Science.gov

Sample records for adjacent normal colon

  1. Higher FOXP3-TSDR demethylation rates in adjacent normal tissues in patients with colon cancer were associated with worse survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) on the patients with colon cancer is unclear. Demethylated status of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) of the FOXP3 gene was reported to be a potential biomarker for the identification of nTregs. Methods The demethylation rate of the TSDR (TSDR-DMR) was calculated by using methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MS-qPCR) assay. The expression of TSDR-DMR and FOXP3 mRNA was investigated in various colorectal cancer cell lines. A total of 130 colon carcinoma samples were utilized to study the DMR at tumor sites (DMRT) and adjacent normal tissue (DMRN). The correlations between DMRs and clinicopathological variables of patients with colon cancer were studied. Results The TSDR-DMRs varied dramatically among nTregs (97.920 ± 0.466%) and iTregs (3.917 ± 0.750%). Significantly, DMRT (3.296 ± 0.213%) was higher than DMRN (1.605 ± 0.146%) (n = 130, p = 0.000). Higher DMRN levels were found in female patients (p = 0.001) and those with distant metastases (p = 0.017), and were also associated with worse recurrence-free survival in non-stage IV patients (low vs. high, p = 0.022). However, further Cox multivariate analysis revealed that the FOXP3-TSDR status does not have prognostic value. Conclusion MS-qPCR assays of FOXP3-TSDR can efficiently distinguish nTregs from non-nTregs. Abnormal recruitment of nTregs occurs in the local tumor microenvironment. Infiltration of tissue-resident nTregs may have a negative role in anti-tumor effects in patients with colon cancer; however, this role is limited and complicated. PMID:24938080

  2. Aberrant gene expression in mucosa adjacent to tumor reveals a molecular crosstalk in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A colorectal tumor is not an isolated entity growing in a restricted location of the body. The patient’s gut environment constitutes the framework where the tumor evolves and this relationship promotes and includes a complex and tight correlation of the tumor with inflammation, blood vessels formation, nutrition, and gut microbiome composition. The tumor influence in the environment could both promote an anti-tumor or a pro-tumor response. Methods A set of 98 paired adjacent mucosa and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 50 colon mucosa from healthy donors (246 samples in total) were included in this work. RNA extracted from each sample was hybridized in Affymetrix chips Human Genome U219. Functional relationships between genes were inferred by means of systems biology using both transcriptional regulation networks (ARACNe algorithm) and protein-protein interaction networks (BIANA software). Results Here we report a transcriptomic analysis revealing a number of genes activated in adjacent mucosa from CRC patients, not activated in mucosa from healthy donors. A functional analysis of these genes suggested that this active reaction of the adjacent mucosa was related to the presence of the tumor. Transcriptional and protein-interaction networks were used to further elucidate this response of normal gut in front of the tumor, revealing a crosstalk between proteins secreted by the tumor and receptors activated in the adjacent colon tissue; and vice versa. Remarkably, Slit family of proteins activated ROBO receptors in tumor whereas tumor-secreted proteins transduced a cellular signal finally activating AP-1 in adjacent tissue. Conclusions The systems-level approach provides new insights into the micro-ecology of colorectal tumorogenesis. Disrupting this intricate molecular network of cell-cell communication and pro-inflammatory microenvironment could be a therapeutic target in CRC patients. PMID:24597571

  3. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S; Dipersio, John F; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  4. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  5. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.

    2012-10-01

    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  6. [Comparative proteomic analysis of cancerous and adjacent normal lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Beom; Pi, Kyung Bae

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, most lung cancers are found too late for a cure, therefore early detection and treatment is very important. We have applied proteomic analysis by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques for examination of cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous lung tissues from the same patient. The aim of the study was to find proteins, which could be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. Indeed, we found differences in expression of several proteins, related to various cellular activities, such as, chaperoning (e.g., GRP96, GRP78, HSP27), metabolism and oxidation stress (e.g., L-fucose, GST), cytoskeleton (e.g., tubulin beta 2/3, beta actin), cell adhesion (e.g., annexin A5/3), binding proteins (e.g., 14-3-3 theta) and signal transduction. These changes may be important for progression of carcinogenesis; they may be used as the molecular-support for future diagnostic markers. PMID:21395069

  7. Luteolin supplementation adjacent to aspirin treatment reduced dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Osman, Neamt H A; Said, Usama Z; El-Waseef, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Esraa S A

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that aspirin is used in colon cancer treatment. However, long-term of Aspirin usage is limited to gastric and renal toxicity. Luteolin (LUT) has cancer prevention and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of LUT supplementation and Aspirin treatment in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis in rats. DMH (20 mg/kg BW/week) treated rats received gavages with Aspirin (50 mg/kg BW/week) and LUT (0.2 mg/kg BW/day) for 15 weeks. DMH injections induce colon polyps and renal bleeding, significantly increasing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative stress, and kidney function tests and reducing antioxidant markers. Either Aspirin or LUT gavages alone or combined produce a significant decrease in colon polyp number and size, significantly decreasing CEA, COX-2, and oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant markers. In conclusion, the supplementations of LUT adjacent to Aspirin in the treatment of DMH-induced carcinogenesis in rats reflect a better effect than the use of Aspirin alone. PMID:25342594

  8. Different expression of calgizzarin (S100A11) in normal colonic epithelium, adenoma and colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Melle, Christian; Ernst, Günther; Schimmel, Bettina; Bleul, Annett; Mothes, Henning; Kaufmann, Roland; Settmacher, Utz; Von Eggeling, Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to detect proteomic markers usable to distinguish colorectal carcinoma from colon adenoma for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the process of tumourigenesis. Therefore, we microdissected colon carcinoma tissue, epithelial colon adenoma tissue as well as normal adjacent colon epithelium and determined protein profiles by SELDI-TOF MS. A multitude of significantly different signals was detected. For their identification colon biopsis were lysed and subjected to a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for separation. Subsequently, we identified nearly 100 proteins by tryptic digestion, peptide fingerprint mapping and database search. Calgizzarin (S100A11; S100C) identified by peptide fingerprint mapping correlated very well with a significantly differentially expressed signal found in prior protein profiling. Using an immunodepletion assay we confirmed the identity of this signal as calgizzarin. To localise calgizzarin in tissues we performed immunohistochemistry. For further confirmation of the identity of calgizzarin we re-analysed IHC-positive as well as IHC-negative tissue sections on ProteinChip arrays. This work demonstrates that biomarkers in colorectal cancer can be detected, identified and assessed by a proteomic approach comprising tissue-microdissection, protein profiling and immunological techniques. PMID:16327996

  9. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Tumor, Adjacent, and Normal Tissues of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhenzhu; Shen, Yanting; Lu, Jiafeng; Xie, Xueying; Ge, Qinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major type of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression profiles of miRNAs in adenocarcinoma (AC), one major subtype of NSCLC. In this study, the miRNAs were detected in normal, adjacent, and tumor tissues by next-generation sequencing. Then the expression levels of differential miRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the results, 259, 401, and 389 miRNAs were detected in tumor, adjacent, and normal tissues of pooled AC samples, respectively. In addition, for the first time we have found that miR-21-5p and miR-196a-5p were gradually upregulated from normal to adjacent to tumor tissues; miR-218-5p was gradually downregulated with 2-fold or greater change in AC tissues. These 3 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Lastly, we predicted target genes of these 3 miRNAs and enriched the potential functions and regulatory pathways. The aberrant miR-21-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-218-5p may become biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This research may be useful for lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and the study of pathology in lung cancer. PMID:27247934

  10. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-11-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-(2-TH)mannose or L-(5,6-TH)fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-(1,6-TH)glucosamine and L-(1- UC)fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced TH-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine.

  11. Look-normal: the colonized child of developmental science.

    PubMed

    Varga, Donna

    2011-05-01

    This article provides an analysis of the techniques, methods, materials, and discourses of child study observation to illuminate its role in the sociohistorical colonization of childhood. Through analysis of key texts it explains how early 20th-century child study provided for the transcendence of historical, racial, and social contexts for understanding human development. The colonizing project of child study promoted the advancement of Eurocentric culture through a generic "White" development. What a child is and can be, and the meaning of childhood has been disembodied through observation, record keeping, and analytical processes in which time and space are abstracted from behavior, and development symbolized as a universal ideal. PMID:21688723

  12. Patterns of DNA methylation in the normal colon vary by anatomical location, gender, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kaz, Andrew M; Wong, Chao-Jen; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Luo, Yanxin; Schoen, Robert E; Grady, William M

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation have been proposed to create a field cancerization state in the colon, where molecular alterations that predispose cells to transformation occur in histologically normal tissue. However, our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in field cancerization is limited by an incomplete characterization of the methylation state of the normal colon. In order to determine the colon’s normal methylation state, we extracted DNA from normal colon biopsies from the rectum, sigmoid, transverse, and ascending colon and assessed the methylation status of the DNA by pyrosequencing candidate loci as well as with HumanMethylation450 arrays. We found that methylation levels of repetitive elements LINE-1 and SAT-α showed minimal variability throughout the colon in contrast to other loci. Promoter methylation of EVL was highest in the rectum and progressively lower in the proximal segments, whereas ESR1 methylation was higher in older individuals. Genome-wide methylation analysis of normal DNA revealed 8388, 82, and 93 differentially methylated loci that distinguished right from left colon, males from females, and older vs. younger individuals, respectively. Although variability in methylation between biopsies and among different colon segments was minimal for repetitive elements, analyses of specific cancer-related genes as well as a genome-wide methylation analysis demonstrated differential methylation based on colon location, individual age, and gender. These studies advance our knowledge regarding the variation of DNA methylation in the normal colon, a prerequisite for future studies aimed at understanding methylation differences indicative of a colon field effect. PMID:24413027

  13. LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa is associated with poor survival in Chinese patients with sporadic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Changhua; Li, Qingguo; Wu, Yuchen; Li, Yiwei; Nie, Jia; Li, Dawei; Peng, Junjie; Lian, Peng; Li, Bin; Cai, Guoxiang; Li, Xinxiang; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-09-15

    Genetic and epigenetic pathways are not independent in colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis. We aimed to determine the influence of various molecular features on Chinese patients' colon cancer-specific survival (CCSS). Various genetic and epigenetic modifications were detected in paired tumor and normal mucosa tissue samples. The prognostic variables regarding patient CCSS were determined. Overall, 127 patients, including 83 males and 44 females, completed a median follow-up of 65 (3-85) months. A mean LINE-1 methylation rate of 64.62% (range, 9.45-86.93) was observed. Hypermethylation at the hMLH1 gene promoter was detected in 26 (20.47%) patients. KRAS was mutated in 52 (40.94%) patients. Sixteen (12.60%) patients were confirmed as microsatellite instability (MSI)-High, and 76 (59.84%) were found to have loss of heterozygosity at 18q. The LINE-1 methylation level, MSI status, perineural invasion and distant metastases were confirmed as independent prognostic factors for patient CCSS. A stratified survival analysis further revealed that certain subgroups of patients with LINE-1 hypomethylation had significantly worse survival (all p < 0.05). Our data revealed that both genetic and epigenetic abnormalities can concurrently exist during colonic tumorigenesis. As a global epigenetic change, LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa might be associated with a worse outcome in certain Chinese patients with colon cancer. PMID:26172297

  14. LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa is associated with poor survival in Chinese patients with sporadic colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuchen; Li, Yiwei; Nie, Jia; Li, Dawei; Peng, Junjie; Lian, Peng; Li, Bin; Cai, Guoxiang; Li, Xinxiang; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic pathways are not independent in colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis. We aimed to determine the influence of various molecular features on Chinese patients' colon cancer-specific survival (CCSS). Various genetic and epigenetic modifications were detected in paired tumor and normal mucosa tissue samples. The prognostic variables regarding patient CCSS were determined. Overall, 127 patients, including 83 males and 44 females, completed a median follow-up of 65 (3–85) months. A mean LINE-1 methylation rate of 64.62% (range, 9.45–86.93) was observed. Hypermethylation at the hMLH1 gene promoter was detected in 26 (20.47%) patients. KRAS was mutated in 52 (40.94%) patients. Sixteen (12.60%) patients were confirmed as microsatellite instability (MSI)-High, and 76 (59.84%) were found to have loss of heterozygosity at 18q. The LINE-1 methylation level, MSI status, perineural invasion and distant metastases were confirmed as independent prognostic factors for patient CCSS. A stratified survival analysis further revealed that certain subgroups of patients with LINE-1 hypomethylation had significantly worse survival (all p < 0.05). Our data revealed that both genetic and epigenetic abnormalities can concurrently exist during colonic tumorigenesis. As a global epigenetic change, LINE-1 hypomethylation in normal colon mucosa might be associated with a worse outcome in certain Chinese patients with colon cancer. PMID:26172297

  15. T cell receptor-zeta and granzyme B expression in mononuclear cell infiltrates in normal colon mucosa and colon carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, W M; Bloemena, E; Stukart, M J; Kummer, J A; Wagstaff, J; Scheper, R J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas the presence of a lymphoid infiltrate has been associated with a favourable prognosis in colorectal carcinoma, the proliferative and cytotoxic responses of freshly isolated tumour infiltrating lymphocytes are frequently impaired. In mice, tumour induced immune suppression has been associated with a decreased expression of the zeta-chain of the T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex, and loss of mRNA for granzyme B. AIM: To compare the expression of TCR-zeta and granzyme B in lymphocytes infiltrating normal colonic mucosa and Duke's A and D colorectal carcinomas. SPECIMENS: Paraffin wax embedded normal (n = 10) and malignant colonic mucosa (seven Dukes's A, nine Dukes's D). METHOD: Immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The numbers of TCR-zeta + lymphocytes decreased from normal mucosa to Dukes's D carcinomas. In contrast, granzyme B+ lymphocytes were more frequent in Dukes's A carcinomas than in normal mucosa, but disappeared from advanced stage tumours. Granzyme B expressing cells were mainly CD3- (natural killer/lymphokine activated killer cells) in normal mucosa, but CD3+ in tumours, indicating the presence of activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In vitro culture of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes rapidly restored the expression of both molecules. CONCLUSION: The frequency of TCR-zeta + and granzyme B+ lymphocytes is decreased in advanced stage colorectal carcinomas. The restoration of expression during in vitro stimulation suggests the presence of tumour derived suppressive factors in situ. Images PMID:9155587

  16. Distinctive Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Human Seminoma and Adjacent Normal Tissues by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Timothy A.; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Mattarozzi, Monica; Cheng, Liang; Beck, Stephen D. W.; Bianchi, Federica; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-08-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has been successfully used to discriminate between normal and cancerous human tissue from different anatomical sites. On the basis of this, DESI-MS imaging was used to characterize human seminoma and adjacent normal tissue. Seminoma and adjacent normal paired human tissue sections (40 tissues) from 15 patients undergoing radical orchiectomy were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned to 15 μm thickness and thaw mounted to glass slides. The entire sample was two-dimensionally analyzed by the charged solvent spray to form a molecular image of the biological tissue. DESI-MS images were compared with formalin-fixed, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides of the same material. Increased signal intensity was detected for two seminolipids [seminolipid (16:0/16:0) and seminolipid (30:0)] in the normal tubule testis tissue; these compounds were undetectable in seminoma tissue, as well as from the surrounding fat, muscle, and blood vessels. A glycerophosphoinositol [PI(18:0/20:4)] was also found at increased intensity in the normal testes tubule tissue when compared with seminoma tissue. Ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C) was found at increased amounts in seminoma tissue when compared with normal tissue. DESI-MS analysis was successfully used to visualize the location of several types of molecules across human seminoma and normal tissues. Discrimination between seminoma and adjacent normal testes tubules was achieved on the basis of the spatial distributions and varying intensities of particular lipid species as well as ascorbic acid. The increased presence of ascorbic acid within seminoma compared with normal seminiferous tubules was previously unknown.

  17. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Human Adenocarcinomatous and Normal Colon Tissues: Which Parameters Influence RNA Quality?

    PubMed

    Galissier, Thibaut; Schneider, Christophe; Nasri, Saviz; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Fichel, Caroline; Coquelet, Christelle; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bellon, Georges; Dedieu, Stéphane; Marchal Bressenot, Aude; Boulagnon-Rombi, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Medical research projects become increasingly dependent on biobanked tissue of high quality because the reliability of gene expression is affected by the quality of extracted RNA. Hence, the present study aimed to determine if clinical, surgical, histological, and molecular parameters influence RNA quality of normal and tumoral frozen colonic tissues. RNA Quality Index (RQI) was evaluated on 241 adenocarcinomas and 115 matched normal frozen colon tissues collected between October 2006 and December 2012. RQI results were compared to patients' age and sex, tumor site, kind of surgery, anastomosis failure, adenocarcinoma type and grade, tumor cell percentage, necrosis extent, HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites status. The RQI was significantly higher in colon cancer tissue than in matched normal tissue. RQI from left-sided colonic cancers was significantly higher than RQI from right-sided cancers. The RNA quality was not affected by ischemia and storage duration. According to histological control, 7.9% of the samples were unsatisfactory because of inadequate sampling. Biobanked tumoral tissues with RQI ≥5 had lower malignant cells to stromal cells ratio than samples with RQI <5 (p <0.05). Cellularity, necrosis extent and mucinous component did not influence RQI results. Cleaved caspase-3 and HIF-1α immunolabelling were not correlated to RQI. BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites molecular status did not influence RNA quality. Multivariate analysis revealed that the tumor location, the surgical approach (laparoscopy versus open colectomy) and the occurrence of anastomotic leakage were the only parameters influencing significantly RQI results of tumor samples. We failed to identify parameter influencing RQI of normal colon samples. These data suggest that RNA quality of colonic adenocarcinoma biospecimens is determined by clinical and surgical parameters. More attention should be paid during the biobanking procedure of

  18. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Human Adenocarcinomatous and Normal Colon Tissues: Which Parameters Influence RNA Quality?

    PubMed Central

    Galissier, Thibaut; Schneider, Christophe; Nasri, Saviz; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Fichel, Caroline; Coquelet, Christelle; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bellon, Georges; Dedieu, Stéphane; Marchal Bressenot, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Medical research projects become increasingly dependent on biobanked tissue of high quality because the reliability of gene expression is affected by the quality of extracted RNA. Hence, the present study aimed to determine if clinical, surgical, histological, and molecular parameters influence RNA quality of normal and tumoral frozen colonic tissues. RNA Quality Index (RQI) was evaluated on 241 adenocarcinomas and 115 matched normal frozen colon tissues collected between October 2006 and December 2012. RQI results were compared to patients’ age and sex, tumor site, kind of surgery, anastomosis failure, adenocarcinoma type and grade, tumor cell percentage, necrosis extent, HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites status. The RQI was significantly higher in colon cancer tissue than in matched normal tissue. RQI from left-sided colonic cancers was significantly higher than RQI from right-sided cancers. The RNA quality was not affected by ischemia and storage duration. According to histological control, 7.9% of the samples were unsatisfactory because of inadequate sampling. Biobanked tumoral tissues with RQI ≥5 had lower malignant cells to stromal cells ratio than samples with RQI <5 (p <0.05). Cellularity, necrosis extent and mucinous component did not influence RQI results. Cleaved caspase-3 and HIF-1α immunolabelling were not correlated to RQI. BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites molecular status did not influence RNA quality. Multivariate analysis revealed that the tumor location, the surgical approach (laparoscopy versus open colectomy) and the occurrence of anastomotic leakage were the only parameters influencing significantly RQI results of tumor samples. We failed to identify parameter influencing RQI of normal colon samples. These data suggest that RNA quality of colonic adenocarcinoma biospecimens is determined by clinical and surgical parameters. More attention should be paid during the biobanking procedure of

  19. Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ashraf, Sumara; Ahmad, Shakil; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-05-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetry along with polar decomposition algorithm was employed for the characterization of ex vivo normal and adenocarcinoma human colon tissues by polarized light in the visible spectral range (425-725 nm). Six derived polarization metrics [total diattenuation (DT), retardance (RT), depolarization (ΔT), linear diattenuation (DL), retardance (δ), and depolarization (ΔL)] were compared for normal and adenocarcinoma colon tissue samples. The results show that all six polarimetric properties for adenocarcinoma samples were significantly higher as compared to the normal samples for all wavelengths. The Wilcoxon rank sum test illustrated that total retardance is a good candidate for the discrimination of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples. Support vector machine classification for normal and adenocarcinoma based on the four polarization properties spectra (ΔT, ΔL, RT,and δ) yielded 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, while both DT and D showed 66.6%, 33.3%, and 83.3% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. The combination of polarization analysis and given classification methods provides a framework to distinguish the normal and cancerous tissues.

  20. Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ashraf, Sumara; Ahmad, Shakil; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-05-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetry along with polar decomposition algorithm was employed for the characterization of ex vivo normal and adenocarcinoma human colon tissues by polarized light in the visible spectral range (425-725 nm). Six derived polarization metrics [total diattenuation (DT ), retardance (RT ), depolarization(ΔT ), linear diattenuation (DL), retardance (δ), and depolarization (ΔL)] were compared for normal and adenocarcinoma colon tissue samples. The results show that all six polarimetric properties for adenocarcinoma samples were significantly higher as compared to the normal samples for all wavelengths. The Wilcoxon rank sum test illustrated that total retardance is a good candidate for the discrimination of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples. Support vector machine classification for normal and adenocarcinoma based on the four polarization properties spectra (ΔT , ΔL, RT ,and δ) yielded 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, while both DTa nd DL showed 66.6%, 33.3%, and 83.3% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. The combination of polarization analysis and given classification methods provides a framework to distinguish the normal and cancerous tissues. PMID:26021717

  1. Simple method for the preparation of single cell suspensions from normal and tumorous rat colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Perret, V; Lev, R; Pigman, W

    1977-01-01

    Viable single cell suspensions from rat colonic epithelium were obtained by using phosphate buffered saline containing 0-2 M mannitol. The method, which requires no prior enzyme treatment, provides undamaged cells in high yield within one hour. The procedure was also applied to neoplastic rat colonic tissue, which was induced by repeated intrarectal infusion of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Comparison between normal and neoplastic cells has shown that the latter have a higher nucleus: cytoplasm ratio and a higher metabolic activity. Images Figure PMID:873323

  2. Telomere length variation in normal epithelial cells adjacent to tumor: potential biomarker for breast cancer local recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Meeker, Alan K.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Kosti, Ourania; Kallakury, Bhaskar V.S.; Sidawy, Mary K.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Zheng, Yun-Ling

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the risk of local recurrence (LR) will facilitate therapeutic decision making in the management of early breast cancers. In the present study, we investigated whether telomere length in the normal breast epithelial cells surrounding the tumor is predictive of breast cancer LR; 152 women who were diagnosed with breast cancer at the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center were included in this nested case–control study. Cases (patients had LR) and controls (patients had no LR) were matched on year of surgery, age at diagnosis and type of surgery. Telomere fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to determine the telomere length using formalin fixed paraffin-embedded breast tissues. Small telomere length variation (TLV), defined as the coefficient variation of telomere lengths among examined cells, in normal epithelial cells adjacent to the tumor was significantly associated with a 5-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.2–22.2) increased risk of breast cancer LR. When the subjects were categorized into quartiles, a significant inverse dose–response relationship was observed with lowest versus highest quartile odds ratio of 15.3 (Ptrend = 0.012). Patients who had large TLV had significantly better 10 year recurrence free survival rate compared with patients who had small TLV (80 versus 33%). The present study revealed that TLV in normal epithelial cells adjacent to tumor is a strong predictor of breast cancer LR. If confirmed by future studies, TLV in normal epithelial cells adjacent to tumor has the potential to become a promising biomarker for predicting breast cancer LR after breast conserving surgery. PMID:22072619

  3. Normal Variations of Sphenoid Sinus and the Adjacent Structures Detected in Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Azadeh; Ghafari, Roshanak; AnjomShoa, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The sphenoid sinus is a common target of paranasal surgery. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is likely to endanger the anatomic variations of vital structures adjacent to the sphenoid sinus. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the variations of sphenoid sinus and the related structures by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Method In this descriptive-analytic study, CBCT images of 103 patients aged above 20-years were selected (206 sides). Degree of pneumatization of sphenoid sinus, pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process, pterygoid process, protrusion of optic canal, vidian canal, and foramen rotundum, as well as prevalence of sinus septa were recorded. Examinations were performed using On-Demand software (Version 1); data were analyzed by using chi-square test. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between the pterygoid pneumatization and vidian canal protrusion (p< 0.001), and foramen rotundum protrusion (p< 0.001). The optic canal protrusion was found to be significantly associated with the anterior clinoid pneumatization and pterygoid process (p< 0.001). Statistically significant relationship was also observed between the carotid canal protrusion and pterygoid process pneumatization (p< 0.001). Conclusion The anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinus tend to give rise to a complexity of symptoms and potentially serious complications. This variability necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the regional sphenoid sinus anatomy by a detailed CBCT sinus examination. PMID:26966706

  4. Paraneoplastic Erythrocytosis of Colon Cancer, with Serum Erythropoietin within the Normal Reference Range

    PubMed Central

    Kitayama, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Junko; Hirayama, Michiaki; Oyamada, Yumiko; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 75 Final Diagnosis: Erythropoietin-secreting colon cancer Symptoms: None Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Immunohistochemistry Specialty: Hematology Objective: Rare disease Background: Paraneoplastic erythrocytosis can be brought on by ectopic erythropoietin production usually in kidney, brain, and liver tumor with increase of serum erythropoietin level. We report here a paraneoplastic erythrocytosis of colon cancer with serum erythropoietin within the normal reference, which required an immunohistologic test for erythropoietin-antibody to be diagnosed. Case Report: Our case report was of a 75-year-old woman with erythrocytosis. Her hemoglobin and serum erythropoietin levels were 191 g/dL and 12.6 IU/L (reference range, 9.1–32.8), respectively. Colonoscopy revealed an advanced sigmoid colon tumor 20 mm in diameter. She underwent colectomy, and immunohistochemical examination showed the colon adenocarcinoma was focally positive for erythropoietin-antibody. One month after the surgery, her hemoglobin level decreased to 117 g/L. Conclusions: Colon cancer can cause paraneoplastic erythrocytosis, and it is important to consider not simply the absolute serum erythropoietin level but also the serum erythropoietin level relative to simultaneously measured hemoglobin level. We should include paraneoplastic erythrocytosis as a differential diagnosis in cases of high hemoglobin level unexplained by other diseases. PMID:27318703

  5. Tumor-induced solid stress activates β-catenin signaling to drive malignant behavior in normal, tumor-adjacent cells

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Guanqing; Weaver, Valerie Marie

    2016-01-01

    Recent work by Fernández-Sánchez and coworkers examining the impact of applied pressure on the malignant phenotype of murine colon tissue in vivo revealed that mechanical perturbations can drive malignant behavior in genetically normal cells. Their findings build upon an existing understanding of how the mechanical cues experienced by cells within a tissue become progressively modified as the tissue transforms. Using magnetically stimulated ultra-magnetic liposomes to mimic tumor growth -induced solid stress, Fernández-Sánchez and coworkers were able to stimulate β-catenin to promote the cancerous behavior of both a normal and genetically modified colon epithelium. In this perspective, we discuss their findings in the context of what is currently known regarding the role of the mechanical landscape in cancer progression and β-catenin as a mechanotransducer. We review data that suggest that mechanically regulated activation of β-catenin fosters development of a malignant phenotype in tissue and predict that mechanical cues may contribute to tumor heterogeneity. PMID:26439949

  6. Scaffold-Free Coculture Spheroids of Human Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Colonic Fibroblasts Promote Tumorigenicity in Nude Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-il; Lee, Jisu; Kwon, Ju-Lee; Park, Hong-Bum; Lee, Su-Yel; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Sung, Jaekye; Kim, Jin Man; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to form a scaffold-free coculture spheroid model of colonic adenocarcinoma cells (CACs) and normal colonic fibroblasts (NCFs) and to use the spheroids to investigate the role of NCFs in the tumorigenicity of CACs in nude mice. We analysed three-dimensional (3D) scaffold-free coculture spheroids of CACs and NCFs. CAC Matrigel invasion assays and tumorigenicity assays in nude mice were performed to examine the effect of NCFs on CAC invasive behaviour and tumorigenicity in 3D spheroids. We investigated the expression pattern of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α) by immunohistochemical staining. CAC monocultures did not form densely-packed 3D spheroids, whereas cocultured CACs and NCFs formed 3D spheroids. The 3D coculture spheroids seeded on a Matrigel extracellular matrix showed higher CAC invasiveness compared to CACs alone or CACs and NCFs in suspension. 3D spheroids injected into nude mice generated more and faster-growing tumors compared to CACs alone or mixed suspensions consisting of CACs and NCFs. FAP-α was expressed in NCFs-CACs cocultures and xenograft tumors, whereas monocultures of NCFs or CACs were negative for FAP-α expression. Our findings provide evidence that the interaction between CACs and NCFs is essential for the tumorigenicity of cancer cells as well as for tumor propagation. PMID:26947885

  7. Analysis of normal and diseased colon mucosa using ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustany, Nada N.; Manoharan, Ramasamy; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    1996-04-01

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy was used to characterize normal and diseased colon mucosa in vitro. A tunable mode-locked Titanium:Sapphire laser operating at 76 MHz was used to irradiate normal and diseased colon tissue samples with 251 nm light generated from the third harmonic of the fundamental radiation. The Raman scattered light was collected and analyzed using a 1 meter spectrometer fitted with a UV coated, liquid nitrogen cooled CCD detector. The measured spectra show prominent bands that correspond to those of known tissue constituents including nucleic acids, aromatic amino acids and lipids. Using the Raman lineshapes measured from pure solutions of nucleotides, tryptophan, tyrosine, FAD, and from lipid-rich serosal fat, the colon spectra were modeled by a least square fitting algorithm whereby the colon spectra were assumed to be a linear combination of the pure biochemical lineshapes. The relative Raman scattering cross section of each biochemical was determined so that the relative concentration of each compound with respect to the others, could be extracted from a given tissue spectrum.

  8. Human colonic crypts in culture: segregation of immunochemical markers in normal versus adenoma-derived

    PubMed Central

    Dame, Michael K; Jiang, Yan; Appelman, Henry D; Copley, Kelly D; McClintock, Shannon D; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Attili, Durga; Elmunzer, B Joseph; Brenner, Dean E; Varani, James; Turgeon, D Kim

    2014-01-01

    In order to advance a culture model of human colonic neoplasia, we developed methods for the isolation and in vitro maintenance of intact colonic crypts from normal human colon tissue and adenomas. Crypts were maintained in three-dimensional Matrigel culture with a simple, serum-free, low Ca2+ (0.15 mM) medium. Intact colonic crypts from normal human mucosa were viably maintained for 3–5 days with preservation of the in situ crypt-like architecture, presenting a distinct base and apex. Abnormal structures from adenoma tissue could be maintained through multiple passages (up to months), with expanding buds/tubules. Immunohistochemical markers for intestinal stem cells (Lgr5), growth (Ki67), differentiation (E-cadherin, cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and mucin 2 (MUC2)) and epithelial turnover (Bax, cleaved Caspase-3), paralleled the changes in function. The epithelial cells in normal crypts followed the physiological sequence of progression from proliferation to differentiation to dissolution in a spatially and temporally appropriate manner. Lgr5 expression was seen in a few basal cells of freshly isolated crypts, but was not detected after 1–3 days in culture. After 24 h in culture, crypts from normal colonic tissue continued to show strong Ki67 and MUC2 expression at the crypt base, with a gradual decrease over time such that by days 3–4 Ki67 was not expressed. The differentiation marker CK20 increased over the same period, eventually becoming intense throughout the whole crypt. In adenoma-derived structures, expression of markers for all stages of progression persisted for the entire time in culture. Lgr5 showed expression in a few select cells after months in culture. Ki67 and MUC2 were largely associated with the proliferative budding regions while CK20 was localized to the parent structure. This ex vivo culture model of normal and adenomatous crypts provides a readily accessible tool to help understand the growth and differentiation process in human colonic

  9. Histomorphometric study to compare histological changes between oral squamous cell carcinoma and apparently normal adjacent oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Babji, Deepa V; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2015-03-01

    Despite the advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy the annual death for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rising rapidly. The carcinoma has propensity to develop in a field of cancerization. Clinically may it be apparently normal mucosa (ANM) adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma which harbours certain discrete molecular alteration which ultimately reflects in cellular morphology. Hence the aim of the study is to assess histomorphometric changes in ANM adjacent to OSCC. A prospective study was done on 30 each of histologically diagnosed cases OSCC, ANM at least 1 cm away from OSCC, and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test and Tukey's post hoc test. The present study showed significant changes in cellular and nuclear area in superficial and invasive island of OSCC compared to ANM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant decrease in cellular and nuclear areas and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio when compared to NOM. Histomorphometry definitely can differentiate OSCC form ANM and NOM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant alterations in cellular area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic area when compared to NOM suggesting change in the field and have high risk of malignant transformation. These parameters can be used as indicator of field cancerization. PMID:25621249

  10. Distribution of histocompatibility and leucocyte differentiation antigens in normal human colon and in benign and malignant colonic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Csiba, A; Whitwell, H L; Moore, M

    1984-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) directed against the framework determinants of Class I and Class II products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and against leucocyte differentiation antigens were used in an indirect immunoperoxidase technique to study their expression in normal, benign (adenomatous polyps) and malignant disease of the colon. Class I products (detected by the McAb 2A1) were strongly expressed on all cell types in normal and benign tissues but some carcinomas exhibited a heterogenous pattern of epithelial cell staining and 4/15 were completely negative. Class II products (detected by TDR31.1) were strongly expressed on cells (mainly B lymphocytes) within the lamina propria. In carcinomas TDR31.1 staining was mainly interstitial, but in 2/15, DR + epithelial cells were also detected. In normal and benign tissues, leucocytes (reactive with 2D1) found predominantly in the lamina propria, comprised T cells mainly of the helper/inducer (OKT4) subset, DR + cells in approx. equivalent proportion and a few OKM1+ cells mostly of macrophage morphology. Occasional intraepithelial lymphocytes were of cytotoxic/suppressor (OKT8) phenotype. In malignant neoplasms, there was wide inter and intra-tumour variation in the proportion of leucocytes which were heterogeneous with respect to cell type and confined mainly to the stroma. T cells were consistently predominant, but B cells and macrophages were also present. Two neoplasms showed unequivocal evidence of a shift (relative to peripheral blood) in favour of the OKT8+ subset, but in the majority of tumours OKT4+; and OKT8+ cells were present in roughly similar proportions. Natural killer cells (monitored with Leu7, HNK1) were virtually undetectable in both normal and malignant tissues. There were no apparent correlations between the extent and type of leucocyte infiltration, tumour differentiation or expression of MHC products. Some implications for the extrapolation of in vitro data on leucocyte function

  11. Paraneoplastic Erythrocytosis of Colon Cancer, with Serum Erythropoietin within the Normal Reference Range.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Tomonhiro; Sugiyama, Junko; Hirayama, Michiaki; Oyamada, Yumiko; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Paraneoplastic erythrocytosis can be brought on by ectopic erythropoietin production usually in kidney, brain, and liver tumor with increase of serum erythropoietin level. We report here a paraneoplastic erythrocytosis of colon cancer with serum erythropoietin within the normal reference, which required an immunohistologic test for erythropoietin-antibody to be diagnosed. CASE REPORT Our case report was of a 75-year-old woman with erythrocytosis. Her hemoglobin and serum erythropoietin levels were 191 g/dL and 12.6 IU/L (reference range, 9.1-32.8), respectively. Colonoscopy revealed an advanced sigmoid colon tumor 20 mm in diameter. She underwent colectomy, and immunohistochemical examination showed the colon adenocarcinoma was focally positive for erythropoietin-antibody. One month after the surgery, her hemoglobin level decreased to 117 g/L. CONCLUSIONS Colon cancer can cause paraneoplastic erythrocytosis, and it is important to consider not simply the absolute serum erythropoietin level but also the serum erythropoietin level relative to simultaneously measured hemoglobin level. We should include paraneoplastic erythrocytosis as a differential diagnosis in cases of high hemoglobin level unexplained by other diseases. PMID:27318703

  12. IL-2 production by intestinal lamina propria cells in normal inflamed and cancer-bearing colons.

    PubMed Central

    Pullman, W E; Doe, W F

    1992-01-01

    Biologically significant levels of IL-2 activity were produced by isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) from normal intestine (n = 12), cancer-bearing colons (n = 35) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affected tissue (n = 12). The levels of IL-2 produced were similar for all three sources of LPMC (normal 252 +/- 48 U/ml, IBD-affected mucosa 197 +/- 42 U/ml and colon cancer 285 +/- 43 U/ml). These levels were significantly greater than those produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (20 +/- 5 U/ml, P less than 0.01) on a per cell basis. In mucosa from cancer-bearing colons the amount of IL-2 produced by LPMC was unaffected by the invasiveness of the colon cancer. LPMC IL-2 production was markedly suppressed by drugs used in IBD therapy. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) reduced activity in a dose-dependent fashion. At a dose equivalent to the faecal therapeutic level of 0.5 mg/ml activity, IL-2 production by LPMC was suppressed to 3.4% of controls. Similarly, exposure of LPMC to cyclosporin A (CyA) and hydrocortisone (HC) at therapeutic levels reduced IL-2 activity to less than 1% of controls. The major producers of IL-2 activity were shown to be CD3+ T lymphocytes and those bearing the activation markers IL-2R and TFR. Suppression of mucosal IL-2 production represents an important therapeutic mechanism of drugs used in the management of IBD including HC, 5-ASA and CyA. These results suggest that mucosal T cells produce appreciable levels of IL-2 activity that may be important in maintaining immune homeostasis in the normal intestine, provide anti-neoplastic cytotoxic activity and contribute to the inflammatory events that characterize the mucosal lesions of IBD. PMID:1563100

  13. The expression of CD44v6 in colon: from normal to malignant.

    PubMed

    Afify, Alaa; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Virdi, Avnit; Jess, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    CD44v6, an integral transmembrane protein belonging to a family of adhesion molecule receptors, plays an important role in tumor growth, progression and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of CD44v6 in normal, hyperplastic, adenomatous, and malignant colonic epithelium and to determine its correlation with tumor pathologic stage and lymph node metastasis. We examined the immunohistochemical expression of CD44v6 in normal colonic tissue (n = 25), hyperplastic polyps (n = 45), tubular adenomas (n = 57), tubulovillous adenomas (n = 25), villous adenomas (n = 9), adenocarcinomas stage I (n = 26), adenocarcinomas stage III (n = 26), and lymph node metastasis (n = 26). The percentage of positive cells and the staining intensity were assessed and scored. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and McNemar test. All normal colonic tissue and hyperplastic polyps showed CD44v6 staining confined to the base of the crypt. In tubular adenomas, the dysplastic surface adenomatous epithelium expressed CD44v6 in 49 (86%) cases. CD44v6 was expressed in the glandular areas of tubulovillous adenomas in 21 (84%) cases and in the villous portion in 18 (72%) cases. All villous adenomas expressed CD44v6. CD44v6 was expressed in 23 (88%) cases of stage I adenocarcinomas, in 24 (92%) cases of stage III adenocarcinomas, and in 9 (35%) cases of metastatic adenocarcinomas. We concluded that the gain of CD44v6 expression in premalignant and malignant colonic lesions suggests that CD44v6 may be functionally involved in the adenoma-to-carcinoma progression. CD44v6 did not correlate to tumor pathologic stage and is lost during the acquisition of migratory function by metastatic tumor cells. PMID:26621455

  14. Single stage management of a unique variant of congenital pouch colon with triplet fistula and normal anus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vaibhav; Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) in the female patient presents with highly variable and anomalous anatomy. We herein report the first case of CPC with uterus didelphys having normal anal opening, H-type vestibular fistula, two other fistulous communications between pouch colon and two vagina managed in a single stage with excellent postoperative outcome. PMID:26166988

  15. Single stage management of a unique variant of congenital pouch colon with triplet fistula and normal anus

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vaibhav; Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) in the female patient presents with highly variable and anomalous anatomy. We herein report the first case of CPC with uterus didelphys having normal anal opening, H-type vestibular fistula, two other fistulous communications between pouch colon and two vagina managed in a single stage with excellent postoperative outcome. PMID:26166988

  16. In vitro synthesis of immunoglobulins, secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and the adjacent mucous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lai A Fat, R. F. M.; Suurmond, D.; Van Furth, R.

    1973-01-01

    A study on the synthesis of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE), secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and in the adjacent mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal, oral and vaginal mucosa) is reported. The results are based on the culture of tissue samples in a medium with two radioactive amino acids and the detection of synthesized proteins by autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretic pattern of the culture fluid, except in the case of IgE for which the Ouchterlony technique was used. The results indicate that the normal skin does not synthesize immunoglobulins, whereas normal mucous membranes produce IgG and IgA. In the lesions of various skin diseases immunoglobulins are synthesized, mainly IgG but sometimes also IgA and IgE. The cells responsible for the production of immunoglobulins are plasma cells and lymphoid cells present in the skin lesions and mucous membranes. Synthesis of the free secretory component could be demonstrated only in certain mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and oral mucosa). Complement (C3) synthesis was found in normal skin, mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal and oral mucosa), and in the lesions of such skin diseases as discoid lupus erythematosus, (bullous) pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, malignant reticulosis, eczema and lichen planus. Complement production was also demonstrated in allergic skin reactions (i.e. tissue from allergic-positive patch tests, positive Mantoux tests and drug eruptions), but no immunoglobulin synthesis was detected in these lesions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4199092

  17. Autofluorescence of normal and tumor mucosa of human colon: a comprehensive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottiroli, Giovanni F.; Marchesini, Renato; Croce, Anna C.; Dal Fante, Marco; Cuzzoni, Carolina; Di Palma, Silvana; Spinelli, Pasquale

    1993-08-01

    Both 'in vivo' and 'ex vivo' spectrofluorometric studies of neoplastic and non-neoplastic mucosa of human colon have been carried out, in order to verify the potentials of tissue natural fluorescence as a possible parameter to distinguish normal from diseased tissues, Spectrofluorometric analysis performed at colonoscopy on patients affected by neoplasia, showed that adenocarcinoma, adenoma and non-neoplastic mucosa differ in the fluorescence emissions. The results have been interpreted according to the data obtained on cryostatic sections from biopsies by means of a microspectrofluorometric analysis carried out on each histological component.

  18. The influence of aqueous extracts of selected Potentilla species on normal human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional medicine in Asia, Europe and Northern America. This study analyzed the biological activity of aqueous extracts of Potentilla species (Rosaceae): Dasiphora fruticosa (syn. P. fruticosa), P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. thuringiaca, P. crantzii and P. nepalensis. The activities were tested using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on normal human colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr) and colon myofibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Moreover, cell morphology using the May-Grünwald-Giemsa method, IL-6 by ELISA, and nitric oxide (NO) analysis with the Griess method in culture supernatants were performed after 24 h. Extracts were tested at dose levels between 25 and 250 microg/mL. For ELISA, 15 microg/mL was chosen. All extracts suppressed the metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells' mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity decreased after incubation with extracts. All extracts showed a free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect in a concentration-dependent manner. The most potent was the extract from D. fruticosa, while the least action was observed for P. thuringiaca. Potentilla extracts stimulated, IL-6 production in tested cells but the level of the cytokine was found to decrease in epithelial cells. Pre-incubation of cells with LPS resulted in increased IL-6 secretion. Modulation of NO production after extract addition and cell pre-incubation with LPS was also observed. Potentilla extracts may be interesting natural factors modulating the main features of cells forming the colon wall, and thus may be potentially useful in the prophylaxis or healing of colon disorders. PMID:23757943

  19. Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua-Jiang; Xing, Da; Lu, Jian-Jun; Gu, Huai-Min; Wu, Guo-Yong; Jin, Ying

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the present study is to compare the optical properties of normal human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion, and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion in vitro at 476.5, 488, 496.5, 514.5 and 532 nm. We believe these differences in optical properties should help differential diagnosis of human colon tissues by using optical methods. METHODS: In vitro optical properties were investigated for four kinds of tissues: normal human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion, and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion. Tissue samples were taken from 13 human colons (13 adenomatous, 13 normal). From the normal human colons a total of 26 tissue samples, with a mean thickness of 0.40 mm, were used (13 from mucosa/submucosa and 13 from muscle layer/chorion), and from the adenomatous human bladders a total of 26 tissue samples, with a mean thickness of 0.40 mm, were used (13 from mucosa/submucosa and 13 from muscle layer/chorion). The measurements were performed using a double-integrating-sphere setup and the optical properties were assessed from these measurements using the adding-doubling method that was considered reliable. RESULTS: The results of measurement showed that there were significant differences in the absorption coefficients and scattering coefficients between normal and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa at the same wavelength, and there were also significant differences in the two optical parameters between both colon muscle layer/chorion at the same wavelength. And there were large differences in the anisotropy factors between both colon mucosa/submucosa at the same wavelength, there were also large differences in the anisotropy factors between both colon muscle layer/chorion at the same wavelength. There were large differences in the value ranges of the absorption coefficients, scattering coefficients and anisotropy factors between both colon mucosa/submucosa, and

  20. Analysis of the depolarizing properties of normal and adenomatous polyps in colon mucosa for the early diagnosis of precancerous lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; de Cos-Pérez, Jesús; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Optical characterization of biological tissues by means of polarimetric techniques is an area of growing interest. Polarized light can be used for malignant neoplasms detection. To our knowledge, few studies have so far focused on lesions that are prone to result in cancer. In this work we present a polarimetric study of depolarization in prepathological tissues. Specifically, we will focus on premalignant lesions in human colon due to their clinical relevance. Colonic adenoma, the potential precursor of malignant adenocarcinoma, provokes significant structural modifications in colon mucosa that affect light depolarization. The depolarizing properties of normal and adenomatous polyps mucosa are compared. The average linear degree of polarization is shown to present a strong dependence with the precancerous state of the colonic tissue. This method has the potential to enable an early diagnosis of colon cancer.

  1. Human colon tissue in organ culture: preservation of normal and neoplastic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Mankey, Cohra; DaSilva, Marissa; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Varani, James

    2009-01-01

    Normal and neoplastic human colon tissue obtained at surgery was used to establish conditions for organ culture. Optimal conditions included an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% O2; tissue partially submerged with mucosa at the gas interface; and serum-free medium with 1.5 mM Ca2+ and a number of growth supplements. Histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical features that distinguish normal and neoplastic tissue were preserved over a 2-d period. With normal tissue, this included the presence of elongated crypts with small, densely packed cells at the crypt base and mucin-containing goblet cells in the upper portion. Ki67 staining, for proliferating cells, was confined to the lower third of the crypt, while expression of extracellular calcium-sensing receptor was seen in the upper third and surface epithelium. E-cadherin and β-catenin were expressed throughout the epithelium and confined to the cell surface. In tumor tissue, the same disorganized, abnormal glandular structures seen at time zero were present after 2 d. The majority of cells in these structures were mucin-poor, but occasional goblet cells were seen and mucin staining was present. Ki67 staining was seen throughout the abnormal epithelium and calcium-sensing receptor expression was weak and variable. E-cadherin was seen at the cell surface (similar to normal tissue), but in some places, there was diffuse cytoplasmic staining. Finally, intense cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin staining was observed in cultured neoplastic tissue. PMID:19915935

  2. Fully unsupervised inter-individual IR spectral histology of paraffinized tissue sections of normal colon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Nguyet Que; Jeannesson, Pierre; Groh, Audrey; Piot, Olivier; Guenot, Dominique; Gobinet, Cyril

    2016-05-01

    In label-free Fourier-transform infrared histology, spectral images are individually recorded from tissue sections, pre-processed and clustered. Each single resulting color-coded image is annotated by a pathologist to obtain the best possible match with tissue structures revealed after Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. However, the main limitations of this approach are the empirical choice of the number of clusters in unsupervised classification, and the marked color heterogeneity between the clustered spectral images. Here, using normal murine and human colon tissues, we developed an automatic multi-image spectral histology to simultaneously analyze a set of spectral images (8 images mice samples and 72 images human ones). This procedure consisted of a joint Extended Multiplicative Signal Correction (EMSC) to numerically deparaffinize the tissue sections, followed by an automated joint K-Means (KM) clustering using the hierarchical double application of Pakhira-Bandyopadhyay-Maulik (PBM) validity index. Using this procedure, the main murine and human colon histological structures were correctly identified at both the intra- and the inter-individual levels, especially the crypts, secreted mucus, lamina propria and submucosa. Here, we show that batched multi-image spectral histology procedure is insensitive to the reference spectrum but highly sensitive to the paraffin model of joint EMSC. In conclusion, combining joint EMSC and joint KM clustering by double PBM application allows to achieve objective and automated batched multi-image spectral histology. PMID:26872124

  3. Hyaluronan distribution in the normal epithelium of esophagus, stomach, and colon and their cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C.; Tammi, M.; Guo, H.; Tammi, R.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of hyaluronan (HA) in normal gastrointestinal wall and in tumors originating from their epithelium was studied using a specific probe prepared from cartilage proteoglycan (bHABC, biotinylated hyaluronan binding complex). The normal stratified squamous epithelium of esophagus showed an intense HA staining in the basal and lower intermediate layers, whereas the simple epithelia in the stomach and large intestine were HA negative. Esophageal in situ carcinomas expressed HA also in the cell layers close to the luminal surface, in regions normally negative. Most of the invasive squamous cell carcinomas maintained their HA expression, but in very poorly differentiated types the tumor parenchyma was devoid of HA. In both gastric and colonic adenocarcinomas the tumor parenchyma showed no HA. The stromal tissue was intensely HA positive in all tumors. Cancer cells invading the intestinal smooth muscle were surrounded by copious amounts of HA, whereas the muscular layer was otherwise very poor in HA staining. These results show that relatively well differentiated carcinoma cells themselves retain the high or low HA expression pattern of their original epithelium, whereas tumors stimulate HA deposition in the surrounding stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8669472

  4. Electroporation-assisted penetration of zinc oxide nanoparticles in ex vivo normal and cancerous human colon tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Wei, H. J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; He, Y. H.; Xie, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we presented the research of the penetration of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (30 and 90 nm), and electroporation (EP) assisted penetration of the ZnO NPs in the human normal colon (NC) and adenomatous colon (AC) tissues studied with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance (DR) measurement. The results have shown that the attenuation coefficient of colon tissue after the application of 30 or 90 nm ZnO NPs alone decreased approximately by 28% and 14% for NC tissue, 35% and 22% for AC tissue, respectively; while the attenuation coefficient of colon tissue after combined application of 30 or 90 nm ZnO NPs/EP decreased approximately by 46% and 30% for NC tissue, and 53% and 42% for AC tissue, respectively. The results illustrate EP can significantly increase the penetration of ZnO NPs in the colon tissue, especially in AC tissue. Through the analysis of attenuation coefficient and reflectance intensity of the colon tissue, we find that the accumulation of the ZnO NPs in the colon tissue greatly influenced the tissue optical properties.

