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Sample records for adjacent normal colon

  1. Aberrant gene expression in mucosa adjacent to tumor reveals a molecular crosstalk in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A colorectal tumor is not an isolated entity growing in a restricted location of the body. The patient’s gut environment constitutes the framework where the tumor evolves and this relationship promotes and includes a complex and tight correlation of the tumor with inflammation, blood vessels formation, nutrition, and gut microbiome composition. The tumor influence in the environment could both promote an anti-tumor or a pro-tumor response. Methods A set of 98 paired adjacent mucosa and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 50 colon mucosa from healthy donors (246 samples in total) were included in this work. RNA extracted from each sample was hybridized in Affymetrix chips Human Genome U219. Functional relationships between genes were inferred by means of systems biology using both transcriptional regulation networks (ARACNe algorithm) and protein-protein interaction networks (BIANA software). Results Here we report a transcriptomic analysis revealing a number of genes activated in adjacent mucosa from CRC patients, not activated in mucosa from healthy donors. A functional analysis of these genes suggested that this active reaction of the adjacent mucosa was related to the presence of the tumor. Transcriptional and protein-interaction networks were used to further elucidate this response of normal gut in front of the tumor, revealing a crosstalk between proteins secreted by the tumor and receptors activated in the adjacent colon tissue; and vice versa. Remarkably, Slit family of proteins activated ROBO receptors in tumor whereas tumor-secreted proteins transduced a cellular signal finally activating AP-1 in adjacent tissue. Conclusions The systems-level approach provides new insights into the micro-ecology of colorectal tumorogenesis. Disrupting this intricate molecular network of cell-cell communication and pro-inflammatory microenvironment could be a therapeutic target in CRC patients. PMID:24597571

  2. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  3. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.

    2012-10-01

    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  4. Detection of colon malignancy using differential normalized fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Buckley, Paul F., III; Edwards, Donna H.

    1996-04-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence was used for direct in-vivo diagnosis of colon malignancy without requiring biopsy. The methodology was applied in a clinical study in order to differentiate adenomatous polyps from hyperplastic polyps in the colon. The measurements were performed in vivo during routine colonoscopy. Detection of the fluorescence signal from the tissue was performed using laser excitation. This report describes the differential normalized fluorescence (DNF) procedure using the amplified spectral differences between the normalized fluorescence of polyps and normal tissue. Data related to various grades of pathology of colonic tissues are discussed. In this preliminary study, the DNF procedure provides a general trend which corresponds to severity of dysplasia associated with colon malignancy.

  5. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa of cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer.

    PubMed

    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of patients with colon cancer and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 patients with cancer and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of ten of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r = 0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy.

  6. Infrared spectroscopic characteristics of normal and malignant colonic epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupnik, Eduardo; Jackson, Michael; Bird, Ranjana P.; Smith, Ian C. P.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1998-04-01

    IR spectroscopy is being widely used to study the biochemical changes associated with cancer. In particular, based upon the hypothesis that biochemical changes associated with cancer precede morphological manifestations of the disease, IR spectroscopy is being evaluated as a potential early diagnostic and prognostic tool. In the current study, IR spectroscopy was applied to the study of colon tissue from rats treated with the specific colon carcinogen azoxymethane, to determine whether tumor induction was associated with identifiable spectroscopic changes in the colon. Characteristic spectra were found for each layer of the colon. Spectra of normal-appearing mucosa and tumors form treated animals then compared to spectra of control mucosa. Differences between tumors and control mucosa were apparent, indicating changes in cellular biochemistry associated with tumor development. In particular, differences in absorptions attributed to nucleic acids were seen, indicating alterations in the structure of cellular DNA in malignant and carcinogen treated tissues. Interestingly, spectra of carcinogen treated rates exhibit characteristics intermediate between those of normal mucosa and tumors. Application of multivariate analysis allowed non-subjective classification of the spectra into three distinct classes with and accuracy of 86.7 percent. The separate classification of control and treated mucosa suggests that IR spectroscopy, when combined with the appropriate classifier, can indeed detect biochemical changes in tissue before physical manifestation of the disease process.

  7. Different expression of calgizzarin (S100A11) in normal colonic epithelium, adenoma and colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Melle, Christian; Ernst, Günther; Schimmel, Bettina; Bleul, Annett; Mothes, Henning; Kaufmann, Roland; Settmacher, Utz; Von Eggeling, Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to detect proteomic markers usable to distinguish colorectal carcinoma from colon adenoma for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the process of tumourigenesis. Therefore, we microdissected colon carcinoma tissue, epithelial colon adenoma tissue as well as normal adjacent colon epithelium and determined protein profiles by SELDI-TOF MS. A multitude of significantly different signals was detected. For their identification colon biopsis were lysed and subjected to a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for separation. Subsequently, we identified nearly 100 proteins by tryptic digestion, peptide fingerprint mapping and database search. Calgizzarin (S100A11; S100C) identified by peptide fingerprint mapping correlated very well with a significantly differentially expressed signal found in prior protein profiling. Using an immunodepletion assay we confirmed the identity of this signal as calgizzarin. To localise calgizzarin in tissues we performed immunohistochemistry. For further confirmation of the identity of calgizzarin we re-analysed IHC-positive as well as IHC-negative tissue sections on ProteinChip arrays. This work demonstrates that biomarkers in colorectal cancer can be detected, identified and assessed by a proteomic approach comprising tissue-microdissection, protein profiling and immunological techniques. PMID:16327996

  8. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa of cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer.

    PubMed

    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of patients with colon cancer and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 patients with cancer and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of ten of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r = 0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy. PMID:24806665

  9. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Tumor, Adjacent, and Normal Tissues of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhenzhu; Shen, Yanting; Lu, Jiafeng; Xie, Xueying; Ge, Qinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major type of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression profiles of miRNAs in adenocarcinoma (AC), one major subtype of NSCLC. In this study, the miRNAs were detected in normal, adjacent, and tumor tissues by next-generation sequencing. Then the expression levels of differential miRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the results, 259, 401, and 389 miRNAs were detected in tumor, adjacent, and normal tissues of pooled AC samples, respectively. In addition, for the first time we have found that miR-21-5p and miR-196a-5p were gradually upregulated from normal to adjacent to tumor tissues; miR-218-5p was gradually downregulated with 2-fold or greater change in AC tissues. These 3 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Lastly, we predicted target genes of these 3 miRNAs and enriched the potential functions and regulatory pathways. The aberrant miR-21-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-218-5p may become biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This research may be useful for lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and the study of pathology in lung cancer. PMID:27247934

  10. A pilot study comparing protein expression in different segments of the normal colon and rectum and in normal colon versus adenoma in patients with Lynch syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chongjuan; Chen, Jinyun; Pande, Mala; Lynch, Patrick M.; Frazier, Marsha L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Lynch syndrome (LS) is a common inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). In LS patients, CRC is predominantly located in the right colon, as opposed to sporadic CRC, which usually affects the left colon or rectum. Previous studies have demonstrated a clear distinction in gene expression between sporadic CRC and normal colon at different locations in the colorectum. However, little is known about LS gene expression profiles in different areas of the colorectum. Here, we compared the protein expression profiles for normal colorectal samples among different locations as well as between adenomas and matched normal tissue in LS. Methods Protein from 33 tissue samples (27 normal tissues and 6 adenomas) from 9 patients with LS was extracted for reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) analysis. The antibody panel used for RPPA included 109 key proteins involved in various cancer-related pathways. Cluster 3.0 was used for unsupervised and supervised clustering analysis. Results IGF1R and COL6A1 were expressed significantly differently between the normal right and normal left colon (q<0.05); FN1, COL6A1, and IGF1R were expressed significantly differently between the normal right colon and normal rectum (q<0.05). In the adenomas and matched normal tissue, PEA-15 was the only protein with significantly different expression (q<0.05). Conclusion We found differences in protein expression between normal tissues from the right colon, left colon, and rectum as well as between adenomas and matched normal tissue. However, those differences should be further confirmed in a larger sample size. PMID:23604467

  11. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-11-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-(2-TH)mannose or L-(5,6-TH)fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-(1,6-TH)glucosamine and L-(1- UC)fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced TH-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine.

  12. Epigenetic differences in normal colon mucosa of cancer patients suggest altered dietary metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Silviera, Matthew L; Smith, Brian P; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    We have compared DNA methylation in normal colon mucosa between patients with colon cancer and patients without cancer. We identified significant differences in methylation between the two groups at 114 to 874 genes. The majority of the differences are in pathways involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. We also compared transcript levels of genes in the insulin signaling pathway. We found that the mucosa of patients with cancer had significantly higher transcript levels of several hormones regulating glucose metabolism and significantly lower transcript levels of a glycolytic enzyme and a key regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. These differences suggest that the normal colon mucosa of patients with cancer metabolizes dietary components differently than the colon mucosa of controls. Because the differences identified are present in morphologically normal tissue, they may be diagnostic of colon cancer and/or prognostic of colon cancer susceptibility.

  13. LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa is associated with poor survival in Chinese patients with sporadic colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuchen; Li, Yiwei; Nie, Jia; Li, Dawei; Peng, Junjie; Lian, Peng; Li, Bin; Cai, Guoxiang; Li, Xinxiang; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic pathways are not independent in colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis. We aimed to determine the influence of various molecular features on Chinese patients' colon cancer-specific survival (CCSS). Various genetic and epigenetic modifications were detected in paired tumor and normal mucosa tissue samples. The prognostic variables regarding patient CCSS were determined. Overall, 127 patients, including 83 males and 44 females, completed a median follow-up of 65 (3–85) months. A mean LINE-1 methylation rate of 64.62% (range, 9.45–86.93) was observed. Hypermethylation at the hMLH1 gene promoter was detected in 26 (20.47%) patients. KRAS was mutated in 52 (40.94%) patients. Sixteen (12.60%) patients were confirmed as microsatellite instability (MSI)-High, and 76 (59.84%) were found to have loss of heterozygosity at 18q. The LINE-1 methylation level, MSI status, perineural invasion and distant metastases were confirmed as independent prognostic factors for patient CCSS. A stratified survival analysis further revealed that certain subgroups of patients with LINE-1 hypomethylation had significantly worse survival (all p < 0.05). Our data revealed that both genetic and epigenetic abnormalities can concurrently exist during colonic tumorigenesis. As a global epigenetic change, LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa might be associated with a worse outcome in certain Chinese patients with colon cancer. PMID:26172297

  14. LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa is associated with poor survival in Chinese patients with sporadic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Changhua; Li, Qingguo; Wu, Yuchen; Li, Yiwei; Nie, Jia; Li, Dawei; Peng, Junjie; Lian, Peng; Li, Bin; Cai, Guoxiang; Li, Xinxiang; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-09-15

    Genetic and epigenetic pathways are not independent in colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis. We aimed to determine the influence of various molecular features on Chinese patients' colon cancer-specific survival (CCSS). Various genetic and epigenetic modifications were detected in paired tumor and normal mucosa tissue samples. The prognostic variables regarding patient CCSS were determined. Overall, 127 patients, including 83 males and 44 females, completed a median follow-up of 65 (3-85) months. A mean LINE-1 methylation rate of 64.62% (range, 9.45-86.93) was observed. Hypermethylation at the hMLH1 gene promoter was detected in 26 (20.47%) patients. KRAS was mutated in 52 (40.94%) patients. Sixteen (12.60%) patients were confirmed as microsatellite instability (MSI)-High, and 76 (59.84%) were found to have loss of heterozygosity at 18q. The LINE-1 methylation level, MSI status, perineural invasion and distant metastases were confirmed as independent prognostic factors for patient CCSS. A stratified survival analysis further revealed that certain subgroups of patients with LINE-1 hypomethylation had significantly worse survival (all p < 0.05). Our data revealed that both genetic and epigenetic abnormalities can concurrently exist during colonic tumorigenesis. As a global epigenetic change, LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa might be associated with a worse outcome in certain Chinese patients with colon cancer. PMID:26172297

  15. Comparison and correlation of candidal colonization in diabetic patients and normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a common universal endocrine disorder with decreased host immunity towards infections. In these people the most common opportunistic infection is oral candidiasis. Oral candidiasis is most commonly caused by yeast like fungus Candida albicans. In healthy individuals these microorganisms are believed to be commensals but in diabetic patients, it forms severe colonization, even in the absence of any clinically evident oral candidiasis. This type of subclinical colonization can make them more prone to develop deeper mucosal colonization with further dissemination via blood. The aim of this study is to compare the frequency and severity of oral candidal colonization in diabetic patients with normal individuals through cytological method. Methods 30 cases of diabetic patients and 30 cases of normal healthy individuals were examined to determine the oral candidal colonization through oral exfoliative cytological methods. Statistical analysis was done using the Chi - square test. Results A statistically significant increase in the candidal colonization was observed in diabetic patients as compared to normal individuals. Conclusions Oral exfoliative cytological method is an easy and effective chair side technique to assess the oral candidal colonization in the diabetic group. PMID:24991533

  16. Effects of longterm epidermal growth factor treatment on the normal rat colon.

    PubMed Central

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, P; Vinter-Jensen, L; Smerup, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Epidermal growth factor (EGF) exerts trophic effects on the mucosa of damaged and defunctioned colon, but the effects on the normal large bowel wall are not known. AIMS--To investigate the effect of systemic EGF treatment on growth and morphology of normal rat colon. METHODS--Rats were treated with subcutaneous biosynthetic EGF injections of 150 micrograms/kg/day for 28 days. The weight of the histological colonic wall layers and the luminal surface area were measured using quantitative morphometric analysis (stereology). The colon was subdivided into proximal and distal parts. RESULTS--EGF treatment increased the total colon wet weight by 23% compared with controls (p < 0.005). The weight increase occurred in the mucosal (33%) and the submucosal layers of the bowel wall (36%) and there was a 69% increase of the total luminal surface area (p = 0.001). In the proximal part of colon of EGF rats there was a 68% increase in mucosal weight (p < 0.005) accompanied by a 79% increase in the mucosal surface area compared with controls (p < 0.005), whereas submucosal and muscularis propria weights were identical. In distal colon, the mucosal weight increased 28% in the EGF group (p < 0.005), the mucosal surface area increased by 72% after treatment (p < 0.01). Furthermore there was a 34% increase in the weight of submucosa (p < 0.001) in the distal colon among EGF rats. CONCLUSIONS--Treatment of rats with EGF has a stimulating role on the mucosa and luminal surface area of the entire functioning colon and a trophic effect on the submucosa of the distal colon. Images Figure 1 PMID:8707092

  17. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Human Adenocarcinomatous and Normal Colon Tissues: Which Parameters Influence RNA Quality?

    PubMed

    Galissier, Thibaut; Schneider, Christophe; Nasri, Saviz; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Fichel, Caroline; Coquelet, Christelle; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bellon, Georges; Dedieu, Stéphane; Marchal Bressenot, Aude; Boulagnon-Rombi, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Medical research projects become increasingly dependent on biobanked tissue of high quality because the reliability of gene expression is affected by the quality of extracted RNA. Hence, the present study aimed to determine if clinical, surgical, histological, and molecular parameters influence RNA quality of normal and tumoral frozen colonic tissues. RNA Quality Index (RQI) was evaluated on 241 adenocarcinomas and 115 matched normal frozen colon tissues collected between October 2006 and December 2012. RQI results were compared to patients' age and sex, tumor site, kind of surgery, anastomosis failure, adenocarcinoma type and grade, tumor cell percentage, necrosis extent, HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites status. The RQI was significantly higher in colon cancer tissue than in matched normal tissue. RQI from left-sided colonic cancers was significantly higher than RQI from right-sided cancers. The RNA quality was not affected by ischemia and storage duration. According to histological control, 7.9% of the samples were unsatisfactory because of inadequate sampling. Biobanked tumoral tissues with RQI ≥5 had lower malignant cells to stromal cells ratio than samples with RQI <5 (p <0.05). Cellularity, necrosis extent and mucinous component did not influence RQI results. Cleaved caspase-3 and HIF-1α immunolabelling were not correlated to RQI. BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites molecular status did not influence RNA quality. Multivariate analysis revealed that the tumor location, the surgical approach (laparoscopy versus open colectomy) and the occurrence of anastomotic leakage were the only parameters influencing significantly RQI results of tumor samples. We failed to identify parameter influencing RQI of normal colon samples. These data suggest that RNA quality of colonic adenocarcinoma biospecimens is determined by clinical and surgical parameters. More attention should be paid during the biobanking procedure of

  18. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Human Adenocarcinomatous and Normal Colon Tissues: Which Parameters Influence RNA Quality?

    PubMed Central

    Galissier, Thibaut; Schneider, Christophe; Nasri, Saviz; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Fichel, Caroline; Coquelet, Christelle; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bellon, Georges; Dedieu, Stéphane; Marchal Bressenot, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Medical research projects become increasingly dependent on biobanked tissue of high quality because the reliability of gene expression is affected by the quality of extracted RNA. Hence, the present study aimed to determine if clinical, surgical, histological, and molecular parameters influence RNA quality of normal and tumoral frozen colonic tissues. RNA Quality Index (RQI) was evaluated on 241 adenocarcinomas and 115 matched normal frozen colon tissues collected between October 2006 and December 2012. RQI results were compared to patients’ age and sex, tumor site, kind of surgery, anastomosis failure, adenocarcinoma type and grade, tumor cell percentage, necrosis extent, HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites status. The RQI was significantly higher in colon cancer tissue than in matched normal tissue. RQI from left-sided colonic cancers was significantly higher than RQI from right-sided cancers. The RNA quality was not affected by ischemia and storage duration. According to histological control, 7.9% of the samples were unsatisfactory because of inadequate sampling. Biobanked tumoral tissues with RQI ≥5 had lower malignant cells to stromal cells ratio than samples with RQI <5 (p <0.05). Cellularity, necrosis extent and mucinous component did not influence RQI results. Cleaved caspase-3 and HIF-1α immunolabelling were not correlated to RQI. BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites molecular status did not influence RNA quality. Multivariate analysis revealed that the tumor location, the surgical approach (laparoscopy versus open colectomy) and the occurrence of anastomotic leakage were the only parameters influencing significantly RQI results of tumor samples. We failed to identify parameter influencing RQI of normal colon samples. These data suggest that RNA quality of colonic adenocarcinoma biospecimens is determined by clinical and surgical parameters. More attention should be paid during the biobanking procedure of

  19. Distinctive Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Human Seminoma and Adjacent Normal Tissues by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Timothy A.; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Mattarozzi, Monica; Cheng, Liang; Beck, Stephen D. W.; Bianchi, Federica; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-08-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has been successfully used to discriminate between normal and cancerous human tissue from different anatomical sites. On the basis of this, DESI-MS imaging was used to characterize human seminoma and adjacent normal tissue. Seminoma and adjacent normal paired human tissue sections (40 tissues) from 15 patients undergoing radical orchiectomy were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned to 15 μm thickness and thaw mounted to glass slides. The entire sample was two-dimensionally analyzed by the charged solvent spray to form a molecular image of the biological tissue. DESI-MS images were compared with formalin-fixed, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides of the same material. Increased signal intensity was detected for two seminolipids [seminolipid (16:0/16:0) and seminolipid (30:0)] in the normal tubule testis tissue; these compounds were undetectable in seminoma tissue, as well as from the surrounding fat, muscle, and blood vessels. A glycerophosphoinositol [PI(18:0/20:4)] was also found at increased intensity in the normal testes tubule tissue when compared with seminoma tissue. Ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C) was found at increased amounts in seminoma tissue when compared with normal tissue. DESI-MS analysis was successfully used to visualize the location of several types of molecules across human seminoma and normal tissues. Discrimination between seminoma and adjacent normal testes tubules was achieved on the basis of the spatial distributions and varying intensities of particular lipid species as well as ascorbic acid. The increased presence of ascorbic acid within seminoma compared with normal seminiferous tubules was previously unknown.

  20. Liver X receptor ligand cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells and not in normal colon epithelial cells depends on LXRβ subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Courtaut, Flavie; Derangère, Valentin; Chevriaux, Angélique; Ladoire, Sylvain; Cotte, Alexia K; Arnould, Laurent; Boidot, Romain; Rialland, Mickaël; Ghiringhelli, François; Rébé, Cédric

    2015-09-29

    Increasing evidence indicates that Liver X Receptors (LXRs) have some anticancer properties. We recently demonstrated that LXR ligands induce colon cancer cell pyroptosis through an LXRβ-dependent pathway. In the present study, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines presented differential cytoplasmic localizations of LXRβ. This localization correlated with caspase-1 activation and cell death induction under treatment with LXR ligand. The association of LXRβ with the truncated form of RXRα (t-RXRα) was responsible for the sequestration of LXRβ in the cytoplasm in colon cancer cells. Moreover t-RXRα was not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells. These cells presented a predominantly nuclear localization of LXRβ and were resistant to LXR ligand cytotoxicity. Our results showed that predominant cytoplasmic localization of LXRβ, which occurs in colon cancer cells but not in normal colon epithelial cells, allowed LXR ligand-induced pyroptosis. This study strengthens the hypothesis that LXRβ could be a promising target in cancer therapy.

  1. Liver X Receptor ligand cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells and not in normal colon epithelial cells depends on LXRβ subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Chevriaux, Angélique; Ladoire, Sylvain; Cotte, Alexia K.; Arnould, Laurent; Boidot, Romain; Rialland, Mickaël; Ghiringhelli, François; Rébé, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that Liver X Receptors (LXRs) have some anticancer properties. We recently demonstrated that LXR ligands induce colon cancer cell pyroptosis through an LXRβ-dependent pathway. In the present study, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines presented differential cytoplasmic localizations of LXRβ. This localization correlated with caspase-1 activation and cell death induction under treatment with LXR ligand. The association of LXRβ with the truncated form of RXRα (t-RXRα) was responsible for the sequestration of LXRβ in the cytoplasm in colon cancer cells. Moreover t-RXRα was not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells. These cells presented a predominantly nuclear localization of LXRβ and were resistant to LXR ligand cytotoxicity. Our results showed that predominant cytoplasmic localization of LXRβ, which occurs in colon cancer cells but not in normal colon epithelial cells, allowed LXR ligand-induced pyroptosis. This study strengthens the hypothesis that LXRβ could be a promising target in cancer therapy. PMID:26450852

  2. Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ashraf, Sumara; Ahmad, Shakil; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-05-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetry along with polar decomposition algorithm was employed for the characterization of ex vivo normal and adenocarcinoma human colon tissues by polarized light in the visible spectral range (425-725 nm). Six derived polarization metrics [total diattenuation (DT ), retardance (RT ), depolarization(ΔT ), linear diattenuation (DL), retardance (δ), and depolarization (ΔL)] were compared for normal and adenocarcinoma colon tissue samples. The results show that all six polarimetric properties for adenocarcinoma samples were significantly higher as compared to the normal samples for all wavelengths. The Wilcoxon rank sum test illustrated that total retardance is a good candidate for the discrimination of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples. Support vector machine classification for normal and adenocarcinoma based on the four polarization properties spectra (ΔT , ΔL, RT ,and δ) yielded 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, while both DTa nd DL showed 66.6%, 33.3%, and 83.3% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. The combination of polarization analysis and given classification methods provides a framework to distinguish the normal and cancerous tissues. PMID:26021717

  3. Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ashraf, Sumara; Ahmad, Shakil; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-05-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetry along with polar decomposition algorithm was employed for the characterization of ex vivo normal and adenocarcinoma human colon tissues by polarized light in the visible spectral range (425-725 nm). Six derived polarization metrics [total diattenuation (DT), retardance (RT), depolarization (ΔT), linear diattenuation (DL), retardance (δ), and depolarization (ΔL)] were compared for normal and adenocarcinoma colon tissue samples. The results show that all six polarimetric properties for adenocarcinoma samples were significantly higher as compared to the normal samples for all wavelengths. The Wilcoxon rank sum test illustrated that total retardance is a good candidate for the discrimination of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples. Support vector machine classification for normal and adenocarcinoma based on the four polarization properties spectra (ΔT, ΔL, RT,and δ) yielded 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, while both DT and D showed 66.6%, 33.3%, and 83.3% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. The combination of polarization analysis and given classification methods provides a framework to distinguish the normal and cancerous tissues.

  4. Colonization of over a thousand Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi (foraminifera: Schwager, 1866) on artificial substrates in seep and adjacent off-seep locations in dysoxic, deep-sea environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, Ashley M.; Rathburn, Anthony E.; Elena Pérez, M.; Levin, Lisa A.; Martin, Jonathan B.

    2016-11-01

    After ~1 yr on the seafloor at water depths of ~700 m on Hydrate Ridge in the Pacific, eight colonization experiments composed primarily of a plastic mesh cube (from here on refered to as SEA3, for Seafloor Epibenthic Attachment Cubes) were colonized by 1076 Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi on ~1841 cm2 of experimental substrate. This species is typically considered an indicator of well-oxygenated conditions, and recruitment of such large numbers in bottom waters with low dissolved oxygen availability (0.24-0.37 mL/L) indicate that this taxon may not be as limited by oxygen as previously thought. Clues about substrate preferences were evident from the distribution, or lack thereof, of individuals among plastic mesh, coated steel frame, wooden dowels and reflective tape. Abundance, individual size distributions within cage populations and isotopic biogeochemistry of living foraminifera colonizing experimental substrates were compared between active seep and adjacent off-seep experiment locations, revealing potential differences between these environments. Few studies have examined foraminiferal colonization of hard substrates in the deep-sea and to our knowledge no previous study has compared foraminiferal colonization of active seep and off-seep substrates from the same region. This study provides initial results of recruitment, colonization, geochemical and morphological aspects of the paleoceanographically significant species, C. wuellerstorfi, from dynamic deep-sea environments. Further experimental deployments of SEA3s will provide a means to assess relatively unknown ecologic dynamics of important foraminiferal deep-sea species.

  5. Expression of pim-1 in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa co-determines the prognosis of colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong-hai; Li, Jian-jun; Xie, Fang-wei; Chen, Jian-fang; Yu, Ying-hao; Ouyang, Xue-nong; Liang, Hou-jie

    2013-01-01

    Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (pim-1) is a proto-oncogene that is linked to the development and progression of several cancers. In this study, we evaluated pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa together as an independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. The study included 343 colon cancer patients. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect pim-1. Multivariate cox regression for disease-free survival (DFS) were used to identify independent prognostic factors. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to calculate the weight of pim-1 in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa in order to obtain a Pim-1 total score (PTS) for recurrence and survival. Kaplan-Meier DFS curves and OS curves for patients with different pim-1 expression levels were compared using the log-rank test. In this study, four independent prognostic factors were identified for colon cancer patients: pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma, tumor-adjacent mucosa, as well as tumor stage. It has been established that clinical stage is an important prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. However, PTS can identify the patients who are likely to recur not only in the whole radical excision group but also within each stage of this group. Based on the results of this study we can conclude that the PTS combined with clinical staging system may be a better predictor of colon cancer patients' prognosis than using the clinical stage system alone. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: ChiCTR-PRCH-12002842.

  6. Simple method for the preparation of single cell suspensions from normal and tumorous rat colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Perret, V; Lev, R; Pigman, W

    1977-01-01

    Viable single cell suspensions from rat colonic epithelium were obtained by using phosphate buffered saline containing 0-2 M mannitol. The method, which requires no prior enzyme treatment, provides undamaged cells in high yield within one hour. The procedure was also applied to neoplastic rat colonic tissue, which was induced by repeated intrarectal infusion of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Comparison between normal and neoplastic cells has shown that the latter have a higher nucleus: cytoplasm ratio and a higher metabolic activity. Images Figure PMID:873323

  7. Chemoprevention studies of the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in normal and azoxymethane-treated mouse colon.

    PubMed

    Yang, K; Lamprecht, S A; Liu, Y; Shinozaki, H; Fan, K; Leung, D; Newmark, H; Steele, V E; Kelloff, G J; Lipkin, M

    2000-09-01

    In this study we investigated the chemopreventive effects of quercetin and rutin when added to standard AIN-76A diet and fed to normal and azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice. Early changes in colonic mucosa were analyzed, including colonic cell proliferation, apoptotic cell death, cyclin D(1) expression and focal areas of dysplasia (FAD). The findings show that the number of colonic epithelial cells per crypt column increased (P: < 0.01) in each normal mouse group fed the flavonoids; AOM administration increased colonic crypt cell proliferation and resulted in a marked rise of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells in the lower proliferative zone of the crypt. Both supplementary dietary quercetin and rutin increased the apoptotic index and caused a redistribution of apoptotic cells along the crypt axis in normal mice fed a standard AIN-76A diet. The number of apoptotic cells/column and apoptotic indices markedly increased (P: < 0.01) in the AOM-treated group compared with untreated animals; apoptotic cells expanded throughout the colonic crypts after flavonoid supplementation and AOM administration. Positive cyclin D(1) expression was detected in mice on diets supplemented either with quercetin (P: < 0.01) or rutin (P: < 0.05). AOM administration resulted in the formation of FAD. Both the number of mice exhibiting FAD and the total numer of FAD observed were significantly reduced (P: < 0.01) in AOM-treated animals fed flavonoids compared with mice maintained on the standard AIN-76A diet. Surprisingly, however, quercetin alone was able to induce FAD in 22% of normal mice fed the standard AIN-76A diet.

  8. Paraneoplastic Erythrocytosis of Colon Cancer, with Serum Erythropoietin within the Normal Reference Range

    PubMed Central

    Kitayama, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Junko; Hirayama, Michiaki; Oyamada, Yumiko; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 75 Final Diagnosis: Erythropoietin-secreting colon cancer Symptoms: None Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Immunohistochemistry Specialty: Hematology Objective: Rare disease Background: Paraneoplastic erythrocytosis can be brought on by ectopic erythropoietin production usually in kidney, brain, and liver tumor with increase of serum erythropoietin level. We report here a paraneoplastic erythrocytosis of colon cancer with serum erythropoietin within the normal reference, which required an immunohistologic test for erythropoietin-antibody to be diagnosed. Case Report: Our case report was of a 75-year-old woman with erythrocytosis. Her hemoglobin and serum erythropoietin levels were 191 g/dL and 12.6 IU/L (reference range, 9.1–32.8), respectively. Colonoscopy revealed an advanced sigmoid colon tumor 20 mm in diameter. She underwent colectomy, and immunohistochemical examination showed the colon adenocarcinoma was focally positive for erythropoietin-antibody. One month after the surgery, her hemoglobin level decreased to 117 g/L. Conclusions: Colon cancer can cause paraneoplastic erythrocytosis, and it is important to consider not simply the absolute serum erythropoietin level but also the serum erythropoietin level relative to simultaneously measured hemoglobin level. We should include paraneoplastic erythrocytosis as a differential diagnosis in cases of high hemoglobin level unexplained by other diseases. PMID:27318703

  9. Scaffold-Free Coculture Spheroids of Human Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Colonic Fibroblasts Promote Tumorigenicity in Nude Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-il; Lee, Jisu; Kwon, Ju-Lee; Park, Hong-Bum; Lee, Su-Yel; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Sung, Jaekye; Kim, Jin Man; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to form a scaffold-free coculture spheroid model of colonic adenocarcinoma cells (CACs) and normal colonic fibroblasts (NCFs) and to use the spheroids to investigate the role of NCFs in the tumorigenicity of CACs in nude mice. We analysed three-dimensional (3D) scaffold-free coculture spheroids of CACs and NCFs. CAC Matrigel invasion assays and tumorigenicity assays in nude mice were performed to examine the effect of NCFs on CAC invasive behaviour and tumorigenicity in 3D spheroids. We investigated the expression pattern of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α) by immunohistochemical staining. CAC monocultures did not form densely-packed 3D spheroids, whereas cocultured CACs and NCFs formed 3D spheroids. The 3D coculture spheroids seeded on a Matrigel extracellular matrix showed higher CAC invasiveness compared to CACs alone or CACs and NCFs in suspension. 3D spheroids injected into nude mice generated more and faster-growing tumors compared to CACs alone or mixed suspensions consisting of CACs and NCFs. FAP-α was expressed in NCFs-CACs cocultures and xenograft tumors, whereas monocultures of NCFs or CACs were negative for FAP-α expression. Our findings provide evidence that the interaction between CACs and NCFs is essential for the tumorigenicity of cancer cells as well as for tumor propagation. PMID:26947885

  10. Analysis of normal and diseased colon mucosa using ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustany, Nada N.; Manoharan, Ramasamy; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    1996-04-01

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy was used to characterize normal and diseased colon mucosa in vitro. A tunable mode-locked Titanium:Sapphire laser operating at 76 MHz was used to irradiate normal and diseased colon tissue samples with 251 nm light generated from the third harmonic of the fundamental radiation. The Raman scattered light was collected and analyzed using a 1 meter spectrometer fitted with a UV coated, liquid nitrogen cooled CCD detector. The measured spectra show prominent bands that correspond to those of known tissue constituents including nucleic acids, aromatic amino acids and lipids. Using the Raman lineshapes measured from pure solutions of nucleotides, tryptophan, tyrosine, FAD, and from lipid-rich serosal fat, the colon spectra were modeled by a least square fitting algorithm whereby the colon spectra were assumed to be a linear combination of the pure biochemical lineshapes. The relative Raman scattering cross section of each biochemical was determined so that the relative concentration of each compound with respect to the others, could be extracted from a given tissue spectrum.

  11. Tumor-induced solid stress activates β-catenin signaling to drive malignant behavior in normal, tumor-adjacent cells

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Guanqing; Weaver, Valerie Marie

    2016-01-01

    Recent work by Fernández-Sánchez and coworkers examining the impact of applied pressure on the malignant phenotype of murine colon tissue in vivo revealed that mechanical perturbations can drive malignant behavior in genetically normal cells. Their findings build upon an existing understanding of how the mechanical cues experienced by cells within a tissue become progressively modified as the tissue transforms. Using magnetically stimulated ultra-magnetic liposomes to mimic tumor growth -induced solid stress, Fernández-Sánchez and coworkers were able to stimulate β-catenin to promote the cancerous behavior of both a normal and genetically modified colon epithelium. In this perspective, we discuss their findings in the context of what is currently known regarding the role of the mechanical landscape in cancer progression and β-catenin as a mechanotransducer. We review data that suggest that mechanically regulated activation of β-catenin fosters development of a malignant phenotype in tissue and predict that mechanical cues may contribute to tumor heterogeneity. PMID:26439949

  12. Discriminating adenocarcinoma from normal colonic mucosa through deconvolution of Raman spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambraia Lopes, Patricia; Moreira, Joaquim Agostinho; Almeida, Abilio; Esteves, Artur; Gregora, Ivan; Ledinsky, Martin; Lopes, Jose Machado; Henrique, Rui; Oliveira, Albino

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we considered the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for discriminating between adenocarcinomatous and normal mucosal formalin-fixed colonic tissues. Unlike earlier studies in colorectal cancer, a spectral deconvolution model was implemented to derive spectral information. Eleven samples of human colon were used, and 55 spectra were analyzed. Each spectrum was resolved into 25 bands from 975 to 1720 cm-1, where modes of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids are observed. From a comparative study of band intensities, those presenting higher differences between tissue types were correlated to biochemical assignments. Results from fitting procedure were further used as inputs for linear discriminant analysis, where combinations of band intensities and intensity ratios were tested, yielding accuracies up to 81%. This analysis yields objective discriminating parameters after fitting optimization. The bands with higher diagnosis relevance detected by spectra deconvolution enable to confine the study to some spectral regions instead of broader ranges. A critical view upon limitations of this approach is presented, along with a comparison of our results to earlier ones obtained in fresh colonic tissues. This enabled to assess the effect of formalin fixation in colonic tissues, and determine its relevance in the present analysis.

  13. Study of the response of osteogenic sarcoma and adjacent normal tissues to radiation. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan-Yanguas, M.

    1981-05-01

    An analysis is made of the surgical specimens of 18 patients with hystologically-proven osteosarcoma who were treated with radiation as the first treatment, and submitted 6 months later to amputation (2 patients had only a second biopsy). Plotting of dose and treatment time against persistence or sterilization of the tumor shows that there is an intermediate zone that extends from 3200 to 5000 rad in 10 days to 8000 to 10,000 rad in 60 to 70 days, inside which the tumor may or may not be destroyed. All cases located above this zone were sterilized; and all those under it showed persistence of viable tumor cells. A similar correlation is made in 47 irradiated patients of the secondary reactions of normal skin and soft tissues surrounding the tumor. An intermediate zone also exists above which all reactions were severe, in some cases reaching necrosis; below this zone, all reactions were mild. When treatment time was longer than 45 days, reactions were only moderate.

  14. Differential expression of the Na+/I− symporter protein in thyroid cancer and adjacent normal and nodular goiter tissues

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SHASHA; LIANG, JUN; LIN, YANSONG; YAO, RUYONG

    2013-01-01

    The ability of differentiated thyroid cancer and adjacent thyroid cells to concentrate iodine is dependent on their expression of a functional NA+/I− symporter (NIS). Thyroid cancer is insensitive to 131I treatment if the thyroid cells lack the ability to concentrate iodide. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine whether the NIS protein was differentially expressed in thyroid cancer and various surrounding tissues. We recruited 114 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and divided them into two groups: 60 patients of 9 males and 51 females with a mean age of 49.55 years who had PTC with surrounding nodular goiter tissue (simplified as GNG), and 54 patients of 8 males and 46 females with a mean age of 45.78 years who had PTC with surrounding normal tissue (Gnormal) after total or near total thyroidectomy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections were prepared for immunohistochemical staining of the NIS protein and semi-quantitative analysis. The NIS protein was expressed in the basolateral membrane of the normal epithelium, while PTC and nodular goiter cells expressed NIS in the cytoplasm and basolateral membrane. The expression levels of the NIS protein were higher in the adjacent normal tissues compared with those of the surrounding nodular goiter tissues (P=0.002) and expression levels of the NIS protein were higher in PTC tissues compared with the surrounding nodular goiter tissues (P=0.008). The data from this study indicate that cancer-surrounding tissues may play a significant role in mediating the sensitivity of PTC patients to radioactive iodine treatment. PMID:23255951

  15. Autofluorescence of normal and tumor mucosa of human colon: a comprehensive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottiroli, Giovanni F.; Marchesini, Renato; Croce, Anna C.; Dal Fante, Marco; Cuzzoni, Carolina; Di Palma, Silvana; Spinelli, Pasquale

    1993-08-01

    Both 'in vivo' and 'ex vivo' spectrofluorometric studies of neoplastic and non-neoplastic mucosa of human colon have been carried out, in order to verify the potentials of tissue natural fluorescence as a possible parameter to distinguish normal from diseased tissues, Spectrofluorometric analysis performed at colonoscopy on patients affected by neoplasia, showed that adenocarcinoma, adenoma and non-neoplastic mucosa differ in the fluorescence emissions. The results have been interpreted according to the data obtained on cryostatic sections from biopsies by means of a microspectrofluorometric analysis carried out on each histological component.

  16. PKH26 Staining Defines Distinct Subsets of Normal Human Colon Epithelial Cells at Different Maturation Stages

    PubMed Central

    Pastò, Anna; Marchesi, Maddalena; Diamantini, Adamo; Frasson, Chiara; Curtarello, Matteo; Lago, Claudia; Pilotto, Giorgia; Parenti, Anna Rosita; Esposito, Giovanni; Agostini, Marco; Nitti, Donato; Amadori, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim Colon crypts are characterized by a hierarchy of cells distributed along the crypt axis. Aim of this paper was to develop an in vitro system for separation of epithelial cell subsets in different maturation stages from normal human colon. Methodology and Major Findings Dissociated colonic epithelial cells were stained with PKH26, which allows identification of distinct populations based on their proliferation rate, and cultured in vitro in the absence of serum. The cytofluorimetric expression of CK20, Msi-1 and Lgr5 was studied. The mRNA levels of several stemness-associated genes were also compared in cultured cell populations and in three colon crypt populations isolated by microdissection. A PKHpos population survived in culture and formed spheroids; this population included subsets with slow (PKHhigh) and rapid (PKHlow) replicative rates. Molecular analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of both Msi-1 and Lgr-5 in PKHhigh cells; by cytofluorimetric analysis, Msi-1+/Lgr5+ cells were only found within PKHhigh cells, whereas Msi-1+/Lgr5− cells were also observed in the PKHlow population. As judged by qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of several stemness-associated markers (Bmi-1, EphB2, EpCAM, ALDH1) was highly enriched in Msi-1+/Lgr5+ cells. While CK20 expression was mainly found in PKHlow and PKHneg cells, a small PKHhigh subset co-expressed both CK20 and Msi-1, but not Lgr5; cells with these properties also expressed Mucin, and could be identified in vivo in colon crypts. These results mirrored those found in cells isolated from different crypt portions by microdissection, and based on proliferation rates and marker expression they allowed to define several subsets at different maturation stages: PKHhigh/Lgr5+/Msi-1+/CK20−, PKHhigh/Lgr5−/Msi-1+/CK20+, PKHlow/Lgr5−/Msi-1+/Ck20−, and PKHlow/Lgr5−/Msi-1−/CK20+ cells. Conclusions Our data show the possibility of deriving in vitro, without any selection strategy, several distinct cell

  17. The influence of aqueous extracts of selected Potentilla species on normal human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional medicine in Asia, Europe and Northern America. This study analyzed the biological activity of aqueous extracts of Potentilla species (Rosaceae): Dasiphora fruticosa (syn. P. fruticosa), P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. thuringiaca, P. crantzii and P. nepalensis. The activities were tested using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on normal human colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr) and colon myofibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Moreover, cell morphology using the May-Grünwald-Giemsa method, IL-6 by ELISA, and nitric oxide (NO) analysis with the Griess method in culture supernatants were performed after 24 h. Extracts were tested at dose levels between 25 and 250 microg/mL. For ELISA, 15 microg/mL was chosen. All extracts suppressed the metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells' mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity decreased after incubation with extracts. All extracts showed a free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect in a concentration-dependent manner. The most potent was the extract from D. fruticosa, while the least action was observed for P. thuringiaca. Potentilla extracts stimulated, IL-6 production in tested cells but the level of the cytokine was found to decrease in epithelial cells. Pre-incubation of cells with LPS resulted in increased IL-6 secretion. Modulation of NO production after extract addition and cell pre-incubation with LPS was also observed. Potentilla extracts may be interesting natural factors modulating the main features of cells forming the colon wall, and thus may be potentially useful in the prophylaxis or healing of colon disorders. PMID:23757943

  18. Expression Profiles of miRNA Subsets Distinguish Human Colorectal Carcinoma and Normal Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Pellatt, Daniel F; Stevens, John R; Wolff, Roger K; Mullany, Lila E; Herrick, Jennifer S; Samowitz, Wade; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein-coding RNA molecules that are commonly dysregulated in colorectal tumors. The objective of this study was to identify smaller subsets of highly predictive miRNAs. METHODS: Data come from population-based studies of colorectal cancer conducted in Utah and the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. Tissue samples were available for 1,953 individuals, of which 1,894 had carcinoma tissue and 1,599 had normal mucosa available for statistical analysis. Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V.19.0 was used to generate miRNA expression profiles; validation of expression levels was carried out using quantitative PCR. We used random forest analysis and verified findings with logistic modeling in separate data sets. Important microRNAs are identified and bioinformatics tools are used to identify target genes and related biological pathways. RESULTS: We identified 16 miRNAs for colon and 17 miRNAs for rectal carcinoma that appear to differentiate between carcinoma and normal mucosa; of these, 12 were important for both colon and rectal cancer, hsa-miR-663b, hsa-miR-4539, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-4506, hsa-miR-92a-3p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-145-5p, hsa-miR-3651, hsa-miR-378a-3p, and hsa-miR-378i. Estimated misclassification rates were low at 4.83% and 2.5% among colon and rectal observations, respectively. Among independent observations, logistic modeling reinforced the importance of these miRNAs, finding the primary principal components of their variation statistically significant (P<0.001 among both colon and rectal observations) and again producing low misclassification rates. Repeating our analysis without those miRNAs initially identified as important identified other important miRNAs; however, misclassification rates increased and distinctions between remaining miRNAs in terms of classification importance were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that while many miRNAs are

  19. [Bioinformatic analysis of adenoma-normal mucosa SSH library of colon].

    PubMed

    Lü, Bing-Jian; Cui, Jing; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Luo, Min-Jie; Zhu, Yi-Min; Lai, Mao-De

    2006-04-01

    We established a colonic adenoma-normal mucosa suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) library in 1999. In this study, we wanted to explore the expression profile of all candidate genes in this library. We developed an EST pipeline which contained two in-house software packages, nucleic acid analytical software and GetUni. The nucleic acid analytical software, an integrator of the universal bioinformatics tools including phred, phd2fasta, cross_match, repeatmasker and blast2.0, can blast sequences of differential clones with the downloaded non-redundant nucleotide (NR) database. GetUni can cluster these NR sequences into Unigene via matching with the downloaded Homo Sapiens UniGene database. Sixty-two candidate genes in A-N library were obtained via the high throughput automatic gene expression bioinformatics pipeline. Gene Ontology online analysis revealed that ribosome genes and immunity-regulating genes were the two most common categories in the KEGG or Biocarta Pathway. We also detected the expression of 2 genes with highest hits, Reg4 and FAM46A, by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Both genes were up-regulated in 10 or 9 out of 10 adenomas in comparison with the paired normal mucosa, respectively. The candidate genes in A-N library would be of great significance in disclosing the molecular mechanism underlying in colonic adenoma initiation and progression.

  20. Analysis of the depolarizing properties of normal and adenomatous polyps in colon mucosa for the early diagnosis of precancerous lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; de Cos-Pérez, Jesús; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Optical characterization of biological tissues by means of polarimetric techniques is an area of growing interest. Polarized light can be used for malignant neoplasms detection. To our knowledge, few studies have so far focused on lesions that are prone to result in cancer. In this work we present a polarimetric study of depolarization in prepathological tissues. Specifically, we will focus on premalignant lesions in human colon due to their clinical relevance. Colonic adenoma, the potential precursor of malignant adenocarcinoma, provokes significant structural modifications in colon mucosa that affect light depolarization. The depolarizing properties of normal and adenomatous polyps mucosa are compared. The average linear degree of polarization is shown to present a strong dependence with the precancerous state of the colonic tissue. This method has the potential to enable an early diagnosis of colon cancer.

  1. Fully unsupervised inter-individual IR spectral histology of paraffinized tissue sections of normal colon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Nguyet Que; Jeannesson, Pierre; Groh, Audrey; Piot, Olivier; Guenot, Dominique; Gobinet, Cyril

    2016-05-01

    In label-free Fourier-transform infrared histology, spectral images are individually recorded from tissue sections, pre-processed and clustered. Each single resulting color-coded image is annotated by a pathologist to obtain the best possible match with tissue structures revealed after Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. However, the main limitations of this approach are the empirical choice of the number of clusters in unsupervised classification, and the marked color heterogeneity between the clustered spectral images. Here, using normal murine and human colon tissues, we developed an automatic multi-image spectral histology to simultaneously analyze a set of spectral images (8 images mice samples and 72 images human ones). This procedure consisted of a joint Extended Multiplicative Signal Correction (EMSC) to numerically deparaffinize the tissue sections, followed by an automated joint K-Means (KM) clustering using the hierarchical double application of Pakhira-Bandyopadhyay-Maulik (PBM) validity index. Using this procedure, the main murine and human colon histological structures were correctly identified at both the intra- and the inter-individual levels, especially the crypts, secreted mucus, lamina propria and submucosa. Here, we show that batched multi-image spectral histology procedure is insensitive to the reference spectrum but highly sensitive to the paraffin model of joint EMSC. In conclusion, combining joint EMSC and joint KM clustering by double PBM application allows to achieve objective and automated batched multi-image spectral histology. PMID:26872124

  2. Photodynamic therapy with WST09 (Tookad): quantitative studies in normal colon and transplanted tumours.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Josephine H; MacRobert, Alexander J; Novelli, Marco; Bown, Stephen G

    2006-01-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is attracting increasing interest for the safe destruction of localised tumours in a range of organs. However, most photosensitising drugs require a delay of hours to days between drug administration and light activation with skin photosensitivity that may last for weeks. WST09 (Tookad) is a new faster acting photosensitiser that clears within a few hours. In normal rat colon, after sensitisation with an intravenous bolus of WST09, light was delivered to a single point on the mucosa and the extent of PDT necrosis measured 3 days later. The lesion diameter was greatest with the highest dose of drug and light and the shortest drug light interval (DLI), falling rapidly with a DLI more than 5 min. In tumours transplanted subcutaneously or into the colon, the extent of necrosis only started falling with a DLI greater than 15 min, suggesting a possible window for tumour selectivity. Histological changes 3 days after PDT were essentially the same as those seen with longer acting photosensitisers. The lesion dimensions were comparable to the largest ones seen with other photosensitisers under similar experimental conditions. We conclude that WST09 is a powerful photosensitiser that produces PDT effects similar to those seen with longer acting drugs, but with the major advantages of a short DLI and rapid clearance. PMID:16052532

  3. Fully unsupervised inter-individual IR spectral histology of paraffinized tissue sections of normal colon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Nguyet Que; Jeannesson, Pierre; Groh, Audrey; Piot, Olivier; Guenot, Dominique; Gobinet, Cyril

    2016-05-01

    In label-free Fourier-transform infrared histology, spectral images are individually recorded from tissue sections, pre-processed and clustered. Each single resulting color-coded image is annotated by a pathologist to obtain the best possible match with tissue structures revealed after Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. However, the main limitations of this approach are the empirical choice of the number of clusters in unsupervised classification, and the marked color heterogeneity between the clustered spectral images. Here, using normal murine and human colon tissues, we developed an automatic multi-image spectral histology to simultaneously analyze a set of spectral images (8 images mice samples and 72 images human ones). This procedure consisted of a joint Extended Multiplicative Signal Correction (EMSC) to numerically deparaffinize the tissue sections, followed by an automated joint K-Means (KM) clustering using the hierarchical double application of Pakhira-Bandyopadhyay-Maulik (PBM) validity index. Using this procedure, the main murine and human colon histological structures were correctly identified at both the intra- and the inter-individual levels, especially the crypts, secreted mucus, lamina propria and submucosa. Here, we show that batched multi-image spectral histology procedure is insensitive to the reference spectrum but highly sensitive to the paraffin model of joint EMSC. In conclusion, combining joint EMSC and joint KM clustering by double PBM application allows to achieve objective and automated batched multi-image spectral histology.

