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Sample records for adjacent normal liver

  1. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  2. Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization of normal liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Jia-Yin; Li, Jin-Ning; Yang, Da-Wei; Chen, Min; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Zheng-Han

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been reported to be a helpful biomarker for detection and characterization of lesion. In view of the importance of ADC measurement reproducibility, the aim of this study was to probe the variability of the healthy hepatic ADC values measured at 3 MR scanners from different vendors and with different field strengths, and to investigate the reproducibility of normalized ADC (nADC) value with the spleen as the reference organ. Thirty enrolled healthy volunteers received DWI with GE 1.5T, Siemens 1.5T, and Philips 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) systems on liver and spleen (session 1) and were imaged again after 10 to 14 days using only GE 1.5T MR and Philips 3.0T MR systems (session 2). Interscan agreement and reproducibility of ADC measurements of liver and the calculated nADC values (ADCliver/ADCspleen) were statistically evaluated between 2 sessions. In session 1, ADC and nADC values of liver were evaluated for the scanner-related variability by 2-way analysis of variance and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Coefficients of variation (CVs) of ADCs and nADCs of liver were calculated for both 1.5 and 3.0-T MR system. Interscan agreement and reproducibility of ADC measurements of liver and related nADCs between 2 sessions were found to be satisfactory with ICC values of 0.773 to 0.905. In session 1, the liver nADCs obtained from different scanners were consistent (P = 0.112) without any significant difference in multiple comparison (P = 0.117 to >0.99) by using 2-way analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis of Bonferroni method, although the liver ADCs varied significantly (P < 0.001). nADCs measured by 3 scanners were in good interscanner agreements with ICCs of 0.685 to 0.776. The mean CV of nADCs of both 1.5T MR scanners (9.6%) was similar to that of 3.0T MR scanner (8.9%). ADCs measured at 3 MR scanners with different field strengths and vendors

  3. A study of structural differences between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells using FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Daping; Xu, Fangcheng; Yu, Qiang; Fang, Tingting; Xia, Junjun; Li, Seruo; Wang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Since liver cancer seriously threatens human health, it is very urgent to explore an effective method for diagnosing liver cancer early. In this study, we investigated the structure differences of IR spectra between neoplastic liver cells and normal liver cells. The major differences of absorption bands were observed between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, the values of A2955/A2921, A1744/A1082, A1640/A1535, H1121/H1020 might be potentially useful factors for distinguishing liver cancer cells from normal liver cells. Curve fitting also provided some important information on structural differences between malignant and normal liver cancer cells. Furthermore, IR spectra combined with hierarchical cluster analysis could make a distinction between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells. The present results provided enough cell basis for diagnosis of liver cancer by FTIR spectroscopy, suggesting FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for liver cancer diagnosis.

  4. EXPRESSION MECHANISM AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF NOB1 IN GASTRIC CANCER TISSUE AND ADJACENT NORMAL TISSUE.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W-P; Liu, X; Yang, Y; Liu, Y-F

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect and relationship of NOB1 in the development of gastric cancer, based on an analysis of NOB1expression in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent tissue. Thirty gastric cancer tissue samples taken during surgery with complete pathological data and their related adjacent normal tissue were examined in this study. NOB1 protein expression in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Real-time PCR was used to detect NOB1 mRNA expression, which provided a basis on which to explore the clinical pathological characteristics for patients with gastric cancer. Results show that NOB1 protein in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue were diffusely expressed both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The positive expression rate in gastric cancer tissue was 73%, higher than that in adjacent normal tissue (47%). Both the reference NAPDH and NOB1 amplification are reflected in the amplification curve in standard S-shape and the unimodal solubility curve which was not altered by non-specific amplification and primer dimer. NOB1 mRNA relative expression in cancer tissue was 4.899∓1.412. NOB1 expression had no direct relationship with the patients’ age, gender, tumor differentiation or infiltration degree, lymphatic metastasis, distant metastasis nor pTNM periodization, but was directly related to the size of the tumor. All the findings in this paper suggest that NOB1 can be one of the focuses for diagnosing and treating gastric cancer and that its protein expression is likely to increase with the growth of tumor, thus playing a great role in the incidence and development of gastric cancer.

  5. Near-infrared optical coefficients of tumors and adjacent normal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, Jan G.

    2001-06-01

    The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tumours of the human breast, liver and kidney and their normal surrounding tissue have been measured in vitro for the near-infrared wavelengths between 600 and 1000 nm as well as 1064 nm. The Monte Carlo inversion technique (Simpson et al) was used to determine the optical coefficients of tissue samples from measurements of the diffuse transmittance and reflectance. The measurements of the diffusely transmitted and reflected intensities were performed using a single integrating sphere 'comparison' method. Four post-mortem samples of both liver adenocarcinoma and normal liver tissue were obtained from one subject and four samples of both tumour and normal kidney tissue were obtained from another subject. Four samples of both breast tumour and normal tissue were obtained from two patients. The scattering coefficient of tumours was found in each case to be significantly higher than that of nondiseased tissue. The absorption coefficient of tumours was generally much smaller than those of normal tissue. The scattering coefficient of tumours was 20% to 200% higher depending on the type of cancer and the wavelength, while the absorption coefficient of tumours was as much as twenty times smaller compared to normal tissue.

