and at the outlet of two adjacent mixed land use watersheds. Nitrogen concentrations in stream water were...

  13. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  14. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  15. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  16. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  17. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  18. Edge effects of stink bugs in corn, cotton, peanut and soybean fields adjacent to woodland.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF CONTAMINANTS IN WATERS OF MONROE HARBOR (RIVER RAISIN), MICHIGAN AND ADJACENT LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the results of surveys of selected organochlorines and metals in Monroe Harbor and adjacent Lake Erie. Seasonal surveys at 3 sites of contaminant distribution in the water column were designed to support exposure effects studies and mass balance modeling. Che...

  20. Case study: Comparison of milk composition from adjacent organic and conventional farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study of two adjacent dairy farms, one using conventional confined herd management and the other organic management with averages of 53 percent dry matter from pasture during the grazing season, revealed significant differences in the fatty acid composition of the milk. Compared with conventional...