  5. Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues in the F344 rat model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) induced in F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) demonstrate considerable phenotypic similarity to human oral cancers and the model has been widely used for carcinogenesis and chemoprevention studies. Molecular characterization of this model needs reliable reference genes (RGs) to avoid false- positive and -negative results for proper interpretation of gene expression data between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Microarray analysis of 11 pairs of OSCC and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from 4-NQO-treated rats identified 10 stably expressed genes in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p>0.5, CV<15%) that could serve as potential RGs in this model. The commonly used 27 RGs in the rat were also analyzed based on microarray data and most of them were found unsuitable for RGs in this model. Traditional RGs such as ACTB and GAPDH were significantly altered in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p<0.01, n=11); however, the Hsp90ab1 was ranked as the best RG candidate and the combination of Hsp90ab1 and HPRT1 was identified by NormFinder to be a superior reference for gene normalization among the commonly used RGs. This result was also validated by RT-PCR based on the selected top RG candidate pool. These data suggest that there are no common RGs suitable for different models and RG(s) should be identified before gene expression analysis. We successfully identified Hsp90ab1 as a stable RG in 4-NQO-induced OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues in F344 rats. The combination of two stably expressed genes may be a better option for gene normalization in tissue samples. PMID:27375172

  6. Galectin-8 expression decreases in cancer compared with normal and dysplastic human colon tissue and acts significantly on human colon cancer cell migration as a suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, N; Bronckart, Y; Camby, I; Legendre, H; Lahm, H; Kaltner, H; Hadari, Y; Van Ham, P; Yeaton, P; Pector, J-C; Zick, Y; Salmon, I; Danguy, A; Kiss, R; Gabius, H-J

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Galectins are β-galactoside binding proteins. This ability may have a bearing on cell adhesion and migration/proliferation in human colon cancer cells. In addition to galectins-1 and -3 studied to date, other members of this family not investigated in detail may contribute to modulation of tumour cell features. This evident gap has prompted us to extend galectin analysis beyond the two prototypes. The present study deals with the quantitative determination of immunohistochemical expression of galectin-8 in normal, benign, and malignant human colon tissue samples and in four human colon cancer models (HCT-15, LoVo, CoLo201, and DLD-1) maintained both in vitro as permanent cell lines and in vivo as nude mice xenografts. The role of galectin-8 (and its neutralising antibody) in cell migration was investigated in HCT-15, LoVo, CoLo201, and DLD-1 cell lines. Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of galectin-8 and its overall ability to bind to sugar ligands (revealed glycohistochemically by means of biotinylated histochemically inert carrier bovine serum albumin with α- and β-d-galactose, α-d-glucose, and lactose derivatives as ligands) were quantitatively determined using computer assisted microscopy. The presence of galectin-8 mRNA in the four human colon cancer cell lines was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In vitro, cellular localisation of exogenously added galectin-8 in the culture media of these colon cancer cells was visualised by fluorescence microscopy. In vitro galectin-8 mediated effects (and the influence of its neutralising antibody) on migration levels of living HCT-15, LoVo, CoLo201, and DLD-1 cells were quantitatively determined by computer assisted phase contrast microscopy. Results: A marked decrease in immunohistochemical expression of galectin-8 occurred with malignancy development in human colon tissue. Malignant colon tissue exhibited a significantly lower galectin-8 level than normal or

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is related to nuclear grade in ductal carcinoma in situ and is increased in its normal adjacent epithelium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shim, Veronica; Gauthier, Mona L.; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Mantei, Kristin; Chew, Karen L.; Moore, Dan H.; Cha, Imok; Tlsty, Thea D.; Esserman, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is emerging as an important cancer biomarker and is now an experimental target for solid tumor treatment.However, no study has exclusively focused on COX-2 expression in early lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We examined COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 46 cases of women undergoing surgical resection for DCIS. We found that COX-2 expression was detected in 85% of all DCIS specimens, with increased COX-2 staining correlating with higher nuclear grade. Strikingly, COX-2 staining intensity in the normal adjacent epithelium was stronger than in the DCIS lesion itself. Our observations demonstrate that COX-2 is up-regulated in the normal adjacent epithelium and supports the hypothesis that the surrounding epithelial tissue is part of the disease process in DCIS.

  8. One-hit effects in cancer: Altered proteome of morphologically normal colon crypts in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Anthony T.; Patel, Bhavinkumar B.; Li, Xin-Ming; Seeholzer, Steven H.; Coudry, Renata A.; Cooper, Harry S.; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Boman, Bruce M.; Zhang, Tao; Litwin, Samuel; Ross, Eric A.; Conrad, Peggy; Crowell, James A.; Kopelovich, Levy; Knudson, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    We studied patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), because they are virtually certain to develop colon cancer, and because much is known about the causative APC gene. We hypothesized that the inherited heterozygous mutation itself leads to changes in the proteome of morphologically normal crypts and the proteins that changed may represent targets for preventive and therapeutic agents. We determined the differential protein expression of morphologically normal colon crypts of FAP patients versus those of individuals without the mutation, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and validation by 2D gel Western blotting. Approximately 13% of 1,695 identified proteins were abnormally expressed in the morphologically normal crypts of APC mutation carriers, indicating that a colon crypt cell under the one-hit state is already abnormal. Many of the expression changes affect pathways consistent with the function of the APC protein, including apoptosis, cell adhesion, cell motility, cytoskeletal organization and biogenesis, mitosis, transcription and oxidative stress response. Thus, heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteome of normal-appearing crypt cells in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a detectable one-hit event. These changes may represent the earliest biomarkers of colorectal cancer development, potentially leading to the identification of molecular targets for cancer prevention. PMID:18794146

  9. Molecular changes in the expression of human colonic nutrient transporters during the transition from normality to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lambert, D W; Wood, I S; Ellis, A; Shirazi-Beechey, S P

    2002-04-22

    Healthy colonocytes derive 60-70% of their energy supply from short-chain fatty acids, particularly butyrate. Butyrate has profound effects on differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells by regulating expression of various genes associated with these processes. We have previously shown that butyrate is transported across the luminal membrane of the colonic epithelium via a monocarboxylate transporter, MCT1. In this paper, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation histochemistry, we have determined the profile of MCT1 protein and mRNA expression along the crypt to surface axis of healthy human colonic tissue. There is a gradient of MCT1 protein expression in the apical membrane of the cells along the crypt-surface axis rising to a peak in the surface epithelial cells. MCT1 mRNA is expressed along the crypt-surface axis and is most abundant in cells lining the crypt. Analysis of healthy colonic tissues and carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting revealed a significant decline in the expression of MCT1 protein during transition from normality to malignancy. This was reflected in a corresponding reduction in MCT1 mRNA expression, as measured by Northern analysis. Carcinoma samples displaying reduced levels of MCT1 were found to express the high affinity glucose transporter, GLUT1, suggesting that there is a switch from butyrate to glucose as an energy source in colonic epithelia during transition to malignancy. The expression levels of MCT1 in association with GLUT1 could potentially be used as determinants of the malignant state of colonic tissue. PMID:11953883

  10. Expression of H type 1 antigen of ABO histo-blood group in normal colon and aberrant expressions of H type 2 and H type 3/4 antigens in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, N; Liu, Y; Toda, S; Shirouzu, K; Okamura, T; Kimura, H

    2000-05-01

    We have immunohistochemically examined the distribution of the H antigens of type 1, type 2 and type 3/4 chains of the ABO(H) histo-blood group system in human normal colon and in colon cancer using three monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the H type 1/2, H type 2, and the H type 3/4 chain. We unexpectedly found that mucosa of the normal colon from secretors but not that from nonsecretors expressed only H type 1 and did not express H type 2 or H type 3/4. The H type 1 was expressed in goblet cells. Positive goblet cells expressing H type 1 were decreased in number progressively from the proximal colon to the rectum. In tumors, 4 (57%) of 7 cancer tissues of the proximal colon from secretors expressed no H type 1, whereas all 8 cancer tissues of the distal colon from secretors expressed H type 1. The aberrant expressions of H type 2 and H type 3/4 (47 and 67%, respectively) were found in cancer tissues from both the proximal and the distal colon. Tumors from nonsecretors did not express any H antigens. Our results suggested that the expression of H type 1 in the normal colon and the aberrant expressions of H type 2 and H type 3/4 in colon cancer tissues were regulated by FUT2-encoded Se type alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase. However, UEA-I-positive substance(s) rather than H type 2 were uniquely expressed throughout the normal colon and in colon cancers from both secretors and nonsecretors. PMID:11261842

  11. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on colonic calcium transport in vitamin D-deficient and normal rats.

    PubMed

    Favus, M J; Langman, C B

    1984-03-01

    To determine whether prior vitamin D intake influences the intestinal calcium absorptive action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], we measured in vitro the two unidirectional transepithelial fluxes of calcium across descending colon segments from rats fed either a vitamin D-deficient or normal diet and injected with either 10, 25, or 75 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle alone. Vitamin D deficiency abolished net calcium absorption [J net, -2 +/- 2 vs. 12 +/- 2 (SE) nmol X cm-2 X h-1, P less than 0.001], and 10 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 raised J net to levels found in normal rats. Larger doses (25 and 75 ng) increased J net above levels in normal rats given the same dose. In normal rats only 75 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 increased calcium J net above vehicle control values (12 +/- 2 vs. 38 +/- 4 nmol X cm-2 X h-1, P less than 0.001). Circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 measured by radioreceptor assay was well correlated with calcium transport. For each dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 higher serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were reached in vitamin D-deficient rats. Only the 75-ng dose increased circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 and colonic calcium transport in normal rats. Intravenous [3H]-1,25(OH)2D3 disappeared more rapidly from the circulation of normal rats, suggesting that accelerated metabolic degradative processes for 1,25(OH)2D3 may be present in normal but not in vitamin D-deficient rats and may account for the lack of a biological response to 1,25(OH)2D3 in normal animals. PMID:6546644

  12. Efficient gene delivery to the inflamed colon by local administration of recombinant adenoviruses with normal or modified fibre structure

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, S; Galle, P; Neurath, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Replication deficient recombinant adenoviruses represent an efficient means of transferring genes in vivo into a wide variety of dividing and quiescent cells from many different organs. Although the gastrointestinal tract is a potentially attractive target for gene therapy approaches, only a few studies on the use of viral gene transfer vehicles in the gut have been reported. The prospects of using recombinant adenoviruses for gene delivery into epithelial and subepithelial cells of the normal and inflamed colon are here analysed.
METHODS—An E1/E3 deleted recombinant adenovirus (denoted AdCMVβGal) and an adenovirus with modified fibre structure (denoted AdZ.F(pk7)) both expressing the bacterial lacZ gene under the control of a human cytomegalovirus promoter were used for reporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo. β-Galactosidase activity was determined by specific chemiluminescent reporter gene assay.
RESULTS—Intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of AdCMVβGal into healthy Balb/c mice caused strong reporter gene expression in the liver and spleen but not in the colon. In contrast, local administration of AdCMVβGal resulted in high reporter gene expression in colonic epithelial cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells. A local route of adenovirus administration in mice with experimental colitis induced by the hapten reagent trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid was next evaluated. Interestingly, rectal administration of AdCMVβGal caused a higher β-galactosidase activity in isolated lamina propria cells from infected mice with experimental colitis than in those from controls. Furthermore, isolated lamina propria cells from mice with colitis infected in vitro showed a significant increase in reporter gene activity compared with controls. Finally, AdZ.F(pk7) adenoviruses with modified fibre structure produced 10- to 40-fold higher reporter gene activity in spleen T cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells of colitic mice compared with

  13. Immunohistochemical quantification of the cobalamin transport protein, cell surface receptor and Ki-67 in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors and in adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have an obligate need for cobalamin (vitamin B12) to enable DNA synthesis necessary for cellular replication. This study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of the cobalamin transport protein (transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors, and compared these results to expression in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. All malignant tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Expression of TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 was significantly higher in malignant tumor tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues in both species. There was a strong correlation between TCII and TCII-R expression, and a modest correlation between TCII-R and Ki-67 expression in both species; a modest association between TCII and Ki-67 expression was present in canine tissues only. These results demonstrate a quantifiable, synchronous up-regulation of TCII and TCII-R expression by proliferating canine and feline malignant tumors. The potential to utilize these proteins as biomarkers to identify neoplastic tissues, streamline therapeutic options, evaluate response to anti-tumor therapy and monitor for recurrent disease has important implications in the advancement of cancer management for both human and companion animal patients. PMID:25633912

  14. Modulation of distal colonic epithelial barrier function by dietary fibre in normal rats

    PubMed Central

    Mariadason, J; Catto-Smith, A; Gibson, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Dietary fibre influences the turnover and differentiation of the colonic epithelium, but its effects on barrier function are unknown. 
AIMS—To determine whether altering the type and amount of fibre in the diet affects paracellular permeability of intestinal epithelium, and to identify the mechanisms of action. 
METHODS—Rats were fed isoenergetic low fibre diets with or without supplements of wheat bran (10%) or methylcellulose (10%), for four weeks. Paracellular permeability was determined by measurement of conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux across tissue mounted in Ussing chambers. Faecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were assessed by gas chromatography, epithelial kinetics stathmokinetically, and mucosal brush border hydrolase activities spectrophotometrically. 
RESULTS—Body weight was similar across the dietary groups. Conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux were approximately 25% higher in animals fed no fibre, compared with those fed wheat bran or methylcellulose in the distal colon, but not in the caecum or jejunum. Histologically, there was no evidence of epithelial injury or erosion associated with any diet. The fibres exerted different spectra of effects on luminal SCFA concentrations and pH, and on mucosal indexes, but both bulked the faeces, were trophic to the epithelium, and stimulated expression of a marker of epithelial differentiation. 
CONCLUSIONS—Both a fermentable and a non-fermentable fibre reduce paracellular permeability specifically in the distal colon, possibly by promoting epithelial cell differentiation. The mechanisms by which the two fibres exert their effects are likely to be different. 

 Keywords: colon; differentiation; epithelium; fibre; paracellular permeability; proliferation PMID:10026327

  15. Lipid Profiles of Canine Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Adjacent Normal Tissue by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Allison L.; Ifa, Demian R.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Costa, Anthony B.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Knapp, Deborah W.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used in an imaging mode to interrogate the lipid profiles of thin tissue sections of canine spontaneous invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (a model of human invasive bladder cancer) as well as adjacent normal tissue from four different dogs. The glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids that appear as intense signals in both the negative ion and positive ion modes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion scans using collision-induced dissociation. Differences in the relative distributions of the lipid species were present between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue in both the negative and positive ion modes. DESI-MS images showing the spatial distributions of particular glycerophospholipids, sphinoglipids and free fatty acids in both the negative and positive ion modes were compared to serial tissue sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Increased absolute and relative intensities for at least five different glycerophospholipids and three free fatty acids in the negative ion mode and at least four different lipid species in the positive ion mode were seen in the tumor region of the samples in all four dogs. In addition, one sphingolipid species exhibited increased signal intensity in the positive ion mode in normal tissue relative to the diseased tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to generate unsupervised statistical images from the negative ion mode data and these images are in excellent agreement with the DESI images obtained from the selected ions and also the H&E stained tissue PMID:19810710

  16. Discovery and verification of protein differences between Er positive/Her2/neu negative breast tumor tissue and matched adjacent normal breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Lindsay-Rae B; Byers, Tim; Allen, Jenna; Finlayson, Christina; Helmke, Steve M; Hokanson, John E; Hunsucker, Stephen W; Murphy, James R; Newell, Keri; Queensland, Kelly M; Singh, Meenakshi; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Duncan, Mark W; Elias, Anthony

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to quantify and identify differences in protein levels between tumor and adjacent normal breast tissue from the same breast in 18 women with stage I/II ER positive/Her2/neu negative invasive breast cancer. Eighteen separate difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) gels were run (1 gel per patient). Relative quantification was based on DIGE analysis. After excision and tryptic digestion, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping were used to identify protein spots. Two hundred and forty-three spots were differentially abundant between normal and cancer tissues. Fifty spots were identified: 41 were over abundant and nine were less abundant in cancers than in normal breast tissue. Western blotting provided independent confirmation for three of the most biologically and statistically interesting proteins. All 18 gels were replicated by another technician and 32% of the differentially abundant proteins were verified by the duplicate analysis. Follow-up studies are now examining these proteins as biomarkers in blood. PMID:20087651

  17. Human lung and bladder carcinoma tumors as compared to their adjacent normal tissue have elevated AP-1 activity associated with the retinoblastoma gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Linardopoulos, S; Papadakis, E; Delakas, D; Theodosiou, V; Cranidis, A; Spandidos, D A

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the nucleotide sequence of the retinoblastoma (Rb) promoter revealed the presence of a DNA region highly homologous to the recognition site for the cellular transcription factor AP-1. A pair of complementary oligonucleotides containing the AP-1 site was synthesized and used in gel retardation assays to determine the role of the AP-1 protein in the regulation of the Rb gene expression. Using nuclear extracts from Hela cells as well as from lung and bladder tumors, we found specific binding of the AP-1 protein to this oligonucleotide. This binding is elevated in Hela cells, in 10/13 lung and 3/8 bladder tumors as compared to adjacent normal tissue. These results suggest that AP-1 could be implicated in Rb gene transcriptional regulation through its interaction with the AP-1 binding site of the Rb gene promoter. PMID:8476221

  18. Hydrogen respiratory test: pilot examinations for evaluation of the small intestinal colonization by normal microflora.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, O V; Salinas, Yu E; Vasilieva, E A; Kozlov, A V; Yashina, N V; Loginov, I A; Dalin, M V

    2013-04-01

    Respiration hydrogen analyzer H2Rate has been used in pilot examinations of a group of students. This method for noninvasive diagnosis of small intestinal diseases promotes proper interpretation of the results. Free hydrogen level in the exhaled air increases as a result of lactulose (diagnostic agent) cleavage by enteric microflora within about 3 h. Based on the experimental data, the main groups with characteristic curves reflecting the time course of hydrogen concentrations have been distinguished. Excessive bacterial colonization of the intestine can correspond to emergence of characteristic peaks of hydrogen concentrations in the curve. Hydrogen concentrations in exhaled air can also be analyzed to evaluate the rate of the substrate propulsion in the middle compartment of the intestine. PMID:23658932

  19. Transgenic American elm shows reduced Dutch elm disease symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Liang, Haiying; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2007-07-01

    The American elm (Ulmus americana L.) was once one of the most common urban trees in eastern North America until Dutch-elm disease (DED), caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, eliminated most of the mature trees. To enhance DED resistance, Agrobacterium was used to transform American elm with a transgene encoding the synthetic antimicrobial peptide ESF39A, driven by a vascular promoter from American chestnut. Four unique, single-copy transgenic lines were produced and regenerated into whole plants. These lines showed less wilting and significantly less sapwood staining than non-transformed controls after O. novo-ulmi inoculation. Preliminary observations indicated that mycorrhizal colonization was not significantly different between transgenic and wild-type trees. Although the trees tested were too young to ensure stable resistance was achieved, these results indicate that transgenes encoding antimicrobial peptides reduce DED symptoms and therefore hold promise for enhancing pathogen resistance in American elm. PMID:17310333

  20. Aqueous Extracts of Selected Potentilla Species Modulate Biological Activity of Human Normal Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Locatelli, Marcello; Pleszczyńska, Malgorzata; Tomczyk, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional and in folk medicine for many years. This study characterized the activity of extracts from aerial parts of selected Potentilla species: P. argentea, P. anserina, P. grandiflora and P. erecta as well as one species of closely related to the genus Potentilla, Drymocallis rupestris (syn. P. rupestris). The biological activities were analyzed using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on CCD 841 CoTr and CCD-18Co cells. Moreover, cell morphology and cytoskeletal actin F-filaments organization and IL-6 and IL-10 levels by ELISA were analyzed after 24 h of incubation. Potentilla extracts at dose levels between 25 and 250 µg/mL were analyzed. For ELISA, 15 µg/mL and 30 μg/mL were chosen. When mitochondrial succinyl dehydrogenase activity was tested (MTT assay) only extract obtained from P. erecta at lower concentrations (up to 125 µg/mL) suppressed metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells mitochondrial enzyme activity increased after incubation with all extracts. In Neutral Red (NR) method cellular membrane disturbance of both cell cultures was found after D. rupestris and P. grandiflora addition. Moreover, strong influence on epithelial cells was also found for P. anserina. All extracts showed similar, concentration-dependent free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect. Potentilla extracts, especially at lower concentration, decreased IL-6 production in myofibroblasts but the level of the cytokine was found to be stable in epithelial cells. IL-10 analysis revealed that P. argentea, D. rupestris, P. erecta extracts decrease cytokine level in myofibroblasts, while only when higher concentration were applied, decreased cytokine level produced by epithelial cells was found. F-actin filaments staining revealed that Potentilla extracts significantly influence on cellular cytoskeleton organization. Potentilla extracts influence on cells of human colon wall lining modulating the main features of them (viability

  1. DNA demethylation in normal colon tissue predicts predisposition to multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, H; Suzuki, K; Maeda, T; Koizumi, K; Miyaki, Y; Okada, S; Kawamura, Y J; Samuelsson, J K; Alonso, S; Konishi, F; Perucho, M

    2012-11-29

    Some colon cancer (CC) patients present synchronous cancers at diagnosis and others develop metachronous neoplasms, but the risk factors are unclear for non-hereditary CC. We showed previously that global DNA demethylation increased with aging and correlated with genomic damage in CC, and we show now that preferentially associates to CCs with wild-type p53. This study aimed to elucidate the extent of DNA hypomethylation in patients with single and multiple CC, its relationship with aging, and its potential as predictive tool. We compared by real-time methylation-specific PCR the relative demethylation level (RDL) of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) sequences in matched cancer tissues and non-cancerous colonic mucosa (NCM) from patients with single and multiple right-sided CCs. Although no RDL difference was found in NCM from single CC patients and healthy volunteers (P=0.5), there was more demethylation (higher RDL) in NCM from synchronous cancer patients (P=1.1 × 10(-5)) multiple CCs also were more demethylated than single CCs (P=0.0014). High NCM demethylation was predictive for metachronous neoplasms (P=0.003). In multivariate logistic regression analyses RDL was the only independent predictor for metachronous (P=0.02) and multiple (P=4.9 × 10(-5)) tumors. The higher LINE-1 demethylation in NCM from patients with multiple (synchronous and metachronous) tumors (P=9.6 × 10(-7)) was also very significant in patients with tumors without (P=3.8 × 10(-6)), but not with (P=0.16) microsatellite instability. NCM demethylation increased with aging in patients with single tumors, but decreased in those with multiple tumors. Moreover, the demethylation difference between patients with single vs multiple tumors appeared higher in younger (P=3.6 × 10(-4)) than in older (P=0.0016) patients. These results predict that LINE-1 hypomethylation in NCM can be used as an epigenetic predictive biomarker for multiple CC risk. The stronger association of

  2. Ethylene bisdithiocarbamate pesticides cause cytotoxicity in transformed and normal human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lisa; Hardej, Diane

    2012-09-01

    The effects of the fungicides Maneb, Mancozeb, and Zineb were investigated in transformed colon cells, HT-29, Caco2 and non-transformed cells, CCD-18Co. Significant decreases in viability were observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in HT-29 and CCD-18Co (80-260μM), and Caco2 cells (40-180μM). No significant decreases in viability were observed in all cell types up to 800μM with Zineb. MnCl(2) and ZnCl(2) exposure produced no loss of viability in all cell types up to 400μM. Light microscopy confirmed viability analysis. Lipid peroxidation was observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in cell types tested (60-200μM). Caspase 3/7, 8, and 9 activities were observed with Maneb and Mancozeb in cell types tested (40-200μM). Maneb and Mancozeb treated HT-29 and Caco2 cells demonstrated increases in manganese and zinc concentrations (20-200μM). The lack of toxicity observed with Zineb, MnCl(2), and ZnCl(2) suggests that both the metal moiety and the organic portion of these fungicides together contribute to toxicity. PMID:22824503

  3. Assessing the Toxicities of Regulated and Unregulated Disinfection By-products in Normal Human Colon Cells.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of over six hundred disinfection by-products (DBPs) and less than half of the total organic halides present in finished water has created a need for short-term in vitro assays to address toxicities that might be associated with human exposure. . We are using a normal...

  4. Development of a memetic clustering algorithm for optimal spectral histology: application to FTIR images of normal human colon.

    PubMed

    Farah, Ihsen; Nguyen, Thi Nguyet Que; Groh, Audrey; Guenot, Dominique; Jeannesson, Pierre; Gobinet, Cyril

    2016-05-23

    The coupling between Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging and unsupervised classification is effective in revealing the different structures of human tissues based on their specific biomolecular IR signatures; thus the spectral histology of the studied samples is achieved. However, the most widely applied clustering methods in spectral histology are local search algorithms, which converge to a local optimum, depending on initialization. Multiple runs of the techniques estimate multiple different solutions. Here, we propose a memetic algorithm, based on a genetic algorithm and a k-means clustering refinement, to perform optimal clustering. In addition, this approach was applied to the acquired FTIR images of normal human colon tissues originating from five patients. The results show the efficiency of the proposed memetic algorithm to achieve the optimal spectral histology of these samples, contrary to k-means. PMID:27110605

  5. Colonic mucosal gene expression and genotype in irritable bowel syndrome patients with normal or elevated fecal bile acid excretion

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Paula; Acosta, Andres; Busciglio, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal gene expression in rectosigmoid mucosa (RSM) in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is unknown. Our objectives were, first, to study mRNA expression [by RT2 PCR of 19 genes pertaining to tight junctions, immune activation, intestinal ion transport and bile acid (BA) homeostasis] in RSM in IBS-D patients (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 17) and study expression of a selected protein (PDZD3) in 10 IBS-D patients and 4 healthy controls; second, to assess RSM mRNA expression according to genotype and fecal BA excretion (high ≥2,337 μmol/48 h); and third, to determine whether genotype or mucosal mRNA expression is associated with colonic transit or BA parameters. Fold changes were corrected for false detection rate for 19 genes studied (P < 0.00263). In RSM in IBS-D patients compared with controls, mRNA expression of GUC2AB, PDZD3, and PR2Y4 was increased, whereas CLDN1 and FN1 were decreased. One immune-related gene was upregulated (C4BP4) and one downregulated (CCL20). There was increased expression of a selected ion transport protein (PDZD3) on immunohistochemistry and Western blot in IBS-D compared with controls (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in mucosal mRNA in 20 IBS-D patients with high compared with 27 IBS-D patients with normal BA excretion. GPBAR1 (P < 0.05) was associated with colonic transit. We concluded that mucosal ion transport mRNA (for several genes and PDZD3 protein) is upregulated and barrier protein mRNA downregulated in IBS-D compared with healthy controls, independent of genotype. There are no differences in gene expression in IBS-D with high compared with normal fecal BA excretion. PMID:25930081

  6. Colonic mucosal gene expression and genotype in irritable bowel syndrome patients with normal or elevated fecal bile acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Carlson, Paula; Acosta, Andres; Busciglio, Irene

    2015-07-01

    The mucosal gene expression in rectosigmoid mucosa (RSM) in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is unknown. Our objectives were, first, to study mRNA expression [by RT(2) PCR of 19 genes pertaining to tight junctions, immune activation, intestinal ion transport and bile acid (BA) homeostasis] in RSM in IBS-D patients (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 17) and study expression of a selected protein (PDZD3) in 10 IBS-D patients and 4 healthy controls; second, to assess RSM mRNA expression according to genotype and fecal BA excretion (high ≥ 2,337 μmol/48 h); and third, to determine whether genotype or mucosal mRNA expression is associated with colonic transit or BA parameters. Fold changes were corrected for false detection rate for 19 genes studied (P < 0.00263). In RSM in IBS-D patients compared with controls, mRNA expression of GUC2AB, PDZD3, and PR2Y4 was increased, whereas CLDN1 and FN1 were decreased. One immune-related gene was upregulated (C4BP4) and one downregulated (CCL20). There was increased expression of a selected ion transport protein (PDZD3) on immunohistochemistry and Western blot in IBS-D compared with controls (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in mucosal mRNA in 20 IBS-D patients with high compared with 27 IBS-D patients with normal BA excretion. GPBAR1 (P < 0.05) was associated with colonic transit. We concluded that mucosal ion transport mRNA (for several genes and PDZD3 protein) is upregulated and barrier protein mRNA downregulated in IBS-D compared with healthy controls, independent of genotype. There are no differences in gene expression in IBS-D with high compared with normal fecal BA excretion. PMID:25930081

  7. Histochemical studies of the colonic epithelial glycoproteins of the normal rabbit.

    PubMed

    Reid, P E; Walker, D C; Terpin, T; Owen, D A

    1988-10-01

    Two general classes of glycoproteins have been identified in the colonic epithelial cells of New Zealand white rabbits. Each is associated with an ultrastructurally distinct secretory cell. The first of these classes is found in cells, termed vesiculated columnar cells, characterized by electron-translucent vesicles, a small rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex and prominent microvilli. The glycoproteins of the vesiculated cells contain abundant O-sulphate ester, sialic acids with ester substituents at positions C-8 or C-9 (or with two or three side chain substituents) and neutral sugars with vicinal diols whose periodate oxidation is prevented by an O-acyl ester substituent(s). The second class of glycoproteins occurs in goblet cells characterized by electron-dense vesicles, an abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, a well-developed Golgi apparatus and few, if any, microvilli. Goblet cells along the entire length of the crypts contain neutral sugars with periodate-oxidisable vicinal diols and a ferriferricyanide-reactive component. Cells in the upper halves of the crypts also contain components that are sulphated, Schiff-reactive and acid-fast. In the lower halves of the crypts, the goblet cells contain smaller quantities of the above components plus sialic acids, some of which possibly have an O-acyl substituent located at position C-8 or C-9 (or which have two or three side chain O-acyl substituents). It is suggested that the function of the glycoproteins from the vesiculated columnar cells is protective and that from the goblet cells is lubricative. PMID:2464561

  8. Clinical significance of HOTAIR expression in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhi-Fen; Zhao, Dan; Li, Xi-Qing; Cui, Yong-Xia; Ma, Ning; Lu, Chuang-Xin; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zhou, Yun

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To detect the expression of the long noncoding RNA HOTAIR in colon cancer and analyze its relationship with clinicopathological parameters of colon cancer. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from 80 colon cancer tissues and matched tumor-adjacent normal colon tissues and reverse transcribed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of HOTAIR. The relationship between the expression of HOTAIR and clinicopathological parameters of colon cancer was analyzed. RESULTS: The expression of HOTAIR was significantly higher in colon cancer tissues than in matched tumor-adjacent normal colon tissues (P < 0.05). HOTAIR expression was significantly higher in cases with lymph node metastasis than in those without metastasis; in lowly differentiated and undifferentiated cases than in highly and moderately differentiated cases; and in stages III + IV cases than in stages I + II cases (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HOTAIR expression is upregulated in colon cancer, suggesting that HOTAIR plays an important role in the tumorigenesis, development and metastasis of colon cancer. HOTAIR may act as an oncogene and represents a new molecular target for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:27298568

  9. Effects of Supplemental Vitamin D and Calcium on Normal Colon Tissue and Circulating Biomarkers of Risk for Colorectal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bostick, Roberd M.

    2015-01-01

    This brief review, based on an invited presentation at the 17th Workshop on Vitamin D, is to summarize a line of the author’s research that has been directed at the intertwined missions of clarifying and/or developing vitamin D and calcium and as preventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, understanding the mechanisms by which these agents may reduce risk for the disease, and developing ‘treatable’ biomarkers of risk for colorectal cancer. The biological plausibility and observational and clinical trial evidence for vitamin D and calcium in reducing risk for colorectal neoplasms, the development of pre-neoplastic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, and the clinical trial findings from the author’s research group on the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in modulating these biomarkers are summarized. Regarding the latter, we tested the efficacy of 800 IU (20 µg) of vitamin D3 and 2.0g of calcium daily, alone and combined vs. placebo over 6 months on modulating normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial design clinical trial (n = 92). The tissue-based biomarkers were measured in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa using immunohistochemistry with quantitative image analysis, and a panel of circulating inflammation markers was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA). Statistically significant proportional tissue increases in the vitamin D group relative to the placebo group were found in bax (51%), p21 (141%), APC (48%), E-cadherin (78%), MSH2 (179%), the CaSR (39%), and CYP27B1 (159%). In blood, there was a 77% statistically significant decrease in a summary inflammation z-score. The findings for calcium were similar to those for vitamin D. These findings indicate that supplemental vitamin D3 or calcium can favorably modulate multiple normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk

  10. Comparison of gene expression of SOX2 and OCT4 in normal tissue, polyps, and colon adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Ardeshir; Kianersi, Kianoosh; Beiraghdar, Mozhdeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer stem cells have been isolated and characterized in all common cancers. SOX2 and OCT4 are important genes to enhance the self-renewal ability as activate stem cells and inhibit the genes that start differentiation and thus maintain the self-renewal ability of stem cells. Also, the aim of this study is “Comparison of gene expression of SOX2 and OCT4 in normal tissue, polyps, and colon adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemical staining.” Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on 20 patients so that for each patient, a sample of healthy tissue, dysplastic polyp tissue, and colon adenocarcinoma were provided as microscopic sections and staining on each tissue was performed through immunohistochemistry method by markers OCT4 and SOX2. The collected data were interred into SPSS version 18.0, (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software and the level of significance were considered as <0.05. Results: The study sample consisted of 20 patients including 11 men (55%) and 9 women (45%) with a mean age of 55.6 ± 9.88 years. There was no association between Oct4 and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (P > 0.05), but there was a significant correlation between Sox2 expression and CRC (P < 0.05). Patients in many aspects such as race, type of polyp, presence of lymph node, grade and intensity of Sox2 in different types of patients’ tissues (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Regarding our findings, the expression of Sox2 would be a liable marker for evaluating of cancer progression and could be a treatment target of CRC cells. PMID:26645019

  11. MicroRNA profiles in colorectal carcinomas, adenomas and normal colonic mucosa: variations in miRNA expression and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Herrick, Jennifer S; Pellatt, Daniel F; Stevens, John R; Mullany, Lila E; Wolff, Erica; Hoffman, Michael D; Samowitz, Wade S; Wolff, Roger K

    2016-03-01

    MiRNAs are small, non-protein-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression either by post-transcriptionally suppressing mRNA translation or by mRNA degradation. We examine differentially expressed miRNAs in colorectal carcinomas, adenomas and normal colonic mucosa. Data come from population-based studies of colorectal cancer conducted in Utah and the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. A total of 1893 carcinoma/normal-paired samples and 290 adenoma tissue samples were run on the Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 which contained 2006 miRNAs. We tested for significant differences in miRNA expression between paired carcinoma/adenoma/normal colonic tissue samples. Fewer than 600 miRNAs were expressed in >80% of people for colonic tissue; of these 86.5% were statistically differentially expressed between carcinoma and normal colonic mucosa using a false discovery rate of 0.05. Roughly half of these differentially expressed miRNAs showed a progression in levels of expression from normal to adenoma to carcinoma tissue. Other miRNAs appeared to be altered at the normal to adenoma stage, while others were only altered at the adenoma to carcinoma stage or only at the normal to carcinoma stage. Evaluation of the Agilent platform showed a high degree of repeatability (r = 0.98) and reasonable agreement with the NanoString platform. Our data suggest that miRNAs are highly dysregulated in colorectal tissue among individuals with colorectal cancer; the pattern of disruption varies by miRNA as tissue progresses from normal to adenoma to carcinoma. PMID:26740022

  12. EFFECTS OF 300 mT STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD ON IL-8 SECRETION IN NORMAL HUMAN COLON MYOFIBROBLASTS.

    PubMed

    Gruchlik, Arkadiusz; Turek, Artur; Polechoński, Jacek; Dzierżewicz, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts play a crucial role in the growth and development of the intestine. Colitis, small bowel injury, gastric ulcer disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) accompany the increase in the count of activated myofibroblasts. In the last few years, the increasing production of electromagnetic (EMF) and static magnetic (SMF) fields due to the expanding use of electronic devices in everyday life, has led to a number of studies on the effects of these fields on living organisms. Because of its anti-inflammatory properties, EMF therapy may be of medical use as an IBD treatment. This mechanism has not been elucidated yet. In the present work normal human colon myofibroblasts were exposed to SMF with a flux density of 300 mT for 96 h and then the cells were cultured for 24 and 48 h with 25 mM sodium butyrate (NaB) and 10 mM 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in either the presence or absence of SMF. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)--dependent IL-8 secretion was determined with ELISA kit. Cell viability was determined with XTT assay. It was shown that SMF has no effect on TNF-α--dependent IL-8 secretion in control cells and in cells cultured in the presence of 5-ASA and NaB. PMID:26647628

  13. Ex vivo determination of glucose permeability and optical attenuation coefficient in normal and adenomatous human colon tissues using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Zhou, Chuanqing; Wei, Huajiang; He, Yonghong; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiushi

    2012-10-01

    Recent reports have suggested that spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a useful tool for quantifying the permeability of hyperosmotic agents in various tissues. We report our preliminary results on quantification of glucose diffusion and assessment of the optical attenuation change due to the diffusion of glucose in normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro by using a SD-OCT and then calculated the permeability coefficients (PC) and optical attenuation coefficients (AC). The PC of a 30% aqueous solution of glucose was 3.37±0.23×10-6 cm/s in normal tissue and 5.65±0.16×10-6 cm/s in cancerous colon tissue. Optical AC in a normal colon ranged from 3.48±0.37 to 2.68±0.82 mm-1 and was significantly lower than those seen in the cancerous tissue (8.48±0.95 to 3.16±0.69 mm-1, p<0.05). The results suggest that quantitative measurements of using PC and AC from OCT images could be a potentially powerful method for colon cancer detection.

  14. Direct demonstration of increased expression of Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen in colonic adenocarcinoma and ulcerative colitis mucin and its concealment in normal mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B J; Finnie, I A; Hounsell, E F; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    Increased binding of the lectin peanut agglutinin is a common feature in epithelial malignancy and hyperplasia. This may have considerable functional importance in the intestine by allowing interaction between the epithelium and mitogenic lectins of dietary or microbial origin. Peanut agglutinin binds the disaccharide Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF, T or core 1) blood group antigen, Gal beta (1-3) GalNAc alpha-, but is not totally specific for this site. Consequently, there has been controversy about the presence of this structure in colon cancer; studies with anti-TF monoclonal antibodies have failed to detect it. We have examined the presence of TF antigen in colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) using endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (O-Glycanase), which specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of TF antigen from glycoconjugates. Samples of adenocarcinoma, inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis), and normal mucin were treated with O-glycanase, the liberated disaccharide was separated from the glycoprotein and analyzed using dual CarboPac PA-100 column high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection. O-Glycanase treatment released increased amounts of TF antigen from both colonic adenocarcinoma (8.0 +/- 3.9 ng/micrograms protein, n = 11; P < 0.0001 ANOVA) and ulcerative colitis mucin (3.3 +/- 0.3 ng/micrograms protein, n = 5; P = 0.04) compared with mucin samples from histologically normal mucosa distant from carcinoma (1.5 +/- 1.1 ng/micrograms protein, n = 9). However, after mild acid treatment to remove sialic acids and fucose, releasable TF antigen was increased in all nine of these histologically normal mucin samples (5.5 +/- 2.6 ng/micrograms protein, P < 0.0002). We conclude that TF antigen is an oncofetal antigen which is expressed in colon cancer, but is concealed by further glycosylation (sialylation and/or fucosylation) in the normal colonic mucosa. PMID:7860740

  15. Sd(a)-antigen-like structures carried on core 3 are prominent features of glycans from the mucin of normal human descending colon.

    PubMed Central

    Capon, C; Maes, E; Michalski, J C; Leffler, H; Kim, Y S

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes structural characterization by NMR, MS and degradative studies of mucin glycans from normal human descending colon obtained freshly at autopsy. The saccharides were mainly based on core 3 (GlcNAcbeta1-3GalNAc). Among the terminal saccharide determinants Sd(a)/Cad-antigen-like structures were prominent, and Lewis x, sialyl Lewis x and sulphated Lewis x were found as minor components, whereas blood group H and A antigenic determinants were absent. The saccharides were markedly different from those of mucins from colon cancers or colon cancer cell lines analysed so far, in which cores 1 and 2 are prominent features, and in which various other terminal determinants have been found, but not Sd(a)/Cad. PMID:11577689

  16. Studies on the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen in human colon with the lectin Amaranthin. Normal and neoplastic epithelium express only cryptic T antigen.

    PubMed

    Sata, T; Roth, J; Zuber, C; Stamm, B; Rinderle, S J; Goldstein, I J; Heitz, P U

    1992-02-01

    The lectin Amaranthin has been shown to be highly specific for the galactose beta 1,3 N-acetylgalactosamine-alpha and sialic acid alpha 2,3 galactose beta 1,3 N-acetylgalactosamine-alpha sequence which represents the Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen and its cryptic form, respectively. Previously, we demonstrated the usefulness of gold-labeled Amaranthin for the histochemical detection of the T antigen and its cryptic form. Application of the galactose oxidase (GO)-Schiff sequence abolished lectin binding to the T antigen but not its cryptic form, and therefore permitted their differentiation. In the present study we have analyzed by light and electron microscopy the distribution and subcellular localization of Amaranthin binding sites in normal, dysplastic and neoplastic colonic epithelium. Furthermore, a monoclonal antibody raised against synthetic galactose bera 1,3 N-acetylgalactosamine-alpha-bovine serum albumin was applied as a reagent for the T antigen. In normal colonic mucosa, two different Amaranthin staining patterns existed: (a) reactivity restricted to the lower portion of the crypts which was principally observed in the left colon, and (b) reactivity along the entire length of the crypts and in the surface epithelium with goblet cell staining in the upper portion of the crypts which was principally observed in the right colon. This Amaranthin staining was resistant to GO-Schiff treatment. No immunostaining with the monoclonal anti-T antigen was observed. Investigation of transitional mucosa, adenocarcinomas of different degrees of differentiation and mucinous carcinomas as well as adenomas with different degrees of dysplasia all revealed positive Amaranthin staining. The lectin staining was resistant to GO-Schiff treatment, and immunolabeling with the monoclonal antibody against the T antigen was absent. These results indicate that only the cryptic form of the T antigen is expressed in normal, dysplastic and neoplastic human colonic epithelium. PMID

  17. Effects of 300 mT static magnetic field on IL-6 secretion in normal human colon myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gruchlik, Arkadiusz; Wilczok, Adam; Chodurek, Ewa; Polechoński, Władysław; Wolny, Daniel; Dzierzewicz, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts play crucial role in the growth and development of the intestine. Colitis, small bowel injury, gastric ulcer disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) accompany the increase of number of activated myofibroblasts. In the last few years, the increasing production of electromagnetic (EMF) and static magnetic fields (SMF), due to the expanding use of electronic devices in everyday life, has led to a number of studies on the effects of these fields on living organisms. EMF therapy, because of its anti-inflammatory properties, may be used in medicine in IBD treatment. This mechanism has not been elucidated yet. In the present work normal human colon myofibroblasts CCD-18Co were exposed to SMF with a flux density of 300 mT. After 24 h incubation TNF-alpha-dependent IL-6 secretion was determined with ELISA kit (RandD Systems).The influence of magnetic field and its effect on cell proliferation were determined with TOX-2 (In Vitro Toxicology Assay Kit XTT Based, TOX-2, Sigma) and CyQUANT NF cell proliferation assay kit (Molecular Probes). It was shown that SMF inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent IL-6 secretion. The observed effects were statistically significant and depended on the time of incubation. Moreover, SMF triggered cell proliferation whereas it did not alter cell viability. IL-6 belongs to pro-inflammatory cytokines family and plays a crucial role in IBD. Inhibition of IL-6 secretion by SMF and lack of its cytotoxic effect seem to be advantageous whilst SMF is implicated in the treatment of inflammatory diseases associated by increase in number of activated myofibroblasts. PMID:23285697

  18. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sushma S; Makar, Karen W; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y; Lampe, Paul D; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W; Potter, John D

    2015-12-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) - accession number GSE71571 - was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]). PMID:26697360

  19. Peptide YY expression is an early event in colonic endocrine cell differentiation: evidence from normal and transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, B H; Fung, B P; Rindi, G; Ronco, A; Leiter, A B

    1996-04-01

    The hormone peptide YY is produced by endocrine cells in the pancreas, ileum and colon. We have previously shown that peptide YY is coexpressed in all four islet cell types in the murine pancreas when they first appear, suggesting a common peptide YY-producing progenitor. In the colon, peptide YY has been frequently identified in glucagon-expressing L-type endocrine cells. Characterization of colonic endocrine tumors in transgenic mice expressing simian virus 40 large T antigen under the control of the peptide YY gene 5' flanking region revealed tumor cells producing not only peptide YY and glucagon, but also neurotensin, cholecystokinin, substance P, serotonin, secretin, and gastrin. This suggested that multiple enteroendocrine lineages were related to peptide YY-producing cells. Subsequent examination of the ontogeny of colonic endocrine differentiation in nontransgenic mice revealed that peptide YY was the first hormone to appear during development, at embryonic day 15.5. Between embryonic days 16.5 and 18.5, cells expressing glucagon, cholecystokinin, substance P, serotonin, secretin, neurotensin, gastrin and somatostatin first appeared and peptide YY was coexpressed in each cell type at this time. Peptide YY coexpression continued in a significant fraction of most enteroendocrine cell types throughout fetal and postnatal development and into adulthood, with the exception of serotonin-producing cells. This latter population of cells expanded dramatically after birth with rare coexpression of peptide YY. These studies indicate that expression of peptide YY is an early event in colonic endocrine differentiation and support the existence of a common progenitor for all endocrine cells in the colon. PMID:8620842

  20. Hypomethylation of DNA from Benign and Malignant Human Colon Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelz, Susan E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    1985-04-01

    The methylation state of DNA from human colon tissue displaying neoplastic growth was determined by means of restriction endonuclease analysis. When compared to DNA from adjacent normal tissue, DNA from both benign colon polyps and malignant carcinomas was substantially hypomethylated. With the use of probes for growth hormone, γ -globin, α -chorionic gonadotropin, and γ -crystallin, methylation changes were detected in all 23 neoplastic growths examined. Benign polyps were hypomethylated to a degree similar to that in malignant tissue. These results indicate that hypomethylation is a consistent biochemical characteristic of human colonic tumors and is an alteration in the DNA that precedes malignancy.