  4. Differentiation between human normal colon mucosa and colon cancer tissue using ToF-SIMS imaging technique and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, In Hoo; Moon, Dae Won; Lee, Tae Geol

    2008-12-01

    Human normal colon mucosa and colon cancer tissue were studied using the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques. The surfaces of the tissues were successfully cleaned by C 602+ cluster-ion beams before the ToF-SIMS images were obtained. A PCA on the spectra and images were performed to compare differences in the peaks and images of normal and cancer tissues. Significant differences in principal component 1 (PC 1) score values for normal and cancer tissues were observed, and each PC 1 loadings had a specific peak profile of proteins. In addition, the PC images obtained from the ToF-SIMS images for normal and cancer tissues were clearly distinguishable, and the amino acid fragments associated with normal and cancer tissues were found to have originated from the lamina propria region and the epithelium cells, respectively. Based on the PCA results, structural distortion of the crypts in the cancer colon tissue could be attributed to the proliferation of the cancerous epithelium cells. This work shows that the application of the ToF-SIMS imaging technique with PCA could be a useful method of obtaining valuable information for cancer analysis.

  5. Electroporation-assisted penetration of zinc oxide nanoparticles in ex vivo normal and cancerous human colon tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Wei, H. J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; He, Y. H.; Xie, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we presented the research of the penetration of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (30 and 90 nm), and electroporation (EP) assisted penetration of the ZnO NPs in the human normal colon (NC) and adenomatous colon (AC) tissues studied with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance (DR) measurement. The results have shown that the attenuation coefficient of colon tissue after the application of 30 or 90 nm ZnO NPs alone decreased approximately by 28% and 14% for NC tissue, 35% and 22% for AC tissue, respectively; while the attenuation coefficient of colon tissue after combined application of 30 or 90 nm ZnO NPs/EP decreased approximately by 46% and 30% for NC tissue, and 53% and 42% for AC tissue, respectively. The results illustrate EP can significantly increase the penetration of ZnO NPs in the colon tissue, especially in AC tissue. Through the analysis of attenuation coefficient and reflectance intensity of the colon tissue, we find that the accumulation of the ZnO NPs in the colon tissue greatly influenced the tissue optical properties.

  6. Estrogens regulate the expression of NHERF1 in normal colon during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.

  7. One-hit effects in cancer: Altered proteome of morphologically normal colon crypts in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Anthony T.; Patel, Bhavinkumar B.; Li, Xin-Ming; Seeholzer, Steven H.; Coudry, Renata A.; Cooper, Harry S.; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Boman, Bruce M.; Zhang, Tao; Litwin, Samuel; Ross, Eric A.; Conrad, Peggy; Crowell, James A.; Kopelovich, Levy; Knudson, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    We studied patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), because they are virtually certain to develop colon cancer, and because much is known about the causative APC gene. We hypothesized that the inherited heterozygous mutation itself leads to changes in the proteome of morphologically normal crypts and the proteins that changed may represent targets for preventive and therapeutic agents. We determined the differential protein expression of morphologically normal colon crypts of FAP patients versus those of individuals without the mutation, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and validation by 2D gel Western blotting. Approximately 13% of 1,695 identified proteins were abnormally expressed in the morphologically normal crypts of APC mutation carriers, indicating that a colon crypt cell under the one-hit state is already abnormal. Many of the expression changes affect pathways consistent with the function of the APC protein, including apoptosis, cell adhesion, cell motility, cytoskeletal organization and biogenesis, mitosis, transcription and oxidative stress response. Thus, heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteome of normal-appearing crypt cells in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a detectable one-hit event. These changes may represent the earliest biomarkers of colorectal cancer development, potentially leading to the identification of molecular targets for cancer prevention. PMID:18794146

  8. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is related to nuclear grade in ductal carcinoma in situ and is increased in its normal adjacent epithelium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shim, Veronica; Gauthier, Mona L.; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Mantei, Kristin; Chew, Karen L.; Moore, Dan H.; Cha, Imok; Tlsty, Thea D.; Esserman, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is emerging as an important cancer biomarker and is now an experimental target for solid tumor treatment.However, no study has exclusively focused on COX-2 expression in early lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We examined COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 46 cases of women undergoing surgical resection for DCIS. We found that COX-2 expression was detected in 85% of all DCIS specimens, with increased COX-2 staining correlating with higher nuclear grade. Strikingly, COX-2 staining intensity in the normal adjacent epithelium was stronger than in the DCIS lesion itself. Our observations demonstrate that COX-2 is up-regulated in the normal adjacent epithelium and supports the hypothesis that the surrounding epithelial tissue is part of the disease process in DCIS.

  9. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy of tissue autofluorescence in normal and diseased colon measured ex vivo using a fiber-optic probe

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Sergio; Thompson, Alex J.; Kennedy, Gordon T.; Roche, Kim L.; Ayaru, Lakshmana; Bansi, Devinder S.; Stamp, Gordon W.; Thillainayagam, Andrew V.; French, Paul M. W.; Dunsby, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We present an ex vivo study of temporally and spectrally resolved autofluorescence in a total of 47 endoscopic excision biopsy/resection specimens from colon, using pulsed excitation laser sources operating at wavelengths of 375 nm and 435 nm. A paired analysis of normal and neoplastic (adenomatous polyp) tissue specimens obtained from the same patient yielded a significant difference in the mean spectrally averaged autofluorescence lifetime −570 ± 740 ps (p = 0.021, n = 12). We also investigated the fluorescence signature of non-neoplastic polyps (n = 6) and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 4) compared to normal tissue in a small number of specimens. PMID:24575345

  10. Thermal coagulation-induced changes of the optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro in the spectral range 400 1100 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Huilan; Xing, Da; Wei, Huajiang; Gu, Huaimin; Wu, Guoyong; Lu, Jianjun

    2008-04-01

    The absorption coefficients, the reduced scattering coefficients and the optical penetration depths for native and coagulated human normal and adenomatous colon tissues in vitro were determined over the range of 400-1100 nm using a spectrophotometer with an internal integrating sphere system, and the inverse adding-doubling method was applied to calculate the tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance and total transmittance measurements. The experimental results showed that in the range of 400-1100 nm there were larger absorption coefficients (P < 0.01) and smaller reduced scattering coefficients (P < 0.01) for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, and there were smaller optical penetration depths for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, especially in the near-infrared wavelength. Thermal coagulation induced significant increase of the absorption coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues, and significantly reduced decrease of the optical penetration depths for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues. The smaller optical penetration depth for coagulated adenomatous colon tissues is a disadvantage for laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is necessary to adjust the application parameters of lasers to achieve optimal therapy.

  11. Modulation of distal colonic epithelial barrier function by dietary fibre in normal rats

    PubMed Central

    Mariadason, J; Catto-Smith, A; Gibson, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Dietary fibre influences the turnover and differentiation of the colonic epithelium, but its effects on barrier function are unknown. 
AIMS—To determine whether altering the type and amount of fibre in the diet affects paracellular permeability of intestinal epithelium, and to identify the mechanisms of action. 
METHODS—Rats were fed isoenergetic low fibre diets with or without supplements of wheat bran (10%) or methylcellulose (10%), for four weeks. Paracellular permeability was determined by measurement of conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux across tissue mounted in Ussing chambers. Faecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were assessed by gas chromatography, epithelial kinetics stathmokinetically, and mucosal brush border hydrolase activities spectrophotometrically. 
RESULTS—Body weight was similar across the dietary groups. Conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux were approximately 25% higher in animals fed no fibre, compared with those fed wheat bran or methylcellulose in the distal colon, but not in the caecum or jejunum. Histologically, there was no evidence of epithelial injury or erosion associated with any diet. The fibres exerted different spectra of effects on luminal SCFA concentrations and pH, and on mucosal indexes, but both bulked the faeces, were trophic to the epithelium, and stimulated expression of a marker of epithelial differentiation. 
CONCLUSIONS—Both a fermentable and a non-fermentable fibre reduce paracellular permeability specifically in the distal colon, possibly by promoting epithelial cell differentiation. The mechanisms by which the two fibres exert their effects are likely to be different. 

 Keywords: colon; differentiation; epithelium; fibre; paracellular permeability; proliferation PMID:10026327

  12. Effects of a Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Anti- and Pro-Inflammatory Eicosanoids, Epithelial Proliferation, and Nuclear Morphology in Biopsies of Normal Colon Tissue.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Zora; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Neilson, Andrew; Plegue, Missy; Waters, Ian G; Chan, Alexander; Askew, Leah M; Ruffin, Mack T; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-01-01

    This randomized trial evaluated the effects of intervention with either a Healthy Eating or a Mediterranean diet on colon biomarkers in 120 healthy individuals at increased colon cancer risk. The hypothesis was that eicosanoids and markers of proliferation would be favorably affected by the Mediterranean diet. Colon epithelial biopsy tissues and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 6 mo of intervention. Colonic eicosanoid concentrations were evaluated by HPLC-MS-MS, and measures of epithelial proliferation and nuclear morphology were evaluated by image analysis of biopsy sections. There was little change in proinflammatory eicosanoids and in plasma cytokine concentrations with either dietary intervention. There was, however, a 50% increase in colonic prostaglandin E3 (PGE3), which is formed from eicosapentanoic acid, in the Mediterranean arm. Unlike PGE2, PGE3, was not significantly affected by regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at baseline, and normal weight subjects had significantly higher colon PGE3 than overweight or obese subjects. Increased proliferation in the colon at baseline, by Ki67 labeling, was associated with morphological features that defined smaller nuclei in the epithelial cells, lower colon leukotriene concentrations and higher plasma cytokine concentrations. Dietary intervention had little effect on measures of epithelial proliferation or of nuclear morphology. The increase in PGE3 with a Mediterranean diet indicates that in normal colon, diet might affect protective pathways to a greater extent than proinflammatory and proliferative pathways. Hence, biomarkers from cancer models might not be relevant in a true prevention setting.

  13. HMGA1 silencing restores normal stem cell characteristics in colon cancer stem cells by increasing p53 levels

    PubMed Central

    Puca, Francesca; Colamaio, Marianna; Federico, Antonella; Gemei, Marica; Tosti, Nadia; Bastos, André Uchimura; Vecchio, Luigi Del; Pece, Salvatore; Battista, Sabrina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) proteins are architectural chromatinic proteins, abundantly expressed during embryogenesis and in most cancer tissues, but expressed at low levels or absent in normal adult tissues. Several studies have demonstrated that HMGA1 proteins play a causal role in neoplastic cell transformation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these proteins in the control of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have emerged as a preferred target in cancer therapy, because of their role in cancer recurrence. We observed that HMGA1 is overexpressed in colon tumour stem cell (CTSC) lines compared to normal and colon cancer tissues. We demonstrated that HMGA1 silencing in CTSCs increases stem cell quiescence and reduces self-renewal and sphere-forming efficiency (SFE). The latter, together with the upregulation and asymmetric distribution of NUMB, is indicative of the recovery of an asymmetric division pattern, typical of normal stem cells. We further found that HMGA1 transcriptionally regulates p53, which is known to control the balance between symmetric and asymmetric divisions in CSCs. Therefore, our data indicate a critical role for HMGA1 in regulating both self-renewal and the symmetric/asymmetric division ratio in CSCs, suggesting that blocking HMGA1 function may be an effective anti-cancer therapy. PMID:24833610

  14. Vibrio fischeri Flagellin A Is Essential for Normal Motility and for Symbiotic Competence during Initial Squid Light Organ Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, Deborah S.; Ruby, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    The motile bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the specific bacterial symbiont of the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes. Because motility is essential for initiating colonization, we have begun to identify stage-specific motility requirements by creating flagellar mutants that have symbiotic defects. V. fischeri has six flagellin genes that are uniquely arranged in two chromosomal loci, flaABCDE and flaF. With the exception of the flaA product, the predicted gene products are more similar to each other than to flagellins of other Vibrio species. Immunoblot analysis indicated that only five of the six predicted proteins were present in purified flagella, suggesting that one protein, FlaF, is unique with respect to either its regulation or its function. We created mutations in two genes, flaA and flaC. Compared to a flaC mutant, which has wild-type flagellation, a strain having a mutation in the flaA gene has fewer flagella per cell and exhibits a 60% decrease in its rate of migration in soft agar. During induction of light organ symbiosis, colonization by the flaA mutant is impaired, and this mutant is severely outcompeted when it is presented to the animal as a mixed inoculum with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, flaA mutant cells are preferentially expelled from the animal, suggesting either that FlaA plays a role in adhesion or that normal motility is an advantage for retention within the host. Taken together, these results show that the flagellum of V. fischeri is a complex structure consisting of multiple flagellin subunits, including FlaA, which is essential both for normal flagellation and for motility, as well as for effective symbiotic colonization. PMID:15205434

  15. Lipid Profiles of Canine Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Adjacent Normal Tissue by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Allison L.; Ifa, Demian R.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Costa, Anthony B.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Knapp, Deborah W.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used in an imaging mode to interrogate the lipid profiles of thin tissue sections of canine spontaneous invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (a model of human invasive bladder cancer) as well as adjacent normal tissue from four different dogs. The glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids that appear as intense signals in both the negative ion and positive ion modes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion scans using collision-induced dissociation. Differences in the relative distributions of the lipid species were present between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue in both the negative and positive ion modes. DESI-MS images showing the spatial distributions of particular glycerophospholipids, sphinoglipids and free fatty acids in both the negative and positive ion modes were compared to serial tissue sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Increased absolute and relative intensities for at least five different glycerophospholipids and three free fatty acids in the negative ion mode and at least four different lipid species in the positive ion mode were seen in the tumor region of the samples in all four dogs. In addition, one sphingolipid species exhibited increased signal intensity in the positive ion mode in normal tissue relative to the diseased tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to generate unsupervised statistical images from the negative ion mode data and these images are in excellent agreement with the DESI images obtained from the selected ions and also the H&E stained tissue PMID:19810710

  16. Increased expression and aberrant localization of mucin 13 in metastatic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Brij K; Maher, Diane M; Ebeling, Mara C; Sundram, Vasudha; Koch, Michael D; Lynch, Douglas W; Bohlmeyer, Teresa; Watanabe, Akira; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Puumala, Susan E; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2012-11-01

    MUC13 is a newly identified transmembrane mucin. Although MUC13 is known to be overexpressed in ovarian and gastric cancers, limited information is available regarding the expression of MUC13 in metastatic colon cancer. Herein, we investigated the expression profile of MUC13 in colon cancer using a novel anti-MUC13 monoclonal antibody (MAb, clone ppz0020) by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. A cohort of colon cancer samples and tissue microarrays containing adjacent normal, non-metastatic colon cancer, metastatic colon cancer, and liver metastasis tissues was used in this study to investigate the expression pattern of MUC13. IHC analysis revealed significantly higher (p<0.001) MUC13 expression in non-metastatic colon cancer samples compared with faint or very low expression in adjacent normal tissues. Interestingly, metastatic colon cancer and liver metastasis tissue samples demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher cytoplasmic and nuclear MUC13 expression compared with non-metastatic colon cancer and adjacent normal colon samples. Moreover, cytoplasmic and nuclear MUC13 expression correlated with larger and poorly differentiated tumors. Four of six tested colon cancer cell lines also expressed MUC13 at RNA and protein levels. These studies demonstrate a significant increase in MUC13 expression in metastatic colon cancer and suggest a correlation between aberrant MUC13 localization (cytoplasmic and nuclear expression) and metastatic colon cancer.

  17. Transgenic American elm shows reduced Dutch elm disease symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Liang, Haiying; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2007-07-01

    The American elm (Ulmus americana L.) was once one of the most common urban trees in eastern North America until Dutch-elm disease (DED), caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, eliminated most of the mature trees. To enhance DED resistance, Agrobacterium was used to transform American elm with a transgene encoding the synthetic antimicrobial peptide ESF39A, driven by a vascular promoter from American chestnut. Four unique, single-copy transgenic lines were produced and regenerated into whole plants. These lines showed less wilting and significantly less sapwood staining than non-transformed controls after O. novo-ulmi inoculation. Preliminary observations indicated that mycorrhizal colonization was not significantly different between transgenic and wild-type trees. Although the trees tested were too young to ensure stable resistance was achieved, these results indicate that transgenes encoding antimicrobial peptides reduce DED symptoms and therefore hold promise for enhancing pathogen resistance in American elm.

  18. Aqueous Extracts of Selected Potentilla Species Modulate Biological Activity of Human Normal Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Locatelli, Marcello; Pleszczyńska, Malgorzata; Tomczyk, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional and in folk medicine for many years. This study characterized the activity of extracts from aerial parts of selected Potentilla species: P. argentea, P. anserina, P. grandiflora and P. erecta as well as one species of closely related to the genus Potentilla, Drymocallis rupestris (syn. P. rupestris). The biological activities were analyzed using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on CCD 841 CoTr and CCD-18Co cells. Moreover, cell morphology and cytoskeletal actin F-filaments organization and IL-6 and IL-10 levels by ELISA were analyzed after 24 h of incubation. Potentilla extracts at dose levels between 25 and 250 µg/mL were analyzed. For ELISA, 15 µg/mL and 30 μg/mL were chosen. When mitochondrial succinyl dehydrogenase activity was tested (MTT assay) only extract obtained from P. erecta at lower concentrations (up to 125 µg/mL) suppressed metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells mitochondrial enzyme activity increased after incubation with all extracts. In Neutral Red (NR) method cellular membrane disturbance of both cell cultures was found after D. rupestris and P. grandiflora addition. Moreover, strong influence on epithelial cells was also found for P. anserina. All extracts showed similar, concentration-dependent free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect. Potentilla extracts, especially at lower concentration, decreased IL-6 production in myofibroblasts but the level of the cytokine was found to be stable in epithelial cells. IL-10 analysis revealed that P. argentea, D. rupestris, P. erecta extracts decrease cytokine level in myofibroblasts, while only when higher concentration were applied, decreased cytokine level produced by epithelial cells was found. F-actin filaments staining revealed that Potentilla extracts significantly influence on cellular cytoskeleton organization. Potentilla extracts influence on cells of human colon wall lining modulating the main features of them (viability

  19. Gene expression in normal-appearing tissue adjacent to prostate cancers are predictive of clinical outcome: evidence for a biologically meaningful field effect

    PubMed Central

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Maddala, Tara; Falzarano, Sara Moscovita; Cherbavaz, Diana B.; Zhang, Nan; Knezevic, Dejan; Febbo, Phillip G.; Lee, Mark; Lawrence, Hugh Jeffrey; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated gene expression in histologically normal-appearing tissue (NT) adjacent to prostate tumor in radical prostatectomy specimens, assessing for biological significance based on prediction of clinical recurrence (cR - metastatic disease or local recurrence). Results A total of 410 evaluable patients had paired tumor and NT. Fortysix genes, representing diverse biological pathways (androgen signaling, stromal response, stress response, cellular organization, proliferation, cell adhesion, and chromatin remodeling) were associated with cR in NT (FDR < 20%), of which 39 concordantly predicted cR in tumor (FDR < 20%). Overall GPS and its stromal response and androgen-signaling gene group components also significantly predicted time to cR in NT (RM-corrected HR/20 units = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.56; P = 0.024). Experimental Design Expression of 732 genes was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately in tumor and adjacent NT specimens from 127 patients with and 374 without cR following radical prostatectomy for T1/T2 prostate cancer. A 17-gene expression signature (Genomic Prostate Score [GPS]), previously validated to predict aggressive prostate cancer when measured in tumor tissue, was also assessed using pre-specified genes and algorithms. Analysis used Cox proportional hazards models, Storey's false discovery rate (FDR) control, and regression to the mean (RM) correction. Conclusions Gene expression profiles, including GPS, from NT adjacent to tumor can predict prostate cancer outcome. These findings suggest that there is a biologically significant field effect in primary prostate cancer that is a marker for aggressive disease. PMID:27121323

  20. Ethylene bisdithiocarbamate pesticides cause cytotoxicity in transformed and normal human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lisa; Hardej, Diane

    2012-09-01

    The effects of the fungicides Maneb, Mancozeb, and Zineb were investigated in transformed colon cells, HT-29, Caco2 and non-transformed cells, CCD-18Co. Significant decreases in viability were observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in HT-29 and CCD-18Co (80-260μM), and Caco2 cells (40-180μM). No significant decreases in viability were observed in all cell types up to 800μM with Zineb. MnCl(2) and ZnCl(2) exposure produced no loss of viability in all cell types up to 400μM. Light microscopy confirmed viability analysis. Lipid peroxidation was observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in cell types tested (60-200μM). Caspase 3/7, 8, and 9 activities were observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in cell types tested (40-200μM). Maneb and Mancozeb treated HT-29 and Caco2 cells demonstrated increases in manganese and zinc concentrations (20-200μM). The lack of toxicity observed with Zineb, MnCl(2), and ZnCl(2) suggests that both the metal moiety and the organic portion of these fungicides together contribute to toxicity.

  1. Ethylene bisdithiocarbamate pesticides cause cytotoxicity in transformed and normal human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lisa; Hardej, Diane

    2012-09-01

    The effects of the fungicides Maneb, Mancozeb, and Zineb were investigated in transformed colon cells, HT-29, Caco2 and non-transformed cells, CCD-18Co. Significant decreases in viability were observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in HT-29 and CCD-18Co (80-260μM), and Caco2 cells (40-180μM). No significant decreases in viability were observed in all cell types up to 800μM with Zineb. MnCl(2) and ZnCl(2) exposure produced no loss of viability in all cell types up to 400μM. Light microscopy confirmed viability analysis. Lipid peroxidation was observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in cell types tested (60-200μM). Caspase 3/7, 8, and 9 activities were observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in cell types tested (40-200μM). Maneb and Mancozeb treated HT-29 and Caco2 cells demonstrated increases in manganese and zinc concentrations (20-200μM). The lack of toxicity observed with Zineb, MnCl(2), and ZnCl(2) suggests that both the metal moiety and the organic portion of these fungicides together contribute to toxicity. PMID:22824503

  2. Colonic Saturated Fatty Acid Concentrations and Expression of COX-1, but not Diet, Predict Prostaglandin E2 in Normal Human Colon Tissue.

    PubMed

    Sidahmed, ElKhansa; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Patel, Arsh; Turgeon, D Kim; Ruffin, Mack T; Brenner, Dean E; Djuric, Zora

    2016-10-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the colon is a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In this study, expression of genes in the PGE2 pathway were quantified in colon biopsies from a trial of a Mediterranean versus a Healthy Eating diet in 113 individuals at high risk for colon cancer. Colon biopsies were obtained before and after 6 months of intervention. Quantitative, real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of prostaglandin H synthases (PTGS1 and 2), prostaglandin E synthases (PTGES1 and 3), prostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD), and PGE2 receptors (PTGER2, PTGER4). The most highly expressed genes were HPGD and PTGS1. In multivariate linear regression models of baseline data, both colon saturated fatty acid concentrations and PTGS1 expression were significant, positive predictors of colon PGE2 concentrations after controlling for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, gender, age, and smoking status. The effects of dietary intervention on gene expression were minimal with small increases in expression noted for PTGES3 in both arms and in PTGER4 in the Mediterranean arm. These results indicate that short-term dietary change had little effect on enzymes in the prostaglandin pathway in the colon and other factors, such as differences in fatty acid metabolism, might be more influential. PMID:27548026

  3. Assessing the Toxicities of Regulated and Unregulated Disinfection By-products in Normal Human Colon Cells.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of over six hundred disinfection by-products (DBPs) and less than half of the total organic halides present in finished water has created a need for short-term in vitro assays to address toxicities that might be associated with human exposure. . We are using a normal...

  4. Ki-67 Expression in Sclerosing Adenosis and Adjacent Normal Breast Terminal Ductal Lobular Units: A Nested Case-Control Study from the Mayo Benign Breast Disease Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Aziza; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Stallings-Mann, Melody L.; Degnim, Amy C.; Radisky, Derek C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Visscher, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sclerosing adenosis (SA) increases risk for invasive breast cancer (BC) 2.1 times relative to that in the general population. Here, we sought to evaluate whether the proliferation marker Ki-67 stratifies risk among women with SA. Methods A nested case-control sample of patients with SA was obtained from the Mayo Clinic Benign Breast Disease Cohort. Ki-67 expression was evaluated in SA lesions and in the adjacent normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) in women who did (cases, n =133) or did not (controls, n =239) develop BC. Ki67 was scored by intensity and number of positively stained cells per one high-power field (magnification, ×40) (40×HPF) for both SA and normal TDLU. Associations of Ki-67 expression with case-control status were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results Higher Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with case-control status in both SA (P=.03) and normal background TDLU (P=.006). For the SA lesion, >2 average positively stained cells/40×HPF showed an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.1–3.4) compared to samples with an average of ≤2 positively stained cells. For background TDLU, lobules with >2 but ≤6 average positively stained cells showed an adjusted OR of 1.3 to 1.5, whereas those with an average of >6 positively stained cells had an OR of 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1–5.3) compared to those with an average of <2 positively stained cells. Conclusions Among women with SA, increased Ki-67 expression in either the SA lesion or the normal background TDLU carried an approximately 2-fold increased odds of subsequent BC as compared to lower Ki-67 expression. PMID:25863475

  5. Development of a memetic clustering algorithm for optimal spectral histology: application to FTIR images of normal human colon.

    PubMed

    Farah, Ihsen; Nguyen, Thi Nguyet Que; Groh, Audrey; Guenot, Dominique; Jeannesson, Pierre; Gobinet, Cyril

    2016-05-23

    The coupling between Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging and unsupervised classification is effective in revealing the different structures of human tissues based on their specific biomolecular IR signatures; thus the spectral histology of the studied samples is achieved. However, the most widely applied clustering methods in spectral histology are local search algorithms, which converge to a local optimum, depending on initialization. Multiple runs of the techniques estimate multiple different solutions. Here, we propose a memetic algorithm, based on a genetic algorithm and a k-means clustering refinement, to perform optimal clustering. In addition, this approach was applied to the acquired FTIR images of normal human colon tissues originating from five patients. The results show the efficiency of the proposed memetic algorithm to achieve the optimal spectral histology of these samples, contrary to k-means. PMID:27110605

  6. Colonic mucosal gene expression and genotype in irritable bowel syndrome patients with normal or elevated fecal bile acid excretion

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Paula; Acosta, Andres; Busciglio, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal gene expression in rectosigmoid mucosa (RSM) in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is unknown. Our objectives were, first, to study mRNA expression [by RT2 PCR of 19 genes pertaining to tight junctions, immune activation, intestinal ion transport and bile acid (BA) homeostasis] in RSM in IBS-D patients (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 17) and study expression of a selected protein (PDZD3) in 10 IBS-D patients and 4 healthy controls; second, to assess RSM mRNA expression according to genotype and fecal BA excretion (high ≥2,337 μmol/48 h); and third, to determine whether genotype or mucosal mRNA expression is associated with colonic transit or BA parameters. Fold changes were corrected for false detection rate for 19 genes studied (P < 0.00263). In RSM in IBS-D patients compared with controls, mRNA expression of GUC2AB, PDZD3, and PR2Y4 was increased, whereas CLDN1 and FN1 were decreased. One immune-related gene was upregulated (C4BP4) and one downregulated (CCL20). There was increased expression of a selected ion transport protein (PDZD3) on immunohistochemistry and Western blot in IBS-D compared with controls (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in mucosal mRNA in 20 IBS-D patients with high compared with 27 IBS-D patients with normal BA excretion. GPBAR1 (P < 0.05) was associated with colonic transit. We concluded that mucosal ion transport mRNA (for several genes and PDZD3 protein) is upregulated and barrier protein mRNA downregulated in IBS-D compared with healthy controls, independent of genotype. There are no differences in gene expression in IBS-D with high compared with normal fecal BA excretion. PMID:25930081

  7. Histochemical Detection of Collagen Fibers by Sirius Red/Fast Green Is More Sensitive than van Gieson or Sirius Red Alone in Normal and Inflamed Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Luca; Pellegrini, Carolina; Blandizzi, Corrado; Dolfi, Amelio; Bernardini, Nunzia

    2015-01-01

    Collagen detection in histological sections and its quantitative estimation by computer-aided image analysis represent important procedures to assess tissue localization and distribution of connective fibers. Different histochemical approaches have been proposed to detect and quantify collagen deposition in paraffin slices with different degrees of satisfaction. The present study was performed to compare the qualitative and quantitative efficiency of three histochemical methods available for collagen staining in paraffin sections of colon. van Gieson, Sirius Red and Sirius Red/Fast Green stainings were carried out for collagen detection and quantitative estimation by morphometric image analysis in colonic specimens from normal rats or animals with 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS) induced colitis. Haematoxylin/eosin staining was carried out to assess tissue morphology and histopathological lesions. Among the three investigated methods, Sirius Red/Fast Green staining allowed to best highlight well-defined red-stained collagen fibers and to obtain the highest quantitative results by morphometric image analysis in both normal and inflamed colon. Collagen fibers, which stood out against the green-stained non-collagen components, could be clearly appreciated, even in their thinner networks, within all layers of normal or inflamed colonic wall. The present study provides evidence that, as compared with Sirius Red alone or van Gieson staining, the Sirius Red/Fast Green method is the most sensitive, in terms of both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of collagen fibers, in paraffin sections of both normal and inflamed colon. PMID:26673752

  8. Effects of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on normal colon tissue and circulating biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Roberd M

    2015-04-01

    This brief review, based on an invited presentation at the 17th Workshop on Vitamin D, is to summarize a line of the author's research that has been directed at the intertwined missions of clarifying and/or developing vitamin D and calcium as preventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, understanding the mechanisms by which these agents may reduce risk for the disease, and developing 'treatable' biomarkers of risk for colorectal cancer. The biological plausibility and observational and clinical trial evidence for vitamin D and calcium in reducing risk for colorectal neoplasms, the development of pre-neoplastic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, and the clinical trial findings from the author's research group on the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in modulating these biomarkers are summarized. Regarding the latter, we tested the efficacy of 800 IU (20μg) of vitamin D3 and 2.0g of calcium daily, alone and combined vs. placebo over 6 months on modulating normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial design clinical trial (n=92). The tissue-based biomarkers were measured in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa using immunohistochemistry with quantitative image analysis, and a panel of circulating inflammation markers was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA). Statistically significant proportional tissue increases in the vitamin D group relative to the placebo group were found in bax (51%), p21 (141%), APC (48%), E-cadherin (78%), MSH2 (179%), the CaSR (39%), and CYP27B1 (159%). In blood, there was a 77% statistically significant decrease in a summary inflammation z-score. The findings for calcium were similar to those for vitamin D. These findings indicate that supplemental vitamin D3 or calcium can favorably modulate multiple normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal

  9. Clinical significance of HOTAIR expression in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhi-Fen; Zhao, Dan; Li, Xi-Qing; Cui, Yong-Xia; Ma, Ning; Lu, Chuang-Xin; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zhou, Yun

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To detect the expression of the long noncoding RNA HOTAIR in colon cancer and analyze its relationship with clinicopathological parameters of colon cancer. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from 80 colon cancer tissues and matched tumor-adjacent normal colon tissues and reverse transcribed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of HOTAIR. The relationship between the expression of HOTAIR and clinicopathological parameters of colon cancer was analyzed. RESULTS: The expression of HOTAIR was significantly higher in colon cancer tissues than in matched tumor-adjacent normal colon tissues (P < 0.05). HOTAIR expression was significantly higher in cases with lymph node metastasis than in those without metastasis; in lowly differentiated and undifferentiated cases than in highly and moderately differentiated cases; and in stages III + IV cases than in stages I + II cases (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HOTAIR expression is upregulated in colon cancer, suggesting that HOTAIR plays an important role in the tumorigenesis, development and metastasis of colon cancer. HOTAIR may act as an oncogene and represents a new molecular target for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:27298568

  10. Comparison of Microarray Platforms for Measuring Differential MicroRNA Expression in Paired Normal/Cancer Colon Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Callari, Maurizio; Dugo, Matteo; Musella, Valeria; Marchesi, Edoardo; Chiorino, Giovanna; Grand, Maurizia Mello; Pierotti, Marco Alessandro; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Canevari, Silvana; De Cecco, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Background Microarray technology applied to microRNA (miRNA) profiling is a promising tool in many research fields; nevertheless, independent studies characterizing the same pathology have often reported poorly overlapping results. miRNA analysis methods have only recently been systematically compared but only in few cases using clinical samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the inter-platform reproducibility of four miRNA microarray platforms (Agilent, Exiqon, Illumina, and Miltenyi), comparing nine paired tumor/normal colon tissues. The most concordant and selected discordant miRNAs were further studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Globally, a poor overlap among differentially expressed miRNAs identified by each platform was found. Nevertheless, for eight miRNAs high agreement in differential expression among the four platforms and comparability to qRT-PCR was observed. Furthermore, most of the miRNA sets identified by each platform are coherently enriched in data from the other platforms and the great majority of colon cancer associated miRNA sets derived from the literature were validated in our data, independently from the platform. Computational integration of miRNA and gene expression profiles suggested that anti-correlated predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs are commonly enriched in cancer-related pathways and in genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient transport. Conclusions Technical and analytical challenges in measuring miRNAs still remain and further research is required in order to increase consistency between different microarray-based methodologies. However, a better inter-platform agreement was found by looking at miRNA sets instead of single miRNAs and through a miRNAs – gene expression integration approach. PMID:23028787

  11. Comparison of gene expression of SOX2 and OCT4 in normal tissue, polyps, and colon adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Ardeshir; Kianersi, Kianoosh; Beiraghdar, Mozhdeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer stem cells have been isolated and characterized in all common cancers. SOX2 and OCT4 are important genes to enhance the self-renewal ability as activate stem cells and inhibit the genes that start differentiation and thus maintain the self-renewal ability of stem cells. Also, the aim of this study is “Comparison of gene expression of SOX2 and OCT4 in normal tissue, polyps, and colon adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemical staining.” Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on 20 patients so that for each patient, a sample of healthy tissue, dysplastic polyp tissue, and colon adenocarcinoma were provided as microscopic sections and staining on each tissue was performed through immunohistochemistry method by markers OCT4 and SOX2. The collected data were interred into SPSS version 18.0, (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software and the level of significance were considered as <0.05. Results: The study sample consisted of 20 patients including 11 men (55%) and 9 women (45%) with a mean age of 55.6 ± 9.88 years. There was no association between Oct4 and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (P > 0.05), but there was a significant correlation between Sox2 expression and CRC (P < 0.05). Patients in many aspects such as race, type of polyp, presence of lymph node, grade and intensity of Sox2 in different types of patients’ tissues (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Regarding our findings, the expression of Sox2 would be a liable marker for evaluating of cancer progression and could be a treatment target of CRC cells. PMID:26645019

  12. Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  13. Ex vivo determination of glucose permeability and optical attenuation coefficient in normal and adenomatous human colon tissues using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Zhou, Chuanqing; Wei, Huajiang; He, Yonghong; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiushi

    2012-10-01

    Recent reports have suggested that spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a useful tool for quantifying the permeability of hyperosmotic agents in various tissues. We report our preliminary results on quantification of glucose diffusion and assessment of the optical attenuation change due to the diffusion of glucose in normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro by using a SD-OCT and then calculated the permeability coefficients (PC) and optical attenuation coefficients (AC). The PC of a 30% aqueous solution of glucose was 3.37±0.23×10-6 cm/s in normal tissue and 5.65±0.16×10-6 cm/s in cancerous colon tissue. Optical AC in a normal colon ranged from 3.48±0.37 to 2.68±0.82 mm-1 and was significantly lower than those seen in the cancerous tissue (8.48±0.95 to 3.16±0.69 mm-1, p<0.05). The results suggest that quantitative measurements of using PC and AC from OCT images could be a potentially powerful method for colon cancer detection.

  14. The GacA global regulator of Vibrio fischeri is required for normal host tissue responses that limit subsequent bacterial colonization.

    PubMed

    Whistler, Cheryl A; Koropatnick, Tanya A; Pollack, Amber; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Ruby, Edward G

    2007-03-01

    Harmful and beneficial bacterium-host interactions induce similar host-tissue changes that lead to contrasting outcomes of association. A life-long association between Vibrio fischeri and the light organ of its host Euprymna scolopes begins when the squid collects bacteria from the surrounding seawater using mucus secreted from ciliated epithelial appendages. Following colonization, the bacterium causes changes in host tissue including cessation of mucus shedding, and apoptosis and regression of the appendages that may limit additional bacterial interactions. We evaluated whether delivery of morphogenic signals is influenced by GacA, a virulence regulator in pathogens, which also influences squid-colonization by V. fischeri. Low-level colonization by a GacA mutant led to regression of the ciliated appendages. However, the GacA mutant did not induce cessation of mucus shedding, nor did it trigger apoptosis in the appendages, a phenotype that normally correlates with their regression. Because apoptosis is triggered by lipopolysaccharide, we examined the GacA mutant and determined that it had an altered lipopolysaccharide profile as well as an increased sensitivity to detergents. GacA-mutant-colonized animals were highly susceptible to invasion by secondary colonizers, suggesting that the GacA mutant's inability to signal the full programme of light-organ responses permitted the prolonged recruitment of additional symbionts.

  15. Effects of 300 mT static magnetic field on IL-6 secretion in normal human colon myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gruchlik, Arkadiusz; Wilczok, Adam; Chodurek, Ewa; Polechoński, Władysław; Wolny, Daniel; Dzierzewicz, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts play crucial role in the growth and development of the intestine. Colitis, small bowel injury, gastric ulcer disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) accompany the increase of number of activated myofibroblasts. In the last few years, the increasing production of electromagnetic (EMF) and static magnetic fields (SMF), due to the expanding use of electronic devices in everyday life, has led to a number of studies on the effects of these fields on living organisms. EMF therapy, because of its anti-inflammatory properties, may be used in medicine in IBD treatment. This mechanism has not been elucidated yet. In the present work normal human colon myofibroblasts CCD-18Co were exposed to SMF with a flux density of 300 mT. After 24 h incubation TNF-alpha-dependent IL-6 secretion was determined with ELISA kit (RandD Systems).The influence of magnetic field and its effect on cell proliferation were determined with TOX-2 (In Vitro Toxicology Assay Kit XTT Based, TOX-2, Sigma) and CyQUANT NF cell proliferation assay kit (Molecular Probes). It was shown that SMF inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent IL-6 secretion. The observed effects were statistically significant and depended on the time of incubation. Moreover, SMF triggered cell proliferation whereas it did not alter cell viability. IL-6 belongs to pro-inflammatory cytokines family and plays a crucial role in IBD. Inhibition of IL-6 secretion by SMF and lack of its cytotoxic effect seem to be advantageous whilst SMF is implicated in the treatment of inflammatory diseases associated by increase in number of activated myofibroblasts. PMID:23285697

  16. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sushma S; Makar, Karen W; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y; Lampe, Paul D; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W; Potter, John D

    2015-12-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) - accession number GSE71571 - was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]).

  17. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sushma S.; Makar, Karen W.; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y.; Lampe, Paul D.; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W.; Potter, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) – accession number GSE71571 – was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]). PMID:26697360

  18. Four carcinoembryonic antigen subfamily members, CEA, NCA, BGP and CGM2, selectively expressed in the normal human colonic epithelium, are integral components of the fuzzy coat.

    PubMed

    Frängsmyr, L; Baranov, V; Hammarström, S

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate which of the seven transcriptionally active genes of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) subfamily are expressed in human colon, we first examined mRNA expression using reverse transcriptase PCR. The result showed the CEA, nonspecific crossreacting antigen 50/90 (NCA), biliary glycoprotein (BGP), and carcinoembryonic antigen gene family member 2 (CGM2) mRNAs were expressed in the colon. To determine the cellular sources of these members within normal colonic mucosa, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry were then performed. CEA and NCA mRNAs were clearly detectable in the cytoplasm of columnar and goblet cells at the free luminal surface and the upper crypts with low hybridization in the mid crypt and the crypt base. In contrast, BGP and CGM2 mRNAs were restricted only to columnar cells at the upper third of the crypts and the luminal surface. Colon epithelium expression of CEA, NCA, BGP and CGM2 coincided with that of corresponding mRNAs. Ultrastructurally, CEA, NCA, BGP and CGM2 were localized mainly to the apical surface glycocalyx, the fuzzy coat, of columnar cells. Interestingly, these molecules were localized in different microdomains within the fuzzy coat. Furthermore, BGP was highly expressed in the fuzzy coat of cryptal caveolated cells. As integral components of the fuzzy coat, CEA, NCA, BGP and CGM2 can hardly function as intercellular adhesion molecules; they possibly play an important role in epithelial-microbial interactions.

  19. A calibrated agent-based computer model of stochastic cell dynamics in normal human colon crypts useful for in silico experiments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Normal colon crypts consist of stem cells, proliferating cells, and differentiated cells. Abnormal rates of proliferation and differentiation can initiate colon cancer. We have measured the variation in the number of each of these cell types in multiple crypts in normal human biopsy specimens. This has provided the opportunity to produce a calibrated computational model that simulates cell dynamics in normal human crypts, and by changing model parameter values, to simulate the initiation and treatment of colon cancer. Results An agent-based model of stochastic cell dynamics in human colon crypts was developed in the multi-platform open-source application NetLogo. It was assumed that each cell’s probability of proliferation and probability of death is determined by its position in two gradients along the crypt axis, a divide gradient and in a die gradient. A cell’s type is not intrinsic, but rather is determined by its position in the divide gradient. Cell types are dynamic, plastic, and inter-convertible. Parameter values were determined for the shape of each of the gradients, and for a cell’s response to the gradients. This was done by parameter sweeps that indicated the values that reproduced the measured number and variation of each cell type, and produced quasi-stationary stochastic dynamics. The behavior of the model was verified by its ability to reproduce the experimentally observed monocolonal conversion by neutral drift, the formation of adenomas resulting from mutations either at the top or bottom of the crypt, and by the robust ability of crypts to recover from perturbation by cytotoxic agents. One use of the virtual crypt model was demonstrated by evaluating different cancer chemotherapy and radiation scheduling protocols. Conclusions A virtual crypt has been developed that simulates the quasi-stationary stochastic cell dynamics of normal human colon crypts. It is unique in that it has been calibrated with measurements of human biopsy

  20. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 with probiotic potential on colon cancer and normal cells proliferation in comparison with a commercial strain

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Fazeli, Hossain; Mirlohi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Several beneficial effects have been attributed to the probiotic lactic acid bacteria. It was determined that lactobacilli can exert antiproliferative effects on the various cancer cell lines including colon cancer. Effects of lactic acid bacteria on colon cancer may vary from strain to strain and there is a need to find the new probiotic strains with tumor suppressing properties through in vitro studies. Materials and Methods: Anti-proliferative activities of heat-killed cells and cell-free supernatants of a native strain of Lactobacillus plantarum A7 and a commercial strain of lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were assessed on human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29) and normal cells (L-929), using MTT assay. Cells were seeded at 2×104 cells/mlin 96 well plates and incubated for 24 hr. Then heat-killed cells (OD620: 0.025, 0.0.05, 0.1) and cell-free supernatants of bacteria were added at concentration of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml. After 48 hr incubation MTT (5 mg/ml) was added and the absorbance was measured at 540 nm using ELISA plate reader. Results: Results showed that heat-killed cells and cell-free supernatants of both probiotic strains reduced the growth rate of cancer and normal cells. These results suggested that anti-proliferative effect may not be an exclusive characteris ticwhich is dedicated to officially approved probiotics. Conclusion: L. plantarum A7 could be considered as colon cancer biological product, most likely due to its advantages in significant organic acid production. PMID:25729553

  1. Cathelicidin suppresses colon cancer development by inhibition of cancer associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Michelle; Ho, Samantha; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Tran, Deanna Hoang-Yen; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Su, Bowei; Tran, Diana Hoang-Ngoc; Kubota, Yuzu; Ichikawa, Ryan; Koon, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Cathelicidin (LL-37 in humans and mCRAMP in mice) represents a family of endogenous antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides. Cancer-associated fibroblasts can promote the proliferation of colon cancer cells and growth of colon cancer tumors. Methods We examined the role of cathelicidin in the development of colon cancer, using subcutaneous human HT-29 colon-cancer-cell-derived tumor model in nude mice and azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-mediated colon cancer model in C57BL/6 mice. We also determined the indirect antitumoral mechanism of cathelicidin via the inhibition of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colon cancer cells and fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Results Intravenous administration of cathelicidin expressing adeno-associated virus significantly reduced the size of tumors, tumor-derived collagen expression, and tumor-derived fibroblast expression in HT-29-derived subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Enema administration of the mouse cathelicidin peptide significantly reduced the size and number of colonic tumors in azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-treated mice without inducing apoptosis in tumors and the adjacent normal colonic tissues. Cathelicidin inhibited the collagen expression and vimentin-positive fibroblast expression in colonic tumors. Cathelicidin did not directly affect HT-29 cell viability, but did significantly reduce tumor growth factor-β1-induced EMT of colon cancer cells. Media conditioned by the human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts promoted human colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation. Cathelicidin pretreatment inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation mediated by media conditioned by human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts. Cathelicidin disrupted tubulin distribution in colonic fibroblasts. Disruption of tubulin in fibroblasts reduced fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Conclusion Cathelicidin effectively inhibits colon cancer development by interfering with EMT and fibroblast

  2. Lack of evidence for low-LET radiation induced bystander response in normal human fibroblasts and colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marianne B. Sowa; Wilfried Goetz; Janet E. Baulch; Dinah N. Pyles; Jaroslaw Dziegielewski; Susannah Yovino; Andrew R. Snyder; Sonia M. de Toledo; Edouard I. Azzam; William F. Morgan

    2008-06-30

    Purpose: To investigate radiation induced bystander responses and to determine the role of gap junction intercellular communication and the radiation environment in propagating this response. Materials and Methods: We use medium transfer and targeted irradiation to examine radiation induced bystander effects in primary human fibroblast (AG1522) and human colon carcinoma (RKO36) cells. We examined the effect of variables such as gap junction intercellular communication, linear energy transfer (LET), and the role of the radiation environment in non-targeted responses. Endpoints included clonogenic survival, micronucleus formation and foci formation at histone 2AX over doses ranging from 10 to 100 cGy. Results: The results show no evidence of a low-LET radiation induced bystander response for the endpoints of clonogenic survival and induction of DNA damage. Nor do we see evidence of a high-LET, Fe ion radiation (1 GeV/n) induced bystander effect. However, direct comparison for 3.2 MeV α-particle exposures showed a statistically significant medium transfer bystander effect for this high-LET radiation. Conclusions: From our results, it is evident that there are many confounding factors influencing bystander responses as reported in the literature. Our observations reflect the inherent variability in biological systems and the difficulties in extrapolating from in vitro models to radiation risks in humans.

  3. Passage from normal mucosa to adenoma and colon cancer: alteration of normal sCD30 mechanisms regulating TH1/TH2 cell functions.

    PubMed

    Contasta, Ida; Berghella, Anna Maria; Pellegrini, Patrizia; Adorno, Domenico

    2003-08-01

    The pathogenesis of cancer is currently under intensive investigation to identify reliable prognostic indices for the early detection of disease. Adenomas have been identified as precursors of colorectal cancer and tumor establishment, and disease progression has been found to reflect a malfunction of the immune system. On the basis of the role of the CD30 molecule in the regulation of TH1/TH2 functions and our previous results, strongly suggesting the validity of serum TH1/TH2 cytokines in the study of tumor progression, we studied network interaction between the production of soluble (s) CD30/sBCl2 in whole blood culture [in basic conditions and after PHA, LPS, and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) stimulation] and levels of TH1/TH2 cytokines (IL2, IFN gamma, IL12, IL4, IL5, IL10). Peripheral blood from a group of healthy subjects, as well as from patients with adenoma and colorectal cancer was used. Our objective was to gain a better insight into the role of the CD30 molecule in the passage from normal mucosa to adenoma and tumor and identify specific disease markers. Our results suggest that the decrease in CD30 expression and the abnormal increase in Bcl2 expression, observed in the peripheral cells of both adenoma and tumor groups determine an imbalance between TH1/TH2 functions. Consequently, changes in sCD30/sBcl2 culture production and TH1/TH2 cytokine serum levels may be reliable markers for tumor progression. In fact, our overall data show that a decrease of sCD30 levels in basic and PHA conditions and an increase of IFN gamma, IL4, IL5, and IL12 serum levels and sBcl2 in all activation condition are indicative of the passage from normal mucosa to adenoma; whilst a decrease of sBcl2 level in basic, LPS and anti-CD3 conditions and of IL2, IFN gamma serum levels, together with an increase of IL5 are indicative of the passage from adenoma to tumor.

  4. Toponome imaging system: in situ protein network mapping in normal and cancerous colon from the same patient reveals more than five-thousand cancer specific protein clusters and their subcellular annotation by using a three symbol code.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Mathew, George; Ruban, Ernie; Epstein, David B A; Krusche, Andreas; Hillert, Reyk; Schubert, Walter; Khan, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In a proof of principle study, we have applied an automated fluorescence toponome imaging system (TIS) to examine whether TIS can find protein network structures, distinguishing cancerous from normal colon tissue present in a surgical sample from the same patient. By using a three symbol code and a power of combinatorial molecular discrimination (PCMD) of 2(21) per subcellular data point in one single tissue section, we demonstrate an in situ protein network structure, visualized as a mosaic of 6813 protein clusters (combinatorial molecular phenotype or CMPs), in the cancerous part of the colon. By contrast, in the histologically normal colon, TIS identifies nearly 5 times the number of protein clusters as compared to the cancerous part (32 009). By subcellular visualization procedures, we found that many cell surface membrane molecules were closely associated with the cell cytoskeleton as unique CMPs in the normal part of the colon, while the same molecules were disassembled in the cancerous part, suggesting the presence of dysfunctional cytoskeleton-membrane complexes. As expected, glandular and stromal cell signatures were found, but interestingly also found were potentially TIS signatures identifying a very restricted subset of cells expressing several putative stem cell markers, all restricted to the cancerous tissue. The detection of these signatures is based on the extreme searching depth, high degree of dimensionality, and subcellular resolution capacity of TIS. These findings provide the technological rationale for the feasibility of a complete colon cancer toponome to be established by massive parallel high throughput/high content TIS mapping.

  5. QuickView video preview software of colon capsule endoscopy: reliability in presenting colorectal polyps as compared to normal mode reading.