  6. Quantification of pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in colonic carcinoma and normal adjacent colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bohe, H; Bohe, M; Jönsson, P; Lindström, C; Ohlsson, K

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To measure the content of immunoreactive human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (irPSTI) in colonic carcinoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa. METHODS: From a stable hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibodies specific for human PSTI, a specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human PSTI was developed. In a precipitation assay system these antibodies bound human PSTI in a dose-dependent manner. The specimens were obtained from resectional surgery. RESULTS: The content of irPSTI was 19.9 micrograms/g protein (0.55 micrograms/g tissue wet weight) in colonic carcinoma. In adjacent normal colonic mucosa 43.6 micrograms/g protein (1.12 micrograms/g tissue wet weight) was shown. CONCLUSIONS: The enzymatic degradation of surrounding tissue necessary for tumour cell invasion could be facilitated by this relative deficit of the inhibitor in infiltrative carcinoma. PMID:1479031

  7. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  8. Collagen polymorphism in normal and cirrhotic human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Seyer, J M; Hutcheson, E T; Kang, A H

    1977-01-01

    Collagens in normal human liver and in alcoholic cirrhotic liver were investigated. Collagens were solubilized by limited proteolysis with pepsin under nondenaturing conditions, and after purification, were fractionated into types I and III by selective precipitation with NaCl. After carboxymethyl cellulose and agarose chromatography, the resulting alpha-chains from each of the collagen types were analyzed with respect to their amino acid and carbohydrate compositions. A comparison of the results obtained from normal liver with those from the diseases organ revealed no significant differences. The isolated human liver alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) chains were digested with CNBr and the generated peptides were separated and purified by a combination of ion-exchange and molecular sieve chromatography. The molecular weight and the amino acid and the carbohydrate compositions of each of the peptides were identical to those of the corresponding human skin peptides except for the slightly higher content of hydroxylysine in some of the peptides. The relative content of type III in relation to type I collagen in both normal anc cirrhotic liver was determined by digesting washed liver homogenates directly with CNBr and quantitating the resultant alpha1(I) and alpha 1(III) peptides after chromatographic separation. The relative quantities of these peptides indicated that normal human liver contained an average of 47% type III, with the remainder being type I. Cirrhotic liver, on the other hand, contained a significantly smaller proportion of type III, ranging from 18 to 34% in different samples, with a corresponding increase in type I. These findings indicate that although the amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of collagens deposited in cirrhotic liver are normal, the fibrotic process of alcoholic liver disease in humans is accompanied by an alteration in tissue collagen polymorphism, and suggest that the observed alterations may have pathogenetic implications. PMID:833273

  9. Functions of autophagy in normal and diseased liver

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Mark J.; Ding, Wen-Xing; Donohue, Terrence M.; Friedman, Scott L.; Kim, Jae-Sung; Komatsu, Masaaki; Lemasters, John J.; Lemoine, Antoinette; Lin, Jiandie D.; Ou, Jing-hsiung James; Perlmutter, David H.; Randall, Glenn; Ray, Ratna B.; Tsung, Allan; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy has emerged as a critical lysosomal pathway that maintains cell function and survival through the degradation of cellular components such as organelles and proteins. Investigations specifically employing the liver or hepatocytes as experimental models have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of autophagic regulation and function. The diverse cellular functions of autophagy, along with unique features of the liver and its principal cell type the hepatocyte, suggest that the liver is highly dependent on autophagy for both normal function and to prevent the development of disease states. However, instances have also been identified in which autophagy promotes pathological changes such as the development of hepatic fibrosis. Considerable evidence has accumulated that alterations in autophagy are an underlying mechanism of a number of common hepatic diseases including toxin-, drug- and ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury, fatty liver, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles that autophagy plays in normal hepatic physiology and pathophysiology with the intent of furthering the development of autophagy-based therapies for human liver diseases. PMID:23774882

  10. Functions of autophagy in normal and diseased liver.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Mark J; Ding, Wen-Xing; Donohue, Terrence M; Friedman, Scott L; Kim, Jae-Sung; Komatsu, Masaaki; Lemasters, John J; Lemoine, Antoinette; Lin, Jiandie D; Ou, Jing-hsiung James; Perlmutter, David H; Randall, Glenn; Ray, Ratna B; Tsung, Allan; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Autophagy has emerged as a critical lysosomal pathway that maintains cell function and survival through the degradation of cellular components such as organelles and proteins. Investigations specifically employing the liver or hepatocytes as experimental models have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of autophagic regulation and function. The diverse cellular functions of autophagy, along with unique features of the liver and its principal cell type the hepatocyte, suggest that the liver is highly dependent on autophagy for both normal function and to prevent the development of disease states. However, instances have also been identified in which autophagy promotes pathological changes such as the development of hepatic fibrosis. Considerable evidence has accumulated that alterations in autophagy are an underlying mechanism of a number of common hepatic diseases including toxin-, drug- and ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury, fatty liver, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles that autophagy plays in normal hepatic physiology and pathophysiology with the intent of furthering the development of autophagy-based therapies for human liver diseases.