  1. Colon diverticula - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100158.htm Colon diverticula - series To use the sharing features on ... 6 out of 6 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  2. Colon cancer - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series To use the sharing features on ... 5 out of 5 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  3. Cathelicidin suppresses colon cancer development by inhibition of cancer associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Michelle; Ho, Samantha; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Tran, Deanna Hoang-Yen; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Su, Bowei; Tran, Diana Hoang-Ngoc; Kubota, Yuzu; Ichikawa, Ryan; Koon, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Cathelicidin (LL-37 in humans and mCRAMP in mice) represents a family of endogenous antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides. Cancer-associated fibroblasts can promote the proliferation of colon cancer cells and growth of colon cancer tumors. Methods We examined the role of cathelicidin in the development of colon cancer, using subcutaneous human HT-29 colon-cancer-cell-derived tumor model in nude mice and azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-mediated colon cancer model in C57BL/6 mice. We also determined the indirect antitumoral mechanism of cathelicidin via the inhibition of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colon cancer cells and fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Results Intravenous administration of cathelicidin expressing adeno-associated virus significantly reduced the size of tumors, tumor-derived collagen expression, and tumor-derived fibroblast expression in HT-29-derived subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Enema administration of the mouse cathelicidin peptide significantly reduced the size and number of colonic tumors in azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-treated mice without inducing apoptosis in tumors and the adjacent normal colonic tissues. Cathelicidin inhibited the collagen expression and vimentin-positive fibroblast expression in colonic tumors. Cathelicidin did not directly affect HT-29 cell viability, but did significantly reduce tumor growth factor-β1-induced EMT of colon cancer cells. Media conditioned by the human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts promoted human colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation. Cathelicidin pretreatment inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation mediated by media conditioned by human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts. Cathelicidin disrupted tubulin distribution in colonic fibroblasts. Disruption of tubulin in fibroblasts reduced fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Conclusion Cathelicidin effectively inhibits colon cancer development by interfering with EMT and fibroblast

  4. ARMc8 indicates aggressive colon cancers and promotes invasiveness and migration of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guiyang; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiupeng; Fan, Chuifeng; Wang, Liang; Xu, Hongtao; Yu, Juanhan; Wang, Enhua

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have implicated ARMc8 in promoting tumor formation in non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer; however, so far, no studies have revealed the expression pattern or cellular function of ARMc8 in colon cancer. In this study, we used immunohistochemical staining to measure ARMc8 expression in 206 cases of colon cancer and matched adjacent normal colon tissue. Clinically important behaviors of cells, including invasiveness and migration, were evaluated after upregulation of ARMc8 expression in HT29 cells through gene transfection or downregulation of expression in LoVo cells using RNAi. We found that ARMc8 was primarily located in the membrane and cytoplasm of tumor cells, and its expression level was significantly higher in colon cancer in comparison to that in the adjacent normal colon tissues (p < 0.001). ARMc8 expression was closely related to TNM stage (p = 0.006), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001), and poor prognosis (p = 0.002) of colon cancer. The invasiveness and migration capacity of HT29 cells transfected with ARMc8 were significantly greater than those of control cells (p < 0.001), while ARMc8 siRNA treatment significantly reduced cell invasion and migration in LoVo cells (p < 0.001). Furthermore, we demonstrated that ARMc8 could upregulate the expression of MMP7 and snail and downregulate the expression of p120ctn and α-catenin. Therefore, ARMc8 probably enhanced invasiveness and metastatic capacity by affecting these tumor-associated factors, thereby playing a role in enhancing the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. ARMc8 is likely to become a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer. PMID:26081621

  5. An avian retrovirus expressing chicken pp59c-myc possesses weak transforming activity distinct from v-myc that may be modulated by adjacent normal cell neighbors.

    PubMed Central

    Filardo, E J; Humphries, E H

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that EF168, an avian retrovirus that expresses the chicken pp59c-myc proto-oncogene, transforms quail embryo fibroblasts in vitro. An EF168-transformed quail clone, EF168-28, containing a single provirus, synthesizes several hundred copies of c-myc RNA and expresses elevated levels of the pp59c-myc gene product. The EF168 provirus in EF168-28 was isolated as a molecular clone, and the nucleotide sequence of its c-myc allele was confirmed as identical to that of exons 2 and 3 of the chicken c-myc proto-oncogene. Extended infection of quail embryo fibroblast cultures with EF168 induced a number of in vitro transformation-associated parameters similar to those elicited by the oncogenic v-myc-encoding retrovirus MC29, including alteration of cellular morphology, anchorage-independent growth, and induction of immortalized cell lines. Despite the fact that EF168 and MC29 shared these biological activities, further analysis revealed that EF168 initiated transformation in quail embryo fibroblasts, bone marrow, or adherent peripheral blood cultures 100- to 1,000-fold less efficiently than did MC29. Further, in contrast to MC29-induced foci, EF168 foci were smaller, morphologically diffuse, and less prominent. Analysis of newly infected cells demonstrated efficient expression of EF168 viral RNA in the absence of transformation. These differences suggest that while the pp59v-myc gene product can exert dominant transforming activity on quail embryo fibroblasts, its ability to initiate transformation is distinct from that of the pp110gag-v-myc gene product encoded by MC29 and may be suppressed by adjacent nontransformed cell neighbors. Images PMID:1942247

  6. Phlogistic properties of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide polymers from cell walls of pathogenic and normal-flora bacteria which colonize humans.

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, J H

    1993-01-01

    PG-PS polymers which can induce experimental chronic inflammation in joints and other tissues can be isolated from the cell walls of human pathogens, such as group A streptococci, as well as from certain indigenous bacterial species which colonize the human intestinal tract. The structural and biological properties that are required for cell wall fragments to express this remarkable activity are still not well defined, but polymer size, resistance to tissue enzymes, and capacity to sustain activation of complement, macrophages, neutrophils, and T cells are properties associated with the most active preparations. There is increasing evidence that PG-PS structures with arthropathogenic activity occur in the human intestinal lumen and that these polymers can be translocated systemically. These observations support the concept that PG-PS, derived from a variety of bacterial species, can be part of the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Since the PG component provides a common element to which all individuals are exposed, it follows that susceptibility is related to efficiency of disposal of bacterial cell wall debris, as well as to cytokine networks and immune cell function (51). PMID:8406849

  7. Lack of evidence for low-LET radiation induced bystander response in normal human fibroblasts and colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marianne B. Sowa; Wilfried Goetz; Janet E. Baulch; Dinah N. Pyles; Jaroslaw Dziegielewski; Susannah Yovino; Andrew R. Snyder; Sonia M. de Toledo; Edouard I. Azzam; William F. Morgan

    2008-06-30

    Purpose: To investigate radiation induced bystander responses and to determine the role of gap junction intercellular communication and the radiation environment in propagating this response. Materials and Methods: We use medium transfer and targeted irradiation to examine radiation induced bystander effects in primary human fibroblast (AG1522) and human colon carcinoma (RKO36) cells. We examined the effect of variables such as gap junction intercellular communication, linear energy transfer (LET), and the role of the radiation environment in non-targeted responses. Endpoints included clonogenic survival, micronucleus formation and foci formation at histone 2AX over doses ranging from 10 to 100 cGy. Results: The results show no evidence of a low-LET radiation induced bystander response for the endpoints of clonogenic survival and induction of DNA damage. Nor do we see evidence of a high-LET, Fe ion radiation (1 GeV/n) induced bystander effect. However, direct comparison for 3.2 MeV α-particle exposures showed a statistically significant medium transfer bystander effect for this high-LET radiation. Conclusions: From our results, it is evident that there are many confounding factors influencing bystander responses as reported in the literature. Our observations reflect the inherent variability in biological systems and the difficulties in extrapolating from in vitro models to radiation risks in humans.

  8. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), heat shock proteins (HSPs) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) expression in co-culture of colon tumor spheroids with normal cells after incubation with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and/or camptothecin (CPT-11).

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Jakubowicz-Gil, Joanna; Niedziela, Piotr

    2010-04-01

    Tumor chemoresistance and metastasis are some of the most important problems in colon cancer therapy. In the present study, co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids, obtained from different grades of tumor, with human colon epithelium, myofibroblast and endothelial cell monolayers were performed. The purpose of these co-cultures was to reflect, in in vitro conditions, different stages of colon tumor development. In order to investigate the invasive capacities of the tumor cells and their resistance to chemotherapy, HGF, HSP27, HSP72 and MRP levels were analyzed after incubation of the co-cultures with IL-1beta and irinotecan (CPT-11) added as single agents or in combination. Myofibroblasts produced significantly higher amounts of HGF than epithelial cells. Tumor cells released trace amounts of this molecule. In cocultures, IL-1beta induced HGF release, while CPT-11 alone or combined with IL-1beta decreased HGF secretion. An immunoblotting analysis followed by densitometry revealed that the combination of IL-1beta plus CPT-11 added to the cocultures led to a decrease in HSPs and MRP levels. In conclusion, direct and paracrine interactions of colon tumor cell spheroids with normal cells and exogenously added CPT-11 change HSP27, HSP72 and MRP expression in comparison to monocultures. IL-1beta and CPT-11, dependent on whether they are added separately or jointly, differentially modulate HGF expression in monocultures of colon tumor spheroids or normal cells and their co-cultures. PMID:20726333

  9. Colonic Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps ... member with polyps Have a family history of colon cancer Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. ...

  10. Dynamics of colonization with group B streptococci in relation to normal flora in women during subsequent trimesters of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Pabian, Wojciech; Majewska, Elzbieta; Zuk, Ma Gorzata; Kielbik, Jadwiga; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Bulanda, Ma Gorzata

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative composition of vaginal and rectal flora in GBS-positive (n=15) and GBS-negative (n=27) pregnant women examined in three subsequent trimesters of their pregnancy. Study samples consisted of vaginal and rectal smears and urine samples. GBS numbers were determined by the quantitatively cultured method [cfu/ml] and with the use of qPCR. Five GBS colonies were isolated per each positive sample and genotyped by PFGE and serotyping. The normal flora components: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Candida were quantitatively cultured. Carriage of GBS in subsequent trimesters in vagina/anus was variable and fluctuated between 17% and 28%. Quantitative GBS analyses showed that the vaginal population was at a constant level with the mean value equal to 3.94×104 cfu/ml, in contrast to the rectal population where the highest values appeared in the third trimester 4.37×105. The use of qPCR gave 7% more positive results for vaginal/rectal swabs. Genetic similarity analysis showed that one GBS clone was present in 73% of carriers during pregnancy, while in 27% of patients, 2 clones were found. H2O2-positive vaginal lactobacilli were detected in all women, while H2O2-negative lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium occurred more frequently in the anus in about 50% of women. Candida was present in the vagina in 30% of women. The analysis of women in three consecutive trimesters of pregnancy on the basis of a study group and control group showed no statistically significant differences in either the species (qualitative) or quantitative composition in vaginal and rectal flora in both of the groups. Therefore, GBS should be considered as a component of the microbiota and an opportunistic microorganism rather than a typical pathogen, because it does not distort the composition of women's normal genital tract flora. PMID:25180845

  11. Methylation of MGMT and ADAMTS14 in normal colon mucosa: biomarkers of a field defect for cancerization preferentially targeting elder African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Sergio; Dai, Yuichi; Yamashita, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Shina; Dai, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Sánchez-Muñoz, Rosa; Bilbao-Sieyro, Cristina; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Chernov, Andrei V.; Strongin, Alex Y.; Perucho, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Somatic hypermethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) was previously associated with G > A transition mutations in KRAS and TP53 in colorectal cancer (CRC). We tested the association of MGMT methylation with G > A mutations in KRAS and TP53 in 261 CRCs. Sixteen cases, with and without MGMT hypermethylation, were further analyzed by exome sequencing. No significant association of MGMT methylation with G > A mutations in KRAS, TP53 or in the whole exome was found (p > 0.5 in all comparisons). The result was validated by in silico comparison with 302 CRCs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium dataset. Transcriptional silencing associated with hypermethylation and stratified into monoallelic and biallelic. We also found a significant clustering (p = 0.001) of aberrant hypermethylation of MGMT and the matrix metalloproteinase gene ADAMTS14 in normal colonic mucosa of CRC patients. This suggested the existence of an epigenetic field defect for cancerization disrupting the methylation patterns of several loci, including MGMT or ADAMTS14, that may lead to predictive biomarkers for CRC. Methylation of these loci in normal mucosa was more frequent in elder (p = 0.001) patients, and particularly in African Americans (p = 1 × 10−5), thus providing a possible mechanistic link between somatic epigenetic alterations and CRC racial disparities in North America. PMID:25638164

  12. Methylation of MGMT and ADAMTS14 in normal colon mucosa: biomarkers of a field defect for cancerization preferentially targeting elder African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Sergio; Dai, Yuichi; Yamashita, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Shina; Dai, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Sánchez-Muñoz, Rosa; Bilbao-Sieyro, Cristina; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Chernov, Andrei V; Strongin, Alex Y; Perucho, Manuel

    2015-02-20

    Somatic hypermethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) was previously associated with G > A transition mutations in KRAS and TP53 in colorectal cancer (CRC). We tested the association of MGMT methylation with G > A mutations in KRAS and TP53 in 261 CRCs. Sixteen cases, with and without MGMT hypermethylation, were further analyzed by exome sequencing. No significant association of MGMT methylation with G > A mutations in KRAS, TP53 or in the whole exome was found (p > 0.5 in all comparisons). The result was validated by in silico comparison with 302 CRCs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium dataset. Transcriptional silencing associated with hypermethylation and stratified into monoallelic and biallelic. We also found a significant clustering (p = 0.001) of aberrant hypermethylation of MGMT and the matrix metalloproteinase gene ADAMTS14 in normal colonic mucosa of CRC patients. This suggested the existence of an epigenetic field defect for cancerization disrupting the methylation patterns of several loci, including MGMT or ADAMTS14, that may lead to predictive biomarkers for CRC. Methylation of these loci in normal mucosa was more frequent in elder (p = 0.001) patients, and particularly in African Americans (p = 1 × 10-5), thus providing a possible mechanistic link between somatic epigenetic alterations and CRC racial disparities in North America. PMID:25638164

  13. QuickView video preview software of colon capsule endoscopy: reliability in presenting colorectal polyps as compared to normal mode reading.

    PubMed

    Farnbacher, Michael J; Krause, Horst H; Hagel, Alexander F; Raithel, Martin; Neurath, Markus F; Schneider, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) proved to be highly sensitive in detection of colorectal polyps (CP). Major limitation is the time-consuming video reading. The aim of this prospective, double-center study was to assess the theoretical time-saving potential and its possible impact on the reliability of "QuickView" (QV), in the presentation of CP as compared to normal mode (NM). METHODS. During NM reading of 65 CCE videos (mean patient´s age 56 years), all frames showing CPs were collected and compared to the number of frames presented by QV at increasing QV settings (10, 20, ... 80%). Reliability of QV in presenting polyps <6 mm and ≥6 mm (significant polyp), and identifying patients for subsequent therapeutic colonoscopy, capsule egestion rate, cleansing level, and estimated time-saving potential were assessed. RESULTS. At a 30% QV setting, the QV video presented 89% of the significant polyps and 86% of any polyps with ≥1 frame (per-polyp analysis) identified in NM before. At a 10% QV setting, 98% of the 52 patients with significant polyps could be identified (per-patient analysis) by QV video analysis. Capsule excretion rate was 74% and colon cleanliness was adequate in 85%. QV´s presentation rate correlates to the QV setting, the polyp size, and the number of frames per finding. CONCLUSIONS. Depending on its setting, the reliability of QV in presenting CP as compared to NM reading is notable. However, if no significant polyp is presented by QV, NM reading must be performed afterwards. The reduction of frames to be analyzed in QV might speed up identification of candidates for therapeutic colonoscopy. PMID:24325660

  14. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10. PMID:26921420

  15. Enhancement of photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid-induced porphyrin photosensitisation in normal rat colon by threshold and light fractionation studies.

    PubMed Central

    Messmann, H.; Mlkvy, P.; Buonaccorsi, G.; Davies, C. L.; MacRobert, A. J.; Bown, S. G.

    1995-01-01

    5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced prophyrin photosensitisation is an attractive option for photodynamic therapy (PDT) since skin photosensitivity is limited to 1-2 days. However, early clinical results on colon tumours using the maximum tolerated oral dose of 60 mg kg-1 showed only superficial necrosis, presumably owing to insufficient intratumoral porphyrin levels, although inadequate light dosimetry may also be a factor. We undertook experiments using ALA, 25-400 mg kg-1 intravenously, to establish the threshold doses required for a PDT effect. Laser light at 630 nm (100 mW, 10-200 J) was delivered to a single site in the colon of photosensitised normal Wistar rats at laparotomy. The animals were killed 3 days later and the area of PDT-induced necrosis measured. No lesion was seen with 25 mg kg-1. The lesion size increased with larger ALA doses and with the light dose but little benefit was seen from increasing the ALA dose above 200 mg kg-1 or the light dose above 100 J. Thus there is a fairly narrow window for optimum doses of drug and light. Further experiments showed that the PDT effect can be markedly enhanced by fractionating the light dose. A series of animals was sensitized with 200 mg kg-1 ALA and then treated with 25 J. With continuous irradiation, the lesion area was 13 mm2, but with a single interruption of 150 s the area rose to 94 mm2 with the same total energy. Results were basically similar for different intervals between fractions (10-900 s) and different numbers of fractions (2-25). This suggests that a single short interruption in the light irradiation may dramatically reduce the net light dose required to achieve extensive necrosis. Images Figure 3 PMID:7669566

  16. [Simplified measurement of colonic transit time by one radiography of the abdomen and a single type of marker. Normal values in 82 volunteers related to the sexes].

    PubMed

    Danquechin Dorval, E; Barbieux, J P; Picon, L; Alison, D; Codjovi, P; Rouleau, P

    1994-01-01

    Assessment of total and segmental colonic transit times (CTT) in man using a single type of radiopaque marker and one abdominal X-ray has been validated but not extensively studied. The aims of our prospective study were to establish normal values of this method as a function of age, gender and fiber intake in healthy subjects. Eighty-two healthy volunteers (51 men, 31 women, mean age 38 yr, range 21-61) with normal stool frequency (between 3/day and 3/week) and no history of gastrointestinal disease or medication were enrolled and ingested 10 small (3 mm edge) radiopaque markers every morning for 6 consecutive days. On the 7th day, an abdominal X-ray was performed to calculate total and segmental (right, left, rectosigmoid) CTT according to Arhan's method (CCT = 2.4 N; N = number of markers in the considered zone). During the study the number of stools was recorded and fiber intake estimated on a questionnaire. Stool frequency, total and segmental CTT were evaluated for differences due to age, gender and/or fiber intake. In volunteers, total, left and rectosigmoid CTT were closely related to stool frequency (P = 0.0001) being longer in women than in men (P < 0.02). In contrast, right CTT was independent of gender or stool frequency. Finally, in this group CTT were independent of age and fiber intake. This study confirms the influence of gender on CTT and demonstrate the ability of this simple and non-invasive method (0.08 mrad surface exposure) to assess CTT. Its use as a diagnostic tool in self-defined constipated patients would be of interest in clinical practice. PMID:8013795

  17. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  18. Advances in understanding colonic function.

    PubMed

    Milla, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    The colon is an organ of conservation that salvages water, electrolytes, and energy. The organization of colonic function is determined by the roles played by the luminal flora, the function of the different mucosal epithelial cell types, immunocompetent cells, and the neuromusculature. These different components of the colon interact with one another and with the colonic flora, and different areas of the colon serve different functions. In the normal adult during the course of a day the colon absorbs approximately 1.5 L of fluid, but under the influence of aldosterone increases up to 5 to 6 L. Diarrhoea occurs when secretion exceeds absorptive processes by either small intestinal secretion overwhelming colonic salvage or salvage being impaired by reduced colonic absorption or increased colonic secretion. PMID:19300122

  19. Quantification of 18FDG in the Normal Colon-A First Step in Investigating Whether Its Presence Is a Marker of a Physiological Process.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Karna D; Cullis, James; Williams, Nigel R; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; Wilson, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    The visibility of the colon in positron emission tomography (PET) scans of patients without gastrointestinal disease indicating the presence of 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) is well recognised, but unquantified and unexplained. In this paper a qualitative scoring system was applied to PET scans from 30 randomly selected patients without gastrointestinal disease to detect the presence of 18FDG in 4 different sections of the colon and then both the total pixel value and the pixel value per unit length of each section of the colon were determined to quantify the amount of 18FDG from a randomly selected subset of 10 of these patients. Analysis of the qualitative scores using a non-parametric ANOVA showed that all sections of the colon contained 18FDG but there were differences in the amount of 18FDG present between sections (p<0.05). Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank tests between pairs of segments showed statistically significant differences between all pairs (p<0.05) with the exception of the caecum and ascending colon and the descending colon. The same non-parametric statistical analysis of the quantitative measures showed no difference in the total amount of 18FDG between sections (p>0.05), but a difference in the amount/unit length between sections (p<0.01) with only the caecum and ascending colon and the descending colon having a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). These results are consistent since the eye is drawn to focal localisation of the 18FDG when qualitatively scoring the scans. The presence of 18FDG in the colon is counterintuitive since it must be passing from the blood to the lumen through the colonic wall. There is no active mechanism to achieve this and therefore we hypothesise that the transport is a passive process driven by the concentration gradient of 18FDG across the colonic wall. This hypothesis is consistent with the results obtained from the qualitative and quantitative measures analysed. PMID:26821281

  20. Use of the lectin from Amaranthus caudatus as a histochemical probe of proliferating colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Boland, C R; Chen, Y F; Rinderle, S J; Resau, J H; Luk, G D; Lynch, H T; Goldstein, I J

    1991-01-15

    A newly isolated lectin, Amaranthus caudatus agglutinin (also called amaranthin or ACA), which binds to the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T-antigen) and its sialylated variants, was used as a histochemical probe for proliferating cells in sections of human colonic tissues. Binding inhibition studies revealed that ACA binds to different sites on histological sections when compared to peanut agglutinin, which also recognizes the T-antigen. ACA bound selectively to the cells at the base of the colonic crypt [46 +/- 4% (SEM) of glands] which is the zone of proliferation in this tissue and preferentially labeled cytoplasmic and apical membrane glycoconjugates. Only 7 +/- 2% of the upper portions of the colonic crypts were labeled (P less than 0.001 compared to the base), and this was largely a result of extensive labeling in 2 of 23 samples studies. A marked increase in histochemical labeling by ACA was seen in adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinomas of the colon, in which 82 +/- 7 and 97 +/- 2% of the glandular units were labeled, respectively. Transitional mucosa and connective tissue adjacent to cancers were also labeled by ACA. Neuraminidase studies indicated that removal of sialic acid residues enhanced binding by peanut agglutinin, but not ACA, to glycoconjugates in cancer specimens. Specimens of colonic tissue from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were examined with ACA; 83 +/- 7% of adenomatous glands and 60 +/- 7% of glands in flat, normal-appearing tissue were labeled. Colonic tissues from persons at 50% risk for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), FAP, and normal colons were studied and given "weighted average" labelling scores that ranged from 0-400 to accommodate variable intensity and distribution of labeling. Normal colons had a weighted average score of 65 +/- 33; FAP tissues had a score of 224 +/- 76 (P less than 0.001 compared to normal colon) and HNPCC tissues had a score of 74 +/- 70 (P less than 0.05 compared to

  1. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  2. Differences in cellular glycoconjugates of quiescent, inflamed, and neoplastic colonic epithelium in colitis and cancer-prone tamarins.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R.; King, N.; Alroy, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the preceding paper the authors demonstrated that the lectin staining patterns of normal colonic epithelium obtained from colitis and carcinoma-prone cotton top tamarins (CTTs), Saguinus oedipus, a New World primate, differs from colitis- and carcinoma-resistant primate species. In this study they determined the usefulness of cytochemical features in inflamed epithelium as indicators for malignant change. They compared the lectin staining pattern in inflamed mucosa and adjacent mucosa with colonic carcinoma from 8 CTTs with that of 9 clinically healthy CTTs with no histologic evidence of colitis. Deparaffinized sections were labeled with ten biotinylated lectins and stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. Numerous significant differences were demonstrated in the lectin staining pattern between normal epithelium and colonic carcinoma; fewer between normal and chronic inflamed epithelium. However, between chronic inflamed epithelium and colonic carcinoma significant staining differences were observed with only two lectins, peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I). These findings suggest that there is a progression in alteration of lectin staining pattern from normal epithelium, via chronic colitis, to colonic carcinoma. Furthermore, the differences between chronic colitis and colonic carcinoma are expressed only with those lectins that are associated with malignant transformation of human colonic epithelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3132858

  3. Differences in cellular glycoconjugates of quiescent, inflamed, and neoplastic colonic epithelium in colitis and cancer-prone tamarins.

    PubMed

    Moore, R; King, N; Alroy, J

    1988-06-01

    In the preceding paper the authors demonstrated that the lectin staining patterns of normal colonic epithelium obtained from colitis and carcinoma-prone cotton top tamarins (CTTs), Saguinus oedipus, a New World primate, differs from colitis- and carcinoma-resistant primate species. In this study they determined the usefulness of cytochemical features in inflamed epithelium as indicators for malignant change. They compared the lectin staining pattern in inflamed mucosa and adjacent mucosa with colonic carcinoma from 8 CTTs with that of 9 clinically healthy CTTs with no histologic evidence of colitis. Deparaffinized sections were labeled with ten biotinylated lectins and stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. Numerous significant differences were demonstrated in the lectin staining pattern between normal epithelium and colonic carcinoma; fewer between normal and chronic inflamed epithelium. However, between chronic inflamed epithelium and colonic carcinoma significant staining differences were observed with only two lectins, peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I). These findings suggest that there is a progression in alteration of lectin staining pattern from normal epithelium, via chronic colitis, to colonic carcinoma. Furthermore, the differences between chronic colitis and colonic carcinoma are expressed only with those lectins that are associated with malignant transformation of human colonic epithelium. PMID:3132858

  4. Development, validation and implementation of an in vitro model for the study of metabolic and immune function in normal and inflamed human colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic immune disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The aetiology of IBD remains an enigma, but increasing evidence suggests that the development of IBD may be triggered by a disturbance in the balance between gut commensal bacteria and host response in the intestinal mucosa. It is now known that epithelial cells have the capacity to secrete and respond to a range of immunological mediators and this suggests that these cells play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Current knowledge about the intestinal epithelium has mainly been obtained using models based on animal cells, transformed human intestinal cell lines and isolated cells from resected colonic bowel segments. Species difference, malignant origin and confounders related to surgery, obviously make these cell models however less applicable for patophysiological studies. Consequently, there was a clear need for models of representative intestinal epithelial cells that would allow functional and dynamic studies of the differentiated human colonic epithelium in vitro. The primary purpose of this thesis was to explore and validate the optimal conditions for establishing a model based on short-term cultures of human colonic epithelial cells obtained from endoscopical biopsies. The cell cultures were accordingly used to describe the interplay between proinflammatory cytokines and colonic epithelium, with focus on alterations in viability, butyrate metabolism and secretion of a chemokine and metalloproteinases (MMP). Finally, the model was used to characterize expression and activation of receptors like toll like receptor (TLR)9 and peroxisome activated proliferators (PPAR)- known to be important players in regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses in human colonic epithelium. The results showed that it is possible to establish short-term cultures of representative, viable

  5. Expression of Nucleophosmin/NPM1 correlates with migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to examine the expression level of Nucleophosmin (NPM1) protein in colon cancer tissues and to investigate the potential role of NPM1 in the regulation of cell migration and invasiveness. Methods Immunohistochemical assay was performed to examine the expression pattern of NPM1 in 31 groups of colonic carcinoma samples, including colon tumors, adjacent normal tissues, and matched metastatic lymph nodes from the same patients. Small interfering RNA technique and exogenous expression of wild type NPM1 methods were used to further verify the function of NPM1. Results High-expression of NPM1 correlates with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0003) and poor survival rate of human colon cancer patients (P = 0.017). SiRNA-mediated reduction of NPM1 was also shown to inhibit the migration and invasiveness of metastatic colon cancer HCT116 cell line. In addition, the exogenous expression of NPM1 in HT29 cells, a NPM1 low expression and low invasive colon cancer cell line, enhanced cell migration and invasiveness along with increased cell proliferation. Conclusions The current study uncovered the critical role of NPM1 in the regulation of colon cancer cells migration and invasion, and NPM1 may serve as a potential marker for the prognosis of colon cancer patients. PMID:22631075

  6. Immunocytochemistry and Image Analysis of Beta-Catenin Redistribution in Normal Human Colon Cell Cultures Treated with Disinfection By-Products.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and increased risk for colon cancer. In vivo studies proved that rodents exposed to chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBPs) developed aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in t...

  7. Proteins and an Inflammatory Network Expressed in Colon Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenhong; Fang, Changming; Gramatikoff, Kosi; Niemeyer, Christina C.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is crucial to homeostasis of normal intestinal epithelia because it suppresses the β-catenin/TCF pathway. Consequently, loss or mutation of the APC gene causes colorectal tumors in humans and mice. Here, we describe our use of Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to compare protein expression in colon tumors to that of adjacent healthy colon tissue from ApcMin/+ mice. Twenty-seven proteins were found to be up-regulated in colon tumors and twenty-five down-regulated. As an extension of the proteomic analysis, the differentially expressed proteins were used as “seeds” to search for co-expressed genes. This approach revealed a co-expression network of 45 genes that is up-regulated in colon tumors. Members of the network include the antibacterial peptide cathelicidin (CAMP), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), IL-8, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1). The co-expression network is associated with innate immunity and inflammation, and there is significant concordance between its connectivity in humans versus mice (Friedman: p value = 0.0056). This study provides new insights into the proteins and networks that are likely to drive the onset and progression of colon cancer. PMID:21366352

  8. Human colon carcinogenesis is associated with increased interleukin-17-driven inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhaohui; Qu, Yine; Leng, Yanli; Sun, Wenxiu; Ma, Siqi; Wei, Jingbo; Hu, Jiangong; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is known to contribute to carcinogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17 or IL-17A) has been shown to play a critical role in colon carcinogenesis in mouse models. However, few studies have investigated IL-17A in human colon tissues. In the present study, we assessed IL-17-driven inflammatory responses in 17 cases of human colon adenocarcinomas, 16 cases of human normal colon tissues adjacent to the resected colon adenocarcinomas, ten cases of human ulcerative colitis tissues from biopsies, and eight cases of human colon polyps diagnosed as benign adenomas. We found that human colon adenocarcinomas contained the highest levels of IL-17A cytokine, which was significantly higher than the IL-17A levels in the adenomas, ulcerative colitis, and normal colon tissues (P<0.01). The levels of IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) were also the highest in human colon adenocarcinomas, followed by adenomas and ulcerative colitis. The increased levels of IL-17A and IL-17RA were accompanied with increased IL-17-driven inflammatory responses, including activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9, MMP7, MMP2, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2), and cyclin D1, decrease in Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) expression, and increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) expression that were associated with increased angiogenesis. These findings suggest that IL-17 and its signaling pathways appear as promising new targets in the design and development of drugs for cancer prevention and treatment, particularly in colorectal cancer. PMID:25834404

  9. Effects on stink bugs of field edges adjacent to woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  10. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  11. Pharmacokinetic studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies to a rat colon carcinoma: I. Comparison of biodistribution in normal rats, syngeneic tumor-bearing rats, or tumor-bearing nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, J.; Douillard, J.Y.; Burg, C.; Lizzio, E.F.; Ridge, J.; Levenbook, I.; Hoffman, T. )

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two iodine-131-({sup 131}I) labeled murine anti-rat colon carcinoma monoclonal antibodies (D3 and E4) were compared in normal Sprague Dawley rats, syngeneic BDIX rats, or nude mice bearing that tumor. Results of antibody uptake after i.v. administration were analyzed in terms of accumulation and localization indices for normal tissues and tumor. Statistically significant differences between rat and mouse tissue biodistribution were found. D3, which reacts in vitro with the tumor and several normal rat tissues, cleared quickly from the blood of rats and was specifically targeted to several normal tissues, notably the lung. Virtually no targeting to the tumor was observed. Nude mice, however, showed a slower blood clearance and specific antibody targeting only in the tumor. Similar results were seen after injection of another antibody, E4, which is tumor-specific in vitro. Data suggest that studies on the xenogeneic nude mouse model may not necessarily be relevant to the choice of monoclonal antibodies for clinical diagnostic imaging or therapy.

  12. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    EL-SALHY, MAGDY; UMEZAWA, KAZUO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS-G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecyl thiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS-Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti-inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the clinical manifestation of

  13. EVALUATION OF THE CYTOTOXICITY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS (DBPS): TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS), HALONITROMETHANES (HNMS), AND HALOACETIC ACIDS (HAAS) IN NORMAL HUMAN COLON CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. THMs and HAAs were found to increase cancer in laboratory animals, but no toxicity studies exist for the recently identified HNMs. Normal Human colonocytes...

  14. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... red or processed meats Have colorectal polyps Have inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis ) Have a family history of colon cancer Have a personal history of breast cancer Some inherited diseases also increase the risk ...

  15. Reduced expression of β-catenin inhibitor Chibby in colon carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Schuierer, Marion M; Graf, Elisabeth; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi; Dietmaier, Wolfgang; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyse the Chibby expression and its function in colon carcinoma cell lines and colorectal carcinoma (CRC). METHODS: Chibby expression levels were investigated by quantitative RT-PCR in a panel of seven different colon carcinoma cell lines. By sequencing, we analysed mutational status of Chibby. To test whether Chibby exhibited effects on β-catenin signalling in colon carcinoma cells, we transfected SW480 cells with Chibby expression plasmid and, subsequently, analysed activity of β-catenin and tested for alterations in cellular phenotype. In addition, we examined Chibby mRNA levels in samples of colorectal carcinomas and adjacent normal tissues by using quantitative RT-PCR and hybridised gene chips with samples from CRC and normal tissues. RESULTS: Chibby mRNA expression was strongly down-regulated in colon carcinoma cell lines in comparison to normal colon epithelial cells and no mutation in any of the examined colon carcinoma cell lines was found. Further, we could show that Chibby inhibited β-catenin activity in TOPflash assays when over-expressed in SW480 cells. Proliferation and invasion assays with Chibby transfected SW480 cells did not reveal profound differences compared to control cells. In contrast to these in vitro data, quantitative RT-PCR analyses of Chibby mRNA levels in CRC tumor samples did not show significant differences to specimens in adjacent non-cancerous tissue. Consistent with these findings, gene chips analysing tissue samples of tumors and corresponding normal tissue did not show altered Chibby expression CONCLUSION: Altered Chibby expression might be observed in vitro in different colon carcinoma cell lines. However, this finding could not be confirmed in vitro in CRC tumors, indicating that Chibby is not likely to promote CRC tumor development or progression. As Chibby is an important inhibitor of ß-catenin signalling, our data implicate that the usability of colon carcinoma cell lines for in vitro studies analysing the Wnt

  16. Dimeric Le(a) (Le(a)-on-Le(a)) status of beta-haptoglobin in sera of colon cancer, chronic inflammatory disease and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Yeol; Yoon, Seon-Joo; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Bernert, Bradford; Ullman, Thomas; Itzkowitz, Steven H; Kim, Jung Hoe

    2010-05-01

    The glycosyl epitope dimeric Lea (Lea-on-Lea), defined by mouse monoclonal antibody NCC-ST-421, was identified previously as tumor-associated antigen, expressed highly in various human cancer tissues and cell lines derived therefrom, but with minimal expression in various normal tissues. In the present study, we observed clearly higher expression of this epitope, defined by ST421, in beta-haptoglobin (beta-Hap) from sera of patients with colorectal cancer, compared to normal, healthy subjects or patients with chronic inflammatory processes (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis). We focused, therefore, on biochemical characterization of glycosyl epitope status expressed in beta-Hap. We concluded that the dimeric Lea epitope is carried by O-linked but not by N-linked structure, based on the following observations: i) Treatment of beta-Hap with alpha-L-fucosidase reduced its reactivity with ST421, but did not affect its reactivity with anti-Hap antibody. In contrast, treatment of purified beta-Hap with PNGase F, which releases N-linked glycans, had no effect on reactivity with ST421, but changed molecular mass from 40 kDa to 30 kDa. ii) Strong reactivity of Colo205 supernatant with ST421 was reduced clearly by pre-incubation of cells with benzyl-alpha-GalNAc. PMID:20372805

  17. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  18. Berry Phenolic Compounds Increase Expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1α (HNF-1α) in Caco-2 and Normal Colon Cells Due to High Affinities with Transcription and Dimerization Domains of HNF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Real Hernandez, Luis M.; Fan, Junfeng; Johnson, Michelle H.; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) is found in the kidneys, spleen, thymus, testis, skin, and throughout the digestive organs. It has been found to promote the transcription of various proteins involved in the management of type II diabetes, including dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). Phenolic compounds from berries and citrus fruits are known to inhibit DPP-IV, but have not been tested for their interactions with wild-type HNF-1α. By studying the interactions of compounds from berries and citrus fruits have with HNF-1α, pre-transcriptional mechanisms that inhibit the expression of proteins such as DPP-IV may be elucidated. In this study, the interactions of berry phenolic compounds and citrus flavonoids with the dimerization and transcriptional domains of HNF-1α were characterized using the molecular docking program AutoDock Vina. The anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-arabinoside had the highest binding affinity for the dimerization domain as a homodimer (-7.2 kcal/mol) and transcription domain (-8.3 kcal/mol) of HNF-1α. Anthocyanins and anthocyanidins had relatively higher affinities than resveratrol and citrus flavonoids for both, the transcription domain and the dimerization domain as a homodimer. The flavonoid flavone had the highest affinity for a single unit of the dimerization domain (-6.5 kcal/mol). Nuclear expression of HNF-1α was measured in Caco-2 and human normal colon cells treated with blueberry and blackberry anthocyanin extracts. All extracts tested increased significantly (P < 0.05) the nuclear expression of HNF-1α in Caco-2 cells by 85.2 to 260% compared to a control. The extracts tested increased significantly (P < 0.02) the nuclear expression of HNF-1α in normal colon cells by 48.6 to 243%. It was confirmed that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside increased by 3-fold nuclear HNF-1α expression in Caco-2 cells (P < 0.05). Anthocyanins significantly increased nuclear HNF-1α expression, suggesting that these compounds might regulate the genes HNF-1

  19. Serotonin and colonic motility.

    PubMed

    Kendig, D M; Grider, J R

    2015-07-01

    The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) in gastrointestinal motility has been studied for over 50 years. Most of the 5-HT in the body resides in the gut wall, where it is located in subsets of mucosal cells (enterochromaffin cells) and neurons (descending interneurons). Many studies suggest that 5-HT is important to normal and dysfunctional gut motility and drugs affecting 5-HT receptors, especially 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, have been used clinically to treat motility disorders; however, cardiovascular side effects have limited the use of these drugs. Recently studies have questioned the importance and necessity of 5-HT in general and mucosal 5-HT in particular for colonic motility. Recent evidence suggests the importance of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors for initiation and generation of one of the key colonic motility patterns, the colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC), in rat. The findings suggest that 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are differentially involved in two different types of rat CMMCs: the long distance contraction (LDC) and the rhythmic propulsive motor complex (RPMC). The understanding of the role of serotonin in colonic motility has been influenced by the specific motility pattern(s) studied, the stimulus used to initiate the motility (spontaneous vs induced), and the route of administration of drugs. All of these considerations contribute to the understanding and the controversy that continues to surround the role of serotonin in the gut. PMID:26095115

  20. Clinical utility of colonic manometry in slow transit constipation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth; Heady, Sarah; Coss-Adame, Enrique; Rao, Satish S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The clinical significance of colorectal sensori-motor evaluation in patients with slow transit constipation (STC) is unclear. We investigated whether colonic manometric evaluation is useful for characterizing colonic sensorimotor dysfunction and for guiding therapy in STC. Methods 24-hour ambulatory colonic manometry was performed in 80 patients (70 females) with STC by placing a 6 sensor solid state probe, along with assessment of colonic sensation with barostat. Anorectal manometry was also performed. Manometrically, patients were categorized as having colonic neuropathy or myopathy based on gastrocolonic response, waking response and high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPC); and based on colonic sensation, as colonic hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity. Clinical response to pharmacological, biofeedback and surgical treatment was assessed at 1yr and correlated with manometric findings. Results 59% of patients had abnormal colonic manometry with features suggestive of neuropathy (26%), and myopathy (33%); 41% had normal colonic manometry. 74% patients had abnormal colonic sensation and 61% had overlapping dyssynergic defecation. Patients with neuropathy were more likely to have colonic hyposensitivity. 64% of patients with colonic myopathy or normal manometry improved with medical/biofeedback therapy when compared to 15% with colonic neuropathy (p<0.01). Selected patients with colonic neuropathy had excellent response to surgery, but many developed bacterial overgrowth. Conclusions Colonic manometry demonstrates significant colonic sensori-motor dysfunction in STC patients and reveals considerable pathophysiological heterogeneity. It can be useful for characterizing the underlying pathophysiology and for guiding clinical management in STC, especially surgery. PMID:23384415

  1. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus. PMID:26473141

  2. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula.

    PubMed

    Karkera, Parag J; Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-09-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus. PMID:26473141

  3. Computed tomography identification of an exophytic colonic liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chung Kuao; Chen, Sung-Ting

    2016-09-01

    It may be difficult to ascertain the relationship between a large intra-abdominal tumor and the adjacent organs if they are close together. In the current case, a definitive preoperative diagnosis of an exophytic colonic tumor was obtained by the demonstration of obtuse angles between the tumor and colon and by distinct recognition of the mucosa-submucosa of the colonic wall on computed tomography; the accuracy of this preoperative diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by pathologic findings. PMID:27594941

  4. A colonic duplication cyst causing bowel ischaemia in a 74-year-old lady

    PubMed Central

    Fenelon, Christopher; Boland, Michael R; Kenny, Brian; Faul, Peter; Tormey, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Colonic duplication cysts are rare congenital malformations that predominantly present before the age of 2 years. We report the case of a 74-year-old lady who presented with sudden onset abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan noted a calcified structure adjacent to abnormal loops of bowel. Intraoperative findings revealed an ischaemic loop of small bowel wrapped around a mass in the mesentery adjacent to the sigmoid colon. Final histology revealed a colonic duplication cyst. Colonic duplication cysts are rare entities that most commonly cause obstruction or perforation. We present the very rare case of a colonic duplication cyst causing bowel ischaemia in an elderly female. PMID:27572680

  5. Tolfenamic acid downregulates β-catenin in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, Taekyu; Lou, Zhiyuan; Baek, Seung Joon; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2016-06-01

    Tolfenamic acid is one of the fenamic acid-derived non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer activities in several types of cancer. Both mutations and aberrant expression of β-catenin are highly associated with progression of cancer. Therefore, β-catenin is considered to be a promising molecular target for cancer prevention and treatment. The current study investigates the role of tolfenamic acid on β-catenin expression in colon cancer. Treatment with tolfenamic acid led to inhibition of cell growth and down-regulation of β-catenin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human colon cancer cell lines. Reduction of β-catenin upon tolfenamic acid treatment was associated with ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, without affecting mRNA level and promoter activity of β-catenin. In addition, treatment with tolfenamic acid downregulated Smad2 and Smad3 expression, while overexpression of Smad2, but not Smad3, blocked tolfenamic acid-induced suppression of β-catenin expression. Tolfenamic acid also decreased expression of β-catenin target genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Compared to adjacent normal tissue, intestinal tumor tissues of Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited increased expression of β-catenin, Smad2, Smad3, and VEGF, which were down-regulated with tolfenamic acid treatment at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight. In conclusion, our findings suggest that tolfenamic acid inhibits growth of colon cancer cells through downregulation of Smad2 and, subsequently, facilitating ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated β-catenin degradation in colon cancer. PMID:27089389

  6. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  7. Complete colonic duplication in children

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. Case Presentation: We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 –day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. Conclusion: The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies. PMID:24358440

  8. Edge effects of stink bugs in corn, cotton, peanut and soybean fields adjacent to woodland.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  9. Unique DNA methylome profiles in CpG island methylator phenotype colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaomin; Hu, Bo; Choi, Ae-Jin; Gopalan, Banu; Lee, Byron H; Kalady, Matthew F; Church, James M; Ting, Angela H

    2012-02-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers was postulated to have the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), a higher propensity for CpG island DNA methylation. The validity of CIMP, its molecular basis, and its prognostic value remain highly controversial. Using MBD-isolated genome sequencing, we mapped and compared genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of normal, non-CIMP, and CIMP colon specimens. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that each specimen could be clearly classified as normal, non-CIMP, and CIMP, thus signifying that these three groups have distinctly different global methylation patterns. We discovered 3780 sites in various genomic contexts that were hypermethylated in both non-CIMP and CIMP colon cancers when compared with normal colon. An additional 2026 sites were found to be hypermethylated in CIMP tumors only; and importantly, 80% of these sites were located in CpG islands. These data demonstrate on a genome-wide level that the additional hypermethylation seen in CIMP tumors occurs almost exclusively at CpG islands and support definitively that these tumors were appropriately named. When these sites were examined more closely, we found that 25% were adjacent to sites that were also hypermethylated in non-CIMP tumors. Thus, CIMP is also characterized by more extensive methylation of sites that are already prone to be hypermethylated in colon cancer. These observations indicate that CIMP tumors have specific defects in controlling both DNA methylation seeding and spreading and serve as an important first step in delineating molecular mechanisms that control these processes. PMID:21990380

  10. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, D. H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence. Images Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014432

  11. Liver Colonization Competence Governs Colon Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Tsong-Hong; Kubota, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Furukawa, Toshiharu; Teramoto, Tatuso; Ishibiki, Kyuya; Kitajima, Masaki; Rahim Moosa, A.; Penman, Sheldon; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1995-12-01

    Tumors that metastasize do so to preferred target organs. To explain this apparent specificity, Paget, >100 years ago, formulated his seed and soil hypothesis; i.e., the cells from a given tumor would "seed" only favorable "soil" offered by certain organs. The hypothesis implies that cancer cells must find a suitable "soil" in a target organ-i.e., one that supports colonization-for metastasis to occur. We demonstrate in this report that ability of human colon cancer cells to colonize liver tissue governs whether a particular colon cancer is metastatic. In the model used in this study, human colon tumors are transplanted into the nude mouse colon as intact tissue blocks by surgical orthotopic implantation. These implanted tumors closely simulate the metastatic behavior of the original human patient tumor and are clearly metastatic or nonmetastatic to the liver. Both classes of tumors were equally invasive locally into tissues and blood vessels. However, the cells from each class of tumor behave very differently when directly injected into nude mouse livers. Only cells from metastasizing tumors are competent to colonize after direct intrahepatic injection. Also, tissue blocks from metastatic tumors affixed directly to the liver resulted in colonization, whereas no colonization resulted from nonmetastatic tumor tissue blocks even though some growth occurred within the tissue block itself. Thus, local invasion (injection) and even adhesion to the metastatic target organ (blocks) are not sufficient for metastasis. The results suggest that the ability to colonize the liver is the governing step in the metastasis of human colon cancer.

  12. Oncolytic reovirus against ovarian and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Norman, Kara L; Alain, Tommy; Kossakowska, Anna; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-15

    Reovirus selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing) as an antihuman colon and ovarian cancer agent. In in vitro studies, reovirus infection in human colon and ovarian cell lines was assessed by cytopathic effect as detected by light microscopy, [(35)S]Methionine labeling of infected cells for viral protein synthesis and progeny virus production by plaque assay. We observed that reovirus efficiently infected all five human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT-116, HT-29, and SW48) and four human ovarian cancer cell lines (MDAH2774, PA-1, SKOV3, and SW626) which were tested, but not a normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) or a normal ovarian cell line (NOV-31). We also observed that the Ras activity in the human colon and ovarian cancer cell lines was elevated compared with that in normal colon and ovarian cell lines. In animal models, intraneoplastic as well as i.v. inoculation of reovirus resulted in significant regression of established s.c. human colon and ovarian tumors implanted at the hind flank. Histological studies revealed that reovirus infection in vivo was restricted to tumor cells, whereas the surrounding normal tissue remained uninfected. Additionally, in an i.p. human ovarian cancer xenograft model, inhibition of ascites tumor formation and the survival of animals treated with live reovirus was significantly greater than of control mice treated with UV-inactivated reovirus. Reovirus infection in ex vivo primary human ovarian tumor surgical samples was also confirmed, further demonstrating the potential of reovirus therapy. These results suggest that reovirus holds promise as a novel agent for human colon and ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:11912142

  13. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  14. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  15. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  16. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  17. Colonic Angioectasia Related Hemorrhage: The Importance of Evaluation During Active Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Laczek, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Colonic angioectasia is a common source of lower gastrointestinal bleeding and can be challenging to identify when active bleeding is not present. We present a case that illustrates the utility of evaluating patients with suspected angioectasia-related hemorrhage during episodes of active bleeding. Case Report A 79-year-old woman on chronic anticoagulation secondary to mitral valve replacement presented with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding over the past three years. She had recurrent episodes of hematochezia in 2009 during which no source was identified despite multiple upper and lower endoscopies. A tagged red blood scan showed active hemorrhage in the ascending colon. Angiography showed non-bleeding angiodysplasia in the cecum and ascending colon and the ascending branch of the right colic artery was prophylactically embolized. She had a recurrent episode of hematochezia in 2010 and no source was identified on EGD, colonoscopy or wireless capsule endoscopy. In 2012, she developed recurrent hematochezia associated with a drop in her hemoglobin level from 10.8g/dL to 6.2g/dL over a two-week period. Her hemodynamics remained normal and she was admitted to our facility. She received a blood transfusion and then underwent colonoscopy while still actively bleeding. Active bleeding was seen in the ascending colon adjacent to which was a very subtle angioectasia which was treated with argon plasma coagulation. She had no further bleeding during her hospital stay. Discussion Direct visualization during colonoscopy is the preferred method to diagnose colonic angioectasia and these lesions often have a distinctive “coral reef” appearance. However, as the images in this case show, the appearance of colonic angioectasia can be subtle with the aberrant vasculature almost indistinguishable from normal vascular patter of the colonic mucosa. Performing colonoscopy during active angioectasia-related bleeding greatly helps to identify and treat

  18. Colon cancer - Series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low ... The treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Stage I cancer is limited to the inner lining of the colon; ...