    PubMed

    Farnbacher, Michael J; Krause, Horst H; Hagel, Alexander F; Raithel, Martin; Neurath, Markus F; Schneider, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) proved to be highly sensitive in detection of colorectal polyps (CP). Major limitation is the time-consuming video reading. The aim of this prospective, double-center study was to assess the theoretical time-saving potential and its possible impact on the reliability of "QuickView" (QV), in the presentation of CP as compared to normal mode (NM). METHODS. During NM reading of 65 CCE videos (mean patient´s age 56 years), all frames showing CPs were collected and compared to the number of frames presented by QV at increasing QV settings (10, 20, ... 80%). Reliability of QV in presenting polyps <6 mm and ≥6 mm (significant polyp), and identifying patients for subsequent therapeutic colonoscopy, capsule egestion rate, cleansing level, and estimated time-saving potential were assessed. RESULTS. At a 30% QV setting, the QV video presented 89% of the significant polyps and 86% of any polyps with ≥1 frame (per-polyp analysis) identified in NM before. At a 10% QV setting, 98% of the 52 patients with significant polyps could be identified (per-patient analysis) by QV video analysis. Capsule excretion rate was 74% and colon cleanliness was adequate in 85%. QV´s presentation rate correlates to the QV setting, the polyp size, and the number of frames per finding. CONCLUSIONS. Depending on its setting, the reliability of QV in presenting CP as compared to NM reading is notable. However, if no significant polyp is presented by QV, NM reading must be performed afterwards. The reduction of frames to be analyzed in QV might speed up identification of candidates for therapeutic colonoscopy. PMID:24325660

  6. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10. PMID:26921420

  7. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10. PMID:26921420

  8. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10.

  9. Giant colon diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Chater, C; Saudemont, A; Zerbib, P

    2015-11-01

    Giant colonic diverticulum is defined by a diverticulum whose diameter is greater than 4 cm. This is a rare entity, arising mainly in the sigmoid colon. The diagnosis is based on abdominal computed tomography that shows a gas-filled structure communicating with the adjacent colon, with a smooth, thin diverticular wall that does not enhance after injection of contrast. Surgical treatment is recommended even in asymptomatic diverticula, due to the high prevalence and severity of complications. The gold standard treatment is segmental colectomy. Some authors propose a diverticulectomy when the giant diverticulum is unique.

  10. Assessment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling in paired colorectal cancer and normal colon tissue samples using computer-aided immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Messersmith, Wells; Oppenheimer, Darin; Peralba, Josep; Sebastiani, Valeria; Amador, Maria; Jimeno, Antonio; Embuscado, Erlinda; Hidalgo, Manuel; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine

    2005-12-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays a role in multiple tumor cell processes and is targeted by several anticancer therapies. Although EGFR mutations may determine tumor susceptibility in a small proportion of patients, knowledge of the EGFR signaling pathway status in tumors may help guide further drug development and hypothesis-driven combination studies. We aimed to validate and apply a novel computer-aided immunohistochemical (IHC) technique to characterize the status of EGFR signaling in matched colorectal tumor and normal colon tissue samples. Tissue Microarrays (TMA)were made from both cancerous and normal colorectal tissue in 18 patients and stained with antibodies against EGFR, phospho-EGFR (pEGFR), Akt, pAkt, MAPK, and pMAPK. TMA's were quantitatively scored using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS II, Chromavision, Inc). ACIS was compared against cell line Western blotting, ELISA, and visual scoring (0-3+) by a pathologist. We found that ACIS analysis was highly reproducible and results were well correlated with other techniques. A post-scan "image microdissection" technique of analyzing heterogeneous human samples showed good correlation between paired human samples [Pearson correlation for tumors, 0.922 (p < .001)]. Cancer samples had markedly higher staining of pEGFR, Akt, pAkt, MAPK, and pMAPK. We conclude that ACIS IHC of human tissue samples is quantitative, reproducible, and correlates with Western blots and ELISA in cell line pellets as well as pathologist's scores of human samples. Colorectal tumors show higher staining of pEGFR and downstream effectors compared to matched normal colorectal tissues.

  11. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  12. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  13. Immunocytochemistry and Image Analysis of Beta-Catenin Redistribution in Normal Human Colon Cell Cultures Treated with Disinfection By-Products.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and increased risk for colon cancer. In vivo studies proved that rodents exposed to chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBPs) developed aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in t...

  14. Expression and clinical significance of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Peifen; Guo, Wenjie; Yuan, Huaqin; Li, Qian; Wang, Weicheng; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiaomin; Gu, Yanhong

    2014-04-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, encoded by gene PTPN11, has been identified as a tumor-promoting factor in several types of leukemia and is hyper-activated by other mechanisms in some solid tumors including gastric cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), etc. But few were reported on the expression and significances of SHP-2 in colon cancer. Here, we detect SHP-2 expression in colon cancer cells, colon cancer-induced by AOM+DSS in mice and 232 human colon cancer specimens, including 58 groups of self-matched adjacent peritumor tissues and normal tissues. We found that compared to the normal colon tissues, SHP-2 significantly decreased in tumor tissues (P<0.001). The same results were got in colon tumor cells as well as mice colon tumors. And in humans samples, low SHP-2 expression showed a significantly correlation with poor tumor differentiation (P<0.05), late TNM stage (P=0.1666) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05).

  15. Increased mRNA expression of a laminin-binding protein in human colon carcinoma: Complete sequence of a full-length cDNA encoding the protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, Hsiukang; Wong, Jau Min; Chen, Hai Shiene; Lee, C.; Steele, G.D. Jr.; Chen, Lanbo

    1988-09-01

    Reliable markers to distinguish human colon carcinoma from normal colonic epithelium are needed particularly for poorly differentiated tumors where no useful marker is currently available. To search for markers the authors constructed cDNA libraries from human colon carcinoma cell lines and screened for clones that hybridize to a greater degree with mRNAs of colon carcinomas than with their normal counterparts. Here they report one such cDNA clone that hybridizes with a 1.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA, the level of which is /approx/9-fold greater in colon carcinoma than in adjacent normal colonic epithelium. Blot hybridization of total RNA from a variety of human colon carcinoma cell lines shows that the level of this 1.2-kb mRNA in poorly differentiated colon carcinomas is as high as or higher than that in well-differentiated carcinomas. Molecular cloning and complete sequencing of cDNA corresponding to the full-length open reading frame of this 1.2-kb mRNA unexpectedly show it to contain all the partial cDNA sequence encoding 135 amino acid residues previously reported for a human laminin receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this putative laminin-binding protein from human colon carcinomas consists of 295 amino acid residues with interesting features. There is an unusual C-terminal 70-amino acid segment, which is trypsin-resistant and highly negatively charged.

  16. Colonic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... where your body makes and stores stool. Many disorders affect the colon's ability to work properly. Some ... abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  17. The mRNA of L-Type Calcium Channel Elevated in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi-Tao; Nagaba, Yasushi; Cross, Heide S.; Wrba, Fritz; Zhang, Lin; Guggino, Sandra E.

    2000-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that the mRNA for the cardiac isoform of the voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (α1C) is elevated in colon cancer. The aim of these experiments was to verify that the mRNA for α1C was significantly increased in tumors of two separate populations of patients when compared to normal adjacent mucosa. The second aim was to measure the distribution of α1C using immunocytochemistry in normal human colon and in colon cancer and to determine what might regulate the channel expression. Biopsies were taken from patients with various stages of colon cancer and nearby normal mucosa were used as control. RNA was prepared and mRNA level measured by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA of the calcium channel was compared with other markers including β-actin. The mRNA for α1C was increased significantly in colon cancers compared to nearby adjacent mucosa. Using confocal microscopy α1C was localized mainly at the apical membrane in the surface epithelium of normal human colon with less distribution on the lateral and basal membranes. The channel was localized on the lateral and basal membranes in crypt cells. Calcium channel localization appeared to be nearer nuclei in colon cancer samples, in part because of the smaller size of the cells. Likewise, cultured Caco-2 and T84 cells showed a membrane distribution. Western blotting indicated that α1C protein was increased in nonconfluent cultures of colonic carcinoma cells compared to confluent cells and immunocytochemistry confirms that there is more calcium channel protein in cells that are nonconfluent. We conclude that the increase in mRNA of α1 subunit of the cardiac isoform of the L-type calcium channel may be a useful marker of colon cancer compared to other markers because the increase is large and this increase can be documented on small samples using a simple semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We found that α1C protein is

  18. Human colon carcinogenesis is associated with increased interleukin-17-driven inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhaohui; Qu, Yine; Leng, Yanli; Sun, Wenxiu; Ma, Siqi; Wei, Jingbo; Hu, Jiangong; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is known to contribute to carcinogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17 or IL-17A) has been shown to play a critical role in colon carcinogenesis in mouse models. However, few studies have investigated IL-17A in human colon tissues. In the present study, we assessed IL-17-driven inflammatory responses in 17 cases of human colon adenocarcinomas, 16 cases of human normal colon tissues adjacent to the resected colon adenocarcinomas, ten cases of human ulcerative colitis tissues from biopsies, and eight cases of human colon polyps diagnosed as benign adenomas. We found that human colon adenocarcinomas contained the highest levels of IL-17A cytokine, which was significantly higher than the IL-17A levels in the adenomas, ulcerative colitis, and normal colon tissues (P<0.01). The levels of IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) were also the highest in human colon adenocarcinomas, followed by adenomas and ulcerative colitis. The increased levels of IL-17A and IL-17RA were accompanied with increased IL-17-driven inflammatory responses, including activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9, MMP7, MMP2, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2), and cyclin D1, decrease in Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) expression, and increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) expression that were associated with increased angiogenesis. These findings suggest that IL-17 and its signaling pathways appear as promising new targets in the design and development of drugs for cancer prevention and treatment, particularly in colorectal cancer.

  19. [Colonic balantidiasis].

    PubMed

    González de Canales Simón, P; del Olmo Martínez, L; Cortejoso Hernández, A; Arranz Santos, T

    2000-03-01

    Balantidium coli is a Protozoa that is not usually pathogenic in man, although epidemics have been described in tropical areas. It mainly affects the colon and clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic forms to severe dysenteric syndromes. We present a case of endoscopically diagnosed colonic balantidiasis and review the most important characteristics of this parasite-induced disease. PMID:10804691

  20. Cell surface fucosylation does not affect development of colon tumors in mice with germline Smad3 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Steven E.; Karnak, David M.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aims: Neoplasia-related alterations in cell surface α(1,2)fucosylated glycans have been reported in multiple tumors including colon, pancreas, endometrium, cervix, bladder, lung, and choriocarcinoma. Spontaneous colorectal tumors from mice with a germline null mutation of transforming growth factor-β signaling gene Smad3 (Madh3) were tested for α(1,2)fucosylated glycan expression. Methods: Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin-I lectin staining, fucosyltransferase gene northern blot analysis, and a cross of mutant mice with Fut2 and Smad3 germline mutations were performed. Results: Spontaneous colorectal tumors from Smad3 (-/-) homozygous null mice were found to express α(1,2)fucosylated glycans in an abnormal pattern compared to adjacent nonneoplastic colon. Northern blot analysis of α(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes Fut1 and Fut2 revealed that Fut2, but not Fut1, steady-state mRNA levels were significantly increased in tumors relative to adjacent normal colonic mucosa. Mutant mice with a Fut2-inactivating germline mutation were crossed with Smad3 targeted mice. In Smad3 (-/-)/Fut2 (-/-) double knock-out mice, UEA-I lectin staining was eliminated from colon and colon tumors, however, the number and size of tumors present by 24 weeks of age did not vary regardless of the Fut2 genotype. Conclusions: In this model of colorectal cancer, cell surface α(1,2)fucosylation does not affect development of colon tumors. PMID:17264540

  1. Pharmacokinetic studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies to a rat colon carcinoma: I. Comparison of biodistribution in normal rats, syngeneic tumor-bearing rats, or tumor-bearing nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, J.; Douillard, J.Y.; Burg, C.; Lizzio, E.F.; Ridge, J.; Levenbook, I.; Hoffman, T. )

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two iodine-131-({sup 131}I) labeled murine anti-rat colon carcinoma monoclonal antibodies (D3 and E4) were compared in normal Sprague Dawley rats, syngeneic BDIX rats, or nude mice bearing that tumor. Results of antibody uptake after i.v. administration were analyzed in terms of accumulation and localization indices for normal tissues and tumor. Statistically significant differences between rat and mouse tissue biodistribution were found. D3, which reacts in vitro with the tumor and several normal rat tissues, cleared quickly from the blood of rats and was specifically targeted to several normal tissues, notably the lung. Virtually no targeting to the tumor was observed. Nude mice, however, showed a slower blood clearance and specific antibody targeting only in the tumor. Similar results were seen after injection of another antibody, E4, which is tumor-specific in vitro. Data suggest that studies on the xenogeneic nude mouse model may not necessarily be relevant to the choice of monoclonal antibodies for clinical diagnostic imaging or therapy.

  2. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    EL-SALHY, MAGDY; UMEZAWA, KAZUO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS-G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecyl thiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS-Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti-inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the clinical manifestation of

  3. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS‑G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)‑methyl]‑glutarimide (DTCM‑G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS‑Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer‑aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS‑G, DSS‑Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS‑G, DSS‑Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti‑inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the

  4. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  5. Metastatic Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Massagué, Joan; Obenauf, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death from cancer. To colonize distant organs, circulating cancer cells must overcome many obstacles through mechanisms that we are starting to understand. Infiltrating distant tissue, evading immune defences, adapting to supportive niches, surviving as latent tumour-initiating seeds, and eventually breaking out to replace the host tissue, are key steps for metastatic colonization. These obstacles make metastasis a highly inefficient process, but once metastases are established current treatments frequently fail to provide durable responses. A better understanding of the mechanistic determinants of metastatic colonization is needed to better prevent and treat metastatic cancer. PMID:26791720

  6. EVALUATION OF THE CYTOTOXICITY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS (DBPS): TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS), HALONITROMETHANES (HNMS), AND HALOACETIC ACIDS (HAAS) IN NORMAL HUMAN COLON CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. THMs and HAAs were found to increase cancer in laboratory animals, but no toxicity studies exist for the recently identified HNMs. Normal Human colonocytes...

  7. White tea (Camellia sinensis) inhibits proliferation of the colon cancer cell line, HT-29, activates caspases and protects DNA of normal cells against oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Kanthimathi, M S; Sanusi, Junedah; Rajarajeswaran, Jayakumar

    2015-02-15

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. White tea is made from the buds and young leaves of the tea plant which are steamed and dried, whilst undergoing minimal oxidation. The MTT assay was used to test the extract on the effect of the proliferation of the colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. The extract inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells with an IC50 of 87μg/ml. The extract increased the levels of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity in the cells. DNA damage in 3T3-L1 normal cells was detected by using the comet assay. The extract protected 3T3-L1 cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage. The results from this study show that white tea has antioxidant and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells, but protect normal cells against DNA damage. Regular intake of white tea can help to maintain good health and protect the body against disease.

  8. Piwil2 modulates the proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer via regulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Sun, Xing; Yan, Dongwang; Huang, Jianfeng; Luo, Qiongzhen; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2012-10-01

    Piwi-like protein 2 (Piwil2) has recently emerged as a putative oncogene which is amplified in several human malignancies. However, the role of Piwil2 in colon cancer remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and pathological significance of Piwil2, and the possible role in the proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer. Primary colon cancer paired with adjacent normal colon tissue and lymph node metastasis (LNM) lesions in 66 patients' tissue microarrays (TMA) were used to determine the expression of Piwil2. Knocked down Piwil2 expression in SW620 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines was performed to evaluate the role of Piwil2 in cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. The possible roles of Piwil2 in the regulation of a 2 kb matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) promoter fragment and on the regulation of apoptotic pathways were evaluated by using a luciferase reporter construct and Western blots, respectively. Significantly higher expression levels of Piwil2 were observed in primary colon cancer tissue and in LNM in comparison with normal colon mucosa. Piwil2 expression significantly correlated with more aggressive clinical and pathological parameters with poorer five-year metastasis-free survival and overall survival. Piwil2 silencing significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation, colony formation ability and increased apoptosis in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Piwil2 knockdown also attenuated migration and invasion of colon cancer cells via modulation of MMP9 transcriptional activities. Our results indicate that Piwil2 moderates the proliferation and metastasis potential of colon cancer.

  9. Use of a duodenal serosal patch in the repair of a colon rupture in a female Solomon Island eclectus parrot.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Jeleen A; Bennett, R Avery

    2011-04-01

    Case Description-A 444-g (0.98-lb) 4-year-old sexually intact female Solomon Island eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus solomonensis) was referred and evaluated for a suspected colonic obstruction. Clinical Findings-The parrot had a 3-day history of not passing feces and lack of appetite following treatment of dystocia that included percutaneous collapse of the egg and manual removal of egg fragments via the cloaca. During this procedure, a tear in the cloacal mucosa developed. The tear was repaired via a midline cloacotomy. Although clinically stable at the time of referral, the parrot became lethargic and bradycardic and had delayed crop emptying. Treatment and Outcome-A midline celiotomy and cloacotomy were performed to relieve the colonic obstruction, during which the severely distended colon ruptured. The colonic defects were closed in a simple interrupted pattern, and a serosal patch was applied by use of the adjacent duodenum. The bird recovered uneventfully from anesthesia and was passing voluminous feces with mildly increased effort within 1 hour after surgery. At 3 weeks after surgery, the parrot was passing feces with no increase in effort and had a normal appetite. Clinical Relevance-Application of a duodenal serosal patch for repair of a colon rupture was successful in this parrot. Gastrointestinal obstruction is rare in birds, but should be considered in birds that have regurgitation, decreased fecal production, and gastrointestinal dilation. Because birds lack an omentum, serosal patching with adjacent duodenum should be considered as a viable option in avian surgery.

  10. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  11. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  12. Berry Phenolic Compounds Increase Expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1α (HNF-1α) in Caco-2 and Normal Colon Cells Due to High Affinities with Transcription and Dimerization Domains of HNF-1α.

    PubMed

    Real Hernandez, Luis M; Fan, Junfeng; Johnson, Michelle H; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) is found in the kidneys, spleen, thymus, testis, skin, and throughout the digestive organs. It has been found to promote the transcription of various proteins involved in the management of type II diabetes, including dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). Phenolic compounds from berries and citrus fruits are known to inhibit DPP-IV, but have not been tested for their interactions with wild-type HNF-1α. By studying the interactions of compounds from berries and citrus fruits have with HNF-1α, pre-transcriptional mechanisms that inhibit the expression of proteins such as DPP-IV may be elucidated. In this study, the interactions of berry phenolic compounds and citrus flavonoids with the dimerization and transcriptional domains of HNF-1α were characterized using the molecular docking program AutoDock Vina. The anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-arabinoside had the highest binding affinity for the dimerization domain as a homodimer (-7.2 kcal/mol) and transcription domain (-8.3 kcal/mol) of HNF-1α. Anthocyanins and anthocyanidins had relatively higher affinities than resveratrol and citrus flavonoids for both, the transcription domain and the dimerization domain as a homodimer. The flavonoid flavone had the highest affinity for a single unit of the dimerization domain (-6.5 kcal/mol). Nuclear expression of HNF-1α was measured in Caco-2 and human normal colon cells treated with blueberry and blackberry anthocyanin extracts. All extracts tested increased significantly (P < 0.05) the nuclear expression of HNF-1α in Caco-2 cells by 85.2 to 260% compared to a control. The extracts tested increased significantly (P < 0.02) the nuclear expression of HNF-1α in normal colon cells by 48.6 to 243%. It was confirmed that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside increased by 3-fold nuclear HNF-1α expression in Caco-2 cells (P < 0.05). Anthocyanins significantly increased nuclear HNF-1α expression, suggesting that these compounds might regulate the genes HNF-1

  13. Effect of supplemental vitamin A on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Winsey, K.; Simon, R.J.; Levenson, S.M.; Seifter, E.; Demetriou, A.A.

    1987-02-01

    We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin A on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Rats were divided into two groups. Those in the first group were fed a standard chow diet and those in the second group were fed the same diet supplemented with 150 IU vitamin A/g of chow. The rats were maintained on their respective diets throughout the experiment. After 7 days, half the rats in each group underwent abdominal irradiation (200 rads). Seven days later, all of the rats underwent distal colon division and anastomosis under pentobarbital anesthesia. All rats were killed 7 days postoperatively, the colons excised, and bursting strength and hydroxyproline determinations performed on both the anastomotic segment and a normal proximal segment of adjacent colon. There was a significant decrease in the bursting strength at the colon anastomosis (p less than 0.02) and in the collagen content (p less than 0.02) after preoperative irradiation. This effect was mitigated by dietary vitamin A supplementation.

  14. Clinical utility of colonic manometry in slow transit constipation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth; Heady, Sarah; Coss-Adame, Enrique; Rao, Satish S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The clinical significance of colorectal sensori-motor evaluation in patients with slow transit constipation (STC) is unclear. We investigated whether colonic manometric evaluation is useful for characterizing colonic sensorimotor dysfunction and for guiding therapy in STC. Methods 24-hour ambulatory colonic manometry was performed in 80 patients (70 females) with STC by placing a 6 sensor solid state probe, along with assessment of colonic sensation with barostat. Anorectal manometry was also performed. Manometrically, patients were categorized as having colonic neuropathy or myopathy based on gastrocolonic response, waking response and high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPC); and based on colonic sensation, as colonic hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity. Clinical response to pharmacological, biofeedback and surgical treatment was assessed at 1yr and correlated with manometric findings. Results 59% of patients had abnormal colonic manometry with features suggestive of neuropathy (26%), and myopathy (33%); 41% had normal colonic manometry. 74% patients had abnormal colonic sensation and 61% had overlapping dyssynergic defecation. Patients with neuropathy were more likely to have colonic hyposensitivity. 64% of patients with colonic myopathy or normal manometry improved with medical/biofeedback therapy when compared to 15% with colonic neuropathy (p<0.01). Selected patients with colonic neuropathy had excellent response to surgery, but many developed bacterial overgrowth. Conclusions Colonic manometry demonstrates significant colonic sensori-motor dysfunction in STC patients and reveals considerable pathophysiological heterogeneity. It can be useful for characterizing the underlying pathophysiology and for guiding clinical management in STC, especially surgery. PMID:23384415

  15. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caroline H; Dejea, Christine M; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T; Santidrian, Antonio F; Felding, Brunhilde H; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A; Pardoll, Drew M; White, James R; Patti, Gary J; Sears, Cynthia L; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine in both biofilm-positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm-negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression.

  16. Computed tomography identification of an exophytic colonic liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chung Kuao; Chen, Sung-Ting

    2016-09-01

    It may be difficult to ascertain the relationship between a large intra-abdominal tumor and the adjacent organs if they are close together. In the current case, a definitive preoperative diagnosis of an exophytic colonic tumor was obtained by the demonstration of obtuse angles between the tumor and colon and by distinct recognition of the mucosa-submucosa of the colonic wall on computed tomography; the accuracy of this preoperative diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by pathologic findings. PMID:27594941

  17. PINCH-2 presents functional copy number variation and suppresses migration of colon cancer cells by paracrine activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Hee; Rha, Sun Young; Ahn, Joong Bae; Shin, Sang Joon; Kwon, Woo Sun; Kim, Tae Soo; An, Sungwhan; Kim, Nam Kyu; Yang, Woo-ick; Chung, Hyun Cheol

    2015-05-15

    In recent years, characterization of cancer and its environment has become necessary. However, studies of the cancer microenvironment remain insufficient. Copy number variations (CNVs) occur in 40% of cancer-related genes, but few studies have reported the correlation between CNVs in morphologically normal tissues adjacent to cancer and cancer progression. In this study, we evaluated cancer cell migration and invasion according to the genetic differences between cancer tissues and their surrounding normal tissues. To study the field cancerization effect, we screened 89 systemic metastasis-related CNVs from morphologically normal tissues adjacent to colon cancers. Among these CNVs, LIM and senescent cell antigen-like domain 2 (PINCH-2) showed copy number amplification and upregulation of mRNA in the nonrelapsed group compared to the systemic relapse group. PINCH-2 expression in colon cancer cells was lower than that in normal epithelial colon cells at both the protein and mRNA levels. Suppression of PINCH-2 resulted in decreased formation of the PINCH-2-IPP (PINCH-2, integrin-linked kinase and α-parvin) complex and reciprocally increased formation of the PINCH-1-IPP complex. Although PINCH-2 expression of survival pathway-related proteins (Akt and phospho-Akt) did not change upon suppression of PINCH-2 expression, cell migration-related proteins [matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and -11] were upregulated through autocrine and paracrine activation. Thus, PINCH-2 participates in decreased systemic recurrence by competitively regulating IPP complex formation with PINCH-1, thereby suppressing autocrine and paracrine effects on motility in colon cancer. This genetic change in morphologically normal tissue suggests a field cancerization effect of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression.

  18. A colonic duplication cyst causing bowel ischaemia in a 74-year-old lady

    PubMed Central

    Fenelon, Christopher; Boland, Michael R; Kenny, Brian; Faul, Peter; Tormey, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Colonic duplication cysts are rare congenital malformations that predominantly present before the age of 2 years. We report the case of a 74-year-old lady who presented with sudden onset abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan noted a calcified structure adjacent to abnormal loops of bowel. Intraoperative findings revealed an ischaemic loop of small bowel wrapped around a mass in the mesentery adjacent to the sigmoid colon. Final histology revealed a colonic duplication cyst. Colonic duplication cysts are rare entities that most commonly cause obstruction or perforation. We present the very rare case of a colonic duplication cyst causing bowel ischaemia in an elderly female. PMID:27572680

  19. Teaching normal birth, normally.

    PubMed

    Hotelling, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    Teaching normal-birth Lamaze classes normally involves considering the qualities that make birth normal and structuring classes to embrace those qualities. In this column, teaching strategies are suggested for classes that unfold naturally, free from unnecessary interventions. PMID:19436595

  20. Matrix Stiffness Corresponding to Strictured Bowel Induces a Fibrogenic Response in Human Colonic Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura A.; Rodansky, Eva S.; Sauder, Kay L.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.; Mih, Justin D.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Higgins, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease is characterized by repeated cycles of inflammation and mucosal healing which ultimately progress to intestinal fibrosis. This inexorable progression towards fibrosis suggests that fibrosis becomes inflammation-independent and auto-propagative. We hypothesized that matrix stiffness regulates this auto-propagation of intestinal fibrosis. Methods The stiffness of fresh ex vivo samples from normal human small intestine, Crohn’s disease strictures, and the unaffected margin were measured with a microelastometer. Normal human colonic fibroblasts were cultured on physiologically normal or pathologically stiff matrices corresponding to the physiological stiffness of normal or fibrotic bowel. Cellular response was assayed for changes in cell morphology, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) staining, and gene expression. Results Microelastometer measurements revealed a significant increase in colonic tissue stiffness between normal human colon and Crohn’s strictures as well as between the stricture and adjacent tissue margin. In Ccd-18co cells grown on stiff matrices corresponding to Crohn’s strictures, cellular proliferation increased. Pathologic stiffness induced a marked change in cell morphology and increased αSMA protein expression. Growth on a stiff matrix induced fibrogenic gene expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory gene expression, and was associated with nuclear localization of the transcriptional cofactor MRTF-A. Conclusions Matrix stiffness, representative of the pathological stiffness of Crohn’s strictures, activates human colonic fibroblasts to a fibrogenic phenotype. Matrix stiffness affects multiple pathways suggesting the mechanical properties of the cellular environment are critical to fibroblast function and may contribute to autopropagation of intestinal fibrosis in the absence of inflammation, thereby contributing to the intractable intestinal fibrosis characteristic of Crohn’s disease. PMID

  1. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  2. Giant colonic diverticulum: radiographic and MDCT characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zeina, Abdel-Rauf; Mahamid, Ahmad; Nachtigal, Alicia; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Shapira-Rootman, Mika

    2015-12-01

    Giant colonic diverticulum (GCD), defined as a diverticulum larger than 4 cm, is a rare entity that is generally a manifestation of colonic diverticular disease. Because of its rarity and its variable and non-specific presentation, the diagnosis of GCD depends mainly on imaging findings. Knowledge of the spectrum of radiographic and CT features of the GCD is important in making the correct diagnosis and potentially preventing complications. This review focuses on imaging findings characteristic of GCD as well as its complications and radiographic mimics. Teaching points • Giant colonic diverticulum is a rare complication of diverticulosis.• The most common symptom is abdominal pain presenting in approximately 70 % of patients.• Diagnosis is based on imaging findings with plain abdominal radiographs and MDCT.• Treatment consists of en bloc resection of the diverticulum and affected adjacent colon.

  3. [Colonic histiocytosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Remmele, W; Endris, R

    1977-02-01

    Macrophages accumulating various substances can be detected in the mucosa of the small and large bowel under physiological and various pathological conditions. Among these the so-called PAS-positive macrophages have attracted much attention in recent times. Abundant occurrence of such cells in the intestinal mucosa has been termed "colonic histiocytosis". The occurrence of PAS-positive macrophages was investigated in 200 unselected and otherwise normal biopsy specimens of rectal mucosa; no correlation was found between the occurrence of these cells on the one hand and any intestinal or extraintestinal disease on the other. PAS-positive macrophages were mostly found close to the surface of the mucosa or to the cryptal epithelium as well as between the crypts. It is suggested to abandon the term "colonic histiocytosis" since it induces a false impression of a disease entity in the clinician (and may be related falsely e.g. to "histiocytosis X", and since the clinician may tend to attribute unnecessary importance to this harmless finding.

  4. Unique DNA methylome profiles in CpG island methylator phenotype colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaomin; Hu, Bo; Choi, Ae-Jin; Gopalan, Banu; Lee, Byron H; Kalady, Matthew F; Church, James M; Ting, Angela H

    2012-02-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers was postulated to have the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), a higher propensity for CpG island DNA methylation. The validity of CIMP, its molecular basis, and its prognostic value remain highly controversial. Using MBD-isolated genome sequencing, we mapped and compared genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of normal, non-CIMP, and CIMP colon specimens. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that each specimen could be clearly classified as normal, non-CIMP, and CIMP, thus signifying that these three groups have distinctly different global methylation patterns. We discovered 3780 sites in various genomic contexts that were hypermethylated in both non-CIMP and CIMP colon cancers when compared with normal colon. An additional 2026 sites were found to be hypermethylated in CIMP tumors only; and importantly, 80% of these sites were located in CpG islands. These data demonstrate on a genome-wide level that the additional hypermethylation seen in CIMP tumors occurs almost exclusively at CpG islands and support definitively that these tumors were appropriately named. When these sites were examined more closely, we found that 25% were adjacent to sites that were also hypermethylated in non-CIMP tumors. Thus, CIMP is also characterized by more extensive methylation of sites that are already prone to be hypermethylated in colon cancer. These observations indicate that CIMP tumors have specific defects in controlling both DNA methylation seeding and spreading and serve as an important first step in delineating molecular mechanisms that control these processes. PMID:21990380

  5. Oncolytic reovirus against ovarian and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Norman, Kara L; Alain, Tommy; Kossakowska, Anna; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-15

    Reovirus selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing) as an antihuman colon and ovarian cancer agent. In in vitro studies, reovirus infection in human colon and ovarian cell lines was assessed by cytopathic effect as detected by light microscopy, [(35)S]Methionine labeling of infected cells for viral protein synthesis and progeny virus production by plaque assay. We observed that reovirus efficiently infected all five human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT-116, HT-29, and SW48) and four human ovarian cancer cell lines (MDAH2774, PA-1, SKOV3, and SW626) which were tested, but not a normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) or a normal ovarian cell line (NOV-31). We also observed that the Ras activity in the human colon and ovarian cancer cell lines was elevated compared with that in normal colon and ovarian cell lines. In animal models, intraneoplastic as well as i.v. inoculation of reovirus resulted in significant regression of established s.c. human colon and ovarian tumors implanted at the hind flank. Histological studies revealed that reovirus infection in vivo was restricted to tumor cells, whereas the surrounding normal tissue remained uninfected. Additionally, in an i.p. human ovarian cancer xenograft model, inhibition of ascites tumor formation and the survival of animals treated with live reovirus was significantly greater than of control mice treated with UV-inactivated reovirus. Reovirus infection in ex vivo primary human ovarian tumor surgical samples was also confirmed, further demonstrating the potential of reovirus therapy. These results suggest that reovirus holds promise as a novel agent for human colon and ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:11912142

  6. Management of colonic volvulus.

    PubMed

    Gingold, Daniel; Murrell, Zuri

    2012-12-01

    Colonic volvulus is a common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide. It can affect all parts of the colon, but most commonly occurs in the sigmoid and cecal areas. This disease has been described for centuries, and was studied by Hippocrates himself. Currently, colonic volvulus is the third most common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide, and is responsible for ∼15% of large bowel obstructions in the United States. This article will discuss the history of colonic volvulus, and the predisposing factors that lead to this disease. Moreover, the epidemiology and diagnosis of each type of colonic volvulus, along with the various treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24294126

  7. miR-320 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro by targeting FOXM1

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Lu-Ying; Deng, Jun; Xiang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ling; Yu, Feng; Chen, Jun; Sun, Zhe; Feng, Miao; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • miR-320 plays a significant role in chemoresistance. • This role might be attribute to targeting FOXM1. • The Wnt/β-catenin pathway also involves in this chemotherapy sensitivity. - Abstract: miR-320 expression level is found to be down-regulated in human colon cancer. To date, however, its underlying mechanisms in the chemo-resistance remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-320 led to inhibit HCT-116 cell proliferation, invasion and hypersensitivity to 5-Fu and Oxaliplatin. Also, knockdown of miR-320 reversed these effects in HT-29 cells. Furthermore, we identified an oncogene, FOXM1, as a direct target of miR-320. In addition, miR-320 could inactive the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Finally, we found that miR-320 and FOXM1 protein had a negative correlation in colon cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues. These findings implied that miR-320–FOXM1 axis may overcome chemo-resistance of colon cancer cells and provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of colon cancer.

  8. Growth hormone is permissive for neoplastic colon growth.

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, Vera; Zonis, Svetlana; Zhou, Cuiqi; Recouvreux, Maria Victoria; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Araki, Takako; Barrett, Robert; Workman, Michael; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Ljubimov, Vladimir A; Uhart, Magdalena; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) excess in acromegaly is associated with increased precancerous colon polyps and soft tissue adenomas, whereas short-stature humans harboring an inactivating GH receptor mutation do not develop cancer. We show that locally expressed colon GH is abundant in conditions predisposing to colon cancer and in colon adenocarcinoma-associated stromal fibroblasts. Administration of a GH receptor (GHR) blocker in acromegaly patients induced colon p53 and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), reversing progrowth GH signals. p53 was also induced in skin fibroblasts derived from short-statured humans with mutant GHR. GH-deficient prophet of pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 (Prop1)(-/-) mice exhibited induced colon p53 levels, and cross-breeding them with Apc(min+/-) mice that normally develop intestinal and colon tumors resulted in GH-deficient double mutants with markedly decreased tumor number and size. We also demonstrate that GH suppresses p53 and reduces apoptosis in human colon cell lines as well as in induced human pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids, and confirm in vivo that GH suppresses colon mucosal p53/p21. GH excess leads to decreased colon cell phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), increased cell survival with down-regulated APC, nuclear β-catenin accumulation, and increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition factors and colon cell motility. We propose that GH is a molecular component of the "field change" milieu permissive for neoplastic colon growth. PMID:27226307

  9. Clinical significance of aberrant mammalian target of rapamycin expression in stage IIIB colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    WEN, MEILING; LI, BAOXIU; CAO, XIAOFEI; WENG, CHENGYIN; WU, YONG; FANG, XISHENG; ZHANG, XIAOSHI; LIU, GUOLONG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of aberrant expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the activated form of mTOR kinase, phosphorylated mTOR (pmTOR), in human stage IIIB colon cancer. The expression of mTOR and pmTOR was detected by immunohistochemistry in the tumor tissue of stage IIIB colon cancer patients. The association between the expression of mTOR, pmTOR and clinicopathological parameters of patients was analyzed. The positive expression of mTOR and pmTOR was observed to be higher in 75.5% (80/106) and 76.4% (81/106) of the 106 colon cancer specimens, compared with the adjacent normal tissues. The high level of pmTOR expression was found to be significantly higher in the invasive tumor front cells and resulted in a higher risk of mortality. The results suggested that mTOR and pmTOR may be promising clinical markers and present novel molecular targets for designing novel therapeutic strategies to treat this malignancy. PMID:25120661

  10. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Jason D; Lee, Monica D; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  11. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  12. Analysis of adjacent segment reoperation after lumbar total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Scott; Blumenthal, Scott L.; Zigler, Jack E.; Guyer, Richard D.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusion has long been used for treating chronic back pain unresponsive to nonoperative care. However, potential development of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation is a concern. Total disc replacement (TDR) has been proposed as a method for addressing back pain and preventing or reducing adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of the study was to determine the reoperation rate at the segment adjacent to a level implanted with a lumbar TDR and to analyze the pre-TDR condition of the adjacent segment. Methods This study was based on a retrospective review of charts and radiographs from a consecutive series of 1000 TDR patients to identify those who underwent reoperation because of adjacent segment degeneration. Some of the patients were part of randomized studies comparing TDR with fusion. Adjacent segment reoperation data were also collected from 67 patients who were randomized to fusion in those studies. The condition of the adjacent segment before the index surgery was compared with its condition before reoperation based on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography. Results Of the 1000 TDR patients, 20 (2.0%) underwent reoperation. The mean length of time from arthroplasty to reoperation was 28.3 months (range, 0.5–85 months). Of the adjacent segments evaluated on preoperative MRI, 38.8% were normal, 38.8% were moderately diseased, and 22.2% were classified as having severe degeneration. None of these levels had a different grading at the time of reoperation compared with the pre-TDR MRI study. Reoperation for adjacent segment degeneration was performed in 4.5% of the fusion patients. Conclusions The 2.0% rate of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation in this study is similar to the 2.0% to 2.8% range in other studies and lower than the published rates of 7% to 18% after lumbar fusion. By carefully assessing the presence of pre-existing degenerative changes before performing arthroplasty

  13. Radionuclide transit in patients with colon interposition

    SciTech Connect

    Isolauri, J.; Koskinen, M.O.; Markkula, H.

    1987-10-01

    To assess radionuclide transit in interposed segments of the colon, we examined 25 patients with colon interposition for benign esophageal disease. No such assessment has been reported previously. The most common indications for operation were esophageal strictures that developed after lye ingestion and reflux strictures not responding to other treatment. The operations were performed without thoracotomy by blunt esophageal dissection in 80% of the patients. There were 18 antiperistaltic and seven isoperistaltic colon grafts. A large-field gamma camera and computer system were used. Data were collected at time intervals of 0.5 second during the first 30 seconds and at intervals of 30 seconds up to 20 minutes. The 5% and 90% stomach filling times, times to 50% and 25% activity levels, and residual activity levels as a percentage of the maxima were calculated in the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the colon grafts and of the normal esophagus of 10 healthy control subjects. The examinations were performed with the subject in a sitting position. All parameters showed that emptying of the colon graft was markedly slower than that of the normal esophagus. The intra-abdominal third of the graft had a residual activity of 50.5% +/- 15.7% after 20 minutes' observation. No differences between antiperistaltic and isoperistaltic grafts were observed. Reconstruction with proximal cologastric anastomosis and a short intra-abdominal colon graft segments is suggested.

  14. The colon: from banal to brilliant.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Rani S; Morton, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The colon serves as the habitat for trillions of microbes, which it must maintain, regulate, and sequester. This is managed by what is termed the mucosal barrier. The mucosal barrier separates the gut flora from the host tissues; regulates the absorption of water, electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins; and facilitates host-flora interactions. Colonic homeostasis depends on a complex interaction between the microflora and the mucosal epithelium, immune system, vasculature, stroma, and nervous system. Disruptions in the colonic microenvironment such as changes in microbial composition, epithelial cell function/proliferation/differentiation, mucus production/makeup, immune function, diet, motility, or blood flow may have substantial local and systemic consequences. Understanding the complex activities of the colon in health and disease is important in drug development, as xenobiotics can impact all segments of the colon. Direct and indirect effects of pharmaceuticals on intestinal function can produce adverse findings in laboratory animals and humans and can negatively impact drug development. This review will discuss normal colon homeostasis with examples, where applicable, of xenobiotics that disrupt normal function. PMID:24129758

  15. Water and electrolyte absorption by the colon in tropical sprue.

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, B S; Mathan, V I

    1982-01-01

    A defect in colonic absorption of electrolytes and water was demonstrated in patients with tropical sprue by perfusing the colon with normal saline containing a non-absorbable marker. Colonic water absorption correlated negatively with stool weight and was abnormal in patients with steatorrhoea. The possible mechanisms producing this defect are discussed. This defect may be related to colonocyte damage produced by unabsorbed unsaturated fatty acids in patients with steatorrhoea. PMID:7117904

  16. Differential localization of LGR5 and Nanog in clusters of colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Freyhan, Ora; Fabrikant, Yakov; Melzer, Ehud; Givol, David

    2013-05-01

    One paradigm of cancer development claims that cancer emerges at the niche of tissue stem cells and these cells continue to proliferate in the tumor as cancer stem cells. LGR5, a membrane receptor, was recently found to be a marker of normal colon stem cells in colon polyps and is also expressed in colon cancer stem cells. Nanog, an embryonic stem cell nuclear factor, is expressed in several embryonic tissues, but Nanog expression is not well documented in cancerous stem cells. Our aim was to examine whether both LGR5 and Nanog are expressed in the same clusters of colon stem cells or cancer stem cells, using immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies to each antigen. We analyzed this aspect using paraffin embedded tumor tissue sections obtained from 18 polyps and 36 colon cancer specimens at stages I-IV. Antibodies to LGR5 revealed membrane and cytoplasm immunostaining of scattered labeled cells in normal crypts, with no labeling of Nanog. However, in close proximity to the tumors, staining to LGR5 was much more intensive in the crypts, including that of the epithelial cells. In cancer tissue, positive LGR5 clusters of stem cells were observed mainly in poorly differentiated tumors and in only a few scattered cells in the highly differentiated tumors. In contrast, antibodies to Nanog mainly stained the growing edges of carcinoma cells, leaving the poorly differentiated tumor cells unlabeled, including the clustered stem cells that could be detected even by direct morphological examination. In polyp tissues, scattered labeled cells were immunostained with antibodies to Nanog and to a much lesser extent with antibodies to LGR5. We conclude that expression of LGR5 is probably specific to stem cells of poorly differentiated tumors, whereas Nanog is mainly expressed at the edges of highly differentiated tumors. However, some of the cell layers adjacent to the carcinoma cell layers that still remained undifferentiated, expressed mainly Nanog with only a few cells

  17. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  18. Developmental pathways in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Fred E.; Angus, C. William; Partis, William J.; Sigounas, George

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of cancer is reactivation/alteration of pathways that control cellular differentiation during developmental processes. Evidence indicates that WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways have a role in normal epithelial cell differentiation, and that alterations in these pathways accompany establishment of the tumorigenic state. Interestingly, there is recent evidence that these pathways are intertwined at the molecular level, and these nodes of intersection may provide opportunities for effective targeted therapies. This review will highlight the role of the WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways in colon cancer. PMID:23032367

  19. Data from a proteomic analysis of colonic fibroblasts secretomes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sun-Xia; Xu, Xiao-En; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Qian; Qiao, Jie; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion were influenced by the interaction between the cancer cells and their microenvironment. In current study, we established two pairs of the primary fibroblast cultures from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and the normal counterparts and identified 227 proteins in the colonic fibroblast secretomes; half of these proteins were novel. The mass spectrometry data and analyzed results presented here provide novel insights into the molecular characteristics and modulatory role of colon cancer associated fibroblasts. The data is related to “Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation” by Chen et al. [1]. PMID:26217680

  20. Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Valusis, Gintaras; Bernardo, Luis M.; Almeida, Abílio; Moreira, J. Agostinho; Lopes, Patricia C.; Macutkevic, Jan; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Adomavicius, Ramunas; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Machado

    2011-05-01

    Normal and cancer affected samples of colon tissue have been measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and continuous wave terahertz imaging. We show that it is possible to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in the samples when they are fixed in formalin or embedded in paraffin. Plots of the refractive index of normal and cancer affected tissues as well as 2-D transmission THz images are shown. Experimental results will be presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected tissue will be discussed.

  1. COTA (colon-ovarian tumor antigen). An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pant, K D; Fenoglio-Preiser, C M; Berry, C O; Zamora, P O; Ram, M D; Fulks, R M; Rhodes, B A

    1986-07-01

    A goat anti-serum was prepared against mucinous ovarian cyst fluid and absorbed with normal colon and a variety of normal tissues until the only residual immunoreactivity was directed against colon cancer and ovarian tumor mucin. The set of antigenic determinants defined by this anti-serum has been called COTA, standing for colon-ovarian-tumor-antigen. This highly absorbed anti-serum (anti-COTA) was used for immunohistochemical staining of 42 different tissues in parallel with staining with a goat anti-CEA, which was also highly absorbed. The results suggest that COTA is a highly sensitive and specific antigen for colon carcinoma and may have potential for the early detection of malignant changes predictive of cancer of the colon.

  2. Expression of TFF3 during multistep colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    John, R; El-Rouby, N M; Tomasetto, C; Rio, M-C; Karam, S M

    2007-07-01

    The pathogenesis of colon cancer is not well understood. This common type of cancer is generally believed to occur in a multistep process which involves alterations of various tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes during the progression through benign lesions towards carcinoma. TFF3 is a product of the colonic epithelium and has been implicated in colonic mucosal protection and also in the aggressiveness of colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of TFF3 during propagation towards cancer development in the human colon. Colonic tissues representing colitis, adenomatous polyposis, tubulovillous adenoma, and mucoid/adeno-carcinomas were processed for immunohistochemistry using an antibody specific for human TFF3. The results were correlated with those of PCNA-labeling, quantified, and compared with those of control tissues obtained from the safe margin of macroscopically normal colonic mucosa of patients with colon cancer. The data showed marked down-regulation of TFF3 expression in adenomatous polyposis, then TFF3 expression returns to about control level during adenoma and remains high during mucoid- and adeno-carcinomas. Colonic tissues with highly invasive cancer cells were characterized by statistically significant down-regulation of TFF3 expression. The changes observed in expression of TFF3 showed an inverse correlation with cell proliferation and suggest that it might play a protective role against colon carcinogenesis.

  3. MicroRNA Profiles Discriminate among Colon Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Drusco, Alessandra; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Zanesi, Nicola; Di Leva, Gianpiero; Pichiorri, Flavia; Volinia, Stefano; Fernandez, Cecilia; Antenucci, Anna; Costinean, Stefan; Bottoni, Arianna; Rosito, Immacolata A.; Liu, Chang-Gong; Burch, Aaron; Acunzo, Mario; Pekarsky, Yuri; Alder, Hansjuerg; Ciardi, Antonio; Croce, Carlo M.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are being exploited for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of cancer and other diseases. Their high tissue specificity and critical role in oncogenesis provide new biomarkers for the diagnosis and classification of cancer as well as predicting patients' outcomes. MicroRNAs signatures have been identified for many human tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). In most cases, metastatic disease is difficult to predict and to prevent with adequate therapies. The aim of our study was to identify a microRNA signature for metastatic CRC that could predict and differentiate metastatic target organ localization. Normal and cancer tissues of three different groups of CRC patients were analyzed. RNA microarray and TaqMan Array analysis were performed on 66 Italian patients with or without lymph nodes and/or liver recurrences. Data obtained with the two assays were analyzed separately and then intersected to identify a primary CRC metastatic signature. Five differentially expressed microRNAs (hsa-miR-21, -103, -93, -31 and -566) were validated by qRT-PCR on a second group of 16 American metastatic patients. In situ hybridization was performed on the 16 American patients as well as on three distinct commercial tissues microarray (TMA) containing normal adjacent colon, the primary adenocarcinoma, normal and metastatic lymph nodes and liver. Hsa-miRNA-21, -93, and -103 upregulation together with hsa-miR-566 downregulation defined the CRC metastatic signature, while in situ hybridization data identified a lymphonodal invasion profile. We provided the first microRNAs signature that could discriminate between colorectal recurrences to lymph nodes and liver and between colorectal liver metastasis and primary hepatic tumor. PMID:24921248

  4. Intra-colonic administration of a polymer-bound NIRF probe for improved colorectal cancer detection during colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kogan-Zviagin, Inga; Shamay, Yosi; Nissan, Aviram; Sella-Tavor, Osnat; Golan, Moran; David, Ayelet

    2014-10-28

    There is increasing interest in the use of nanoparticle imaging probes for cancer diagnosis. However, various biological barriers limit the efficient delivery of nanoparticles to tumors following parenteral administration. We have investigated the applicability of a water-soluble polymeric imaging probe for improving the detection of gastrointestinal (GI) tumors after intra-luminal (colonic) administration. N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers bearing either fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC) or near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye (IR-783) were conjugated with EPPT1 peptide, derived from the CDR3 Vh region of a monoclonal antibody (ASM2) raised against human epithelial cancer cells, for targeting under-glycosylated mucin-1 (uMUC-1) expressed in neoplastic tissues. The targeted FITC-labeled copolymer, P-(EPPT1)-FITC, was investigated for its ability to bind human CRC cells and tissue specimens in vitro. The uMUC-1-targeted NIRF-labeled copolymer, P-(EPPT1)-IR783, was assessed for its ability to detect colonic lesions in vivo. P-(EPPT1)-FITC demonstrated superior binding to colorectal cancer (CRC) cells that over-express the uMUC-1 antigen and exhibited selectivity towards human CRC tissue specimens, as compared to adjacent normal tissues from the same patient. When applied intra-colonically, P-(EPPT1)-IR783 significantly accumulated in cancerous tissue, relative to the adjacent normal mucosa of HT29 and LS174T tumor-bearing mice, and demonstrated higher signal intensities in colonic tumors, as compared to the non-targeted P-(GG-OH)-IR783 probe (i.e., without EPPT1). We found that P-(GG-OH)-IR783 can also accumulate specifically at tumor sites. The cancer-specific uptake and retention of P-(GG-OH)-IR783 was not mediated by organic anion transporting peptides (OATPs). Our findings indicate that the polymer-bound NIRF probe can successfully detect solid tumors in the GI tract following intra-colonic administration, and could be used in conjunction with

  5. Intra-colonic administration of a polymer-bound NIRF probe for improved colorectal cancer detection during colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kogan-Zviagin, Inga; Shamay, Yosi; Nissan, Aviram; Sella-Tavor, Osnat; Golan, Moran; David, Ayelet

    2014-10-28

    There is increasing interest in the use of nanoparticle imaging probes for cancer diagnosis. However, various biological barriers limit the efficient delivery of nanoparticles to tumors following parenteral administration. We have investigated the applicability of a water-soluble polymeric imaging probe for improving the detection of gastrointestinal (GI) tumors after intra-luminal (colonic) administration. N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers bearing either fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC) or near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye (IR-783) were conjugated with EPPT1 peptide, derived from the CDR3 Vh region of a monoclonal antibody (ASM2) raised against human epithelial cancer cells, for targeting under-glycosylated mucin-1 (uMUC-1) expressed in neoplastic tissues. The targeted FITC-labeled copolymer, P-(EPPT1)-FITC, was investigated for its ability to bind human CRC cells and tissue specimens in vitro. The uMUC-1-targeted NIRF-labeled copolymer, P-(EPPT1)-IR783, was assessed for its ability to detect colonic lesions in vivo. P-(EPPT1)-FITC demonstrated superior binding to colorectal cancer (CRC) cells that over-express the uMUC-1 antigen and exhibited selectivity towards human CRC tissue specimens, as compared to adjacent normal tissues from the same patient. When applied intra-colonically, P-(EPPT1)-IR783 significantly accumulated in cancerous tissue, relative to the adjacent normal mucosa of HT29 and LS174T tumor-bearing mice, and demonstrated higher signal intensities in colonic tumors, as compared to the non-targeted P-(GG-OH)-IR783 probe (i.e., without EPPT1). We found that P-(GG-OH)-IR783 can also accumulate specifically at tumor sites. The cancer-specific uptake and retention of P-(GG-OH)-IR783 was not mediated by organic anion transporting peptides (OATPs). Our findings indicate that the polymer-bound NIRF probe can successfully detect solid tumors in the GI tract following intra-colonic administration, and could be used in conjunction with

  6. Transcriptional recapitulation and subversion of embryonic colon development by mouse colon tumor models and human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Sergio; Park, Young-Kyu; Franklin, Jeffrey L; Halberg, Richard B; Yu, Ming; Jessen, Walter J; Freudenberg, Johannes; Chen, Xiaodi; Haigis, Kevin; Jegga, Anil G; Kong, Sue; Sakthivel, Bhuvaneswari; Xu, Huan; Reichling, Timothy; Azhar, Mohammad; Boivin, Gregory P; Roberts, Reade B; Bissahoyo, Anika C; Gonzales, Fausto; Bloom, Greg C; Eschrich, Steven; Carter, Scott L; Aronow, Jeremy E; Kleimeyer, John; Kleimeyer, Michael; Ramaswamy, Vivek; Settle, Stephen H; Boone, Braden; Levy, Shawn; Graff, Jonathan M; Doetschman, Thomas; Groden, Joanna; Dove, William F; Threadgill, David W; Yeatman, Timothy J; Coffey, Robert J; Aronow, Bruce J

    2007-01-01

    Background The expression of carcino-embryonic antigen by colorectal cancer is an example of oncogenic activation of embryonic gene expression. Hypothesizing that oncogenesis-recapitulating-ontogenesis may represent a broad programmatic commitment, we compared gene expression patterns of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) and mouse colon tumor models to those of mouse colon development embryonic days 13.5-18.5. Results We report here that 39 colon tumors from four independent mouse models and 100 human CRCs encompassing all clinical stages shared a striking recapitulation of embryonic colon gene expression. Compared to normal adult colon, all mouse and human tumors over-expressed a large cluster of genes highly enriched for functional association to the control of cell cycle progression, proliferation, and migration, including those encoding MYC, AKT2, PLK1 and SPARC. Mouse tumors positive for nuclear β-catenin shifted the shared embryonic pattern to that of early development. Human and mouse tumors differed from normal embryonic colon by their loss of expression modules enriched for tumor suppressors (EDNRB, HSPE, KIT and LSP1). Human CRC adenocarcinomas lost an additional suppressor module (IGFBP4, MAP4K1, PDGFRA, STAB1 and WNT4). Many human tumor samples also gained expression of a coordinately regulated module associated with advanced malignancy (ABCC1, FOXO3A, LIF, PIK3R1, PRNP, TNC, TIMP3 and VEGF). Conclusion Cross-species, developmental, and multi-model gene expression patterning comparisons provide an integrated and versatile framework for definition of transcriptional programs associated with oncogenesis. This approach also provides a general method for identifying pattern-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This delineation and categorization of developmental and non-developmental activator and suppressor gene modules can thus facilitate the formulation of sophisticated hypotheses to evaluate potential synergistic effects of targeting within- and

  7. Transverse colon conduit diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.D.; Buchsbaum, H.J.

    1986-05-01

    The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available.