  11. Expression Quantitative Trait loci (QTL) in tumor adjacent normal breast tissue and breast tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Zárate, Alejandro; Harshfield, Benjamin J; Hu, Rong; Knoblauch, Nick; Beck, Andrew H; Hankinson, Susan E; Carey, Vincent; Tamimi, Rulla M; Hunter, David J; Quackenbush, John; Hazra, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer, the majority of which are located in intergenic or intronic regions. To explore regulatory impacts of these variants we conducted expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analyses on tissue samples from 376 invasive postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) diagnosed from 1990-2004. Expression analysis was conducted on all formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (and on 264 adjacent normal samples) using the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array. Significance and ranking of associations between tumor receptor status and expression variation was preserved between NHS FFPE and TCGA fresh-frozen sample sets (Spearman r = 0.85, p<10^-10 for 17 of the 21 Oncotype DX recurrence signature genes). At an FDR threshold of 10%, we identified 27 trans-eQTLs associated with expression variation in 217 distinct genes. SNP-gene associations can be explored using an open-source interactive browser distributed in a Bioconductor package. Using a new a procedure for testing hypotheses relating SNP content to expression patterns in gene sets, defined as molecular function pathways, we find that loci on 6q14 and 6q25 affect various gene sets and molecular pathways (FDR < 10%). Although the ultimate biological interpretation of the GWAS-identified variants remains to be uncovered, this study validates the utility of expression analysis of this FFPE expression set for more detailed integrative analyses.

  12. Expression Quantitative Trait loci (QTL) in tumor adjacent normal breast tissue and breast tumor tissue

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Zárate, Alejandro; Harshfield, Benjamin J.; Hu, Rong; Knoblauch, Nick; Beck, Andrew H.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Carey, Vincent; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Hunter, David J.; Quackenbush, John; Hazra, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer, the majority of which are located in intergenic or intronic regions. To explore regulatory impacts of these variants we conducted expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analyses on tissue samples from 376 invasive postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) diagnosed from 1990–2004. Expression analysis was conducted on all formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (and on 264 adjacent normal samples) using the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array. Significance and ranking of associations between tumor receptor status and expression variation was preserved between NHS FFPE and TCGA fresh-frozen sample sets (Spearman r = 0.85, p<10^-10 for 17 of the 21 Oncotype DX recurrence signature genes). At an FDR threshold of 10%, we identified 27 trans-eQTLs associated with expression variation in 217 distinct genes. SNP-gene associations can be explored using an open-source interactive browser distributed in a Bioconductor package. Using a new a procedure for testing hypotheses relating SNP content to expression patterns in gene sets, defined as molecular function pathways, we find that loci on 6q14 and 6q25 affect various gene sets and molecular pathways (FDR < 10%). Although the ultimate biological interpretation of the GWAS-identified variants remains to be uncovered, this study validates the utility of expression analysis of this FFPE expression set for more detailed integrative analyses. PMID:28152060

  13. Low-Molecular-Weight Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Carcinomas and Adjacent Normal-Looking Skin.

    PubMed

    Grammenandi, Konstantina; Kyriazi, Maria; Katsarou-Katsari, Alexandra; Papadopoulos, Othon; Anastassopoulou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Georgios T; Sagriotis, Alexandros; Rallis, Michail; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight antioxidants are some of the most efficient agents of the skin defense mechanism against environmental factors, such as cosmic rays, smoke, and pollutants. The total skin concentrations of hydrophilic ascorbic and uric acids, as well as lipophilic α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and ubiquinol-10 antioxidants were determined by an HPLC-EC detector from 18 biopsies of human nonmelanoma skin carcinomas and 18 biopsies from skin areas adjacent to carcinomas. No significant differences in the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in both carcinomas and normal-looking skin areas adjacent to carcinomas were observed. On the contrary, ascorbic and uric acid concentrations were found to be 18 and 36% lower in carcinomas than in normal-looking skin areas, respectively. No statistical significance was observed between antioxidant concentrations and age, sex, phototype, profession, site of tumor, frequency, and time of UV light exposure either. Accordingly the antioxidant concentrations in both cancerous skin and adjacent normal-looking areas were found to be much higher than in normal skin, in contrast to literature data.

  14. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  15. Hyaluronic acid gel injection to prevent thermal injury of adjacent gastrointestinal tract during percutaneous liver radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takaaki; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean ± standard deviation, 2.1 ± 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 ± 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 ± 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1%, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 ± 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  16. Valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy with normal liver function.

    PubMed

    Rath, Amitav; Naryanan, T Jaishree; Chowdhary, G V S; Murthy, J M K

    2005-06-01

    Hyperammonemic encephalopathy with normal liver function is an uncommon serious adverse effect of valproate therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the case records of 5 patients of epilepsy on valproate with hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Of the 5 patients, 3 were on monotherapy. The mean valproate dose was 1250 mg/day and the duration of therapy ranged between 4 and 90 days. Alteration in the sensorium was the presenting clinical feature. The risk factors included high initial dose (2), long-term valproate therapy (1), and long-term valproate therapy with concomitant topiramate (1). There was good correlation between the fall in serum ammonia levels and clinical improvement. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy should be suspected in patients on valproate with altered sensorium. Response to treatment is rewarding.