  19. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  20. miR-320 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro by targeting FOXM1

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Lu-Ying; Deng, Jun; Xiang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ling; Yu, Feng; Chen, Jun; Sun, Zhe; Feng, Miao; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • miR-320 plays a significant role in chemoresistance. • This role might be attribute to targeting FOXM1. • The Wnt/β-catenin pathway also involves in this chemotherapy sensitivity. - Abstract: miR-320 expression level is found to be down-regulated in human colon cancer. To date, however, its underlying mechanisms in the chemo-resistance remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-320 led to inhibit HCT-116 cell proliferation, invasion and hypersensitivity to 5-Fu and Oxaliplatin. Also, knockdown of miR-320 reversed these effects in HT-29 cells. Furthermore, we identified an oncogene, FOXM1, as a direct target of miR-320. In addition, miR-320 could inactive the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Finally, we found that miR-320 and FOXM1 protein had a negative correlation in colon cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues. These findings implied that miR-320–FOXM1 axis may overcome chemo-resistance of colon cancer cells and provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of colon cancer.

  1. Overexpression of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 3 Increases Drug Resistance and Early Recurrence in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chun-Wun; Lin, Shau-Chieh; Chien, Chun-Wei; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Lee, Chung-Ta; Lin, Bo-Wen; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq

    2011-01-01

    The switch of cellular metabolism from mitochondrial respiration to glycolysis is the hallmark of cancer cells and is associated with tumor malignancy. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK1) and PDK3 participate in the metabolic switch of cancer cells; however, the medical significance of PDK1 and PDK3 in cancer progression is not known. Here, we assessed the expression profiles of PDK1 and PDK3 in colorectal cancer. Western blot analysis (n = 74) demonstrated that PDK3 was markedly increased in colon cancer compared to that in adjacent normal tissues, whereas PDK1 was decreased in cancer cells. In addition, PDK3 expression was positively correlated with that of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in cancer cells. Further analysis using immunohistochemical staining revealed that PDK3 levels were positively associated with severity of cancer and negatively associated with disease-free survival. In vitro studies using several colon cancer cell lines showed that PDK3 expression was controlled by HIF-1α and contributed to hypoxia-induced increased drug resistance, perhaps explaining why patients with PDK3 overexpression have a greater incidence of treatment failure. Taken together, our findings suggest that PDK3 plays an important role in the metabolic switch and drug resistance of colon cancer and is potentially a novel target for cancer therapy. PMID:21763680

  2. Distribution of monoclonal antibody-defined monosialoganglioside in normal and cancerous human tissues: an immunoperoxidase study.

    PubMed

    Arends, J W; Verstynen, C; Bosman, F T; Hilgers, J; Steplewski, Z

    1983-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of a monosialoganglioside antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 116NS19-9 (19-9) was studied in neoplastic and normal glandular and mucosal epithelia using an indirect immunoperoxidase method. In neoplastic mucosae, the antigen was detected in the majority of colorectal and endometrial carcinomas, predominantly in a focal staining pattern. A substantial proportion of gastric and pancreatic tumors and an occasional breast carcinoma also reacted with the monoclonal antibody. Expression of the monosialoganglioside in normal colonic mucosa appeared to be restricted to areas adjacent to tumor tissue. In gastric mucosa, the antigen was confined to some areas showing intestinal metaplasia. The antigen was also detected in the epithelium of normal mucosa of the gall bladder and endocervix, as well as in some ductal epithelia of the pancreas and salivary glands. Most other mucosae were negative for antigen expression. PMID:6381289

  3. Proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Xu, Yanli; Meng, Qian; Zheng, Qingqing; Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping; Figeys, Daniel; Chang, Ying; Zhou, Hu

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor worldwide. Currently, although many researchers have been devoting themselves in CRC studies, the process of locating biomarkers for CRC early diagnosis and prognostic is still very slow. Using a centrifugal proteomic reactor-based proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling, 2620 protein groups were quantified between cancer mucosa and adjacent normal colorectal mucosa. Of which, 403 protein groups were differentially expressed with statistic significance between cancer and normal tissues, including 195 up-regulated and 208 down-regulated proteins in cancer tissues. Three proteins (SOD3, PRELP and NGAL) were selected for further Western blot validation. And the resulting Western blot experimental results were consistent with the quantitative proteomic data. SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC mucosa comparing to adjacent normal tissue, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC mucosa. In conclusion, the centrifugal proteomic reactor-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach provides a highly sensitive and powerful tool for analyzing minute protein sample from tiny colorectal biopsies, which may facilitate CRC biomarkers discovery for diagnoses and prognoses. PMID:27230957

  4. Differential expression of miRNAs in colon cancer between African and Caucasian Americans: Implications for cancer racial health disparities

    PubMed Central

    LI, ELLEN; JI, PING; OUYANG, NENGTAI; ZHANG, YUANHAO; WANG, XIN YU; RUBIN, DEBORAH C.; DAVIDSON, NICHOLAS O.; BERGAMASCHI, ROBERTO; SHROYER, KENNETH R.; BURKE, STEPHANIE; ZHU, WEI; WILLIAMS, JENNIE L.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality are higher in African Americans (AAs) than in Caucasian Americans (CAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be dysregulated in colonic and other neoplasias. The aim of this exploratory study was to identify candidate miRNAs that could contribute to potential biological differences between AA and CA colon cancers. Total RNA was isolated from tumor and paired adjacent normal colon tissue from 30 AA and 31 CA colon cancer patients archived at Stony Brook University (SBU) and Washington University (WU)-St. Louis Medical Center. miRNA profiles were determined by probing human genome-wide miRNA arrays with RNA isolated from each sample. Using repeated measures analysis of variance (RANOVA), miRNAs were selected that exhibited significant (p<0.05) interactions between race and tumor or significant (fold change >1.5, p<0.05) main effects of race and/or tumor. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) was used to confirm miRNAs identified by microarray analysis. Candidate miRNA targets were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. RANOVA results indicated that miR-182, miR152, miR-204, miR-222 and miR-202 exhibited significant race and tumor main effects. Of these miRNAs, q-PCR analysis confirmed that miR-182 was upregulated in AA vs. CA tumors and exhibited significant race:tumor interaction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the levels of FOXO1 and FOXO3A, two potential miR-182 targets, are reduced in AA tumors. miRNAs may play a role in the differences between AA and CA colon cancer. Specifically, differences in miRNA expression levels of miR-182 may contribute to decreased survival in AA colon cancer patients. PMID:24865442

  5. Dysregulation of hedgehog signaling pathway related components in the evolution of colonic carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Sa-Sa; Wei, Gui-Jun; Deng, Zhong-Min; Hu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies report controversial role of Hedgehog (HH) signaling in the progression of colon cancer. This study aimed to investigate the expressions of smoothened (SMO) and downstream glioma-associated oncogene homology-1 (GLI1) in colon cancer, colonic adenoma and normal tissues. Colon cancer and normal tissue samples were collected from 49 patients with colon cancer while colonic adenoma tissue samples were obtained from 34 patients with colonic adenoma. Then the expressions of SMO and GLI1 were investigated using immunohistochemistry (IHC). For the detection of SMO and GLI1 expression, IHC staining results indicated that SMO was mainly expressed on the membrane while GLI1 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm. The positive rates of SMO and GLI1 protein expressions were significantly increased in colon cancer tissue and colonic adenoma tissue when compared with normal colon tissue. In contrast, the significant difference was not found in the positive rates of SMO and GLI1 protein expressions between colon cancer tissue and colonic adenoma tissue. More importantly, it was found that SMO and GLI1 expressions possibly increased gradually from the normal colon to colonic adenoma to the colon cancer. Furthermore, no distinct correlations were detected between the expression levels of SMO and GLI1 and clinicopathological parameters, including age, gender, differentiation and Dukes stage. The present results provided some new information to the possible role of HH signaling in colon cancer progression. SMO and GLI1 maybe suggested asbiomarkers to identify colon cancerous, precancerous and normal tissues as well astherapeutic targets for colon cancer treatment. PMID:26885080

  6. The colon: from banal to brilliant.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Rani S; Morton, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The colon serves as the habitat for trillions of microbes, which it must maintain, regulate, and sequester. This is managed by what is termed the mucosal barrier. The mucosal barrier separates the gut flora from the host tissues; regulates the absorption of water, electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins; and facilitates host-flora interactions. Colonic homeostasis depends on a complex interaction between the microflora and the mucosal epithelium, immune system, vasculature, stroma, and nervous system. Disruptions in the colonic microenvironment such as changes in microbial composition, epithelial cell function/proliferation/differentiation, mucus production/makeup, immune function, diet, motility, or blood flow may have substantial local and systemic consequences. Understanding the complex activities of the colon in health and disease is important in drug development, as xenobiotics can impact all segments of the colon. Direct and indirect effects of pharmaceuticals on intestinal function can produce adverse findings in laboratory animals and humans and can negatively impact drug development. This review will discuss normal colon homeostasis with examples, where applicable, of xenobiotics that disrupt normal function. PMID:24129758

  7. Normal faults, normal friction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Sibson, Richard H.

    2001-10-01

    Debate continues as to whether normal faults may be seismically active at very low dips (δ < 30°) in the upper continental crust. An updated compilation of dip estimates (n = 25) has been prepared from focal mechanisms of shallow, intracontinental, normal-slip earthquakes (M > 5.5; slip vector raking 90° ± 30° in the fault plane) where the rupture plane is unambiguously discriminated. The dip distribution for these moderate-to-large normal fault ruptures extends from 65° > δ > 30°, corresponding to a range, 25° < θr < 60°, for the reactivation angle between the fault and inferred vertical σ1. In a comparable data set previously obtained for reverse fault ruptures (n = 33), the active dip distribution is 10° < δ = θr < 60°. For vertical and horizontal σ1 trajectories within extensional and compressional tectonic regimes, respectively, dip-slip reactivation is thus restricted to faults oriented at θr ≤ 60° to inferred σ1. Apparent lockup at θr ≈ 60° in each dip distribution and a dominant 30° ± 5° peak in the reverse fault dip distribution, are both consistent with a friction coefficient μs ≈ 0.6, toward the bottom of Byerlee's experimental range, though localized fluid overpressuring may be needed for reactivation of less favorably oriented faults.

  8. Dysregulated CRTC1 activity is a novel component of PGE2 signaling that contributes to colon cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Y; Aparicio, T; Ourabah, S; Baraille, F; Martin, A; Wind, P; Dentin, R; Postic, C; Guilmeau, S

    2016-05-19

    First identified as a dedicated CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) co-activator, CRTC1 (CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 1) has been widely implicated in various neuronal functions because of its predominant expression in the brain. However, recent evidences converge to indicate that CRTC1 is aberrantly activated in an expanding number of adult malignancies. In this study, we provide strong evidences of enhanced CRTC1 protein content and transcriptional activity in mouse models of sporadic (APC(min/+) mice) or colitis-associated colon cancer azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS-treated mice), and in human colorectal tumors specimens compared with adjacent normal mucosa. Among signals that could trigger CRTC1 activation during colonic carcinogenesis, we demonstrate that treatment with cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inhibitors reduced nuclear CRTC1 active form levels in colonic tumors of APC(min/+) or AOM/DSS mice. In accordance, prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) exposure to human colon cancer cell lines promoted CRTC1 dephosphorylation and parallel nuclear translocation, resulting in enhanced CRTC1 transcriptional activity, through EP1 and EP2 receptors signaling and consecutive calcineurin and protein kinase A activation. In vitro CRTC1 loss of function in colon cancer cell lines was associated with reduced viability and cell division rate as well as enhanced chemotherapy-induced apoptosis on PGE2 treatment. Conversely, CRTC1 stable overexpression significantly increased colonic xenografts tumor growth, therefore demonstrating the role of CRTC1 signaling in colon cancer progression. Identification of the transcriptional program triggered by enhanced CRTC1 expression during colonic carcinogenesis, revealed some notable pro-tumorigenic CRTC1 target genes including NR4A2, COX2, amphiregulin (AREG) and IL-6. Finally, we demonstrate that COX2, AREG and IL-6 promoter activities triggered by CRTC1 are dependent on functional AP1 and CREB transcriptional

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  11. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  13. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  14. Data from a proteomic analysis of colonic fibroblasts secretomes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sun-Xia; Xu, Xiao-En; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Qian; Qiao, Jie; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion were influenced by the interaction between the cancer cells and their microenvironment. In current study, we established two pairs of the primary fibroblast cultures from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and the normal counterparts and identified 227 proteins in the colonic fibroblast secretomes; half of these proteins were novel. The mass spectrometry data and analyzed results presented here provide novel insights into the molecular characteristics and modulatory role of colon cancer associated fibroblasts. The data is related to “Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation” by Chen et al. [1]. PMID:26217680

  15. Developmental pathways in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Fred E.; Angus, C. William; Partis, William J.; Sigounas, George

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of cancer is reactivation/alteration of pathways that control cellular differentiation during developmental processes. Evidence indicates that WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways have a role in normal epithelial cell differentiation, and that alterations in these pathways accompany establishment of the tumorigenic state. Interestingly, there is recent evidence that these pathways are intertwined at the molecular level, and these nodes of intersection may provide opportunities for effective targeted therapies. This review will highlight the role of the WNT, Notch, BMP and Hedgehog pathways in colon cancer. PMID:23032367

  16. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Min; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid colon, in descending order. Hence, we report a case of intestinal tuberculosis in the sigmoid colon, which is rare and almost indistinguishable from colon cancer. PMID:23185709

  17. Bax is downregulated in inflamed colonic mucosa of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Iimura, M; Nakamura, T; Shinozaki, S; Iizuka, B; Inoue, Y; Suzuki, S; Hayashi, N

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—One form of epithelial cell injury in inflamed colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) is reported to involve apoptosis of these cells. Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bcl-2 are the major regulators of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of the Bax/Bcl-2 system in induction of apoptosis of the inflamed colonic epithelium in UC.
METHODS—Colonic epithelium was isolated from colonic biopsy specimens. Expression of CD95, Bax, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2 proteins was determined by western blotting. Bax gene expression was assessed by both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by Southern hybridisation and a real time PCR assay.
RESULTS—Equal levels of expression of CD95, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2 proteins were noted in normal and UC colonic epithelia. Equal levels of expression of Bax protein and mRNA were noted in epithelia of normal colon and inactive UC. Levels of expression of Bax protein and mRNA were markedly reduced in inflamed UC colonic epithelium.
CONCLUSIONS—Our study showed for the first time downregulation of Bax in inflamed colonic epithelium of UC. The Bax/Bcl-2 system did not seem to be involved in induction of apoptosis of epithelial cells in the inflamed colonic mucosa of UC.


Keywords: ulcerative colitis; apoptosis; Bax; Bcl-2; Bcl-xL; CD95 PMID:10896914

  18. Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Valusis, Gintaras; Bernardo, Luis M.; Almeida, Abílio; Moreira, J. Agostinho; Lopes, Patricia C.; Macutkevic, Jan; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Adomavicius, Ramunas; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Machado

    2011-05-01

    Normal and cancer affected samples of colon tissue have been measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and continuous wave terahertz imaging. We show that it is possible to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in the samples when they are fixed in formalin or embedded in paraffin. Plots of the refractive index of normal and cancer affected tissues as well as 2-D transmission THz images are shown. Experimental results will be presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected tissue will be discussed.

  19. MicroRNA Profiles Discriminate among Colon Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Drusco, Alessandra; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Zanesi, Nicola; Di Leva, Gianpiero; Pichiorri, Flavia; Volinia, Stefano; Fernandez, Cecilia; Antenucci, Anna; Costinean, Stefan; Bottoni, Arianna; Rosito, Immacolata A.; Liu, Chang-Gong; Burch, Aaron; Acunzo, Mario; Pekarsky, Yuri; Alder, Hansjuerg; Ciardi, Antonio; Croce, Carlo M.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are being exploited for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of cancer and other diseases. Their high tissue specificity and critical role in oncogenesis provide new biomarkers for the diagnosis and classification of cancer as well as predicting patients' outcomes. MicroRNAs signatures have been identified for many human tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). In most cases, metastatic disease is difficult to predict and to prevent with adequate therapies. The aim of our study was to identify a microRNA signature for metastatic CRC that could predict and differentiate metastatic target organ localization. Normal and cancer tissues of three different groups of CRC patients were analyzed. RNA microarray and TaqMan Array analysis were performed on 66 Italian patients with or without lymph nodes and/or liver recurrences. Data obtained with the two assays were analyzed separately and then intersected to identify a primary CRC metastatic signature. Five differentially expressed microRNAs (hsa-miR-21, -103, -93, -31 and -566) were validated by qRT-PCR on a second group of 16 American metastatic patients. In situ hybridization was performed on the 16 American patients as well as on three distinct commercial tissues microarray (TMA) containing normal adjacent colon, the primary adenocarcinoma, normal and metastatic lymph nodes and liver. Hsa-miRNA-21, -93, and -103 upregulation together with hsa-miR-566 downregulation defined the CRC metastatic signature, while in situ hybridization data identified a lymphonodal invasion profile. We provided the first microRNAs signature that could discriminate between colorectal recurrences to lymph nodes and liver and between colorectal liver metastasis and primary hepatic tumor. PMID:24921248

  20. Transcriptional recapitulation and subversion of embryonic colon development by mouse colon tumor models and human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Sergio; Park, Young-Kyu; Franklin, Jeffrey L; Halberg, Richard B; Yu, Ming; Jessen, Walter J; Freudenberg, Johannes; Chen, Xiaodi; Haigis, Kevin; Jegga, Anil G; Kong, Sue; Sakthivel, Bhuvaneswari; Xu, Huan; Reichling, Timothy; Azhar, Mohammad; Boivin, Gregory P; Roberts, Reade B; Bissahoyo, Anika C; Gonzales, Fausto; Bloom, Greg C; Eschrich, Steven; Carter, Scott L; Aronow, Jeremy E; Kleimeyer, John; Kleimeyer, Michael; Ramaswamy, Vivek; Settle, Stephen H; Boone, Braden; Levy, Shawn; Graff, Jonathan M; Doetschman, Thomas; Groden, Joanna; Dove, William F; Threadgill, David W; Yeatman, Timothy J; Coffey, Robert J; Aronow, Bruce J

    2007-01-01

    Background The expression of carcino-embryonic antigen by colorectal cancer is an example of oncogenic activation of embryonic gene expression. Hypothesizing that oncogenesis-recapitulating-ontogenesis may represent a broad programmatic commitment, we compared gene expression patterns of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) and mouse colon tumor models to those of mouse colon development embryonic days 13.5-18.5. Results We report here that 39 colon tumors from four independent mouse models and 100 human CRCs encompassing all clinical stages shared a striking recapitulation of embryonic colon gene expression. Compared to normal adult colon, all mouse and human tumors over-expressed a large cluster of genes highly enriched for functional association to the control of cell cycle progression, proliferation, and migration, including those encoding MYC, AKT2, PLK1 and SPARC. Mouse tumors positive for nuclear β-catenin shifted the shared embryonic pattern to that of early development. Human and mouse tumors differed from normal embryonic colon by their loss of expression modules enriched for tumor suppressors (EDNRB, HSPE, KIT and LSP1). Human CRC adenocarcinomas lost an additional suppressor module (IGFBP4, MAP4K1, PDGFRA, STAB1 and WNT4). Many human tumor samples also gained expression of a coordinately regulated module associated with advanced malignancy (ABCC1, FOXO3A, LIF, PIK3R1, PRNP, TNC, TIMP3 and VEGF). Conclusion Cross-species, developmental, and multi-model gene expression patterning comparisons provide an integrated and versatile framework for definition of transcriptional programs associated with oncogenesis. This approach also provides a general method for identifying pattern-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This delineation and categorization of developmental and non-developmental activator and suppressor gene modules can thus facilitate the formulation of sophisticated hypotheses to evaluate potential synergistic effects of targeting within- and

  1. Culture - colonic tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the large intestine. The cause may be bacteria, fungi, or viruses. ... bacteria Cytomegalovirus Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria Salmonella bacteria Shigella bacteria These organisms may lead to diarrhea or infections involving the colon.

  2. Transverse colon conduit diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.D.; Buchsbaum, H.J.

    1986-05-01

    The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available.

  3. [Angiodysplasia of the colon].

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Rossodivita, I; Santoro, M; La Banca, G; Rollo, R; Putti, R

    1990-01-01

    The Authors report their experience with a case of angiodysplasia of the colon. It is outlined how these lesions can be demonstrated by angiography and colonoscopy. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and management are discussed as well. PMID:2223469

  4. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    MedlinePlus

    ... inches to complete the procedure. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Colon Resection? Results may vary depending ... type of procedure and patient’s overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain May shorten hospital stay ...

  5. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... death and complications caused by colorectal cancer. SCREENING TESTS There are several ways to screen for colon ...

  6. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  7. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  8. Space Colonization-Benefits for the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    We have begun to colonize space, even to the extent of early space tourism. Our early Vostok, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Spacehab, Mir and now ISS are humankind's first ventures toward colonization. Efforts are underway to provide short space tours, and endeavors such as the X-Prize are encouraging entrepreneurs to provide new systems. Many believe that extended space travel (colonization) will do for the 21st century what aviation did for the 20th. Our current concerns including terrorism, hunger, disease, and problems of air quality, safe abundant water, poverty, and weather vagaries tend to overshadow long-term activities such as Space Colonization in the minds of many. Our leading ``think tanks'' such as the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Brookings Institute do not rate space travel high on lists of future beneficial undertakings even though many of the concerns listed above are prominently featured. It is the contention of this paper that Space Colonization will lead toward solutions to many of the emerging problems of our Earth, both technological and sociological. The breadth of the enterprise far exceeds the scope of our normal single-purpose missions and, therefore, its benefits will be greater.

  9. Early colonic dysplasia: comparison of differential mucin staining and tritiated thymidine labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.A.; Colacchio, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Controversy has arisen regarding the interpretation and significance of histochemical changes in the mucin produced by the globlet cells in colonic mucosa. The shift from sulfomucin to sialomucin, which is readily identified utilizing high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques, has been alternately interpreted as a specific, early dysplastic and premalignant change or a nonspecific generalized response to trauma and inflammation, among others. An attempt to clarify this issue was made by comparing mucin changes identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques with increases in DNA synthetic activity identified utilizing autoradiographic analysis of tritiated thymidine uptake. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 15 weekly subcutaneous injections of dimethylhydrazine (30 mg/kg per week) (10 rats) or placebo (10 rats). The colons were prepared and fixed, sequential sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or high iron diamine-alcian blue, autoradiography was performed. Analyses of labeling index showed no difference in normal background crypts between the control and treatment groups nor in crypts adjacent to those displaying abnormal mucin staining. Crypts with abnormal mucin production (sialomucin dominant) had significantly higher labeling indexes when compared with those of control animals (p less than 0.005). These findings indicate that the shifts in mucin production identified with high iron diamine-alcian blue staining represent crypts with increased and abnormally distributed mitotic activity that is an early dysplastic response to the carcinogenic stimulus.

  10. Does gender or the menstrual cycle affect colonic transit?

    PubMed

    Hinds, J P; Stoney, B; Wald, A

    1989-02-01

    Controversy exists as to whether slowing of colonic transit occurs in the high progesterone luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. To clarify this issue, colonic transit studies using radiopaque markers were performed on 10 women in the follicular phase, 10 women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and five women on oral contraceptives, and the results were compared with transit times in 11 male controls. No significant differences in colonic transit were found between either phase of the menstrual cycle. Colonic transit in women was slower than in men, but this was not statistically significant. In the clinical setting, therefore, colonic transit studies can be performed throughout the menstrual cycle or when taking oral contraceptives. In addition, a single standard for normal values can be used for both men and women. PMID:2916519

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  12. SOLIDS TRANSPORT BETWEEN ADJACENT CAFB FLUIDIZED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of a pulsed, dense-phase pneumatic transport system for controlled circulation between adjacent fluidized beds. A model was developed to predict performance. The program provides technical support for EPA's program to demo...

  13. Border separation for adjacent orthogonal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Khan, F.M.; Sharma, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, T.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Field border separations for adjacent orthogonal fields can be calculated geometrically, given the validity of some important assumptions such as beam alignment and field uniformity. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were used to investigate dose uniformity across field junctions as a function of field separation and, in particular, to review the CCSG recommendation for the treatment of medulloblastoma with separate head and spine fields.

  14. Terahertz polarization imaging for colon cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. The terahertz reflectance measurements of fresh 3 - 5 mm thick human colonic excisions were acquired using a continuous-wave polarization imaging technique. A CO2 optically pumped Far- Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz was used to illuminate the colon tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. Both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance from the samples was collected using wire grid polarizers in the experiment. The experimental analysis of 2D images obtained from THz reflection polarization imaging techniques showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions based on increased reflection from the tumor. Also, the study demonstrates that the cross-polarized terahertz images not only correlates better with the histology, but also provide consistent relative reflectance difference values between normal and cancerous regions for all the measured specimens.

  15. In vivo targeting of colonic dysplasia on fluorescence endoscopy with near-infrared octapeptide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongyao; Miller, Sharon J.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate a near-infrared peptide that is highly specific for colonic adenomas on fluorescence endoscopy in vivo. Design A 3 mm diameter endoscope was adapted to deliver 671 nm illumination and collect NIR fluorescence (696–736 nm). Target (QPIHPNNM) and control (YTTNKH) peptides were labeled with Cy5.5, a near-infrared dye, and characterized by mass spectra. The peptides were topically administered separately (100 µM) through the endoscope’s instrument channel into the distal colon of CPC;Apc mice, genetically-engineered to spontaneously develop adenomas. After 5 minutes for incubation, the unbound peptides were rinsed off, and images were collected at a rate of 10 per second. Regions-of-interest were identified around the adenoma and adjacent normal-appearing mucosa on white light. Intensity measurements were made from these same regions on fluorescence, and the target-to-background ratio (TBR) was calculated. Results We achieved an image resolution of 9.8 µm and field-of-view of 3.6 mm at a distance of 2.5 mm between the distal end of the instrument and the tissue surface. On mass spectra, the experimental mass-to-charge ratio for the Cy5.5-labeled target and control peptides agreed with expected values. The near-infrared fluorescence images of adenomas revealed individual dysplastic crypts with distorted morphology. By comparison, only amorphous surface features could be visualized from reflected near-infrared light. The average TBR for adenomas was found to be 3.42±1.30 and 1.88±0.38 for the target and control peptides, respectively, p=0.007. Conclusion We demonstrate a near-infrared peptide that is highly specific for colonic adenomas on fluorescence endoscopy in vivo and achieved sub-cellular resolution images. PMID:22427239

  16. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (<5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  17. Schistosomiasis manifesting as a colon polyp: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Schistosomiasis is a rare disease with a common intestinal involvement. However, colon polyps associated with Schistosoma in the absence of inflammation have rarely been reported, especially in young people; this is the first case with the following presentation. Case presentation We describe the case of a 20-year-old Ethiopian woman living in Lebanon who presented with nonspecific abdominal symptoms. Her biochemical profile was normal in addition to the results of her stool and urine tests. A colonoscopy showed normal colonic mucosa but surprisingly a large pedunculated polyp was found in her ascending colon. Pathology revealed a hamartomatous polyp but it was full of partially calcified parasitic eggs of Schistosoma mansoni compatible with chronic schistosomiasis. Conclusions She was treated with two doses of praziquantel and showed immediate marked clinical improvement. This unusual case will give us the opportunity to discuss schistosomiasis, its occurrence in colon polyps, clinical significance and the various means of management. PMID:25296942

  18. Spontaneous aortic pseudoaneurysm rupture into the sigmoid colon in Behçet’s disease patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Lim; Ku, Young Mi; Won, Yoodong

    2015-01-01

    Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent orogenital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The vascular manifestations include thrombophlebitis, stenosis, occlusion, and pseudoaneurysm. BD infrequently precipitates aortic pseudoaneurysm rupture into the sigmoid mesocolon and lumen of the adjacent colon. Here we report an extremely rare case of spontaneous abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm rupture via the sigmoid mesocolon into the lumen of the sigmoid colon in a 37-year-old patient with BD. PMID:26675745

  19. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  20. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Grieken, N C T; Meijer, G A; zur Hausen, A; Meuwissen, S G M; Baak, J P A; Kuipers, E J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections has facilitated the analysis of the role of apoptosis in the gastritis–atrophy–intestinal metaplasia sequence. Methods: Archival material from 40 gastric resection specimens with normal mucosa (n = 5), chronic active gastritis (n = 17), or intestinal metaplasia (n = 18) was studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against cleaved cytokeratin 18 and active caspase 3. Slides were scored on a 0–3 scale for the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: Normal gastric mucosa contained low numbers of apoptotic cells at the surface epithelium (mean score, 0.20). This number was significantly increased in cases with chronic gastritis (mean score, 1.06) and in those with intestinal metaplasia (mean score, 2.56). Within the intestinal metaplasia cases, 44 different foci of intestinal metaplasia were identified. In 39 of these 44 areas, concentrations of apoptotic cells were seen immediately adjacent to the foci of intestinal metaplasia, but not in the metaplastic epithelium itself. Conclusions: Apoptosis is uncommon in normal gastric mucosa. Chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia are associated with increased apoptosis, but occur mainly at the mucosal surface and not in the deeper layers. These findings do not support the concept that apoptosis underlies the loss of gastric glands and leads to atrophy, but the observed concentration of apoptotic epithelial cells adjacent to foci of intestinal metaplasia could be related to heterogeneity of epithelial damage, causing apoptosis, to which intestinal metaplasia is a response. PMID:12719456

  1. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  2. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  3. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  4. Colonization, mouse-style

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325 PMID:20977781

  5. Colonic interposition: radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Agha, F P; Orringer, M B

    1984-04-01

    This report reviews the clinical and radiographic features of 40 patients who underwent visceral esophageal substitution with colon for benign or malignant lesions of the esophagus. The incidence and radiographic identification of complications are discussed. All patients were routinely examined with barium esophagrams on postoperative day 10. If an anastomotic leak was suspected clinically before this time, studies were performed using water-soluble iodinated contrast material. Follow-up barium esophagrams were obtained 1-96 months after operation (average, 60 months) in 24 patients. Eight patients (21%) demonstrated asymptomatic "jejunization" of the colonic mucosa with no attributable clinical manifestations; this finding resolved in 1-3 months, without sequelae, and has not been reported before. The spectrum of ischemic changes in the colonic segment included mucosal edema, spasm, ulceration, loss of haustration, and frank necrosis. Radiographically detectable early postoperative complications included anastomotic leak in six (three pharyngocolic, three cervical esophagocolic) and aspiration of barium into the tracheobronchial tree due to incoordinated swallowing in eight. Late postoperative complications included anastomotic narrowing (12) malfunctioning of the colon due to impaired emptying (five), recurrent aspiration pneumonia (three), small bowel obstruction (three), transhiatal herniation of small bowel through the diaphragmatic hiatus (one), and reflux into the retained bypassed esophagus (one). PMID:6608225

  6. XFM demonstrates preferential accumulation of a vanadyl-based MRI contrast agent in murine colonic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Bissonnette, Marc; Hart, John; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Contrast agents that specifically enhance cancers on MRI would allow earlier detection. Vanadyl-based chelates (VCs) selectively enhance rodent cancers on MRI, suggesting selective uptake of VCs by cancers. Here we report X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) of VC uptake by murine colon cancer. Colonic tumors in mice treated with azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium were identified by MRI. Then a gadolinium-based contrast agent and a VC were injected I.V.; mice were sacrificed and colons sectioned. VC distribution was sampled at 120 minutes after injection to evaluate the long term accumulation. Gadolinium distribution was sampled at 10 minutes after injection due to its rapid washout. XFM was performed on 72 regions of normal and cancerous colon from 5 normal mice and 4 cancer-bearing mice. XFM showed that all gadolinium was extracellular with similar concentrations in colon cancers and normal colon. In contrast, the average VC concentration was 2-fold higher in cancers vs. normal tissue (p<0.002). Cancers also contained numerous ‘hot spots’ with intracellular VC concentrations 6-fold higher than the concentration in normal colon (p<0.0001). No ‘hot spots’ were detected in normal colon. This is the first direct demonstration that VCs selectively accumulate in cancer cells, and thus may improve cancer detection. PMID:25813904

  7. Streptococcus Adherence and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Streptococci readily colonize mucosal tissues in the nasopharynx; the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; and the skin. Each ecological niche presents a series of challenges to successful colonization with which streptococci have to contend. Some species exist in equilibrium with their host, neither stimulating nor submitting to immune defenses mounted against them. Most are either opportunistic or true pathogens responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis, tooth decay, necrotizing fasciitis, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Part of the success of streptococci as colonizers is attributable to the spectrum of proteins expressed on their surfaces. Adhesins enable interactions with salivary, serum, and extracellular matrix components; host cells; and other microbes. This is the essential first step to colonization, the development of complex communities, and possible invasion of host tissues. The majority of streptococcal adhesins are anchored to the cell wall via a C-terminal LPxTz motif. Other proteins may be surface anchored through N-terminal lipid modifications, while the mechanism of cell wall associations for others remains unclear. Collectively, these surface-bound proteins provide Streptococcus species with a “coat of many colors,” enabling multiple intimate contacts and interplays between the bacterial cell and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated direct roles for many streptococcal adhesins as colonization or virulence factors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic and preventive strategies against streptococcal infections. There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed. PMID:19721085

  8. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  9. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body’s H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  10. A colonization of basal cell carcinoma by malignant melanoma in situ resembling a malignant basomelanocytic tumor.

    PubMed

    Goeser, Megan; DiMaio, Dominick J

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of colonization of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) by malignant melanoma in situ (MIS) simulating a malignant basomelanocytic tumor. A biopsy of a pigmented lesion present on an 83-year-old man's scalp displayed intimate admixing of basaloid and melanocytic cells. This seemingly inseparable combination of BCC and neoplastic melanocytes has been referred to as a malignant basomelanocytic tumor. However, our case also displays an adjacent component of MIS, thus favoring colonization of BCC by MIS as the etiology. To our knowledge, this is the third case report of colonization of BCC by MIS resembling a malignant basomelanocytic tumor. PMID:24752214

  11. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Method Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Results Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4) showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3) were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Conclusions Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue. PMID:21668942

  12. Automatic Colon Cleansing in CTC Image Using Gradient Magnitude and Similarity Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunhapongpipat, Krisorn; Vajragupta, Laddawan; Chaopathomkul, Bundit; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

    Electronic colon cleansing (ECC) is an alternative method that can be used to remove remaining tagged fecal material from colon during polyp detection in virtual colonoscopy (VC). This paper presents a new method for automatic electronic colon cleansing using gradient magnitude and similarity measure to detect and remove tagged material from colon in CTC images. First, Canny edge detection and 8-adjacency are used to generate closed boundary for low density (air) and high density regions (tagged material and bone). Then similarity measure is used to classify pixels into high density regions, and all the pixels that are classified as high density materials are removed. Finally, gradient magnitude and thresholding are used to detect AT and ATT layers. The proposed method was evaluated on four pilot dadasets from two patients and the experimental results reveal that the proposed method can perform colon cleansing effectively.

  13. Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Valusis, Gintaras; Bernardo, Luis M.; Almeida, Abílio; Moreira, Joaquim A.; Lopes, Patricia C.; Macutkevic, Jan; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Adomavicius, Ramunas; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Machado

    2011-12-01

    Human normal and cancer affected samples of colon tissue have been measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and continuous wave terahertz imaging. We show that it is possible to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in the samples when they are fixed in formalin or embedded in paraffin. The still noticeable contrast in the dried paraffin-embedded tissues could indicate that there are additional contrast-contributing factors other than water, which is the main goal of the present work. Plots of the refractive index of normal and cancer affected tissues as well as 2-D transmission THz images are shown. Experimental results are presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue are discussed.

  14. Normal Function of the Colon and Anorectal Area

    MedlinePlus

    ... and how improve living with these conditions . Publication Library Stool Form Guide Medical Definitions About IFFGD About us Our Mission Awareness Activities Advocacy Activities Research Leadership IFFGD Symposium Report Industry Council Contact us Signs and Symptoms Signs and ...

  15. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  16. Reconstructing genome mixtures from partial adjacencies.

    PubMed

    Mahmoody, Ahmad; Kahn, Crystal L; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer genome sequencing efforts are underway with the goal of identifying the somatic mutations that drive cancer progression. A major difficulty in these studies is that tumors are typically heterogeneous, with individual cells in a tumor having different complements of somatic mutations. However, nearly all DNA sequencing technologies sequence DNA from multiple cells, thus resulting in measurement of mutations from a mixture of genomes. Genome rearrangements are a major class of somatic mutations in many tumors, and the novel adjacencies (i.e. breakpoints) resulting from these rearrangements are readily detected from DNA sequencing reads. However, the assignment of each rearrangement, or adjacency, to an individual cancer genome in the mixture is not known. Moreover, the quantity of DNA sequence reads may be insufficient to measure all rearrangements in all genomes in the tumor. Motivated by this application, we formulate the k-minimum completion problem (k-MCP). In this problem, we aim to reconstruct k genomes derived from a single reference genome, given partial information about the adjacencies present in the mixture of these genomes. We show that the 1-MCP is solvable in linear time in the cases where: (i) the measured, incomplete genome has a single circular or linear chromosome; (ii) there are no restrictions on the chromosomal content of the measured, incomplete genome. We also show that the k-MCP problem, for k ≥ 3 in general, and the 2-MCP problem with the double-cut-and-join (DCJ) distance are NP-complete, when there are no restriction on the chromosomal structure of the measured, incomplete genome. These results lay the foundation for future algorithmic studies of the k-MCP and the application of these algorithms to real cancer sequencing data. PMID:23282028

  17. Creatine kinase activity and isoenzymes in lung, colon and liver carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, J.; Cardesa, A.; Carreras, J.

    1997-01-01

    We have compared the levels of creatine kinase (CK) activity and the distribution of CK isoenzymes determined by agarose gel electrophoresis in normal colon, liver and lung tissues, and in colon, liver and lung adenocarcinomas, lung squamous cell carcinomas and lung carcinoids. Colon and lung adenocarcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas presented lower CK activity than the normal tissues and no differences were found between hepatocarcinoma and normal liver tissue. In contrast, lung carcinoids had higher CK activity than normal lung tissue. Type BB-CK was the predominant isoenzyme in normal lung, colon and liver tissues. Type MM isoenzyme was detected in normal lung and type MB-CK was found in normal colon. In most lung tumours the CK isoenzyme electrophoretic pattern did not change. However, no type BB-CK was detected in some hepatocarcinomas, type MM-CK decreased in lung carcinoids and type MB isoenzyme was not observed in colon adenocarcinomas. It is concluded that in most tumours there is a decrease in the expression of type B- and type M-CK subunits, whereas in lung carcinoid the expression of type B-CK activity increases. Thus, the increase in type BB-CK observed in the serum of patients with lung and colon adenocarcinomas is probably due mainly to enhanced enzyme release as a result of tumour cell necrosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9303358

  18. Field Cancerization in Sporadic Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Song, Chang Seok; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Choi, Kyu Yong; Koo, Dong Hoe; Kim, Kyung Eun; Jeong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyung Ook; Kim, Hungdai; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Park, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Aberrant DNA methylation has a specific role in field cancerization. Certain molecular markers, including secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2), N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) and bone morphogenic protein 3 (BMP3), have previously been shown to be hypermethylated in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aim to examine field cancerization in CRC based on the presence of aberrant DNA methylation in normal-appearing tissue from CRC patients. Methods We investigated promoter methylation in 34 CRC patients and five individuals with normal colonoscopy results. CRC patients were divided into three tissue groups: tumor tissue, adjacent and nonadjacent normal-appearing tissue. The methylation status (positive: methylation level >20%) of SFRP2, TFPI2, NDRG4, and BMP3 promoters was investigated using methylation-specific PCR. Results The methylation frequencies of the SFRP2, TFPI2, NDRG4 and BMP3 promoters in tumor/adjacent/nonadjacent normal-appearing tissue were 79.4%/63.0%/70.4%, 82.4%/53.6%/60.7%, 76.5%/61.5%/69.2%, 41.2%/35.7%/50.0%, respectively. The methylation levels of the SFRP,TFPI2, NDRG4 and BMP3 promoters in tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in normal-appearing tissue (SFRP2, p=0.013; TFPI2, p<0.001; NDRG4, p=0.003; BMP3, p=0.001). No significant correlation was observed between the methylation levels of the promoters and the clinicopathological variables. Conclusions The field effect is present in CRC and affects both the adjacent and nonadjacent normal-appearing mucosa. PMID:27114416

  19. Sphingolipids in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Truman, Jean-Philip; Snider, Ashley J.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of death in the western world. Despite increasing knowledge of the molecular signaling pathways implicated in colon cancer, therapeutic outcomes are still only moderately successful. Sphingolipids, a family of N-acyl linked lipids, have not only structural functions but are also implicated in important biological functions. Ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate are the most important bioactive lipids, and they regulate several key cellular functions. Accumulating evidence suggests that many cancers present alterations in sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging roles of sphingolipids, both endogenous and dietary, in colon cancer and the interaction of sphingolipids with WNT/β-catenin pathway, one of the most important signaling cascades that regulate development and homeostasis in intestine PMID:24060581

  20. Colonic pseudo-obstruction: a new complication of jejunoileal bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Barry, R E; Benfield, J R; Nicell, P; Bray, G A

    1975-01-01

    Five female patients ranging in age from 25 to 44 years are reported in whom jejunoileal bypass (three end-to-side and two end-to end), performed for morbid obesity, was complicated 1 1/2 to three years later by symptoms of colonic pseudo-obstruction. In each size, the colon was markedly elongated, dilated, and atonic but with no demonstrate organic obstruction. The cause of this complication is not known. Full thickness rectal biopsy in one case showed normal intrinsic nervous plexuses and ganglia. Serum electrolytes were normal. Functional and defunctionalized small bowel were not involved. Symptoms varied from complete colonic paralysis to incapacitating crampy abdominal pain and distention. In the three patients with end-to-side bypass, dilatation affected the entire colon, while, in the two patients with end-to-end bypass, the dilatation was localized to colon distal to the anastomosis with the defunctionalized small bowel. Resection of the affected portion of colon in one case resulted in recurrence distal to the new site of drainage of defunctioned bowel. Treatment with anti-anaerobe antibiotics in two cases produced dramatic but temporary relief of symptoms. PMID:1238312

  1. Tookad-mediated photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent tissues: in vivo study in canine models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (pd-bacteriopheophorbide), was investigated as an alternative treatment modality for prostate cancer. Tookad photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent tissues were evaluated in canine models. Interstitial prostate PDT was performed by irradiating individual lobes with a diode laser (763 nm) and 1-cm cylindrical diffuser fibers at various light doses to activate the IV administered photosensitizer Tookad (1 - 2 mg/kg). The sensitivity of the adjacent tissues to Tookad-PDT was determined by superficially irradiating the surfaces of the bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus with a microlens fiber at various drug/light doses. PDT effect on the prostatic urethra was evaluated by transurethral irradiation. The prostate and adjacent tissues were harvested one-week after the treatment and subjected to histopathologic examination. At one-week post interstitial prostate PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. The bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus, appeared to also be sensitive to Tookad-PDT at light dose levels greater than 40 Jcm2. Urethral mucosa appeared less sensitive to Tookad-PDT. In conclusion, Tookad-mediated PDT demonstrates very strong vascular effects and can provide an effective alternative for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Protection of the adjacent tissues should be taken into consideration in the total prostate ablation process due to their sensitivity to the Tookad-mediated PDT.

  2. Giant colon lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, İsmail; Derici, Hayrullah; Demirpolat, Gülen

    2015-01-01

    Colon lipomas are rare, non-epithelial tumors. They are generally smaller than two centimeters and asymptomatic, they are incidentally diagnosed and do not require treatment. Large and symptomatic colon lipomas are rather rare. Its differential diagnosis is generally made by histopathological examination of the resected specimen. A fifty-year-old female patient presented with the symptoms of abdominal pain, swelling in the abdomen and loss of weight. During colonoscopy, there was a submucosal mass of 8×6 cm, which almost completely obstructed the lumen in the hepatic flexure and was covered by a mucosa that was sporadically ulcerated and necrotic in nature. In magnetic resonance imaging, an ovoid mass with a diameter of 8.5 cm at its widest dimension was detected, which had signal intensity similar to that of adipose tissue. Since the patient was symptomatic and differential diagnosis could not be made, she underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. A submucosal lipoma was detected on histopathological examination of the specimen. The patient was discharged without any problems on post-operative day 7. Definite diagnosis of lipomas before surgery is challenging; they may be mistaken for malignancy, especially if the lesion is large and ulcerated. For large and symptomatic colon lipomas, surgery is required to both prevent complications and rule out malignancy. PMID:26170744

  3. Novel diagnostics and therapy of colonic motor disorders.

    PubMed

    Dinning, P G; Scott, S M

    2011-12-01

    Colonic motor abnormalities are implicated in several gastrointestinal disorders including constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and functional diarrhoea. Defining the colonic abnormalities is difficult and several novel techniques including, high-resolution fibre optic manometry, wireless motility capsules, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have emerged to help in the diagnosis of these conditions. Coupled with the developing techniques are the novel treatments that look to restore normal colonic motility. These treatments include pharmacological agents (pharmabiotics, serotonin agonist, secretagogues) and medical devices (sacral nerve stimulation, transcutaneous electrical stimulation and biofeedback). This review summarizes the novel techniques used to record and define colonic motor abnormalities and the current status of the emerging treatments used to treat them. PMID:22019567

  4. Association of Streptococcus bovis presence in colonic content with advanced colonic lesion

    PubMed Central

    Paritsky, Maya; Pastukh, Nina; Brodsky, Diana; Isakovich, Natalya; Peretz, Avi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively examine the association between presence of Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) in colonic suction fluid and the endoscopic findings on colonoscopy. METHODS: From May 2012 to March 2013, 203 consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy for any reason were enrolled in the study. Exclusion criteria included: antibiotic use in the previous month, age younger than 18 years, and inadequate preparation for colonoscopy. The colonoscopy was performed for the total length of the colon or to the occluding tumor. The endoscopic findings were registered. Samples were obtained proximal to the colonoscopic part of the suction tube from each patient and sent to the clinical microbiology laboratory for isolation and identification of S. bovis. Samples were incubated in enrichment media with addition of antibiotic disks for inhibition of growth of Gram-negative rods. The samples were seeded on differential growth media; suspected positive colonies were isolated and identified with Gram staining, catalase, and pyrrolidonyl arylamidase tests, and further identified using a VITEK2 system. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student’s t and χ2 tests. RESULTS: Of the 203 patients recruited, 49 (24%) patients were found to be S. bovis carriers; of them, the endoscopic findings included: 17 (34.7%) cases with malignant tumors, 11 (22.4%) with large polyps, 5 (10.2%) with medium-sized polyps, 6 (12.2%) with small polyps, 4 (8.1%) with colitis, and 6 (12.2%) normal colonoscopies. Of 154 patients found negative for S. bovis, the endoscopic findings included: none with malignant tumors, 9 (5.8%) cases with large polyps, 11 (7.1%) with medium-sized polyps, 26 (16.9%) with small polyps, 7 (4.5%) with colitis, and 101 (65.6%) normal colonoscopies. S. bovis (Gram-positive coccus) is considered part of the normal intestinal flora. There is an association between S. bovis bacteremia and colonic neoplasia. It is not well understood whether the bacterium has a

  5. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  6. Diffuse lymphoid follicles of the colon associated with colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bronen, R A; Glick, S N; Teplick, S K

    1984-01-01

    In four patients aged 59-75 years, colonic carcinoma was associated with diffuse lymphoid follicles in the colon. In one case, the prominence and distribution of the lymphoid follicles corresponded to the progression and regression of the tumor bulk. It is extremely unusual to demonstrate lymphoid follicles, particularly diffuse, on barium enema in patients in this age range. The colonic carcinomas and lymphoid follicles are directly related, possibly representing an immune response. PMID:6606941

  7. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna; Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2013-07-15

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70–75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100 pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell. -- Highlights: • MAT2A knockdown depletes putrescine and leads to apoptosis. • Putrescine attenuates MAT2A knockdown-induced apoptosis and growth

  8. Colonization of volcanic deserts from productive patches.

    PubMed

    Del Moral, Roger; Eckert, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    Dense vegetation can augment landscape biodiversity, promote recovery of surrounding ecosystems, and facilitate colonization. However, dispersal limits affect vegetation structure early in succession to a degree that is not widely appreciated. We studied two contrasting densely vegetated habitats located on Mount St. Helens to explore their effects on surrounding vegetation. We sampled refugia and adjacent barrens and compared them to a study conducted 5 yr earlier. We sampled isolated wetlands and their surroundings. Species richness, total cover, cover of most dispersal types, the information statistic (H'), and the complement of Simpson's Index (D) were negatively correlated with distance from the refugia up to 32 m. Compared to 1997, the 2002 transects had higher cover, and adjacent samples were more similar to one another. Dominance had shifted from wind-dispersed species to more persistent species with less effective dispersal mechanisms. The pattern of these results demonstrated that refugia were a major, but indirect source of recruitment for many species. The influence of wetlands on surrounding vegetation recovery was even more spatially localized. This study demonstrates that dispersal from surviving and rapidly recovered vegetation has been overemphasized as a mechanism for vegetation recovery. The effects of dense vegetation did not extend beyond 32 m in our studies, and local effects appear to diminish over time. PMID:21652381

  9. Blunting of Colon Contractions in Diabetics with Gastroparesis Quantified by Wireless Motility Capsule Methods

    PubMed Central

    Coleski, Radoslav; Wilding, Gregory E.; Semler, John R.; Hasler, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized gut transit abnormalities are observed in some diabetics with gastroparesis. Relations of gastric emptying abnormalities to colon contractile dysfunction are poorly characterized. We measured colon transit and contractility using wireless motility capsules (WMC) in 41 healthy subjects, 12 diabetics with gastroparesis (defined by gastric retention >5 hours), and 8 diabetics with normal gastric emptying (≤5 hours). Overall numbers of colon contractions >25 mmHg were calculated in all subjects and were correlated with gastric emptying times for diabetics with gastroparesis. Colon transit periods were divided into quartiles by time and contraction numbers were calculated for each quartile to estimate regional colon contractility. Colon transit in diabetics with gastroparesis was prolonged vs. healthy subjects (P<0.0001). Overall numbers of colon contractions in gastroparetics were lower than controls (P = 0.02). Diabetics with normal emptying showed transit and contraction numbers similar to controls. Gastric emptying inversely correlated with overall contraction numbers in gastroparetics (r = -0.49). Numbers of contractions increased from the 1st to 4th colon transit quartile in controls and diabetics with normal emptying (P≤0.04), but not gastroparetics. Numbers of contractions in the 3rd and 4th quartiles were reduced in gastroparetics vs. healthy controls (P≤0.05) and in the 4th quartile vs. diabetics with normal emptying (P = 0.02). Numbers of contractions were greatest in the final 15 minutes of transit, but were reduced in gastroparetics vs. healthy controls and diabetics with normal emptying (P≤0.005). On multivariate analyses, differences in numbers of contractions were not explained by demographic or clinical variables. In conclusion, diabetics with gastroparesis exhibit delayed colon transit associated with reductions in contractions that are prominently blunted in latter transit phases and which correlate with delayed gastric emptying

  10. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  11. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  12. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  13. Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause systemic infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. Infections arise from colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where C. albicans is part of the normal microflora. Reducing colonization in at-risk patients using antifungal ...