  8. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    MedlinePlus

    ... inches to complete the procedure. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Colon Resection? Results may vary depending ... type of procedure and patient’s overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain May shorten hospital stay ...

  9. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  10. Space Colonization-Benefits for the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    We have begun to colonize space, even to the extent of early space tourism. Our early Vostok, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Spacehab, Mir and now ISS are humankind's first ventures toward colonization. Efforts are underway to provide short space tours, and endeavors such as the X-Prize are encouraging entrepreneurs to provide new systems. Many believe that extended space travel (colonization) will do for the 21st century what aviation did for the 20th. Our current concerns including terrorism, hunger, disease, and problems of air quality, safe abundant water, poverty, and weather vagaries tend to overshadow long-term activities such as Space Colonization in the minds of many. Our leading ``think tanks'' such as the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Brookings Institute do not rate space travel high on lists of future beneficial undertakings even though many of the concerns listed above are prominently featured. It is the contention of this paper that Space Colonization will lead toward solutions to many of the emerging problems of our Earth, both technological and sociological. The breadth of the enterprise far exceeds the scope of our normal single-purpose missions and, therefore, its benefits will be greater.

  11. Early colonic dysplasia: comparison of differential mucin staining and tritiated thymidine labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.A.; Colacchio, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Controversy has arisen regarding the interpretation and significance of histochemical changes in the mucin produced by the globlet cells in colonic mucosa. The shift from sulfomucin to sialomucin, which is readily identified utilizing high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques, has been alternately interpreted as a specific, early dysplastic and premalignant change or a nonspecific generalized response to trauma and inflammation, among others. An attempt to clarify this issue was made by comparing mucin changes identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques with increases in DNA synthetic activity identified utilizing autoradiographic analysis of tritiated thymidine uptake. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 15 weekly subcutaneous injections of dimethylhydrazine (30 mg/kg per week) (10 rats) or placebo (10 rats). The colons were prepared and fixed, sequential sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or high iron diamine-alcian blue, autoradiography was performed. Analyses of labeling index showed no difference in normal background crypts between the control and treatment groups nor in crypts adjacent to those displaying abnormal mucin staining. Crypts with abnormal mucin production (sialomucin dominant) had significantly higher labeling indexes when compared with those of control animals (p less than 0.005). These findings indicate that the shifts in mucin production identified with high iron diamine-alcian blue staining represent crypts with increased and abnormally distributed mitotic activity that is an early dysplastic response to the carcinogenic stimulus.

  12. Fusobacterium in colonic flora and molecular features of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Hiromu; Maruyama, Reo; Chung, Woonbok; Garriga, Judith; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Yamano, Hiro-o; Sugai, Tamotsu; An, Byonggu; Shureiqi, Imad; Toyota, Minoru; Kondo, Yutaka; Estécio, Marcos R H; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2014-03-01

    Fusobacterium species are part of the gut microbiome in humans. Recent studies have identified overrepresentation of Fusobacterium in colorectal cancer tissues, but it is not yet clear whether this is pathogenic or simply an epiphenomenon. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between Fusobacterium status and molecular features in colorectal cancers through quantitative real-time PCR in 149 colorectal cancer tissues, 89 adjacent normal appearing mucosae and 72 colonic mucosae from cancer-free individuals. Results were correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status, microsatellite instability (MSI), and mutations in BRAF, KRAS, TP53, CHD7, and CHD8. Whole-exome capture sequencing data were also available in 11 cases. Fusobacterium was detectable in 111 of 149 (74%) colorectal cancer tissues and heavily enriched in 9% (14/149) of the cases. As expected, Fusobacterium was also detected in normal appearing mucosae from both cancer and cancer-free individuals, but the amount of bacteria was much lower compared with colorectal cancer tissues (a mean of 250-fold lower for Pan-fusobacterium). We found the Fusobacterium-high colorectal cancer group (FB-high) to be associated with CIMP positivity (P = 0.001), TP53 wild-type (P = 0.015), hMLH1 methylation positivity (P = 0.0028), MSI (P = 0.018), and CHD7/8 mutation positivity (P = 0.002). Among the 11 cases where whole-exome sequencing data were available, two that were FB-high cases also had the highest number of somatic mutations (a mean of 736 per case in FB-high vs. 225 per case in all others). Taken together, our findings show that Fusobacterium enrichment is associated with specific molecular subsets of colorectal cancers, offering support for a pathogenic role in colorectal cancer for this gut microbiome component.

  13. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  14. Colonic macrophage polarization in homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Raymond A; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2016-07-01

    Our review focuses on the colonic macrophage, a monocyte-derived, tissue-resident macrophage, and the role it plays in health and disease, specifically in inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer of the colon and rectum. We give special emphasis to macrophage polarization, or phenotype, in these different states. We focus on macrophages because they are one of the most numerous leukocytes in the colon, and because they normally contribute to homeostasis through an anti-inflammatory phenotype. However, in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, proinflammatory macrophages are increased in the colon and have been linked to disease severity and progression. In colorectal cancer, tumor cells may employ anti-inflammatory macrophages to promote tumor growth and dissemination, whereas proinflammatory macrophages may antagonize tumor growth. Given the key roles that this cell type plays in homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer, the colonic macrophage is an intriguing therapeutic target. As such, potential macrophage-targeting strategies are discussed.

  15. miRNA Expression in Colon Polyps Provides Evidence for a Multihit Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oberg, Ann L.; French, Amy J.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Subramanian, Subbaya; Morlan, Bruce W.; Riska, Shaun M.; Borralho, Pedro M.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Boardman, Lisa A.; Wang, Liang; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Asmann, Yan; Steer, Clifford J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in miRNA expression are a common feature in colon cancer. Those changes occurring in the transition from normal to adenoma and from adenoma to carcinoma, however, have not been well defined. Additionally, miRNA changes among tumor subgroups of colon cancer have also not been adequately evaluated. In this study, we examined the global miRNA expression in 315 samples that included 52 normal colonic mucosa, 41 tubulovillous adenomas, 158 adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair (pMMR) selected for stage and age of onset, and 64 adenocarcinomas with defective DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) selected for sporadic (n = 53) and inherited colon cancer (n = 11). Sporadic dMMR tumors all had MLH1 inactivation due to promoter hypermethylation. Unsupervised PCA and cluster analysis demonstrated that normal colon tissue, adenomas, pMMR carcinomas and dMMR carcinomas were all clearly discernable. The majority of miRNAs that were differentially expressed between normal and polyp were also differentially expressed with a similar magnitude in the comparison of normal to both the pMMR and dMMR tumor groups, suggesting a stepwise progression for transformation from normal colon to carcinoma. Among the miRNAs demonstrating the largest fold up- or down-regulated changes (≥4), four novel (miR-31, miR-1, miR-9 and miR-99a) and two previously reported (miR-137 and miR-135b) miRNAs were identified in the normal/adenoma comparison. All but one of these (miR-99a) demonstrated similar expression differences in the two normal/carcinoma comparisons, suggesting that these early tumor changes are important in both the pMMR- and dMMR-derived cancers. The comparison between pMMR and dMMR tumors identified four miRNAs (miR-31, miR-552, miR-592 and miR-224) with statistically significant expression differences (≥2-fold change). PMID:21694772

  16. In vivo targeting of colonic dysplasia on fluorescence endoscopy with near-infrared octapeptide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongyao; Miller, Sharon J.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate a near-infrared peptide that is highly specific for colonic adenomas on fluorescence endoscopy in vivo. Design A 3 mm diameter endoscope was adapted to deliver 671 nm illumination and collect NIR fluorescence (696–736 nm). Target (QPIHPNNM) and control (YTTNKH) peptides were labeled with Cy5.5, a near-infrared dye, and characterized by mass spectra. The peptides were topically administered separately (100 µM) through the endoscope’s instrument channel into the distal colon of CPC;Apc mice, genetically-engineered to spontaneously develop adenomas. After 5 minutes for incubation, the unbound peptides were rinsed off, and images were collected at a rate of 10 per second. Regions-of-interest were identified around the adenoma and adjacent normal-appearing mucosa on white light. Intensity measurements were made from these same regions on fluorescence, and the target-to-background ratio (TBR) was calculated. Results We achieved an image resolution of 9.8 µm and field-of-view of 3.6 mm at a distance of 2.5 mm between the distal end of the instrument and the tissue surface. On mass spectra, the experimental mass-to-charge ratio for the Cy5.5-labeled target and control peptides agreed with expected values. The near-infrared fluorescence images of adenomas revealed individual dysplastic crypts with distorted morphology. By comparison, only amorphous surface features could be visualized from reflected near-infrared light. The average TBR for adenomas was found to be 3.42±1.30 and 1.88±0.38 for the target and control peptides, respectively, p=0.007. Conclusion We demonstrate a near-infrared peptide that is highly specific for colonic adenomas on fluorescence endoscopy in vivo and achieved sub-cellular resolution images. PMID:22427239

  17. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (<5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  19. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of colonic macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rogler, G; Hausmann, M; Vogl, D; Aschenbrenner, E; Andus, T; Falk, W; Andreesen, R; SchÖlmerich, J; Gross, V

    1998-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in the intestinal mucosal immune system. However, they are a poorly defined cell population. We therefore determined their phenotype in normal colonic mucosa. Macrophages were isolated from colonic biopsies and surgical specimens by collagenase digestion. Colonic macrophages were positively sorted by anti-CD33 magnetic beads. Flow cytometric triple fluorescence analysis was applied to study CD14, CD16, CD33, CD44, CD11b, CD11c, CD64, HLA-DR, CD80, CD86 and CD3/CD19 expression. CD33 was evaluated as a positive marker for intestinal macrophages. CD33+ cells isolated from normal colonic mucosa showed co-expression of the established intracellular macrophage marker CD68 in FACS analysis. CD33+ cells were capable of phagocytosis. Isolation of this cell population by magnetic anti-CD33 beads and culture resulted in a 4.2–40-fold increase in IL-1β and 4.5–44-fold increase in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion compared with unsorted lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC). Of the CD33+ cells, 90.9 ± 6.9% (mean ± s.d.) were CD44+. However, macrophages from colonic mucosa showed only a low expression of CD14 (10.5 ± 3.8%), CD16 (10.1 ± 3.9%), HLA-DR (27.3 ± 9.2%), CD11b (17.4 ± 6.8%), CD11c (17.8 ± 10.4%). Furthermore, expression of CD80 (9.2 ± 4.2%) and CD86 (15.1 ± 7.3%) was low, suggesting a low ability of normal intestinal macrophages to activate T cells and T cell-mediated immune responses. We conclude that CD33 is useful for the isolation and flow cytometric characterization of colonic macrophages. These cells exhibit a single phenotype in normal mucosa (CD33++, CD44++, CD14−, CD16−, CD11b−, CD11c−, HLA-DRlow, CD80−, CD86−) lacking lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor and costimulatory molecules. PMID:9649182

  20. MINARETS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N. King; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Minarets Wilderness and adjacent areas in the central Sierra Nevada, California was conducted. The results of the survey indicate that the study area has a substantiated resource potential for small deposits of copper, silver, zinc, lead, and iron, and a probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum. No energy-resource potential was identified in the study.

  1. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  2. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  4. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  5. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  6. Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Promotes Colon Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Hui-yuan; Sui, Ming-hua; Yu, Xiao; Qu, Zhen; Hu, Jin-chen; Sun, Hai-qing; Zheng, Hai-tao; Zhou, Kai; Jiang, Li-xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. It is still necessary to further define the mechanisms and explore therapeutic targets of colon cancer. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been shown to be correlated with diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. This study aimed to characterize the biological mechanism of taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in colon cancer. Material/Methods qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression level of TUG1 and p63 in 75 colon cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue. In vitro, cultured colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and LoVo were used as cell models. TUG1 and p63 were silenced via transferring siRNA into HCT-116 or LoVo. The effects of TUG1 were investigated by examining cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. Results Among the 75 colon cancer cases, the expression of TUG1 was significantly higher in colon cancer tissues compared with the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue, while p63 expression was lower in the tumor tissue. In HCT-116 and LoVo, the expression of TUG1 was significantly increased by p63 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, down-regulation of TUG1 by siRNA significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of TUG1 expression significantly blocked the cell migration ability of colon cancer cells. Conclusions LncRNA TUG1 may serve as a potential oncogene for colon cancer. Overexpressed TUG1 may contribute to promoting cell proliferation and migration in colon cancer cells. PMID:27634385

  7. Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Promotes Colon Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Hui-Yuan; Sui, Ming-Hua; Yu, Xiao; Qu, Zhen; Hu, Jin-Chen; Sun, Hai-Qing; Zheng, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Kai; Jiang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. It is still necessary to further define the mechanisms and explore therapeutic targets of colon cancer. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been shown to be correlated with diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. This study aimed to characterize the biological mechanism of taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in colon cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression level of TUG1 and p63 in 75 colon cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue. In vitro, cultured colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and LoVo were used as cell models. TUG1 and p63 were silenced via transferring siRNA into HCT-116 or LoVo. The effects of TUG1 were investigated by examining cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. RESULTS Among the 75 colon cancer cases, the expression of TUG1 was significantly higher in colon cancer tissues compared with the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue, while p63 expression was lower in the tumor tissue. In HCT-116 and LoVo, the expression of TUG1 was significantly increased by p63 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, down-regulation of TUG1 by siRNA significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of TUG1 expression significantly blocked the cell migration ability of colon cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS LncRNA TUG1 may serve as a potential oncogene for colon cancer. Overexpressed TUG1 may contribute to promoting cell proliferation and migration in colon cancer cells. PMID:27634385

  8. Streptococcus Adherence and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Streptococci readily colonize mucosal tissues in the nasopharynx; the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; and the skin. Each ecological niche presents a series of challenges to successful colonization with which streptococci have to contend. Some species exist in equilibrium with their host, neither stimulating nor submitting to immune defenses mounted against them. Most are either opportunistic or true pathogens responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis, tooth decay, necrotizing fasciitis, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Part of the success of streptococci as colonizers is attributable to the spectrum of proteins expressed on their surfaces. Adhesins enable interactions with salivary, serum, and extracellular matrix components; host cells; and other microbes. This is the essential first step to colonization, the development of complex communities, and possible invasion of host tissues. The majority of streptococcal adhesins are anchored to the cell wall via a C-terminal LPxTz motif. Other proteins may be surface anchored through N-terminal lipid modifications, while the mechanism of cell wall associations for others remains unclear. Collectively, these surface-bound proteins provide Streptococcus species with a “coat of many colors,” enabling multiple intimate contacts and interplays between the bacterial cell and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated direct roles for many streptococcal adhesins as colonization or virulence factors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic and preventive strategies against streptococcal infections. There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed. PMID:19721085

  9. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body’s H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  10. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production.

  11. Normal Function of the Colon and Anorectal Area

    MedlinePlus

    ... and how improve living with these conditions . Publication Library Stool Form Guide Medical Definitions About IFFGD About us Our Mission Awareness Activities Advocacy Activities Research Leadership IFFGD Symposium Report Industry Council Contact us Signs and Symptoms Signs and ...

  12. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  13. Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Valusis, Gintaras; Bernardo, Luis M.; Almeida, Abílio; Moreira, Joaquim A.; Lopes, Patricia C.; Macutkevic, Jan; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Adomavicius, Ramunas; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Machado

    2011-12-01

    Human normal and cancer affected samples of colon tissue have been measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and continuous wave terahertz imaging. We show that it is possible to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in the samples when they are fixed in formalin or embedded in paraffin. The still noticeable contrast in the dried paraffin-embedded tissues could indicate that there are additional contrast-contributing factors other than water, which is the main goal of the present work. Plots of the refractive index of normal and cancer affected tissues as well as 2-D transmission THz images are shown. Experimental results are presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue are discussed.

  14. Smoothelin expression in the gastrointestinal tract: implication in colonic inertia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Owen T M; Chiles, Lauren; Levy, Mary; Zhai, Jing; Yerian, Lisa M; Xu, Haodong; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Soffer, Edy E; Conklin, Jeffrey L; Dhall, Deepti; Kahn, Melissa E; Balzer, Bonnie L; Amin, Mahul B; Wang, Hanlin L

    2013-10-01

    Colonic inertia is a frustrating motility disorder to patients, clinicians, and pathologists. The pathogenesis is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) characterize the expression of smoothelin, a novel smooth muscle-specific contractile protein expressed only by terminally differentiated smooth muscle cells, in the normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract; and (2) determine whether smoothelin is aberrantly expressed in patients with colonic inertia. A total of 57 resections of the normal GI tract (distal esophagus to left colon) were obtained from patients without GI motor dysfunction. Sixty-one colon resections were obtained from patients with a clinical diagnosis of colonic inertia. Smoothelin immunostaining was conducted on full-thickness tissue sections. In the nondysmotile controls, strong and diffuse cytoplasmic staining for smoothelin was observed in both the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis propria (MP) throughout the entire GI tract. The muscularis mucosae (MM) and muscular vessel walls were either completely negative or only patchily and weakly stained. The 1 exception to this pattern was observed in the distal esophagus, in which the MM was also diffusely and strongly stained. In cases with colonic inertia, a moderate to marked reduction of smoothelin immunoreactivity was observed in 15 of 61 (24.6%) colon resections, selectively seen in the outer layer of the MP. The data demonstrate that smoothelin is differentially expressed in the MP and MM of the normal GI tract and suggest that defective smoothelin expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of colonic inertia in a subset of patients.

  15. Identification of Novel Tumor Markers in Prostate, Colon and Breast Cancer by Unbiased Methylation Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woonbok; Kwabi-Addo, Bernard; Ittmann, Michael; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Shen, Lanlan; Yu, Yinhua; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

    2008-01-01

    DNA hypermethylation is a common epigenetic abnormality in cancer and may serve as a useful marker to clone cancer-related genes as well as a marker of clinical disease activity. To identify CpG islands methylated in prostate cancer, we used methylated CpG island amplification (MCA) coupled with representational difference analysis (RDA) on prostate cancer cell lines. We isolated 34 clones that corresponded to promoter CpG islands, including 5 reported targets of hypermethylation in cancer. We confirmed the data for 17 CpG islands by COBRA and/or pyrosequencing. All 17 genes were methylated in at least 2 cell lines of a 21-cancer cell line panel containing prostate cancer, colon cancer, leukemia, and breast cancer. Based on methylation in primary tumors compared to normal adjacent tissues, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS and NSE1 are candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer (methylation range 50%–85%). The combination of NSE1 or SPOCK2 hypermethylation showed a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 95% in differentiating cancer from normal. Similarly NKX2-5, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS and GALR2 are candidate biomarkers for colon cancer (methylation range 60%–95%) and GALR2 hypermethylation showed a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 95%. Finally, SLC16A12, GALR2, TOX, SPOCK2, EGFR5 and DPYS are candidate biomarkers for breast cancer (methylation range 33%–79%) with the combination of EGFR5 or TOX hypermethylation showing a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 92%. Expression analysis for eight genes that had the most hypermethylation confirmed the methylation associated silencing and reactivation with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment. Our data identify new targets of transcriptional silencing in cancer, and provide new biomarkers that could be useful in screening for prostate cancer and other cancers. PMID:18446232

  16. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  17. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Chul

    2015-01-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  18. Distinct expression patterns of Notch ligands, Dll1 and Dll4, in normal and inflamed mice intestine

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Hiromichi; Ito, Go; Fujii, Satoru; Nakata, Toru; Suzuki, Kohei; Murano, Tatsuro; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Hozumi, Katsuto; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the two Notch ligands, Dll1 and Dll4, are indispensable to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium. However, within the intestinal epithelium, the precise distribution of the cells that express those ligands at the protein level remains largely unknown. Here, we show a series of immunohistochemical analysis through which we successfully identified mice intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that endogenously express Dll1 or Dll4. Results showed that Dll1-positive (Dll1+ve) IECs reside exclusively within the crypt, whereas Dll4-positive (Dll4+ve) IECs can locate both in the crypt and in the villus of the small intestine. Also in the colon, Dll1+ve IECs resided at the lower part of the crypt, whereas Dll4+ve IECs resided at both upper and lower part of the crypt, including the surface epithelium. Both Dll1+ve and Dll4+ve IECs were ATOH1-positive, but Hes1-negative cells, and located adjacent to Hes1-positive cells within the crypts. A sub-population of both Dll1+ve and Dll4+ve IECs appeared to co-express Muc2, but rarely co-expressed other secretory lineage markers. However, as compared to Dll1+ve IECs, Dll4+ve IECs included larger number of Muc2-postive IECs, suggesting that Dll4 is more preferentially expressed by goblet cells. Also, we identified that Dll4 is expressed in the Paneth cells of the small intestine, whereas Dll1 and Dll4 is expressed in the c-kit-positive IECs of the colon, indicating that Dll1+ve and Dll4+ve IECs may contribute to constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. Compared to the normal colon, analysis of DSS-colitis showed that number of Dll1+ve IECs significantly decrease in the elongated crypts of the inflamed colonic mucosa. In sharp contrast, number of Dll4+ve IECs showed a significant increase in those crypts, which was accompanied by the increase in number of Hes1-positive IECs. Those Dll4+ve IECs were mostly found adjacent to the Hes1-positive IECs, suggesting that Dll4 may act as a major Notch

  19. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Method Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Results Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4) showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3) were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Conclusions Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue. PMID:21668942

  20. Field Cancerization in Sporadic Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Song, Chang Seok; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Choi, Kyu Yong; Koo, Dong Hoe; Kim, Kyung Eun; Jeong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyung Ook; Kim, Hungdai; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Park, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Aberrant DNA methylation has a specific role in field cancerization. Certain molecular markers, including secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2), N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) and bone morphogenic protein 3 (BMP3), have previously been shown to be hypermethylated in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aim to examine field cancerization in CRC based on the presence of aberrant DNA methylation in normal-appearing tissue from CRC patients. Methods We investigated promoter methylation in 34 CRC patients and five individuals with normal colonoscopy results. CRC patients were divided into three tissue groups: tumor tissue, adjacent and nonadjacent normal-appearing tissue. The methylation status (positive: methylation level >20%) of SFRP2, TFPI2, NDRG4, and BMP3 promoters was investigated using methylation-specific PCR. Results The methylation frequencies of the SFRP2, TFPI2, NDRG4 and BMP3 promoters in tumor/adjacent/nonadjacent normal-appearing tissue were 79.4%/63.0%/70.4%, 82.4%/53.6%/60.7%, 76.5%/61.5%/69.2%, 41.2%/35.7%/50.0%, respectively. The methylation levels of the SFRP,TFPI2, NDRG4 and BMP3 promoters in tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in normal-appearing tissue (SFRP2, p=0.013; TFPI2, p<0.001; NDRG4, p=0.003; BMP3, p=0.001). No significant correlation was observed between the methylation levels of the promoters and the clinicopathological variables. Conclusions The field effect is present in CRC and affects both the adjacent and nonadjacent normal-appearing mucosa. PMID:27114416

  1. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  2. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  3. Colonic mucosectomy using laser photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.G.; Rypins, E.B.; Watson, L.R.; Nelson, J.S.; Berns, M.W.

    1989-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves photosensitizing tissue and then activating it with monochromatic light, causing necrosis. Precise control of the extent of injury should be possible by varying the energy density of the light applied to the target tissue. We tested the sensitivity of colonic tissue to PDT by injecting 10 mg/kg Photofrin II intraperitoneally in 10 rats. After 24 hr the left colon was opened and cleansed. A 1.0-cm2 area of mucosa was exposed to 630 nm (red) light produced by an argon-pumped dye laser. Pairs of rats were treated with energy densities of either 10, 20, 40, 60, or 80 J/cm2, controlled by varying exposure times. After 48 hr, we sacrificed the rats and fixed, sectioned, and stained the left colons. The depth of injury was measured with an ocular micrometer and expressed as a percentage of normal bowel wall thickness. A curve was fit to the data points by computerized nonlinear regression. The relationship between depth of injury (Y) and energy density (X) was found to fit the equation Y = 1 - aebx, where constants a = 1.15 and b = -0.0353, (R2 = 0.93, P less than 0.001). The relationship between injury and energy density is biphasic, rising rapidly from 0 to 40 J/cm2 and more slowly after this point, suggesting that colonic mucosa is more sensitive to PDT than muscularis, providing a margin of safety against perforation. Bowel perforation did not occur in this study but is predicted by extrapolation for energy densities of 100 J/cm2 or greater. These data indicate that photodynamic colonic mucosectomy is possible.

  4. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  5. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  6. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna; Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2013-07-15

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70–75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100 pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell. -- Highlights: • MAT2A knockdown depletes putrescine and leads to apoptosis. • Putrescine attenuates MAT2A knockdown-induced apoptosis and growth

  7. Fungal infection of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Praneenararat, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its conclusions may be accessible for clinical application. PMID:25364269

  8. Two initiation sites of early detection of colon cancer revealed by localization of pERK1/2 in the nuclei or in aggregates at the perinuclear region of the tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Shezen, Elias; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Slilat, Yasmin; Fabrikant, Yakov; Melzer, Ehud; Seger, Rony

    2013-07-01

    We have used human specimens and antibodies to pERK1/2 to detect early development of colon cancer using indirect immunocytochemistry. Two distinct sites were stained; one at the tip of the colon crypts and the other in the stromal tissue associated with the colonic tissue. These foci represent early stages of colon cancer initiation sites as established by enhanced Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Virus (KRAS) and the lack of p53 staining. The enhanced KRAS coincides with the initiation of tumor growth revealed by pERK1/2, both in the tip of the colon crypts, as well as in the stromal initiation site of the colon tumors. Foci of pERK1/2 staining were also detected in 50% of stromal tissue and tips of colon crypts, which were classified as normal tissues, adjacent to the malignant tissue according to general morphology. However, in colon specimens, where no malignancy was observed, no accumulation of pERK1/2 was observed. The staining of pERK1/2 at the stromal foci of the apparently non-malignant tissue appeared as aggregates in the perinuclear region, while in the colon epithelium it appeared in the cell nuclei. In low-grade colon cancer that was still free of induced mutated p53, staining of pERK1/2 was prominent in the cell nuclei, both in the stroma tissue and the tip of the colon crypts. In the intermediate stage, that exhibited significant p53 staining, only a fraction of p53-free tumor cells was labeled with pERK1/2 antibody, while in high-grade tumors, all cells of tumors were labeled with antibodies to p53, but not with antibodies to pERK1/2. We suggest that the down regulation in pERK1/2 labeling is due to the mitogenic capacity of the tumor cells, which are shifted from being driven by nuclear pERK1/2 to mutated p53 expression. We also found that the cytoplasm of low grade tumors was positive for epiregulin, while this labeling decreased in high-grade tumors. We found that the tumors arising from the stroma demonstrated poor structural differentiation, while the

  9. Blunting of Colon Contractions in Diabetics with Gastroparesis Quantified by Wireless Motility Capsule Methods

    PubMed Central

    Coleski, Radoslav; Wilding, Gregory E.; Semler, John R.; Hasler, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized gut transit abnormalities are observed in some diabetics with gastroparesis. Relations of gastric emptying abnormalities to colon contractile dysfunction are poorly characterized. We measured colon transit and contractility using wireless motility capsules (WMC) in 41 healthy subjects, 12 diabetics with gastroparesis (defined by gastric retention >5 hours), and 8 diabetics with normal gastric emptying (≤5 hours). Overall numbers of colon contractions >25 mmHg were calculated in all subjects and were correlated with gastric emptying times for diabetics with gastroparesis. Colon transit periods were divided into quartiles by time and contraction numbers were calculated for each quartile to estimate regional colon contractility. Colon transit in diabetics with gastroparesis was prolonged vs. healthy subjects (P<0.0001). Overall numbers of colon contractions in gastroparetics were lower than controls (P = 0.02). Diabetics with normal emptying showed transit and contraction numbers similar to controls. Gastric emptying inversely correlated with overall contraction numbers in gastroparetics (r = -0.49). Numbers of contractions increased from the 1st to 4th colon transit quartile in controls and diabetics with normal emptying (P≤0.04), but not gastroparetics. Numbers of contractions in the 3rd and 4th quartiles were reduced in gastroparetics vs. healthy controls (P≤0.05) and in the 4th quartile vs. diabetics with normal emptying (P = 0.02). Numbers of contractions were greatest in the final 15 minutes of transit, but were reduced in gastroparetics vs. healthy controls and diabetics with normal emptying (P≤0.005). On multivariate analyses, differences in numbers of contractions were not explained by demographic or clinical variables. In conclusion, diabetics with gastroparesis exhibit delayed colon transit associated with reductions in contractions that are prominently blunted in latter transit phases and which correlate with delayed gastric emptying

  10. Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause systemic infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. Infections arise from colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where C. albicans is part of the normal microflora. Reducing colonization in at-risk patients using antifungal ...

  11. A case of leptospirosis simulating colon cancer with liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Fusconi, Marco; Volta, Umberto; Muratori, Paolo; Sambri, Vittorio; Battista, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Francesco B.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with fatigue, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hepatic lesions highly suggestive of metastatic diseases. Due to the endoscopic finding of colon ulcer, colon cancer with liver metastases was suspected. Biochemically a slight increase of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase were present; α - fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen and carbohydrate 19-9 antigen serum levels were normal. Laboratory and instrumental investigations, including colon and liver biopsies revealed no signs of malignancy. In the light of spontaneous improvement of symptoms and CT findings, his personal history was revaluated revealing direct contact with pigs and their tissues. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and confirmed by detection of an elevated titer of antibodies to leptospira. After two mo, biochemical data, CT and colonoscopy were totally normal. PMID:15285043

  12. Evaluating and managing open skin wounds: colonization versus infection.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Annette B

    2002-08-01

    Open skin wounds are colonized with bacteria, and optimal wound care is required to prevent progression to infection. Intact skin normally provides protection from external environmental assaults. Disruption of the skin or tissue creating an open skin wound can result in infection, dehydration, hypothermia, scarring, compromised immunity, and changes in body image. Biofilms and bacterial genomics are areas of intense scientific investigation in the face of the emerging threat of bacterial resistance. Optimal wound care to prevent progression from colonization to infection remains the foundation of good clinical practice. On the basis of wound conditions, cleansing, debridement, measures to increase oxygenation and perfusion, adequate nutrition, and appropriate use of topical agents and antibiotics, when indicated, are the keys to managing open skin wounds. This article provides a targeted review of normal skin flora, wound healing, prevention of skin infection, colonization versus infection, biofilms, genomics and infectious disease, and management of open skin wounds.

  13. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  14. Pathways to Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The steps required for space colonization are many to grow from our current 3-person International Space Station, now under construction, to an infrastructure that can support hundreds and eventually thousands of people in space. This paper will summarize the author's findings from numerous studies and workshops on related subjects and identify some of the critical next steps toward space colonization. Findings will be drawn from the author s previous work on space colony design, space infrastructure workshops, and various studies that addressed space policy. In conclusion, this paper will note that significant progress has been made on space facility construction through the International Space Station program, and that significant efforts are needed in the development of new reusable Earth to Orbit transportation systems. The next key steps will include reusable in space transportation systems supported by in space propellant depots, the continued development of inflatable habitat and space elevator technologies, and the resolution of policy issues that will establish a future vision for space development.

  15. Colonic-type adenocarcinoma arising in a primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wang L; Cao, Dengfeng

    2008-12-01

    A 47-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain was found to have a 20 cm cystic retroperitoneal mass. Pathology indicated a colonic-type adenocarcinoma arising in a primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma. The adenocarcinoma was predominantly intracystic with focal superficial invasion into the cyst wall but not beyond the teratoma capsule. Immunohistochemistry showed that the adenocarcinoma cells were diffusely positive for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and caudal-type homeobox transcription factor-2 (CDX2) but negative for CK7, confirming the colonic phenotype. In addition, the adenocarcinoma was seen adjacent to teratomatous colonic-type mucosa with adenomatous change (i.e. adenoma), suggesting that it was probably arising from a colonic-type adenoma within the teratoma. The carcinoma had a higher Ki-67 proliferation index and had a higher percentage of cells stained for p53 than the adjacent adenomatous lesion. To the authors' knowledge this is the first documented case in which a colonic-type adenocarcinoma was seen arising from a precursor lesion (i.e. a colonic-type adenoma in a primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma) and is the second case of intestinal-type adenocarcinoma arising in a primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma.

  16. Major Protein of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Gene Family - CD66c, A Novel Marker in Colon Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, Suma M; Prema, Chaitra Linganna; Vimalambike, Manjunath Gubbanna; Shivalingaiah, Sheeladevi Chandakavadi; Sundaram, Shivakumar; Kumar, Anjali Pradeep; Math, Ananda Kuruvatti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In view of rising trend of the incidence of colorectal carcinoma in the Indian population due to adoption of western lifestyles and behaviours, we investigated the expression of the new emerging stem cell biomarker, CD66c in colorectal carcinoma of Indian origin. Aim To study the expression of CD66c in human colorectal carcinoma and to correlate level of marker expression with tumour staging. Materials and Methods This hospital based prospective study was conducted on 26 colorectal carcinoma patients in the age group of 20 years to 70 years. Surgically resected tumour specimens along with adjacent normal tissue were collected taking necessary precautions, paraffin embedded sections were prepared and used for histological and immunohistochemical analysis of CD66c. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistical measures like mean, standard deviation, percentage was applied. Other inferential statistical tests like Chi-square, Fisher’s-exact test and one-way ANOVA was applied to find out the association of CD66c with different stages. The difference were interpreted as statistically significant when p <0.05. Results CD66c showed differential expression with membrane positivity in normal colorectal epithelial cells and cytoplasmic expression in tumour cells. There was significant correlation between CD66c expression and tumour site (p=0.02) with colon carcinoma showing positive expression compared to the rectal carcinoma. There was no significant correlation between CD66c staining and tumour stage (p=0.947). No significant relationship was observed between CD66c expression and other clinicopathologic variables studied such as sex (p=0.552), age (p=0.713) and tumour grade (p=0.263). Conclusion CD66c can be specifically used for colon carcinoma and may be a novel marker in colon carcinoma stem cell isolation. The quantification of CD66c can be further verified by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Further studies can be carried out using CD66c alone or in

  17. Modulation of colon cancer by nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Krausz, Kristopher W; Nichols, Robert G; Xu, Wei; Patterson, Andrew D; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Colon cancer is the most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in humans. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, the current study revealed the accumulation of four uremic toxins (cresol sulfate, cresol glucuronide, indoxyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate) in the serum of mice harboring adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation-induced colon cancer. These uremic toxins, likely generated from the gut microbiota, were associated with an increase in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Nutmeg, which exhibits antimicrobial activity, attenuated the levels of uremic toxins and decreased intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. Nutmeg-treated Apc(min/+) mice had decreased IL-6 levels and normalized dysregulated lipid metabolism, suggesting that uremic toxins are responsible, in part, for the metabolic disorders that occur during tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate a potential biochemical link among gut microbial metabolism, inflammation, and metabolic disorders and suggest that modulation of gut microbiota and lipid metabolism using dietary intervention or drugs may be effective in colon cancer chemoprevention strategies.

  18. Modulation of colon cancer by nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Krausz, Kristopher W; Nichols, Robert G; Xu, Wei; Patterson, Andrew D; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Colon cancer is the most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in humans. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, the current study revealed the accumulation of four uremic toxins (cresol sulfate, cresol glucuronide, indoxyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate) in the serum of mice harboring adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation-induced colon cancer. These uremic toxins, likely generated from the gut microbiota, were associated with an increase in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Nutmeg, which exhibits antimicrobial activity, attenuated the levels of uremic toxins and decreased intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. Nutmeg-treated Apc(min/+) mice had decreased IL-6 levels and normalized dysregulated lipid metabolism, suggesting that uremic toxins are responsible, in part, for the metabolic disorders that occur during tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate a potential biochemical link among gut microbial metabolism, inflammation, and metabolic disorders and suggest that modulation of gut microbiota and lipid metabolism using dietary intervention or drugs may be effective in colon cancer chemoprevention strategies. PMID:25712450

  19. Sociological Aspects of Colonization as Viewed from Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkening, Eugene A.; Iutaka, Sugiyama

    Government has stressed colonization or settlement of frontier lands as its primary approach to land reform. Several types are examined including: government colonies, sponsored either by federal or state governments; private colonies, promoted by private companies for profit; frontier colonies, normally promoted by national groups migrating from…

  20. Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

  1. Colonic varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1987-03-01

    Colonic varices is a rare condition, generally associated with portal hypertension, which normally presents as acute, severe, gastrointestinal blood loss. A case is presented in which the varicosities were observed serendipitously in a patient with a pancreatic tumor, in whom the bleeding was not variceal but due to two small unrelated gastric hemangiomas. The literature is reviewed and scintigraphic features described.

  2. Maternal influences on fetal microbial colonization and immune development.

    PubMed

    Romano-Keeler, Joann; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intrauterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may also constitute a critical process during healthy pregnancies in humans with yet unclear developmental importance. Metagenomic sequencing has elucidated a rich placental microbiome in normal term pregnancies likely providing important metabolic and immune contributions to the growing fetus. Conversely, an altered microbial composition during pregnancy may produce aberrant metabolites impairing fetal brain development and life-long neurological outcomes. Here we review the current understanding of microbial colonization at the feto-maternal interface and explain how normal gut colonization drives a balanced neonatal mucosal immune system, while dysbiosis contributes to aberrant immune function early in life and beyond. We discuss how maternal genetics, diet, medications, and probiotics inform the fetal microbiome in preparation for perinatal and postnatal bacterial colonization.

  3. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Bernstein, G. H.; Porod, W.

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing.

  4. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  10. Anatomically correct deformable colon phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, James A.; Barton, Michael D.; Davis, Brynmor J.; Bieszczad, Jerry; Meunier, Norm L.; Brown, Nathan W.; Kynor, David B.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a technique to build a soft-walled colon phantom that provides realistic lumen anatomy in computed tomography (CT) images. The technique begins with the geometry of a human colon measured during CT colonography (CTC). The three-dimensional air-filled colonic lumen is segmented and then replicated using stereolithography (SLA). The rigid SLA model includes large-scale features (e.g., haustral folds and tenia coli bands) down to small-scale features (e.g., a small pedunculated polyp). Since the rigid model represents the internal air-filled volume, a highly-pliable silicone polymer is painted onto the rigid model. This thin layer of silicone, when removed, becomes the colon wall. Small 3 mm diameter glass beads are affixed to the outer wall. These glass beads show up with high intensity in CT scans and provide a ground truth for evaluating performance of algorithms designed to register prone and supine CTC data sets. After curing, the silicone colon wall is peeled off the rigid model. The resulting colon phantom is filled with air and submerged in a water bath. CT images and intraluminal fly-through reconstructions from CTC scans of the colon phantom are compared against patient data to demonstrate the ability of the phantom to simulate a human colon.

  11. Normal development.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine; Koob, Meriam; Brunel, Herv

    2016-01-01

    Numerous events are involved in brain development, some of which are detected by neuroimaging. Major changes in brain morphology are depicted by brain imaging during the fetal period while changes in brain composition can be demonstrated in both pre- and postnatal periods. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography can show changes in brain morphology, these techniques are insensitive to myelination that is one of the most important events occurring during brain maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the method of choice to evaluate brain maturation. MRI also gives insight into the microstructure of brain tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolic changes are also part of brain maturation and are assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Understanding and knowledge of the different steps in brain development are required to be able to detect morphologic and structural changes on neuroimaging. Consequently alterations in normal development can be depicted. PMID:27430460

  12. Claudin-7 indirectly regulates the integrin/FAK signaling pathway in human colon cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Wang, Liyong; Sui, Leiming; Zhao, Huanying; Xu, Xiaoxue; Li, Tengyan; Wang, Xiaonan; Li, Wenjing; Zhou, Ping; Kong, Lu

    2016-08-01

    The claudin family of proteins is integral to the structure and function of tight junctions. The role of claudin-7 (Cldn-7, CLDN7) in regulating the integrin/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/ERK signaling pathway remains poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated differences in gene expression, primarily focusing on CLDN7 and integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway genes, between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to verify the results of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. In silico analysis was used to predict co-regulation between Cldn-7 and integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway components, and the STRING database was used to analyze protein-protein interaction pairs among these proteins. Meta-analysis of expression microarrays in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used to identify significant correlations between Cldn-7 and components of predicted genes in the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway. Our results showed marked cancer stage-specific decreases in the protein expression of Cldn-7, Gelsolin, MAPK1 and MAPK3 in colon cancer samples, and the observed changes for all proteins except Cldn-7 were in agreement with changes in the corresponding mRNA levels. Cldn-7 might indirectly regulate MAPK3 via KRT8 due to KRT8 co-expression with MAPK3 or CLDN7. Our bioinformatics methods supported the hypothesis that Cldn-7 does not directly regulate any genes in the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway. These factors may participate in a common network that regulates cancer progression in which the MAPK pathway serves as the central node.

  13. Trefoil factor-3 expression in human colon cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Babyatsky, Mark; Lin, Jing; Yio, Xianyang; Chen, Anli; Zhang, Jie-yu; Zheng, Yan; Twyman, Christina; Bao, Xiuliang; Schwartz, Myron; Thung, Swan; Lawrence Werther, J; Itzkowitz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Deaths from colorectal cancer are often due to liver metastasis. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is expressed by normal intestinal epithelial cells and its expression is maintained throughout the colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Our previous work demonstrated a correlation between TFF3 expression and metastatic potential in an animal model of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether TFF3 is expressed in human colon cancer liver metastasis (CCLM) and whether inhibiting TFF3 expression in colon cancer cells would alter their invasive potential in vitro. Human CCLMs were analyzed at the mRNA and protein level for TFF3 expression. Two highly metastatic rat colon cancer cell lines that either natively express TFF3 (LN cells) or were transfected with TFF3 (LPCRI-2 cells), were treated with two rat TFF3 siRNA constructs (si78 and si365), and analyzed in an in vitro invasion assay. At the mRNA and protein level, TFF3 was expressed in 17/17 (100%) CCLMs and 10/11 (91%) primary colon cancers, but not in normal liver tissue. By real time PCR, TFF3 expression was markedly inhibited by both siRNA constructs in LN and LPCRI-2 cells. The si365 and si78 constructs inhibited invasion by 44% and 53%, respectively, in LN cells, and by 74% and 50%, respectively, in LPCRI-2 cells. These results provide further evidence that TFF3 contributes to the malignant behavior of colon cancer cells. These observations may have relevance for designing new diagnostic and treatment approaches to colorectal cancer.

  14. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children.

  15. Colon interposition for oesophageal replacement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pascal A; Gilardoni, Adrian; Trousse, Delphine; D'Journo, Xavier B; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Doddoli, Christophe; Giudicelli, Roger; Fuentes, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The choice of the colon as an oesophageal substitute results primarily from the unavailability of the stomach. However, given its durability and function, colon interposition keeps elective indications in patients with benign or malignant oesophageal disease who are potential candidates for long survival. The choice of the colonic portion used for oesophageal reconstruction depends on the required length of the graft, and the encountered colonic vascular anatomy, the last being characterised by the near-invariability of the left colonic vessels, in contrast to the vascular pattern of the right side of the colon. Accordingly, the transverse colon with all or part of the ascending colon is the substitute of choice, positioned in the isoperistaltic direction, and supplied either from the left colic vessels for long grafts or middle colic vessels for shorter grafts. Technical key points are: full mobilisation of the entire colon, identification of the main colonic vessels and collaterals, and a prolonged clamping test to ensure the permeability of the chosen nourishing pedicle. Transposition through the posterior mediastinum in the oesophageal bed is the shortest one and thereby offers the best functional results. When the oesophageal bed is not available, the retrosternal route is the preferred alternative option. The food bolus travelling mainly by gravity makes straightness of the conduit of paramount importance. The proximal anastomosis is a single-layer hand-fashioned end-to-end anastomosis to prevent narrowing. When the stomach is available, the distal anastomosis is best performed at the posterior part of the antrum for the reasons of pedicle positioning and reflux prevention, and a gastric drainage procedure is added when the oesophagus and vagus nerves have been removed. In the other cases, a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop is preferable to prevent bile reflux into the colon. Additional procedures include re-establishment of the colonic continuity, a careful closure of

  16. EphrinA5 suppresses colon cancer development by negatively regulating epidermal growth factor receptor stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong-Hong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Ho, Jar-Yi; Wu, Hsiao-Chun; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common human cancers worldwide. Owing to its aggressiveness and lethality, it is necessary to determine the mechanisms regulating the carcinogenesis of colon cancer. EphrinA5 has been reported to act as a putative tumor suppressor in glioma; however, little is known concerning the role of this protein in the context of colon cancer. To elucidate the biological significance of ephrinA5 in colon cancer, we examined ephrinA5 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression profiles in both colon cancer and normal tissues, using immunohistochemistry on a 96-spot tissue microarray. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments were performed on the human colon cancer cell lines SW480 and WiDr to determine the biological effects of ephrinA5 in relation to cell proliferation, survival, and migration. It was found that ephrinA5 mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in colon cancer as compared with normal colon tissue specimens. EphrinA5 expression was also negatively associated with tumor differentiation and clinical stage. In colon cancer cell line models, ephrinA5 exerted an inhibitory effect on EGFR by promoting c-Cbl-mediated EGFR ubiquitination and degradation. EphrinA5 did not affect the transcriptional regulation of EGFR mRNA expression in colon cancer cells. Expression of ephrinA5 suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation, migration, and chemotherapeutic resistance. In conclusion, ephrinA5 inhibited colon cancer progression by promoting c-Cbl-mediated EGFR degradation. Our findings identify a novel mechanism that could be utilized to improve the therapeutic efficiency of EGFR-targeting strategies.

  17. Normal conus medullaris: CT criteria for recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, J.P.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, I.L.; Rauschning, W.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-06-01

    The normal CT configuration and dimension of the conus medullaris and adjacent spinal cord were determined in 30 patients who had no clinical evidence of conus compression. CT studies were also correlated with anatomic sections in cadavers. The normal conus on CT has a distinctive oval configuration, an arterior sulcus, and a posterior promontory. The anteroposterior diameter ranged from 5 to 8 mm; the transverse diameter from 8 to 11 mm. Intramedullary processes altered both the dimensions and configuration of the conus.