  17. Effect of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on Normal Liver Regeneration: Towards a Novel Therapy for Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge E. Cardoso; Elisa M. Heber; David W. Nigg; Osvaldo Calzetta; Herman Blaumann; Juan Longhino; Maria E. Itoiz; Eduardo Bumaschny; Emiliano Pozzi; Amanda E.Schwint; Verónica A. Trivillin

    2007-10-01

    The “TAORMINA project” developed a new method for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of human multifocal unresectable liver metastases based on whole liver ex-situ BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), followed by whole liver autograft. This technique involved a high risk, prolonged anhepatic phase. The Roffo Institute liver surgeons (JEC) herein propose a novel technique to pursue ex-situ liver BNCT studies with a drastically lower surgical risk for the patient. The technique would involve, sequentially, ex-situ BNCT of left liver segments II and III, partial liver autograft, and induction of partial atrophy of the untreated right liver. The working hypothesis is that the atrophy of the right, untreated, diseased liver would stimulate regeneration of the left, treated, “cured” liver to yield a healthy liver mass, allowing for the resection of the remaining portion of diseased liver. This technique does not involve an anhepatic phase and would thus pose a drastically lower surgical risk to the patient but requires sine qua non that BNCT should not impair the regenerative capacity of normal hepatocytes. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of therapeutic doses of BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 (Na2 10B10H10) or (GB- 10 + BPA) on normal liver regeneration in the Wistar rat employing partial hepatectomy as a regenerative stimulus. BNCT did not cause alterations in the outcome of normal liver regeneration, regenerated liver function or histology. We provide proof of principle to support the development of a novel, promising BNCT technique for the treatment of liver metastases.

  18. Normal Variations of Sphenoid Sinus and the Adjacent Structures Detected in Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Azadeh; Ghafari, Roshanak; AnjomShoa, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The sphenoid sinus is a common target of paranasal surgery. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is likely to endanger the anatomic variations of vital structures adjacent to the sphenoid sinus. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the variations of sphenoid sinus and the related structures by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Method In this descriptive-analytic study, CBCT images of 103 patients aged above 20-years were selected (206 sides). Degree of pneumatization of sphenoid sinus, pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process, pterygoid process, protrusion of optic canal, vidian canal, and foramen rotundum, as well as prevalence of sinus septa were recorded. Examinations were performed using On-Demand software (Version 1); data were analyzed by using chi-square test. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between the pterygoid pneumatization and vidian canal protrusion (p< 0.001), and foramen rotundum protrusion (p< 0.001). The optic canal protrusion was found to be significantly associated with the anterior clinoid pneumatization and pterygoid process (p< 0.001). Statistically significant relationship was also observed between the carotid canal protrusion and pterygoid process pneumatization (p< 0.001). Conclusion The anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinus tend to give rise to a complexity of symptoms and potentially serious complications. This variability necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the regional sphenoid sinus anatomy by a detailed CBCT sinus examination. PMID:26966706

  19. Study of the response of osteogenic sarcoma and adjacent normal tissues to radiation. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan-Yanguas, M.

    1981-05-01

    An analysis is made of the surgical specimens of 18 patients with hystologically-proven osteosarcoma who were treated with radiation as the first treatment, and submitted 6 months later to amputation (2 patients had only a second biopsy). Plotting of dose and treatment time against persistence or sterilization of the tumor shows that there is an intermediate zone that extends from 3200 to 5000 rad in 10 days to 8000 to 10,000 rad in 60 to 70 days, inside which the tumor may or may not be destroyed. All cases located above this zone were sterilized; and all those under it showed persistence of viable tumor cells. A similar correlation is made in 47 irradiated patients of the secondary reactions of normal skin and soft tissues surrounding the tumor. An intermediate zone also exists above which all reactions were severe, in some cases reaching necrosis; below this zone, all reactions were mild. When treatment time was longer than 45 days, reactions were only moderate.

  20. Comparative proteome analysis of human esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yazdian–Robati, Rezvan; Ahmadi, Homa; Riahi, Maryam Matbou; Lari, Parisa; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Ranking as the sixth commonest cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) represents one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. One of the main reasons for the low survival of patients with esophageal cancer is its late diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We used proteomics approach to analyze ESCC tissues with the aim of a better understanding of the malignant mechanism and searching candidate protein biomarkers for early diagnosis of esophageal cancer. The differential protein expression between cancerous and normal esophageal tissues was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Then proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) and MASCOT web based search engine. Results: We reported 4 differentially expressed proteins involved in the pathological process of esophageal cancer, such as annexinA1 (ANXA1), peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2), transgelin (TAGLN) andactin-aortic smooth muscle (ACTA2). Conclusion: In this report we have introduced new potential biomarker (ACTA2). Moreover, our data confirmed some already known markers for EC in our region. PMID:28392898

  1. Normal Liver Tissue Density Dose Response in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, Christopher C.; Stinauer, Michelle A.; Diot, Quentin; Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Miften, Moyed

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the temporal dose response of normal liver tissue for patients with liver metastases treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Ninety-nine noncontrast follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 34 patients who received SBRT between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed at a median of 8 months post-SBRT (range, 0.7-36 months). SBRT-induced normal liver tissue density changes in follow-up CT scans were evaluated at 2, 6, 10, 15, and 27 months. The dose distributions from planning CTs were mapped to follow-up CTs to relate the mean Hounsfield unit change ({Delta}HU) to dose received over the range 0-55 Gy in 3-5 fractions. An absolute density change of 7 HU was considered a significant radiographic change in normal liver tissue. Results: Increasing radiation dose was linearly correlated with lower post-SBRT liver tissue density (slope, -0.65 {Delta}HU/5 Gy). The threshold for significant change (-7 {Delta}HU) was observed in the range of 30-35 Gy. This effect did not vary significantly over the time intervals evaluated. Conclusions: SBRT induces a dose-dependent and relatively time-independent hypodense radiation reaction within normal liver tissue that is characterized by a decrease of >7 HU in liver density for doses >30-35 Gy.