  14. Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woo Chul; Kim, Hye-Kang; Yoo, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Rok; Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang Nyol; Jang, U-Im; Yang, Jin Mo

    2008-01-01

    Lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system. Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease. Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment, resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, intussusceptions. We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia, which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polypectomy. PMID:18837097

  15. Fungal infection of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Praneenararat, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its conclusions may be accessible for clinical application. PMID:25364269

  16. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  17. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  18. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  19. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  20. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. A case of leptospirosis simulating colon cancer with liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Fusconi, Marco; Volta, Umberto; Muratori, Paolo; Sambri, Vittorio; Battista, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Francesco B.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with fatigue, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hepatic lesions highly suggestive of metastatic diseases. Due to the endoscopic finding of colon ulcer, colon cancer with liver metastases was suspected. Biochemically a slight increase of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase were present; α - fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen and carbohydrate 19-9 antigen serum levels were normal. Laboratory and instrumental investigations, including colon and liver biopsies revealed no signs of malignancy. In the light of spontaneous improvement of symptoms and CT findings, his personal history was revaluated revealing direct contact with pigs and their tissues. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and confirmed by detection of an elevated titer of antibodies to leptospira. After two mo, biochemical data, CT and colonoscopy were totally normal. PMID:15285043

  6. Major Protein of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Gene Family - CD66c, A Novel Marker in Colon Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, Suma M; Prema, Chaitra Linganna; Vimalambike, Manjunath Gubbanna; Shivalingaiah, Sheeladevi Chandakavadi; Sundaram, Shivakumar; Kumar, Anjali Pradeep; Math, Ananda Kuruvatti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In view of rising trend of the incidence of colorectal carcinoma in the Indian population due to adoption of western lifestyles and behaviours, we investigated the expression of the new emerging stem cell biomarker, CD66c in colorectal carcinoma of Indian origin. Aim To study the expression of CD66c in human colorectal carcinoma and to correlate level of marker expression with tumour staging. Materials and Methods This hospital based prospective study was conducted on 26 colorectal carcinoma patients in the age group of 20 years to 70 years. Surgically resected tumour specimens along with adjacent normal tissue were collected taking necessary precautions, paraffin embedded sections were prepared and used for histological and immunohistochemical analysis of CD66c. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistical measures like mean, standard deviation, percentage was applied. Other inferential statistical tests like Chi-square, Fisher’s-exact test and one-way ANOVA was applied to find out the association of CD66c with different stages. The difference were interpreted as statistically significant when p <0.05. Results CD66c showed differential expression with membrane positivity in normal colorectal epithelial cells and cytoplasmic expression in tumour cells. There was significant correlation between CD66c expression and tumour site (p=0.02) with colon carcinoma showing positive expression compared to the rectal carcinoma. There was no significant correlation between CD66c staining and tumour stage (p=0.947). No significant relationship was observed between CD66c expression and other clinicopathologic variables studied such as sex (p=0.552), age (p=0.713) and tumour grade (p=0.263). Conclusion CD66c can be specifically used for colon carcinoma and may be a novel marker in colon carcinoma stem cell isolation. The quantification of CD66c can be further verified by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Further studies can be carried out using CD66c alone or in

  7. In-silico analysis of kallikrein gene expression in pancreatic and colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Yousef, George M; Borgoño, Carla A; Popalis, Cynthia; Yacoub, George M; Polymeris, Mary-Ellen; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2004-01-01

    Human kallikreins are a cluster of 15 serine protease genes located in the chromosomal band 19q13.4, a non-randomly rearranged region in many solid tumors, including pancreatic cancer. We utilized the SAGE and EST databases of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project to perform in-silico analysis of kallikrein gene expression in normal and cancerous pancreatic and colon tissues and cell lines using virtual Northern blotting (VNB), digital differential display (DDD) and X-profiler. At least two kallikreins, KLK6 and KLK10, are significantly up-regulated in pancreatic cancer. We probed 2 normal and 6 pancreatic cancer SAGE libraries with gene-specific tags for each of these kallikreins. KLK6 was found to be expressed in 5/6 cancer libraries and showed the most marked (5-fold) increase in average expression levels in cancer vs. normal. These data were verified by screening the EST databases, where all mRNA clones isolated were from cancerous libraries, with no clones detected in normal pancreatic tissues or cell lines. X-profiler comparison of two pools of normal and cancerous pancreatic libraries further verified the significant increase of KLK6 expression levels in pancreatic cancer. DDD data showed a 13-fold increase in KLK10 expression in pancreatic cancer. Three kallikrein genes, KLK6, 8 and 10 are overexpressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon, while one kallikrein, KLK1, is down-regulated. While no expression of KLK6 was detected in normal colon, KLK6-specific tags were detectable in 2 cancer libraries. Similar results were obtained by EST screening; no KLK6 clones were detected in any of the 28 normal libraries examined, while 10 KLK6 EST clones were found in colon adenocarcinoma. KLK10 was not detectable in normal colon. Gene-specific tags were, however, detectable with high density in colon cancer and 7 EST clones were found to be expressed in colon Adenocarcinoma. PMID:15015574

  8. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  9. Modulation of colon cancer by nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Krausz, Kristopher W; Nichols, Robert G; Xu, Wei; Patterson, Andrew D; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Colon cancer is the most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in humans. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, the current study revealed the accumulation of four uremic toxins (cresol sulfate, cresol glucuronide, indoxyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate) in the serum of mice harboring adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation-induced colon cancer. These uremic toxins, likely generated from the gut microbiota, were associated with an increase in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Nutmeg, which exhibits antimicrobial activity, attenuated the levels of uremic toxins and decreased intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. Nutmeg-treated Apc(min/+) mice had decreased IL-6 levels and normalized dysregulated lipid metabolism, suggesting that uremic toxins are responsible, in part, for the metabolic disorders that occur during tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate a potential biochemical link among gut microbial metabolism, inflammation, and metabolic disorders and suggest that modulation of gut microbiota and lipid metabolism using dietary intervention or drugs may be effective in colon cancer chemoprevention strategies. PMID:25712450

  10. Pathways to Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The steps required for space colonization are many to grow from our current 3-person International Space Station, now under construction, to an infrastructure that can support hundreds and eventually thousands of people in space. This paper will summarize the author's findings from numerous studies and workshops on related subjects and identify some of the critical next steps toward space colonization. Findings will be drawn from the author s previous work on space colony design, space infrastructure workshops, and various studies that addressed space policy. In conclusion, this paper will note that significant progress has been made on space facility construction through the International Space Station program, and that significant efforts are needed in the development of new reusable Earth to Orbit transportation systems. The next key steps will include reusable in space transportation systems supported by in space propellant depots, the continued development of inflatable habitat and space elevator technologies, and the resolution of policy issues that will establish a future vision for space development.

  11. Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

  12. Maternal influences on fetal microbial colonization and immune development

    PubMed Central

    Romano-Keeler, Joann; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intrauterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may also constitute a critical process during healthy pregnancies in humans with yet unclear developmental importance. Metagenomic sequencing has elucidated a rich placental microbiome in normal term pregnancies likely providing important metabolic and immune contributions to the growing fetus. Conversely, an altered microbial composition during pregnancy may produce aberrant metabolites impairing fetal brain development and life-long neurological outcomes. Here we review the current understanding of microbial colonization at the feto-maternal interface and explain how normal gut colonization drives a balanced neonatal mucosal immune system, while dysbiosis contributes to aberrant immune function early in life and beyond. We discuss how maternal genetics, diet, medications, and probiotics inform the fetal microbiome in preparation for perinatal and postnatal bacterial colonization. PMID:25310759

  13. Histopathology of cell mediated immune reaction in mouse colon--allograft rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Holden, R J; Ferguson, A

    1976-01-01

    Grafts of mouse fetal colon, implanted beneath the renal capsule of adult hosts, have been used to study the growth and development of colonic isografts and the rejection of colonic allografts. Isografts grew normally and maintained a structure similar to normal colon. Grafts between strains with H2 histocompatibility differences were rejected by 13 days after transplantation. Early progressive infiltration of the grafts by lymphoid cells was followed by increasing damage to, and subsequent loss of, the epithelial cell layer and destruction of the underlying muscle, changes which parallel those seen in rejection of skin and small bowel. The increase in survival time which is seen in allografts between strains with H2 identity was longer in the colon than has been seen in the skin or small bowel; none of the allografts of colon were completely rejected before 30 days, and some remained viable at 50 days. Comparison of the appearances of rejection in the colon with those of ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease does not show the striking similarity which is seen between small bowel rejection and coeliac disease. Many of the individual features of these diseases are, however, present in the course of colonic rejection. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:976806

  14. Model-based recovery of histological parameters from multispectral images of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidovic-Rowe, Dzena; Claridge, Ela

    2005-04-01

    Colon cancer alters the macroarchitecture of the colon tissue. Common changes include angiogenesis and the distortion of the tissue collagen matrix. Such changes affect the colon colouration. This paper presents the principles of a novel optical imaging method capable of extracting parameters depicting histological quantities of the colon. The method is based on a computational, physics-based model of light interaction with tissue. The colon structure is represented by three layers: mucosa, submucosa and muscle layer. Optical properties of the layers are defined by molar concentration and absorption coefficients of haemoglobins; the size and density of collagen fibres; the thickness of the layer and the refractive indexes of collagen and the medium. Using the entire histologically plausible ranges for these parameters, a cross-reference is created computationally between the histological quantities and the associated spectra. The output of the model was compared to experimental data acquired in vivo from 57 histologically confirmed normal and abnormal tissue samples and histological parameters were extracted. The model produced spectra which match well the measured data, with the corresponding spectral parameters being well within histologically plausible ranges. Parameters extracted for the abnormal spectra showed the increase in blood volume fraction and changes in collagen pattern characteristic of the colon cancer. The spectra extracted from multi-spectral images of ex-vivo colon including adenocarcinoma show the characteristic features associated with normal and abnormal colon tissue. These findings suggest that it should be possible to compute histological quantities for the colon from the multi-spectral images.

  15. The development of colon innervation in trisomy 16 mice and Hirschsprungs disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji Cheng; Mi, Kai Hong; Zhou, Ji Lin; Busch, LC; Kuhnel, W

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the colon innervation of trisomy 16 mouse, an animal model for Down’s syndrome, and the expression of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) in the stenosed segment of colon in Hirschsprungs disease (HD). METHODS: Trisomy 16 mouse breeding; cytogenetic analysis of trisomy 16 mice; and PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry of colons of trisomy 16 mice and HD were carried out. RESULTS: Compared with their normal littermates, the nervous system of colon in trisomy 16 mice was abnormally developed. There existed developmental delay of muscular plexuses of colon, no submucosal plexus was found in the colon, and there was 5 mm aganglionic bowel aparting from the anus in trisomy 16 mice. The mesentery nerve fibers were as well developed as shown in their normal littermates. Abundant proliferation of PGP 9.5 positive nerve fibers was evealed in the stenosed segment of HD colon. CONCLUSION: Trisomy 16 mice could serve as an animal model for Hirschsprung’s disease for aganglionic bowel in the distal part of colon. Abundant proliferation of PGP 9.5 positive fibers resulted from extrinsic nerve compensation, since no ganglionic cells were observed in the stenosed segment of the colon in HD. HD has a genetic tendency. PMID:11819726

  16. Interaction between adjacent lightning discharges in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Guangshu; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yajun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Tinglong

    2013-07-01

    Using a 3D lightning radiation source locating system (LLS), three pairs of associated lightning discharges (two or more adjacent lightning discharges following an arbitrary rule that their space-gap was less than 10 km and their time-gap was less than 800 ms) were observed, and the interaction between associated lightning discharges was analyzed. All these three pairs of associated lightning discharges were found to involve three or more charge regions (the ground was considered as a special charge region). Moreover, at least one charge region involved two lightning discharges per pair of associated lightning discharges. Identified from electric field changes, the subsequent lightning discharges were suppressed by the prior lightning discharges. However, it is possible that the prior lightning discharge provided a remaining discharge channel to facilitate the subsequent lightning discharge. The third case provided evidence of this possibility. Together, the results suggested that, if the charges in the main negative charge region can be consumed using artificial lightning above the main negative charge regions, lightning accidents on the ground could be greatly reduced, on the condition that the height of the main negative charge region and the charge intensity of the lower positive charge region are suitable.

  17. [Rectoscopy and Hemoccult II in irritable colon. A prospective study].

    PubMed

    Hovendal, C P; Kronborg, O; Hem, J; Grinsted, P; Fenger, C

    1990-09-17

    It was investigated whether Hemoccult-II test (H-II) could reduce the number of colonic examinations in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome, with normal rigid proctoscopic findings. A negative H-II was obtained in 299 patients from general practice and a positive test in nine. Colonoscopy was done in 157 and double contrast barium enema in 142 after random allocation. The nine patients with positive H-II all had colonoscopy. Among the 299 with negative H-II, colonic adenomas were detected in ten and an early cancer in an adenoma in the sigmoid colon; overlooked rectal adenomas were found in three, rectal cancer in one, rectal carcinoid in another and a coecal cancer, which could be palpated, in a third patient. Two patients with colonic cancer and one with adenoma were detected among those with positive H-II. All patients were followed by clinical examination after one year. In conclusion, colonic examination should carry a low priority in patients with symptoms of irritable bowel, negative Hemoccult-II and normal rigid proctoscopic findings performed by an experienced examiner. The investigation confirmed the recommendation of total colonoscopy in patients with a positive H-II and added support for increasing number of endoscopy services in contrast to those of diagnostic radiology, which should be reduced. PMID:2219505

  18. Normal development.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine; Koob, Meriam; Brunel, Herv

    2016-01-01

    Numerous events are involved in brain development, some of which are detected by neuroimaging. Major changes in brain morphology are depicted by brain imaging during the fetal period while changes in brain composition can be demonstrated in both pre- and postnatal periods. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography can show changes in brain morphology, these techniques are insensitive to myelination that is one of the most important events occurring during brain maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the method of choice to evaluate brain maturation. MRI also gives insight into the microstructure of brain tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolic changes are also part of brain maturation and are assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Understanding and knowledge of the different steps in brain development are required to be able to detect morphologic and structural changes on neuroimaging. Consequently alterations in normal development can be depicted. PMID:27430460

  19. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  20. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas.

    PubMed

    Gainetdinov, Ildar V; Kondratieva, Sofia A; Skvortsova, Yulia V; Zinovyeva, Marina V; Stukacheva, Elena A; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A; Azhikina, Tatyana L

    2016-04-19

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  1. Hereditary and Familial Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jasperson, Kory W.; Tuohy, Thérèse M.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Burt, Randall W.

    2011-01-01

    Between 2% to 5% of all colon cancers arise in the setting of well defined inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, and certain hamartomatous polyposis conditions. Each is associated with a high risk of colon cancer. In addition to the syndromes, up to one-third of colon cancers exhibit increased familial risk, likely related to inheritance. A number of less penetrant, but possibly more frequent susceptibility genes have been identified for this level of inheritance. Clarification of predisposing genes allows for accurate risk assessment and more precise screening approaches. This review examines the colon cancer syndromes, their genetics and management, and also the common familial colon cancers with current genetic advances and screening guidelines. PMID:20420945

  2. Schwannoma of the sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Yaz, Müjgan; Gündüz, Umut rıza

    2015-01-01

    Colonic schwannomas are very rare gastrointestinal tumours originating from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath. Primary schwannomas of the lower gastrointestinal tract are very rare and usually benign in nature. However, if they are not surgically removed, malign degeneration can occur. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with rectal bleeding and constipation. She underwent a lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. A mass subtotally obstructing the lumen of the sigmoid colon was seen and biopsies were taken. Histopathological examination indicated a suspicion of gastrointestinal tumour and the patient underwent sigmoid colon resection after preoperative evaluation by laboratory analysis, abdominal ultrasonography and CT. Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on the fifth day for outpatient control. The histopathology report revealed schwannoma of the sigmoid colon. This was a case of schwannoma of the sigmoid colon that was successfully treated with total resection. PMID:25976197

  3. Up-regulation of CNDP2 facilitates the proliferation of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytosolic nonspecific dipetidase (CN2) belongs to the family of M20 metallopeptidases. It was stated in previous articles that higher expression levels of CN2 were observed in renal cell carcinoma and breast cancer. Our study explored the correlation between CN2 and colon carcinogenesis. Methods We analysed the relationship between 183 patients clinicopathological characteristics and its CN2 expression. To detect the levels of CN2 in colon cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues by western blot. To verify cell proliferation in colon cancer cells with knockdown of CNDP2 and explore the causes of these phenomena. Results The expression levels of CN2 in clinical colon tumors and colon cancer cell lines were significantly higher than that in normal colon mucosa and colon cell lines. The difference in CN2 levels was associated with tumor location (right- and left-sided colon cancer), but there was no significant association with age, gender, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Knockdown of CNDP2 inhibited cell proliferation, blocked cell cycle progression and retarded carcinogenesis in an animal model. The signaling pathway through which knockdown of CNDP2 inhibited cell proliferation and tumorigenesis involved in EGFR, cyclin B1 and cyclin E. Conclusions Knockdown of CNDP2 can inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer in vitro and retarded carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:24885395

  4. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) inhibits human colon tumor growth by promoting apoptosis of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuguang; Li, Bingji; Liu, Jie; He, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has recently been suggested in several epithelial cancers, either pro-tumor or anti-tumor. However, the role of TSLP in colon cancer remains unknown. We here found significantly decreased TSLP levels in tumor tissues compared with tumor-surrounding tissues of patients with colon cancer and TSLP levels negatively correlated with the clinical staging score of colon cancer. TSLPR, the receptor of TSLP, was expressed in all three colon cancer cell lines investigated and colon tumor tissues. The addition of TSLP significantly enhanced apoptosis of colon cancer cells in a TSLPR-dependent manner. Interestingly, TSLP selectively induced the apoptosis of colon cancer cells, but not normal colonic epithelial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TSLP induced JNK and p38 activation and initiated apoptosis mainly through the extrinsic pathway, as caspase-8 inhibitor significantly reversed the apoptosis-promoting effect of TSLP. Finally, using a xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that peritumoral administration of TSLP greatly reduced tumor growth accompanied with extensive tumor apoptotic response, which was abolished by tumor cell-specific knockdown of TSLPR. Collectively, our study reveals a novel anti-tumor effect of TSLP via direct promotion of the apoptosis of colon cancer cells, and suggests that TSLP could be of value in treating colon cancer. PMID:26919238

  5. Nexrutine inhibits azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt formation in rat colon and induced apoptotic cell death in colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Alam, Shamshad; Pal, Anu; Kumar, Rahul; Mir, Snober S; Ansari, Kausar M

    2016-08-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Therefore, new preventive strategies are warranted for preventing colon cancer. Nexrutine (NX), an herbal extract from Phellodendron amurense, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity for various tissue specific cancers, but its chemopreventive efficacy has not been evaluated against colon cancer. Here, we explored the mechanism of chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic efficacy of NX against colon cancer. We found that dietary exposure of NX significantly reduced the number of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. In addition, significant inhibition in AOM-induced cell proliferation and reduced expression of the inflammatory markers COX-2, iNOS as well as the proliferative markers PCNA and cyclin D1 were also seen. Moreover, NX exposure significantly enhanced apoptosis in the colon of AOM treated rats. Furthermore, in in vitro studies, NX (2.5, 5, 10 μg/ml, 48 h) decreased cell survival and colony formation while inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colon adenocarcinoma cells COLO205 and HCT-15. However, NX had minimal cytotoxic effect on IEC-6 normal rat intestinal cells, suggesting its high therapeutic index. NX treatment also modulates the level of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins along with cytochrome c release, cleavage and enhanced expression of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase as well as the catalytic activity of caspase 3 and caspase 9 in both COLO205 and HCT-15 cells. Based on these in vivo and in vitro findings, we suggest that NX could be useful candidate agent for colon cancer chemoprevention and treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26259065

  6. Colonize, evade, flourish

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Erica J; Trent, M Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an adapted gastric pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing severe gastritis and gastric cancer. A hallmark of infection is the ability of this organism to evade detection by the human immune system. H. pylori has evolved a number of features to achieve this, many of which involve glyco-conjugates including the lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan layer, glycoproteins, and glucosylated cholesterol. These major bacterial components possess unique features from those of other gram-negative organisms, including differences in structure, assembly, and modification. These defining characteristics of H. pylori glycobiology help the pathogen establish a long-lived infection by providing camouflage, modulating the host immune response, and promoting virulence mechanisms. In this way, glyco-conjugates are essential for H. pylori pathogenicity and survival, allowing it to carve out a niche in the formidable environment of the human stomach. PMID:23859890

  7. [Irritable colon and constipation].

    PubMed

    Meyenberger, C

    1993-04-20

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a very common clinical problem with a broad spectrum of severity. The management includes a combination of positive diagnosis of typical symptoms with limited investigations to exclude underlying structural or biochemical disorders. Therapeutic trials focus on the relief of predominant symptoms. Identification and modification of factors exacerbating symptoms, behavioural techniques and pharmacologic agents directed to the presumed gastrointestinal motor dysfunction are required. Psychological support by the physician is the most important part of treatment. Chronic constipation may be the predominant symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. Underlying organic disorders must be excluded by clinical examination and endoscopy. Severe chronic constipation requires further investigation of colonic motility and defecation. High fibre diet, osmotic laxatives and procinetic agents may lead to an improvement. In rare cases surgery may be indicated. PMID:8488351

  8. Variability of spectra of laser-induced fluorescence of colonic mucosa: its significance for fluorescence detection of colonic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chwirot, Barbara W; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Płóciennik, Natalia; Piwiński, Mariusz; Michniewicz, Zbigniew; Chwirot, Stanisław

    2003-05-01

    To determine the extent of a natural variability of the spectra of the autofluorescence and its significance for a reproducibility of different approaches typically used in studies on fluorescence detection of colonic lesions. Two independent series of experiments have been conducted during three years in the same laboratory. Macroscopic tissue specimens obtained during operations of patients with colonic cancers were studied in vitro. The tissues were excited using UV lines of c.w. He-Cd laser and pulsed nitrogen laser and the autofluorescence spectra were recorded for areas visually diagnosed as normal or pathologically changed mucosa. Natural variability of the autofluorescence spectra of colonic tissues seems to be most important factor limiting sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic algorithms. The mean fluorescence spectra obtained for normal mucosa and its neoplastic lesions differ significantly but the differences are difficult to observe because of the high natural variability among the individual spectra. Further studies of biological basis of the colonic autofluorescence are necessary for a progress in the field of fluorescence detection of colonic neoplastic lesions. PMID:15244272

  9. Gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer and healthy adjacent mucosa specimens

    PubMed Central

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lopomo, Angela; Failli, Alessandra; Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Fontanini, Gabriella; Sensi, Elisa; Servadio, Adele; Seccia, Massimo; Zocco, Giuseppe; Chiarugi, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the promoter methylation levels of the APC, MGMT, hMLH1, RASSF1A and CDKN2A genes in 107 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and 80 healthy adjacent tissues. We searched for correlation with both physical and pathological features, polymorphisms of folate metabolism pathway genes (MTHFR, MTRR, MTR, RFC1, TYMS, and DNMT3B), and data on circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine, which were available in a subgroup of the CRC patients. An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respect to adjacent healthy tissues, with the exception of APC, which was also frequently methylated in healthy colonic mucosa. Statistically significant associations were found between RASSF1A promoter methylation and tumor stage, and between hMLH1 promoter methylation and tumor location. Increasing age positively correlated with both hMLH1 and MGMT methylation levels in CRC tissues, and with APC methylation levels in the adjacent healthy mucosa. Concerning gender, females showed higher hMLH1 promoter methylation levels with respect to males. In CRC samples, the MTR 2756AG genotype correlated with higher methylation levels of RASSF1A, and the TYMS 1494 6bp ins/del polymorphism correlated with the methylation levels of both APC and hMLH1. In adjacent healthy tissues, MTR 2756AG and TYMS 1494 6bp del/del genotypes correlated with APC and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively. Low folate levels were associated with hMLH1 hypermethylation. Present results support the hypothesis that DNA methylation in CRC depends from both physiological and environmental factors, with one-carbon metabolism largely involved in this process. PMID:24500500

  10. Petroleum basins of Sakhalin and adjacent shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Mavrinski, Y.; Koblov, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sixty-seven oil and gas fields have been discovered on Sakhalin and the adjacent shelf but the distribution of fields is uneven in north Sakhalin, south Sakhalin, and the Tatar basins. The sedimentary cover is composed of sandy, clayey, and siliceous rocks, with volcanogenic and coal-bearing deposits of Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene 8-12 km thick. Marine clayey and siliceous oil source rocks are regionally developed in the section at different stratigraphic levels; the organic matter is of mixed type and the content varies from 0.5 to 1.5%. The upper Oligocene and middle-upper Miocene source rocks in the north Sakhalin basin are typical, and the organic carbon content ranges from 1 to 5%. The level of organic matter catagenesis and conversion into hydrocarbons is high because of the high differential geothermal gradient in the basins, 30-50[degrees]C per km. Porous sandstones in the Miocene form the reservoirs in all fields with the exception of Okruzhnoye, where the pay zone is a siliceous claystone. Growth-fault rollovers and anticlines form the main traps ranging in area from 5 to 300 km[sup 2], with amplitudes between 100 and 600 m. both stratigraphic and structural traps have been identified. Considerable volumes of reserves are associated with the Miocene deposits of north Sakhalin, which are characterized by an optimum combination of oil source rocks, focused migration paths, and thick sequences of reservoirs and cap rocks. Six large fields have been discovered in the past 15 yr. Oil and condensate reserves stand at over 300 million MT, and gas reserves are about 900 billion m[sup 3].

  11. Colon interposition for oesophageal replacement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pascal A; Gilardoni, Adrian; Trousse, Delphine; D'Journo, Xavier B; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Doddoli, Christophe; Giudicelli, Roger; Fuentes, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The choice of the colon as an oesophageal substitute results primarily from the unavailability of the stomach. However, given its durability and function, colon interposition keeps elective indications in patients with benign or malignant oesophageal disease who are potential candidates for long survival. The choice of the colonic portion used for oesophageal reconstruction depends on the required length of the graft, and the encountered colonic vascular anatomy, the last being characterised by the near-invariability of the left colonic vessels, in contrast to the vascular pattern of the right side of the colon. Accordingly, the transverse colon with all or part of the ascending colon is the substitute of choice, positioned in the isoperistaltic direction, and supplied either from the left colic vessels for long grafts or middle colic vessels for shorter grafts. Technical key points are: full mobilisation of the entire colon, identification of the main colonic vessels and collaterals, and a prolonged clamping test to ensure the permeability of the chosen nourishing pedicle. Transposition through the posterior mediastinum in the oesophageal bed is the shortest one and thereby offers the best functional results. When the oesophageal bed is not available, the retrosternal route is the preferred alternative option. The food bolus travelling mainly by gravity makes straightness of the conduit of paramount importance. The proximal anastomosis is a single-layer hand-fashioned end-to-end anastomosis to prevent narrowing. When the stomach is available, the distal anastomosis is best performed at the posterior part of the antrum for the reasons of pedicle positioning and reflux prevention, and a gastric drainage procedure is added when the oesophagus and vagus nerves have been removed. In the other cases, a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop is preferable to prevent bile reflux into the colon. Additional procedures include re-establishment of the colonic continuity, a careful closure of

  12. Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bishnu P.; Miller, Sharon J.; Lee, Cameron; Gustad, Adam; Seibel, Eric J.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate a multi-spectral scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) that collects fluorescence images in vivo from three target peptides that bind specifically to murine colonic adenomas. This ultrathin endoscope was demonstrated in a genetically engineered mouse model of spontaneous colorectal adenomas based on somatic Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene inactivation. The SFE delivers excitation at 440, 532, 635 nm with <2 mW per channel. The target 7-mer peptides were conjugated to visible organic dyes, including 7-Diethylaminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DEAC) (λex=432 nm, λem=472 nm), 5-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine (5-TAMRA) (λex=535 nm, λem=568 nm), and CF-633 (λex=633 nm, λem=650 nm). Target peptides were first validated using techniques of pfu counting, flow cytometry and previously established methods of fluorescence endoscopy. Peptides were applied individually or in combination and detected with fluorescence imaging. The ability to image multiple channels of fluorescence concurrently was successful for all three channels in vitro, while two channels were resolved simultaneously in vivo. Selective binding of the peptide was evident to adenomas and not to adjacent normal-appearing mucosa. Multispectral wide-field fluorescence detection using the SFE is achievable, and this technology has potential to advance early cancer detection and image-guided therapy in human patients by simultaneously visualizing multiple over expressed molecular targets unique to dysplasia.

  13. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre-treatment with anti-MMP1 antibody. This study contributes to understanding mechanisms underlying muscarinic receptor agonist-induced promotion of colon cancer and, more importantly, indicates that blocking MMP1 expression and activation has therapeutic promise to stop or retard colon cancer invasion and dissemination. PMID:22027145

  14. Irritable bowel syndrome: a test of the colonic hyperalgesia hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Latimer, P; Campbell, D; Latimer, M; Sarna, S; Daniel, E; Waterfall, W

    1979-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that, patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), there is a primary hyperalgesia of the colon. Previous work, which examined these patients and normals, has not included subjects who provide a control for relevant psychological characteristics. We compared ratings of pain, following varying degrees of distension of the sigmoid colon, in normals, patients with IBS, and patients who were psychologically disturbed but without bowel symptoms. Psychological characteristics were assessed by a psychiatric interview and psychometric inventories; response to distension was tested by placing a tube in the rectosigmoid colon and successively inflating a nd deflating a balloon at its tip at 10 cm3 increments up to 50 cm3. Ratings of pain were recorded at each volume. The results indicated that the two patient groups were psychologically similar and both were more disturbed than normals. A linear relation was found between reports of pain and volume of distension in all three groups. There were no significant differences between the proportions of subjects experiencing pain in each group or the average of the ratings. There were no significant associations between the pain ratings and measures of anxiety, depression, neuroticism, and extraversion. The data do not support the hypothesis that colonic hyperalgesia is an important contributory factor in the etiology of the irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:537039

  15. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

  16. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Panis, C.; Victorino, V. J.; Herrera, A. C. S. A.; Cecchini, A. L.; Simão, A. N. C.; Tomita, L. Y.; Cecchini, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  17. Disorders of colonic motility in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Battle, W. M.; Cohen, J. D.; Snape, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Motility disturbances of the colon can give significant symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus. Constipation is a common complaint in these patients. Diarrhea associated with a generalized autonomic neuropathy can be very troublesome. There is a disturbance in the gastrocolonic response to eating in patients with diabetes mellitus who have constipation. These patients have no postprandial increase in colonic motility. However, their colonic smooth muscle contracts normally to the exogenous administration of neostigmine or metoclopramide. Stool softeners used in combination with the smooth muscle stimulants (neostigmine or metoclopramide) are helpful in treating constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diarrhea can be treated with loperamide or diphenoxylate. Biofeedback may be useful in treating incontinence associated with diarrhea in these patients. PMID:6670291

  18. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  19. Colon polyps and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kronborg, O

    2004-01-01

    Screening for colorectal neoplasia still is the best method of reducing the mortality due to colorectal cancer, and it is to be hoped that fecal occult blood test programs will expand in the near future and be combined with appropriate endoscopy. There are substantial problems with compliance in large programs with occult blood tests as well as endoscopy. Colonography and DNA testing in feces are not yet suitable for population screening. Diagnostic strategies in symptomatic patients are becoming more selective, in the hope of avoiding many superfluous examinations without increasing the risk of missing cancers. New results have confirmed the preventive effect of long-term aspirin use on adenoma recurrence, but the most cost-effective dosage is not clear; the mechanism of action is also uncertain, but seems to involve cyclooxygenase-2. The risk of adenomas does not appear to be associated with low consumption of folate, but with low intake of fiber. A number of biomarkers have been evaluated in polyp patients, but so far surveillance is still based on endoscopic experience, which is less than optimal. Attempts have been made to restrict the number of surveillance endoscopies and reduce the pathologist's workload. The place of argon plasma coagulation has been clearly defined in connection with piecemeal removal of large sessile adenomas. Advances have been achieved in surgery and radiotherapy for rectal cancer, and acute surgery for colonic cancer with severe obstruction will be less common after the introduction of the metal stent. PMID:14722849

  20. Characterization of pig colonic mucins.

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, F J; Hutton, D A; Jumel, K; Pearson, J P; Harding, S E; Allen, A

    1996-01-01

    Pig colonic mucins isolated from the adherent mucus gel in the presence of proteinase inhibitors were solubilized by homogenization and the component mucins fractionated by CsC1 density-gradient centrifugation. Polymeric and reduced pig colonic mucin were both largely excluded on Sepharose CL-2B, papain-digested colonic mucin was included. The M(r) values of polymeric, reduced and digested mucins were 5.5 x 10(6), 2.1 x 10(6) and 0.6 x 10(6) respectively. This suggests that pig colonic mucin is comprised of 2-3 subunits, each subunit containing 3-4 glycosylated regions. The intrinsic viscosities of polymeric, reduced and digested mucin were 240 ml.g-1, 100 ml.g-1 and 20 ml.g-1 respectively. Polymeric pig colonic mucin comprised 16% protein per mg of glycoprotein and was rich in serine, threonine and proline (43% of total amino acids). There were approx. 150 disulphide bridges and 53 free thiol groups per mucin polymer. A seventh of the protein content was lost on reduction. This protein was particularly rich in proline and the hydrophobic amino acids. Papain-digested pig colonic mucin contained 11% protein per mg of glycoprotein and was rich in serine, threonine, glutamate and aspartate. All types of amino acids with the exception of aspartate were lost on digestion. The amino acid analysis of the proteolytically digested regions of pig colonic mucin are markedly different to the tandem repeat regions of the human mucin genes shown to be expressed in the colon. PMID:8670173

  1. GECC: Gene Expression Based Ensemble Classification of Colon Samples.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Saima; Hussain, Mutawarra; Khan, Asifullah

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression deviates from its normal composition in case a patient has cancer. This variation can be used as an effective tool to find cancer. In this study, we propose a novel gene expressions based colon classification scheme (GECC) that exploits the variations in gene expressions for classifying colon gene samples into normal and malignant classes. Novelty of GECC is in two complementary ways. First, to cater overwhelmingly larger size of gene based data sets, various feature extraction strategies, like, chi-square, F-Score, principal component analysis (PCA) and minimum redundancy and maximum relevancy (mRMR) have been employed, which select discriminative genes amongst a set of genes. Second, a majority voting based ensemble of support vector machine (SVM) has been proposed to classify the given gene based samples. Previously, individual SVM models have been used for colon classification, however, their performance is limited. In this research study, we propose an SVM-ensemble based new approach for gene based classification of colon, wherein the individual SVM models are constructed through the learning of different SVM kernels, like, linear, polynomial, radial basis function (RBF), and sigmoid. The predicted results of individual models are combined through majority voting. In this way, the combined decision space becomes more discriminative. The proposed technique has been tested on four colon, and several other binary-class gene expression data sets, and improved performance has been achieved compared to previously reported gene based colon cancer detection techniques. The computational time required for the training and testing of 208 × 5,851 data set has been 591.01 and 0.019 s, respectively. PMID:26357050

  2. Identification of Molecular Targets for Predicting Colon Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yansheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Li; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Teng, Zhaowei; Wu, Feihu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Colon adenocarcinoma mostly happens at the junction of the rectum and is a common gastrointestinal malignancy. Accumulated evidence has indicated that colon adenocarcinoma develops by genetic alterations and is a complicated disease. The aim of this study was to screen differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and genes with diagnostic and prognostic potentials in colon adenocarcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study we screened DEMs and their target genes (DEGs) between 100 colon adenocarcinoma and normal samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database by using the DEseq toolkit in Bioconductor. Then Go enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis were performed on the selected differential genes by use of the DAVID online tool. A regulation network of miRNA-gene was constructed and analyzed by Cytoscape. Finally, we performed ROC analysis of 8 miRNAs and ROC curves were drawn. RESULTS A total of 159 DEMs and 1921 DEGs were screened, and 1881 pairs of miRNA-target genes with significant negative correlations were also obtained. A regulatory network of miRNA-gene, including 60 cancer-related genes and 47 miRNAs, was successfully constructed. In addition, 5 clusters with several miRNAs regulating a set of target genes simultaneously were identified through cluster analysis. There were 8 miRNAs involved in these 5 clusters, and these miRNAs could serve as molecular biomarkers to distinguish colon adenocarcinoma and normal samples indicated by ROC analysis. CONCLUSIONS The identified 8 miRNAs were closely associated with colon adenocarcinoma, which may have great clinical value as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and provide new ideas for targeted therapy. PMID:26868022

  3. Retinol Promotes In Vitro Growth of Proximal Colon Organoids through a Retinoic Acid-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Nibe, Yoichi; Akiyama, Shintaro; Matsumoto, Yuka; Nozaki, Kengo; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Ayumi; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Oshima, Shigeru; Watanabe, Mamoru; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Retinol (ROL), the alcohol form of vitamin A, is known to control cell fate decision of various types of stem cells in the form of its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). However, little is known about whether ROL has regulatory effects on colonic stem cells. We examined in this study the effect of ROL on the growth of murine normal colonic cells cultured as organoids. As genes involved in RA synthesis from ROL were differentially expressed along the length of the colon, we tested the effect of ROL on proximal and distal colon organoids separately. We found that organoid forming efficiency and the expression level of Lgr5, a marker gene for colonic stem cells were significantly enhanced by ROL in the proximal colon organoids, but not in the distal ones. Interestingly, neither retinaldehyde (RAL), an intermediate product of the ROL-RA pathway, nor RA exhibited growth promoting effects on the proximal colon organoids, suggesting that ROL-dependent growth enhancement in organoids involves an RA-independent mechanism. This was confirmed by the observation that an inhibitor for RA-mediated gene transcription did not abrogate the effect of ROL on organoids. This novel role of ROL in stem cell maintenance in the proximal colon provides insights into the mechanism of region-specific regulation for colonic stem cell maintenance. PMID:27564706

  4. TPX2 is a novel prognostic marker for the growth and metastasis of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated an aberrant overexpression of the microtubule-associated protein TPX2 in colon cancer using a genome-wide gene expression profiling analysis. Here, we aim to investigate its expression pattern, clinical significance, and biological function in colon cancer. Methods TPX2 expression was analyzed in human colon cancer cell lines and tumor samples. The effect of TPX2 on cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis was examined in vitro and in vivo. Results TPX2 was overexpressed in 129 of the 203 (60.8%) colon cancer metastatic lesions, with the expression being significantly higher than that in primary cancerous tissue and normal colon mucosa. Overexpression of TPX2 was significantly associated with clinical staging, vessel invasion, and metastasis. In survival analyses, patients with TPX2 overexpression had worse overall survival and metastasis free survival, suggesting that deregulation of TPX2 may contribute to the metastasis of colon cancer. Consistent with this, suppression of TPX2 expression inhibited proliferation and tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, we found that TPX2 knockdown significantly attenuated the migration and invasion ability of colon cancer cells, which was further shown to be mechanistically associated with AKT-mediated MMP2 activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that TPX2 plays an important role in promoting tumorigenesis and metastasis of human colon cancer, and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:24341487

  5. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  7. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  8. Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy used to discriminate human colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Bianchi, Mariana; de Thomaz, André A.; Baratti, Mariana O.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Casco, Víctor H.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2013-02-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most diffused cancers in the Western World, ranking third worldwide in frequency of incidence after lung and breast cancers. Even if it is curable when detected and treated early, a more accurate premature diagnosis would be a suitable aim for both cancer prognostic and treatment. Combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation in colon cancer disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns between normal and malignant human colonic mucosa. Using a set of scoring methods significant differences both in the content, distribution and organization of stroma collagen fibrils, and lifetime components of NADH and FAD cofactors of human colon mucosa biopsies were found. Our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human colon cancer, and also suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics could be applied to other intestinal disorders, which are characterized by abnormal cell proliferation and collagen assembly.

  9. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2/MnSOD)/catalase and SOD2/GPx1 ratios as biomarkers for tumor progression and metastasis in prostate, colon, and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miar, Ana; Hevia, David; Muñoz-Cimadevilla, Henar; Astudillo, Aurora; Velasco, Julio; Sainz, Rosa M; Mayo, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    The role of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD2/MnSOD) during tumor progression has been studied for several decades with controversial results. While SOD2 downregulation was initially associated with tumor initiation and was proposed as a tumor suppressor gene, recent studies have reported that SOD2 might favor tumor progression and dissemination. To our knowledge this is the first time that changes in SOD2 expression in three different types of tumors, i.e., prostate, lung, and colon cancer, are studied by analyzing both SOD2 mRNA and protein levels in a total of 246 patients' samples. In prostate samples, SOD2 protein levels were also increased, especially in middle stage tumors. In the case of colon and lung tumors both mRNA and protein SOD2 levels were increased in malignant tissues compared to those in nontumor samples. More importantly, all metastases analyzed showed increased levels of SOD2 when compared to those of normal primary tissue and healthy adjacent tissue. Together, these results suggest that a common redox imbalance in these three types of tumor occurs at intermediate stages which then might favor migration and invasion, leading to a more aggressive cancer type. Consequently, the ratios SOD2/catalase and SOD2/Gpx1 could be considered as potential markers during progression from tumor growth to metastasis. PMID:25866291

  10. Are dietary fiber-induced alterations in colonic epithelial cell proliferation predictive of fiber's effect on colon cancer?

    PubMed

    Whiteley, L O; Klurfeld, D M

    2000-01-01

    Alterations in cell proliferation of the colon have been observed as a result of changes in amount and type of dietary fiber and in relation to risk of developing colon cancer. Although some human observational and intervention studies contribute to the database, most information results from experiments on rodents. Because of numerous contradictory reports linking dietary fiber, cell proliferation, and colon cancer, we undertook a critical review of existing methods in an attempt to explain the inconsistencies. Although there may be some individual types of dietary fiber that protect against chemically induced colon cancer, dietary fiber as a single entity does not appear to afford any consistent protection. Because of significant differences in experimental protocols among laboratories, it is not yet possible to state with certainty that increases in cell proliferation, induced by fiber consumption, are predictive of increased tumorigenesis. Much of what has been observed and interpreted as elevation of risk may simply be normal homeostatic changes in cell proliferation. Even though fermentation to short-chain fatty acids is a mechanistically attractive hypothesis to explain why fiber modulates cytokinetics, data do not consistently support short-chain fatty acids as biological intermediates in risk of colon cancer. The state of the art in this field has not yet progressed to the point where a clear effect of dietary fiber on cytokinetics and colon carcinogenesis can be assessed with any degree of certainty. Additional markers of apoptosis, differentiation, and cell-cell communication may be required for a more accurate analysis of the relation among fiber, cytokinetics, and colon cancer. PMID:10890023

  11. Hydroxy-α sanshool induces colonic motor activity in rat proximal colon: a possible involvement of KCNK9.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kunitsugu; Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Mase, Akihito; Imamura, Sachiko; Sudo, Yuka; Miyano, Kanako; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Various colonic motor activities are thought to mediate propulsion and mixing/absorption of colonic content. The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100), which is widely used for postoperative ileus in Japan, accelerates colonic emptying in healthy humans. Hydroxy-α sanshool (HAS), a readily absorbable active ingredient of TU-100 and a KCNK3/KCNK9/KCNK18 blocker as well as TRPV1/TRPA1 agonist, has been investigated for its effects on colonic motility. Motility was evaluated by intraluminal pressure and video imaging of rat proximal colons in an organ bath. Distribution of KCNKs was investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Current and membrane potential were evaluated with use of recombinant KCNK3- or KCNK9-expressing Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Defecation frequency in rats was measured. HAS dose dependently induced strong propulsive "squeezing" motility, presumably as long-distance contraction (LDC). TRPV1/TRPA1 agonists induced different motility patterns. The effect of HAS was unaltered by TRPV1/TRPA1 antagonists and desensitization. Lidocaine (a nonselective KCNK blocker) and hydroxy-β sanshool (a geometrical isomer of HAS and KCNK3 blocker) also induced colonic motility as a rhythmic propagating ripple (RPR) and a LDC-like motion, respectively. HAS-induced "LDC," but not lidocaine-induced "RPR," was abrogated by a neuroleptic agent tetrodotoxin. KCNK3 and KCNK9 were located mainly in longitudinal smooth muscle cells and in neural cells in the myenteric plexus, respectively. Administration of HAS or TU-100 increased defecation frequency in normal and laparotomy rats. HAS may evoke strong LDC possibly via blockage of the neural KCNK9 channel in the colonic myenteric plexus. PMID:25634809

  12. Tubulin glycylases are required for primary cilia, control of cell proliferation and tumor development in colon

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Cecilia; Papon, Laura; Cacheux, Wulfran; Marques Sousa, Patricia; Lascano, Valeria; Tort, Olivia; Giordano, Tiziana; Vacher, Sophie; Lemmers, Benedicte; Mariani, Pascale; Meseure, Didier; Medema, Jan Paul; Bièche, Ivan; Hahne, Michael; Janke, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    TTLL3 and TTLL8 are tubulin glycine ligases catalyzing posttranslational glycylation of microtubules. We show here for the first time that these enzymes are required for robust formation of primary cilia. We further discover the existence of primary cilia in colon and demonstrate that TTLL3 is the only glycylase in this organ. As a consequence, colon epithelium shows a reduced number of primary cilia accompanied by an increased rate of cell division in TTLL3-knockout mice. Strikingly, higher proliferation is compensated by faster tissue turnover in normal colon. In a mouse model for tumorigenesis, lack of TTLL3 strongly promotes tumor development. We further demonstrate that decreased levels of TTLL3 expression are linked to the development of human colorectal carcinomas. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role for tubulin glycylation in primary cilia maintenance, which controls cell proliferation of colon epithelial cells and plays an essential role in colon cancer development. PMID:25180231

  13. Tubulin glycylases are required for primary cilia, control of cell proliferation and tumor development in colon.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cecilia; Papon, Laura; Cacheux, Wulfran; Marques Sousa, Patricia; Lascano, Valeria; Tort, Olivia; Giordano, Tiziana; Vacher, Sophie; Lemmers, Benedicte; Mariani, Pascale; Meseure, Didier; Medema, Jan Paul; Bièche, Ivan; Hahne, Michael; Janke, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    TTLL3 and TTLL8 are tubulin glycine ligases catalyzing posttranslational glycylation of microtubules. We show here for the first time that these enzymes are required for robust formation of primary cilia. We further discover the existence of primary cilia in colon and demonstrate that TTLL3 is the only glycylase in this organ. As a consequence, colon epithelium shows a reduced number of primary cilia accompanied by an increased rate of cell division in TTLL3-knockout mice. Strikingly, higher proliferation is compensated by faster tissue turnover in normal colon. In a mouse model for tumorigenesis, lack of TTLL3 strongly promotes tumor development. We further demonstrate that decreased levels of TTLL3 expression are linked to the development of human colorectal carcinomas. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role for tubulin glycylation in primary cilia maintenance, which controls cell proliferation of colon epithelial cells and plays an essential role in colon cancer development. PMID:25180231

  14. Antioxidant effects of gastrointestinal digested purple carrot extract on the human cells of colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Kidoń, Marcin; Czapski, Janusz; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Olkowicz, Mariola; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrot (PC) is a potential dietary constituent, which represents a valuable source of antioxidants and can modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the gastrointestinal tract. Antioxidant capacity of a PC extract subjected to digestion process simulated in the artificial alimentary tract, including the stomach, small intestine and colon, was analyzed in normal human cells of colon mucosa. Results indicated that the extract obtained upon passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which could come into contact with the colonic cells in situ, was less potent than the extract, which was not subjected to digestion process. Digested PC extract exhibited intracellular ROS-inhibitory capacity, with 1mg/mL showing the ROS clearance of 18.4%. A 20.7% reduction in oxidative DNA damage due to colon mucosa cells' treatment with digested PC extract was observed. These findings indicate that PC extract is capable of colonic cells' protection against the adverse effects of oxidative stress. PMID:26213078

  15. Autofluorescence ratio imaging of human colonic adenomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, Katsuichi; Harada, Yoshinori; Wakabayashi, Naoki; Yamaoka, Yoshihisa; Dai, Ping; Tanaka, Hideo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Recently autofluorescence imaging (AFI) endoscopy, visualizing tissue fluorescence in combination with reflected light, has been adopted as a technique for detecting neoplasms in the colon and other organs. However, autofluorescence colonoscopy is not infallible, and improvement of the detection method can be expected to enhance the performance. Colonic mucosa contains metabolism-related fluorophores, such as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which may be useful for visualizing neoplasia in autofluorescence endoscopy. We examined sliced cross-sections of endoscopically resected tubular adenomas under a microscope. Fluorescence images acquired at 365-nm excitation (F365ex) and 405-nm excitation (F405ex), and reflectance images acquired at 550 nm (R550) were obtained. Fluorescence ratio (F365ex/F405ex) images and reflectance/fluorescence ratio (R550/F405ex) images were calculated from the acquired images. The fluorescence ratio images could distinguish adenomatous mucosa from normal mucosa more clearly than the reflectance/fluorescence ratio images. The results showed that the autofluorescence ratio imaging is a potential technique for increasing the diagnostic power of autofluorescence endoscopy.