  18. Acute colonic ischaemia in rats results in long-term structural changes without alterations of colonic sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ravnefjord, Anna; Pettersson, Madeleine; Rehnström, Erika; Martinez, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Colonic ischaemia and mast cells have been involved in the pathophysiology of the functional gastrointestinal disorder irritable bowel syndrome, although the cause–effect relationships remain unknown. We assessed long-term histopathological and functional changes associated to an acute ischaemic episode (1 h) of the colon, followed by 8-week recovery, in rats. Functional colonic alterations [sensitivity during colorectal distension (CRD), compliance and propulsive motility] were assessed regularly during the recovery. Colonic histopathology (presence of inflammation, morphometric alterations and variations in neuronal density in the enteric nervous system) 8-week postischaemia was assessed. Following ischaemia, none of the functional parameters tested (motility, sensitivity and compliance) were affected. At necropsy, the colon presented an overall normal appearance with an increase in weight of the ischaemic area (mg/cm: 99 ± 6; P < 0.05 vs. control: 81 ± 4 or sham ischaemia: 81 ± 3). Histopathological evaluations revealed the presence of a local infiltrate of mast cells in the area of ischaemia (nb of mast cells: 142 ± 50; P < 0.05 vs. control, 31 ± 14 or sham ischaemia: 40 ± 16), without other significant alterations. Animals subjected to colonic ischaemia and treated 8 weeks later with the mast cell degranulator, compound 48/80, showed no changes in CRD-related pain responses. These studies show that acute colonic ischaemia is associated with the presence of a long-term local infiltration of mast cells, located within the serosa and muscle layers, despite the absence of functional changes, including colonic sensitivity. Considering the important pathophysiological functions of mast cells, the observed mast cell infiltration may be involved in ischaemia-induced functional changes yet to be characterized. PMID:19134057

  19. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  20. Quantitative biomarkers of colonic dysplasia based on intrinsic second-harmonic generation signal.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Wu, Guizhu; Chen, Jianxin; Xie, Shusen

    2011-12-01

    Most colorectal cancers arise from dysplastic lesions, such as adenomatous polyps, and these lesions are difficult to be detected by the current endoscopic screening approaches. Here, we present the use of an intrinsic second-harmonic generation (SHG) signal as a novel means to differentiate between normal and dysplastic human colonic tissues. We find that the SHG signal can quantitatively identify collagen change associated with colonic dysplasia that is indiscernible by conventional pathologic techniques. By comparing normal with dysplastic mucosa, there were significant differences in collagen density and collagen fiber direction, providing substantial potential to become quantitative intrinsic biomarkers for in vivo clinical diagnosis of colonic dysplasia.

  1. Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bishnu P.; Miller, Sharon J.; Lee, Cameron; Gustad, Adam; Seibel, Eric J.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate a multi-spectral scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) that collects fluorescence images in vivo from three target peptides that bind specifically to murine colonic adenomas. This ultrathin endoscope was demonstrated in a genetically engineered mouse model of spontaneous colorectal adenomas based on somatic Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene inactivation. The SFE delivers excitation at 440, 532, 635 nm with <2 mW per channel. The target 7-mer peptides were conjugated to visible organic dyes, including 7-Diethylaminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DEAC) (λex=432 nm, λem=472 nm), 5-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine (5-TAMRA) (λex=535 nm, λem=568 nm), and CF-633 (λex=633 nm, λem=650 nm). Target peptides were first validated using techniques of pfu counting, flow cytometry and previously established methods of fluorescence endoscopy. Peptides were applied individually or in combination and detected with fluorescence imaging. The ability to image multiple channels of fluorescence concurrently was successful for all three channels in vitro, while two channels were resolved simultaneously in vivo. Selective binding of the peptide was evident to adenomas and not to adjacent normal-appearing mucosa. Multispectral wide-field fluorescence detection using the SFE is achievable, and this technology has potential to advance early cancer detection and image-guided therapy in human patients by simultaneously visualizing multiple over expressed molecular targets unique to dysplasia.

  2. Remodeling in myocardium adjacent to an infarction in the pig left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Scott D; Criscione, John; Covell, James W

    2004-12-01

    Changes in the structure of the "normal" ventricular wall adjacent to an infarcted area involve all components of the myocardium (myocytes, fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, and the coronary vasculature) and their three-dimensional structural relationship. Assessing changes in these components requires tracking material markers in the remodeling tissue over long periods of time with a three-dimensional approach as well as a detailed histological evaluation of the remodeled structure. The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypotheses that changes in the tissue adjacent to an infarct are related to myocyte elongation, myofiber rearrangement, and changes in the laminar architecture of the adjacent tissue. Three weeks after myocardial infarction, noninfarcted tissue adjacent to the infarct remodeled by expansion along the direction of the fibers and in the cross fiber direction. These changes are consistent with myocyte elongation and myofiber rearrangement (slippage), as well as a change in cell shape to a more elliptical cross section with the major axis in the epicardial tangent plane, and indicate that reorientation of fibers either via "cell slippage" or changes in orientation of the laminar structure of the ventricular wall are quantitatively important aspects of the remodeling of the normally perfused myocardium.

  3. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE—the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease.

  4. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases.

    PubMed

    Carter, Dan; Eliakim, Rami

    2016-08-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE-the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease. PMID:27668227

  5. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE—the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease. PMID:27668227

  6. Expression of four CEA family antigens (CEA, NCA, BGP and CGM2) in normal and cancerous gastric epithelial cells: up-regulation of BGP and CGM2 in carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, T; Kuroki, M; Takeo, H; Matsuo, Y; Ohshima, K; Yamashita, Y; Shirakusa, T; Matsuoka, Y

    1998-03-30

    Four human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family members, CEA (CD66e), non-specific cross-reacting antigen (NCA, CD66c), biliary glycoprotein (BGP, CD66a) and CEA gene-family member 2 (CGM2), are expressed in normal mucosal epithelia of the colon. Expression of BGP and CGM2 has recently been demonstrated to be down-regulated in colorectal adenocarcinomas. We have now investigated the expression of the 4 CEA family antigens in gastric adenocarcinoma and carcinoma cell lines in comparison with adjacent normal gastric mucosa. The transcripts of the CEA, NCA and BGP genes evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were detectable at various levels in all the gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines tested, while CGM2 mRNA was detectable in the cell lines of poorly differentiated but not of well-differentiated carcinomas. The levels of CEA mRNA in normal gastric mucosa were variable but mostly increased in adenocarcinomas. The sparse expression of NCA observed in the normal tissues was markedly up-regulated in the carcinomas. In contrast to previous findings on normal and cancerous colonic tissues, the transcripts of CGM2 were totally undetectable and those of BGP were recognized only marginally, if at all, in normal gastric mucosa, while both messages were detected at significant levels in most of the gastric adenocarcinomas. This was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Our findings indicate that expression of the CEA family antigens, particularly that of BGP and CGM2, is differently regulated in epithelial cells of the colon and the stomach.

  7. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

  8. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna; Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale; Mato, José M; Lu, Shelly C

    2013-07-15

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70-75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell.

  9. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  10. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide.

  11. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  12. Identification of Molecular Targets for Predicting Colon Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yansheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Li; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Teng, Zhaowei; Wu, Feihu

    2016-01-01

    Background Colon adenocarcinoma mostly happens at the junction of the rectum and is a common gastrointestinal malignancy. Accumulated evidence has indicated that colon adenocarcinoma develops by genetic alterations and is a complicated disease. The aim of this study was to screen differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and genes with diagnostic and prognostic potentials in colon adenocarcinoma. Material/Methods In this study we screened DEMs and their target genes (DEGs) between 100 colon adenocarcinoma and normal samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database by using the DEseq toolkit in Bioconductor. Then Go enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis were performed on the selected differential genes by use of the DAVID online tool. A regulation network of miRNA-gene was constructed and analyzed by Cytoscape. Finally, we performed ROC analysis of 8 miRNAs and ROC curves were drawn. Results A total of 159 DEMs and 1921 DEGs were screened, and 1881 pairs of miRNA-target genes with significant negative correlations were also obtained. A regulatory network of miRNA-gene, including 60 cancer-related genes and 47 miRNAs, was successfully constructed. In addition, 5 clusters with several miRNAs regulating a set of target genes simultaneously were identified through cluster analysis. There were 8 miRNAs involved in these 5 clusters, and these miRNAs could serve as molecular biomarkers to distinguish colon adenocarcinoma and normal samples indicated by ROC analysis. Conclusions The identified 8 miRNAs were closely associated with colon adenocarcinoma, which may have great clinical value as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and provide new ideas for targeted therapy. PMID:26868022

  13. Preferential localization of IgG memory B cells adjacent to contracted germinal centers

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Yuichi; Kometani, Kohei; Hamadate, Megumi; Moriyama, Saya; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Tomura, Michio; Luche, Hervé; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Casellas, Rafael; Kanagawa, Osami; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    It has long been presumed that after leaving the germinal centers (GCs), memory B cells colonize the marginal zone or join the recirculating pool. Here we demonstrate the preferential localization of nitrophenol-chicken γ-globulin-induced CD38+IgG1+ memory B cells adjacent to contracted GCs in the spleen. The memory B cells in this region proliferated after secondary immunization, a response that was abolished by depletion of CD4+ T cells. We also found that these IgG1+ memory B cells could present antigen on their surface, and that this activity was required for their activation. These results implicate this peri-GC region as an important site for survival and reactivation of memory B cells. PMID:20547847

  14. Retinol Promotes In Vitro Growth of Proximal Colon Organoids through a Retinoic Acid-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Nibe, Yoichi; Akiyama, Shintaro; Matsumoto, Yuka; Nozaki, Kengo; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Ayumi; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Oshima, Shigeru; Watanabe, Mamoru; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Retinol (ROL), the alcohol form of vitamin A, is known to control cell fate decision of various types of stem cells in the form of its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). However, little is known about whether ROL has regulatory effects on colonic stem cells. We examined in this study the effect of ROL on the growth of murine normal colonic cells cultured as organoids. As genes involved in RA synthesis from ROL were differentially expressed along the length of the colon, we tested the effect of ROL on proximal and distal colon organoids separately. We found that organoid forming efficiency and the expression level of Lgr5, a marker gene for colonic stem cells were significantly enhanced by ROL in the proximal colon organoids, but not in the distal ones. Interestingly, neither retinaldehyde (RAL), an intermediate product of the ROL-RA pathway, nor RA exhibited growth promoting effects on the proximal colon organoids, suggesting that ROL-dependent growth enhancement in organoids involves an RA-independent mechanism. This was confirmed by the observation that an inhibitor for RA-mediated gene transcription did not abrogate the effect of ROL on organoids. This novel role of ROL in stem cell maintenance in the proximal colon provides insights into the mechanism of region-specific regulation for colonic stem cell maintenance. PMID:27564706

  15. Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy used to discriminate human colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Bianchi, Mariana; de Thomaz, André A.; Baratti, Mariana O.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Casco, Víctor H.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2013-02-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most diffused cancers in the Western World, ranking third worldwide in frequency of incidence after lung and breast cancers. Even if it is curable when detected and treated early, a more accurate premature diagnosis would be a suitable aim for both cancer prognostic and treatment. Combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation in colon cancer disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns between normal and malignant human colonic mucosa. Using a set of scoring methods significant differences both in the content, distribution and organization of stroma collagen fibrils, and lifetime components of NADH and FAD cofactors of human colon mucosa biopsies were found. Our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human colon cancer, and also suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics could be applied to other intestinal disorders, which are characterized by abnormal cell proliferation and collagen assembly.

  16. Analysis of Wnt signalling dynamics during colon crypt development in 3D culture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Burgess, Antony W.

    2015-01-01

    Many systems biology studies lack context-relevant data and as a consequence the predictive capabilities can be limited in developing targeted cancer therapeutics. Production of colon crypt in vitro is ideal for studying colon systems biology. This report presents the first production of, to our knowledge, physiologically-shaped, functional colon crypts in vitro (i.e. single crypts with cells expressing Mucin 2 and Chromogranin A). Time-lapsed monitoring of crypt formation revealed an increased frequency of single-crypt formation in the absence of noggin. Using quantitative 3D immunofluorescence of β-catenin and E-cadherin, spatial-temporal dynamics of these proteins in normal colon crypt cells stimulated with Wnt3A or inhibited by cycloheximide has been measured. Colon adenoma cultures established from APCmin/+ mouse have developmental differences and β-catenin spatial localization compared to normal crypts. Quantitative data describing the effects of signalling pathways and proteins dynamics for both normal and adenomatous colon crypts is now within reach to inform a systems approach to colon crypt biology. PMID:26087250

  17. Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Stamler, J S; Bachwich, D; Karmeli, F; Ackerman, Z; Podolsky, D K

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from inflammatory bowel disease patients and from normal controls. Mucosal explants were cultured in vitro for 24 hours and NOx generation was determined. Nitric oxide synthase activity was monitored by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to citrulline. Median NOx generation by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis was 4.2- and 8.1-fold respectively higher than that by normal human colonic mucosa. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis nitric oxide synthase activity was 10.0- and 3.8-fold respectively higher than in normal subjects. Colonic NOx generation is significantly decreased by methylprednisolone and ketotifen. The decrease in NOx generation by cultured colonic mucosa induced by methylprednisolone suggests that NO synthase activity is induced during the culture and the steroid effect may contribute to its therapeutic effect. Enhanced colonic NOx generation by stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:7541008

  18. Prolonged sulforaphane treatment activates survival signaling in nontumorigenic NCM460 colon cells but apoptotic signaling in tumorigenic HCT116 colon cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Trujillo, Olivia N; Moyer, Mary P; Botnen, James H

    2011-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent; the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon cancer and normal cells. In this study, we demonstrated that SFN (15 μmol/L) exposure (72 h) inhibited cell proliferation by up to 95% in colon cancer cells (HCT116) and by 52% in normal colon mucosa-derived (NCM460) cells. Our data also showed that SFN exposure (5 and 10 μmol/L) led to the reduction of G1 phase cell distribution and an induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells, but to a much lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, the examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling status revealed that SFN upregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in NCM460 cells but not in HCT116 cells. In contrast, SFN enhanced the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and decreased cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) expression in HCT116 cells but not NCM460 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic signaling in HCT116 cells may play a critical role in SFN's stronger potential of inhibiting cell proliferation in colon cancer cells than in normal colon cells.

  19. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2/MnSOD)/catalase and SOD2/GPx1 ratios as biomarkers for tumor progression and metastasis in prostate, colon, and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miar, Ana; Hevia, David; Muñoz-Cimadevilla, Henar; Astudillo, Aurora; Velasco, Julio; Sainz, Rosa M; Mayo, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    The role of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD2/MnSOD) during tumor progression has been studied for several decades with controversial results. While SOD2 downregulation was initially associated with tumor initiation and was proposed as a tumor suppressor gene, recent studies have reported that SOD2 might favor tumor progression and dissemination. To our knowledge this is the first time that changes in SOD2 expression in three different types of tumors, i.e., prostate, lung, and colon cancer, are studied by analyzing both SOD2 mRNA and protein levels in a total of 246 patients' samples. In prostate samples, SOD2 protein levels were also increased, especially in middle stage tumors. In the case of colon and lung tumors both mRNA and protein SOD2 levels were increased in malignant tissues compared to those in nontumor samples. More importantly, all metastases analyzed showed increased levels of SOD2 when compared to those of normal primary tissue and healthy adjacent tissue. Together, these results suggest that a common redox imbalance in these three types of tumor occurs at intermediate stages which then might favor migration and invasion, leading to a more aggressive cancer type. Consequently, the ratios SOD2/catalase and SOD2/Gpx1 could be considered as potential markers during progression from tumor growth to metastasis.

  20. Biomarkers of human colonic cell growth are influenced differently by a history of colonic neoplasia and the consumption of acarbose.

    PubMed

    Weaver, G A; Tangel, C T; Krause, J A; Parfitt, M M; Stragand, J J; Jenkins, P L; Erb, T A; Davidson, R H; Alpern, H D; Guiney, W B; Higgins, P J

    2000-11-01

    The nutritional effects of butyrate on the colonic mucosa and studies of transformed cells suggest that butyrate has anti-colon cancer effects. If butyrate has antineoplastic effects, mucosal growth contrasts between normal subjects and those with a history of colonic neoplasia would parallel changes in growth characteristics caused by butyrate in a colon neoplasia population. To test this hypothesis, rectal biopsies from a survey of colonoscopy patients (n = 50) with and without a history of colonic neoplasia (controls) were compared. Similarly, rectal biopsies were compared from subjects (n = 44) with a colon neoplasia history in an acarbose-placebo crossover trial. Control subjects in the colonoscopy survey had higher bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake than subjects with a history of neoplasia (P = 0.05). The control subjects also had a higher correlation of BrdU and Ki-67 labeling (P = 0.003). Both findings were paralleled by acarbose use. Acarbose augmented BrdU uptake (P = 0.0001) and improved the correlation of BrdU and Ki-67 labeling (P = 0.013). Acarbose also augmented fecal butyrate (P = 0.0001), which was positively correlated with Ki-67 labeling (P = 0.003). p52 antigen had an earlier pattern of crypt distribution in subjects with a history of colon neoplasia but was not affected by acarbose use. Lewis-Y antigen was expressed earlier in the crypt with acarbose but had similar expression in the colonoscopy survey groups. The use of acarbose to enhance fecal butyrate concentration produced mucosal changes paralleling the findings in control subjects as opposed to those with neoplasia, supporting the concept of an antineoplastic role for butyrate.

  1. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 expression is increased in colon and esophageal tumors and associated with less differentiated colon tumors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sheri F T; Dietzsch, Erin; Fong, Keith S K; Hollosi, Peter; Asuncion, Lloyd; He, Qingping; Parker, M Iqbal; Csiszar, Katalin

    2007-07-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) belongs to an amine oxidase family whose members have been implicated in crosslink formation in stromal collagens and elastin, cell motility, and tumor development and progression. We previously demonstrated the association between increased LOXL2 expression and invasive/metastatic behavior in human breast cancer cells and mouse squamous and spindle cell carcinomas, interaction between LOXL2 and SNAIL in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and localization of the LOXL2 gene to 8p21.2-21.3, within a minimally deleted region in several cancers, including colon and esophagus. In the present study, we analyzed LOXL2 expression in colon and esophageal tumors, and explored methylation as a regulator of LOXL2 expression. Immunohistochemistry using normal tissues demonstrated intracellular localization of LOXL2 in colonic enteroendocrine cells and esophageal squamous cells at the luminal surface, but not in mitotically active cells. Tissue array analysis of 52 colon adenocarcinomas and 50 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas revealed presence of LOXL2 expression in 83 and 92% of the samples, respectively, and a significant association between increased number of LOXL2-expressing cells and less-differentiated colon carcinomas. We determined that the methylation status of the 1150 bp 5' CpG island may contribute to the regulation of the gene. Loss of heterozygosity studies, using a microsatellite within intron 4 of the LOXL2 gene, revealed that loss of LOXL2 was unlikely to play a major role in either colon or esophageal tumors. These results suggest that increased LOXL2 expression in colon and esophageal cancer may contribute to tumor progression.

  2. Colonic preservation reduces need for parenteral therapy, increases incidence of renal stones, but does not change high prevalence of gall stones in patients with a short bowel.

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, J M; Lennard-Jones, J E; Gertner, D J; Wood, S R; Bartram, C I

    1992-01-01

    Forty six patients with less than 200 cm of normal jejunum and no functioning colon were compared with 38 patients with similar jejunal lengths in continuity with a functioning colon. Women predominated (67%), and the most common diagnosis in each group was Crohn's disease (33 of 46 no colon, 16 of 38 with colon). All patients without a colon and less than 85 cm of jejunum and all those with a colon and less than 45 cm jejunum needed long term parenteral nutrition. Six months after the last resection 12 of 17 patients with less than 100 cm jejunum and no colon needed intravenous supplements compared with 7 of 21 with a colon. Between 6 months and 2 years, little change occurred in the nutritional/fluid requirements in either group, though there was weight gain. Of 71 patients assessed clinically at a median of 5 years, none with more than 50 cm of jejunum and a colon needed parenteral supplements. Most (25 of 27) of those without a colon who did not need parenteral supplements required oral electrolyte replacement compared with few (4 of 27) with a colon. None of the patients without a colon developed symptomatic renal stones compared with 9 of 38 (24%) with a colon (p < 0.001). Stone analysis in three patients showed calcium oxalate. Gall stone prevalence was high but equal in the two groups--43% of those without and 44% of those with a colon. PMID:1452074

  3. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction by metastatic colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, A L; Welch, J P

    1978-11-01

    Extrahepatic biliary obstruction can be caused by cancer metastatic from the colon to the lymph nodes adjacent to the bile duct. This report details our experience with eight such cases treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital in the last seven years. The interval between resection of the primary tumor and appearance of jaundice averaged 13 months. The location of the obstruction, preferably defined preoperatively by cholangiography, was low on the common duct in three cases and high in the porta hepatis in five. Relief of biliary obstruction was accomplished by biliary-enteric bypass (four cases), internal biliary stenting by permanent indwelling tube (two cases), or by portal irradiation (two cases). In addition to palliating the symptoms of obstructive jaundice, the period of comfortable survival appears to have been extended: the bypassed patients lived 13-38 months. Erosion of tumor into the duodenum, with resulting gastrointestinal hemorrhage, was an additional problem in three patients. Our overall experience illustrates the value of distinguishing this subgroup of patients from the larger number whose jaundice results from extensive liver metastases, and of treating aggressively those with extrahepatic biliary obstruction.

  4. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  5. Autofluorescence ratio imaging of human colonic adenomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, Katsuichi; Harada, Yoshinori; Wakabayashi, Naoki; Yamaoka, Yoshihisa; Dai, Ping; Tanaka, Hideo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Recently autofluorescence imaging (AFI) endoscopy, visualizing tissue fluorescence in combination with reflected light, has been adopted as a technique for detecting neoplasms in the colon and other organs. However, autofluorescence colonoscopy is not infallible, and improvement of the detection method can be expected to enhance the performance. Colonic mucosa contains metabolism-related fluorophores, such as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which may be useful for visualizing neoplasia in autofluorescence endoscopy. We examined sliced cross-sections of endoscopically resected tubular adenomas under a microscope. Fluorescence images acquired at 365-nm excitation (F365ex) and 405-nm excitation (F405ex), and reflectance images acquired at 550 nm (R550) were obtained. Fluorescence ratio (F365ex/F405ex) images and reflectance/fluorescence ratio (R550/F405ex) images were calculated from the acquired images. The fluorescence ratio images could distinguish adenomatous mucosa from normal mucosa more clearly than the reflectance/fluorescence ratio images. The results showed that the autofluorescence ratio imaging is a potential technique for increasing the diagnostic power of autofluorescence endoscopy.

  6. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  7. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  9. Taste sensing in the colon.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Izumi; Karaki, Shin-ichiro; Kuwahara, Atsukazu

    2014-01-01

    The colonic lumen is continually exposed to many compounds, including beneficial and harmful compounds that are produced by colonic microflora. The intestinal epithelia form a barrier between the internal and luminal (external) environments. Chemical receptors that sense the luminal environment are thought to play important roles as sensors and as modulators of epithelial cell functions. The recent molecular identification of various membrane receptor proteins has revealed the sensory role of intestinal epithelial cells. Nutrient sensing by these receptors in the small intestine is implicated in nutrient absorption and metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological roles of chemosensors in the large intestine. Since 1980s, researchers have examined the effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), the primary products of commensal bacteria, on gut motility, secretion, and incretin release, for example. In this decade, the SCFA receptor genes and their expression were identified in the mammalian colon. Furthermore, many other chemical receptors, including taste and olfactory receptors have been found in colonic epithelial cells. These findings indicate that the large intestinal epithelia express chemosensors that detect the luminal contents, particularly bacterial metabolites, and induce the host defense systems and the modulation of systemic metabolism via incretin release. In this review, we describe the local effects of chemical stimuli on the lumen associated with the expression pattern of sensory receptors. We propose that sensory receptors expressed in the colonic mucosa play important roles in luminal chemosensing to maintain homeostasis.

  10. Serrated polyps of the colon.

    PubMed

    Sugumar, Aravind; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2010-12-17

    Until recently, colonic polyps were traditionally classified as either hyperplastic or adenomatous, and only the latter were believed to have the potential to progress to carcinoma. However, it is now appreciated that a subset of serrated polyps also appear to have malignant potential. Serrated polyps are a heterogeneous group of colon polyps that include hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs), traditional serrated adenomas, and mixed polyps. Insights into these polyps were derived, in part, from studies of patients with the hyperplastic polyposis syndrome. SSAs show a predilection for the right colon, have a distinct histology, and their molecular genetic profile has recently been linked to a pathway for colon tumorigenesis that is characterized by microsatellite instability. Based upon available evidence, it is recommended that patients with serrated adenomas undergo colonoscopic follow-up at the same frequency as for conventional adenomas. It is important that physicians are aware of serrated polyps, particularly serrated adenomas and their relationship to colon cancer, and their proper clinical management.

  11. Detection of the c-myc oncogene product in colonic polyps and carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J.; Evan, G.; Watson, J.; Sikora, K.

    1986-01-01

    The c-myc oncogene has been implicated in the processes of normal cell proliferation and differentiation. Elevated levels of c-myc mRNA and its gene product (p62c-myc), have been detected in a variety of solid tumours and cultured cel lines. Its precise role in normal cell function and in neoplastic transformation and progression has yet to be elucidated. We have used a monoclonal antibody, raised by peptide immunisation, to determine the distribution by immunoperoxidase staining of the c-myc oncogene product in archival specimens of colonic polyps and carcinomas. Samples from 42 patients with colon carcinoma, 24 with benign polyps and 15 normal colon biopsies were examined. Normal colon revealed maximum staining in the mid-zone of the crypts, corresponding to the zone of differentiation and maturation. The staining was predominantly cytoplasmic. Adenomatous polyps revealed the most intense pattern of staining in areas of dysplastic change. Colonic tumours showed a wide range of staining. Well differentiated tumours contained more cytoplasmic p62c-myc than poorly differentiated tumours. These findings suggest that the c-myc oncogene product may play an important role in the evolution of colonic neoplasia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3511934

  12. Tubulin glycylases are required for primary cilia, control of cell proliferation and tumor development in colon

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Cecilia; Papon, Laura; Cacheux, Wulfran; Marques Sousa, Patricia; Lascano, Valeria; Tort, Olivia; Giordano, Tiziana; Vacher, Sophie; Lemmers, Benedicte; Mariani, Pascale; Meseure, Didier; Medema, Jan Paul; Bièche, Ivan; Hahne, Michael; Janke, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    TTLL3 and TTLL8 are tubulin glycine ligases catalyzing posttranslational glycylation of microtubules. We show here for the first time that these enzymes are required for robust formation of primary cilia. We further discover the existence of primary cilia in colon and demonstrate that TTLL3 is the only glycylase in this organ. As a consequence, colon epithelium shows a reduced number of primary cilia accompanied by an increased rate of cell division in TTLL3-knockout mice. Strikingly, higher proliferation is compensated by faster tissue turnover in normal colon. In a mouse model for tumorigenesis, lack of TTLL3 strongly promotes tumor development. We further demonstrate that decreased levels of TTLL3 expression are linked to the development of human colorectal carcinomas. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role for tubulin glycylation in primary cilia maintenance, which controls cell proliferation of colon epithelial cells and plays an essential role in colon cancer development. PMID:25180231

  13. Antioxidant effects of gastrointestinal digested purple carrot extract on the human cells of colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Kidoń, Marcin; Czapski, Janusz; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Olkowicz, Mariola; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrot (PC) is a potential dietary constituent, which represents a valuable source of antioxidants and can modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the gastrointestinal tract. Antioxidant capacity of a PC extract subjected to digestion process simulated in the artificial alimentary tract, including the stomach, small intestine and colon, was analyzed in normal human cells of colon mucosa. Results indicated that the extract obtained upon passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which could come into contact with the colonic cells in situ, was less potent than the extract, which was not subjected to digestion process. Digested PC extract exhibited intracellular ROS-inhibitory capacity, with 1mg/mL showing the ROS clearance of 18.4%. A 20.7% reduction in oxidative DNA damage due to colon mucosa cells' treatment with digested PC extract was observed. These findings indicate that PC extract is capable of colonic cells' protection against the adverse effects of oxidative stress. PMID:26213078

  14. Physical stress and bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria – in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens – use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multi-layered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion. PMID:25212723

  15. Bacterial colonization of percutaneous sutures.

    PubMed

    Gristina, A G; Price, J L; Hobgood, C D; Webb, L X; Costerton, J W

    1985-07-01

    The direct electron microscopic examination of 15 sutures and 15 staples removed from 10 healed surgical wounds showed, on the intradermal portions, consistent colonization by bacteria growing in adherent biofilms. This clearly demonstrable bacterial colonization of biomaterials within the wound tract had not resulted in infection or perceptible inflammation in any of the wounds. These bacterial cells were of several morphotypes, including gram-positive cocci, and all specimens yielded cultures of the autochthonous (native) skin bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis. The bacteria within the wound tracts were enveloped by extracellular material that appeared on scanning electron microscopy to be a condensed amorphous residue and on transmission electron microscopy to be a fibrous extracellular matrix. We suggest that this mode of growth, in which the colonizing bacteria are enveloped in a copious exopolysaccharide glycocalix, protects the bacteria from host defense factors and accounts for their persistence on the suture surfaces until they are removed with the sutures.

  16. Physical stress and bacterial colonization.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria--in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens--use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multilayered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion.

  17. Molecular mechanisms linking adipokines to obesity-related colon cancer: focus on leptin.

    PubMed

    Drew, Janice E

    2012-02-01

    on tumour development and subsequent therapeutic intervention. Study of the molecular mechanisms linking obesity with cancer also supports recommendations to maintain a normal body weight to reduce the risk of colon cancer.

  18. Spontaneous intramural hematoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Samuel; Gonçalves, Ana Rita; Araújo Correia, Luís

    2016-08-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with sudden left quadrant abdominal pain and hematochezia. There was no history of trauma. He denied other symptoms or taking off-the-counter medication. His medical history was relevant for ischemic and aortic-mitral valve disease with prosthetic valves for which he was medicated with aspirin and warfarin. On physical examination the patient presented normal vital signs with tenderness on palpation of the left side of the abdomen. Laboratory tests revealed moderate anemia (10.8 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (135.000x10^9 U/L) with therapeutic international normalized ratio (2.53). Colonoscopy revealed an extensive area of erythematous and bluish mucosa with an apparent torsion of the proximal descending colon around a volumous hematoma measuring 6.5x3 cm (Figure 1 A-C). Urgent abdominal CT confirmed the presence of a large intramural hematoma of the descending colon (Figure 2 A-B). A conservative approach was adopted with temporary suspension of anticoagulation. Given the high thrombotic risk, abdominal ultrasound was performed after 72 hours showing considerable reduction in the size of the hematoma. Anti-coagulation was then resumed without complications. One month later, colonoscopy was repeated showing complete healing of the mucosa. The increasing use of anti-aggregating and anti-coagulant therapy, especially in elderly patients, explains the increasing incidence of bleeding events seen in this population. However, gastrointestinal hematomas are estimated to occur in only 1 for every 250.000 anti-coagulated patients. Diagnosis is based on characteristic radiologic findings. While most parietal hematomas can be approached conservatively, surgery is indicated in the presence of complications or persistence of the hematoma. PMID:27554386

  19. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  20. Up-regulation of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Encheng; Huang, Qing; Wang, Ji; Fang, Chengfeng; Yang, Leilei; Zhu, Min; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Lihua; Dong, Milian

    2015-01-01

    Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3), belonging to the member of the novel Tim family, has been confirmed that it plays a critical negative role in regulating the immune responses against viral infection and carcinoma. Recently, it has also been reported that the over-expression of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors. However, the role of Tim-3 in colorectal cancer remains largely unknown. In the current study, we aim to investigate the expression of Tim-3 in colorectal carcinoma and discuss the relationship between Tim-3 expression and colon cancer prognosis, thus speculating the possible role of Tim-3 in colon cancer progression. Colon cancer tissues and paired normal tissue were obtained from 201 patients with colon cancer for preparation of tissue microarray. Tim-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The Tim-3 expression level was evaluated by q-RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry in four colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT116, LoVo, SW620). Tim-3 was expressed in 92.5% tumor tissue samples and 86.5% corresponding normal tissue samples. Expression of Tim-3 was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.0001). Tim-3 expression in colon cancer tissues is in correlation with colon cancer lymphatic metastasis and TNM (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Tim-3 expression could be a potential independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis result showed that patients with higher Tim-3 expression had a significantly shorter survival time than those with lower Tim-3 expression patients. Our results indicated that Tim-3 might participate in the tumorgenesis of colon cancer and Tim-3 expression might be a potential independent prognostic factor for patients with colorectal cancer.

  1. Diagnosis potential of near infrared Mueller Matrix imaging for colonic adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic adenocarcinoma detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (<5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and adenocarcinomaous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  2. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae uses proteasome inhibitor syringolin A to colonize from wound infection sites.

    PubMed

    Misas-Villamil, Johana C; Kolodziejek, Izabella; Crabill, Emerson; Kaschani, Farnusch; Niessen, Sherry; Shindo, Takayuki; Kaiser, Markus; Alfano, James R; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2013-03-01

    Infection of plants by bacterial leaf pathogens at wound sites is common in nature. Plants defend wound sites to prevent pathogen invasion, but several pathogens can overcome spatial restriction and enter leaf tissues. The molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to suppress containment at wound infection sites are poorly understood. Here, we studied Pseudomonas syringae strains causing brown spot on bean and blossom blight on pear. These strains exist as epiphytes that can cause disease upon wounding caused by hail, sand storms and frost. We demonstrate that these strains overcome spatial restriction at wound sites by producing syringolin A (SylA), a small molecule proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, SylA-producing strains are able to escape from primary infection sites and colonize adjacent tissues along the vasculature. We found that SylA diffuses from the primary infection site and suppresses acquired resistance in adjacent tissues by blocking signaling by the stress hormone salicylic acid (SA). Thus, SylA diffusion creates a zone of SA-insensitive tissue that is prepared for subsequent colonization. In addition, SylA promotes bacterial motility and suppresses immune responses at the primary infection site. These local immune responses do not affect bacterial growth and were weak compared to effector-triggered immunity. Thus, SylA facilitates colonization from wounding sites by increasing bacterial motility and suppressing SA signaling in adjacent tissues. PMID:23555272

  3. Carbohydrate-Containing Molecules as Potential Biomarkers in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Eun Ji; Weyers, Amanda; Li, Guoyun; Gasimli, Leyla; Li, Lingyun; Choi, Won Jun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glycans play a critical role in physiological and pathological processes through interaction with a variety of ligands. Altered expression and dysregulation of these molecules can cause aberrant cellular function such as malignancy. Glycomics provide information of the structure and function of glycans, glycolipids, and glycoproteins such as proteoglycans, and may help to predict cancer development and progression as biomarkers. In this report, we compared the expression of proteoglycans, the content and structure of glycosaminoglycans and glycolipids between patient-matched normal and cancer tissues obtained from colon cancer patients. Tumor-related proteoglycans, glypican-3, and syndecan-1 showed downregulation in cancer tissues compared to normal tissues. In cancer tissue, the total amount of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate were lower and, interestingly, the level of disaccharide units of both 4S6S (CS-E) and 6S (CS-C) were higher compared to normal tissue. Also, overall lipids including glycolipids, a major glycomics target, were analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Increase of lyso-phosphatidylcholine (phospholipid), sphingomyelin (sphigolipid), and four types of glycolipids (glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, monosialic acid ganglioside, and globoside 4) in cancer tissue showed the possibility as potential biomarkers in colon cancer. While requiring the need for careful interpretation, this type of broad investigation gives us a better understanding of pathophysiological roles on glycosaminoglycans and glycolipids and might be a powerful tool for colon cancer diagnosis. PMID:24502776

  4. Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

  5. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Ivar; Blom, Hans H; Lindblom, Louise; Saetersdal, Magne; Schei, Fride Høstad

    2012-04-01

    Colonization studies may function as natural experiments and have the potential of addressing important questions about community assembly. We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway. We investigated if epiphytic lichen species richness and composition on aspen (Populus tremula) trees corresponded to a random draw of lichen individuals from the regional species pool. We compared lichen communities of isolated young (55-120 yr) and old (140-200 yr) forest patches in the heathland area to those of aspen forest in an adjacent reference area that has been forested for a long time. All thalli (lichen bodies) of 32 selected lichen species on trunks of aspen were recorded in 35 aspen sites. When data for each site category (young, old, and reference) were pooled, we found the species richness by rarefaction to be similar for reference sites and old sites, but significantly lower for young sites. The depauperated species richness of young sites was accompanied by a skew in species composition and absence of several species that were common in the reference sites. In contrast, genetic variation screened with neutral microsatellite markers in the lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria showed no significant differences between site categories. Our null hypothesis of a neutral species assembly in young sites corresponding to a random draw from the regional species pool was rejected, whereas an alternative hypothesis based on differences in colonization capacity among species was supported. The results indicate that for the habitat configuration in the heathland area (isolated patches constituting < 0.4% of the area) lichen communities may need a colonization time of 100-150 yr for species richness to level off, but given enough time, isolation will not affect species richness. We suggest that this contradiction to expectations from classical island equilibrium theory results from low extinction rates.

  6. Microbial colonization of retorted shale in field and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; McNair, V.M.; Li, S.W.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial colony forming units (cfu), as measured by a selective plating medium in surface horizons of retorted shale and adjacent soils, were similar (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ and 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ bacterial cfu/g dry weight) two months after disposal. However, unlike the soil that exhibited a diverse community, the retorted shale was dominated by a single Micrococcus species that composed 30% of the total bacterial community. After one and two years, the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the retorted shale and soil were again similar; however, no bacterium dominated either community. A core sample from the field lysimeter indicated microbial colonization to a depth of 150 cm after one year. An increased ratio of anaerobic to aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the deepest sample (120 to 150 cm) implied the development of anaerobic conditions. In the laboratory, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were shown capable of using, as the sole source of carbon, retorted shale in liquid cultures. Of the added nutritional amendments, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/, only phosphate markedly altered the colonization of retorted shale in liquid culture; shortening the lag phase of colonization from less than three to seven weeks to less than one week and leading to a greater aerobic heterotrophic population over the incubation interval. The addition of phosphate also led to a aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community composed entirely of Micrococcus species.

  7. A case of granuloma of the ascending colon due to penetration of Trichuris trichiura.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Y; Sakuma, H; Izumi, R; Nakagawara, G; Miyazaki, I; Yoshimura, H

    1981-01-01

    A 33 year-old woman was admitted with chief complaint of abdominal pain and high fever. A barium-enema showed serration and a tumor was seen in the proximal ascending colon. At laparotomy, a localized tumor about 5 cm in diameter was located in the proximal portion of the ascending colon. The operation was made according to the ileoceal resection. On the macroscopic examination of the resected specimen, a small hole penetrating into the subserosa of the ascending colon was noticed and a tumor measuring approximately 3 x 1.2 x 1 cm was located under the hole. A female worm, Trichuris trichiura, was found to be harbored in the adjacent site of the lesion. Histopathologic examination revealed granulomatous tissue reaction due to penetrating of Trichuris trichiura. The patient is in good health now 20 months after operation.

  8. Bacteria flying under the radar: linking a bacterial infection to colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a link between Helicobacter pylori infection and an increased risk of gastric cancer has raised an awareness of a possible link between colonic microbiota and colorectal cancer. Pertubation of the colonic epithelium by toxin-producing strains of Bacteroides fragilis may increase the risk of premalignant transdifferentiation. However, like H. pylori, B. fragilis exhibit an ability to modulate the normal host response to infection. We speculate this may be an underappreciated risk factor in the genesis of colon carcinogenesis in individuals colonised with toxin-producing strains of B. fragilis. PMID:25225573

  9. Butyrate modulates antioxidant enzyme expression in malignant and non-malignant human colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Franziska; Wilhelm, Anne; Jablonowski, Nadja; Mothes, Henning; Greulich, Karl Otto; Glei, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The induction of antioxidant enzymes is an important mechanism in colon cancer chemoprevention, but the response of human colon tissue to butyrate, a gut fermentation product derived from dietary fiber, remains largely unknown. Therefore, our study investigated the effect of a butyrate treatment on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in matched human colon tissues of different transformation stages (n = 3-15 in each group) ex vivo. By performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and spectrophotometric measurements, we found an increase in SOD2 at expression and activity level in colonic adenocarcinomas (mRNA: 1.96-fold; protein: 1.41-fold, activity: 1.8-fold; P < 0.05). No difference was detectable for CAT between normal, adenoma, and carcinoma colon tissues. Treatment of normal colon epithelium (12 h) with a physiologically relevant concentration of butyrate (10 mM) resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CAT mRNA (1.24-fold) and protein (1.39-fold), without affecting the enzymatic activity. Consequently, preliminary experiments failed to show any protective effect of butyrate against H2 O2 -mediated DNA damage. Despite a significantly lowered SOD2 transcript (0.51-fold, P < 0.01) and, to a lesser extent, protein level (0.86-fold) after butyrate exposure of normal colon cells, the catalytic activity was significantly enhanced (1.19-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting an increased protection against tissue superoxide radicals. In malignant tissues, greater variations in response to butyrate were observed. Furthermore, both enzymes showed an age-dependent decrease in activity in normal colon epithelium (CAT: r = -0.49, P = 0.09; SOD2: r = -0.58, P = 0.049). In conclusion, butyrate exhibited potential antioxidant features ex vivo but cellular consequences need to be investigated more in depth.

  10. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Fatemeh; Sutherland, John B; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the colonic microbial ecosystem, making the host vulnerable to infection by commensal microorganisms or nosocomial pathogens. In this minireview, the impacts of antimicrobials, individually and in combinations, on the human colonic microflora are discussed. PMID:19337440

  11. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... and rectal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Camptosar ( ...

  12. Teaching about the Colonization of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate course, The Colonization of Space, which introduces nonscience majors at the University of North Florida to current topics in the exploration, industrialization, and colonization of space. References to the audiovisual resources and literature are also included. (HM)

  13. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  14. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintain a healthy bacterial composition, known as your microflora. “Your microflora plays a crucial role in protecting your body ... potassium Kidney damage Plus, colon cleansing changes your microflora. “You may think you’re getting rid of ...

  15. IMP-1 displays crosstalk with K-Ras and modulates colon cancer cell survival through the novel pro-apoptotic protein CYFIP2

    PubMed Central

    Mongroo, Perry S.; Noubissi, Felicite K.; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Kalabis, Jiri; King, Catrina E.; Johnstone, Cameron N.; Bowser, Mark J.; Castells, Antoni; Spiegelman, Vladimir S.; Rustgi, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein-1 (IMP-1) is an oncofetal protein that binds directly to and stabilizes oncogenic c-Myc and regulates in turn its post-transcriptional expression and translation. In contrast to normal adult tissue, IMP-1 is re-expressed and/or overexpressed in human cancers. We demonstrate that knock-down of c-Myc in human colon cancer cell lines increases the expression of mature let-7 miRNA family members and downregulates several of its mRNA targets: IMP-1, Cdc34, and K-Ras. We further demonstrate that loss of IMP-1 inhibits Cdc34, Lin-28B, and K-Ras, and suppresses SW-480 cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth, and promotes caspase and lamin-mediated cell death. We also found that IMP-1 binds to the coding region and 3′UTR of K-Ras mRNA. RNA microarray profiling and validation by reverse transcription PCR reveals that the p53-inducible pro-apoptotic protein, CYFIP2, is upregulated in IMP-1 knock-down SW480 cells, a novel finding. We also show that overexpression of IMP-1 increases c-Myc and K-Ras expression, and LIM2405 cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show that loss of IMP-1 induces Caspase-3 and Parp–mediated apoptosis, and inhibits K-Ras expression in SW480 cells, which is rescued by CYFIP2 knock-down. Importantly, analysis of 228 patients with colon cancers reveals that IMP-1 is significantly upregulated in differentiated colon tumors (p ≤ 0.0001) and correlates with K-Ras expression (r=0.35, p ≤ 0.0001) relative to adjacent normal mucosa. These findings indicate that IMP-1, interrelated with c-myc, acts upstream of K-Ras to promote survival through a novel mechanism that may be important in colon cancer pathogenesis. PMID:21252116

  16. Colon Capsule Endoscopy: Review and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Modayil, Rani; Stavropoulos, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy utilizing PillCam COLON 2 capsule allows for visualization potentially of the entire colon and is currently approved for patients who cannot withstand the rigors of traditional optical colonoscopy (OC) and associated sedation as well as those that had an OC that was incomplete for technical reasons other than a poor preparation. We will then describe the prior experience and current status of colon capsule endoscopy. PMID:27698664

  17. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  19. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  20. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  3. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  4. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  5. 2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. 7; THIS CONTROL GATE IS A 1980s RECONSTRUCTION. - Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lift Lock No. 7 & Control Gate, East side of DuPage River, Channahon, Will County, IL

  6. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  7. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 28. TOP VIEW OF CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO BRIDGE, CATENARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. TOP VIEW OF CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  12. GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM DREY STREET PLANT, INSIDE WELCOME WALL - Chambers Window Glass Company, Warehouse & Shipping, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  13. 10. SLATE PATIO ADJACENT TO SOUTH PORCH OF HOUSE, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLATE PATIO ADJACENT TO SOUTH PORCH OF HOUSE, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF REAR PORCH. SHED IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Butt Valley Dam, Gate Tender's House, Butt Valley Reservoir Road, Caribou, Plumas County, CA

  14. Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance of the northwest wing - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  16. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  18. 31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING WEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  20. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  1. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  2. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  4. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  5. Discrimination of normal and colorectal cancer using Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Wang, Deli; Wang, Yue

    2007-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF) and Raman spectrum of serum for diagnosis of colon cancer and rectum cancer were investigated in this paper. The aim of this study was that using Raman spectrum and LIF analysis the serum of colon cancer and rectum cancer for found the difference compared to normal, the difference was found. For example: the intensity and red shift both different In this paper we investigated 82 colon cancers, 69 rectum cancers and obtained 80.7%, 82.5% accuracy to rectum cancer and colon cancer separately compared to clinical diagnostic. It is exploring that use Raman spectrum and LIF to detection of cancer.

  6. [Effects of trimebutine on colonic propulsion in mice].

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Onoda, Y

    1992-06-01

    Effects of oral administration of trimebutine on colonic propulsion in conscious mice were studied by measuring the time required to evacuate a bead which had been inserted into the colon, and compared with those of metoclopramide and domperidone. In normal animals, trimebutine (10 and 50 mg/kg), metoclopramide (50 mg/kg) and domperidone (50 mg/kg) had no effect on the bead evacuation. Metoclopramide and domperidone at 30 mg/kg showed no effect on the delay of colonic propulsion induced by clonidine, while trimebutine (10 and 30 mg/kg) restored the delay significantly. Trimebutine also showed restoration of the delay induced by loperamide. On the acceleration of the propulsion induced by neostigmine, trimebutine (10 and 30 mg/kg) showed an inhibition. In addition, trimebutine (3-30 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed the development of soft feces and/or diarrhea induced by neostigmine. According to the results, it is concluded that trimebutine produces both acceleration and inhibition on the colonic propulsion in mice. PMID:1457960

  7. X-ray fluorescence microscopy demonstrates preferential accumulation of a vanadium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent in murine colonic tumors.

    PubMed

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Bissonnette, Marc; Hart, John; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Contrast agents that specifically enhance cancers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow earlier detection. Vanadium-based chelates (VCs) selectively enhance rodent cancers on MRI, suggesting selective uptake of VCs by cancers. Here we report x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) of VC uptake by murine colon cancer. Colonic tumors in mice treated with azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium were identified by MRI. Then a gadolinium-based contrast agent and a VC were injected intravenously; mice were sacrificed and colons sectioned. VC distribution was sampled at 120 minutes after injection to evaluate the long-term accumulation. Gadolinium distribution was sampled at 10 minutes after injection due to its rapid washout. XFM was performed on 72 regions of normal and cancerous colon from five normal mice and four cancer-bearing mice. XFM showed that all gadolinium was extracellular, with similar concentrations in colon cancers and normal colon. In contrast, the average VC concentration was twofold higher in cancers versus normal tissue (p < .002). Cancers also contained numerous "hot spots" with intracellular VC concentrations sixfold higher than the concentration in normal colon (p < .0001). No hot spots were detected in normal colon. This is the first direct demonstration that VCs selectively accumulate in cancer cells and thus may improve cancer detection.

  8. Implications of the results of colonization experiments for designing riparian restoration projects adjacent to agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many headwater streams and their riparian habitats in the Midwestern United States have been modified for agricultural drainage. Agricultural drainage often results in reductions of physical habitat diversity, shifts from woody to herbaceous riparian vegetation, and the loss of riparian habitat. T...

  9. Transverse Colon Diverticulitis with Calcified Fecalith

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Solak, Ilhami; Genç, Berhan; Sahin, Neslin; Yalaz, Seyhan

    2013-01-01

    Left colonic diverticula are common in Western populations, whereas right colonic diverticulosis primarily occurs in Oriental populations. Diverticulitis of the transverse colon is very rare, with very few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of transverse colon diverticulitis caused by a calcified stone in a 69-year-old female. This was a solitary diverticulum. The signs and symptoms of the disease are similar to acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the MRI findings of a patient with trans-verse colon diverticulitis caused by a calcified stone. PMID:25610254

  10. Stimulation of colonic mucosal growth associated with oxidized redox status in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Junqiang; Washizawa, Naohiro; Gu, Li H; Levin, Marc S; Wang, Lihua; Rubin, Deborah C; Mwangi, Simon; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Gao, Yuhao; Jones, Dean P; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2007-03-01

    Limited data in animal models suggest that colonic mucosa undergoes adaptive growth following massive small bowel resection (SBR). In vitro data suggest that intestinal cell growth is regulated by reactive oxygen species and redox couples [e.g., glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and cysteine (Cys)/cystine (CySS) redox]. We investigated the effects of SBR and alterations in redox on colonic growth indexes in rats after either small bowel transection (TX) or 80% midjejunoileal resection (RX). Rats were pair fed +/- blockade of endogenous GSH synthesis with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Indexes of colonic growth, proliferation, and apoptosis and GSH/GSSG and Cys/CySS redox potentials (E(h)) were determined. RX significantly increased colonic crypt depth, number of cells per crypt, and epithelial cell proliferation [crypt cell bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation]. Administration of BSO markedly decreased colonic mucosal GSH, GSSG, and Cys concentrations in both TX and RX groups, with a resultant oxidation of GSH/GSSG and Cys/CySS E(h). BSO did not alter colonic crypt cell apoptosis but significantly increased all colonic mucosal growth indexes (crypt depth, cells/crypt, and BrdU incorporation) in both TX and RX groups in a time- and dose-dependent manner. BSO significantly decreased plasma GSH and GSSG, oxidized GSH/GSSG E(h), and increased plasma Cys and CySS concentrations. Collectively, these data provide in vivo evidence indicating that oxidized colonic mucosal redox status stimulates colonic mucosal growth in rats. The data also suggest that GSH is required to maintain normal colonic and plasma Cys/CySS homeostasis in these animal models.