  2. In vitro synthesis of immunoglobulins, secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and the adjacent mucous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lai A Fat, R. F. M.; Suurmond, D.; Van Furth, R.

    1973-01-01

    A study on the synthesis of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE), secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and in the adjacent mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal, oral and vaginal mucosa) is reported. The results are based on the culture of tissue samples in a medium with two radioactive amino acids and the detection of synthesized proteins by autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretic pattern of the culture fluid, except in the case of IgE for which the Ouchterlony technique was used. The results indicate that the normal skin does not synthesize immunoglobulins, whereas normal mucous membranes produce IgG and IgA. In the lesions of various skin diseases immunoglobulins are synthesized, mainly IgG but sometimes also IgA and IgE. The cells responsible for the production of immunoglobulins are plasma cells and lymphoid cells present in the skin lesions and mucous membranes. Synthesis of the free secretory component could be demonstrated only in certain mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and oral mucosa). Complement (C3) synthesis was found in normal skin, mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal and oral mucosa), and in the lesions of such skin diseases as discoid lupus erythematosus, (bullous) pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, malignant reticulosis, eczema and lichen planus. Complement production was also demonstrated in allergic skin reactions (i.e. tissue from allergic-positive patch tests, positive Mantoux tests and drug eruptions), but no immunoglobulin synthesis was detected in these lesions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4199092

  3. Viscoelastic properties of normal and cancerous human breast cells are affected differently by contact to adjacent cells.

    PubMed

    Schierbaum, Nicolas; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2017-04-07

    Malignant transformation drastically alters the mechanical properties of the cell and its response to the surrounding cellular environment. We studied the influence of the physical contact between adjacent cells in an epithelial monolayer on the viscoelastic behavior of normal MCF10A, non-invasive cancerous MCF7, and invasive cancerous MDA-MB-231 human breast cells. Using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging technique termed force clamp force mapping (FCFM) to record images of the viscoelastic material properties of sparse and confluent cells, we found that normal MCF10A cells are stiffer and have a lower fluidity when at confluent than at sparse density. Contrarily, cancerous MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells do not stiffen and do not decrease their fluidity when progressing from sparse to confluent density. The behavior of normal MCF10A cells appears to be governed by the formation of stable cell-cell contacts, because their disruption with a calcium-chelator (EGTA) causes the stiffness and fluidity values to return to those at sparse density. In contrast, EGTA-treatment of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells does not change their viscoelastic properties. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the change of the viscoelastic behavior in MCF10A cells when going from sparse to confluent density is accompanied by a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton into thick stress fiber bundles, while in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells the actin cytoskeleton is only composed of thin and short fibers, regardless of cell density. While the observed behavior of normal MCF10A cells might be crucial for providing mechanical stability and thus in turn integrity of the epithelial monolayer, the dysregulation of this behavior in cancerous MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells is possibly a central aspect of cancer progression in the epithelium.

  4. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  5. What do we know about shear wave dispersion in normal and steatotic livers?

    PubMed

    Parker, Kevin J; Partin, Alexander; Rubens, Deborah J

    2015-05-01

    A number of new approaches to measure the viscoelastic properties of the liver are now available to clinicians, many involving shear waves. However, we are at an early stage in understanding the physical processes that govern shear wave propagation in normal liver, with more unknowns added when pathologies such as steatosis are present. This technical note focuses on what is known about the characterization of normal and steatotic (or fatty) livers, with a particular focus on dispersion. Some studies in phantoms and mouse livers support the hypothesis that, starting with a normal liver, increasing accumulations of micro- and macrosteatosis will increase the lossy viscoelastic properties of shear waves in a medium. This results in an increased dispersion (or slope) of shear wave speed and attenuation in the steatotic livers. Theoretical and empirical findings across a number of studies are summarized.

  6. Analysis of LIF-Raman spectroscopy for the diagnosis of normal and liver diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Yu, Ting; Sun, Ruomin; Li, Siqi

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, 514.5nm argon ion laser induced human serum Raman and auto-fluorescence spectra of normal, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer were measured and analyzed. The spectral differences between these three types of serums were observed and given brief explanations. Three parameters α, φ and Δλ were introduced to describe characteristics of each type of spectrum. Experimental results showed that these parameters might be applicable for discrimination of normal, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer, which will provide some reference values to explore the method of laser spectral diagnosis of cancer.

  7. Heterogeneous delayed enhancement of the liver after ultrasound contrast agent injection--a normal variant.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Albrecht, Thomas; Blomley, Martin J; Heckemann, Rolf A; Cosgrove, David O; Wolf, Karl-Jürgen

    2002-08-01

    We report a characteristic heterogeneous delayed liver enhancement pattern that we have encountered in a total of 6 of approximately 1500 subjects who underwent contrast-enhanced liver ultrasonography. The heterogeneous enhancement occurred several min after contrast injection and persisted for up to 1 h. It was seen in diseased as well as healthy livers and appears to represent a "normal variant" of liver enhancement. It was observed with two different contrast agents. The cause of the described effect is unknown; it may be related to the formation of large bubbles and vascular entrapment of these bubbles in the liver.