  16. Adult colonic intussusception: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sasatomi, T; Oriishi, T; Nakano, R; Nozoe, Y; Tanaka, T; Horiuchi, H; Noake, T; Takeuchi, K; Tsuji, Y; Shirouzu, K

    2001-01-01

    Intussusception accounts for almost all cases of intestinal obstruction in children. In contrast, intussusception in adults is relatively rare. An 86-year-old Japanese female with rectal bleeding came to our hospital via ambulance. At first, colonoscopy findings revealed the sigmoid colon cancer. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic mass with a multiple concentric ring sign. Computed tomography showed a round fluid-filled cystic structure. Colon contrast studies demonstrated stenosis in the rectosigmoid colon. A laparotomy was performed. The sigmoid colon was intussuscepted to the rectosigmoid colon. We employed both rectosigmoid and sigmoid colon resection. The resected specimen showed that the disease was advanced sigmoid colon cancer with ulcer formation due to an ischemic change. Tumor was 4.5 cm x 2.0 cm in size. The disease was histopathologically diagnosed as advanced sigmoid colon cancer, well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. We report here a case of adult intussusception due to the sigmoid colon cancer. PMID:11501502

  17. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  18. The effect of Tookad-mediated photodynamic ablation of the prostate gland on adjacent tissues - in vivo study in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Dole, Kenneth C.; Barqawi, Al B.; Chen, Yang K.; Blanc, Dominique; Wilson, Brian C.; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (pd-bacteriopheophorbide) was investigated as an alternative modality for treating prostate cancer. Photodynamic effects on the prostate gland and its adjacent tissues were evaluated in a canine model. Interstitial prostate PDT was performed by irradiating individual lobes with a cylindrical diffuser fiber at various drug/light doses. The sensitivity of the adjacent tissues to Tookad PDT was determined by directly irradiating the surface of the bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus with a microlens fiber at various drug/light doses. The prostate and adjacent tissues were harvested one-week after the treatment and subjected to histopathological examination. PDT-induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. The bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus appeared to be sensitive to PDT although the Tookad PDT-induced responses in these tissues were minimal compared to that of the prostate gland at the same dose levels. Nevertheless, the protection of the adjacent tissues should be taken into consideration during the total prostate ablation process due to their sensitivity to PDT. The sensitivity of the prostatic urethra is worth further investigation. Direct intraurethral irradiation might provide an ideal means to determine the sensitivity of the prostatic urethra and might lead to transurethral PDT protocols for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:18046488

  19. Up-regulation of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Encheng; Huang, Qing; Wang, Ji; Fang, Chengfeng; Yang, Leilei; Zhu, Min; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Lihua; Dong, Milian

    2015-01-01

    Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3), belonging to the member of the novel Tim family, has been confirmed that it plays a critical negative role in regulating the immune responses against viral infection and carcinoma. Recently, it has also been reported that the over-expression of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors. However, the role of Tim-3 in colorectal cancer remains largely unknown. In the current study, we aim to investigate the expression of Tim-3 in colorectal carcinoma and discuss the relationship between Tim-3 expression and colon cancer prognosis, thus speculating the possible role of Tim-3 in colon cancer progression. Colon cancer tissues and paired normal tissue were obtained from 201 patients with colon cancer for preparation of tissue microarray. Tim-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The Tim-3 expression level was evaluated by q-RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry in four colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT116, LoVo, SW620). Tim-3 was expressed in 92.5% tumor tissue samples and 86.5% corresponding normal tissue samples. Expression of Tim-3 was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.0001). Tim-3 expression in colon cancer tissues is in correlation with colon cancer lymphatic metastasis and TNM (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Tim-3 expression could be a potential independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis result showed that patients with higher Tim-3 expression had a significantly shorter survival time than those with lower Tim-3 expression patients. Our results indicated that Tim-3 might participate in the tumorgenesis of colon cancer and Tim-3 expression might be a potential independent prognostic factor for patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:26339368

  20. Diagnosis potential of near infrared Mueller Matrix imaging for colonic adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic adenocarcinoma detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (<5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and adenocarcinomaous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  1. Ultrasonographic appearance of colon taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Fabijanić, D; Giunio, L; Ivani, N; Fabijanić, A; Mirić, D; Kardum, D

    2001-03-01

    We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite, and frequent stools in whom the routine ultrasonographic examination demonstrated a double-reflective, ribbon-like structure in the lumen of the initial segment of the ascending colon, which suggested colon taeniasis. Because the initial parasitologic analysis yielded negative results and application of albendazol did not have any therapeutic effect, the diagnosis was confirmed by barium enema and subsequently by parasitologic examination of proglottids passed in the stool after application of niclosamide. The double-reflective, ribbon-like structure in the lumen of the intestine seems to be specific to the ultrasonographic appearance of intestinal taeniasis. Transcutaneous ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract, performed as a screening method before conventional radiologic or endoscopic examination, can point to the ultimate diagnosis of colon taeniasis. PMID:11270533

  2. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  3. Spontaneous intramural hematoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Samuel; Gonçalves, Ana Rita; Araújo Correia, Luís

    2016-08-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with sudden left quadrant abdominal pain and hematochezia. There was no history of trauma. He denied other symptoms or taking off-the-counter medication. His medical history was relevant for ischemic and aortic-mitral valve disease with prosthetic valves for which he was medicated with aspirin and warfarin. On physical examination the patient presented normal vital signs with tenderness on palpation of the left side of the abdomen. Laboratory tests revealed moderate anemia (10.8 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (135.000x10^9 U/L) with therapeutic international normalized ratio (2.53). Colonoscopy revealed an extensive area of erythematous and bluish mucosa with an apparent torsion of the proximal descending colon around a volumous hematoma measuring 6.5x3 cm (Figure 1 A-C). Urgent abdominal CT confirmed the presence of a large intramural hematoma of the descending colon (Figure 2 A-B). A conservative approach was adopted with temporary suspension of anticoagulation. Given the high thrombotic risk, abdominal ultrasound was performed after 72 hours showing considerable reduction in the size of the hematoma. Anti-coagulation was then resumed without complications. One month later, colonoscopy was repeated showing complete healing of the mucosa. The increasing use of anti-aggregating and anti-coagulant therapy, especially in elderly patients, explains the increasing incidence of bleeding events seen in this population. However, gastrointestinal hematomas are estimated to occur in only 1 for every 250.000 anti-coagulated patients. Diagnosis is based on characteristic radiologic findings. While most parietal hematomas can be approached conservatively, surgery is indicated in the presence of complications or persistence of the hematoma. PMID:27554386

  4. Early Growth Response1and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression is Altered in Tumor Adjacent Prostate Tissue and Indicates Field Cancerization

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Fleet, Trisha M.; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Severns, Virginia; Shah, Satyan K.; Davis, Michael S.; Smith, Anthony Y.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field cancerization denotes the occurrence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. In prostate cancer, identification of field cancerization has several potential clinical applications. However, prostate field cancerization remains ill defined. Our previous work has shown up-regulated mRNA of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) in tissues adjacent to prostate cancer. METHODS Immunofluorescence data were analyzed quantitatively by spectral imaging and linear unmixing to determine the protein expression levels of EGR-1 and FAS in human cancerous, histologically normal adjacent, and disease-free prostate tissues. RESULTS EGR-1 expression was elevated in both structurally intact tumor adjacent (1.6× on average) and in tumor (3.0× on average) tissues compared to disease-free tissues. In addition, the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear EGR-1 expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent and tumor tissues. Similarly, FAS expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent (2.7× on average) and in tumor (2.5× on average) compared to disease-free tissues. CONCLUSIONS EGR-1 and FAS expression is similarly deregulated in tumor and structurally intact adjacent prostate tissues and defines field cancerization. In cases with high suspicion of prostate cancer but negative biopsy, identification of field cancerization could help clinicians target areas for repeat biopsy. Field cancerization at surgical margins on prostatectomy specimen should also be looked at as a predictor of cancer recurrence. EGR-1 and FAS could also serve as molecular targets for chemoprevention. PMID:22127986

  5. Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

  6. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  8. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  9. 1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 193.75. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 195.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  12. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  15. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  16. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  17. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  18. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Complications in exodontia--accidental dislodgment to adjacent anatomical areas.

    PubMed

    Grandini, S A; Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Rosa, A L; Soares, U N

    1993-01-01

    The authors report 4 cases of accidental dislodgement of teeth to adjacent anatomical areas during extraction. The causes and their prevention are discussed and solutions for the problem are suggested. PMID:8241759

  1. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  2. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL. LOOKING NORTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  3. Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west end of the complex near Highway 101. Detail of Holloshaft pump. View to the south. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  4. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO BRADLEY HAMMER; NOTE THIS IS THE SAME TOOL AS BEING FORGED ABOVE - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  6. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  7. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  9. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  10. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  11. VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURE (DOWNSTREAM SIDE). LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  12. Butyrate modulates antioxidant enzyme expression in malignant and non-malignant human colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Franziska; Wilhelm, Anne; Jablonowski, Nadja; Mothes, Henning; Greulich, Karl Otto; Glei, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The induction of antioxidant enzymes is an important mechanism in colon cancer chemoprevention, but the response of human colon tissue to butyrate, a gut fermentation product derived from dietary fiber, remains largely unknown. Therefore, our study investigated the effect of a butyrate treatment on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in matched human colon tissues of different transformation stages (n = 3-15 in each group) ex vivo. By performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and spectrophotometric measurements, we found an increase in SOD2 at expression and activity level in colonic adenocarcinomas (mRNA: 1.96-fold; protein: 1.41-fold, activity: 1.8-fold; P < 0.05). No difference was detectable for CAT between normal, adenoma, and carcinoma colon tissues. Treatment of normal colon epithelium (12 h) with a physiologically relevant concentration of butyrate (10 mM) resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CAT mRNA (1.24-fold) and protein (1.39-fold), without affecting the enzymatic activity. Consequently, preliminary experiments failed to show any protective effect of butyrate against H2 O2 -mediated DNA damage. Despite a significantly lowered SOD2 transcript (0.51-fold, P < 0.01) and, to a lesser extent, protein level (0.86-fold) after butyrate exposure of normal colon cells, the catalytic activity was significantly enhanced (1.19-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting an increased protection against tissue superoxide radicals. In malignant tissues, greater variations in response to butyrate were observed. Furthermore, both enzymes showed an age-dependent decrease in activity in normal colon epithelium (CAT: r = -0.49, P = 0.09; SOD2: r = -0.58, P = 0.049). In conclusion, butyrate exhibited potential antioxidant features ex vivo but cellular consequences need to be investigated more in depth. PMID:24677319

  13. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Fatemeh; Sutherland, John B; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the colonic microbial ecosystem, making the host vulnerable to infection by commensal microorganisms or nosocomial pathogens. In this minireview, the impacts of antimicrobials, individually and in combinations, on the human colonic microflora are discussed. PMID:19337440

  14. Host Immune Defense Peptide LL-37 Activates Caspase-Independent Apoptosis and Suppresses Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shun X.; Cheng, Alfred S.L.; To, Ka F.; Tong, Joanna H.M.; Li, May S.; Shen, Jin; Wong, Clover C.M.; Zhang, Lin; Chan, Ruby L.Y.; Wang, Xiao J.; Ng, Simon S.M.; Chiu, Lawrence C.M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Gallo, Richard L.; Chan, Francis K.L.; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Wu, William K.K.; Cho, Chi H.

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidins are a family of bacteriocidal polypeptides secreted by macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). LL-37, the only human cathelicidin, has been implicated in tumorigenesis, but there has been limited investigation of its expression and function in cancer. Here, we report that LL-37 activates a p53-mediated, caspase-independent apoptotic cascade that contributes to suppression of colon cancer. LL-37 was expressed strongly in normal colon mucosa but downregulated in colon cancer tissues, where in both settings its expression correlated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive apoptotic cells. Exposure of colon cancer cells to LL-37 induced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation in a manner independent of caspase activation. Apoptogenic function was mediated by nuclear translocation of the proapoptotic factors, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG), through p53-dependent upregulation of Bax and Bak and downregulation of Bcl-2 via a pertussis toxin–sensitive G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway. Correspondingly, colonic mucosa of cathelicidin-deficient mice exhibited reduced expression of p53, Bax, and Bak and increased expression of Bcl-2 together with a lower basal level of apoptosis. Cathelicidin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility to azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis, establishing pathophysiologic relevance in colon cancer. Collectively, our findings show that LL-37 activates a GPCR-p53-Bax/Bak/Bcl-2 signaling cascade that triggers AIF/EndoG–mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells. PMID:23100468

  15. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  16. Approximating the largest eigenvalue of network adjacency matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2007-11-01

    The largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network plays an important role in several network processes (e.g., synchronization of oscillators, percolation on directed networks, and linear stability of equilibria of network coupled systems). In this paper we develop approximations to the largest eigenvalue of adjacency matrices and discuss the relationships between these approximations. Numerical experiments on simulated networks are used to test our results.

  17. Microbial colonization of retorted shale in field and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; McNair, V.M.; Li, S.W.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial colony forming units (cfu), as measured by a selective plating medium in surface horizons of retorted shale and adjacent soils, were similar (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ and 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ bacterial cfu/g dry weight) two months after disposal. However, unlike the soil that exhibited a diverse community, the retorted shale was dominated by a single Micrococcus species that composed 30% of the total bacterial community. After one and two years, the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the retorted shale and soil were again similar; however, no bacterium dominated either community. A core sample from the field lysimeter indicated microbial colonization to a depth of 150 cm after one year. An increased ratio of anaerobic to aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the deepest sample (120 to 150 cm) implied the development of anaerobic conditions. In the laboratory, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were shown capable of using, as the sole source of carbon, retorted shale in liquid cultures. Of the added nutritional amendments, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/, only phosphate markedly altered the colonization of retorted shale in liquid culture; shortening the lag phase of colonization from less than three to seven weeks to less than one week and leading to a greater aerobic heterotrophic population over the incubation interval. The addition of phosphate also led to a aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community composed entirely of Micrococcus species.

  18. Detection of human papillomavirus infection by molecular tests and its relation to colonic polyps and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gazzaz, Faten; Mosli, Mahmoud H.; Jawa, Hani; Sibiany, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively examine the association between human papilloma virus (HPV) colonization of the colonic mucosa and the development of colorectal polyps (CRPs), and colorectal cancer (CRC) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A case control study was performed between January 2013 and December 2014. All eligible patients underwent standard diagnostic colonoscopy. Patients with polyps or colorectal cancer were considered cases, while those with any other endoscopic findings were controls. Biopsy samples from polyps and tumors, and/or from normal colonic mucosa were acquired. Human papilloma virus colonization was detected using a hybrid capture technique of samples taken from both normal tissue, and CRPs and CRC. The association between HPV and CRPs/CRC was evaluated. Results: A total of 132 patients were recruited. The mean age was 53 (±15.9) years. Sixty patients had endoscopically detectable CRPs/CRC, and 72 had either inflammation or normal endoscopic evaluations. Only 4 (0.8%) of the 132 samples that were collected and analyzed were positive for the HPV gene. Statistical analysis did not identify any significant association between HPV colonization and the presence of CRPs/CRC. The only significant predictor of detecting CRPs/CRC on colonoscopy was symptomatic presentation (odds ratio=11.072, 95% confidence interval 4.7-26.2, p<0.001). Conclusion: Human papilloma virus colonic colonization is rare in Saudi Arabia. An association between HPV colonization and CRP/CRC development could not be identified in this cohort of patients. PMID:26905346

  19. Motility and chemotaxis mediate the preferential colonization of gastric injury sites by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Eitaro; Closson, Chet; Matthis, Andrea L; Schumacher, Michael A; Engevik, Amy C; Zavros, Yana; Ottemann, Karen M; Montrose, Marshall H

    2014-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1) significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB) or chemotaxis (ΔcheY). ΔmotB (10(6)) failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (10(6)) colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites, and thereby

  20. Motility and Chemotaxis Mediate the Preferential Colonization of Gastric Injury Sites by Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Aihara, Eitaro; Closson, Chet; Matthis, Andrea L.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Engevik, Amy C.; Zavros, Yana; Ottemann, Karen M.; Montrose, Marshall H.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1) significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB) or chemotaxis (ΔcheY). ΔmotB (106) failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (106) colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites, and thereby biases

  1. Model based recovery of histological parameters starting from reflectance spectra of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidovic-Rowe, Dzena; Claridge, Ela

    2005-06-01

    Colon cancer alters the tissue macro-architecture. Changes include increase in blood content and distortion of the collagen matrix, which affect the reflectance spectra of the colon and its colouration. We have developed a physics-based model for predicting colon tissue spectra. The colon structure is represented by three layers: mucosa, submucosa and smooth muscle. Each layer is represented by parameters defining its optical properties: molar concentration and absorption coefficients of haemoglobins, describing absorption of light; size and density of collagen fibres; refractive index of the medium and collagen fibres, describing light scattering; and layer thicknesses. Spectra were calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The output of the model was compared to experimental data comprising 50 spectra acquired in vivo from normal tissue. The extracted histological parameters showed good agreement with known values. An experiment was carried out to study the differences between normal and abnormal tissue. These were characterised by increased blood content and decreased collagen density, which is consistent with known differences between normal and abnormal tissue. This suggests that histological quantities of the colon could be computed from its reflectance spectra. The method is likely to have diagnostic value in the early detection of colon cancer.

  2. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... and rectal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Camptosar ( ...

  3. Teaching about the Colonization of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate course, The Colonization of Space, which introduces nonscience majors at the University of North Florida to current topics in the exploration, industrialization, and colonization of space. References to the audiovisual resources and literature are also included. (HM)

  4. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  5. Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159556.html Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer But researchers say ... 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have identified five new gene mutations that may be tied to colon ...

  6. Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159004.html Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50 Incidence up ... TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Although overall colon cancer rates are declining, the rates among Americans ...

  7. Evolving colon injury management: a review.

    PubMed

    Greer, Lauren T; Gillern, Suzanne M; Vertrees, Amy E

    2013-02-01

    The colon is the second most commonly injured intra-abdominal organ in penetrating trauma. Management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 200 years. Traumatic colon injuries can have a wide spectrum of severity, presentation, and management options. There is strong evidence that most non-destructive colon injuries can be successfully managed with primary repair or primary anastomosis. The management of destructive colon injuries remains controversial with most favoring resection with primary anastomosis and others favor colonic diversion in specific circumstances. The historical management of traumatic colon injuries, common mechanisms of injury, demographics, presentation, assessment, diagnosis, management, and complications of traumatic colon injuries both in civilian and military practice are reviewed. The damage control revolution has added another layer of complexity to management with continued controversy. PMID:23336650

  8. STUDIES OF DBP-INDUCED COLON CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of colon carcinomas by trihalomethanes in rats may be relevant to epidemiological findings of increased incidences of colon-rectal cancer associated with exposure to chlorination byproducts. These studies have demonstrated that the brominated THMs in drinking water ind...

  9. Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159556.html Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer But researchers say ... 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have identified five new gene mutations that may be tied to colon ...

  10. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintain a healthy bacterial composition, known as your microflora. “Your microflora plays a crucial role in protecting your body ... potassium Kidney damage Plus, colon cleansing changes your microflora. “You may think you’re getting rid of ...

  11. Implications of the results of colonization experiments for designing riparian restoration projects adjacent to agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many headwater streams and their riparian habitats in the Midwestern United States have been modified for agricultural drainage. Agricultural drainage often results in reductions of physical habitat diversity, shifts from woody to herbaceous riparian vegetation, and the loss of riparian habitat. T...

  12. [Colonic aganglionosis with ileal involvement. Ileocolic plasty].

    PubMed

    Núñez, R; Cabrera, R; Agulla, E; Moreno, C; Serrano, A; Ortiz, C; Blesa, E

    2001-04-01

    During 1994 through 1999, we have treated five patients (3 boys, 2 girls) with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) and ileal involvement. In three of them we performed a diverting ileostomy in the neonatal period and at the age of four and five months respectively in the remaining two patients, due to intestinal obstruction. In these two last patients a diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease was made by anorectal manometry and rectal biopsies in the neonatal period. During laparotomy, a cutaneous ileostomy was created in all patients at the distal end of normal ileum, which was 30 to 110 cm (mean = 71 +/- 37 cm) from the ileocecal valve. After operation, a short bowel syndrome developed in three patients causing fluid and nutritional problems that required prolonged total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The definitive operative repair is performed at 4.5 to 14 months (mean = 8 +/- 3.7 months) by a 12 to 20 cm side-to-side ileocolostomy created between the ileum and aganglionic ascending color (Boley procedure) and ileorectal primary anastomosis (Rehbein procedure) using a circular stapler. Rectal dilatation, irrigation of the colon with saline, loperamide hydrochloride and resincholestyramine were begun in all patients postoperatively. Oral antibiotic prophylaxis, was given to the three patients who suffered from SBS. Oral feedings with semielemental diet were tolerated once stools were semiformed and TPN was discontinued at 8 to 34 days (mean = 21 +/- 1.7 days). postoperatively. After the definitive operation, enterocolitis developed in two patients, requiring one of them a short hospitalization during the episode. A possible explanation for the low incidence of enterocolitis in this series is the systematic postoperative use of irrigations of the colon with saline in all patients. These five patients have been followed-up for growth, development, bowel habit and continence. Follow-up has ranged from 15 to 62 months (mean = 32.2 +/- 19.2 months). Presently, all patients in

  13. [Effects of trimebutine on colonic propulsion in mice].

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Onoda, Y

    1992-06-01

    Effects of oral administration of trimebutine on colonic propulsion in conscious mice were studied by measuring the time required to evacuate a bead which had been inserted into the colon, and compared with those of metoclopramide and domperidone. In normal animals, trimebutine (10 and 50 mg/kg), metoclopramide (50 mg/kg) and domperidone (50 mg/kg) had no effect on the bead evacuation. Metoclopramide and domperidone at 30 mg/kg showed no effect on the delay of colonic propulsion induced by clonidine, while trimebutine (10 and 30 mg/kg) restored the delay significantly. Trimebutine also showed restoration of the delay induced by loperamide. On the acceleration of the propulsion induced by neostigmine, trimebutine (10 and 30 mg/kg) showed an inhibition. In addition, trimebutine (3-30 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed the development of soft feces and/or diarrhea induced by neostigmine. According to the results, it is concluded that trimebutine produces both acceleration and inhibition on the colonic propulsion in mice. PMID:1457960

  14. Root Infection and Systemic Colonization of Maize by Colletotrichum graminicola▿

    PubMed Central

    Sukno, Serenella A.; García, Verónica M.; Shaw, Brian D.; Thon, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola is a filamentous ascomycete that causes anthracnose disease of maize. While the fungus can cause devastating foliar leaf blight and stalk rot diseases, little is known about its ability to infect roots. Previously published reports suggest that C. graminicola may infect maize roots and that root infections may contribute to the colonization of aboveground plant tissues, leading to disease. To determine whether C. graminicola can infect maize roots and whether root infections can result in the colonization of aboveground plant tissues, we developed a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain and used it to study the plant root colonization and infection process in vivo. We observed structures produced by other root pathogenic fungi, including runner hyphae, hyphopodia, and microsclerotia. A mosaic pattern of infection resulted from specific epidermal and cortical cells becoming infected by intercellular hyphae while surrounding cells were uninfected, a pattern that is distinctly different from that described for leaves. Interestingly, falcate conidia, normally restricted to acervuli, were also found filling epidermal cells and root hairs. Twenty-eight percent of plants challenged with soilborne inoculum became infected in aboveground plant parts (stem and/or leaves), indicating that root infection can lead to asymptomatic systemic colonization of the plants. Many of the traits observed for C. graminicola have been previously reported for other root-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that these traits are evolutionally conserved in multiple fungal lineages. These observations suggest that root infection may be an important component of the maize anthracnose disease cycle. PMID:18065625

  15. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  16. Mortality of passerines adjacent to a North Carolina corn field treated with granular carbofuran.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Tom; Smith, Milton R.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1996-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were collected during an epizootic in southeastern North Carolina (USA). Activity of brain cholinesterase (ChE) was inhibited by 14 to 48% in three of five specimens, and returned to normal levels after incubation. Gastrointestinal tracts were analyzed for 30 anti-ChE agents. Carbofuran, the only compound detected, was present in all specimens at levels from 5.44 to 72.7 μg/g wet weight. Application of granular carbofuran in an adjacent corn field, results of necropsy examinations, and chemical analyses are consistent with a diagnosis of carbofuran poisoning in these specimens.

  17. Ectopic expression of the chemokine CXCL17 in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Lina; Hammarström, Marie-Louise; Lindmark, Gudrun; Hammarström, Sten; Sitohy, Basel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The novel chemokine CXCL17 acts as chemoattractant for monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. CXCL17 also has a role in angiogenesis of importance for tumour development. Methods: Expression of CXCL17, CXCL10, CXCL9 and CCL2 was assessed in primary colon cancer tumours, colon carcinoma cell lines and normal colon tissue at mRNA and protein levels by real-time qRT–PCR, immunohistochemistry, two-colour immunofluorescence and immunomorphometry. Results: CXCL17 mRNA was expressed at 8000 times higher levels in primary tumours than in normal colon (P<0.0001). CXCL17 protein was seen in 17.2% of cells in tumours as compared with 0.07% in normal colon (P=0.0002). CXCL10, CXCL9 and CCL2 mRNAs were elevated in tumours but did not reach the levels of CXCL17. CXCL17 and CCL2 mRNA levels were significantly correlated in tumours. Concordant with the mRNA results, CXCL10- and CXCL9-positive cells were detected in tumour tissue, but at significantly lower numbers than CXCL17. Two-colour immunofluorescence and single-colour staining of consecutive sections for CXCL17 and the epithelial cell markers carcinoembryonic antigen and BerEP4 demonstrated that colon carcinoma tumour cells indeed expressed CXCL17. Conclusions: CXCL17 is ectopically expressed in primary colon cancer tumours. As CXCL17 enhances angiogenesis and attracts immune cells, its expression could be informative for prognosis in colon cancer patients. PMID:26889977

  18. Prognostic value of miR-221-3p, miR-342-3p and miR-491-5p expression in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Kun; Yang, Jing; Guo, Zhenhua; Hu, Yuemei; Sheng, Haihui; Gao, Hengjun; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in colon cancer initiation and progression, and may serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for colon cancer. Here, we investigated the levels of miR-9-1, miR-203-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-342-3p, miR-491-5p and miR-503-5p in 90 pairs of colon cancer and adjacent normal tissues, and explored the relationship between their expression and clinical outcome of colon cancer. Five miRNAs (miR-203-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-342-3p, miR-491-5p and miR-503-5p) were dysregulated in colon cancer tissue (P < 0.05). The levels of miR-503-5p in larger tumors (≥ 6 cm) were higher than those in smaller ones (< 6 cm) (P = 0.031), while the levels of miR-203-3p and miR-491-5p in patients aged 70 years and older were higher than those in patients aged younger than 70 years (P = 0.019 and 0.049, respectively). The high levels of miR-221-3p (HR = 2.416, 95% CI 1.314-4.445, P = 0.005), miR-342-3p (HR = 1.807, 95% CI 1.003-3.253, P = 0.049) and miR-491-5p (HR = 1.868, 95% CI 1.032-3.384, P = 0.039) were significantly associated with worse survival time. Moreover, combination analysis of miR-221-3p, miR-342-3p and miR-491-5p expression revealed that patients with 3 highly expressed miRNAs had lower survival rates compared with those with zero-to-two highly expressed miRNAs (HR = 2.100, 95% CI 1.157-3.813, P = 0.015), especially those with TNM stages I and II (HR = 4.204,95% CI 1.762-10.030, P = 0.001). Our results suggest that the three-miRNA signature may help doctors better predict prognosis and guide treatment decisions for colon cancer. PMID:25075256

  19. Involvement of N-acetyl-lactosamine-containing sugar structures in the liver metastasis of mouse colon carcinoma (colon 26) cells.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, H; Ito, M; Miura, Y; Hirano, H

    1994-01-01

    Histochemical aspects of the process of experimentally induced metastasis were examined by light and electron microscopy with labelled lectins employed as a probe. Mouse colon carcinoma cells (colon 26) were injected into the spleen of Balb/c mice and liver metastasis was induced. Among the lectins tested, Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin (ECA) stained the metastasized colon 26 cells strongly compared with the heterogeneous and faint staining in non-metastasized tumour foci in the spleen or in the subcutaneous space. Other lectins, such as Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA-E) and Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA), having specificity for branched complex type sugar chains, did not show any differences between metastasized cells and non-metastasized tumour foci. In addition, N-acetyl-lactosamine, a specific inhibitor of ECA binding, significantly inhibited the attachment of suspended colon 26 cells to sectioned unfixed normal liver tissue. These results indicate that the expression of galactose (Gal) beta 1-4 N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residues of branched complex type sugar chains having specificity for ECA are important for the interaction process of carcinoma cells with hepatic cells in the process of liver metastasis. PMID:7532448

  20. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  1. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3-4 ACDR+C4-6 ACDF+C6-7ACDR; hybrid C3-5ACDF+C5-6ACDR+C6-7ACDR; hybrid C3-4ACDR+C4-5ACDR+C5-7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. RESULTS Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3-C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. CONCLUSIONS Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  2. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  3. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  4. Spectrally resolved fluorescence imaging of human colonic adenomas.

    PubMed

    Chwirot, B W; Kowalska, M; Sypniewska, N; Michniewicz, Z; Gradziel, M

    1999-06-01

    Native fluorescence (autofluorescence) of human tissues can be a valuable source of diagnostic information for detecting premalignant and malignant lesions in the human body. Digital imaging of autofluorescence may be useful for localization of such lesions during endoscopic examinations. Tissue fluorescence of 31 adenomatous polyps obtained from 16 patients has been excited in vitro using the 325 nm line of a He-Cd laser. Digital images of the autofluorescence are recorded in six spectral bands. This study provides new data about the spatial distributions of autofluorescence intensities emitted in different spectral bands by colonic adenomatous lesions and normal colonic mucosa. Areas characterized by autofluorescence intensity lower than in normal mucosa are found for a majority of the polyps under study. The observed patterns of spatial distribution differ for the different spectral bands and for different polypoid lesions. No inverse correlation is found between the emission intensity and the thickness of colonic mucosa. The results indicate the spectral bands most useful for diagnostic applications and demonstrate the complexity of the optical processes involved in shaping both the spectra and intensities of the autofluorescence. PMID:10515079

  5. Best Merge Region Growing Segmentation with Integrated Non-Adjacent Region Object Aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Montesano, Paul M.; Gofman, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Best merge region growing normally produces segmentations with closed connected region objects. Recognizing that spectrally similar objects often appear in spatially separate locations, we present an approach for tightly integrating best merge region growing with non-adjacent region object aggregation, which we call Hierarchical Segmentation or HSeg. However, the original implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg required excessive computing time even for moderately sized images because of the required intercomparison of each region with all other regions. This problem was previously addressed by a recursive approximation of HSeg, called RHSeg. In this paper we introduce a refined implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg that reduces the computational requirements of HSeg without resorting to the recursive approximation. In this refinement, HSeg s region inter-comparisons among non-adjacent regions are limited to regions of a dynamically determined minimum size. We show that this refined version of HSeg can process moderately sized images in about the same amount of time as RHSeg incorporating the original HSeg. Nonetheless, RHSeg is still required for processing very large images due to its lower computer memory requirements and amenability to parallel processing. We then note a limitation of RHSeg with the original HSeg for high spatial resolution images, and show how incorporating the refined HSeg into RHSeg overcomes this limitation. The quality of the image segmentations produced by the refined HSeg is then compared with other available best merge segmentation approaches. Finally, we comment on the unique nature of the hierarchical segmentations produced by HSeg.

  6. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S.; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. Methods 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. Conclusions In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not. PMID:26413782

  7. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  8. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  9. The Amount of Keratins Matters for Stress Protection of the Colonic Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, M. Nadeem; Silvander, Jonas S. G.; Helenius, Terhi O.; Lähdeniemi, Iris A. K.; Alam, Catharina; Fortelius, Lina E.; Holmsten, Rickard O.; Toivola, Diana M.

    2015-01-01

    Keratins (K) are important for epithelial stress protection as evidenced by keratin mutations predisposing to human liver diseases and possibly inflammatory bowel diseases. A role for K8 in the colon is supported by the ulcerative colitis-phenotype with epithelial hyperproliferation and abnormal ion transport in K8-knockout (K8−/−) mice. The heterozygote knockout (K8+/−) colon appears normal but displays a partial ion transport-defect. Characterizing the colonic phenotype we show that K8+/− colon expresses ~50% less keratins compared to K8 wild type (K8+/+) but de novo K7 expression is observed in the top-most cells of the K8+/− and K8−/− crypts. The K8+/− colonic crypts are significantly longer due to increased epithelial hyperproliferation, but display no defects in apoptosis or inflammation in contrast to K8−/−. When exposed to colitis using the dextran sulphate sodium-model, K8+/− mice showed higher disease sensitivity and delayed recovery compared to K8+/+ littermates. Therefore, the K8+/− mild colonic phenotype correlates with decreased keratin levels and increased sensitivity to experimental colitis, suggesting that a sufficient amount of keratin is needed for efficient stress protection in the colonic epithelia. PMID:26000979

  10. Activation of ERK signaling and induction of colon cancer cell death by piperlongumine.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, H; Kibble, K; Zeng, H; Moyer, M P; Reindl, K M

    2013-09-01

    Piperlongumine (PPLGM) is a bioactive compound isolated from long peppers that shows selective toxicity towards a variety of cancer cell types including colon cancer. The signaling pathways that lead to cancer cell death in response to PPLGM exposure have not been previously identified. Our objective was to identify the intracellular signaling mechanisms by which PPLGM leads to enhanced colon cancer cell death. We found that PPLGM inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in time- and concentration-dependent manners, but was not toxic toward normal colon mucosal cells at concentrations below 10 μM. Acute (0-60 min) and prolonged (24h) exposure of HT-29 cells to PPLGM resulted in phosphorylation of ERK. To investigate whether ERK signaling was involved in PPLGM-mediated cell death, we treated HT-29 cells with the MEK inhibitor U0126, prior to treating with PPLGM. We found that U0126 attenuated PPLGM-induced activation of ERK and partially protected against PPLGM-induced cell death. These results suggest that PPLGM works, at least in part, through the MEK/ERK pathway to result in colon cancer cell death. A more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which PPLGM induces colon cancer cell death will be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to treat colon cancer. PMID:23603476

  11. Activation of ERK signaling and induction of colon cancer cell death by piperlongumine

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, H; Kibble, K; Zeng, H; Moyer, MP; Reindl, KM

    2013-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PPLGM) is a bioactive compound isolated from long peppers that shows selective toxicity towards a variety of cancer cell types including colon cancer. The signaling pathways that lead to cancer cell death in response to PPLGM exposure have not been previously identified. Our objective was to identify the intracellular signaling mechanisms by which PPLGM leads to enhanced colon cancer cell death. We found that PPLGM inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in time- and concentration-dependent manners, but was not toxic toward normal colon mucosal cells at concentrations below 10 μM. Acute (0-60 minutes) and prolonged (24 hours) exposure of HT-29 cells to PPLGM resulted in phosphorylation of ERK. To investigate whether ERK signaling was involved in PPLGM-mediated cell death, we treated HT-29 cells with the MEK inhibitor U0126, prior to treating with PPLGM. We found that U0126 attenuated PPLGM-induced activation of ERK and partially protected against PPLGM-induced cell death. These results suggest that PPLGM works, at least in part, through the MEK/ERK pathway to result in colon cancer cell death. A more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which PPLGM induces colon cancer cell death will be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to treat colon cancer. PMID:23603476

  12. [Measures to anatomic variations of the colonic vessels in laparoscopic operations].

    PubMed

    Pan, Kai

    2013-10-01

    In laparoscopic colorectal resection, the poor blood supply of the anastomosis after tumor excision is difficult to be determined during the operations sometimes. The change in blood supply of the bowel is mainly due to the mesenteric anatomy and the operative techniques. The direct blood supply of colon is the marginal vessels in the mesentery. The integrity and patency of the marginal vessels determine the vitality of the bowel. However, the marginal vessels are different in diameter, pulsation or even discontinue in various areas, affecting the excision of the colon and following anastomosis. The most common three dangerous areas to anastomosis include:(1)area between ileocolic artery and right colonic artery; (2)area between middle colonic artery and left colonic artery-the Griffiths point. (3)area between the terminal branch of sigmoid colonic artery and superior rectal artery-Sudeck dangerous area. In laparoscopic colorectal resection, one should pay attention to protect the blood supply of the bowel and the marginal blood vessels, and be vigilant to the three vascular variations above mentioned. The vessels should be ligated accurately to ensure sufficient blood supply to the anastomosis and consequent normal healing of the rectal and colonic anastomosis. More attention should be paid to the elderly, morbid, and diabetic patients. If the safety of the anastomosis is unsure, prophylactic ileostomy should be performed. PMID:24158864

  13. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Colon Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Chi H L; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Zhang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Obesity induces chronic, low-grade inflammation, which increases the risk of colon cancer. We investigated the preventive effects of Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation in a mouse colon. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=7) were fed a HFD (HFD group), HFD plus BARD (10 mg/kg) in drinking water (HFD/BARD group), or normal laboratory chow diet (LFD group) for 21 weeks. In HFD mice, BARD reduced colon thickness and decreased colon weight per length. This was associated with an increase in colon crypt depth and the number of goblet cells per crypt. BARD reduced the expression of F4/80 and CD11c but increased CD206 and IL-10, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD prevented an increase of the intracellular pro-inflammatory biomarkers (NF-қB, p NF-қB, IL-6, TNF-α) and cell proliferation markers (Cox2 and Ki67). BARD prevented fat deposition in the colon wall and prevented microbial population changes. Overall, we report the preventive effects of BARD on colon inflammation in HFD-fed mice through its regulation of macrophages, NF-қB, cytokines, Cox2 and Ki67, fat deposition and microflora. PMID:26920068

  14. A20 restricts wnt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and suppresses colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ling; Oshima, Shigeru; Duong, Bao; Advincula, Rommel; Barrera, Julio; Malynn, Barbara A; Ma, Averil

    2013-01-01

    Colon carcinogenesis consists of a multistep process during which a series of genetic and epigenetic adaptations occur that lead to malignant transformation. Here, we have studied the role of A20 (also known as TNFAIP3), a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that restricts NFκB and cell death signaling, in intestinal homeostasis and tumorigenesis. We have found that A20 expression is consistently reduced in human colonic adenomas than in normal colonic tissues. To further investigate A20's potential roles in regulating colon carcinogenesis, we have generated mice lacking A20 specifically in intestinal epithelial cells and interbred these with mice harboring a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC(min)). While A20(FL/FL) villin-Cre mice exhibit uninflamed intestines without polyps, A20(FL/FL) villin-Cre APC(min/+) mice contain far greater numbers and larger colonic polyps than control APC(min) mice. We find that A20 binds to the β-catenin destruction complex and restricts canonical wnt signaling by supporting ubiquitination and degradation of β-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, acute deletion of A20 from intestinal epithelial cells in vivo leads to enhanced expression of the β-catenin dependent genes cyclinD1 and c-myc, known promoters of colon cancer. Taken together, these findings demonstrate new roles for A20 in restricting β-catenin signaling and preventing colon tumorigenesis. PMID:23671587

  15. Serum vitamin D and colonic vitamin D receptor in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Delgado, Yamilka; Isidro, Raymond A; Torres, Esther A; González, Alexandra; Cruz, Myrella L; Isidro, Angel A; González-Keelan, Carmen I; Medero, Priscilla; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine serum vitamin D levels and colonic vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients and correlate these with histopathology. METHODS: Puerto Rican IBD (n = 10) and non-IBD (n = 10) patients ≥ 21 years old scheduled for colonoscopy were recruited. Each patient completed a questionnaire and provided a serum sample and a colonic biopsy of normal-appearing mucosa. For IBD patients, an additional biopsy was collected from visually diseased mucosa. Serum vitamin D levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections from colonic biopsies were classified histologically as normal or colitis (active/inactive), and scored for the degree of inflammation present (0-3, inactive/absent to severe). Tissue sections from colonic biopsies were also stained by immunohistochemistry for VDR, for which representative diagnostic areas were photographed and scored for staining intensity using a 4-point scale. RESULTS: The IBD cohort was significantly younger (40.40 ± 5.27, P < 0.05) than the non-IBD cohort (56.70 ± 1.64) with a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (40% vs 20%, respectively) and insufficiency (70% vs 50%, respectively). Histologic inflammation was significantly higher in visually diseased mucosa from IBD patients (1.95 ± 0.25) than in normal-appearing mucosa from control patients (0.25 ± 0.08, P < 0.01) and from IBD patients (0.65 ± 0.36, P < 0.05) and correlated inversely with VDR expression in visually diseased colonic tissue from IBD patients (r = -0.44, P < 0.05) and from IBD patients with Crohn’s disease (r = -0.69, P < 0.05), but not in normal-appearing colonic tissue from control patients or IBD patients. Control and IBD patient serum vitamin D levels correlated positively with VDR expression in normal colon from control and IBD patients (r = 0.38, P < 0.05) and with patient age (r = 0.54, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION

  16. Hydrogen sulfide lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya C; Wang, Xiao J; Yu, Le; Chan, Francis K L; Cheng, Alfred S L; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y; Wu, William K K; Cho, Chi H

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H(2)S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC) and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116) were exposed to H(2)S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H(2)S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H(2)S was accompanied by G(1)-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip). Moreover, exposure to H(2)S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B(+) autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H(2)S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H(2)S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H(2)S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H(2)S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway. PMID:22679478

  17. A Wnt-kinase network alters nuclear localization of TCF-1 in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Najdi, Rani; Syed, Adeela; Arce, Laura; Theisen, Heidi; Ting, Ju-Hui T.; Atcha, Fawzia; Nguyen, Anthony V.; Martinez, Micaela; Holcombe, Randall F.; Edwards, Robert A.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Waterman, Marian L.