  11. Volumetric Colon Wall Unfolding Using Harmonic Differentials

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei; Marino, Joseph; Kaufman, Arie; Gu, Xianfeng David

    2011-01-01

    Volumetric colon wall unfolding is a novel method for virtual colon analysis and visualization with valuable applications in virtual colonoscopy (VC) and computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. A volumetrically unfolded colon enables doctors to visualize the entire colon structure without occlusions due to haustral folds, and is critical for performing efficient and accurate texture analysis on the volumetric colon wall. Though conventional colon surface flattening has been employed for these uses, volumetric colon unfolding offers the advantages of providing the needed quantities of information with needed accuracy. This work presents an efficient and effective volumetric colon unfolding method based on harmonic differentials. The colon volumes are reconstructed from CT images and are represented as tetrahedral meshes. Three harmonic 1-forms, which are linearly independent everywhere, are computed on the tetrahedral mesh. Through integration of the harmonic 1-forms, the colon volume is mapped periodically to a canonical cuboid. The method presented is automatic, simple, and practical. Experimental results are reported to show the performance of the algorithm on real medical datasets. Though applied here specifically to the colon, the method is general and can be generalized for other volumes. PMID:21765563

  12. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli. PMID:26562990

  13. Mortality of passerines adjacent to a North Carolina corn field treated with granular carbofuran.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Tom; Smith, Milton R.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1996-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were collected during an epizootic in southeastern North Carolina (USA). Activity of brain cholinesterase (ChE) was inhibited by 14 to 48% in three of five specimens, and returned to normal levels after incubation. Gastrointestinal tracts were analyzed for 30 anti-ChE agents. Carbofuran, the only compound detected, was present in all specimens at levels from 5.44 to 72.7 μg/g wet weight. Application of granular carbofuran in an adjacent corn field, results of necropsy examinations, and chemical analyses are consistent with a diagnosis of carbofuran poisoning in these specimens.

  14. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  15. Profile of bacteria colonizing the exposed bone of patients with anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Zaher; do Nascimento, Cássio; El-Hakim, Michel; Henderson, Janet E; de Albuquerque, Rubens F

    2016-09-01

    Microbial etiology for anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) was suggested. This study investigates any link between bacteria colonizing ARONJ sites and other oral cavity sites. Microbiota samples of 10 ARONJ patients were collected from the exposed bone, adjacent teeth, contralateral teeth, and tongue. DNA checkerboard hybridization was used for microbiota analysis with 43 genomic DNA probes prepared from human oral bacterial (38) and candida (5) species, using Socransky's bacterial complexes as a guide. The frequency and the mean proportion of each bacterial species were used. Eikenella corrodens, Streptococcus constellatus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were dominant in the ARONJ sites and detected in most teeth samples. Staphylococcus aureus was also dominant in the ARONJ sites and tongue. Significant correlations were found between the mean proportions of bacterial species colonizing adjacent teeth, contralateral teeth, and tongue (p < 0.001, R(2) > 0.69). No significant correlation (p > 0.05, R(2) < 0.025) was found between bacteria colonizing ARONJ sites and other evaluated sites. Within the study limitations, it was concluded that the primary sources of microorganisms colonizing ARONJ sites could be other sites such as teeth and tongue. The microbial profile of the necrotic bone is predominantly colonized with bacteria from Socransky's green and orange complexes, as well as with species associated with bone infections. PMID:27419922

  16. Human fetal colon cells and colon cancer cells respond differently to butyrate and PUFAs.

    PubMed

    Hofmanová, Jirina; Vaculová, Alena; Koubková, Zuzana; Hýzd'alová, Martina; Kozubík, Alois

    2009-05-01

    We verified the hypothesis suggesting modulation of the effects of sodium butyrate (NaBt) by omega-3 or omega-6 PUFAs. Comparing the response of human colon epithelial cell lines of fetal (FHC) and adenocarcinoma (HT-29, HCT-116) origin, we detected significant differences in proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic response to the treatment of NaBt, arachidonic or docosahexaenoic acids and their combination. While in FHC and HT-29 cells NaBt induced G0/G1 arrest, differentiation and low level of apoptosis, in HCT-116 cells G2/M arrest, no differentiation and high degree of apoptosis were detected. Moreover, in FHC cells significant potentiation of apoptosis accompanied by increased arrest in the cell cycle, cell detachment and decrease in differentiation were detected after combined treatment with NaBt and both PUFAs. Changes in cytokinetics induced by fatty acids were accompanied by membrane lipid unpacking, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Detection of caspase-3 activation and dynamic modulation of Mcl-1 protein expression imply their possible role in both cell differentiation and apoptotic response. Our results support the concept of modulation of NaBt effects by PUFAs, especially of omega-3 type, in colonic cells in vitro with diverse impact in cell lines derived from normal or neoplastic epithelium.

  17. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S.; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. Methods 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. Conclusions In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not. PMID:26413782

  18. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  19. Serum vitamin D and colonic vitamin D receptor in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Delgado, Yamilka; Isidro, Raymond A; Torres, Esther A; González, Alexandra; Cruz, Myrella L; Isidro, Angel A; González-Keelan, Carmen I; Medero, Priscilla; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine serum vitamin D levels and colonic vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients and correlate these with histopathology. METHODS: Puerto Rican IBD (n = 10) and non-IBD (n = 10) patients ≥ 21 years old scheduled for colonoscopy were recruited. Each patient completed a questionnaire and provided a serum sample and a colonic biopsy of normal-appearing mucosa. For IBD patients, an additional biopsy was collected from visually diseased mucosa. Serum vitamin D levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections from colonic biopsies were classified histologically as normal or colitis (active/inactive), and scored for the degree of inflammation present (0-3, inactive/absent to severe). Tissue sections from colonic biopsies were also stained by immunohistochemistry for VDR, for which representative diagnostic areas were photographed and scored for staining intensity using a 4-point scale. RESULTS: The IBD cohort was significantly younger (40.40 ± 5.27, P < 0.05) than the non-IBD cohort (56.70 ± 1.64) with a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (40% vs 20%, respectively) and insufficiency (70% vs 50%, respectively). Histologic inflammation was significantly higher in visually diseased mucosa from IBD patients (1.95 ± 0.25) than in normal-appearing mucosa from control patients (0.25 ± 0.08, P < 0.01) and from IBD patients (0.65 ± 0.36, P < 0.05) and correlated inversely with VDR expression in visually diseased colonic tissue from IBD patients (r = -0.44, P < 0.05) and from IBD patients with Crohn’s disease (r = -0.69, P < 0.05), but not in normal-appearing colonic tissue from control patients or IBD patients. Control and IBD patient serum vitamin D levels correlated positively with VDR expression in normal colon from control and IBD patients (r = 0.38, P < 0.05) and with patient age (r = 0.54, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION

  20. [Monoclonal gammopathy and primary colonic mantle cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Mohamed, G; Kochlef, A; Gargouri, D; Kilani, A; Elloumi, H; Ouakaa, A; Belhadj, N; Romani, M; Kharrat, J; Ghorbel, A

    2009-03-01

    The association of a monoclonal gammopathy (MG) with a B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a well-known phenomenon. It has been recognized in many subtypes of primary gastrointestinal lymphoma but its association with primary colonic mantle cell lymphoma has never been yet described. We report a 65-year-old man who presented with an exudative ascites and constipation. Serum electrophoresis showed a monoclonal peak in the gamma region of 45g/L and immunoelectrophoresis confirmed the presence of monoclonal gammopathy of IgM kappa type. Bone marrow aspirate was normal. Radiologic and endoscopic investigations evidenced a primary colonic mantle cell lymphoma. Although the association of an MG with an NHL and, in particular, to a primitive digestive location appears a rare phenomenon, endoscopic investigations in patients with MG appears legitimate in the presence of any digestive sign.

  1. EFFECT OF CYLOOXYGENASE GENOTYPE AND DIETARY FISH OIL ON COLONIC EICOSANOIDS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Andrew P.; Djuric, Zora; Ren, Jianwei; Hong, Yu H.; Sen, Ananda; Lager, Corey; Jiang, Yan; Reuven, Shony; Smith, William L.; Brenner, Dean E.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary ω3 fatty acids can modulate substrate availability for cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, thus modulating downstream eicosanoid formation. This could be an alternative approach to using NSAIDs and other COX inhibitors for limiting PGE2 synthesis in colon cancer prevention. The aims of this study were to evaluate to what extent cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-derived products could be modulated by dietary fish oil in normal colonic mucosa, and to evaluate the role of COX-1 and COX-2 in formation of these products. Mice (wild-type, COX-1 null, or COX-2 null) were fed a diet supplying a broad mixture of fatty acids present in European/American diets, supplemented with either olive oil (oleate control diet) or menhaden (fish) oil ad libitum for 9–11 wk. Colonic eicosanoid levels were measured by LC-MS/MS, and proliferation was assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Dietary alteration of colonic arachidonic acid: eicosapentaenoic ratios resulted in large shifts in formation of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites. COX-1 knockout virtually abolished PGE2 formation but interestingly 12-HETE and 15-HETE formation was increased. The large changes in eicosanoid profiles were accompanied by relatively small changes in colonic crypt proliferation, but such changes in eicosanoid formation might have greater biological impact upon carcinogen challenge. These results indicate that in normal colon, inhibition of COX-2 would have little effect on reducing PGE2 levels. PMID:21937210

  2. Hydrogen sulfide lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya C; Wang, Xiao J; Yu, Le; Chan, Francis K L; Cheng, Alfred S L; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y; Wu, William K K; Cho, Chi H

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H(2)S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC) and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116) were exposed to H(2)S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H(2)S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H(2)S was accompanied by G(1)-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip). Moreover, exposure to H(2)S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B(+) autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H(2)S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H(2)S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H(2)S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H(2)S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway. PMID:22679478

  3. [Measures to anatomic variations of the colonic vessels in laparoscopic operations].

    PubMed

    Pan, Kai

    2013-10-01

    In laparoscopic colorectal resection, the poor blood supply of the anastomosis after tumor excision is difficult to be determined during the operations sometimes. The change in blood supply of the bowel is mainly due to the mesenteric anatomy and the operative techniques. The direct blood supply of colon is the marginal vessels in the mesentery. The integrity and patency of the marginal vessels determine the vitality of the bowel. However, the marginal vessels are different in diameter, pulsation or even discontinue in various areas, affecting the excision of the colon and following anastomosis. The most common three dangerous areas to anastomosis include:(1)area between ileocolic artery and right colonic artery; (2)area between middle colonic artery and left colonic artery-the Griffiths point. (3)area between the terminal branch of sigmoid colonic artery and superior rectal artery-Sudeck dangerous area. In laparoscopic colorectal resection, one should pay attention to protect the blood supply of the bowel and the marginal blood vessels, and be vigilant to the three vascular variations above mentioned. The vessels should be ligated accurately to ensure sufficient blood supply to the anastomosis and consequent normal healing of the rectal and colonic anastomosis. More attention should be paid to the elderly, morbid, and diabetic patients. If the safety of the anastomosis is unsure, prophylactic ileostomy should be performed. PMID:24158864

  4. Activation of ERK signaling and induction of colon cancer cell death by piperlongumine.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, H; Kibble, K; Zeng, H; Moyer, M P; Reindl, K M

    2013-09-01

    Piperlongumine (PPLGM) is a bioactive compound isolated from long peppers that shows selective toxicity towards a variety of cancer cell types including colon cancer. The signaling pathways that lead to cancer cell death in response to PPLGM exposure have not been previously identified. Our objective was to identify the intracellular signaling mechanisms by which PPLGM leads to enhanced colon cancer cell death. We found that PPLGM inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in time- and concentration-dependent manners, but was not toxic toward normal colon mucosal cells at concentrations below 10 μM. Acute (0-60 min) and prolonged (24h) exposure of HT-29 cells to PPLGM resulted in phosphorylation of ERK. To investigate whether ERK signaling was involved in PPLGM-mediated cell death, we treated HT-29 cells with the MEK inhibitor U0126, prior to treating with PPLGM. We found that U0126 attenuated PPLGM-induced activation of ERK and partially protected against PPLGM-induced cell death. These results suggest that PPLGM works, at least in part, through the MEK/ERK pathway to result in colon cancer cell death. A more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which PPLGM induces colon cancer cell death will be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to treat colon cancer.

  5. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Colon Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Chi H L; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Zhang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Obesity induces chronic, low-grade inflammation, which increases the risk of colon cancer. We investigated the preventive effects of Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation in a mouse colon. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=7) were fed a HFD (HFD group), HFD plus BARD (10 mg/kg) in drinking water (HFD/BARD group), or normal laboratory chow diet (LFD group) for 21 weeks. In HFD mice, BARD reduced colon thickness and decreased colon weight per length. This was associated with an increase in colon crypt depth and the number of goblet cells per crypt. BARD reduced the expression of F4/80 and CD11c but increased CD206 and IL-10, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD prevented an increase of the intracellular pro-inflammatory biomarkers (NF-қB, p NF-қB, IL-6, TNF-α) and cell proliferation markers (Cox2 and Ki67). BARD prevented fat deposition in the colon wall and prevented microbial population changes. Overall, we report the preventive effects of BARD on colon inflammation in HFD-fed mice through its regulation of macrophages, NF-қB, cytokines, Cox2 and Ki67, fat deposition and microflora.

  6. Best Merge Region Growing Segmentation with Integrated Non-Adjacent Region Object Aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Montesano, Paul M.; Gofman, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Best merge region growing normally produces segmentations with closed connected region objects. Recognizing that spectrally similar objects often appear in spatially separate locations, we present an approach for tightly integrating best merge region growing with non-adjacent region object aggregation, which we call Hierarchical Segmentation or HSeg. However, the original implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg required excessive computing time even for moderately sized images because of the required intercomparison of each region with all other regions. This problem was previously addressed by a recursive approximation of HSeg, called RHSeg. In this paper we introduce a refined implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg that reduces the computational requirements of HSeg without resorting to the recursive approximation. In this refinement, HSeg s region inter-comparisons among non-adjacent regions are limited to regions of a dynamically determined minimum size. We show that this refined version of HSeg can process moderately sized images in about the same amount of time as RHSeg incorporating the original HSeg. Nonetheless, RHSeg is still required for processing very large images due to its lower computer memory requirements and amenability to parallel processing. We then note a limitation of RHSeg with the original HSeg for high spatial resolution images, and show how incorporating the refined HSeg into RHSeg overcomes this limitation. The quality of the image segmentations produced by the refined HSeg is then compared with other available best merge segmentation approaches. Finally, we comment on the unique nature of the hierarchical segmentations produced by HSeg.

  7. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  8. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  9. The destruction complex of beta-catenin in colorectal carcinoma and colonic adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Bourroul, Guilherme Muniz; Fragoso, Hélio José; Gomes, José Walter Feitosa; Bourroul, Vivian Sati Oba; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Gomes, Thiago Simão; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Palma, Rogério Tadeu; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the destruction complex of beta-catenin by the expression of the proteins beta-catetenin, adenomatous polyposis coli, GSK3β, axin and ubiquitin in colorectal carcinoma and colonic adenoma. Methods Tissue samples from 64 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 53 patients with colonic adenoma were analyzed. Tissue microarray blocks and slides were prepared and subjected to immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies in carcinoma, adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa, and adenoma tissues. The immunoreactivity was evaluated by the percentage of positive stained cells and by the intensity assessed through of the stained grade of proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. In the statistical analysis, the Spearman correlation coefficient, Student’s t, χ2, Mann-Whitney, and McNemar tests, and univariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results In colorectal carcinoma, the expressions of beta-catenin and adenomatous polyposis coli proteins were significantly higher than in colonic adenomas (p<0.001 and p<0.0001, respectively). The immunoreactivity of GSK3β, axin 1 and ubiquitin proteins was significantly higher (p=0.03, p=0.039 and p=0.03, respectively) in colorectal carcinoma than in the colonic adenoma and adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa. The immunohistochemistry staining of these proteins did not show significant differences with the clinical and pathological characteristics of colorectal cancer and colonic adenoma. Conclusions These results suggest that, in adenomas, the lower expression of the beta-catenin, axin 1 and GSK3β proteins indicated that the destruction complex of beta-catenin was maintained, while in colorectal carcinoma, the increased expression of beta-catenin, GSK3β, axin 1, and ubiquitin proteins indicated that the destruction complex of beta-catenin was disrupted. PMID:27462886

  10. An In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant and Colonic Microbial Profile Levels following Mushroom Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Vamanu, Emanuel; Avram, Ionela; Nita, Sultana

    2013-01-01

    The biological activity of mushroom consumption is achieved by the antioxidant effect of constituent biomolecules released during digestion. In the following study, the consumption of mushroom fungi was determined to increase the number of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains within the colon. The main phenolic antioxidant compounds identified were both gentisic and homogentisic acids. Moreover, the flavonoid catechin as well as a significant amount of δ- and γ-tocopherols was determined. The amount of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains from different sections of the human colon was significantly correlated with levels of antioxidative biomolecules. The experimental data clearly demonstrate a significant impact of mushroom consumption on the fermentative function of microorganisms in the human colon, resulting in the homeostasis of normal physiological colonic functions. PMID:24027755

  11. DNA Topoisomerase I-Targeted Chemotherapy of Human Colon Cancer in Xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanella, Beppino C.; Stehlin, John S.; Wall, Monroe E.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Nicholas, Allan W.; Liu, Leroy F.; Silber, Robert; Potmesil, Milan

    1989-11-01

    Drug development is needed to improve chemotherapy of patients with locally advanced or metastatic colon carcinoma, who otherwise have an unfavorable prognosis. DNA topoisomerase I, a nuclear enzyme important for solving topological problems arising during DNA replication and for other cellular functions, has been identified as a principal target of a plant alkaloid 20 (S)-camptothecin. Significantly increased concentrations of this enzyme, compared to that in normal colonic mucosa, were found in advanced stages of human colon adenocarcinoma and in xenografts of colon cancer carried by immunodeficient mice. Several synthetic analogs of camptothecin, selected by tests with the purified enzyme and tissue-culture screens, were evaluated in the xenograft model. Unlike other anticancer drugs tested, 20(RS)-9-amino-camptothecin (9-AC) induced disease-free remissions. The overall drug toxicity was low and allowed for repeated courses of treatment.

  12. Resveratrol oligomers isolated from Carex species inhibit growth of human colon tumorigenic cells mediated by cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Gromek, Samantha; Niesen, Daniel; Seeram, Navindra P; Henry, Geneive E

    2011-08-24

    Research has shown that members of the Carex genus produce biologically active stilbenoids including resveratrol oligomers. This is of great interest to the nutraceutical industry given that resveratrol, a constituent of grape and red wine, has attracted immense research attention due to its potential human health benefits. In the current study, five resveratrol oligomers (isolated from Carex folliculata and Carex gynandra ), along with resveratrol, were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon cancer (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and normal human colon (CCD-18Co) cells. The resveratrol oligomers included one dimer, two trimers, and two tetramers: pallidol (1); α-viniferin (2) and trans-miyabenol C (3); and kobophenols A (4) and B (5), respectively. Although not cytotoxic, the resveratrol oligomers (1-5), as well as resveratrol, inhibited growth of the human colon cancer cells. Among the six stilbenoids, α-viniferin (2) was most active against the colon cancer cells with IC(50) values of 6-32 μM (>2-fold compared to normal colon cells). Moreover, α-viniferin (at 20 μM) did not induce apoptosis but arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) for the colon cancer but not the normal colon cells. This study adds to the growing body of knowledge supporting the anticancer effects of resveratrol and its oligomers. Furthermore, Carex species should be investigated for their nutraceutical potential given that they produce biologically active stilbenoids such as α-viniferin. PMID:21761862

  13. Resveratrol oligomers isolated from Carex species inhibit growth of human colon tumorigenic cells mediated by cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Gromek, Samantha; Niesen, Daniel; Seeram, Navindra P; Henry, Geneive E

    2011-08-24

    Research has shown that members of the Carex genus produce biologically active stilbenoids including resveratrol oligomers. This is of great interest to the nutraceutical industry given that resveratrol, a constituent of grape and red wine, has attracted immense research attention due to its potential human health benefits. In the current study, five resveratrol oligomers (isolated from Carex folliculata and Carex gynandra ), along with resveratrol, were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon cancer (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and normal human colon (CCD-18Co) cells. The resveratrol oligomers included one dimer, two trimers, and two tetramers: pallidol (1); α-viniferin (2) and trans-miyabenol C (3); and kobophenols A (4) and B (5), respectively. Although not cytotoxic, the resveratrol oligomers (1-5), as well as resveratrol, inhibited growth of the human colon cancer cells. Among the six stilbenoids, α-viniferin (2) was most active against the colon cancer cells with IC(50) values of 6-32 μM (>2-fold compared to normal colon cells). Moreover, α-viniferin (at 20 μM) did not induce apoptosis but arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) for the colon cancer but not the normal colon cells. This study adds to the growing body of knowledge supporting the anticancer effects of resveratrol and its oligomers. Furthermore, Carex species should be investigated for their nutraceutical potential given that they produce biologically active stilbenoids such as α-viniferin.

  14. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  15. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  16. The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibition of human colon cancer growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salerno, J W; Smith, D E

    1991-01-01

    Sesame contains large quantities of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), linoleic acid, in the form triglycerides. The antineoplastic properties of many PUFAs such as linoleic acid and their metabolites are known. We tested the hypothesis that natural vegetable oils, such as sesame oil and its component linoleic acid, when added to human colon adenocarcinoma cells growing in tissue culture would inhibit their growth and that normal colon cells would not be similarly affected. Three human colon cancer cell lines and one normal human colon cell line were exposed to the following: (1) pure linoleic acid; (2) lipase-digested sesame oil; (3) undigested sesame oil; (4) five additional common vegetable oils; (5) mineral oil. Linoleic acid inhibited the in vitro growth of all three malignant human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. The normal colon cell line showed dramatically less inhibition of growth. Lipase-digested sesame oil (LDSO) and undigested sesame oil (UDSO) produced greater inhibition of growth of all three malignant colon cell lines than of the normal colon cells. Five other common vegetable oils containing various amounts of PUFAs such as corn, soybean, safflower, olive and coconut oils, all in their lipase-digested form, were found to dramatically inhibit the growth of the HT-29 malignant human colon cell line. Undigested olive and safflower oils also inhibited the HT-29 cells although not as markedly as the lipase-digested oils. Mineral oil did not inhibit the growth of HT-29 cells. Both lauric and palmitic acid, which are saturated fatty acids found in abundance in coconut oil inhibits the HT-29 cells more strongly than linoleic acid, while oleic acid did not inhibit. We conclude that many vegetable oils including sesame contain in vitro antineoplastic properties and that this finding warrants further investigation both in vitro and in vivo to assess their possible chemotherapeutic potential.

  17. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Information Page Synonym(s): Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure Table ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus? Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an abnormal ...

  18. Polymers for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H.; Sharma, P.; Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.

    2010-01-01

    The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739

  19. Primary Isolated Extramedullary Plasmacytoma in the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Byung-Kwon; Baek, Sung-Uhn; Chang, Hee-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Primary isolated extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare tumor. Although it commonly involves nasopharynx or upper respiratory tract, only 10% of cases involves the gastrointestinal tract. Stomach and small intestine are the most commonly involved sites in the gastrointestinal tract. Primary isolated extramedullary plasmacytoma of colon is extremely rare. We report a case of 45-year-old man who presented with 1-year history of lower abdominal pain. Colonoscopy showed a colonic stricture about 50 cm from the anal verge. Colonoscopic biopsy showed lymphoid hyperplasia. On computed tomography, enhancing circumferential wall thickening and luminal narrowing with pericolic lymph node enlargement in the transverse colon was identified. Patient underwent extended left hemicolectomy. Histopathologic examination of resected colon identified an isolated primary colonic plasmacytoma of 1.7 cm in diameter with regional lymph node involvement (8/50 positive). To administer adequate treatment, further study about clinical features of primary isolated extramedullary plasmacytoma of colon is necessary.

  20. Respiratory burst activity of intestinal macrophages in normal and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mahida, Y R; Wu, K C; Jewell, D P

    1989-01-01

    Macrophages isolated from normal mucosa (greater than 5 cm from tumour) and inflamed mucosa (from patients with inflammatory bowel disease) of colon and ileum were studied for their ability to undergo a respiratory burst as assessed by reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium to formazan. Using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonised zymosan as triggers, only a minority (median: 8% for zymosan and 9% for PMA) of macrophages isolated from normal colonic mucosa demonstrated release of oxygen radicals. In contrast, a significantly greater (median: 17% for zymosan and 45% for PMA) proportion of macrophages isolated from inflamed colonic mucosa were able to undergo respiratory burst. Studies with normal and inflamed ileum showed similar results. Stimulation of macrophages isolated from normal colon with interferon-gamma produced only a small increase in the proportion of cells showing release of oxygen radicals. We conclude that the respiratory burst capacity of majority of macrophages isolated from normal colon and ileum is downregulated and a greater proportion of macrophages isolated from inflamed colon and ileum are able to undergo a respiratory burst. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2511088

  1. FXR silencing in human colon cancer by DNA methylation and KRAS signaling.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ann M; Zhan, Le; Maru, Dipen; Shureiqi, Imad; Pickering, Curtis R; Kiriakova, Galina; Izzo, Julie; He, Nan; Wei, Caimiao; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Liang, Han; Kopetz, Scott; Powis, Garth; Guo, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid nuclear receptor described through mouse knockout studies as a tumor suppressor for the development of colon adenocarcinomas. This study investigates the regulation of FXR in the development of human colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry of FXR in normal tissue (n = 238), polyps (n = 32), and adenocarcinomas, staged I-IV (n = 43, 39, 68, and 9), of the colon; RT-quantitative PCR, reverse-phase protein array, and Western blot analysis in 15 colon cancer cell lines; NR1H4 promoter methylation and mRNA expression in colon cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas; DNA methyltransferase inhibition; methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP); bisulfite sequencing; and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) knockdown assessment to investigate FXR regulation in colon cancer development. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that expression and function of FXR was reduced in precancerous lesions and silenced in a majority of stage I-IV tumors. FXR expression negatively correlated with phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3 kinase signaling and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The NR1H4 promoter is methylated in ~12% colon cancer The Cancer Genome Atlas samples, and methylation patterns segregate with tumor subtypes. Inhibition of DNA methylation and KRAS silencing both increased FXR expression. FXR expression is decreased early in human colon cancer progression, and both DNA methylation and KRAS signaling may be contributing factors to FXR silencing. FXR potentially suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and other oncogenic signaling cascades, and restoration of FXR activity, by blocking silencing mechanisms or increasing residual FXR activity, represents promising therapeutic options for the treatment of colon cancer.

  2. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Steven B.; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD. PMID:27144209

  3. Spontaneous colonic adenocarcinoma in marmosets.

    PubMed

    Lushbaugh, C C; Humason, G L; Swartzendruber, D C; Richter, C B; Gengozian, N

    1978-01-01

    We find that colonic adenocarcinoma, which is an extremely rare neoplasm of all animals except man and carcinogen-treated rodents, occurs spontaneously in some marmosets. The cotton-topped Saguinus oedipus oedipus is particularly prone to develop it, but we have found it also at necropsy in Callimico goeldii (Goeldi's marmoset). Numerous metastases to regional lymph nodes develop. The cancers arise de novo in the mucosa and early invade the submucosa and lymphatic apparatus and paracolonic lymph nodes. These findings and the continuing occurrence of this cancer in our colony suggests that the marmoset may be the long-sought primate model for experimental intestinal carcinogenesis.

  4. [A Case of Invasive Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Carcinoma, Penetrating the Stomach, Colon, and Jejunum].

    PubMed

    Goto, Tadahiro; Toyama, Hirochika; Asari, Sadaki; Terai, Sachio; Kinoshita, Hisoka; Matsumoto, Taku; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Tanaka, Motofumi; Takebe, Atsushi; Kido, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Ippei; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

    2015-11-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to a nearby clinic complaining of abdominal pain. Abdominal CT showed a 10 cm diameter huge cystic lesion in the body and tail of the pancreas. The patient was referred to our institution for treatment. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed a cystic mass with a solid lesion. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP) demonstrated mucous at the opening of the papilla of Vater and dilatation of the pancreatic duct with a solid nodule. Contrast radiography revealed a fistula from the tumor to the jejunum. A biopsy specimen from the lesion showed adenocarcinoma. Intraoperative findings showed a tumor occupying the pancreas body and tail with suspected invasion to the stomach, jejunum, and transverse colon. We performed distal pancreatectomy with partial resection of stomach, jejunum, and colon. Pathological findings showed an invasive type of IPMC, with invasion to the subserosal layer of the stomach and colon and the mucous layer of the jejunum. While IPMC is recognized as a slow growing malignancy, some cases of invasive carcinoma with fistulation into adjacent organs have been reported. To our knowledge, a case of IPMC penetrating to 3 adjacent organs is rare.

  5. The aging prostate is never "normal": implications from the genomic characterization of multifocal prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Schlomm, Thorsten; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan; Sauter, Guido

    2015-09-01

    We argue against the recently published statement that tumor-specific molecular alterations found in "normal" prostate tissue from cancer patients challenge focal therapy approaches that only target a visible cancer lesion and not the adjacent molecular field.

  6. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  7. 12. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO THE STEEL PLANT OFFICES. BAR AND BILLET MILLS AND, IN THE DISTANCE, THE BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES MAY BE SEEN. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  10. 11. Interior detail, Boiler Room, fire door to the adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior detail, Boiler Room, fire door to the adjacent Blacksmith Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN BUILDING (BASSIN'S RESTAURANT) (HABS No. DC-357), 501-511 14TH STREET (THE LOCKER ROOM) HABS No. DC-356) ON CORNER, AND MUNSEY BUILDING (HABS No. DC-358) - William J. Stone Building, 1345 E Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  18. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  19. 4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

  20. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  1. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  2. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  4. Quantitative measurement of feline colonic transit

    SciTech Connect

    Krevsky, B.; Somers, M.B.; Maurer, A.H.; Malmud, L.S.; Knight, L.C.; Fisher, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Colonic transit scintigraphy, a method for quantitatively evaluating the movement of the fecal stream in vivo, was employed to evaluate colonic transit in the cat. Scintigraphy was performed in duplicate in five cats and repeated four times in one cat. After instillation of an 111In marker into the cecum through a surgically implanted silicone cecostomy tube, colonic movement of the instillate was quantitated for 24 h using gamma scintigraphy. Antegrade and retrograde motion of radionuclide was observed. The cecum and ascending colon emptied rapidly, with a half-emptying time of 1.68 +/- 0.56 h (mean +/- SE). After 24 h, 25.1 +/- 5.2% of the activity remained in the transverse colon. The progression of the geometric center was initially rapid, followed later by a delayed phase. Geometric center reproducibility was found to be high when analyzed using simple linear regression (slope = 0.92; r = 0.73; P less than 0.01). Atropine (0.1 mg/kg im) was found to delay cecum and ascending colon emptying and delay progression of the geometric center. These results demonstrate both 1) the ability of colonic transit scintigraphy to detect changes in transit induced by pharmacological manipulation and 2) the fact that muscarinic blockade inhibits antegrade transit of the fecal stream. We conclude that feline colonic transit may be studied in a quantitative and reproducible manner with colonic transit scintigraphy.

  5. The city-fox phenomenon: genetic consequences of a recent colonization of urban habitat.

    PubMed

    Wandeler, P; Funk, S M; Largiadèr, C R; Gloor, S; Breitenmoser, U

    2003-03-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is one of the best-documented examples of a species that has successfully occupied cities and their suburbs during the last century. The city of Zurich (Switzerland) was colonized by red foxes 15 years ago and the number of recorded individuals has increased steadily since then. Here, we assessed the hypothesis that the fox population within the city of Zurich is isolated from adjacent rural fox populations against the alternative hypothesis that urban habitat acts as a constant sink for rural dispersers. We examined 11 microsatellite loci in 128 foxes from two urban areas, separated by the main river crossing the city, and three adjacent rural areas from the region of Zurich. Mean observed heterozygosity across individuals and the number of detected alleles were lower for foxes collected within the city as compared with their rural conspecifics. Genetic differentiation was significantly lower between rural than between rural and urban populations, and highest value of pairwise FST was recorded between the two urban areas. Our results indicate that the two urban areas were independently founded by a small number of individuals from adjacent rural areas resulting in genetic drift and genetic differentiation between rural and urban fox populations. Population admixture and immigration analysis revealed that urban-rural gene flow was higher than expected from FST statistics. In the five to seven generations since colonization, fox density has dramatically increased. Currently observed levels of migration between urban and rural populations will probably erode genetic differentiation over time. PMID:12675821

  6. Effect of coffee on distal colon function.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S R; Cann, P A; Read, N W

    1990-01-01

    Ninety nine healthy young volunteers (58 men, 34 women, aged 17-27 years) answered a questionnaire concerning their bowel habit with particular reference to the effects of beverages. Twenty nine per cent (63% women) claimed that coffee induced a desire to defecate. The rectosigmoid motor responses to black, unsweetened coffee were then investigated by multiport manometry in 14 healthy-subjects (12 men, two women, eight of whom claimed coffee caused a desire to defecate (responders). Results revealed an increase in motility index within four minutes after ingestion of both regular and decaffeinated coffee (p less than 0.05) in the eight responders, but not in the six non-responders. The increase in rectosigmoid motility induced by coffee lasted at least 30 minutes. There was no increase in the motility index in any subject after a drink of hot water. These results suggest that drinking coffee can stimulate a motor response of the distal colon in some normal people. PMID:2338272

  7. Diagnostic value of high-resolution micro-endoscopy for the classification of colon polyps

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tao; Qu, Ya-Wei; Shu, Juan; Liu, Min-Li; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study a new imaging equipment, high-resolution micro-endoscopy (HRME), in the diagnosis and pathological classification of colon polyps. METHODS: We selected 114 specimens of colon polyps, 30 of which were colon polyps with known pathological types and 84 that were prospective polyp specimens; 10 normal colon mucosa specimens served as controls. We obtained images of 30 colon polyp specimens with known pathological types using HRME and analyzed the characteristics of these images to develop HRME diagnostic criteria for different pathological types of colon polyps. Based on these criteria, we performed a prospective study of 84 colon polyp specimens using HRME and compared the results with those of the pathological examination to evaluate the diagnostic value of HRME in the pathological classification of different types of colon polyps. RESULTS: In the 30 cases of known pathological type of colon polyp samples, there were 21 cases of adenomatous polyps, which comprised nine cases of tubular adenoma, seven cases of villous adenoma and five cases of mixed adenomas. The nine cases of non-adenomatous polyps included four cases of inflammatory polyps and five cases of hyperplastic polyps five. Ten cases of normal colonic mucosa were confirmed pathologically. In a prospective study of 84 cases using HRME, 23 cases were diagnosed as inflammatory polyps, 11 cases as hyperplastic polyps, 18 cases as tubular adenoma, eight cases as villous adenoma and 24 cases as mixed adenomas. After pathological examination, 24 cases were diagnosed as inflammatory polyps, 11 cases as hyperplastic polyps, 19 cases as tubular adenoma, eight cases as villous adenoma and 22 cases as mixed adenomas. Compared with the pathological examinations, the sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, and positive and negative predictive values of HRME in diagnosing inflammatory polyps (87.5%, 96.7%, 94.0%, 91.3% and 95.1%), hyperplastic polyps (72.7%, 95.9%, 92.9%, 72.7% and 95.9%), tubular adenomas

  8. Deficient Pms2, ERCC1, Ku86, CcOI in field defects during progression to colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy; Loustaunau, Cristy; Facista, Alexander; Ramsey, Lois; Hassounah, Nadia; Taylor, Hilary; Krouse, Robert; Payne, Claire M; Tsikitis, V Liana; Goldschmid, Steve; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Perini, Rafael F; Bernstein, Carol

    2010-01-01

    In carcinogenesis, the "field defect" is recognized clinically because of the high propensity of survivors of certain cancers to develop other malignancies of the same tissue type, often in a nearby location. Such field defects have been indicated in colon cancer. The molecular abnormalities that are responsible for a field defect in the colon should be detectable at high frequency in the histologically normal tissue surrounding a colonic adenocarcinoma or surrounding an adenoma with advanced neoplasia (well on the way to a colon cancer), but at low frequency in the colonic mucosa from patients without colonic neoplasia. Using immunohistochemistry, entire crypts within 10 cm on each side of colonic adenocarcinomas or advanced colonic neoplasias were found to be frequently reduced or absent in expression for two DNA repair proteins, Pms2 and/or ERCC1. Pms2 is a dual role protein, active in DNA mismatch repair as well as needed in apoptosis of cells with excess DNA damage. ERCC1 is active in DNA nucleotide excision repair. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 would create cells with both increased ability to survive (apoptosis resistance) and increased level of mutability. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 is likely an early step in progression to colon cancer. DNA repair gene Ku86 (active in DNA non-homologous end joining) and Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (involved in apoptosis) had each been reported to be decreased in expression in mucosal areas close to colon cancers. However, immunohistochemical evaluation of their levels of expression showed only low to modest frequencies of crypts to be deficient in their expression in a field defect surrounding colon cancer or surrounding advanced colonic neoplasia. We show, here, our method of evaluation of crypts for expression of ERCC1, Pms2, Ku86 and CcOI. We show that frequency of entire crypts deficient for Pms2 and ERCC1 is often as great as 70% to 95% in 20 cm long areas

  9. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis. PMID:7890244

  10. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis.

  11. Neisseria meningitidis Lactate Permease Is Required for Nasopharyngeal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Rachel M.; Goodwin, Linda; Mowe, Eva; Shaw, Jonathan; Smith, Harry; Read, Robert C.; Tang, Christoph M.

    2005-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human specific pathogen that is part of the normal nasopharyngeal flora. Little is known about the metabolic constraints on survival of the meningococcus during colonization of the upper airways. Here we show that glucose and lactate, both carbon energy sources for meningococcal growth, are present in millimolar concentrations within nasopharyngeal tissue. We used a mutant defective for the uptake of lactate (C311ΔlctP) to investigate the contribution of this energy source during colonization. Explants of nasopharyngeal tissue were inoculated with the wild-type strain (C311) and C311ΔlctP; the mutant was recovered at significantly lower levels (P = 0.01) than C311 18 h later. This defect was not due to changes in the expression of adhesins or initial adhesion in C311ΔlctP to epithelial cells. Instead, lactate appears to be important energy source for the bacterium during colonization and is necessary for growth of the bacterium in nasopharyngeal tissue. Studies with other strains defective for the uptake of specific nutrients should provide valuable information about the environment in which N. meningitidis persists during carriage. PMID:16113293

  12. Thrombin drives tumorigenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Leah; Kombrinck, Keith; Flick, Matthew J.; Steinbrecher, Kris A.; Harmel-Laws, Eleana; Mullins, Eric S.; Shaw, Maureen; Witte, David P.; Revenko, Alexey; Monia, Brett; Palumbo, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    The established association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer underscores the importance of inflammation in colon cancer development. Based on evidence that hemostatic proteases are powerful modifiers of both inflammatory pathologies and tumor biology, gene-targeted mice carrying low levels of prothrombin were used to directly test the hypothesis that prothrombin contributes to tumor development in colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). Remarkably, imposing a modest 50% reduction in circulating prothrombin in fII+/− mice, a level that carries no significant bleeding risk, dramatically decreased adenoma formation following an azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate challenge. Similar results were obtained with pharmacological inhibition of prothrombin expression or inhibition of thrombin proteolytic activity. Detailed longitudinal analyses showed that the role of thrombin in tumor development in CAC was temporally associated with the antecedent inflammatory colitis. However, direct studies of the antecedent colitis showed that mice carrying half-normal prothrombin levels were comparable to control mice in mucosal damage, inflammatory cell infiltration and associated local cytokine levels. These results suggest that thrombin supports early events coupled to inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis in CAC that are distinct from overall inflammation-induced tissue damage and inflammatory cell trafficking. That prothrombin is linked to early events in CAC was strongly inferred by the observation that prothrombin deficiency dramatically reduced the formation of very early, pre-cancerous aberrant crypt foci. Given the importance of inflammation in the development of colon cancer, these studies suggest that therapeutic interventions at the level of hemostatic factors may be an effective means to prevent and/or impede colitis-associated colon cancer progression. PMID:24710407

  13. Dual Optical Modality Endoscopic Imaging of Cancer Development in the Mouse Colon

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Molly R.; Leung, Sarah J.; Rice, Photini S.; Wall, R. Andrew; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective We utilize a miniature, dual-modality endoscope that combines fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy (SMC) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to follow the anatomical changes that occur during adenoma development in the mouse colon. Materials and Methods Twenty-five mice were treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) to induce tumor development in the distal colon, or were treated with saline as control, and were imaged over six months. OCT detects adenoma number with high sensitivity and specificity and can measure lesion size. In methylene blue-lavaged colons, SMC detects changes in the colonic crypts. SMC images of control mouse colons exhibit reticulated patterns of crypts of equal size, forming either a dot or honeycomb pattern. Results Images of AOM-treated colons show mild crypt irregularities even in grossly normal tissue. Images of small to medium adenoma exhibit larger crypts, more intense signal, and irregular spacing whereas those of large adenoma have heterogeneous, intense signal and loss of crypt structure. Conclusions The combination of OCT and SMC permits the detection of neoplastic events from the earliest stages of crypt irregularities before gross tissue changes are noted, through to measuring the growth of protruding adenoma. PMID:25449147

  14. Paediatric and adult colonic manometry: A tool to help unravel the pathophysiology of constipation

    PubMed Central

    Dinning, Philip G; Benninga, Marc A; Southwell, Bridget R; Scott, S Mark

    2010-01-01

    Colonic motility subserves large bowel functions, including absorption, storage, propulsion and defaecation. Colonic motor dysfunction remains the leading hypothesis to explain symptom generation in chronic constipation, a heterogeneous condition which is extremely prevalent in the general population, and has huge socioeconomic impact and individual suffering. Physiological testing plays a crucial role in patient management, as it is now accepted that symptom-based assessment, although important, is unsatisfactory as the sole means of directing therapy. Colonic manometry provides a direct method for studying motor activities of the large bowel, and this review provides a contemporary understanding of how this technique has enhanced our knowledge of normal colonic motor physiology, as well as helping to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying constipation. Methodological approaches, including available catheter types, placement technique and recording protocols, are covered, along with a detailed description of recorded colonic motor activities. This review also critically examines the role of colonic manometry in current clinical practice, and how manometric assessment may aid diagnosis, classification and guide therapeutic intervention in the constipated individual. Most importantly, this review considers both adult and paediatric patients. Limitations of the procedure and a look to the future are also addressed. PMID:21049550

  15. Targeting the metabolic pathway of human colon cancer overcomes resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Ryan M; Qiao, Guilin; Qin, Jianzhong; Jayaraman, Sundararajan; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for which targeted therapy is needed; however, trials using apoptosis-inducing ligand monotherapy to overcome resistance to apoptosis have not shown clinical responses. Since colon cancer cells selectively uptake and rapidly metabolize glucose, a property utilized for clinical staging, we investigated mechanisms to alter glucose metabolism in order to selectively target the cancer cells and to overcome evasion of apoptosis. We demonstrate TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) resistance in the majority of human colon cancers tested and utilize the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose to sensitize TRAIL-resistant gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells, and not normal gastrointestinal epithelial cells, to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through enhanced death receptor 5 expression, downstream modulation of MAPK signaling and subsequent miRNA expression modulation by increasing the expression of miR-494 via MEK activation. Further, established human colon cancer xenografts treated with this strategy experience anti-tumor responses. These findings in colon adenocarcinoma support further investigation of manipulation of cellular energetics to selectively overcome resistance to apoptosis and to impart tumor regressions in established colon cancer tumors. PMID:27648301

  16. High chromogranin A cell density in the colon of patients with lymphocytic colitis.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, M; Lomholt-Beck, B; Gundersen, T D

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic condition that is characterized by watery diarrhoea with normal appearance of the colonic mucosa. MC is subdivided into two distinctive entities: lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). The etiology and pathophysiology of LC remain to be determined. The present study included 9 female patients with LC, with an average age of 34 years. Subjects (n=25) who underwent colonoscopy were used as controls. The subjects underwent colonoscopy due to gastrointestinal bleeding, where the source of bleeding was identified as haemorrhoids, or due to health concerns. The control subjects included 18 females and 7 males, with an average age of 49 years. Colonoscopy was performed in both patient and control groups, and biopsies were obtained from different segments of the colon. The biopsies were immunostained with the avidin-biotin complex method for human leucocytes CD45, collagen type III and chromogranin A (CgA). CgA was quantified by computer image analysis. The density of CgA-immunoreactive cells in patients with LC was significantly higher than that in controls. The high density of colonic CgA, a common marker for endocrine cells, indicates the possibility that colonic hormones are involved in the pathophysiology of LC. Serotonin-containing cells are the major endocrine cell type in the colon and constitute approximately 88% of the total endocrine cell population. It is likely that the increase in colonic CgA in LC patients accounts for an increase in serotonin cells. PMID:21584496

  17. Role of intestinal microflora in chronic inflammation and ulceration of the rat colon.

    PubMed Central

    Videla, S; Vilaseca, J; Guarner, F; Salas, A; Treserra, F; Crespo, E; Antolín, M; Malagelada, J R

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria and their products stimulate inflammatory responses. The effects of different antimicrobial regimens (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, tobramycin, imipenem, vancomycin, metronidazole) were investigated on the course of experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNB) in the rat. On day 7 and 21 after the induction of colitis, matched groups of control and antibiotic treated rats were subjected to colonic dialysis to measure eicosanoid release, and killed for morphological assessment of the colonic lesions (macro and microscopic scores). Stool samples were cultured. Selective antibiotic treatment against Gram positive, Gram negative or anaerobic bacteria had no effect on colonic lesion scores. By contrast, certain broad spectrum antibiotics (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or the association of imipenem plus vancomycin) significantly reduced macro and microscopic scores. Rats receiving these antibiotics did not develop chronic colitis as shown by the virtual absence of colonic strictures, adhesions, fibrosis, and granulomas. On day 21 after TNB, the intracolonic release of prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4 was significantly higher in control than in antibiotic treated rats. Control stool cultures showed abundant colony forming units of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and imipenem plus vancomycin induced appreciable reductions in luminal bacteria. In conclusion, certain broad spectrum antibiotics prevent chronic colitis. The normal colonic flora seems to play an important pathogenetic part in the progression of inflammatory colonic lesions to chronicity. PMID:7926912

  18. Targeting the metabolic pathway of human colon cancer overcomes resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ryan M; Qiao, Guilin; Qin, Jianzhong; Jayaraman, Sundararajan; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for which targeted therapy is needed; however, trials using apoptosis-inducing ligand monotherapy to overcome resistance to apoptosis have not shown clinical responses. Since colon cancer cells selectively uptake and rapidly metabolize glucose, a property utilized for clinical staging, we investigated mechanisms to alter glucose metabolism in order to selectively target the cancer cells and to overcome evasion of apoptosis. We demonstrate TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) resistance in the majority of human colon cancers tested and utilize the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose to sensitize TRAIL-resistant gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells, and not normal gastrointestinal epithelial cells, to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through enhanced death receptor 5 expression, downstream modulation of MAPK signaling and subsequent miRNA expression modulation by increasing the expression of miR-494 via MEK activation. Further, established human colon cancer xenografts treated with this strategy experience anti-tumor responses. These findings in colon adenocarcinoma support further investigation of manipulation of cellular energetics to selectively overcome resistance to apoptosis and to impart tumor regressions in established colon cancer tumors. PMID:27648301

  19. Targeting the metabolic pathway of human colon cancer overcomes resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Ryan M; Qiao, Guilin; Qin, Jianzhong; Jayaraman, Sundararajan; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for which targeted therapy is needed; however, trials using apoptosis-inducing ligand monotherapy to overcome resistance to apoptosis have not shown clinical responses. Since colon cancer cells selectively uptake and rapidly metabolize glucose, a property utilized for clinical staging, we investigated mechanisms to alter glucose metabolism in order to selectively target the cancer cells and to overcome evasion of apoptosis. We demonstrate TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) resistance in the majority of human colon cancers tested and utilize the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose to sensitize TRAIL-resistant gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells, and not normal gastrointestinal epithelial cells, to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through enhanced death receptor 5 expression, downstream modulation of MAPK signaling and subsequent miRNA expression modulation by increasing the expression of miR-494 via MEK activation. Further, established human colon cancer xenografts treated with this strategy experience anti-tumor responses. These findings in colon adenocarcinoma support further investigation of manipulation of cellular energetics to selectively overcome resistance to apoptosis and to impart tumor regressions in established colon cancer tumors.