  8. Breast Field Cancerization: Isolation and Comparison of Telomerase-Expressing Cells in Tumor and Tumor Adjacent, Histologically Normal Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Hines, William C.; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Telomerase stabilizes chromosomes by maintaining telomere length, immortalizes mammalian cells, and is expressed in more than 90% of human tumors. However, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is not restricted to tumor cells. We have previously shown that a subpopulation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in tumor-adjacent, histologically normal (TAHN) breast tissues expresses hTERT mRNA at levels comparable with levels in breast tumors. In the current study, we first validated a reporter for measuring levels of hTERT promoter activity in early-passage HMECs and then used this reporter to compare hTERT promoter activity in HMECs derived from tumor and paired TAHN tissues 1, 3, and 5 cm from the tumor (TAHN-1, TAHN-3, and TAHN-5, respectively). Cell sorting, quantitative real-time PCR, and microarray analyses showed that the 10% of HMECs with the highest hTERT promoter activity in both tumor and TAHN-1 tissues contain more than 95% of hTERT mRNA and overexpress many genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. The percentage of HMECs within this subpopulation showing high hTERT promoter activity was significantly reduced or absent in TAHN-3 and TAHN-5 tissues. We conclude that the field of normal tissue proximal to the breast tumors contains a population of HMECs similar in hTERT expression levels and in gene expression to the HMECs within the tumor mass and that this population is significantly reduced in tissues more distal to the tumor. PMID:21775421

  9. Analysis of normal and diseased liver tissue using auto-fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Jia, Chunde; Lin, Junxiu; Kang, Youping

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, laser induced human serum Raman spectra of liver cancer are measured. The spectra differences in serum from normal people and liver cancer patients are analyzed. For the typical spectrum of normal serum, there are three sharp Raman peaks and relative intensity of Raman peaks excited by 514.5 nm is higher than that excited by 488.0 nm. However, for the Raman spectrum of liver cancer serum there are no peaks or very weak Raman peaks at the same positions. Results from more than two hundred case measurements show that clinical diagnostic accuracy is 92.86%. And then, the liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis are studied applying the technology of LIF. To liver cirrhosis, the shape of Raman peak is similar to normal and fluorescence spectrum is similar to that of liver cancer from statistic data. The experiment indicates that there is notable fluorescence difference between the abnormal and normal liver tissue and have blue shift in fluorescence peak. These results have important reference values to explore the method of laser spectrum diagnosis.

  10. Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein is required for normal mouse liver development

    PubMed Central

    Szunyogova, Eva; Zhou, Haiyan; Maxwell, Gillian K.; Powis, Rachael A.; Francesco, Muntoni; Gillingwater, Thomas H.; Parson, Simon H.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is caused by mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Decreased levels of, cell-ubiquitous, SMN protein is associated with a range of systemic pathologies reported in severe patients. Despite high levels of SMN protein in normal liver, there is no comprehensive study of liver pathology in SMA. We describe failed liver development in response to reduced SMN levels, in a mouse model of severe SMA. The SMA liver is dark red, small and has: iron deposition; immature sinusoids congested with blood; persistent erythropoietic elements and increased immature red blood cells; increased and persistent megakaryocytes which release high levels of platelets found as clot-like accumulations in the heart. Myelopoiesis in contrast, was unaffected. Further analysis revealed significant molecular changes in SMA liver, consistent with the morphological findings. Antisense treatment from birth with PMO25, increased lifespan and ameliorated all morphological defects in liver by postnatal day 21. Defects in the liver are evident at birth, prior to motor system pathology, and impair essential liver function in SMA. Liver is a key recipient of SMA therapies, and systemically delivered antisense treatment, completely rescued liver pathology. Liver therefore, represents an important therapeutic target in SMA. PMID:27698380

  11. Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues in the F344 rat model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) induced in F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) demonstrate considerable phenotypic similarity to human oral cancers and the model has been widely used for carcinogenesis and chemoprevention studies. Molecular characterization of this model needs reliable reference genes (RGs) to avoid false- positive and -negative results for proper interpretation of gene expression data between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Microarray analysis of 11 pairs of OSCC and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from 4-NQO-treated rats identified 10 stably expressed genes in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p>0.5, CV<15%) that could serve as potential RGs in this model. The commonly used 27 RGs in the rat were also analyzed based on microarray data and most of them were found unsuitable for RGs in this model. Traditional RGs such as ACTB and GAPDH were significantly altered in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p<0.01, n=11); however, the Hsp90ab1 was ranked as the best RG candidate and the combination of Hsp90ab1 and HPRT1 was identified by NormFinder to be a superior reference for gene normalization among the commonly used RGs. This result was also validated by RT-PCR based on the selected top RG candidate pool. These data suggest that there are no common RGs suitable for different models and RG(s) should be identified before gene expression analysis. We successfully identified Hsp90ab1 as a stable RG in 4-NQO-induced OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues in F344 rats. The combination of two stably expressed genes may be a better option for gene normalization in tissue samples.