    2009-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated as the primary cause of colon cancer. However, the major transducers of Wnt signaling in the intestine, TCF-1 and TCF-4, have opposing functions. Knock-out of TCF-4 suppresses growth and maintenance of crypt stem cells, while knock-out of TCF-1 leads to adenomas. These phenotypes suggest that TCF-4 is Wnt-promoting while TCF-1 acts like a tumor suppressor. Our study of TCF expression in human colon crypts reveals a mechanistic basis for this paradox. In normal colon cells, a dominant negative isoform of TCF-1 (dnTCF-1) is expressed that is equally distributed between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. In colon cancer cells, TCF-1 is predominantly cytoplasmic. Localization is due to active nuclear export and is directed by an autocrine-acting Wnt ligand that requires CaMKII activity for secretion and a downstream step in the export pathway. TCF-4 remains nuclear; its unopposed activity is accompanied by downregulation of dnTCF-1 and increased expression of full-length isoforms. Thus, the dnTCF-1, TCF-4 balance is corrupted in cancer by two mechanisms, a Wnt/CaMKII kinase signal for nuclear export, and decreased dnTCF-1 expression. We propose that dnTCF-1 provides homeostatic regulation of Wnt signaling and growth in normal colon and alterations in nuclear export and promoter usage contribute to aberrant Wnt activity in colon cancer. PMID:19749792

  18. EFFECT OF CYLOOXYGENASE GENOTYPE AND DIETARY FISH OIL ON COLONIC EICOSANOIDS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Andrew P.; Djuric, Zora; Ren, Jianwei; Hong, Yu H.; Sen, Ananda; Lager, Corey; Jiang, Yan; Reuven, Shony; Smith, William L.; Brenner, Dean E.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary ω3 fatty acids can modulate substrate availability for cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, thus modulating downstream eicosanoid formation. This could be an alternative approach to using NSAIDs and other COX inhibitors for limiting PGE2 synthesis in colon cancer prevention. The aims of this study were to evaluate to what extent cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-derived products could be modulated by dietary fish oil in normal colonic mucosa, and to evaluate the role of COX-1 and COX-2 in formation of these products. Mice (wild-type, COX-1 null, or COX-2 null) were fed a diet supplying a broad mixture of fatty acids present in European/American diets, supplemented with either olive oil (oleate control diet) or menhaden (fish) oil ad libitum for 9–11 wk. Colonic eicosanoid levels were measured by LC-MS/MS, and proliferation was assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Dietary alteration of colonic arachidonic acid: eicosapentaenoic ratios resulted in large shifts in formation of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites. COX-1 knockout virtually abolished PGE2 formation but interestingly 12-HETE and 15-HETE formation was increased. The large changes in eicosanoid profiles were accompanied by relatively small changes in colonic crypt proliferation, but such changes in eicosanoid formation might have greater biological impact upon carcinogen challenge. These results indicate that in normal colon, inhibition of COX-2 would have little effect on reducing PGE2 levels. PMID:21937210

  19. Evaluation of the stress distribution change at the adjacent facet joints after lumbar fusion surgery: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianxiong; Jia, Haobo; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Weiguo; Yu, Jingtao; Feng, Rui; Wang, Jie; Xing, Dan; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Shaowen; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yang; Ma, Baoyi

    2014-07-01

    Spinal fusion surgery has been widely applied in clinical treatment, and the spinal fusion rate has improved markedly. However, its postoperative complications, especially adjacent segment degeneration, have increasingly attracted the attention of spinal surgeons. The most common pathological condition at adjacent segments is hypertrophic degenerative arthritis of the facet joint. To study the stress distribution changes at the adjacent facet joint after lumbar fusion with pedicle screw fixation, human cadaver lumbar spines were used in the present study, and electrical resistance strain gauges were attached on L1-L4 articular processes parallel or perpendicular to the articular surface of facet joints. Subsequently, electrical resistance strain gauge data were measured using anYJ-33 static resistance strain indicator with three types of models: the intact model, the laminectomy model, and the fusion model with pedicle screw fixation. The strain changes in the measurement sites indirectly reflect the stress changes. Significant differences in strain were observed between the normal and laminectomy state at all facet joints. Significant differences in strain were observed between the normal and the pedicle screw fixation fusion state at the L1/2 and L3/4 facet joints. The increased stress on the facet joints after lumbar fusion with pedicle screw fixation may be the cause of adjacent segment degeneration. PMID:24963037

  20. Colon Perforation and Budd-Chiari Syndrome in Behçet’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baş, Yılmaz; Güney, Güven; Uzbay, Pınar; Zobacı, Ethem; Ardalı, Selin; Özkan, Ayşegül Taylan

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 38 Final Diagnosis: Behçet’s disease Symptoms: Severe abdominal pain • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Parsiyel colectomy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Behçet’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease involving multiple systems, with vasculitis being the most important pathological feature. Multiple colon perforations are thought to be secondary to vasculitis and they occur in patients with ulcers. These may be encountered within the entire colon but most commonly in the ileocecal region. Intestinal perforation and Budd-Chiari syndrome are infrequent in Behçet’s disease, and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Budd-Chiari syndrome results from occlusion of either hepatic veins or adjacent inferior vena cava, or both. Case Report: We report a patient with Behçet’s disease having multiple perforations in the transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The patient also had Budd-Chiari syndrome due to inferior vena cava thrombosis extending into the right and middle hepatic vein. Our observations are presented with a review of the literature. Conclusions: In Behçet’s disease, treatment of colon perforation necessitates urgent surgery, whereas management of Budd-Chiari syndrome is directed towards the underlying cause. Behçet’s disease, as a chronic multisystemic disease with various forms of vasculitis, is resistant to medical and surgical treatment. Prognosis is worse in Behçet’s disease with colon perforation than that in Budd-Chiari syndrome alone. PMID:25934795

  1. Colonic motility in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Elisabetta; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Baldoni, Monia; Dore, Maria Pina

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammatory conditions affecting the gut may cause motility disturbances, and ulcerative colitis – one of the main disorders among the inflammatory bowel diseases – may display abnormal colonic motility. Aim To review the abnormalities of the large bowel in ulcerative colitis, by considering the motility, laboratory (in vitro) and pathological studies dealing with this topic. Methods A comprehensive online search of Medline and the Science Citation Index was carried out. Results Patients with ulcerative colitis frequently display colonic motor abnormalities, including lack of contractility, an increase of propulsive contractile waves, an excessive production of nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide nerves, interleukin 1 beta, neurotensin, tachykinins levels and the weaker action of substance P, likely related to a neuromuscular dysfunction due to the inflammatory process. Conclusions A better understanding of the pathophysiological grounds of altered colonic motility in ulcerative colitis may lead to a more in-depth knowledge of the accompanying symptoms and to better and more targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:25452840

  2. [Monoclonal gammopathy and primary colonic mantle cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Mohamed, G; Kochlef, A; Gargouri, D; Kilani, A; Elloumi, H; Ouakaa, A; Belhadj, N; Romani, M; Kharrat, J; Ghorbel, A

    2009-03-01

    The association of a monoclonal gammopathy (MG) with a B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a well-known phenomenon. It has been recognized in many subtypes of primary gastrointestinal lymphoma but its association with primary colonic mantle cell lymphoma has never been yet described. We report a 65-year-old man who presented with an exudative ascites and constipation. Serum electrophoresis showed a monoclonal peak in the gamma region of 45g/L and immunoelectrophoresis confirmed the presence of monoclonal gammopathy of IgM kappa type. Bone marrow aspirate was normal. Radiologic and endoscopic investigations evidenced a primary colonic mantle cell lymphoma. Although the association of an MG with an NHL and, in particular, to a primitive digestive location appears a rare phenomenon, endoscopic investigations in patients with MG appears legitimate in the presence of any digestive sign. PMID:18814941

  3. Resveratrol oligomers isolated from Carex species inhibit growth of human colon tumorigenic cells mediated by cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Gromek, Samantha; Niesen, Daniel; Seeram, Navindra P; Henry, Geneive E

    2011-08-24

    Research has shown that members of the Carex genus produce biologically active stilbenoids including resveratrol oligomers. This is of great interest to the nutraceutical industry given that resveratrol, a constituent of grape and red wine, has attracted immense research attention due to its potential human health benefits. In the current study, five resveratrol oligomers (isolated from Carex folliculata and Carex gynandra ), along with resveratrol, were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon cancer (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and normal human colon (CCD-18Co) cells. The resveratrol oligomers included one dimer, two trimers, and two tetramers: pallidol (1); α-viniferin (2) and trans-miyabenol C (3); and kobophenols A (4) and B (5), respectively. Although not cytotoxic, the resveratrol oligomers (1-5), as well as resveratrol, inhibited growth of the human colon cancer cells. Among the six stilbenoids, α-viniferin (2) was most active against the colon cancer cells with IC(50) values of 6-32 μM (>2-fold compared to normal colon cells). Moreover, α-viniferin (at 20 μM) did not induce apoptosis but arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) for the colon cancer but not the normal colon cells. This study adds to the growing body of knowledge supporting the anticancer effects of resveratrol and its oligomers. Furthermore, Carex species should be investigated for their nutraceutical potential given that they produce biologically active stilbenoids such as α-viniferin. PMID:21761862

  4. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. Colposcopy of vaginal and vulvar human papillomavirus and adjacent sites.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K

    1993-03-01

    Human papillomaviral infections can affect the entire lower female genital tract as multifocal or multicentric disease as well as the surrounding anatomic and adjacent sites. The traditional colposcopic methods are necessary to assist in the diagnosis and help differentiate these infections from other disease mimics. PMID:8392676

  6. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  7. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  9. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  10. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  11. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  16. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  17. Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent 1001-1007 East First Street (James K. Hill and Sons Pickle Works Building), facing east - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  19. 4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

  20. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  2. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points. 236.404 Section 236.404 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  3. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  4. ETV4 and Myeov knockdown impairs colon cancer cell line proliferation and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Alan C. . E-mail: amoss@bidmc.harvard.edu; Lawlor, Garrett; Murray, David; Tighe, Donal; Madden, Stephen F.; Mulligan, Anne-Marie; Keane, Conor O.; Brady, Hugh R.; Doran, Peter P.; MacMathuna, Padraic

    2006-06-23

    We have identified novel colorectal cancer-associated genes using NCBI's UNIGENE cDNA libraries. Colon cancer libraries were examined using Digital Differential Display and disease-associated genes were selected. Among these were ETV4 and MYEOV, novel colorectal cancer-associated genes. Samples of matched normal and neoplastic colon were obtained from human subjects and gene expression was quantified using real-time PCR. ETV4 gene expression was significantly increased in colonic neoplasia in comparison to matched normal colonic tissue (p < 0.05). Myeov expression was also increased in colon neoplasia in comparison to matched normal tissue. The effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of ETV4 and Myeov on cell proliferation and invasion was assessed. ETV4 knockdown resulted in a 90% decrease in cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and a 67% decrease in cell invasion. Myeov knockdown resulted in a 48% decrease in cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and a 36% decrease in cell invasion. These data suggest that ETV4 and Myeov may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Respiratory burst activity of intestinal macrophages in normal and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mahida, Y R; Wu, K C; Jewell, D P

    1989-01-01

    Macrophages isolated from normal mucosa (greater than 5 cm from tumour) and inflamed mucosa (from patients with inflammatory bowel disease) of colon and ileum were studied for their ability to undergo a respiratory burst as assessed by reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium to formazan. Using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonised zymosan as triggers, only a minority (median: 8% for zymosan and 9% for PMA) of macrophages isolated from normal colonic mucosa demonstrated release of oxygen radicals. In contrast, a significantly greater (median: 17% for zymosan and 45% for PMA) proportion of macrophages isolated from inflamed colonic mucosa were able to undergo respiratory burst. Studies with normal and inflamed ileum showed similar results. Stimulation of macrophages isolated from normal colon with interferon-gamma produced only a small increase in the proportion of cells showing release of oxygen radicals. We conclude that the respiratory burst capacity of majority of macrophages isolated from normal colon and ileum is downregulated and a greater proportion of macrophages isolated from inflamed colon and ileum are able to undergo a respiratory burst. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2511088

  6. Metabolomics Analysis Identifies Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Biomarkers of Colonization Resistance in Clindamycin-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Robin L. P.; Polinkovsky, Alex; Hurless, Kelly; Sitzlar, Brett; Eckart, Kevin; Tomas, Myreen; Deshpande, Abhishek; Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The intestinal microbiota protect the host against enteric pathogens through a defense mechanism termed colonization resistance. Antibiotics excreted into the intestinal tract may disrupt colonization resistance and alter normal metabolic functions of the microbiota. We used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that alterations in levels of bacterial metabolites in fecal specimens could provide useful biomarkers indicating disrupted or intact colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment. Methods To assess in vivo colonization resistance, mice were challenged with oral vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus or Clostridium difficile spores at varying time points after treatment with the lincosamide antibiotic clindamycin. For concurrent groups of antibiotic-treated mice, stool samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess changes in the microbiota and using non-targeted metabolic profiling. To assess whether the findings were applicable to another antibiotic class that suppresses intestinal anaerobes, similar experiments were conducted with piperacillin/tazobactam. Results Colonization resistance began to recover within 5 days and was intact by 12 days after clindamycin treatment, coinciding with the recovery bacteria from the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, both part of the phylum Firmicutes. Clindamycin treatment caused marked changes in metabolites present in fecal specimens. Of 484 compounds analyzed, 146 (30%) exhibited a significant increase or decrease in concentration during clindamycin treatment followed by recovery to baseline that coincided with restoration of in vivo colonization resistance. Identified as potential biomarkers of colonization resistance, these compounds included intermediates in carbohydrate or protein metabolism that increased (pentitols, gamma-glutamyl amino acids and inositol metabolites) or decreased (pentoses, dipeptides) with clindamycin treatment. Piperacillin

  7. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Information Page Synonym(s): Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure Table ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus? Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an abnormal ...

  8. Polymers for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H.; Sharma, P.; Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.

    2010-01-01

    The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739

  9. Historical and Current Trends in Colon Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Rivadeneira, David E.; Steele, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the evolution of the evaluation and management of colonic trauma, as well as the debate regarding primary repair versus fecal diversion. Their evidence-based review covers diagnosis, management, surgical approaches, and perioperative care of patients with colon-related trauma. The management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 50 years; here the authors describe a practical approach to the treatment and management of traumatic injuries to the colon based on the most current research. However, management of traumatic colon injuries remains a challenge and continues to be associated with significant morbidity. Familiarity with the different methods to the approach and management of colonic injuries will allow surgeons to minimize unnecessary complications and mortality. PMID:24294119

  10. The colon: Absorptive, seccretory and metabolic functions.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J G

    1975-01-01

    The role which the human colon fulfils in digestion and metabolism remains largely undocumented. Its capacity to conserve water and electrolytes is well known although how this is controlled is uncertain. In the animal kingdom, calcium and magnesium absorption from the colon are improtant as are absorption and synthesis of vitamins. The abundant microflora of the human colon gives it unique properties. Dietary residue is metabolised forming short-chain fatty acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane; whilst 20% of urea synthesised in man is broken down in the colon to ammonia, which is reabsorbed, and carbonic acid. The microflora also degrades a wide variety of organic compounds including food additives, drugs, bile salts, and cholesterol which may be relevant to the development of colon cancer. Regional differences in colonic function also exist making interpretation of data from this relatively inaccessible organ more difficult. PMID:1205009

  11. MicroRNA-139-3p indicates a poor prognosis of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojing; Duan, Bensong; Dong, Yuanyuan; He, Chengzhi; Zhou, Hongmei; Sheng, Haihui; Gao, Hengjun; Zhang, Xizhi

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and are involved in almost biological procession. Recently, miR-139-5p has been reported to be downregulated in some types of cancer, and inhibits cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, there are few reports on the role of miR-139-3p in cancer. In this study, we examined the expression level of miR-139-3p in 63 pairs of colon cancer and adjacent paracancerous tissues using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The levels of miR-139-3p in colon cancer tissues were significantly lower than those in adjacent noncancerous tissues. There was an inverse correlation between the level of miR-139-3p and patient’s age. Lower level of miR-139-3p was significantly associated with poor overall survival, especially in patients with TNM stages I and II. In conclusion, miR-139-3p has potential as a prognostic biomarker for colon cancer. Further prospective studies are required to validate this result. PMID:25550849

  12. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Alexandra T; Clayton, Steven B; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD. PMID:27144209

  13. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Steven B.; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD. PMID:27144209

  14. Colon Cancer After Acute Diverticulitis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Je Hoon; Choi, Kyu Un; Han, Myung Sik; Ahn, Jae Hong; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2013-01-01

    Diverticulitis is the most common clinical complication of diverticular disease, affecting 10-25% of the patients with diverticula. The prevalences of diverticulitis and colon cancer tend to increase with age and are higher in industrialized countries. Consequently, diverticulitis and colon cancer have been reported to have similar epidemiological characteristics. However, the relationship between these diseases remains controversial, as is the performance of routine colonoscopy after an episode of diverticulitis to exclude colon cancer. Recently, we experienced three cases of colon cancer after treating acute diverticulitis, based on which we suggest the importance of follow-up colonoscopy after acute diverticulitis. PMID:24032118

  15. Treatment of Colonic Injury During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Colonic injury during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) persists despite the advances in technical equipment and interventional radiology techniques. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications, colonic injury is regarded as a stage IVa complication. Currently, the rate of colonic injury ranges between 0.3% and 0.5%, with an unremarkable difference in incidence between supine and prone PCNL procedures. Colon injury is the most significant complication of PCNL. Colonic injury can result in more complicated open exploration of the abdomen, involving colostomy construction. The necessity of a second operation for the closure of the colostomy causes financial and emotional burden on the patients, patients’ relatives, and surgeons. Currently, the majority of colonic injuries occurring during PCNL are retroperitoneal. The primary treatment option is a conservative approach. It must be kept in mind that the time of diagnosis is as important as the diagnosis itself in colonic injury. Surgeons performing PCNL are advised to be conservative when considering exploratory laparotomy and colostomy construction during treatment of colonic injury. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman who underwent left prone PCNL that resulted in retroperitoneal colonic injury, along with a review of the current literature. PMID:26543436

  16. Diagnostic value of high-resolution micro-endoscopy for the classification of colon polyps

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tao; Qu, Ya-Wei; Shu, Juan; Liu, Min-Li; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study a new imaging equipment, high-resolution micro-endoscopy (HRME), in the diagnosis and pathological classification of colon polyps. METHODS: We selected 114 specimens of colon polyps, 30 of which were colon polyps with known pathological types and 84 that were prospective polyp specimens; 10 normal colon mucosa specimens served as controls. We obtained images of 30 colon polyp specimens with known pathological types using HRME and analyzed the characteristics of these images to develop HRME diagnostic criteria for different pathological types of colon polyps. Based on these criteria, we performed a prospective study of 84 colon polyp specimens using HRME and compared the results with those of the pathological examination to evaluate the diagnostic value of HRME in the pathological classification of different types of colon polyps. RESULTS: In the 30 cases of known pathological type of colon polyp samples, there were 21 cases of adenomatous polyps, which comprised nine cases of tubular adenoma, seven cases of villous adenoma and five cases of mixed adenomas. The nine cases of non-adenomatous polyps included four cases of inflammatory polyps and five cases of hyperplastic polyps five. Ten cases of normal colonic mucosa were confirmed pathologically. In a prospective study of 84 cases using HRME, 23 cases were diagnosed as inflammatory polyps, 11 cases as hyperplastic polyps, 18 cases as tubular adenoma, eight cases as villous adenoma and 24 cases as mixed adenomas. After pathological examination, 24 cases were diagnosed as inflammatory polyps, 11 cases as hyperplastic polyps, 19 cases as tubular adenoma, eight cases as villous adenoma and 22 cases as mixed adenomas. Compared with the pathological examinations, the sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, and positive and negative predictive values of HRME in diagnosing inflammatory polyps (87.5%, 96.7%, 94.0%, 91.3% and 95.1%), hyperplastic polyps (72.7%, 95.9%, 92.9%, 72.7% and 95.9%), tubular adenomas

  17. Deficient Pms2, ERCC1, Ku86, CcOI in field defects during progression to colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy; Loustaunau, Cristy; Facista, Alexander; Ramsey, Lois; Hassounah, Nadia; Taylor, Hilary; Krouse, Robert; Payne, Claire M; Tsikitis, V Liana; Goldschmid, Steve; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Perini, Rafael F; Bernstein, Carol

    2010-01-01

    In carcinogenesis, the "field defect" is recognized clinically because of the high propensity of survivors of certain cancers to develop other malignancies of the same tissue type, often in a nearby location. Such field defects have been indicated in colon cancer. The molecular abnormalities that are responsible for a field defect in the colon should be detectable at high frequency in the histologically normal tissue surrounding a colonic adenocarcinoma or surrounding an adenoma with advanced neoplasia (well on the way to a colon cancer), but at low frequency in the colonic mucosa from patients without colonic neoplasia. Using immunohistochemistry, entire crypts within 10 cm on each side of colonic adenocarcinomas or advanced colonic neoplasias were found to be frequently reduced or absent in expression for two DNA repair proteins, Pms2 and/or ERCC1. Pms2 is a dual role protein, active in DNA mismatch repair as well as needed in apoptosis of cells with excess DNA damage. ERCC1 is active in DNA nucleotide excision repair. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 would create cells with both increased ability to survive (apoptosis resistance) and increased level of mutability. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 is likely an early step in progression to colon cancer. DNA repair gene Ku86 (active in DNA non-homologous end joining) and Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (involved in apoptosis) had each been reported to be decreased in expression in mucosal areas close to colon cancers. However, immunohistochemical evaluation of their levels of expression showed only low to modest frequencies of crypts to be deficient in their expression in a field defect surrounding colon cancer or surrounding advanced colonic neoplasia. We show, here, our method of evaluation of crypts for expression of ERCC1, Pms2, Ku86 and CcOI. We show that frequency of entire crypts deficient for Pms2 and ERCC1 is often as great as 70% to 95% in 20 cm long areas

  18. MiR-9, -31, and -182 Deregulation Promote Proliferation and Tumor Cell Survival in Colon Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Cekaite, Lina; Rantala, Juha K; Bruun, Jarle; Guriby, Marianne; Ågesen, Trude H; Danielsen, Stine A; Lind, Guro E; Nesbakken, Arild; Kallioniemi, Olli; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2012-01-01

    Several microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be deregulated in colon cancer, but the mechanisms behind their potential involvement on proliferation and tumor cell survival are unclear. The present study aimed to identify miRNAs with functional implications for development of colon cancer. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined following perturbations of miRNA levels by employing a comprehensive miRNA library screen. miRNAs nominated for relevance to colon cancer were validated on expression and functional levels. By integrating the effect of miRNA up-regulation with the endogenous miRNA expression levels within the HT29, HCT116, and SW480 colon cancer cell lines, we identified miRNAs controlling cell proliferation (n = 53) and apoptosis (n = 93). From these functionally nominated miRNAs, we narrowed the list to 10 oncogene- and 20 tumor suppressor-like miRNAs that were also differentially expressed between colon cancer (n = 80) and normal colonic mucosa (n = 20). The differential expressions of miR-9, miR-31, and miR-182 were successfully validated in a series of colon carcinomas (n = 30) and polyps (n = 10) versus normal colonic mucosa (n = 10), whereas the functional effect was confirmed in an in-depth validation using different cell viability and apoptotic markers. Several transcription factors and genes regulating cell proliferation were identified as putative target genes by integrative miRNA/mRNA expression analysis obtained from the same colon cancer patient samples. This study suggests that deregulated expression of miR-9, miR-31, and miR-182 during carcinogenesis plays a significant role in the development of colon cancer by promoting proliferation and tumor cell survival. PMID:23019418

  19. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  20. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  1. Epithelial dysplasia immediately adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Shear, M

    1985-08-01

    A number of workers have attempted to identify dysplastic features which may be predictors of malignant change, by prospective studies of dysplastic lesions. In the present study we have looked at dysplastic changes immediately adjacent to established squamous carcinomas in an attempt to determine whether any predictors can be identified in this way. Eighty cases were included in the study for whom information on tobacco usage was known. Clinical details were recorded. Histological features in epithelium immediately adjacent to the carcinoma were studied in representative sections. Eighteen specific histological characteristics were noted as present or absent. Data were transferred by Conversational Monitoring System (CMS) terminal, processed and analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Computer package. Only 8 patients were non-smokers (10%). Dysplastic changes in adjacent epithelium were frequently multicentric. Changes appear to occur first in the basal layer in the form of disturbance of polarity or basal cell hyperplasia, while other dysplastic features are absent. The feature referred to as basal cell hyperplasia appears, in fact, to represent disturbed epithelial maturation. In 80% of cases increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appears to result from a decrease in cytoplasmic volume rather than increased nuclear size. A defect in RNA synthesis may be a factor. A sharp decrease in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of adjacent epithelium, compared with that of the carcinoma, was observed. Russell bodies were noted in 5 of the 8 lesions in non-smokers (63%) and in 16 of 72 lesions in smokers (22%) (p less than 0.001; Chi2 17.65). PMID:3928850

  2. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  3. Maternal Antibiotic-Induced Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Colonic Permeability and Inducible Heat Shock Proteins, and Digesta Concentrations of Alkaline Phosphatase and TLR-Stimulants in Swine Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Erridge, Clett; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP) are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB) amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11). Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP) and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic digesta AP. In

  4. FMRI evidence of acupoints specificity in two adjacent acupoints.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Xu, Jian-Yang; Li, Lin; Shan, Bao-Ci; Nie, Bin-Bin; Xue, Jing-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 (Neiting), and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI) and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII), contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints. PMID:23762172

  5. Osteochondroma of the hip with adjacent bursal chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elaine S; Baker, Kevin S; Huang, Mingqian; Khan, Fazel; Hoda, Syed

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that irregular bursae can form adjacent to an osteochondroma (bursa exostotica) as a result of mechanical irritation and that these bursae can be complicated by inflammation, hemorrhage, or infection. Bursal chondromatosis is a rare complication, with only seven published cases in the literature according to our searches. We present the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with slowly progressive left hip/thigh pain and was found to have an osteochondroma arising from the lesser trochanter with numerous ossified bodies in the adjacent soft tissues. MRI demonstrated osteochondral bodies in a fluid-filled bursa adjacent to the osteochondroma, with several of the bodies noted to be fairly displaced from the osteochondroma cartilaginous cap. At surgery, the osteochondroma was removed and numerous bodies of varying sizes were excised, some of which were noted to be adherent to the bursal lining and others that were separated/distant from the cartilage cap. The question arises as to whether this process represents bursal chondromatosis resulting from benign neoplasia of cells lining the abnormal bursa, "cartilage shedding" from the osteochondromatous cap, or both. The purpose in presenting this case is to introduce a rare complication of an osteochondroma, demonstrate that soft tissue calcification and osteochondral densities displaced from an underlying osteochondroma are not always the result of sarcomatous degeneration, and provide support for the theory that cells lining a bursa in a nonphysiologic location can undergo benign neoplasia with subsequent formation of osteochondral bodies. PMID:25001874

  6. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  7. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis. PMID:7890244

  8. Neisseria meningitidis Lactate Permease Is Required for Nasopharyngeal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Rachel M.; Goodwin, Linda; Mowe, Eva; Shaw, Jonathan; Smith, Harry; Read, Robert C.; Tang, Christoph M.

    2005-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human specific pathogen that is part of the normal nasopharyngeal flora. Little is known about the metabolic constraints on survival of the meningococcus during colonization of the upper airways. Here we show that glucose and lactate, both carbon energy sources for meningococcal growth, are present in millimolar concentrations within nasopharyngeal tissue. We used a mutant defective for the uptake of lactate (C311ΔlctP) to investigate the contribution of this energy source during colonization. Explants of nasopharyngeal tissue were inoculated with the wild-type strain (C311) and C311ΔlctP; the mutant was recovered at significantly lower levels (P = 0.01) than C311 18 h later. This defect was not due to changes in the expression of adhesins or initial adhesion in C311ΔlctP to epithelial cells. Instead, lactate appears to be important energy source for the bacterium during colonization and is necessary for growth of the bacterium in nasopharyngeal tissue. Studies with other strains defective for the uptake of specific nutrients should provide valuable information about the environment in which N. meningitidis persists during carriage. PMID:16113293

  9. Obscure bleeding colonic duplication responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Jérémie; Projetti, Fabrice; Legros, Romain; Valgueblasse, Virginie; Sarabi, Matthieu; Carrier, Paul; Fredon, Fabien; Bouvier, Stéphane; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Sautereau, Denis

    2013-09-21

    We report the case of a 17-year-old male admitted to our academic hospital with massive rectal bleeding. Since childhood he had reported recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and had two exploratory laparotomies 5 and 2 years previously. An emergency abdominal computed tomography scan, gastroscopy and colonoscopy, performed after hemodynamic stabilization, were considered normal. High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was initiated and bleeding stopped spontaneously. Two other massive rectal bleeds occurred 8 h after each cessation of PPI which led to a hemostatic laparotomy after negative gastroscopy and small bowel capsule endoscopy. This showed long tubular duplication of the right colon, with fresh blood in the duplicated colon. Obscure lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a difficult medical situation and potentially life-threatening. The presence of ulcerated ectopic gastric mucosa in the colonic duplication explains the partial efficacy of PPI therapy. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding responding to empiric anti-acid therapy should probably evoke the diagnosis of bleeding ectopic gastric mucosa such as Meckel's diverticulum or gastrointestinal duplication, and gastroenterologists should be aware of this potential medical situation. PMID:24124344

  10. [Serpins in hyperplastic colon tissue].

    PubMed

    Kit, O I; Frantsiiants, E M; Kozlova, L S; Terpugov, A L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to define α-2-macroglobulin (α-2M) and α-1-proteinase inhibitor (α-1PI) in tissues of malignant tumors and polyps of the lower parts of the colon. 28 patients had malignant tumors of the sigmoid colon or rectum (T3N0-1M0-2), 29 had polyps of the same location. Content of α-2M and α-1PI was studied in cytosols of the central, peripheral and conditionally healthy tissues (of resection line) of the mentioned hyperplasias by the ELISA method using standard test kits. Suppression of a-2M and increase of α-1PI (perifocal zone) were found in malignant tumor tissue, as well as α-1PI maintenance in tumorous focus. Increase of α-2M and decrease of α-1PI were detected in polyp tissue. Changes in physiological balance of serpins were assessed by α-1PI/α-2M ratio in comparison with the resection line. The risk of distortion of proliferation and differentiation processes increases in polyps in ineffective inhibition of proteolysis under the influence of released factors of malignancy. Endogenous or medicamentous restoration of balance of interaction of trypsin-like proteases and kallikrein with inhibitors will probably play the crucial role. PMID:25911925

  11. [Irritable colon and psychosomatic disease].

    PubMed

    Morini, A; Mauceri, P; Pallotta, P; Pelliccia, G

    1984-08-25

    The authors, after having considered the close likeness between the collateral clinical picture described by others in regard to the irritable colon syndrome and the outstanding one pointed out by them in many cases of psychosomatic disorders, have analyzed again a large number of personal cases diagnosed as "psychosomatic" in order to find possible relations between these two unwholesome conditions. At the end of their examination, after having ascertained that the "Irritable colon" has not to be considered an isolated disease but a syndrome caused by many factors, hinged on a predisposing condition likely of constitutional nature, the authors remark how it may nest in the folds of a psychosomatic disorder and sometimes be its outbreaking feature. The authors by this way, don't want to conclude identifying the I.C. with a psychosomatic disorder and suggest that in such cases one may take this syndrome as the main manifestation of a condition marked by an impairment of the digestive tract motility inside a psychosomatic disorder with a somatic expression of this apparatus. PMID:6483246

  12. Niche partitioning in arbuscular mycorrhizal communities in temperate grasslands: a lesson from adjacent serpentine and nonserpentine habitats.

    PubMed

    Kohout, Petr; Doubková, Pavla; Bahram, Mohammad; Suda, Jan; Tedersoo, Leho; Voříšková, Jana; Sudová, Radka

    2015-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represent an important soil microbial group playing a fundamental role in many terrestrial ecosystems. We explored the effects of deterministic (soil characteristics, host plant life stage, neighbouring plant communities) and stochastic processes on AMF colonization, richness and community composition in roots of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae) plants from three serpentine grasslands and adjacent nonserpentine sites. Methodically, the study was based on 454-sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA. In total, we detected 81 molecular taxonomical operational units (MOTUs) belonging to the Glomeromycota. Serpentine character of the site negatively influenced AMF root colonization, similarly as higher Fe concentration. AMF MOTUs richness linearly increased along a pH gradient from 3.5 to 5.8. Contrary, K and Cr soil concentration had a negative influence on AMF MOTUs richness. We also detected a strong relation between neighbouring plant community composition and AMF MOTUs richness. Although spatial distance between the sampled sites (c. 0.3-3 km) contributed to structuring AMF communities in K. arvensis roots, environmental parameters were key factors in this respect. In particular, the composition of AMF communities was shaped by the complex of serpentine conditions, pH and available soil Ni concentration. The composition of AMF communities was also dependent on host plant life stage (vegetative vs. generative). Our study supports the dominance of deterministic factors in structuring AMF communities in heterogeneous environment composed of an edaphic mosaic of serpentine and nonserpentine soils. PMID:25753913

  13. Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior.

    PubMed

    Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys; Wang, Shugui; Anuar, Farhana; Qian, Yu; Björkholm, Britta; Samuelsson, Annika; Hibberd, Martin L; Forssberg, Hans; Pettersson, Sven

    2011-02-15

    Microbial colonization of mammals is an evolution-driven process that modulate host physiology, many of which are associated with immunity and nutrient intake. Here, we report that colonization by gut microbiota impacts mammalian brain development and subsequent adult behavior. Using measures of motor activity and anxiety-like behavior, we demonstrate that germ free (GF) mice display increased motor activity and reduced anxiety, compared with specific pathogen free (SPF) mice with a normal gut microbiota. This behavioral phenotype is associated with altered expression of genes known to be involved in second messenger pathways and synaptic long-term potentiation in brain regions implicated in motor control and anxiety-like behavior. GF mice exposed to gut microbiota early in life display similar characteristics as SPF mice, including reduced expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin in the striatum. Hence, our results suggest that the microbial colonization process initiates signaling mechanisms that affect neuronal circuits involved in motor control and anxiety behavior. PMID:21282636

  14. Functional angiocoupling between follicles and adjacent corpus luteum in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M

    2016-07-15

    In single ovulating cattle, ipsilateral versus contralateral interovarian relationships refer to a dominant follicle (DF) and CL in the same versus opposite ovaries. The ipsilateral relationship consists of the DF-CL and the devoid (no DF or CL) intraovarian pattern, and the contralateral relationship consists of the DF pattern and the CL pattern. The DF-CL pattern involves positive effects on both the DF and CL when adjacent (≤3-mm apart) versus separated as follows: greater diameter of DF (e.g., 10.5 ± 0.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.4 mm), greater percentage of the DF wall with color Doppler signals of blood flow (40.2% ± 2.0% vs. 24.5% ± 1.9%), greater cross-sectional area of the CL (2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 cm(2)), and greater percentage of the entire CL with blood flow signals (51.8% ± 1.2% vs. 42.5% ± 3.1%). Additional examples of positive coupling are (1) future DF on Day 0 (day of ovulation) is closer to the CL than the future largest subordinate and (2) diameter of growing follicles on Day 0 and the growth rate on Days 0 to 2 are greater for follicles that are adjacent than separated from the CL. An example of a negative intraovarian effect is decreasing diameter and loss of future DF status of a largest follicle when adjacent to a regressing CL. The impact of the continuity of ovarian angioarchitecture during the periovulatory follicular wave was exemplified in 17 of 18 waves by conversion of an ovary with only the preovulatory follicle to the postovulatory DF-CL pattern. Functional angiocoupling from commonality in angioarchitecture of the DF and adjacent CL would account for both the positive two-way coupling between DF and CL during the luteal phase and the negative effect of a regressing CL on an adjacent follicle during luteolysis. PMID:27056414

  15. Gastrin inhibits a novel, pathological colon cancer signaling pathway involving EGR1, AE2 and P-ERK

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ling-Jun; Liu, Rui-Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Alper, Seth L.; Cui, Heng-Jing; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Lin; Yan, Zhao-Wen; Fu, Guo-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Human anion exchanger 2 (AE2) is a plasma membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH and cell volume. AE2 contributes to transepithelial transport of chloride and bicarbonate in normal colon and other epithelial tissues. We now report that AE2 overexpression in colon cancer cells is correlated with expression of the nuclear proliferation marker, Ki67. Survival analysis of 24 patients with colon cancer in early stage or 33 patients with tubular adenocarcinoma demonstrated that expression of AE2 is correlated with poor prognosis. Cellular and molecular experiments indicated that AE2 expression promoted proliferation of colon cancer cells. In addition, we found that transcription factor EGR1 underlies AE2 upregulation, and the AE2 sequester p16INK4a (P16) in the cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. Cytoplasmic P16 enhanced ERK phosphorylation and promoted proliferation of colon cancer cells. Gastrin inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells by suppressing expression of EGR1 and AE2 and by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, our data describe a novel EGR1/AE2/P16/P-ERK signaling pathway in colon carcinogenesis, with implications for pathologic prognosis and for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22228178

  16. INPP4B is an oncogenic regulator in human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S T; Chi, M N; Yang, R H; Guo, X Y; Zan, L K; Wang, C Y; Xi, Y F; Jin, L; Croft, A; Tseng, H-Y; Yan, X G; Farrelly, M; Wang, F H; Lai, F; Wang, J F; Li, Y P; Ackland, S; Scott, R; Agoulnik, I U; Hondermarck, H; Thorne, R F; Liu, T; Zhang, X D; Jiang, C C

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and is a tumor suppressor in some types of cancers. However, we have found that it is frequently upregulated in human colon cancer cells. Here we show that silencing of INPP4B blocks activation of Akt and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 3 (SGK3), inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and retards colon cancer xenograft growth. Conversely, overexpression of INPP4B increases proliferation and triggers anchorage-independent growth of normal colon epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effect of INPP4B on Akt and SGK3 is associated with inactivation of phosphate and tensin homolog through its protein phosphatase activity and that the increase in INPP4B is due to Ets-1-mediated transcriptional upregulation in colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that INPP4B may function as an oncogenic driver in colon cancer, with potential implications for targeting INPP4B as a novel approach to treat this disease. PMID:26411369

  17. Case Report on the Demonstration of Minute Colonic Perforations Caused by Birdshot Injury.

    PubMed

    Emeklioglu, Ismet; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Aydin, Cemalettin

    2010-06-01

    Penetrating trauma of the colon is usually diagnosed intraoperatively and missed injuries cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Herein, we described an intraoperative diagnostic method for invisible openings on the colon due to a birdshot injury. A 30-yearold man was admitted to the hospital after sustaining gunshot pellet injuries to his abdomen, back, and extremities. Emergency laparotomy relieved splenic injury and free pellet fragments in the abdomen. A pellet fragment was also palpated in the descending colon. Despite meticulous inspection of the colon, it failed to show the entrance of the pellet. An 18F catheter was passed through the anus and was connected to a CO2 insufflator of the laparoscopy unit. The abdominal cavity was filled with normal saline and 1.5 l of CO2 was inflated into the rectum. Five tiny (2-mm) openings on the retroperitoneal part of the descending colon were demonstrated with the help of the air bubbles. All of the openings were sutureligated and his postoperative course was uneventful. We believe that inflating the colon in cases of abdominal birdshot injuries may allow the demonstration of tiny perforations and provide immediate repairs of missed injuries. PMID:26815872

  18. Paediatric and adult colonic manometry: A tool to help unravel the pathophysiology of constipation

    PubMed Central

    Dinning, Philip G; Benninga, Marc A; Southwell, Bridget R; Scott, S Mark

    2010-01-01

    Colonic motility subserves large bowel functions, including absorption, storage, propulsion and defaecation. Colonic motor dysfunction remains the leading hypothesis to explain symptom generation in chronic constipation, a heterogeneous condition which is extremely prevalent in the general population, and has huge socioeconomic impact and individual suffering. Physiological testing plays a crucial role in patient management, as it is now accepted that symptom-based assessment, although important, is unsatisfactory as the sole means of directing therapy. Colonic manometry provides a direct method for studying motor activities of the large bowel, and this review provides a contemporary understanding of how this technique has enhanced our knowledge of normal colonic motor physiology, as well as helping to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying constipation. Methodological approaches, including available catheter types, placement technique and recording protocols, are covered, along with a detailed description of recorded colonic motor activities. This review also critically examines the role of colonic manometry in current clinical practice, and how manometric assessment may aid diagnosis, classification and guide therapeutic intervention in the constipated individual. Most importantly, this review considers both adult and paediatric patients. Limitations of the procedure and a look to the future are also addressed. PMID:21049550

  19. Regular Doctor Visits Can Help Spot Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159699.html Regular Doctor Visits Can Help Spot Colon Cancer Early detection improves likelihood of survival, researchers ... increases the odds you'll be screened for colon cancer, a new study says. Colon cancer is ...

  20. Thrombin drives tumorigenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Leah; Kombrinck, Keith; Flick, Matthew J.; Steinbrecher, Kris A.; Harmel-Laws, Eleana; Mullins, Eric S.; Shaw, Maureen; Witte, David P.; Revenko, Alexey; Monia, Brett; Palumbo, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    The established association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer underscores the importance of inflammation in colon cancer development. Based on evidence that hemostatic proteases are powerful modifiers of both inflammatory pathologies and tumor biology, gene-targeted mice carrying low levels of prothrombin were used to directly test the hypothesis that prothrombin contributes to tumor development in colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). Remarkably, imposing a modest 50% reduction in circulating prothrombin in fII+/− mice, a level that carries no significant bleeding risk, dramatically decreased adenoma formation following an azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate challenge. Similar results were obtained with pharmacological inhibition of prothrombin expression or inhibition of thrombin proteolytic activity. Detailed longitudinal analyses showed that the role of thrombin in tumor development in CAC was temporally associated with the antecedent inflammatory colitis. However, direct studies of the antecedent colitis showed that mice carrying half-normal prothrombin levels were comparable to control mice in mucosal damage, inflammatory cell infiltration and associated local cytokine levels. These results suggest that thrombin supports early events coupled to inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis in CAC that are distinct from overall inflammation-induced tissue damage and inflammatory cell trafficking. That prothrombin is linked to early events in CAC was strongly inferred by the observation that prothrombin deficiency dramatically reduced the formation of very early, pre-cancerous aberrant crypt foci. Given the importance of inflammation in the development of colon cancer, these studies suggest that therapeutic interventions at the level of hemostatic factors may be an effective means to prevent and/or impede colitis-associated colon cancer progression. PMID:24710407

  1. A sentinel goblet cell guards the colonic crypt by triggering Nlrp6-dependent Muc2 secretion.

    PubMed

    Birchenough, George M H; Nyström, Elisabeth E L; Johansson, Malin E V; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2016-06-24

    Innate immune signaling pathways contribute to the protection of host tissue when bacterially challenged. Colonic goblet cells are responsible for generating the two mucus layers that physically separate the luminal microbiota from the host epithelium. Analysis of colonic tissues from multiple mouse strains allowed us to identify a "sentinel" goblet cell (senGC) localized to the colonic crypt entrance. This cell nonspecifically endocytoses and reacts to the TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR5 ligands by activating the Nlrp6 inflammasome downstream of TLR- and MyD88-dependent Nox/Duox reactive oxygen species synthesis. This triggers calcium ion-dependent compound exocytosis of Muc2 mucin from the senGC and generates an intercellular gap junction signal; in turn, this signal induces Muc2 secretion from adjacent goblet cells in the upper crypt, which expels bacteria. Thus, senGCs guard and protect the colonic crypt from bacterial intruders that have penetrated the inner mucus layer. PMID:27339979

  2. Propagule redirection: habitat availability reduces colonization and increases recruitment in reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Stier, Adrian C; Osenberg, Craig W

    2010-10-01

    Increased habitat availability or quality can alter production of habitat-dependent organisms in two contrasting ways: (1) by enhancing input of new colonists to the new sites (the Field-of-Dreams Hypothesis); and (2) by drawing colonists away from existing sites (the Propagule Redirection Hypothesis), and thus reducing the deleterious effects of density. We conducted a field experiment on coral reef fishes in Moorea, French Polynesia, to quantify how differing levels of habitat availability (controlling for quality) increased and/or redirected colonizing larval fish. Focal reefs without neighboring reefs received two to four times more settlers than reefs with adjacent habitat, demonstrating that increased habitat redirected larval fish. At the scale of the entire reef array, total colonization increased 1.3-fold in response to a sixfold increase in reef area (and a 2.75-fold increase in adjusted habitat availability). Thus, propagules were both increased and redirected, a result midway between the Field-of-Dreams and Propagule Redirection Hypotheses. A recruitment model using our data and field estimates of density-dependent recruitment predicts that habitat addition increases recruitment primarily by ameliorating the negative effects of competition at existing sites rather than increasing colonization at the new sites per se. Understanding long-term implications of these effects depends upon the interplay among habitat dynamics, population connectivity, colonization dynamics, and density dependence. PMID:21058544

  3. Mice Expressing Activated PI3K Rapidly Develop Advanced Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leystra, Alyssa A.; Deming, Dustin A.; Zahm, Christopher D.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Paul Olson, Terrah J.; Hadac, Jamie N.; Nettekoven, Laura A.; Albrecht, Dawn M.; Clipson, Linda; Sullivan, Ruth; Washington, Mary Kay; Torrealba, Jose R.; Weichert, Jamey P.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations in the phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway play a key role in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers by altering cellular growth, metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis (1). Mutations in the catalytic domain of PI3K that generate a dominantly active kinase are commonly found in human colorectal cancers and have been thought to drive tumor progression, but not initiation (2). However, the effects of constitutively activated PI3K upon the intestinal mucosa have not been previously studied in animal models. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of a dominantly active form of the PI3K protein in the mouse intestine results in hyperplasia and advanced neoplasia. Mice expressing constitutively active PI3K in the epithelial cells of the distal small bowel and colon rapidly developed invasive adenocarcinomas in the colon that spread into the mesentery and adjacent organs. The histological characteristics of these tumors were strikingly similar to invasive mucinous colon cancers in humans. Interestingly, these tumors formed without a benign polypoid intermediary, consistent with the lack of aberrant WNT signaling observed. Together, our findings indicate a non-canonical mechanism of colon tumor initiation that is mediated through activation of PI3K. This unique model has the potential to further our understanding of human disease and facilitate the development of therapeutics through pharmacologic screening and biomarker identification. PMID:22525701

  4. Giant diverticulum of the sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    García Flórez, L J; Otero Diez, J; López Muñiz, C; Santamaría Girón, L; Pérez Suárez, A

    2002-12-01

    The giant colonic diverticulum is a very rare clinical entity usually located in the sigmoid colon of elderly patients. A case of an 87-year-old woman recently treated in our hospital is reported hereinafter. The patient was non-surgically treated due to her advanced age and high surgical risk. PMID:12733335

  5. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Balasar, Mehmet; Kandemir, Abdülkadir; Poyraz, Necdet; Unal, Yunus; Ozturk, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012), was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT) images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9%) had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6%) were on the left side, 4 (1.0%) on the right side and 5 (1.3%) had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side) due to the location of retrorenal colon. PMID:26005968

  6. [Extensive excision of fixed cancers of the colon. A retrospective study of 44 cases].