  20. Discordance between peripheral and colonic markers of inflammation during suppressive ART

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Richard M.; Vujkovic-Cvijin, Ivan; Yukl, Steven A.; Broadhurst, Mara J.; Loke, P’ng; Albright, Rebecca G.; Wong, Joseph K.; Lederman, Michael M.; Somsouk, Ma; Hunt, Peter W.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; McCune, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Persistent systemic inflammation is associated with the inability of some HIV-infected patients to normalize circulating CD4+ T-cell levels after years of suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this work, we sought to understand whether such systemic inflammation is also associated with detectable signs of inflammation in biopsies from the rectosigmoid colon. Design Immunologic and virologic parameters were studied in in the peripheral blood and in rectosigmoid colon biopsies from individuals with viral suppression for at least two years and with peripheral CD4+ T-cell levels <350 cell/mm3 (immunologic nonresponders, n=18) or >500 cell/mm3 (immunologic responders, n=16). Methods Peripheral blood and rectosigmoid colon biopsies were analyzed by flow cytometry, ELISA, and quantitative PCR. Results Non-responders had elevated T-cell activation and inflammatory cytokines in the circulation, but inflammatory gene expression in colon biopsies was not different as compared to responders and there was little relationship between blood and colon markers of inflammation. Blood inflammatory markers were positively associated with sCD14 levels indicative of monocyte activation. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that, in the context of treated HIV disease, it is easier to detect parameters of inflammation (including blood monocyte activation) in the peripheral blood than in isolated rectosigmoid colon biopsies. Accordingly, interventions to block such inflammation in this population might be most conveniently and accurately assessed in blood. PMID:24121758

  1. Bile acid induced colonic irritation stimulates intracolonic nitric oxide release in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Casellas, F; Mourelle, M; Papo, M; Guarner, F; Antolin, M; Armengol, J R; Malagelada, J R

    1996-01-01

    AIM--To measure the intracolonic release of nitric oxide end products (nitrates plus nitrites) and eicosanoids in response to intraluminal irritation with deoxycholic acid (DCA). PATIENTS--Seven patients with irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS--The left colon was perfused with a solution with or without 3 mM deoxycholic acid. Aspirates were assayed for eicosanoids by specific radioimmuno-assay, and for nitrates plus nitrites by the Griess reaction. To confirm that stimulated colonic mucosa can produce nitric oxide (NO), ancillary studies were performed in vitro using samples of normal mucosa obtained from five surgically resected colons. Samples were incubated for 30 minutes in Kreb's solution, 3 mM DCA or DCA with 1 mM L-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME) to inhibit the NO synthase. Finally, NO synthase activity was measured in five samples of human colonic mucosa. RESULTS--Intracolonic release of nitrates plus nitrites was basally undetectable in six of seven patients. Bile acid considerably increased the release of prostaglandin E2 and nitrates plus nitrites (p < 0.01). By contrast, no increase in thromboxane and leukotriene was seen. In vitro mucosal incubation with DCA increased the production of NO synthase products, which was blocked by L-NAME. Activity of Ca+2 independent NO synthase was detectable in four of five samples of human colonic mucosa. CONCLUSION--The human colonic mucosa responds to bile acid induced irritation by a surge in NO generation via NO synthase. PMID:8707118

  2. A sentinel goblet cell guards the colonic crypt by triggering Nlrp6-dependent Muc2 secretion.

    PubMed

    Birchenough, George M H; Nyström, Elisabeth E L; Johansson, Malin E V; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2016-06-24

    Innate immune signaling pathways contribute to the protection of host tissue when bacterially challenged. Colonic goblet cells are responsible for generating the two mucus layers that physically separate the luminal microbiota from the host epithelium. Analysis of colonic tissues from multiple mouse strains allowed us to identify a "sentinel" goblet cell (senGC) localized to the colonic crypt entrance. This cell nonspecifically endocytoses and reacts to the TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR5 ligands by activating the Nlrp6 inflammasome downstream of TLR- and MyD88-dependent Nox/Duox reactive oxygen species synthesis. This triggers calcium ion-dependent compound exocytosis of Muc2 mucin from the senGC and generates an intercellular gap junction signal; in turn, this signal induces Muc2 secretion from adjacent goblet cells in the upper crypt, which expels bacteria. Thus, senGCs guard and protect the colonic crypt from bacterial intruders that have penetrated the inner mucus layer. PMID:27339979

  3. [The intraoperative colonic irrigation in emergency surgery].

    PubMed

    Kiss, L

    2001-01-01

    Bowel preparations is frequently impossible in various ante colonic diseases, such as left-sided colonic obstruction. The goal of intraoperative colonic irrigation is to obtain, during surgery, a bowel preparation offering the possibility of primary resection with immediate anastomosis, when preoperative bowel preparation has not been feasible. Technical aspects of intra-operative colonic irrigation are described. Indications for this methods are presented: left-sided obstructing carcinomas, diverticulitis, more rarely inflammatory stenosis or functional obstruction. The surgical management of left colonic emergencies has evolved in the past few decades. Recently, there has been increasing interest in resection with primary anastomosis in selected cases. The post operative mortality rate was 13 per cent. The incidence of clinical anastomotic leakage was 6.65 per cent. PMID:12731192

  4. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    PubMed

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life.

  5. New adjacent Bis-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Rong; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-03-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annocatacin A ( 1). and annocatacin B ( 2). from the seeds and the leaves, respectively, of Annona muricata. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples where the adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran ring system is located at C-15. The new structures were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. Both Annonaceous acetogenins 1 and 2 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity toward the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G2 and 2,2,15, and were compared with the known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, neoannonin ( 3). desacetyluvaricin ( 4). bullatacin ( 5). asimicin ( 6). annoglaucin ( 7). squamocin ( 8). and rollimusin ( 9).

  6. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  7. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  8. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  9. Jaw position uncertainty and adjacent fields in breast cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Emma; Bäck, Anna; Chakarova, Roumiana

    2015-11-08

    Locoregional treatment of breast cancer involves adjacent, half blocked fields matched at isocenter. The objective of this work is to study the dosimetric effects of the uncertainties in jaw positioning for such a case, and how a treatment planning protocol including adjacent field overlap of 1 mm affects the dose distribution. A representative treatment plan, involving 6 and 15 photon beams, for a patient treated at our hospital is chosen. Monte Carlo method (EGSnrc/BEAMnrc) is used to simulate the treatment. Uncertainties in jaw positioning of ± 1 mm are addressed, which implies extremes in reality of 2 mm field gap/overlap when planning adjacent fields without overlap and 1 mm gap or 3 mm overlap for a planning protocol with 1 mm overlap. Dosimetric parameters for PTV, lung and body are analyzed. Treatment planning protocol with 1 mm overlap of the adjacent fields does not considerably counteract possible underdosage of the target in the case studied. PTV-V95% is for example reduced from 95% for perfectly aligned fields to 90% and 91% for 2 mm and 1 mm gap, respectively. However, the risk of overdosage in PTV and in healthy soft tissue is increased when following the protocol with 1 mm overlap. A 3 mm overlap compared to 2 mm overlap results in an increase in maximum dose to PTV, PTV-D2%, from 113% to 121%. V120% for 'Body-PTV' is also increased from 5 cm(3) to 14 cm(3). A treatment planning protocol with 1 mm overlap does not considerably improve the coverage of PTV in the case of erroneous jaw positions causing gap between fields, but increases the overdosage in PTV and doses to healthy tissue, in the case of overlapping fields, for the case investigated.

  10. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  11. Mutual Diffusional Interference Between Adjacent Stomata of a Leaf 1

    PubMed Central

    Cook, G. D.; Viskanta, R.

    1968-01-01

    The mutual diffusional interference between adjacent stomata in laminar flow over a leaf is shown to play a decisive role in determining overall transpiration. The magnitude of this interference varies with the interaction of the vapor diffusional shells forming above each stoma and the air flow over the leaf. The interference decreases with increasing incident radiation and wind velocity. The effect of interference on the stomatal resistance to diffusion plays a major role in the overall variations in transpiration. PMID:16656876

  12. Upregulation of activin A gene by butyrate in human colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sonoyama, Kei; Pholnukulkit, Pimara; Toyoda, Masahiko; Rutatip, Suriya; Kasai, Takanori

    2003-06-01

    Activin A has been reported to play a role in the progression of colorectal cancer. Because dietary fiber protects against colorectal cancer, we hypothesized that butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, may affect the expression of activin A in colon cancer cells. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the activin A gene was upregulated by sodium butyrate in the human colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. However, the activin A gene did not respond to sodium butyrate in the human normal colonic cell line FHC, rat normal intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line IEC-6, and the explant of rat colon. Flow cytometry and agarose gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA revealed that cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were induced by sodium butyrate but not exogenous activin A in HT-29 cells, indicating that activin A could not act as an autocrine factor in colon cancer cells. By assuming that activin A promotes colorectal cancer spread as a paracrine factor, our findings suggest that butyrate could act as a tumor promoter in some circumstances.

  13. Aldosterone induced changes in colonic sodium transport occurring naturally during development in the neonatal pig.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D R; James, P S; Paterson, J Y; Saunders, J C; Smith, M W

    1979-01-01

    1. Serum concentrations of aldosterone in later fetal, 3-6 week old and adult pigs are of the order of 300 pg ml.-1. This increases to about 2000 pg ml.-1 in the period immediately after birth. 2. Canrenoate injected into pigs from birth onwards stops the increase in colonic short-circuit current, seen to take place normally during early postnatal development. Amiloride has little or no effect on the short-circuit current of colons taken from canrenoate injected pigs. 3. Canrenoate stops the post-natal increase in colonic Na influx (and therefore net transport) seen to occur under normal conditions. 4. There is in the neonatal pig distal colon a portion of Na transport which appears to be resistant to inhibition by amiloride or canrenoate. 5. There is a second portion of Na transport, increasing in importance as the piglets become older, which is electrogenic and which is electrogenic and which is inhibited by prior injection of canrenoate. It is assumed that this fraction of Na transport is influenced by aldosterone. 6. There is a third part of Na transport, maximal in colons taken from one day old animals, which appears to be non-electrogenic. This is also blocked by prior injection of canrenoate. 7. The physiological relevance of these findings is discussed. PMID:490382

  14. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  15. Niche partitioning in arbuscular mycorrhizal communities in temperate grasslands: a lesson from adjacent serpentine and nonserpentine habitats.

    PubMed

    Kohout, Petr; Doubková, Pavla; Bahram, Mohammad; Suda, Jan; Tedersoo, Leho; Voříšková, Jana; Sudová, Radka

    2015-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represent an important soil microbial group playing a fundamental role in many terrestrial ecosystems. We explored the effects of deterministic (soil characteristics, host plant life stage, neighbouring plant communities) and stochastic processes on AMF colonization, richness and community composition in roots of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae) plants from three serpentine grasslands and adjacent nonserpentine sites. Methodically, the study was based on 454-sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA. In total, we detected 81 molecular taxonomical operational units (MOTUs) belonging to the Glomeromycota. Serpentine character of the site negatively influenced AMF root colonization, similarly as higher Fe concentration. AMF MOTUs richness linearly increased along a pH gradient from 3.5 to 5.8. Contrary, K and Cr soil concentration had a negative influence on AMF MOTUs richness. We also detected a strong relation between neighbouring plant community composition and AMF MOTUs richness. Although spatial distance between the sampled sites (c. 0.3-3 km) contributed to structuring AMF communities in K. arvensis roots, environmental parameters were key factors in this respect. In particular, the composition of AMF communities was shaped by the complex of serpentine conditions, pH and available soil Ni concentration. The composition of AMF communities was also dependent on host plant life stage (vegetative vs. generative). Our study supports the dominance of deterministic factors in structuring AMF communities in heterogeneous environment composed of an edaphic mosaic of serpentine and nonserpentine soils.

  16. The Intestinal Microbiota Influences Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and Extraintestinal Dissemination in Mice.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jason L; Samuelson, Derrick R; Braundmeier-Fleming, Andrea G; White, Bryan A; Haldorson, Gary J; Stone, Jennifer B; Lessmann, Jeremy J; Eucker, Tyson P; Konkel, Michael E

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The interactions between this pathogen and the intestinal microbiome within a host are of interest as endogenous intestinal microbiota mediates a form of resistance to the pathogen. This resistance, termed colonization resistance, is the ability of commensal microbiota to prevent colonization by exogenous pathogens or opportunistic commensals. Although mice normally demonstrate colonization resistance to C. jejuni, we found that mice treated with ampicillin are colonized by C. jejuni, with recovery of Campylobacter from the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in recovery of C. jejuni from ampicillin-treated mice inoculated with a C. jejuni virulence mutant (ΔflgL strain) compared to recovery of mice inoculated with the C. jejuni wild-type strain or the C. jejuni complemented isolate (ΔflgL/flgL). Comparative analysis of the microbiota from nontreated and ampicillin-treated CBA/J mice led to the identification of a lactic acid-fermenting isolate of Enterococcus faecalis that prevented C. jejuni growth in vitro and limited C. jejuni colonization of mice. Next-generation sequencing of DNA from fecal pellets that were collected from ampicillin-treated CBA/J mice revealed a significant decrease in diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) compared to that in control (nontreated) mice. Taken together, we have demonstrated that treatment of mice with ampicillin alters the intestinal microbiota and permits C. jejuni colonization. These findings provide valuable insights for researchers using mice to investigate C. jejuni colonization factors, virulence determinants, or the mechanistic basis of probiotics. PMID:25934624

  17. Low concentrations of resveratrol inhibit Wnt signal throughput in colon-derived cells: Implications for colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Christopher; Kestutis, Planutis; Marina, Planutiene; Moyer, Mary P.; Johal, Karanjodh S.; Woo, Jaesung; Santoso, Calista; Hanson, Joseph A.; Holcombe, Randall F.

    2008-01-01

    Resveratrol is a bioflavonoid which is known to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines at concentrations above 50uM. It also has colon cancer prevention activity in mouse models and possibly in humans. We have examined the effects of low concentrations of resveratrol on a specific signaling pathway, the Wnt pathway, which is activated in over 85% of sporadic colon cancers. Two colon cancer (HT29 and RKO) and one normal mucosa-derived (NCM460) cell lines were utilized. Cell proliferation was not affected by resveratrol at ≤40uM for HT29 and NCM460 and <20uM for RKO though Wnt signal throughput, as measured by a reporter construct, was reduced in RKO and NCM460 at concentrations as low as 10uM (p<0.001). This effect was most easily appreciated following Wnt pathway stimulation with Wnt3a conditioned medium and LEF1 or LEF1/β-catenin transfection. Resveratrol did not inhibit Wnt throughput in mutationally activated HT29. Low concentrations of resveratrol significantly decreased the amount and proportion of β-catenin in the nucleus in RKO (p=0.002) and reduced the expression of lgs and pygoI, regulators of β-catenin localization in all cells lines. Thus, at low concentrations, in the absence of effects on cell proliferation, resveratrol significantly inhibits Wnt signaling in colon-derived cells which do not have a basally activated Wnt pathway. This inhibitory effect may be due in part to regulation of intracellular β-catenin localization. PMID:18504708

  18. Dependence of AT1 angiotensin receptor function on adjacent asparagine residues in the seventh transmembrane helix.

    PubMed

    Hunyady, L; Ji, H; Jagadeesh, G; Zhang, M; Gáborik, Z; Mihalik, B; Catt, K J

    1998-08-01

    For several G protein-coupled receptors, amino acids in the seventh transmembrane helix have been implicated in ligand binding and receptor activation. The function of this region in the AT1 angiotensin receptor was further investigated by mutation of two conserved polar residues (Asn294 and Asn295) and the adjacent Phe293 residue. Analysis of the properties of the mutant receptors expressed in COS-7 cells revealed that alanine replacement of Phe293 had no major effect on AT1 receptor function. Substitution of the adjacent Asn294 residue with alanine (N294A) reduced receptor binding affinities for angiotensin II, two nonpeptide agonists (L-162,313 and L-163,491), and the AT1-selective nonpeptide antagonist losartan but not that for the peptide antagonist [Sar1, Ile8]angiotensin II. The N294A receptor also showed impaired G protein coupling and severely attenuated inositol phosphate generation. In contrast, alanine replacement of Asn295 decreased receptor binding affinities for all angiotensin II ligands but did not impair signal transduction. Additional substitutions of Asn295 with a variety of amino acids did not identify specific structural elements for ligand binding. These findings indicate that Asn295 is required for the integrity of the intramembrane binding pocket of the AT1a receptor but is not essential for signal generation. They also demonstrate the importance of transmembrane helices in the formation of the binding site for nonpeptide AT1 receptor agonists. We conclude that the Asn294 residue of the AT1 receptor is an essential determinant of receptor activation and that the adjacent Asn295 residue is required for normal ligand binding.

  19. Colon polyp morphology on double-contrast berium enema: its pathologic predictive value

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Ablin, D.S.

    1983-11-01

    The morphologic appearance of 96 polyps seen on double-contrast barium enema was reviewed to assess the predictive value of various signs described to diagnose malignancy. Size, surface contour, basal indentation, and pedunculation were studied. Sessile polyps had an appreciable incidence of malignancy, with size being the best indicator of that risk. Pedunculation was found to be a reliable sign of benignity in predicting the absence of malignant invasion into the adjacent colonic wall. Polyps under 1 cm and having a smooth contour were invariably benign. Conversely, polyps larger than 1 cm with a lobulated contour and basal indentation had a significant incidence of malignancy.

  20. Inhibition of SW620 human colon cancer cells by upregulating miRNA-145

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Xu, Na; Li, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Zhi-Tu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the targeted inhibition of proliferation and migration of SW620 human colon cancer cells by upregulating miRNA-145 (miR-145). METHODS: Forty-five samples of colon cancer tissues and 45 normal control samples were obtained from the biological database of the First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University. We performed quantitative analysis of miR-145 and N-ras expression in tissues; reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of miR-145 expression in SW620 colon cancer cells and normal colonic epithelial cells; construction of miR-145 lentiviral vector and determination of miR-145 expression in SW620 cells transduced with miR-145 vector; analysis of the effect of miR-145 overexpression on SW620 cell proliferation; analysis of the effect of miR-145 overexpression on SW620 cell migration using a wound healing assay; and analysis of the effect of miR-145 on N-ras expression using Western blotting. RESULTS: miR-145 expression was significantly downregulated in colon cancer tissues, with its expression in normal colonic tissues being 4-5-fold higher (two sample t test, P < 0.05), whereas N-ras expression showed the opposite trend. miR-145 expression in SW620 cells was downregulated, which was significantly lower compared to that in colonic epithelial cells (two sample t test, P < 0.05). miR-145 vector and control were successfully packaged; expression of miR-145 in SW620 cells transduced with miR-145 was 8.2-fold of that in control cells (two sample t test, P < 0.05). The proliferation of miR-145-transduced SW620 cells was significantly decreased compared to control cells (two sample t test, P < 0.05). At 48 h in the wound healing experiment, the migration indexes and controls were (97.27% ± 9.25%) and (70.22% ± 6.53%), respectively (two sample t test, P < 0.05). N-ras expression in miR-145-tranduced SW620 cells was significantly lower than others (one-way analysis of variance, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: miR-145 is important in

  1. Binaural unmasking with multiple adjacent masking electrodes in bilateral cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Litovsky, Ruth; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant (BiCI) users gain an advantage in noisy situations from a second implant, but their bilateral performance falls short of normal hearing listeners. Channel interactions due to overlapping electrical fields between electrodes can impair speech perception, but its role in limiting binaural hearing performance has not been well characterized. To address the issue, binaural masking level differences (BMLD) for a 125 Hz tone in narrowband noise were measured using a pair of pitch-matched electrodes while simultaneously presenting the same masking noise to adjacent electrodes, representing a more realistic stimulation condition compared to prior studies that used only a single electrode pair. For five subjects, BMLDs averaged 8.9 ± 1.0 dB (mean ± s.e.) in single electrode pairs but dropped to 2.1 ± 0.4 dB when presenting noise on adjacent masking electrodes, demonstrating a negative impact of the additional maskers. Removing the masking noise from only the pitch-matched electrode pair not only lowered thresholds but also resulted in smaller BMLDs. The degree of channel interaction estimated from auditory nerve evoked potentials in three subjects was significantly and negatively correlated with BMLD. The data suggest that if the amount of channel interactions can be reduced, BiCI users may experience some performance improvements related to binaural hearing. PMID:21682415

  2. Reversible Projection Technique for Colon Unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianhua; Chowdhury, Ananda S.; Aman, Javed; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Colon unfolding provides an efficient way to navigate the colon in CT colonography. Most existing unfolding techniques only computed forward projections. When radiologists find abnormalities or conduct measurements on the unfolded view (which is often quicker and easier), it is difficult to locate the corresponding region on the 3D view for further examination (which is more accurate and reliable). To address this, we propose a reversible projection technique for colon unfolding. The method makes use of advanced algorithms including rotation-minimizing frames, recursive ring sets, mesh skinning and cylindrical projection. Both forward and reverse transformations are computed for points on the colon surface. Therefore, it allows for detecting and measuring polyps on the unfolded view and mapping them back to the 3D surface. We generated realistic colon simulation incorporating most colon characteristics such as curved centerline, variable distention, haustral folds, teniae coli and colonic polyps. Our method was tested on both the simulated data and 110 clinical CT colonography data. Comparison of polyp size measurements on the unfolded view and the 3D view clearly demonstrates the importance of our reversible projection technique. PMID:20542756

  3. Clinical impact of Clostridium difficile colonization.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yuan-Pin; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Hsiao-Ju; Liu, Hsiao-Chieh; Wu, Yi-Hui; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium difficile can cause antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Asymptomatic colonization by C. difficile is common during the neonatal period and early infancy, ranging from 21% to 48%, and in childhood. The colonization rate of C. difficile in adult hospitalized patients shows geographic variation, ranging from 4.4% to 23.2%. Asymptomatic carriage in neonates caused no further disease in many studies, whereas adult patients colonized with toxigenic C. difficile were prone to the subsequent development of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). However, the carriage of nontoxigenic C. difficile strains appears to prevent CDAD in hamsters and humans. Risk factors for C. difficile colonization include recent hospitalization, exposure to antimicrobial agents or gastric acid-suppressing drugs (such as proton-pump inhibitors and H2 blockers), a history of CDAD or cytomegalovirus infection, the presence of an underlying illness, receipt of immunosuppressants, the presence of antibodies against toxin B, and Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms. Asymptomatic C. difficile carriers are associated with significant skin and environmental contamination, similar to those with CDAD, and contact isolation and hand-washing practices should therefore be employed as infection control policies for the prevention of C. difficile spread. Treating patients with asymptomatic C. difficile colonization with metronidazole or vancomycin is not suggested by the currently available evidence. In conclusion, asymptomatic C. difficile colonization may lead to skin and environmental contamination by C. difficile, but more attention should be paid to the clinical impact of those with C. difficile colonization.

  4. Bacterial Colonization of Particles: Growth and Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Tang, Kam; Ploug, Helle

    2003-01-01

    Marine particles in the ocean are exposed to diverse bacterial communities, and colonization and growth of attached bacteria are important processes in the degradation and transformation of the particles. In an earlier study, we showed that the initial colonization of model particles by individual bacterial strains isolated from marine aggregates was a function of attachment and detachment. In the present study, we have investigated how this colonization process was further affected by growth and interspecific interactions among the bacteria. Long-term incubation experiments showed that growth dominated over attachment and detachment after a few hours in controlling the bacterial population density on agar particles. In the absence of grazing mortality, this growth led to an equilibrium population density consistent with the theoretical limit due to oxygen diffusion. Interspecific interaction experiments showed that the presence of some bacterial strains (“residents”) on the agar particles either increased or decreased the colonization rate of other strains (“newcomers”). Comparison between an antibiotic-producing strain and its antibiotic-free mutant showed no inhibitory effect on the newcomers due to antibiotic production. On the contrary, hydrolytic activity of the antibiotic-producing strain appeared to benefit the newcomers and enhance their colonization rate. These results show that growth- and species-specific interactions have to be taken into account to adequately describe bacterial colonization of marine particles. Changes in colonization pattern due to such small-scale processes may have profound effects on the transformation and fluxes of particulate matter in the ocean. PMID:12788756

  5. Bacterial colonization of particles: growth and interactions.

    PubMed

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Tang, Kam; Ploug, Helle

    2003-06-01

    Marine particles in the ocean are exposed to diverse bacterial communities, and colonization and growth of attached bacteria are important processes in the degradation and transformation of the particles. In an earlier study, we showed that the initial colonization of model particles by individual bacterial strains isolated from marine aggregates was a function of attachment and detachment. In the present study, we have investigated how this colonization process was further affected by growth and interspecific interactions among the bacteria. Long-term incubation experiments showed that growth dominated over attachment and detachment after a few hours in controlling the bacterial population density on agar particles. In the absence of grazing mortality, this growth led to an equilibrium population density consistent with the theoretical limit due to oxygen diffusion. Interspecific interaction experiments showed that the presence of some bacterial strains ("residents") on the agar particles either increased or decreased the colonization rate of other strains ("newcomers"). Comparison between an antibiotic-producing strain and its antibiotic-free mutant showed no inhibitory effect on the newcomers due to antibiotic production. On the contrary, hydrolytic activity of the antibiotic-producing strain appeared to benefit the newcomers and enhance their colonization rate. These results show that growth- and species-specific interactions have to be taken into account to adequately describe bacterial colonization of marine particles. Changes in colonization pattern due to such small-scale processes may have profound effects on the transformation and fluxes of particulate matter in the ocean.

  6. Downregulation of microRNA-1 and microRNA-145 contributes synergistically to the development of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuehu; Wu, Xiaobing; Jiang, Qingping; Sun, Yan; Liu, Haibo; Chen, Rong; Wu, Shangbiao

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in patients with colon cancer and examine their roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. The expression profiles of miRNAs were examined in tumor tissue samples collected from 20 patients with histologically confirmed colon cancer and in the adjacent non-cancerous control tissues using microarray analysis. We found that numerous miRNAs were differentially expressed in the colon cancer tissues compared with the control tissues. Following functional analysis, we noted that three miRNAs which were significantly downregulated, miR-145, miR-451 and miR-1, shared the same target gene, [NLR family, apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP)], which has previously been reported to be involved in the development of colon cancer. We then confirmed that NAIP is a target gene of miR-145 and miR-1, but not of miR-451, using a luceriferase assay, and we confirmed the expression patterns of these miRNAs and NAIP in the tumor tissue, as well as in the adjacent non-cancerous control tissues. Additionally, in order to examine the function of miR-145 and miR-1 in human colon cancer, we transiently transfected a human colon cancer cell line with miR-145 and miR-1 mimics or inhibitors, and the results of MTT assay revealed that the re-expression of miR-145 and miR-1 inhibited the survival of colon cancer cells, which may be attributed to the inhibition of the anti-apoptotic activity of NAIP. Our findings demonstrated that miR-145 and miR-1 play a negative regulatory role in the proliferation of colon cancer by targeting NAIP; thus, miR-145 and miR-1 may prove to be novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26459459

  7. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

  8. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Colonization of Human Colonic Epithelium In Vitro and Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Steven B.; Cook, Vivienne; Tighe, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis and more severe complications, such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pathology is most pronounced in the colon, but to date there is no direct clinical evidence showing EHEC binding to the colonic epithelium in patients. In this study, we investigated EHEC adherence to the human colon by using in vitro organ culture (IVOC) of colonic biopsy samples and polarized T84 colon carcinoma cells. We show for the first time that EHEC colonizes human colonic biopsy samples by forming typical attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions which are dependent on EHEC type III secretion (T3S) and binding of the outer membrane protein intimin to the translocated intimin receptor (Tir). A/E lesion formation was dependent on oxygen levels and suppressed under oxygen-rich culture conditions routinely used for IVOC. In contrast, EHEC adherence to polarized T84 cells occurred independently of T3S and intimin and did not involve Tir translocation into the host cell membrane. Colonization of neither biopsy samples nor T84 cells was significantly affected by expression of Shiga toxins. Our study suggests that EHEC colonizes and forms stable A/E lesions on the human colon, which are likely to contribute to intestinal pathology during infection. Furthermore, care needs to be taken when using cell culture models, as they might not reflect the in vivo situation. PMID:25534942

  9. Functional fecal retention visualized by (111)In-DTPA colon transit scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Infante, Jose Rafael; Rayo, Juan I; Serrano, Justo; Dominguez, Maria L; Garcia, Lucia; Moreno, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Constipation is an extremely common problem in children, varying from mild and short-lived to severe and chronic. Chronic constipation is a serious childhood condition and requires further investigation, including blood test, colonoscopy, radio-opaque marker study, and/or scintigraphy. We present small bowel and colon transit scintigraphy of a 14-year-old girl with history of chronic constipation, abdominal pain, weight loss, and poor response to medical treatment. After oral administration of In-DTPA in water, planar and SPECT/CT images showed normal small bowel transit time and functional fecal retention in colon transit study. PMID:25706788

  10. Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Shai; Benaron, David A.; Parachikov, Ilian H.; Soetikno, Roy

    2003-06-01

    Advances in optical and computer technology have enabled the development of a device that utilizes white-light reflectance spectrophotometry to measure capillary hemoglobin saturation in intestinal mucosa during colonoscopy. Studies were performed using the colon oximeter in anesthetized animals and patients undergoing colonoscopy. Mucosal hemoglobin saturation in the normal colon (mean +/- S.D.) is 72% +/- 3.5%. In an animal model, ischemia via arterial ligation and hypoxemia via hypoxic ventilation each result in a decrease of over 40% in the mucosal saturation. In human patients with colon polyps, ischemia induced by epinephrine injection, stalk ligation using a loop, or clipping of the polyp stalk each result in a decrease of over 40% in the mucosal saturation (p<0.02). In contrast, saline injection does not decrease the mucosal saturation (p=N.S.). A patient who previously underwent partial colectomy with sacrifice of the inferior mesenteric artery had a saturation of 55% in the remaining sigmoid colon, with normal values in the superior mesenteric artery territory (p<0.05). A novel device for measuring capillary hemoglobin saturation in intestinal mucosa during colonoscopy is capable of providing reproducible measurements in normal patients and clearly detects dramatic decreases in saturation with ischemic and hypoxic insults.

  11. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  12. Groundwater recharge to the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Montgomery and Adjacent Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Timothy D.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Simply stated, groundwater recharge is the addition of water to the groundwater system. Most of the water that is potentially available for recharging the groundwater system in Montgomery and adjacent counties in southeast Texas moves relatively rapidly from land surface to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Recharge in southeast Texas is generally balanced by evapotranspiration, discharge to surface waters, and the downward movement of water into deeper parts of the groundwater system; however, this balance can be altered locally by groundwater withdrawals, impervious surfaces, land use, precipitation variability, or climate, resulting in increased or decreased rates of recharge. Recharge rates were compared to the 1971–2000 normal annual precipitation measured Cooperative Weather Station 411956, Conroe, Tex.

  13. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma Causing Colonic Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, André Costa; Marques, Ana; Lopes, Joanne; Duarte, Alexandre; da Silva, Pedro Correia; Lopes, José Manuel; Maia, J. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults and is caused by a malignant lesion in about 70% of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential. We present a 64-year-old male patient with right colonic intussusception caused by a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC), presenting as a giant pedunculated polyp (54 mm of largest diameter). The patient underwent right colectomy with primary anastomosis and adjuvant chemotherapy. The diagnosis of intussusception of the colon in adults is difficult because of its rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation. In this case, the cause was a rare histological type malignant tumor (MANEC). PMID:27525153

  14. Giant ascending colonic diverticulum presenting with intussusception.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Jin; Kim, Jin Ha; Moon, Ok In; Kim, Kyung Jong

    2013-10-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is a common disease, and its incidence is increasing gradually. A giant colonic diverticulum (GCD) is a rare entity and is defined as a diverticulum greater than 4 cm in size. It mainly arises from the sigmoid colon, and possible etiology is a ball-valve mechanism permitting progressive enlargement. A plain abdominal X-ray can be helpful to make a diagnosis initially, and a barium enema and abdominal computed tomography may confirm the diagnosis. Surgical intervention is a definite treatment for a GCD. We report a case of an ascending GCD presenting with intussusception in a young adult.

  15. Adjacent channel interference degradation with minimum shift keyed modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulation results for degradation in signal-to-noise ratio for various values of bit error probability are given for minimum shift-keyed-type signaling in the presence of adjacent channel interference. A serial modulator structure which utilizes spectral shaping is characterized in terms of envelope deviation and bandwidth efficiency. This serial generation technique is convenient for implementation at high data rates and results in signal spectra with lower sidelobe levels than conventional minimum shift-keyed modulation at the expense of moderate envelope deviation. Because of the lower sidelobe levels, the resulting spectra allow denser channel packing than does ideal MSK.

  16. Synthesis of a Molecule with Four Different Adjacent Pnictogens.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-08-22

    The synthesis of a molecule containing four adjacent different pnictogens was attempted by conversion of a Group 15 allyl analogue anion [Mes*NAsPMes*](-) (Mes*=2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl) with antimony(III) chloride. A suitable precursor is Mes*N(H)AsPMes* (1) for which several syntheses were investigated. The anions afforded by deprotonation of Mes*N(H)AsPMes* were found to be labile and, therefore, salts could not be isolated. However, the in situ generated anions could be quenched with SbCl3 , yielding Mes*N(SbCl2 )AsPMes* (4). PMID:27377437

  17. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  18. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  19. Retroperitoneal multilocular bronchogenic cyst adjacent to adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Yang, S W; Linton, J A; Ryu, S J; Shin, D H; Park, C S

    1999-10-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are generally found in the mediastinum, particularly posterior to the carina, but they rarely occur in such unusual sites as the skin, subcutaneous tissue, pericardium, and even the retroperitoneum. A 30-year-old Korean man underwent surgery to remove a cystic adrenal mass incidentally discovered during routine physical checkup. At surgery, it proved to be a multilocular cyst located in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the left adrenal gland. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by respiratory epithelium over connective tissue with submucous glands, cartilage and smooth muscle, thereby histologically confirming bronchogenic cyst. This is the first reported case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in an adult without other congenital anomalies in Korea.

  20. Manipulation of the Gut Microbiota Reveals Role in Colon Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zackular, Joseph P; Baxter, Nielson T; Chen, Grace Y; Schloss, Patrick D

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individuals with colonic adenomas and carcinomas harbor a distinct microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbiota may allow the outgrowth of bacterial populations that induce genomic mutations or exacerbate tumor-promoting inflammation. In addition, it is likely that the loss of key bacterial populations may result in the loss of protective functions that are normally provided by the microbiota. We explored the role of the gut microbiota in colon tumorigenesis by using an inflammation-based murine model. We observed that perturbing the microbiota with different combinations of antibiotics reduced the number of tumors at the end of the model. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we successfully modeled the number of tumors that developed over the course of the model on the basis of the initial composition of the microbiota. The timing of antibiotic treatment was an important determinant of tumor outcome, as colon tumorigenesis was arrested by the use of antibiotics during the early inflammation period of the murine model. Together, these results indicate that it is possible to predict colon tumorigenesis on the basis of the composition of the microbiota and that altering the gut microbiota can alter the course of tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE Mounting evidence indicates that alterations to the gut microbiota, the complex community of bacteria that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract, are strongly associated with the development of colorectal cancer. We used antibiotic perturbations to a murine model of inflammation-driven colon cancer to generate eight starting communities that resulted in various severities of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we were able to quantitatively predict the final number of tumors on the basis of the initial composition of the gut microbiota. These results further bolster the evidence that the gut microbiota is involved in mediating the development of colorectal cancer. As a final proof of principle, we

  1. Manipulation of the Gut Microbiota Reveals Role in Colon Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zackular, Joseph P.; Baxter, Nielson T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is growing evidence that individuals with colonic adenomas and carcinomas harbor a distinct microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbiota may allow the outgrowth of bacterial populations that induce genomic mutations or exacerbate tumor-promoting inflammation. In addition, it is likely that the loss of key bacterial populations may result in the loss of protective functions that are normally provided by the microbiota. We explored the role of the gut microbiota in colon tumorigenesis by using an inflammation-based murine model. We observed that perturbing the microbiota with different combinations of antibiotics reduced the number of tumors at the end of the model. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we successfully modeled the number of tumors that developed over the course of the model on the basis of the initial composition of the microbiota. The timing of antibiotic treatment was an important determinant of tumor outcome, as colon tumorigenesis was arrested by the use of antibiotics during the early inflammation period of the murine model. Together, these results indicate that it is possible to predict colon tumorigenesis on the basis of the composition of the microbiota and that altering the gut microbiota can alter the course of tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE Mounting evidence indicates that alterations to the gut microbiota, the complex community of bacteria that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract, are strongly associated with the development of colorectal cancer. We used antibiotic perturbations to a murine model of inflammation-driven colon cancer to generate eight starting communities that resulted in various severities of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we were able to quantitatively predict the final number of tumors on the basis of the initial composition of the gut microbiota. These results further bolster the evidence that the gut microbiota is involved in mediating the development of colorectal cancer. As a final proof of

  2. Gnotobiotic Human Colon Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Frank D.; Folan, David M. A.; Winter, Des C.; Folan, Michael A.; Baird, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    Background A novel emulsion with efficacy as an agent for eliminating biofilms was selected. The aim of this study was to examine efficacy and effect of a formulation of ML:8 against commensal bacteria harvested from ex vivo human colonic tissues. Methods Mucosal sheets, obtained at the time of surgery, were exposed for 2 minutes to one of four solutions: Krebs-Hensleit (KH) solution, saline (NaCl; 0.9%), povidone iodine (1%), or ML:8 (2%); n = 4. Lumenal surfaces were swabbed for culture under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Following treatment, each sheet was mounted in Ussing chambers and voltage clamped. Tissues were challenged with carbachol. Permeability coefficient (Papp) was determined using mannitol fluxes. At the end of each experiment, tissues were examined histologically. Results Similar colony forming units grew in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in both control and NaCl treated tissues. Iodine reduced and ML:8 virtually abolished viable bacteria. Basal electrophysiological parameters were not different between treatments. Transepithelial electrical resistance values did not differ between groups. All tissues responded to carbachol, although this was attenuated in iodine treated tissue. Papp values were slightly elevated in all treated tissues but this did not reach significance. Histopathological assessment revealed no overt damage to tissues. Conclusion Brief exposure to ML:8 reduced culturable bacterial burden from human intestinal tissues harvested at the time of surgical resection. Such gnotobiotic tissues retain structural and functional integrity. This is a novel approach to reduce bacterial burden. PMID:27785304

  3. The Normalized Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Kathleen H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the normalized child, the ultimate goal of Montessori education. First outlines children's basic needs, then describes traits of the normalized child, including love of order, work, silence and working alone; mutual aid and cooperation; profound spontaneous concentration; obedience; independence and initiative;…

  4. Internal Colonization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Hu, Jiahuai; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; Richardson, Susanna M.; Bartz, Jerry A.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Several Salmonella enterica outbreaks have been traced back to contaminated tomatoes. In this study, the internalization of S. enterica Typhimurium via tomato leaves was investigated as affected by surfactants and bacterial rdar morphotype, which was reported to be important for the environmental persistence and attachment of Salmonella to plants. Surfactants, especially Silwet L-77, promoted ingress and survival of S. enterica Typhimurium in tomato leaves. In each of two experiments, 84 tomato plants were inoculated two to four times before fruiting with GFP-labeled S. enterica Typhimurium strain MAE110 (with rdar morphotype) or MAE119 (without rdar). For each inoculation, single leaflets were dipped in 109 CFU/ml Salmonella suspension with Silwet L-77. Inoculated and adjacent leaflets were tested for Salmonella survival for 3 weeks after each inoculation. The surface and pulp of ripe fruits produced on these plants were also examined for Salmonella. Populations of both Salmonella strains in inoculated leaflets decreased during 2 weeks after inoculation but remained unchanged (at about 104 CFU/g) in week 3. Populations of MAE110 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of MAE119 from day 3 after inoculation. In the first year, nine fruits collected from one of the 42 MAE119 inoculated plants were positive for S. enterica Typhimurium. In the second year, Salmonella was detected in adjacent non-inoculated leaves of eight tomato plants (five inoculated with strain MAE110). The pulp of 12 fruits from two plants inoculated with MAE110 was Salmonella positive (about 106 CFU/g). Internalization was confirmed by fluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can move inside tomato plants grown in natural field soil and colonize fruits at high levels without inducing any symptoms, except for a slight reduction in plant growth. PMID:22096553

  5. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  6. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Cancer.gov

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  7. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  8. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  9. [Management of traumatic injuries of the colon].

    PubMed

    Wong, J C; Quintero, O; Andrade, R

    1989-01-01

    We have reviewed our experience with penetrating lesions of the colon at the Santo Tomás Hospital. Good results were obtained with immediate suture of the lesions without need for colostomy when favorable conditions permit.

  10. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  11. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  12. [Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of colonic obstruction].

    PubMed

    Legostaeva, T B; Klassovskaia, N Iu

    2007-01-01

    The authors of the present paper outline the results of studying the use of routine transabdominal sonography and ultrasound irrigoscopy (UI) in the diagnosis of acute colonic obstruction (ACO) in 70 patients. The cause of ACO was tumor-induced colonic luminal obturation in 55 patients and colonic evacuatory dysfunction due to congenital anomalies and acquired constrictions of inflammatory genesis in 15 cases. UI was used to determine the presence, degree, and causes of colonic obstruction. The paper details the UI procedure developed by the authors and the ultrasound semiotics of ACO, shown by routine transabdominal sonography and UI. Analysis of the results of the studies allows the authors to state that UI is as highly informative as X-ray irrigoscopy in the diagnosis of ACO and may be included into a diagnostic algorithm in these patients.

  13. Aberrant, ectopic expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in malignant colonic epithelial cells. Implications for these cells growth via an autocrine mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K.; Szabo, Sandor; Tarnawski, Andrzej S.

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Malignant colonic epithelial cells express VEGF and its receptors. •Cultured colon cancer cells secrete VEGF into the medium. •Inhibition of VEGF receptor significantly decreases colon cancer cell proliferation. •VEGF is critical for colon cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (referred to as VEGF) is implicated in colon cancer growth. Currently, the main accepted mechanism by which VEGF promotes colon cancer growth is via the stimulation of angiogenesis, which was originally postulated by late Judah Folkman. However, the cellular source of VEGF in colon cancer tissue; and, the expression of VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in colon cancer cells are not fully known and are subjects of controversy. Material and methods: We examined and quantified expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in three different human colonic tissue arrays containing sections of adenocarcinoma (n = 43) and normal mucosa (n = 41). In human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and normal colon cell lines NCM356 and NCM460, we examined expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 mRNA and protein, VEGF production and secretion into the culture medium; and, the effect of a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors, AL-993, on cell proliferation. Results: Human colorectal cancer specimens had strong expression of VEGF in cancer cells and also expressed VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2.In vitro studies showed that human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, but not normal colonic cell lines, express VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 and secrete VEGF into the medium up to a concentration 2000 pg/ml within 48 h. Furthermore, we showed that inhibition of VEGF receptors using a specific VEGF-R inhibitor significantly reduced proliferation (by >50%) of cultured colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: Our findings support the contention that VEGF generated by colon cancer cells stimulates their growth directly through an autocrine mechanism that is

  14. Lunar Colonization and NASA's Exploration Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2006-01-01

    Space colonization is not part of NASA's mission planning. NASA's exploration vision, mission goals and program implementations, however, can have an important affect on private lunar programs leading towards colonization. NASA's exploration program has been described as a journey not a race. It is not like the Apollo mission having tight schedules and relatively unchanging direction. NASA of this era has competing demands from the areas of aeronautics, space science, earth science, space operations and, there are competing demands within the exploration program itself. Under the journey not a race conditions, an entrepreneur thinking about building a hotel on the Moon, with a road to an exploration site, might have difficulty determining where and when NASA might be at a particular place on the Moon. Lunar colonization advocates cannot depend on NASA or other nations with space programs to lead the way to colonization. They must set their own visions, mission goals and schedules. In implementing their colonization programs they will be resource limited. They would be like ``hitchhikers'' following the programs of spacefaring nations identifying programs that might have a fit with their vision and be ready to switch to other programs that may take them in the colonization direction. At times they will have to muster their own limited resources and do things themselves where necessary. The purpose of this paper is to examine current changes within NASA, as a lunar colonization advocate might do, in order to see where there might be areas for fitting into a lunar colonization strategy. The approach will help understand how the ``hitchhiking'' technique might be better utilized.

  15. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-01-01

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health. PMID:24713325

  16. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for colonic inertia.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Lewe, Adam

    2013-03-01

    Surgical treatment options for patients with colonic inertia are costly and do not always relieve the pain associated with the condition. The author describes a case of a 41-year-old woman with colonic inertia who received osteopathic manipulative treatment targeted at the neuromusculoskeletal and gastrointestinal systems. The patient reported temporary improvement in pain and bowel function without pharmacotherapy or surgical intervention. Osteopathic manipulative treatment should be considered in patients with visceral as well as neuromusculoskeletal symptoms.

  17. Accessory spleen hypertrophy mimicking colon cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ates, I; Yazici, O; Yazilitas, D; Ozdemir, N; Zengin, N

    2016-09-01

    Accessory spleen is a congenital form of an ectopic splenic tissue. In this report, we present a case of a patient who was followed with the diagnosis of rectal and sigmoid colon cancer and an accessory spleen hypertrophy, which was thought to be colon cancer metastasis in the left hypochondriac region. After colectomy and splenectomy, accessory spleen that mimics cancer metastasis was diffrentially diagnosed using scintigraphy. PMID:27685531

  18. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  19. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: What is revisited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, A.; Jrbashyan, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagyan, A.; Baghdassaryan, H.; Davtian, V.

    2006-07-01

    The validity of some data in Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62] that are revisited by R. Haroutiunian is considered. A conclusion is made that the revisions suggested by Haroutiunian concern unessential parts of the content of work by Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62]. This article presents new evidence and re-proves the earlier conclusions that are disputed or revised by R. Haroutiunian.

  20. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  1. Adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Binbin

    2012-03-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lip. It is a common benign lesion in the oral region. Although there are many conservative treatments such as the creation of a pouch (marsupialization), freezing (cryosurgery), micromarsupialization, and CO2 laser vaporization, surgical resection is the most commonly used means. Generally speaking, an elliptic incision was made to fully enucleate the lesion along with the overlying mucosa and the affected glands, then direct suturing is adequate. However, in some cases, direct suturing could cause lower lip deformity, and adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection might be quite necessary. Based on our experience, adjacent mucosal flaps could be used when lesions were close to or even break through the vermilion border or their diameters were much more than 1 cm. A-T advancement flaps and transposition flaps were the mostly applied ones. Follow-up showed that all patients realized primary healing after 1 week postoperatively with satisfactory lower lip appearance, and there was no sign of increasing incidence of relapse. PMID:22421867

  2. Bacterial community structure in the Sulu Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The deep waters of the Sulu Sea are characterized by relatively high and constant water temperatures and low oxygen concentrations. To examine the effect of these characteristics on the bacterial community structure, the culture-independent molecular method was applied to samples from the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas. DNA was extracted from environmental samples, and the analysis was carried out on PCR-amplified 16S rDNA; fragments were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis. Stations in the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas showed much more prominent vertical stratification of bacterial community structures than horizontal variation. As predominant sequences, cyanobacteria and α-proteobacteria at 10 m depth, δ-proteobacteria at 100 m depth, and green nonsulfur bacteria below 1000 m depth were detected in all sampling areas. High temperatures and low oxygen concentrations are thought to be minor factors in controlling community structure; the quantity and quality of organic materials supplied by the sinking particles, and hydrostatic pressure are believed to be important.

  3. Neuroendocrine changes in colon of mice with a disrupted IL-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Qian, B F; El-Salhy, M; Melgar, S; Hammarström, M L; Danielsson, A

    2000-06-01

    Neuroendocrine peptides have a variety of physiological functions in the gastrointestinal tract. This study was carried out to investigate the impact of IL-2 deficiency on the neuroendocrine system in normal colon, and the neuroendocrine changes during colonic inflammation. Mice with homozygous disrupted IL-2 gene (IL-2-/-) spontaneously developed a bowel disease with similarities to human ulcerative colitis. Different types of colonic endocrine cells and myenteric nerves were analysed in the IL-2-/- mice using immunomorphometry. The neuropeptide contents in the colonic tissues were determined by radioimmunoassay. Age-matched healthy IL-2+/- and IL-2+/+ mice served as controls and the colonic IL-2 levels were compared between these two groups of mice by ELISA. Our data showed that less than half the amount of IL-2 was synthesized in the colon of IL-2+/- mice compared with the IL-2+/+ wild-type mice. Two major differences in the neuroendocrine colon were found between the mice with an intact and disrupted IL-2 gene. One was age-related. The frequencies of various endocrine cells and myenteric nerves increased with age in the IL-2+/+ mice. However, no such increases were seen in the mice with a disrupted IL-2 gene. Instead, the volume densities of enteroglucagon, serotonin cells and substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and total myenteric nerves were lower in the older IL-2+/- and IL-2-/- mice compared with the wild type. The other was disease-related. Polypeptide YY (PYY) cells and tissue levels of PYY, SP and VIP were significantly decreased in the IL-2-/- mice during the course of bowel inflammation compared with the healthy IL-2+/- and IL-2+/+ controls. These findings indicate that colonic neuroendocrine alterations did occur in the mice with a disrupted IL-2 gene and diminished local IL-2 level, suggesting a role of IL-2 in the regulation of the neuroendocrine system and a prevalent interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems

  4. Malakoplakia and colonic adenoma: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Elena; Sandmeier, Dominique; Hack, Isabelle; Matter, Maurice; Bouzourene, Hanifa

    2004-12-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented respectively a caecal adenocarcinoma, two high-grade dysplastic tubulo-villous adenomas of the right colon, and a well differentiated adenocarcinoma developed on a high-grade dysplastic tubulo-villous adenoma of the left colon. One of the right colonic adenomas was ulcerated and showed typical foci of malakoplakia in the lamina propria. Malakoplakia is a histiocytic inflammatory response that may be associated with inflammatory and infectious diseases, immunosuppressive therapy, or colorectal carcinoma. Association of malakoplakia with colonic adenoma is rare; only three cases have been described in the literature thus far. To verify if this association is more common than usually suspected, we reviewed 100 colonic adenomas measuring at least 2 cm. No other case of malakoplakia associated with adenoma was found. The patient did not suffer from any other inflammatory or infectious disease and she was not under any medication or immunosuppressive therapy. Our observation confirms the isolated association of malakoplakia and colonic adenomas and the rarity of this association.

  5. Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

  6. Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ece A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2012-05-01

    Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

  7. Colon cancer: genomics and apoptotic events.

    PubMed

    Rupnarain, Charleen; Dlamini, Zodwa; Naicker, Sarala; Bhoola, Kanti

    2004-06-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer globally. The risk of developing colon cancer is influenced by a number of factors that include age and diet, but is primarily a genetic disease, resulting from oncogene over-expression and tumour suppressor gene inactivation. The induction and progression of the disease is briefly outlined, as are the cellular changes that occur in its progression. While colon cancer is uniformly amenable to surgery if detected at the early stages, advanced carcinomas are usually lethal, with metastases to the liver being the most common cause of death. Oncogenes and genetic mutations that occur in colon cancer are featured. The molecules and signals that act to eradicate or initiate the apoptosis cascade in cancer cells, are elucidated, and these include caspases, Fas, Bax, Bid, APC, antisense hTERT, PUMA, 15-LOX-1, ceramide, butyrate, tributyrin and PPARgamma, whereas the molecules which promote colon cancer cell survival are p53 mutants, Bcl-2, Neu3 and COX-2. Cancer therapies aimed at controlling colon cancer are reviewed briefly. PMID:15255176

  8. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    SciTech Connect

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  9. Effect of YNS-15P, a new alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, on stress-stimulated colonic propulsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, O; Niida, H; Tajima, K; Shirouchi, Y; Kyotani, Y; Ueda, F; Kise, M; Kimura, K

    1998-11-01

    We studied effects of a novel alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, YNS-15P (N-[(2R,11bS)-9-methoxy-1,3,4,6,7, 11b-hexahydro-2H-benzoquinolizin-2-yl]-N-methylmethanesulfonami de hydrochloride), on colonic propulsion stimulated by wrap-restraint stress (WRS) or bethanechol, on normal colonic propulsion and on diarrhea induced by castor oil in rats. Alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonists, rauwolscine and RX821002, decreased the increase in the number and weight of fecal pellets induced by WRS. YNS-15P also inhibited WRS-stimulated fecal excretion in a dose-dependent manner. A 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist, granisetron, trimebutine and diazepam, but not a 5-hydroxytryptamine4 receptor antagonist, GR113808, significantly inhibited WRS-stimulated fecal excretion. YNS-15P inhibited WRS-stimulated colonic transit in a dose-dependent manner. However, YNS-15P had no significant effect on normal fecal excretion and colonic transit or on bethanechol-stimulated fecal excretion. YNS-15P also failed to inhibit castor-oil-induced diarrhea. These results indicate that YNS-15P selectively inhibits WRS-stimulated colonic propulsion, and that alpha-2 adrenoceptors may be involved in stress-induced colonic motor dysfunction in fed rats. PMID:9808698

  10. MiR-34a inhibits colon cancer proliferation and metastasis by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor α.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Yulin; Lu, Shuming; Zhang, Zhuqing; Meng, Hua; Liang, Lina; Zhang, Yan; Song, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The microRNA (miRNA), miR‑34a is significant in colon cancer progression. In the present study, the role of miR‑34a in colon cancer cell proliferation and metastasis was investigated. It was found that the expression of miR‑34a in colon cancer tissues and cell lines was lower when compared with that of normal tissues and cells. Further research demonstrated that miR‑34a inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 phase arrest, and suppressed metastasis and epithelial mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells. Bioinformatic prediction indicated that platelet‑derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) was a potential target gene of miR‑34a and a luciferase assay identified that PDGFRA was a novel direct target gene of miR‑34a. In addition, assays of western blot analyses and quantitative reverse‑transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that miR‑34a decreased PDGFRA mRNA expression and protein levels in colon cancer cells. Assessment of cellular function indicated that miR‑34a inhibited colon cancer progression via PDGFRA. These findings demonstrate that miR‑34a may act as a negative regulator in colon cancer by targeting PDGFRA.