  12. Expression of TAK1/TAB1 expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues and their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Li, Qiang; He, Jin-Tao; Liu, Guang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and its activation ligand, TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1), in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and adjacent normal tissues and to analyze the relevance between TAK1 and TAB1 protein expression and the pathological features of NSCLC patients. Surgical resection NSCLC specimens were collected from 74 patients undergoing surgery in our hospital from September 2003 to July 2008; tumor-adjacent normal tissue specimens were collected as controls. All cases were pathologically confirmed after surgery, and pathological data were complete for all patients. The expression of TAK1/TAB1 proteins in NSCLC and adjacent cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. The correlation between TAK1/TAB1 protein expression and the clinicopathological features and outcome of NSCLC was assessed. The positive expression ratio of TAK1 in NSCLC tissue was 63.5%, which was significantly higher than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissue (31.1%). The positive expression ratio of TAB1 in NSCLC tissue was 51.4%, which was significantly higher than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissue (24.3%). Further analysis showed that positive protein expression of TAK1 and TAB1 was unrelated to patient gender, age, tumor size, degree of differentiation, and history of smoking (P>0.05) but was significantly related to clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Additionally, the expression of TAK1 as well as TAB1 was negatively related to NSCLC patient prognosis, and patients with positive protein expression had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate than those with negative protein expression (P<0.05). TAK1/TAB1 expression in NSCLC tissue is significantly increased and closely associated with patient clinical prognosis. These two proteins are likely to become new therapeutic targets for the treatment of NSCLC.

  13. Magnetization transfer and T2 quantitation in normal appearing cortical gray matter and white matter adjacent to focal abnormality in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Rao, Sajja B; Chawla, Sanjeev; Husain, Mazhar; Rathore, Ram K S

    2003-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries with posttraumatic epilepsy and functional disability being its major sequelae. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis whether the normal appearing adjacent gray and white matter regions on T2 and T1 weighted magnetization transfer (MT) weighted images show any abnormality on quantitative imaging in patients with TBI. A total of 51 patients with TBI and 10 normal subjects were included in this study. There were significant differences in T2 and MT ratio values of T2 weighted and T1 weighted MT normal appearing gray matter regions adjacent to focal image abnormality compared to normal gray matter regions in the normal individuals as corresponding contralateral regions of the TBI patient's group (p < 0.05). However the adjoining normal appearing white matter quantitative values did not show any significant change compared to the corresponding contralateral normal white matter values. We conclude that quantitative T2 and MT ratio values provide additional abnormality in patients with TBI that is not discernable on conventional T2 weighted and T1 weighted MT imaging especially in gray matter. This additional information may be of value in overall management of these patients with TBI.

  14. Threshold doses and prediction of visually apparent liver dysfunction after stereotactic body radiation therapy in cirrhotic and normal livers using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Hiroya; Masai, Norihisa; Tatsumi, Daisaku; Igura, Takumi; Imai, Yasuharu; Oh, Ryoong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the threshold dose for focal liver damage after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in cirrhotic and normal livers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 64 patients who underwent SBRT for liver tumors, including 54 cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 10 non-cirrhotic patients with liver metastases, were analyzed. MRI was performed 3−6 months after SBRT, using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced T1-weighted sequences. All MRI datasets were merged with 3D dosimetry data. All dose distributions were corrected to the biologically effective dose using the linear–quadratic model with an assumed α/β ratio of 2 Gy. The development of liver dysfunction was validly correlated with isodose distribution. The median biologically effective dose (BED2) that provoked liver dysfunction was 57.3 (30.0−227.9) and 114.0 (70.4−244.9) Gy in cirrhotic and normal livers, respectively (P = 0.0002). The BED2 associated with a >5% risk of liver dysfunction was 38.5 in cirrhotic livers and 70.4 Gy in normal livers. The threshold BED2 for liver dysfunction was not significantly different between Child−Pugh A and B patients (P = 0.0719). Moreover, the fractionation schedule was not significantly correlated with threshold BED2 for liver dysfunction in the cirrhotic liver (P = 0.1019). In the cirrhotic liver, fractionation regimen and Child−Pugh classification did not significantly influence the threshold BED2 for focal liver damage after SBRT. We suggest that the threshold BED2 for liver dysfunction after SBRT is 40 and 70 Gy in the cirrhotic and normal liver, respectively. PMID:26983986

  15. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is related to nuclear grade in ductal carcinoma in situ and is increased in its normal adjacent epithelium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shim, Veronica; Gauthier, Mona L.; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Mantei, Kristin; Chew, Karen L.; Moore, Dan H.; Cha, Imok; Tlsty, Thea D.; Esserman, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is emerging as an important cancer biomarker and is now an experimental target for solid tumor treatment.However, no study has exclusively focused on COX-2 expression in early lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We examined COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 46 cases of women undergoing surgical resection for DCIS. We found that COX-2 expression was detected in 85% of all DCIS specimens, with increased COX-2 staining correlating with higher nuclear grade. Strikingly, COX-2 staining intensity in the normal adjacent epithelium was stronger than in the DCIS lesion itself. Our observations demonstrate that COX-2 is up-regulated in the normal adjacent epithelium and supports the hypothesis that the surrounding epithelial tissue is part of the disease process in DCIS.