    PubMed

    Le Treut, Y P; Bozon-Verduraz, E; Sabiani, P; Maillet, B; Bricot, R

    1986-01-01

    Out of 268 resections for colonic carcinoma, 44 were extended because of an involvement to adjacent tissues or organs. Abdominal wall (14 cases), vesical dome (12 cases) and small bowel (11 cases) were most frequently resected. Post-operative mortality (15.9%) and five years survival rates (57.5%) of this radical procedures do not significantly differ compared to results after conventional procedures (15.3 and 64.3% respectively). Carcinomatous adhesions are difficult to distinguish from inflammatory ones at the time of laparotomy. They were found in 47% of the specimens only. This had a lesser prognostic significance than lymph nodes involvement. This results are in favour of extensive surgery for locally advanced tumours of the colon. PMID:3771668

  7. Is My Penis Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth > For Teens > Is My Penis Normal? Print A A A Text Size en ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  8. Automated colon cancer detection using hybrid of novel geometric features and some traditional features.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Saima; Hussain, Mutawarra; Khan, Asifullah

    2015-10-01

    Automatic classification of colon into normal and malignant classes is complex due to numerous factors including similar colors in different biological constituents of histopathological imagery. Therefore, such techniques, which exploit the textural and geometric properties of constituents of colon tissues, are desired. In this paper, a novel feature extraction strategy that mathematically models the geometric characteristics of constituents of colon tissues is proposed. In this study, we also show that the hybrid feature space encompassing diverse knowledge about the tissues׳ characteristics is quite promising for classification of colon biopsy images. This paper thus presents a hybrid feature space based colon classification (HFS-CC) technique, which utilizes hybrid features for differentiating normal and malignant colon samples. The hybrid feature space is formed to provide the classifier different types of discriminative features such as features having rich information about geometric structure and image texture. Along with the proposed geometric features, a few conventional features such as morphological, texture, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), and elliptic Fourier descriptors (EFDs) are also used to develop a hybrid feature set. The SIFT features are reduced using minimum redundancy and maximum relevancy (mRMR). Various kernels of support vector machines (SVM) are employed as classifiers, and their performance is analyzed on 174 colon biopsy images. The proposed geometric features have achieved an accuracy of 92.62%, thereby showing their effectiveness. Moreover, the proposed HFS-CC technique achieves 98.07% testing and 99.18% training accuracy. The better performance of HFS-CC is largely due to the discerning ability of the proposed geometric features and the developed hybrid feature space. PMID:25819060

  9. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    PubMed

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. PMID:25558898

  10. Proteases of an early colonizer can hinder Streptococcus mutans colonization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, B-Y; Deutch, A; Hong, J; Kuramitsu, H K

    2011-04-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary cariogen that produces several virulence factors that are modulated by a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system. In this study, we sought to determine if proteases produced by early dental plaque colonizers such as Streptococcus gordonii interfere with the subsequent colonization of S. mutans BM71 on the existing streptococcal biofilms. We demonstrated that S. mutans BM71 colonized much less efficiently in vitro on streptococcal biofilms than on Actinomyces naeslundii biofilms. Several oral streptococci, relative to A. naeslundii, produced proteases that inactivated the S. mutans CSP. We further demonstrated that cell protein extracts from S. gordonii, but not from A. naeslundii, interfered with S. mutans BM71 colonization. In addition, S. mutans BM71 colonized more efficiently on the sgc protease knockout mutant of S. gordonii than on the parent biofilms. In conclusion, proteases of early colonizers can interfere with subsequent colonization by S. mutans in vitro. PMID:21088146

  11. The Intestinal Microbiota Influences Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and Extraintestinal Dissemination in Mice.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jason L; Samuelson, Derrick R; Braundmeier-Fleming, Andrea G; White, Bryan A; Haldorson, Gary J; Stone, Jennifer B; Lessmann, Jeremy J; Eucker, Tyson P; Konkel, Michael E

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The interactions between this pathogen and the intestinal microbiome within a host are of interest as endogenous intestinal microbiota mediates a form of resistance to the pathogen. This resistance, termed colonization resistance, is the ability of commensal microbiota to prevent colonization by exogenous pathogens or opportunistic commensals. Although mice normally demonstrate colonization resistance to C. jejuni, we found that mice treated with ampicillin are colonized by C. jejuni, with recovery of Campylobacter from the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in recovery of C. jejuni from ampicillin-treated mice inoculated with a C. jejuni virulence mutant (ΔflgL strain) compared to recovery of mice inoculated with the C. jejuni wild-type strain or the C. jejuni complemented isolate (ΔflgL/flgL). Comparative analysis of the microbiota from nontreated and ampicillin-treated CBA/J mice led to the identification of a lactic acid-fermenting isolate of Enterococcus faecalis that prevented C. jejuni growth in vitro and limited C. jejuni colonization of mice. Next-generation sequencing of DNA from fecal pellets that were collected from ampicillin-treated CBA/J mice revealed a significant decrease in diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) compared to that in control (nontreated) mice. Taken together, we have demonstrated that treatment of mice with ampicillin alters the intestinal microbiota and permits C. jejuni colonization. These findings provide valuable insights for researchers using mice to investigate C. jejuni colonization factors, virulence determinants, or the mechanistic basis of probiotics. PMID:25934624

  12. Effect of endogenous insulin-like growth factor and stem cell factor on diabetic colonic dysmotility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Xu, Xin-Yu; Tang, Yu-Rong; Yang, Wei-Wei; Yuan, Yu-Feng; Ning, Yue-Ji; Yu, Yin-Juan; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the reduction of stem cell factor (SCF) is mediated by decreased endogenous insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in diabetic rat colon smooth muscle. METHODS: Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and streptozotocin-induced diabetic group. After 8 wk of streptozotocin administration, colonic motility function and contractility of circular muscle strips were measured. The expression of endogenous IGF-1 and SCF was tested in colonic tissues. Colonic smooth muscle cells were cultured from normal adult rats. IGF-1 siRNA transfection was used to investigate whether SCF expression was affected by endogenous IGF-1 expression in smooth muscle cells, and IGF-1 induced SCF expression effects were studied. The effect of high glucose on the expression of endogenous IGF-1 and SCF was also investigated. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed prolonged colonic transit time (252 ± 16 min vs 168 ± 9 min, P < 0.01) and weakness of circular muscle contraction (0.81 ± 0.09 g vs 2.48 ± 0.23 g, P < 0.01) compared with the control group. Endogenous IGF-1 and SCF protein expression was significantly reduced in the diabetic colonic muscle tissues. IGF-1 and SCF mRNA expression also showed a paralleled reduction in diabetic rats. In the IGF-1 siRNA transfected smooth muscle cells, SCF mRNA and protein expression was significantly decreased. IGF-1 could induce SCF expression in a concentration and time-dependent manner, mainly through the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signal pathway. High glucose inhibited endogenous IGF-1 and SCF expression and the addition of IGF-1 to the medium reversed the SCF expression. CONCLUSION: Myopathy may resolve in colonic motility dysfunction in diabetic rats. Deficiency of endogenous IGF-1 in colonic smooth muscle cells leads to reduction of SCF expression. PMID:23745035

  13. The Intestinal Microbiota Influences Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and Extraintestinal Dissemination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    O'Loughlin, Jason L.; Samuelson, Derrick R.; Braundmeier-Fleming, Andrea G.; White, Bryan A.; Haldorson, Gary J.; Stone, Jennifer B.; Lessmann, Jeremy J.; Eucker, Tyson P.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The interactions between this pathogen and the intestinal microbiome within a host are of interest as endogenous intestinal microbiota mediates a form of resistance to the pathogen. This resistance, termed colonization resistance, is the ability of commensal microbiota to prevent colonization by exogenous pathogens or opportunistic commensals. Although mice normally demonstrate colonization resistance to C. jejuni, we found that mice treated with ampicillin are colonized by C. jejuni, with recovery of Campylobacter from the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in recovery of C. jejuni from ampicillin-treated mice inoculated with a C. jejuni virulence mutant (ΔflgL strain) compared to recovery of mice inoculated with the C. jejuni wild-type strain or the C. jejuni complemented isolate (ΔflgL/flgL). Comparative analysis of the microbiota from nontreated and ampicillin-treated CBA/J mice led to the identification of a lactic acid-fermenting isolate of Enterococcus faecalis that prevented C. jejuni growth in vitro and limited C. jejuni colonization of mice. Next-generation sequencing of DNA from fecal pellets that were collected from ampicillin-treated CBA/J mice revealed a significant decrease in diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) compared to that in control (nontreated) mice. Taken together, we have demonstrated that treatment of mice with ampicillin alters the intestinal microbiota and permits C. jejuni colonization. These findings provide valuable insights for researchers using mice to investigate C. jejuni colonization factors, virulence determinants, or the mechanistic basis of probiotics. PMID:25934624

  14. Rapid effects of phytoestrogens on human colonic smooth muscle are mediated by oestrogen receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Hogan, A M; Collins, D; Sheehan, K; Zierau, O; Baird, A W; Winter, D C

    2010-05-14

    Epidemiological studies have correlated consumption of dietary phytoestrogens with beneficial effects on colon, breast and prostate cancers. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms are responsible for anti-carcinogenic effects but, until now, the effect on human colon was assumed to be passive and remote. No direct effect on human colonic smooth muscle has previously been described. Institutional research board approval was granted. Histologically normal colon was obtained from the proximal resection margin of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended under 1g of tension in organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs solution at 37 degrees C. After an equilibration period, tissues were exposed to diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (ER beta agonist) and 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT) (ER alpha agonist) or to the synthetic phytoestrogen compounds genistein (n=8), daidzein (n=8), fisetin (n=8) and quercetin (n=8) in the presence or absence of fulvestrant (oestrogen receptor antagonist). Mechanism of action was investigated by inhibition of downstream pathways. The cholinergic agonist carbachol was used to induce contractile activity. Tension was recorded isometrically. Phytoestrogens inhibit carbachol-induced colonic contractility. In keeping with a non-genomic, rapid onset direct action, the effect was within minutes, reversible and similar to previously described actions of 17 beta oestradiol. No effect was seen in the presence of fulvestrant indicating receptor modulation. While the DPN exerted inhibitory effects, PPT did not. The effect appears to be reliant on a p38/mitogen activated protein kinase mediated induction of nitric oxide production in colonic smooth muscle. The present data set provides the first description of a direct effect of genistein, daidzein, fisetin and quercetin on human colonic smooth muscle. The presence of ER in colonic smooth muscle has been functionally proven and the beta

  15. Limited up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase in human colon cancer reflecting increased cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P J; Washer, L L; Law, D J; Boland, C R; Horon, I L; Feinberg, A P

    1996-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations in the genome of tumor cells have attracted considerable attention since the discovery of widespread alterations in DNA methylation of colorectal cancers over 10 years ago. However, the mechanism of these changes has remained obscure. el-Deiry and coworkers [el-Deiry, W. S., Nelkin, B. D., Celano, P., Yen, R. C., Falco, J. P., Hamilton, S. R. & Baylin, S. B. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 3470-3474], using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay, reported 15-fold increased expression of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) in colon cancer, compared with matched normal colon mucosa, and a 200-fold increase in MTase mRNA levels compared with mucosa of unaffected patients. These authors suggested that increases in MTase mRNA levels play a direct pathogenetic role in colon carcinogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we developed a sensitive quantitative RNase protection assay of MTase, linear over three orders of magnitude. Using this assay on 12 colorectal carcinomas and matched normal mucosal specimens, we observed a 1.8- to 2.5-fold increase in MTase mRNA levels in colon carcinoma compared with levels in normal mucosa from the same patients. There was no significant difference between the normal mucosa of affected and unaffected patients. Furthermore, when the assay was normalized to histone H4 expression, a measure of S-phase-specific expression, the moderate increase in tumor MTase mRNA levels was no longer observed. These data are in contrast to the previously reported results, and they indicate that changes in MTase mRNA levels in colon cancer are nonspecific and compatible with other markers of cell proliferation. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8816806

  16. Do normal hips dislocate?

    PubMed

    Alshameeri, Zeiad; Rehm, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    There have been a small number of case reports describing late normal-hip dislocations in children who were later diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Here, we contest the assumption that normal hips can dislocate. We argue that (as in our case) the ultrasound scans in all published case reports on late dislocated normal hips did not show results that were entirely normal and therefore, so far, there has been no convincing evidence of a dislocation of a normal hip. We also want to highlight the importance of meticulous ultrasound and clinical assessments of high-risk children by an experienced orthopaedic surgeon. PMID:25144883

  17. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

  18. Groundwater recharge to the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Montgomery and Adjacent Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Timothy D.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Simply stated, groundwater recharge is the addition of water to the groundwater system. Most of the water that is potentially available for recharging the groundwater system in Montgomery and adjacent counties in southeast Texas moves relatively rapidly from land surface to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Recharge in southeast Texas is generally balanced by evapotranspiration, discharge to surface waters, and the downward movement of water into deeper parts of the groundwater system; however, this balance can be altered locally by groundwater withdrawals, impervious surfaces, land use, precipitation variability, or climate, resulting in increased or decreased rates of recharge. Recharge rates were compared to the 1971–2000 normal annual precipitation measured Cooperative Weather Station 411956, Conroe, Tex.

  19. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  20. Microbes, Microbiota and Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Cynthia L.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents a considerable disease burden worldwide. The human colon is also an anatomical location with the largest number of microbes. It is natural therefore to anticipate a role for microbes, particularly bacteria, in colorectal carcinogenesis. The increasing accessibility of microbial meta’omics is fueling a surge in our understanding of the role that microbes and the microbiota play in CRC. In this review, we will discuss recent insights into contributions of the microbiota to CRC and explore conceptual frameworks for evaluating the role of microbes in cancer causation. We also highlight new findings on candidate CRC-potentiating species and current knowledge gaps. Finally, we explore the roles of microbial metabolism as it relates to bile acids, xenobiotics, and diet in the etiology and therapeutics of CRC. PMID:24629338

  1. Bicervical Normal Uterus with Normal Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, CE; Anele, TI; Onyejelam, CC

    2014-01-01

    This is a report of the form of uterine anomaly involving a dual cervical canal in a side-by-side disposition with normal uterine cavity and normal vagina. It portrays a form of congenital uterine anomaly not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies. However, there has been a proposed reclassification of mullerian anomalies, which includes this type of anomaly under Type IIIc. The patient was a 31-year-old woman being managed for “secondary infertility.” To report a case of uterine anomaly that is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior-posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events beyond the classical postulate gives rise to the female genital tract. PMID:25364608

  2. Inhibition of SW620 human colon cancer cells by upregulating miRNA-145

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Xu, Na; Li, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Zhi-Tu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the targeted inhibition of proliferation and migration of SW620 human colon cancer cells by upregulating miRNA-145 (miR-145). METHODS: Forty-five samples of colon cancer tissues and 45 normal control samples were obtained from the biological database of the First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University. We performed quantitative analysis of miR-145 and N-ras expression in tissues; reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of miR-145 expression in SW620 colon cancer cells and normal colonic epithelial cells; construction of miR-145 lentiviral vector and determination of miR-145 expression in SW620 cells transduced with miR-145 vector; analysis of the effect of miR-145 overexpression on SW620 cell proliferation; analysis of the effect of miR-145 overexpression on SW620 cell migration using a wound healing assay; and analysis of the effect of miR-145 on N-ras expression using Western blotting. RESULTS: miR-145 expression was significantly downregulated in colon cancer tissues, with its expression in normal colonic tissues being 4-5-fold higher (two sample t test, P < 0.05), whereas N-ras expression showed the opposite trend. miR-145 expression in SW620 cells was downregulated, which was significantly lower compared to that in colonic epithelial cells (two sample t test, P < 0.05). miR-145 vector and control were successfully packaged; expression of miR-145 in SW620 cells transduced with miR-145 was 8.2-fold of that in control cells (two sample t test, P < 0.05). The proliferation of miR-145-transduced SW620 cells was significantly decreased compared to control cells (two sample t test, P < 0.05). At 48 h in the wound healing experiment, the migration indexes and controls were (97.27% ± 9.25%) and (70.22% ± 6.53%), respectively (two sample t test, P < 0.05). N-ras expression in miR-145-tranduced SW620 cells was significantly lower than others (one-way analysis of variance, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: miR-145 is important in

  3. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  4. Exophytic Atheroma Mimicking Papillary Fibroelastoma Adjacent to the Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tomoki; Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Yasuda, Shota; Izubuchi, Ryo; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-09-01

    Follow-up echocardiography in a 69-year-old man with alcoholic cardiomyopathy showed a mass above the aortic valve near the left coronary ostium. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography suggested a papillary fibroelastoma with a high risk of embolism. At operation we found an exophytic atheroma adjacent to the left coronary artery orifice. The atheroma was removed, and the patient made an uneventful recovery. We describe this very rare case of an exophytic atheroma mimicking a papillary fibroelastoma situated at the left coronary orifice. PMID:26354633

  5. Compression of adjacent anatomical structures by pulmonary artery dilation.

    PubMed

    Dakkak, Wael; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is the commonest condition leading to dilated pulmonary artery. We describe three different types of compression of adjacent anatomical structures by dilated pulmonary arteries. We included involvement of the left main coronary artery, left recurrent laryngeal nerve and tracheobronchial tree. Compression of these structures can cause major complications such as myocardial ischemia, hoarseness and major airway stenosis. We present a case for each scenario and review the literature for each of these complications, focusing on patients' characteristics and contemporary management. PMID:26898826

  6. Synthesis of a Molecule with Four Different Adjacent Pnictogens.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-08-22

    The synthesis of a molecule containing four adjacent different pnictogens was attempted by conversion of a Group 15 allyl analogue anion [Mes*NAsPMes*](-) (Mes*=2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl) with antimony(III) chloride. A suitable precursor is Mes*N(H)AsPMes* (1) for which several syntheses were investigated. The anions afforded by deprotonation of Mes*N(H)AsPMes* were found to be labile and, therefore, salts could not be isolated. However, the in situ generated anions could be quenched with SbCl3 , yielding Mes*N(SbCl2 )AsPMes* (4). PMID:27377437

  7. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-01

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R. PMID:26033441

  8. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  9. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  10. Downregulation of microRNA-1 and microRNA-145 contributes synergistically to the development of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuehu; Wu, Xiaobing; Jiang, Qingping; Sun, Yan; Liu, Haibo; Chen, Rong; Wu, Shangbiao

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in patients with colon cancer and examine their roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. The expression profiles of miRNAs were examined in tumor tissue samples collected from 20 patients with histologically confirmed colon cancer and in the adjacent non-cancerous control tissues using microarray analysis. We found that numerous miRNAs were differentially expressed in the colon cancer tissues compared with the control tissues. Following functional analysis, we noted that three miRNAs which were significantly downregulated, miR-145, miR-451 and miR-1, shared the same target gene, [NLR family, apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP)], which has previously been reported to be involved in the development of colon cancer. We then confirmed that NAIP is a target gene of miR-145 and miR-1, but not of miR-451, using a luceriferase assay, and we confirmed the expression patterns of these miRNAs and NAIP in the tumor tissue, as well as in the adjacent non-cancerous control tissues. Additionally, in order to examine the function of miR-145 and miR-1 in human colon cancer, we transiently transfected a human colon cancer cell line with miR-145 and miR-1 mimics or inhibitors, and the results of MTT assay revealed that the re-expression of miR-145 and miR-1 inhibited the survival of colon cancer cells, which may be attributed to the inhibition of the anti-apoptotic activity of NAIP. Our findings demonstrated that miR-145 and miR-1 play a negative regulatory role in the proliferation of colon cancer by targeting NAIP; thus, miR-145 and miR-1 may prove to be novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26459459

  11. Diversion colitis: a trigger for ulcerative colitis in the in-stream colon?

    PubMed Central

    Lim, A; Langmead, F; Feakins, R; Rampton, D

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of ulcerative colitis is unknown. Two patients without pre-existing inflammatory bowel disease in whom end colostomy for faecal incontinence was complicated by diversion colitis in the defunctioned rectosigmoid colon, are described. In both instances, colitis with the clinical, colonoscopic, and microscopic features of ulcerative colitis developed about a year later in the previously normal in-stream colon proximal to the colostomy. These cases suggest that diversion colitis may be a risk factor for ulcerative colitis in predisposed individuals and that ulcerative colitis can be triggered by anatomically discontinuous inflammation elsewhere in the large intestine. 

 Keywords: ulcerative colitis, diversion colitis PMID:9895391

  12. Functional fecal retention visualized by (111)In-DTPA colon transit scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Infante, Jose Rafael; Rayo, Juan I; Serrano, Justo; Dominguez, Maria L; Garcia, Lucia; Moreno, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Constipation is an extremely common problem in children, varying from mild and short-lived to severe and chronic. Chronic constipation is a serious childhood condition and requires further investigation, including blood test, colonoscopy, radio-opaque marker study, and/or scintigraphy. We present small bowel and colon transit scintigraphy of a 14-year-old girl with history of chronic constipation, abdominal pain, weight loss, and poor response to medical treatment. After oral administration of In-DTPA in water, planar and SPECT/CT images showed normal small bowel transit time and functional fecal retention in colon transit study. PMID:25706788

  13. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli colonization of human colonic epithelium in vitro and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Steven B; Cook, Vivienne; Tighe, Richard; Schüller, Stephanie

    2015-03-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis and more severe complications, such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pathology is most pronounced in the colon, but to date there is no direct clinical evidence showing EHEC binding to the colonic epithelium in patients. In this study, we investigated EHEC adherence to the human colon by using in vitro organ culture (IVOC) of colonic biopsy samples and polarized T84 colon carcinoma cells. We show for the first time that EHEC colonizes human colonic biopsy samples by forming typical attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions which are dependent on EHEC type III secretion (T3S) and binding of the outer membrane protein intimin to the translocated intimin receptor (Tir). A/E lesion formation was dependent on oxygen levels and suppressed under oxygen-rich culture conditions routinely used for IVOC. In contrast, EHEC adherence to polarized T84 cells occurred independently of T3S and intimin and did not involve Tir translocation into the host cell membrane. Colonization of neither biopsy samples nor T84 cells was significantly affected by expression of Shiga toxins. Our study suggests that EHEC colonizes and forms stable A/E lesions on the human colon, which are likely to contribute to intestinal pathology during infection. Furthermore, care needs to be taken when using cell culture models, as they might not reflect the in vivo situation. PMID:25534942

  14. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Colonization of Human Colonic Epithelium In Vitro and Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Steven B.; Cook, Vivienne; Tighe, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis and more severe complications, such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pathology is most pronounced in the colon, but to date there is no direct clinical evidence showing EHEC binding to the colonic epithelium in patients. In this study, we investigated EHEC adherence to the human colon by using in vitro organ culture (IVOC) of colonic biopsy samples and polarized T84 colon carcinoma cells. We show for the first time that EHEC colonizes human colonic biopsy samples by forming typical attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions which are dependent on EHEC type III secretion (T3S) and binding of the outer membrane protein intimin to the translocated intimin receptor (Tir). A/E lesion formation was dependent on oxygen levels and suppressed under oxygen-rich culture conditions routinely used for IVOC. In contrast, EHEC adherence to polarized T84 cells occurred independently of T3S and intimin and did not involve Tir translocation into the host cell membrane. Colonization of neither biopsy samples nor T84 cells was significantly affected by expression of Shiga toxins. Our study suggests that EHEC colonizes and forms stable A/E lesions on the human colon, which are likely to contribute to intestinal pathology during infection. Furthermore, care needs to be taken when using cell culture models, as they might not reflect the in vivo situation. PMID:25534942

  15. Reversible Projection Technique for Colon Unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianhua; Chowdhury, Ananda S.; Aman, Javed; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Colon unfolding provides an efficient way to navigate the colon in CT colonography. Most existing unfolding techniques only computed forward projections. When radiologists find abnormalities or conduct measurements on the unfolded view (which is often quicker and easier), it is difficult to locate the corresponding region on the 3D view for further examination (which is more accurate and reliable). To address this, we propose a reversible projection technique for colon unfolding. The method makes use of advanced algorithms including rotation-minimizing frames, recursive ring sets, mesh skinning and cylindrical projection. Both forward and reverse transformations are computed for points on the colon surface. Therefore, it allows for detecting and measuring polyps on the unfolded view and mapping them back to the 3D surface. We generated realistic colon simulation incorporating most colon characteristics such as curved centerline, variable distention, haustral folds, teniae coli and colonic polyps. Our method was tested on both the simulated data and 110 clinical CT colonography data. Comparison of polyp size measurements on the unfolded view and the 3D view clearly demonstrates the importance of our reversible projection technique. PMID:20542756

  16. The Chronic Kidney Disease - Colonic Axis.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Madeleine V; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has long been known to cause significant gastrointestinal and colonic pathology. Recent advances in understanding of the role of colonic bacterial microbiome and its function and composition in health and disease have revealed previously unappreciated effects of CKD-associated colonic pathology on the development of uremic complications. CKD can result in profound changes in the microbiome composition and biosynthetic pattern, and the structure and function of the colon. Increases in bacteria that produce urease, uricase, p-cresol- and indole-forming enzymes and the depletion of bacteria that possess short chain fatty acid forming enzymes have been described in human and animal models. Disruption of the colonic epithelial tight junction in different animal models of CKD has been reported and is largely due to the conversion of luminal urea to ammonia by urease possessing bacteria. Together, these changes contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic inflammation and uremic toxicity by allowing the translocation of endotoxin and microbial fragments into the circulation. Additionally, colonic bacteria are the main source of several well-known pro-inflammatory uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate, P-cresol sulfate. This review is intended to provide an overview of the effects of CKD on the colonic microbiome and the intestinal epithelial barrier structure and function and their role in the pathogenesis the systemic inflammation and uremic toxicity. PMID:25855516

  17. Colon flattening using heat diffusion Riemannian metric.

    PubMed

    Gurijala, Krishna Chaitanya; Shi, Rui; Zeng, Wei; Gu, Xianfeng; Kaufman, Arie

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new colon flattening algorithm that is efficient, shape-preserving, and robust to topological noise. Unlike previous approaches, which require a mandatory topological denoising to remove fake handles, our algorithm directly flattens the colon surface without any denoising. In our method, we replace the original Euclidean metric of the colon surface with a heat diffusion metric that is insensitive to topological noise. Using this heat diffusion metric, we then solve a Laplacian equation followed by an integration step to compute the final flattening. We demonstrate that our method is shape-preserving and the shape of the polyps are well preserved. The flattened colon also provides an efficient way to enhance the navigation and inspection in virtual colonoscopy. We further show how the existing colon registration pipeline is made more robust by using our colon flattening. We have tested our method on several colon wall surfaces and the experimental results demonstrate the robustness and the efficiency of our method. PMID:24051852

  18. Image registration using a weighted region adjacency graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hasan, Muhannad; Fisher, Mark

    2005-04-01

    Image registration is an important problem for image processing and computer vision with many proposed applications in medical image analysis.1, 2 Image registration techniques attempt to map corresponding features between two images. The problem is particularly difficult as anatomy is subject to elastic deformations. This paper considers this problem in the context of graph matching. Firstly, weighted Region Adjacency Graphs (RAGs) are constructed from each image using an approach based on watershed saliency. 3 The vertices of the RAG represent salient regions in the image and the (weighted) edges represent the relationship (bonding) between each region. Correspondences between images are then determined using a weighted graph matching method. Graph matching is considered to be one of the most complex problems in computer vision, due to its combinatorial nature. Our approach uses a multi-spectral technique to graph matching first proposed by Umeyama4 to find an approximate solution to the weighted graph matching problem (WGMP) based on the singular value decomposition of the adjacency matrix. Results show the technique is successful in co-registering 2-D MRI images and the method could be useful in co-registering 3-D volumetric data (e.g. CT, MRI, SPECT, PET etc.).

  19. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  20. Adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Binbin

    2012-03-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lip. It is a common benign lesion in the oral region. Although there are many conservative treatments such as the creation of a pouch (marsupialization), freezing (cryosurgery), micromarsupialization, and CO2 laser vaporization, surgical resection is the most commonly used means. Generally speaking, an elliptic incision was made to fully enucleate the lesion along with the overlying mucosa and the affected glands, then direct suturing is adequate. However, in some cases, direct suturing could cause lower lip deformity, and adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection might be quite necessary. Based on our experience, adjacent mucosal flaps could be used when lesions were close to or even break through the vermilion border or their diameters were much more than 1 cm. A-T advancement flaps and transposition flaps were the mostly applied ones. Follow-up showed that all patients realized primary healing after 1 week postoperatively with satisfactory lower lip appearance, and there was no sign of increasing incidence of relapse. PMID:22421867

  1. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: What is revisited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, A.; Jrbashyan, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagyan, A.; Baghdassaryan, H.; Davtian, V.

    2006-07-01

    The validity of some data in Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62] that are revisited by R. Haroutiunian is considered. A conclusion is made that the revisions suggested by Haroutiunian concern unessential parts of the content of work by Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62]. This article presents new evidence and re-proves the earlier conclusions that are disputed or revised by R. Haroutiunian.

  2. Cubic-normal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gan Chew; Hin, Pooi Ah; Ho, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The power-normal distribution given in Yeo and Johnson in year 2000 is a unimodal distribution with wide ranges of skewness and kurtosis. A shortcoming of the power-normal distribution is that the negative and positve parts of the underlying random variable have to be specified by two different expressions of the standard normal random variable. In this paper, we construct a new distribution, called the cubic-normal distribution, via a single polynomial expression in cubic root function. Apart from having the properties which are similar to those of the power-normal distribution, this cubic-normal distribution can be developed into a multivariate version which is more attractive from the theoretical and computational points of view.

  3. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers. PMID:24281033

  4. MicroRNA-429 inhibits the migration and invasion of colon cancer cells by targeting PAK6/cofilin signaling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiangyang; Wei, Zibai; Wang, Jia; Liu, Ping; Qin, Yijun; Zhong, Meizuo

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of non-coding RNAs 18-25 nucleotides in length, can lead to mRNA degradation or inhibit protein translation by directly binding to the 3'-untranslational region (UTR) of their target mRNAs. The deregulation of miR-429 has been suggested to be involved in the development and progression of colon cancer. However, the detailed molecular mechanism involved remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-429 in the regulation of migration and invasion of colon cancer cells using RT-qPCR and western blotting. The results showed that the expression of miR-429 was reduced in colon cancer cell lines, when compared to a normal colon epithelial cell line. Treatment with DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate (PBA), or transfection with the pre-miR-429 lentivirus plasmid led to the upregulation of miR-429 expression, as well as inhibition of migration and invasion in colon cancer cells. Investigation of the molecular mechanism showed that PAK6 was a novel target of miR-429, and the expression of PAK6 was upregulated in colon cancer tissues and cell lines, and was negatively regulated by miR-429 in colon cancer cells. Moreover, the cofilin signaling acted as a downstream effector of miR-429 in colon cancer cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that miR-429 inhibits the migration and invasion of colon cancer cells, partly at least, by mediating the expression of PAK6, as well as the activity of cofilin signaling. Therefore, miR-429 is as a potential molecular target for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26058485

  5. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma Causing Colonic Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, André Costa; Marques, Ana; Lopes, Joanne; Duarte, Alexandre; da Silva, Pedro Correia; Lopes, José Manuel; Maia, J. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults and is caused by a malignant lesion in about 70% of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential. We present a 64-year-old male patient with right colonic intussusception caused by a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC), presenting as a giant pedunculated polyp (54 mm of largest diameter). The patient underwent right colectomy with primary anastomosis and adjuvant chemotherapy. The diagnosis of intussusception of the colon in adults is difficult because of its rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation. In this case, the cause was a rare histological type malignant tumor (MANEC). PMID:27525153

  6. [Submucosal lipoma of the colon with intussusception].

    PubMed

    Avilés-Salas, Alejandro; Cuéllar-Mendoza, Miguel Enrique

    2012-09-01

    Lipomas are the most frequent benign tumours of the digestive tract and 50% are localized in the colon. Most are found in the submucosa and may vary in their incidence, localization, symptoms and pathogenesis. We present the case of a 49-year-old female with intermittent intestinal subocclusion, abdominal distention and intussusception. Colonoscopy disclosed a submucous tumour in the descending colon. Laparoscopic sigmoidectomy was performed with resection of the lesion. Definitive pathology revealed a submucous colon lipoma. It is important to know the different presentations of these tumours because they can be mistaken for a malignant lesion. PMID:23214352

  7. Perspectives on Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, S. Kenneth; Fiorelli, Joseph S.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the principle of normalization for developmentally disabled persons from five viewpoints: empirical approaches, social integration, specialization and congregation, cultural norms, and prevention. (Author/CL)

  8. Manipulation of the Gut Microbiota Reveals Role in Colon Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zackular, Joseph P; Baxter, Nielson T; Chen, Grace Y; Schloss, Patrick D

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individuals with colonic adenomas and carcinomas harbor a distinct microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbiota may allow the outgrowth of bacterial populations that induce genomic mutations or exacerbate tumor-promoting inflammation. In addition, it is likely that the loss of key bacterial populations may result in the loss of protective functions that are normally provided by the microbiota. We explored the role of the gut microbiota in colon tumorigenesis by using an inflammation-based murine model. We observed that perturbing the microbiota with different combinations of antibiotics reduced the number of tumors at the end of the model. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we successfully modeled the number of tumors that developed over the course of the model on the basis of the initial composition of the microbiota. The timing of antibiotic treatment was an important determinant of tumor outcome, as colon tumorigenesis was arrested by the use of antibiotics during the early inflammation period of the murine model. Together, these results indicate that it is possible to predict colon tumorigenesis on the basis of the composition of the microbiota and that altering the gut microbiota can alter the course of tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE Mounting evidence indicates that alterations to the gut microbiota, the complex community of bacteria that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract, are strongly associated with the development of colorectal cancer. We used antibiotic perturbations to a murine model of inflammation-driven colon cancer to generate eight starting communities that resulted in various severities of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we were able to quantitatively predict the final number of tumors on the basis of the initial composition of the gut microbiota. These results further bolster the evidence that the gut microbiota is involved in mediating the development of colorectal cancer. As a final proof of principle, we

  9. Manipulation of the Gut Microbiota Reveals Role in Colon Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zackular, Joseph P.; Baxter, Nielson T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is growing evidence that individuals with colonic adenomas and carcinomas harbor a distinct microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbiota may allow the outgrowth of bacterial populations that induce genomic mutations or exacerbate tumor-promoting inflammation. In addition, it is likely that the loss of key bacterial populations may result in the loss of protective functions that are normally provided by the microbiota. We explored the role of the gut microbiota in colon tumorigenesis by using an inflammation-based murine model. We observed that perturbing the microbiota with different combinations of antibiotics reduced the number of tumors at the end of the model. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we successfully modeled the number of tumors that developed over the course of the model on the basis of the initial composition of the microbiota. The timing of antibiotic treatment was an important determinant of tumor outcome, as colon tumorigenesis was arrested by the use of antibiotics during the early inflammation period of the murine model. Together, these results indicate that it is possible to predict colon tumorigenesis on the basis of the composition of the microbiota and that altering the gut microbiota can alter the course of tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE Mounting evidence indicates that alterations to the gut microbiota, the complex community of bacteria that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract, are strongly associated with the development of colorectal cancer. We used antibiotic perturbations to a murine model of inflammation-driven colon cancer to generate eight starting communities that resulted in various severities of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we were able to quantitatively predict the final number of tumors on the basis of the initial composition of the gut microbiota. These results further bolster the evidence that the gut microbiota is involved in mediating the development of colorectal cancer. As a final proof of

  10. Aberrant, ectopic expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in malignant colonic epithelial cells. Implications for these cells growth via an autocrine mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K.; Szabo, Sandor; Tarnawski, Andrzej S.

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Malignant colonic epithelial cells express VEGF and its receptors. •Cultured colon cancer cells secrete VEGF into the medium. •Inhibition of VEGF receptor significantly decreases colon cancer cell proliferation. •VEGF is critical for colon cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (referred to as VEGF) is implicated in colon cancer growth. Currently, the main accepted mechanism by which VEGF promotes colon cancer growth is via the stimulation of angiogenesis, which was originally postulated by late Judah Folkman. However, the cellular source of VEGF in colon cancer tissue; and, the expression of VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in colon cancer cells are not fully known and are subjects of controversy. Material and methods: We examined and quantified expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in three different human colonic tissue arrays containing sections of adenocarcinoma (n = 43) and normal mucosa (n = 41). In human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and normal colon cell lines NCM356 and NCM460, we examined expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 mRNA and protein, VEGF production and secretion into the culture medium; and, the effect of a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors, AL-993, on cell proliferation. Results: Human colorectal cancer specimens had strong expression of VEGF in cancer cells and also expressed VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2.In vitro studies showed that human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, but not normal colonic cell lines, express VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 and secrete VEGF into the medium up to a concentration 2000 pg/ml within 48 h. Furthermore, we showed that inhibition of VEGF receptors using a specific VEGF-R inhibitor significantly reduced proliferation (by >50%) of cultured colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: Our findings support the contention that VEGF generated by colon cancer cells stimulates their growth directly through an autocrine mechanism that is

  11. A two-level approach towards semantic colon segmentation: removing extra-colonic findings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Le; Wolf, Matthias; Liang, Jianming; Dundar, Murat; Bi, Jinbo; Salganicoff, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Computer aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps in computed tomographic colonography has tremendously impacted colorectal cancer diagnosis using 3D medical imaging. It is a prerequisite for all CAD systems to extract the air-distended colon segments from 3D abdomen computed tomography scans. In this paper, we present a two-level statistical approach of first separating colon segments from small intestine, stomach and other extra-colonic parts by classification on a new geometric feature set; then evaluating the overall performance confidence using distance and geometry statistics over patients. The proposed method is fully automatic and validated using both the classification results in the first level and its numerical impacts on false positive reduction of extra-colonic findings in a CAD system. It shows superior performance than the state-of-art knowledge or anatomy based colon segmentation algorithms. PMID:20426210

  12. Neuroendocrine changes in colon of mice with a disrupted IL-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Qian, B F; El-Salhy, M; Melgar, S; Hammarström, M L; Danielsson, A

    2000-06-01

    Neuroendocrine peptides have a variety of physiological functions in the gastrointestinal tract. This study was carried out to investigate the impact of IL-2 deficiency on the neuroendocrine system in normal colon, and the neuroendocrine changes during colonic inflammation. Mice with homozygous disrupted IL-2 gene (IL-2-/-) spontaneously developed a bowel disease with similarities to human ulcerative colitis. Different types of colonic endocrine cells and myenteric nerves were analysed in the IL-2-/- mice using immunomorphometry. The neuropeptide contents in the colonic tissues were determined by radioimmunoassay. Age-matched healthy IL-2+/- and IL-2+/+ mice served as controls and the colonic IL-2 levels were compared between these two groups of mice by ELISA. Our data showed that less than half the amount of IL-2 was synthesized in the colon of IL-2+/- mice compared with the IL-2+/+ wild-type mice. Two major differences in the neuroendocrine colon were found between the mice with an intact and disrupted IL-2 gene. One was age-related. The frequencies of various endocrine cells and myenteric nerves increased with age in the IL-2+/+ mice. However, no such increases were seen in the mice with a disrupted IL-2 gene. Instead, the volume densities of enteroglucagon, serotonin cells and substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and total myenteric nerves were lower in the older IL-2+/- and IL-2-/- mice compared with the wild type. The other was disease-related. Polypeptide YY (PYY) cells and tissue levels of PYY, SP and VIP were significantly decreased in the IL-2-/- mice during the course of bowel inflammation compared with the healthy IL-2+/- and IL-2+/+ controls. These findings indicate that colonic neuroendocrine alterations did occur in the mice with a disrupted IL-2 gene and diminished local IL-2 level, suggesting a role of IL-2 in the regulation of the neuroendocrine system and a prevalent interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems

  13. Internal Colonization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Hu, Jiahuai; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; Richardson, Susanna M.; Bartz, Jerry A.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Several Salmonella enterica outbreaks have been traced back to contaminated tomatoes. In this study, the internalization of S. enterica Typhimurium via tomato leaves was investigated as affected by surfactants and bacterial rdar morphotype, which was reported to be important for the environmental persistence and attachment of Salmonella to plants. Surfactants, especially Silwet L-77, promoted ingress and survival of S. enterica Typhimurium in tomato leaves. In each of two experiments, 84 tomato plants were inoculated two to four times before fruiting with GFP-labeled S. enterica Typhimurium strain MAE110 (with rdar morphotype) or MAE119 (without rdar). For each inoculation, single leaflets were dipped in 109 CFU/ml Salmonella suspension with Silwet L-77. Inoculated and adjacent leaflets were tested for Salmonella survival for 3 weeks after each inoculation. The surface and pulp of ripe fruits produced on these plants were also examined for Salmonella. Populations of both Salmonella strains in inoculated leaflets decreased during 2 weeks after inoculation but remained unchanged (at about 104 CFU/g) in week 3. Populations of MAE110 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of MAE119 from day 3 after inoculation. In the first year, nine fruits collected from one of the 42 MAE119 inoculated plants were positive for S. enterica Typhimurium. In the second year, Salmonella was detected in adjacent non-inoculated leaves of eight tomato plants (five inoculated with strain MAE110). The pulp of 12 fruits from two plants inoculated with MAE110 was Salmonella positive (about 106 CFU/g). Internalization was confirmed by fluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can move inside tomato plants grown in natural field soil and colonize fruits at high levels without inducing any symptoms, except for a slight reduction in plant growth. PMID:22096553

  14. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  15. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  16. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  17. Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159004.html Colon Cancer Rising in People Under 50 Incidence up more than 10 percent in ... cancer rates are declining, the rates among Americans under 50 have jumped more than 11 percent in ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  19. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Cancer.gov

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  20. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... explains the most commonly used screening methods, including test preparation, in simple language. View video Narrator : If ... cancer or even going for a colon cancer test can be frightening to you. “What if they ...

  1. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  2. Effect of YNS-15P, a new alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, on stress-stimulated colonic propulsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, O; Niida, H; Tajima, K; Shirouchi, Y; Kyotani, Y; Ueda, F; Kise, M; Kimura, K

    1998-11-01

    We studied effects of a novel alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, YNS-15P (N-[(2R,11bS)-9-methoxy-1,3,4,6,7, 11b-hexahydro-2H-benzoquinolizin-2-yl]-N-methylmethanesulfonami de hydrochloride), on colonic propulsion stimulated by wrap-restraint stress (WRS) or bethanechol, on normal colonic propulsion and on diarrhea induced by castor oil in rats. Alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonists, rauwolscine and RX821002, decreased the increase in the number and weight of fecal pellets induced by WRS. YNS-15P also inhibited WRS-stimulated fecal excretion in a dose-dependent manner. A 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist, granisetron, trimebutine and diazepam, but not a 5-hydroxytryptamine4 receptor antagonist, GR113808, significantly inhibited WRS-stimulated fecal excretion. YNS-15P inhibited WRS-stimulated colonic transit in a dose-dependent manner. However, YNS-15P had no significant effect on normal fecal excretion and colonic transit or on bethanechol-stimulated fecal excretion. YNS-15P also failed to inhibit castor-oil-induced diarrhea. These results indicate that YNS-15P selectively inhibits WRS-stimulated colonic propulsion, and that alpha-2 adrenoceptors may be involved in stress-induced colonic motor dysfunction in fed rats. PMID:9808698

  3. Detection of gastrin mRNA in fresh human colonic carcinomas by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Monges, G; Biagini, P; Cantaloube, J F; Chicheportiche, C; Frances, V; Brandini, D; Parc, P; Seitz, J F; Giovannini, M; Sauvan, R

    1993-10-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that gastrin might be synthesized by tumour tissues in cancer of the colon, samples from six human colon tumours, one hepatic metastasis, four normal colonic mucosal samples and two antral and one fundic gastric mucosal samples from nine patients were analysed to determine whether gastrin mRNA was present. RNA was extracted from surgical specimens by ultracentrifugation on a CsCl cushion, purified using the guanidinium thiocyanate method, reverse-transcribed and amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Gastrin mRNA was detected in each colonic carcinoma sample (including the hepatic metastasis), while no such signal was observed in normal colon biopsies. Positive and negative controls (gastric antrum and fundus respectively) gave the expected results. In each of the positive samples, the chemiluminescent revelation of amplified products after Southern blotting corresponded to gastrin mRNA without the intron. These findings demonstrate the ability of primary and metastatic human colonic tumours to produce gastrin mRNA. Since malignant cell lines have been reported to produce gastrin peptide, and since gastrin receptors were present in some cases, our results support the idea that gastrin may be involved in an autocrine mechanism. PMID:7507679

  4. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  5. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  6. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  7. Preventing Proximal Adjacent Level Kyphosis With Strap Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Khaled M; Matoian, Brett J; Denardin, Nicholas B; Patel, Vikas V

    2016-07-01

    A substantial proportion of patients develop proximal junctional kyphosis following spinal surgery. To combat this postoperative change, several techniques have focused on maintaining the structural integrity of adjacent spinal levels and adapting the proximal end of the fusion construct to accommodate the increased mechanical stressors produced by long spinal fusion. The use of Mersilene tape (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey) for spine and orthopedic surgery is well documented, although considerably less is known about its use for preventing proximal junctional kyphosis. This article describes a proposed technique using Mersilene tape to provide a check-rein strap stabilization at the proximal end of fusion constructs. Initial data suggest that use of this technique may prevent formation of proximal junctional kyphosis. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e794-e799.]. PMID:27158827

  8. Geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dilamarter, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas in Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee is presented as a background for interpreters evaluating the present land surface using remotely sensed imagery. Eight physiographic units were analyzed and are briefly discussed with reference to topography and surface deposits. Great diversity was found to be characteristic of the region, the result of different structural influences and geomorphic processes. The landscape bears the marks of fluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine and karstic environments, so a regional geomorphic history was compiled from the literature as an aid to understanding the land surface. Three smaller zones in Kentucky were analyzed in greater detail regarding topography and geomorphic development because of their potential importance in subsurface exploration.

  9. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  10. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-01-01

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented. PMID:27515618

  11. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ciara; Ged, Yasser; Quinn, Fiona; Walker, Jan; Kennedy, John; Gillham, Charles; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDermott, Ronan; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Grant, Cliona; Flavin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Breast implant-associated lymphoma has recently gained wide recognition. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most frequently diagnosed subtype in this setting but the spectrum is broadening. A 66-year-old woman developed swelling and itch around her saline implant 6 years after its insertion. Imaging revealed a fluid collection surrounding the implant with an adjacent mass. Microscopy showed sclerotic tissue punctuated by discrete cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry. Small T-lymphocytes formed rosettes around HRS-like cells. Appearances were consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction demonstrated no clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, however, a t(14;18)(q32;q21)BCL2-JH translocation involving the major breakpoint region of the bcl2 gene was present. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed FDG-avid masses in the right axilla and pelvis. Subsequent pathological examination identified low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) translocation at these sites. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HL arising adjacent to a breast implant. An awareness of this diagnosis is important as classical HL, with its prominent mixed inflammatory background, may be overlooked as a reactive process when histologically assessing capsulectomy specimens. It is also important in the differential diagnosis for implant-associated ALCL as both contain large atypical CD30-positive cells highlighting the need for full immunohistochemical and molecular workup in such cases. This case also adds to the large body of literature regarding the association between HL and FL. PMID:26888955

  12. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  13. Lunar Colonization and NASA's Exploration Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2006-01-01

    Space colonization is not part of NASA's mission planning. NASA's exploration vision, mission goals and program implementations, however, can have an important affect on private lunar programs leading towards colonization. NASA's exploration program has been described as a journey not a race. It is not like the Apollo mission having tight schedules and relatively unchanging direction. NASA of this era has competing demands from the areas of aeronautics, space science, earth science, space operations and, there are competing demands within the exploration program itself. Under the journey not a race conditions, an entrepreneur thinking about building a hotel on the Moon, with a road to an exploration site, might have difficulty determining where and when NASA might be at a particular place on the Moon. Lunar colonization advocates cannot depend on NASA or other nations with space programs to lead the way to colonization. They must set their own visions, mission goals and schedules. In implementing their colonization programs they will be resource limited. They would be like ``hitchhikers'' following the programs of spacefaring nations identifying programs that might have a fit with their vision and be ready to switch to other programs that may take them in the colonization direction. At times they will have to muster their own limited resources and do things themselves where necessary. The purpose of this paper is to examine current changes within NASA, as a lunar colonization advocate might do, in order to see where there might be areas for fitting into a lunar colonization strategy. The approach will help understand how the ``hitchhiking'' technique might be better utilized.

  14. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-01-01

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health. PMID:24713325

  15. Contained colonic perforation due to cecal retroflexion

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Zhuo; Agrawal, Deepak; Singal, Amit G; Kircher, Stephen; Gupta, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Complications of cecal retroflexion performed during colonoscopy have not previously been reported to occur. We report a case of contained colonic perforation secondary to using cecal retroflexion technique to examine the colon, and review available published reports of complications associated with this technique. We conclude that complications may rarely occur with use of cecal retroflexion, and that the clinical benefit of this technique is uncertain. PMID:27004007

  16. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    SciTech Connect

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  17. [Physiological role of mucins in the colonic barrier integrity].

    PubMed

    Gaudier, Estelle; Hoebler, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Colonic mucus is a key element of colonic barrier as it is located at the frontier between luminal microflora and colonic mucosa itself. Colonic mucus is mainly composed of high molecular weight glycoproteins called mucins that can be either secreted or membrane-linked. The expression of various colonic mucins is altered in colorectal cancers or inflammations. The aim of this review is to highlight the crucial role played by colonic mucins in the maintenance of colonic barrier integrity, both because they are part of the protective mucus layer, and because they individually exert specific functions involved in epithelial barrier, like cell growth and differentiation, immunomodulation, signal transduction or cell adhesion. PMID:17075443

  18. G-protein-coupled receptor for short-chain fatty acids suppresses colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Chen, Yakun; Jiang, Hongmei; Robbins, Gregory T; Nie, Daotai

    2011-02-15

    GPR43 is a G-protein-coupled receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Expression of GPR43 is detected in hematopoietic tissues and the large intestine. SCFAs are derived from bacterial fermentation and metabolism of undigested dietary fibers and have been recognized for their cancer prevention activities in the colon. The role of SCFAs, particularly butyrate, in colon cancer therapy has been extensively studied, and its tumor suppressive functions are believed to be due to their intracellular actions, notably inhibition of histone deacetylase. In our study, we show that SCFAs also exert their antitumor effects via receptor GPR43 and that GPR43 is frequently lost in colon cancer cells. Immunohistostaining revealed that GPR43 immunoreactivity was high in normal colon tissues (N = 31) but was markedly reduced or completely lost in most colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues (N = 70) and their corresponding lymph node metastatic adenocarcinomas (N = 38). RT-PCR analysis detected the presence of full length GPR43 mRNA in only one (HT-29) of nine established human colon cancer cell lines. Restoration of GPR43 expression in HCT8 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and activated caspases, leading to increased apoptotic cell death after propionate/butyrate treatment. Restored GPR43 expression, coupled with propionate treatment, induced an upregulation of p21 and a decrease in the levels of cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 1 and 2, while the CDK4 and CDK6 levels remained unchanged. Our results suggest that GPR43 functions as a tumor suppressor by mediating SCFA-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptotic cell death in colon cancer. PMID:20979106

  19. Human colonic goblet cells. Demonstration of distinct subpopulations defined by mucin-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Podolsky, D K; Fournier, D A; Lynch, K E

    1986-01-01

    We studied glycoprotein content of human colonic goblet cells, using a library of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against purified human colonic mucin (HCM). Using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), we found that 17 of 23 anti-HCM MAbs stained some or all goblet cells of normal human colonic mucosa. We observed a variety of cellular staining patterns, including (a) diffuse (homogeneous) staining of intracellular mucin, (b) speckled (inhomogeneous) staining of mucin droplets, (c) peripheral staining of intracellular droplets, (d) cytoplasmic staining of goblet cells, and (e) apical (luminal) surface staining. Staining patterns were not associated with particular HCM species. In addition to variable patterns of IIF within individual cells, anti-HCM MAbs varied in the proportion of goblet cells stained. Some MAbs stained all goblet cells, while others stained a limited number of goblet cells. Although each goblet cell contained more than one type mucin, HCM species III, and IV and V appeared to exist in mutually exclusive goblet cell populations and it was possible to define at least seven subpopulations of goblet cells in colonic mucosa by their content of various combinations of HCM species. Anti-HCM MAbs stained goblet cells from other sites within the gastrointestinal tract to a varying extent. Anti-HCM MAbs also showed extensive cross-reactivity with rodent, rabbit, and monkey colonic mucosa. However, several anti-HCM MAbs stained only human colonic mucosa. These data show that human colonic mucosa contains discrete subpopulations of goblet cells that produce distinctive combinations of specific mucin glycoprotein species. Images PMID:2420829

  20. Keratin 8 knockdown leads to loss of the chloride transporter DRA in the colon.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M Nadeem; Priyamvada, Shubha; Nyström, Joel H; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu Natarajan; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    Keratins (K) are intermediate filament proteins important in protection from stress. The roles of keratins in the intestine are not clear, but K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) mice develop a Th2-type colonic inflammation, epithelial hyperproliferation, and mild diarrhea caused by a keratin level-dependent decrease in short-circuit current and net sodium and chloride absorption in the distal colon. The lack of K8 leads to mistargeting or altered levels of membrane proteins in colonocytes; however, the main transporter responsible for the keratin-related ion transport defect is unknown. We here analyzed protein and mRNA levels of candidate ion transporters CFTR, PAT-1, NHE-3, and DRA in ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon. Although no differences were observed for CFTR, PAT-1, or NHE-3, DRA mRNA levels were decreased by three- to fourfold and DRA protein was almost entirely lost in K8(-/-) cecum and proximal and distal colon compared with K8(+/+), whereas the levels in ileum were normal. In K8(+/-) mice, DRA mRNA levels were unaltered, while decreased DRA protein levels were detected in the proximal colon. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the loss of DRA in K8(-/-) distal colon, while K8(+/-) displayed a similar but more patchy apical DRA distribution compared with K8(+/+) DRA was similarly decreased when K8 was knocked down in Caco-2 cells, confirming that K8 levels modulate DRA levels in an inflammation-independent manner. Taken together, the loss of DRA in the K8(-/-) mouse colon and cecum explains the dramatic chloride transport defect and diarrheal phenotype after K8 inactivation and identifies K8 as a novel regulator of DRA. PMID:27125276