  11. Different effects of ERβ and TROP2 expression in Chinese patients with early-stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ji-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Pei-Rong; Ou, Qing-Jian; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Jiang, Wu; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and TROP2 expressed in colon carcinoma and might play an important role there. We explored the relationship of ERβ and TROP2 expression with the prognosis of early-stage colon cancer. ERβ and TROP2 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa and tumoral tissues from 220 Chinese patients with T(3)N(0)M(0) (stage IIa) and T(4)N(0)M(0) (stage IIb) colon cancer in the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, who underwent curative surgical resection between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) data, and the ROC curve, Kaplan-Meier estimate, log rank test, and Jackknife method were used to show the effect of ERβ and TROP2 expression at different stages of cancer. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different between the patients with stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer (83 vs. 80 %, respectively). The high expression of ERβ was related to decreasing OS in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, while the high expression of TROP2 was related to decreasing OS in stage IIb colon cancer. The expression of ERβ and TROP2 has tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effect in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, respectively.

  12. Effect of co-administration of probiotics with polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery systems to optimize site specific drug release.

    PubMed

    Prudhviraj, G; Vaidya, Yogyata; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Kaur, Puneet; Gulati, Monica; Gowthamarajan, K

    2015-11-01

    Significant clinical success of colon targeted dosage forms has been limited by their inappropriate release profile at the target site. Their failure to release the drug completely in the colon may be attributed to changes in the colonic milieu because of pathological state, drug effect and psychological stress accompanying the diseased state or, a combination of these. Alteration in normal colonic pH and bacterial picture leads to incomplete release of drug from the designed delivery system. We report the effectiveness of a targeted delivery system wherein the constant replenishment of the colonic microbiota is achieved by concomitant administration of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based drug delivery system. Guar gum coated spheroids of sulfasalazine were prepared. In the dissolution studies, these spheroids showed markedly higher release in the simulated colonic fluid. In vivo experiments conducted in rats clearly demonstrated the therapeutic advantage of co-administration of probiotics with guar gum coated spheroids. Our results suggest that concomitant use of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based delivery systems can be a simple strategy to achieve satisfactory colon targeting of drugs.

  13. Evaluation of Colon Cancer – Specific Antigen 2 as a Potential Serum Marker for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Eddy S.; Schoen, Robert E.; Magheli, Ahmed; Sokoll, Lori J.; Chan, Daniel W.; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A blood test to detect colon cancer at a preventable stage would represent a major advancement. We have previously identified colon cancer – specific markers using focused proteomics analysis of nuclear structural proteins. Two of these markers, colon cancer – specific antigen (CCSA)-3 and CCSA-4, have been developed into blood-based markers that are able to distinguish individuals with colorectal cancer from those without. CCSA-2 is a distinct novel colon cancer marker identified using focused proteomics. Experimental Design Using an indirect ELISA on serum samples obtained from two institutions, we evaluated CCSA-2 as a serum-based colon cancer marker. A total of111serumsamples from individuals who underwent colonoscopy and were subsequently diagnosed as either being normal or having hyperplastic polyps, nonadvanced adenomas, advanced adenomas, and colorectal cancer were evaluated. A diverse control population that consisted of 125 serum samples was also included in this study. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to measure the sensitivity and specificity of CCSA-2. CCSA-2 at a cutoff of 10.8 µg/mL has overall specificity of 78.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 67.3–87.1%] and sensitivity of 97.3% (95% CI, 85.8–99.5%) in separating individuals with advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer from normal, hyperplastic, and nonadvanced adenoma populations. The receiver operating characteristic curve for CCSA-2 has an area under the curve of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.83–0.95). Conclusion Our initial study shows that CCSA-2 is a potential serum-based marker for colon cancer detection with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:18316554

  14. Keratin 8 knockdown leads to loss of the chloride transporter DRA in the colon.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M Nadeem; Priyamvada, Shubha; Nyström, Joel H; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu Natarajan; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    Keratins (K) are intermediate filament proteins important in protection from stress. The roles of keratins in the intestine are not clear, but K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) mice develop a Th2-type colonic inflammation, epithelial hyperproliferation, and mild diarrhea caused by a keratin level-dependent decrease in short-circuit current and net sodium and chloride absorption in the distal colon. The lack of K8 leads to mistargeting or altered levels of membrane proteins in colonocytes; however, the main transporter responsible for the keratin-related ion transport defect is unknown. We here analyzed protein and mRNA levels of candidate ion transporters CFTR, PAT-1, NHE-3, and DRA in ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon. Although no differences were observed for CFTR, PAT-1, or NHE-3, DRA mRNA levels were decreased by three- to fourfold and DRA protein was almost entirely lost in K8(-/-) cecum and proximal and distal colon compared with K8(+/+), whereas the levels in ileum were normal. In K8(+/-) mice, DRA mRNA levels were unaltered, while decreased DRA protein levels were detected in the proximal colon. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the loss of DRA in K8(-/-) distal colon, while K8(+/-) displayed a similar but more patchy apical DRA distribution compared with K8(+/+) DRA was similarly decreased when K8 was knocked down in Caco-2 cells, confirming that K8 levels modulate DRA levels in an inflammation-independent manner. Taken together, the loss of DRA in the K8(-/-) mouse colon and cecum explains the dramatic chloride transport defect and diarrheal phenotype after K8 inactivation and identifies K8 as a novel regulator of DRA. PMID:27125276

  15. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes regulate colon enteric nervous system structure and function.

    PubMed

    Wright-Jin, Elizabeth C; Grider, John R; Duester, Gregg; Heuckeroth, Robert O

    2013-09-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) forms from the neural crest-derived precursors that colonize the bowel before differentiating into a network of neurons and glia that control intestinal function. Retinoids are essential for normal ENS development, but the role of retinoic acid (RA) metabolism in development remains incompletely understood. Because RA is produced locally in the tissues where it acts by stimulating RAR and RXR receptors, RA signaling during development is absolutely dependent on the rate of RA synthesis and degradation. RA is produced by three different enzymes called retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH1, RALDH2 and RALDH3) that are all expressed in the developing bowel. To determine the relative importance of these enzymes for ENS development, we analyzed whole mount preparations of adult (8-12-week old) myenteric and submucosal plexus stained with NADPH diaphorase (neurons and neurites), anti-TuJ1 (neurons and neurites), anti-HuC/HuD (neurons), and anti-S100β (glia) in an allelic series of mice with mutations in Raldh1, Raldh2, and Raldh3. We found that Raldh1-/-, Raldh2+/-, Raldh3+/- (R1(KO)R2(Het)R3(Het)) mutant mice had a reduced colon myenteric neuron density, reduced colon myenteric neuron to glia ratio, reduced colon submucosal neuron density, and increased colon myenteric fibers per neuron when compared to the wild type (WT; Raldh1WT, Raldh2WT, Raldh3WT) mice. These defects are unlikely to be due to defective ENS precursor migration since R1(KO)R2(Het)R3(KO) mice had increased enteric neuron progenitor migration into the distal colon compared to WT during development. RALDH mutant mice also have reduced contractility in the colon compared to WT mice. These data suggest that RALDH1, RALDH2 and RALDH3 each contribute to ENS development and function.

  16. Comparative study of trace elements in normal and cancerous colorectal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoriadis, G.C.; Apostolidis, N.S.; Romanos, A.N.; Paradellis, T.P.

    1983-08-01

    Quantitative study of the Zn, Cu, K, Rb, Mn, Pb and Ni trace elements by the x-ray fluorescence method in normal and cancerous tissue samples, obtained from 18 patients suffering from cancer of the colon and rectum, shows that cancerous tissues exhibit statistically higher K, Rb, and Cu concentration than corresponding normal tissues. There are evidences that also Ni and Pb are elevated in cancerous tissues. Finally Zn and Mn do not show any appreciable difference in normal and cancerous tissues.

  17. Mycorrhiza-plant colonization patterns on a subalpine glacier forefront as a model system of primary succession.

    PubMed

    Cázares, Efrén; Trappe, James M; Jumpponen, Ari

    2005-09-01

    Lyman glacier in the North Cascades Mountains of Washington has a subalpine forefront characterized by a well-developed terminal moraine, inconspicuous successional moraines, fluting, and outwash. These deposits were depleted of symbiotic fungi when first exposed but colonized by them over time after exposure. Four major groups of plant species in this system are (1) mycorrhiza-independent or facultative mycotrophic, (2) dependent on arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) (3) dependent on ericoid mycorrhiza (ERM) or ectomycorrhizae (EM), and (4) colonized by dark-septate (DS) endophytes. We hypothesized that availability of mycorrhizal propagules was related to the success of mycorrhiza-dependent plants in colonizing new substrates in naturally evolved ecosystems. To test this hypothesis roots samples of 66 plant species were examined for mycorrhizal colonization. The plants were sampled from communities at increasing distances from the glacier terminus to compare the newest communities with successively older ones. Long established, secondary successional dry meadow communities adjacent to the glacier forefront, and nearby high alpine communities were sampled for comparison. DS were common on most plant species on the forefront. Nonmycorrhizal plants predominated in the earlier successional sites, whereas the proportion of mycorrhizal plants generally increased with age of community. AM were present, mostly at low levels, and nearly absent in two sites of the forefront. ERM were present in all species of Ericaceae sampled, and EM in all species of Pinaceae and Salicaceae. Roots of plants in the long established meadow and heath communities adjacent to the forefront and the high alpine community all had one or another of the colonization types, with DS and AM predominating.

  18. Mycorrhiza-plant colonization patterns on a subalpine glacier forefront as a model system of primary succession.

    PubMed

    Cázares, Efrén; Trappe, James M; Jumpponen, Ari

    2005-09-01

    Lyman glacier in the North Cascades Mountains of Washington has a subalpine forefront characterized by a well-developed terminal moraine, inconspicuous successional moraines, fluting, and outwash. These deposits were depleted of symbiotic fungi when first exposed but colonized by them over time after exposure. Four major groups of plant species in this system are (1) mycorrhiza-independent or facultative mycotrophic, (2) dependent on arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) (3) dependent on ericoid mycorrhiza (ERM) or ectomycorrhizae (EM), and (4) colonized by dark-septate (DS) endophytes. We hypothesized that availability of mycorrhizal propagules was related to the success of mycorrhiza-dependent plants in colonizing new substrates in naturally evolved ecosystems. To test this hypothesis roots samples of 66 plant species were examined for mycorrhizal colonization. The plants were sampled from communities at increasing distances from the glacier terminus to compare the newest communities with successively older ones. Long established, secondary successional dry meadow communities adjacent to the glacier forefront, and nearby high alpine communities were sampled for comparison. DS were common on most plant species on the forefront. Nonmycorrhizal plants predominated in the earlier successional sites, whereas the proportion of mycorrhizal plants generally increased with age of community. AM were present, mostly at low levels, and nearly absent in two sites of the forefront. ERM were present in all species of Ericaceae sampled, and EM in all species of Pinaceae and Salicaceae. Roots of plants in the long established meadow and heath communities adjacent to the forefront and the high alpine community all had one or another of the colonization types, with DS and AM predominating. PMID:15772815

  19. A link between lipid metabolism and epithelial-mesenchymal transition provides a target for colon cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martínez, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, Mónica; Vargas, Teodoro; Molina, Susana; García, Belén; Herranz, Jesús; Moreno-Rubio, Juan; Reglero, Guillermo; Pérez-Moreno, Mirna; Feliu, Jaime; Malumbres, Marcos; de Molina, Ana Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    The alterations in carbohydrate metabolism that fuel tumor growth have been extensively studied. However, other metabolic pathways involved in malignant progression, demand further understanding. Here we describe a metabolic acyl-CoA synthetase/stearoyl-CoA desaturase ACSL/SCD network causing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that promotes migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. The mesenchymal phenotype produced upon overexpression of these enzymes is reverted through reactivation of AMPK signaling. Furthermore, this network expression correlates with poorer clinical outcome of stage-II colon cancer patients. Finally, combined treatment with chemical inhibitors of ACSL/SCD selectively decreases cancer cell viability without reducing normal cells viability. Thus, ACSL/SCD network stimulates colon cancer progression through conferring increased energetic capacity and invasive and migratory properties to cancer cells, and might represent a new therapeutic opportunity for colon cancer treatment. PMID:26451612

  20. A transcriptional regulatory role of the THAP11-HCF-1 complex in colon cancer cell function.

    PubMed

    Parker, J Brandon; Palchaudhuri, Santanu; Yin, Hanwei; Wei, Jianjun; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2012-05-01

    The recently identified Thanatos-associated protein (THAP) domain is an atypical zinc finger motif with sequence-specific DNA-binding activity. Emerging data suggest that THAP proteins may function in chromatin-dependent processes, including transcriptional regulation, but the roles of most THAP proteins in normal and aberrant cellular processes remain largely unknown. In this work, we identify THAP11 as a transcriptional regulator differentially expressed in human colon cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of human colon cancers revealed increased THAP11 expression in both primary tumors and metastases. Knockdown of THAP11 in SW620 colon cancer cells resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation, and profiling of gene expression in these cells identified a novel gene set composed of 80 differentially expressed genes, 70% of which were derepressed by THAP11 knockdown. THAP11 was found to associate physically with the transcriptional coregulator HCF-1 (host cell factor 1) and recruit HCF-1 to target promoters. Importantly, THAP11-mediated gene regulation and its chromatin association require HCF-1, while HCF-1 recruitment at these genes requires THAP11. Collectively, these data provide the first characterization of THAP11-dependent gene expression in human colon cancer cells and suggest that the THAP11-HCF-1 complex may be an important transcriptional and cell growth regulator in human colon cancer. PMID:22371484

  1. PCR Conditions for 16S Primers for Analysis of Microbes in the Colon of Rats.

    PubMed

    Guillen, I A; Camacho, H; Tuero, A D; Bacardí, D; Palenzuela, D O; Aguilera, A; Silva, J A; Estrada, R; Gell, O; Suárez, J; Ancizar, J; Brown, E; Colarte, A B; Castro, J; Novoa, L I

    2016-09-01

    The study of the composition of the intestinal flora is important to the health of the host, playing a key role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and the evolution of the immune system. For these studies, various universal primers of the 16S rDNA gene are used in microbial taxonomy. Here, we report an evaluation of 5 universal primers to explore the presence of microbial DNA in colon biopsies preserved in RNAlater solution. The DNA extracted was used for the amplification of PCR products containing the variable (V) regions of the microbial 16S rDNA gene. The PCR products were studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA sequence, whose percent of homology with microbial sequences reported in GenBank was verified using bioinformatics tools. The presence of microbes in the colon of rats was quantified by the quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique. We obtained microbial DNA from rat, useful for PCR analysis with the universal primers for the bacteria 16S rDNA. The sequences of PCR products obtained from a colon biopsy of the animal showed homology with the classes bacilli (Lactobacillus spp) and proteobacteria, normally represented in the colon of rats. The proposed methodology allowed the attainment of DNA of bacteria with the quality and integrity for use in qPCR, sequencing, and PCR-RFLP analysis. The selected universal primers provided knowledge of the abundance of microorganisms and the formation of a preliminary test of bacterial diversity in rat colon biopsies. PMID:27382362

  2. PCR Conditions for 16S Primers for Analysis of Microbes in the Colon of Rats.

    PubMed

    Guillen, I A; Camacho, H; Tuero, A D; Bacardí, D; Palenzuela, D O; Aguilera, A; Silva, J A; Estrada, R; Gell, O; Suárez, J; Ancizar, J; Brown, E; Colarte, A B; Castro, J; Novoa, L I

    2016-09-01

    The study of the composition of the intestinal flora is important to the health of the host, playing a key role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and the evolution of the immune system. For these studies, various universal primers of the 16S rDNA gene are used in microbial taxonomy. Here, we report an evaluation of 5 universal primers to explore the presence of microbial DNA in colon biopsies preserved in RNAlater solution. The DNA extracted was used for the amplification of PCR products containing the variable (V) regions of the microbial 16S rDNA gene. The PCR products were studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA sequence, whose percent of homology with microbial sequences reported in GenBank was verified using bioinformatics tools. The presence of microbes in the colon of rats was quantified by the quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique. We obtained microbial DNA from rat, useful for PCR analysis with the universal primers for the bacteria 16S rDNA. The sequences of PCR products obtained from a colon biopsy of the animal showed homology with the classes bacilli (Lactobacillus spp) and proteobacteria, normally represented in the colon of rats. The proposed methodology allowed the attainment of DNA of bacteria with the quality and integrity for use in qPCR, sequencing, and PCR-RFLP analysis. The selected universal primers provided knowledge of the abundance of microorganisms and the formation of a preliminary test of bacterial diversity in rat colon biopsies.

  3. PCR Conditions for 16S Primers for Analysis of Microbes in the Colon of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, H.; Tuero, A. D.; Bacardí, D.; Palenzuela, D. O.; Aguilera, A.; Silva, J. A.; Estrada, R.; Gell, O.; Suárez, J.; Ancizar, J.; Brown, E.; Colarte, A. B.; Castro, J.; Novoa, L. I.

    2016-01-01

    The study of the composition of the intestinal flora is important to the health of the host, playing a key role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and the evolution of the immune system. For these studies, various universal primers of the 16S rDNA gene are used in microbial taxonomy. Here, we report an evaluation of 5 universal primers to explore the presence of microbial DNA in colon biopsies preserved in RNAlater solution. The DNA extracted was used for the amplification of PCR products containing the variable (V) regions of the microbial 16S rDNA gene. The PCR products were studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA sequence, whose percent of homology with microbial sequences reported in GenBank was verified using bioinformatics tools. The presence of microbes in the colon of rats was quantified by the quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique. We obtained microbial DNA from rat, useful for PCR analysis with the universal primers for the bacteria 16S rDNA. The sequences of PCR products obtained from a colon biopsy of the animal showed homology with the classes bacilli (Lactobacillus spp) and proteobacteria, normally represented in the colon of rats. The proposed methodology allowed the attainment of DNA of bacteria with the quality and integrity for use in qPCR, sequencing, and PCR-RFLP analysis. The selected universal primers provided knowledge of the abundance of microorganisms and the formation of a preliminary test of bacterial diversity in rat colon biopsies. PMID:27382362

  4. Dehydropeptidase 1 promotes metastasis through regulation of E-cadherin expression in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Seon-Jin; Cho, Hee Jun; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Jong-Tae; Kim, Jae Wha; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Yeom, Young Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Lee, Younghee; Lee, Hee Gu

    2016-01-01

    Dehydropeptidase 1 (DPEP1) is a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase that is expressed aberrantly in several cancers. The role of DPEP1 in cancer remain controversial. In this study, we demonstrate that DPEP1 functions as a positive regulator for colon cancer cell metastasis. The expression of DPEP1 mRNA and proteins were upregulated in colon cancer tissues compared to normal mucosa. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were used to examine the malignant phenotype of DPEP1-expressing or DPEP1-depleted cells. DPEP1 expression caused a significant increase in colon cancer cell adhesion and invasion in vitro, and metastasis in vivo. In contrast, DPEP1 depletion induced opposite effects. Furthermore, cilastatin, a DPEP1 inhibitor, suppressed the invasion and metastasis of DPEP1-expressing cells. DPEP1 inhibited the leukotriene D4 signaling pathway and increased the expression of E-cadherin. We also show that DPEP1 mediates TGF-β-induced EMT. TGF-β transcriptionally repressed DPEP1 expression. TGF-β treatment decreased E-cadherin expression and promoted cell invasion in DPEP1-expressing colon cancer cell lines, whereas it did not affect these parameters in DPEP1-depleted cell lines. These results suggest that DPEP1 promotes cancer metastasis by regulating E-cadherin plasticity and that it might be a potential therapeutic target for preventing the progression of colon cancer. PMID:26824987

  5. Long-lived intestinal tuft cells serve as colon cancer–initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Westphalen, C. Benedikt; Asfaha, Samuel; Hayakawa, Yoku; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Lukin, Dana J.; Nuber, Andreas H.; Brandtner, Anna; Setlik, Wanda; Remotti, Helen; Muley, Ashlesha; Chen, Xiaowei; May, Randal; Houchen, Courtney W.; Fox, James G.; Gershon, Michael D.; Quante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Doublecortin-like kinase 1 protein (DCLK1) is a gastrointestinal tuft cell marker that has been proposed to identify quiescent and tumor growth–sustaining stem cells. DCLK1+ tuft cells are increased in inflammation-induced carcinogenesis; however, the role of these cells within the gastrointestinal epithelium and their potential as cancer-initiating cells are poorly understood. Here, using a BAC-CreERT–dependent genetic lineage–tracing strategy, we determined that a subpopulation of DCLK1+ cells is extremely long lived and possesses rare stem cell abilities. Moreover, genetic ablation of Dclk1 revealed that DCLK1+ tuft cells contribute to recovery following intestinal and colonic injury. Surprisingly, conditional knockdown of the Wnt regulator APC in DCLK1+ cells was not sufficient to drive colonic carcinogenesis under normal conditions; however, dextran sodium sulfate–induced (DSS-induced) colitis promoted the development of poorly differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma in mice lacking APC in DCLK1+ cells. Importantly, colonic tumor formation occurred even when colitis onset was delayed for up to 3 months after induced APC loss in DCLK1+ cells. Thus, our data define an intestinal DCLK1+ tuft cell population that is long lived, quiescent, and important for intestinal homeostasis and regeneration. Long-lived DCLK1+ cells maintain quiescence even following oncogenic mutation, but are activated by tissue injury and can serve to initiate colon cancer. PMID:24487592

  6. Laparoscopic colon surgery: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Martel, Guillaume; Boushey, Robin P

    2006-08-01

    Since its first described case in 1991, laparoscopic colon surgery has lagged behind minimally invasive surgical methods for solid intra-abdominal organs in terms of acceptability, dissemination, and ease of learning. In colon cancer, initial concerns over port site metastases and adequacy of oncologic resection have considerably dampened early enthusiasm for this procedure. Only recently, with the publication of several large, randomized controlled trials, has the incidence of port site metastases been shown to be equivalent to that of open resection. Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer has also been demonstrated to be at least equivalent to traditional laparotomy in terms of adequacy of oncologic resection, disease recurrence, and long-term survival. In addition, numerous reports have validated short-term benefits following laparoscopic resection for cancer, including shorter hospital stay, shorter time to recovery of bowel function, and decreased analgesic requirements, as well as other postoperative variables. In benign colonic disease, much less high-quality literature exists supporting the use of laparoscopic methods. Two recent randomized controlled trials have demonstrated some short-term benefits to laparoscopic ileocolic resection for CD, in addition to evident cosmetic advantages. On the other hand, the current evidence on laparoscopic surgery for UC does not support its routine use among nonexpert surgeons outside of specialized centers. Laparoscopic colonic resection for diverticular disease appears to provide several short-term benefits, although these advantages may not translate to cases of complicated diverticulitis. Despite the increasing acceptability of minimally invasive methods for the management of benign and malignant colonic pathologies, laparoscopic colon resection remains a prohibitively difficult technique to master. Numerous technological innovations have been introduced onto the market in an effort to decrease the steep learning

  7. Normality in analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  8. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  9. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  10. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  11. Normal Variants in Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Daniel R; Bryg, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Echocardiography is a powerful and convenient tool used routinely in the cardiac evaluation of many patients. Improved resolution and visualization of cardiac anatomy has led to the discovery of many normal variant structures that have no known pathologic consequence. Importantly, these findings may masquerade as pathology prompting unnecessary further evaluation at the expense of anxiety, cost, or potential harm. This review provides an updated and comprehensive collection of normal anatomic variants on both transthoracic and transesophageal imaging. PMID:27612473

  12. Impact of in Vivo Ischemic Time on RNA Quality--Experiences from a Colon Cancer Biobank.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jesper; Kirkeby, Lene T; Eiholm, Susanne; Jess, Per; Troelsen, Jesper T; Gögenür, Ismail; Olsen, Jorgen

    2015-08-01

    Considerable effort has been made to improve differentiated diagnostics as well as personalized treatment for colorectal cancer patients. High-quality fresh frozen tissue is often required to investigate relevant molecular signatures in these patients. In RNA expression studies, the "RNA integrity number" is widely accepted as a reliable marker of RNA quality. Here, we investigate the feasibility of obtaining high-quality tissue from a colon cancer biobank and the impact of in vivo ischemic time and various technical and clinicopathological factors on RNA quality. Biopsies were obtained immediately following the tumor removal. The time from clamping the main arterial supply to resection and removal of the tumor was used to estimate the in vivo ischemic time. We did not observe a significant difference in RNA quality between normal tissue and tumor tissue. We observed a significant correlation between in vivo ischemic time and RNA quality in normal tissue (r = -0.24, p<0.001) but not in tumor tissue. Male gender and laparoscopic procedure were also significantly associated with lower RNA quality in normal tissue only. In tumor tissue, poor differentiation was associated with low RNA quality. In conclusion, in vivo ischemic time, surgical procedure, and gender have minor but significant effects on the quality of RNA from normal colon tissue but not tumor tissue. Poorly differentiated tumors are associated with lower RNA quality. Although its impact is low, it can still be considered to note in vivo ischemic time in colon cancer specimen procurement.

  13. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  14. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-01-01

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented. PMID:27515618

  15. Geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dilamarter, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas in Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee is presented as a background for interpreters evaluating the present land surface using remotely sensed imagery. Eight physiographic units were analyzed and are briefly discussed with reference to topography and surface deposits. Great diversity was found to be characteristic of the region, the result of different structural influences and geomorphic processes. The landscape bears the marks of fluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine and karstic environments, so a regional geomorphic history was compiled from the literature as an aid to understanding the land surface. Three smaller zones in Kentucky were analyzed in greater detail regarding topography and geomorphic development because of their potential importance in subsurface exploration.

  16. Configuration optimization of dampers for adjacent buildings under seismic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Kasra; Hare, Warren; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2012-12-01

    Passive coupling of adjacent structures is known to be an effective method to reduce undesirable vibrations and structural pounding effects. Past results have shown that reducing the number of dampers can considerably decrease the cost of implementation and does not significantly decrease the efficiency of the system. The main objective of this study was to find the optimal arrangement of a limited number of dampers to minimize interstorey drift. Five approaches to solving the resulting bi-level optimization problem are introduced and examined (exhaustive search, inserting dampers, inserting floors, locations of maximum relative velocity and a genetic algorithm) and the numerical efficiency of each method is examined. The results reveal that the inserting damper method is the most efficient and reliable method, particularly for tall structures. It was also found that increasing the number of dampers does not necessarily increase the efficiency of the system. In fact, increasing the number of dampers can exacerbate the dynamic response of the system.

  17. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  18. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  19. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  20. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  1. Colon centerline extraction in fragmented segmentations.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Karthik; Madrosiya, Akshay; Desai, Nasir

    2015-08-01

    In virtual colonoscopy, the clinical need is a smooth centered path from the rectum to the cecum, for interactive navigation along the colonic lumen. The primary challenge is breakages in the colon, due to fecal residue, abnormalities, poor insufflation and inadequate electronic cleansing. Here we propose a method, that is a modification of the classic energy minimized geodesic, that extracts centered paths through fragmented colons. To begin, we perform electronic cleansing, automatically localize 4 points: rectum, cecum, sphlenic and hepatic flexures; followed by region growing and heuristic approaches to generate the initial segmentation. This is followed by a daisy chaining procedure to link possibly large colon blobs that may have been missed as weaker candidate segmentations. We then perform a front propagation to extract a minimal energy path through the ordered set of points. This propagation is guided by multiple forces: (a) A strong force given by the distance to the colon segmentation surface (b) A weak force derived from the CT intensity (c) A weak force from the distance to the surface of weaker candidate colon segmentations (d) A geodesic repulsive force, where the other points exhibit an repelling force in their voronoi partition, the force proportional to the geodesic distance to the point. Our contribution is a path extraction method for the colon that is the energy minimized geodesic (a) favouring centeredness (b) punching through gaps, traversing in so far as possible through lower intensity regions and possibly centered within these gaps (c) ordered through the feature points. Results show improvements of the method over the standard minimal energy path approach. PMID:26736927

  2. Ulcerative colitis--a disease characterised by the abnormal colonic epithelial cell?

    PubMed

    Gibson, P R; van de Pol, E; Barratt, P J; Doe, W F

    1988-04-01

    The leakiness of the cell membranes of colonic epithelial cells isolated by the collagenase/Dispase technique from normal or diseased colons was assessed in a 4 h 51Cr release assay. Cells from normal, adenoma bearing or cancer bearing colons showed 51Cr release of 8% or less in almost all of 46 cell populations tested. In contrast, cells from mucosa affected by ulcerative colitis [11.9 (4.3%) n = 23] or Crohn's disease [8.4 (2.7%) n = 18] released significantly more 51Cr than the non-inflamed groups. Values are expressed as mean (SD). Overall, release values were greater in ulcerative colitis than Crohn's disease (p less than 0.01). In Crohn's disease, cells obtained from histologically inflamed mucosa released significantly more 51Cr [9.7 (2.5%) n = 11] than those from non-inflamed mucosa [6.4 (1.5%) n = 7, p less than 0.02] whereas, in ulcerative colitis, abnormal release values were found in 8 of 13 cell populations isolated from mucosa showing no histological evidence of active disease. In five patients with distal ulcerative colitis, cells from mucosa not apparently involved demonstrated normal 51Cr release in four of five studies despite abnormal release from cells from involved mucosa suggesting that a diffuse abnormality of the colonic epithelial cell is not usually present. These data indicate that chronic mucosal inflammation per se is associated with abnormalities of the colonic epithelial cell but that, in ulcerative colitis, the abnormality remains in many patients with quiescent disease. Identification of the local factors responsible for such an abnormality may contribute to an understanding of the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. PMID:3371720

  3. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  4. Subduction initiation adjacent to a relic island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, W.; Gurnis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Although plate tectonics is well established, how subduction initiates over tectonic history has remained obscure. It has been proposed that passive margins may be a possible place for subduction initiation, but there is no obvious Cenozoic example of such a scenario, including along the passive margins of the Atlantic Ocean. With a computational method that follows the deformation of a visco-elasto-plastic medium, here we show that a favourable locale for subduction initiation is the juxtaposition of an old oceanic plate adjacent to a young, but relic arc. Significant density anomalies leading to subduction initiation arise from two major factors. One is the compositional difference between the relic arc crust and the oceanic lithospheric mantle; the other is the thermal difference due to the age offset between the two plates. With such a setup, we observe spontaneous subduction initiation if the oceanic crust is significantly weakened by pore fluid pressure. If the oceanic crust is relatively strong, a small amount of plate convergence is required to induce subduction. The evidence that Izu-Bonin-Mariana and Tonga-Kermedec subduction zones both initiate adjacent to a relic island arc support our conclusions. The initiation of both subduction zones at 51-52 Ma with commensurate compression on their respective overriding plates support a causal link between both subduction initiation events through a change in Pacific Plate motion. Our results provide an explanation for the rarity of subduction initiation at the passive margins. The continental lithosphere is typically old and cold. Consequently, the thermal effects cancel the compositional buoyancy contrast between the continental crust and the oceanic lithospheric mantle, making subduction initiation difficult at passive margins.

  5. Prevention of enamel demineralization adjacent to glass ionomer filling materials.

    PubMed

    Forss, H; Seppä, L

    1990-04-01

    In order to study the release of fluoride and prevention of enamel demineralization by different filling materials, standardized cavities were prepared in 80 extracted human molars. The cavities were filled as follows: 1. Fuji II F; 2. Ketac-Fil; 3. Ketac-Silver; 4. Silar. Twenty molars were used as controls (no filling). Enamel slabs with the fillings were subjected to 9 days of demineralization (30 min daily) and remineralization (artificial saliva, replaced daily). Fluoride release in the saliva was determined on days 1, 3, 5, and 9. Enamel fluoride content adjacent to the cavities was determined initially and after the de-remineralization using the acid etch technique. On day 1, the largest amount of fluoride in the saliva was released by Fuji, but on day 9 the largest amount was released by Ketac-Fil. Ketac-Silver released significantly less fluoride than Fuji and Ketac-Fil. The average initial fluoride content of enamel was 2200 ppm. After the test period, fluoride contents adjusted for biopsy depth were 1822, 1690, 1693, 1337, and 888 ppm in groups 1-5, respectively. The amounts of phosphorus dissolved by the second acid etch were 28.9 (SE 2.6), 30.2 (2.0), 34.4 (2.8), 44.1 (2.7), and 42.2 (2.4) micrograms, respectively. Softening of surface enamel during the test period was clearly reduced in teeth filled with Fuji and Ketac-Fil. The results show that glass ionomer materials release considerable amounts of fluoride and prevent demineralization of the adjacent enamel in vitro. Fuji and Ketac-Fil seem to be more effective than Ketac-Silver.

  6. Glycosylation and sulphation of colonic mucus glycoproteins in patients with ulcerative colitis and in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, H; Kettlewell, M G; Jewell, D P; Kent, P W

    1993-01-01

    Studies have been made of mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in different regions of the lower gastrointestinal tract in normal patients and those with ulcerative colitis (UC), active or inactive, by means of 3H-glucosamine (3H-GlcNH2)--35S-sulphate double labelling of epithelial biopsy specimens under culture conditions. The time based rate of 3H-GlcNH2 labelling of mucus in rectal tissue was similar to that in active or inactive UC whereas the rate of 35SO4(2) labelling was significantly increased in active disease. The 3H specific activities measuring the amount of isotopic incorporation into surface and tissue mucus glycoproteins were increased in patients with active UC compared with normal or inactive subjects. The 35S specific activities did not differ significantly between patients with active UC and those in remission. In the rectum, glycosylation of mucus glycoproteins decreases with the increasing age of the patient. Regional differences in 3H-labelling of mucus components are reported for ascending colon, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Sulphation (35S-labelling) was higher in all parts of the colon in left sided UC. Results point to accelerated glycosylation of core proteins in the active phase of UC. PMID:8344580

  7. Evaluation of immune infiltration in the colonic mucosa of patients with ipilimumab-related colitis

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Edurne; Wheater, Matthew; Lopez, Maria Antonette; Thomas, Gareth; Ottensmeier, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Approximately 30% of patients treated with ipilimumab will develop gastrointestinal toxicity. The immunological drivers that underpin the clinical observations in human tissues are poorly understood. We report here on the immune consequences of ipilimumab treatment in the colorectal mucosa of patients with treatment-related colitis. Using immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the immune infiltrate by CD8+, FoxP3, and granzyme B (GzmB) in colonic biopsies from 20 patients with ipilimumab-related colitis. We assessed 10 cases with normal colon biopsies for comparison. In eight cases (four on steroids only, four on steroids and infliximab), we evaluated two sequential biopsies. We observed that CD8+, FoxP3+, and GzmB T cell counts were significantly higher in patients with ipilimumab-related colitis compared to normal colon (p < 0.0001). Patients who required infliximab for the resolution of their colitis had a significantly higher CD8+/FoxP3 ratio than those treated only with steroids and this correlated with clinical severity. The analysis of repeat samples revealed that resolution of the colitis was associated with a decrease in CD8+ and FoxP3+ cells both in patients treated with steroids and infliximab. Our data suggest that counts of cytotoxic T cells and Tregs in the colonic mucosa from patients with ipilimumab-related colitis correlate with clinical findings and may predict severity and guide management.

  8. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 35744, June 20, 2011. (a... adjacent waters, Mass. (a) * * * (2) Anchorage B. All waters bounded by a line beginning at 41°36′42.3″...

  9. Systemic Chromosome Instability Resulted in Colonic Transcriptomic Changes in Metabolic, Proliferation, and Stem Cell Regulators in Sgo1-/+ Mice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chinthalapally V; Sanghera, Saira; Zhang, Yuting; Biddick, Laura; Reddy, Arun; Lightfoot, Stan; Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Dai, Wei; Yamada, Hiroshi Y

    2016-02-01

    Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer and is predicted to claim 49,700 lives in the United States this year. Chromosome instability (CIN) is observed in 80% to 90% of colon cancers and is thought to contribute to colon cancer progression and recurrence. To investigate the impact of CIN on colon cancer development, we developed shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient (-/+) mice, an animal model focusing on mitotic error-induced CIN. In this study, we analyzed signature changes in the colonic transcriptome of Sgo1(-/+) mice to examine the molecular events underlying the altered carcinogenesis profiles in Sgo1(-/+) mice. We performed next-generation sequencing of normal-looking colonic mucosal tissue from mice treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane after 24 weeks. Transcriptome profiling revealed 349 hits with a 2-fold expression difference threshold (217 upregulated genes, 132 downregulated genes, P < 0.05). Pathway analyses indicated that the Sgo1-CIN tissues upregulated pathways known to be activated in colon cancer, including lipid metabolism (z score 4.47), Notch signaling (4.47), insulin signaling (3.81), and PPAR pathways (3.75), and downregulated pathways involved in immune responses including allograft rejection (6.69) and graft-versus-host disease (6.54). Notably, stem cell markers were also misregulated. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that systemic CIN results in transcriptomic changes in metabolism, proliferation, cell fate, and immune responses in the colon, which may foster a microenvironment amenable to cancer development. Therefore, therapeutic approaches focusing on these identified pathways may be valuable for colon cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:26833665

  10. Important role of mucosal serotonin in colonic propulsion and peristaltic reflexes: in vitro analyses in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Dante J; Gershon, Michael D; Koh, Sang Don; Corrigan, Robert D; Okamoto, Takanubu; Smith, Terence K

    2013-12-01

    Although there is general agreement that mucosal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) can initiate peristaltic reflexes in the colon, recent studies have differed as to whether or not the role of mucosal 5-HT is critical. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the secretion of 5-HT from mucosal enterochromaffin (EC) cells is essential for the manifestation of murine colonic peristaltic reflexes. To do so, we analysed the mechanisms underlying faecal pellet propulsion in isolated colons of mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1(-/-) mice), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of mucosal but not neuronal 5-HT. We used video analysis of faecal pellet propulsion, tension transducers to record colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) and intracellular microelectrodes to record circular muscle activity occurring spontaneously or following intraluminal distension. When compared with control (Tph1(+/+)) mice, Tph1(-/-) animals exhibited: (1) an elongated colon; (2) larger faecal pellets; (3) orthograde propulsion followed by retropulsion (not observed in Tph1(+/+) colon); (4) slower in vitro propulsion of larger faecal pellets (28% of Tph1(+/+)); (5) CMMCs that infrequently propagated in an oral to anal direction because of impaired descending inhibition; (6) reduced CMMCs and inhibitory responses to intraluminal balloon distension; (7) an absence of reflex activity in response to mucosal stimulation. In addition, (8) thin pellets that propagated along the control colon failed to do so in Tph1(-/-) colon; and (9) the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, which reduced CMMCs and blocked their propagation in Tph1(+/+) mice, failed to alter CMMCs in Tph1(-/-) animals. Our observations suggest that mucosal 5-HT is essential for reflexes driven by mucosal stimulation and is also important for normal propagation of CMMCs and propulsion of pellets in the isolated colon.

  11. Suppression of aberrant transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 expression in hyperproliferative colonic crypts by dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Sara; Sellin, Joseph H; Wang, Yu; Freeman, Michael R; Umar, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Dietary calcium is believed to reduce colon cancer risk, but the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. Employing the Citrobacter rodentium-induced transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) model, we previously showed that a high-calcium diet (hCa) significantly abrogated hyperplasia in the distal colons of NIH-Swiss mice. Here, we explored the mechanism of dietary protection by hCa by analyzing the expression of genes involved in the regulation of Ca uptake/flux in the intestinal epithelium, including the Ca-sensing receptor, vitamin D receptor, Ca binding protein, and transient receptor potential cation channels, subfamily V, members 5 and 6 (TRPV5/6). Interestingly, while TRPV6 expression increased significantly during TMCH, the expression of the other gene products was unchanged. This elevated TRPV6 expression was significantly abrogated by a hCa diet. Immunofluorescence revealed apical membrane localization of TRPV6 in the normal colon, whereas during TMCH we observed intense apical pole and cytoplasmic staining along the entire longitudinal crypt axis, including the expanded proliferating zone. The hCa diet reversed this effect. In humans, overexpression of TRPV6 was associated with early-stage colon cancer, and in colon carcinoma cells, inhibition of TRPV6 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited their proliferation and induced apoptosis. TRPV6 small interfering RNA also diminished the transcriptional activity of the calcium-dependent nuclear factors in activated T cells. Thus the aberrant overexpression of TRPV6 contributes to colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice and to colon cancer cell proliferation in humans. Therefore, it is likely that suppression of TRPV6 by a hCa diet is required for its protective effects in the colon.

  12. Important role of mucosal serotonin in colonic propulsion and peristaltic reflexes: in vitro analyses in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Dante J; Gershon, Michael D; Koh, Sang Don; Corrigan, Robert D; Okamoto, Takanubu; Smith, Terence K

    2013-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that mucosal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) can initiate peristaltic reflexes in the colon, recent studies have differed as to whether or not the role of mucosal 5-HT is critical. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the secretion of 5-HT from mucosal enterochromaffin (EC) cells is essential for the manifestation of murine colonic peristaltic reflexes. To do so, we analysed the mechanisms underlying faecal pellet propulsion in isolated colons of mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1−/− mice), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of mucosal but not neuronal 5-HT. We used video analysis of faecal pellet propulsion, tension transducers to record colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) and intracellular microelectrodes to record circular muscle activity occurring spontaneously or following intraluminal distension. When compared with control (Tph1+/+) mice, Tph1−/− animals exhibited: (1) an elongated colon; (2) larger faecal pellets; (3) orthograde propulsion followed by retropulsion (not observed in Tph1+/+ colon); (4) slower in vitro propulsion of larger faecal pellets (28% of Tph1+/+); (5) CMMCs that infrequently propagated in an oral to anal direction because of impaired descending inhibition; (6) reduced CMMCs and inhibitory responses to intraluminal balloon distension; (7) an absence of reflex activity in response to mucosal stimulation. In addition, (8) thin pellets that propagated along the control colon failed to do so in Tph1−/− colon; and (9) the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, which reduced CMMCs and blocked their propagation in Tph1+/+ mice, failed to alter CMMCs in Tph1−/− animals. Our observations suggest that mucosal 5-HT is essential for reflexes driven by mucosal stimulation and is also important for normal propagation of CMMCs and propulsion of pellets in the isolated colon. PMID:24127620

  13. Colonic Patch and colonic SILT development are independent and differentially-regulated events

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, AP; Olivier, BJ; Goverse, G; Greuter, M; Knippenberg, M; Kusser, K; Domingues, RG.; Veiga-Fernandes, H; Luster, AD; Lugering, A; Randall, TD; Cupedo, T; Mebius, RE

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal lymphoid tissues have to simultaneously ensure protection against pathogens and tolerance towards commensals. Despite such vital functions, their development in the colon is poorly understood. Here, we show that the two distinct lymphoid tissues of the colon–colonic patches and colonic SILTs–can easily be distinguished based on anatomical location, developmental timeframe and cellular organization. Furthermore, whereas colonic patch development depended on CXCL13-mediated LTi cell clustering followed by LTα-mediated consolidation, early LTi clustering at SILT anlagen did not require CXCL13, CCR6 or CXCR3. Subsequent dendritic cell recruitment to and gp38+VCAM-1+ lymphoid stromal cell differentiation within SILTs required LTα; B cell recruitment and follicular dendritic cell differentiation depended on MyD88-mediated signalling, but not the microflora. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that different mechanisms, mediated mainly by programmed stimuli, induce the formation of distinct colonic lymphoid tissues, therefore suggesting that these tissues may have different functions. PMID:22990625

  14. Heat Transport between Antiferromagnetic Insulators and Normal Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjaerbu, Eirik Lohaugen; Skarsvaag, Hans; Tveten, Erlend G.; Brataas, Arne

    Antiferromagnetic insulators can become active spintronics components by controlling and detecting their dynamics via spin currents in adjacent metals. This cross-talk occurs via spin-transfer and spin-pumping, phenomena that have been predicted to be as strong in antiferromagnets as in ferromagnets. In a recent article, we demonstrate that a temperature gradient drives a significant heat flow from magnons in antiferromagnetic insulators to electrons in adjacent normal metals. The same coefficients as in the spin-transfer and spin-pumping processes also determine the thermal conductance. However, in contrast to ferromagnets, the heat is not transferred via a spin Seebeck effect which is absent in antiferromagnetic insulator-normal metal systems. Instead, the heat is proportional to a large staggered spin Seebeck effect.

  15. Heat transport between antiferromagnetic insulators and normal metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brataas, Arne; Skarsvâg, Hans; Tveten, Erlend G.; Løhaugen Fjærbu, Eirik

    2015-11-01

    Antiferromagnetic insulators can become active spintronics components by controlling and detecting their dynamics via spin currents in adjacent metals. This cross talk occurs via spin transfer and spin pumping, phenomena that have been predicted to be as strong in antiferromagnets as in ferromagnets. Here, we demonstrate that a temperature gradient drives a significant heat flow from magnons in antiferromagnetic insulators to electrons in adjacent normal metals. The same coefficients as in the spin-transfer and spin-pumping processes also determine the thermal conductance. However, in contrast to ferromagnets, the heat is not transferred via a spin Seebeck effect which is absent in antiferromagnetic insulator-normal metal systems. Instead, the heat is proportional to a large staggered spin Seebeck effect.

  16. Space colonization - Some physiological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    Physiological criteria determining the design of the habitat for a space colony with 10,000 people are discussed. Centrifugally generated earth-normal gravity, maximum ionizing radiation dose standards less than or equal to 0.5 rem/year (obtained with passive shielding), and an atmosphere with reduced nitrogen partial pressures were established as design requirements for the habitat. However, further research is needed to determine whether humans experience complete adaptation to weightlessness and whether there are long-term effects of breathing various atmospheric mixtures and pressures.

  17. Force normalization in paraplegics.

    PubMed

    Serra-Añó, P; García-Massó, X; Pellicer, M; González, L-M; López-Pascual, J; Giner-Pascual, M; Toca-Herrera, J L

    2012-06-01

    The principal aim of our study was the determination of the effectiveness of a standardized ratio, allometric scaling model and a gamma function model in normalizing the isometric torque data of spinal cord patients and healthy subjects. For this purpose we studied a sample of 21 healthy males and 23 spinal cord injury males. The experiment consisted of the measurement of the force of the upper limb movement executed by all the subjects. We also determined anthropometric variables with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The experimental data were analyzed with 3 force normalization methods. Our results indicate that the most important confounding variable was the fat free mass of the dominant upper limb (r>0.36, p<0.05). With the standardization by body mass and allometric scaling model, the normalized torque was influenced by body size variables. However, the normalized torque by the gamma function model was independent of body size measures. Paraplegics were weaker (p<0.05) in extension movements when the data were normalized by the gamma function model. In summary, this study shows that the gamma function model with fat free mass of the dominant upper limb was more effective than the standardized ratio in removing the influence of body size variables. PMID:22377940

  18. CT evaluation of the colon: inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Horton, K M; Corl, F M; Fishman, E K

    2000-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is valuable for detection and characterization of many inflammatory conditions of the colon. At CT, a dilated, thickened appendix is suggestive of appendicitis. A 1-4-cm, oval, fatty pericolic lesion with surrounding mesenteric inflammation is diagnostic of epiploic appendagitis. The key to distinguishing diverticulitis from other inflammatory conditions of the colon is the presence of diverticula in the involved segment. In typhlitis, CT demonstrates cecal distention and circumferential thickening of the cecal wall, which may have low attenuation secondary to edema. In radiation colitis, the clinical history is the key to suggesting the diagnosis because the CT findings can be nonspecific. The location of the involved segment and the extent and appearance of wall thickening may help distinguish Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. In ischemic colitis, CT typically demonstrates circumferential, symmetric wall thickening with fold enlargement. CT findings of graft-versus-host disease include small bowel and colonic wall thickening, which may result in luminal narrowing and separation of bowel loops. In infectious colitis, the site and thickness of colon affected may suggest a specific organism. The amount of wall thickening in pseudomembranous colitis is typically greater than in any other inflammatory disease of the colon except Crohn disease. PMID:10715339

  19. Crater lake colonization by neotropical cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Kathryn R; Lehtonen, Topi K; Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Volcanic crater lakes are isolated habitats that are particularly well suited to investigating ecological and evolutionary divergence and modes of speciation. However, the mode, frequency, and timing of colonization of crater lakes have been difficult to determine. We used a statistical comparative phylogeographic approach, based on a mitochondrialDNA dataset, to infer the colonization history of two Nicaraguan crater lakes by populations of genetically and ecologically divergent cichlid lineages: Midas (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus complex) and moga (Hypsophrys nematopus). We compared estimates of diversity among populations within the two cichlid lineages and found that Midas were the most genetically diverse. From an approximate Bayesian computation analysis, we inferred that the crater lakes were each founded by both cichlid lineages in single waves of colonization: Masaya 5800 ± 300 years ago and Xiloá 5400 ± 750 years ago. We conclude that natural events are likely to have a dominant role in colonization of the crater lakes. Further, our findings suggest that the higher species richness and more rapid evolution of the Midas species complex, relative to other lineages of fishes in the same crater lakes, cannot be explained by earlier or more numerous colonization events.

  20. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.