  16. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Response and Normal Tissue Regeneration After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Stinauer, Michelle A.; Diot, Quentin; Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To characterize changes in standardized uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) scans and determine the pace of normal tissue regeneration after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for solid tumor liver metastases. Methods and Materials: We reviewed records of patients with liver metastases treated with SBRT to {>=}40 Gy in 3-5 fractions. Evaluable patients had pretreatment PET and {>=}1 post-treatment PET. Each PET/CT scan was fused to the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. The maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) for each lesion and the total liver volume were measured on each PET/CT scan. Maximum SUV levels before and after SBRT were recorded. Results: Twenty-seven patients with 35 treated liver lesions were studied. The median follow-up was 15.7 months (range, 1.5-38.4 mo), with 5 PET scans per patient (range, 2-14). Exponential decay curve fitting (r=0.97) showed that SUV{sub max} declined to a plateau of 3.1 for controlled lesions at 5 months after SBRT. The estimated SUV{sub max} decay half-time was 2.0 months. The SUV{sub max} in controlled lesions fluctuated up to 4.2 during follow-up and later declined; this level is close to 2 standard deviations above the mean normal liver SUV{sub max} (4.01). A failure cutoff of SUV{sub max} {>=}6 is twice the calculated plateau SUV{sub max} of controlled lesions. Parenchymal liver volume decreased by 20% at 3-6 months and regenerated to a new baseline level approximately 10% below the pretreatment level at 12 months. Conclusions: Maximum SUV decreases over the first months after SBRT to plateau at 3.1, similar to the median SUV{sub max} of normal livers. Transient moderate increases in SUV{sub max} may be observed after SBRT. We propose a cutoff SUV{sub max} {>=}6, twice the baseline normal liver SUV{sub max}, to score local failure by PET criteria. Post-SBRT values between 4 and 6 would be suspicious for local tumor persistence or recurrence. The volume of normal liver reached nadir 3

  17. Extrapolation of Normal Tissue Complication Probability for Different Fractionations in Liver Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tai An; Erickson, Beth; Li, X. Allen

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: The ability to predict normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) is essential for NTCP-based treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to estimate the Lyman NTCP model parameters for liver irradiation from published clinical data of different fractionation regimens. A new expression of normalized total dose (NTD) is proposed to convert NTCP data between different treatment schemes. Method and Materials: The NTCP data of radiation- induced liver disease (RILD) from external beam radiation therapy for primary liver cancer patients were selected for analysis. The data were collected from 4 institutions for tumor sizes in the range of of 8-10 cm. The dose per fraction ranged from 1.5 Gy to 6 Gy. A modified linear-quadratic model with two components corresponding to radiosensitive and radioresistant cells in the normal liver tissue was proposed to understand the new NTD formalism. Results: There are five parameters in the model: TD{sub 50}, m, n, {alpha}/{beta} and f. With two parameters n and {alpha}/{beta} fixed to be 1.0 and 2.0 Gy, respectively, the extracted parameters from the fitting are TD{sub 50}(1) = 40.3 {+-} 8.4Gy, m =0.36 {+-} 0.09, f = 0.156 {+-} 0.074 Gy and TD{sub 50}(1) = 23.9 {+-} 5.3Gy, m = 0.41 {+-} 0.15, f = 0.0 {+-} 0.04 Gy for patients with liver cirrhosis scores of Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B, respectively. The fitting results showed that the liver cirrhosis score significantly affects fractional dose dependence of NTD. Conclusion: The Lyman parameters generated presently and the new form of NTD may be used to predict NTCP for treatment planning of innovative liver irradiation with different fractionations, such as hypofractioned stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  18. Properties of aldehyde dehydrogenas from chemically-induced rat hepatomas and normal rat liver.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, R

    1980-01-01

    The subcellular distribution and properties of four aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes (I-IV) identified in 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced rat hepatomas and three aldehyde dehydrogenase (I-III) identified in normal rat liver are compared. In normal liver, mitochondria (50%) and microsomes (27%) possess the majority of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH), with cytosol possessing little activity. Isozymes I-III can be identified in both fractions and can be differentiated on the basis of substrate and coenzyme specificity, substrate Km, inhibition by disulfiram and anti-hepatoma aldehyde dehydrogenase sera, and/or isoelectric point. Hepatomas possess considerable cytosolic AlDH (20%), in addition to mitochondrial (23%) and microsomal (35%) activity. Although isozymes I-III are present in tumor mitochondria and microsomes, little isozyme I or II is found in cytosol. Hepatoma cytosolic AlDH is composed (50%) of a hepatoma-specific isozyme (IV), differing in several properties from isozymes I-III; the remainder of the tumor cytosolic activity is due to isozyme III (48%). The data indicate that expression of the tumor-specific aldehyde dehydrogenase phenotype requires both qualitative and quantitative changes involving cytosolic and microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase. The qualitative change requires the derepression of a gene for an aldehyde dehydrogenase expressed in normal liver only following exposure to potentially harmful xenobiotics. The quantitative change involves both an increase in activity and change in subcellular location of a basal, normal liver AlDH isozyme.

  19. Single photon emission computed tomograms of the liver: normal vascular intrahepatic structures.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, R I; Witztum, K F; Perkins, G C; Johnson, M L; Burks, R N; Verba, J W; Halpern, S E

    1984-01-01

    Because of the high target-to-background contrast obtained with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), normal intrahepatic vessels approximately 2 cm in diameter may appear as distinct focal defects in tomographic sections throughout the liver even though normal vessels rarely cause such defects on planar images. To assess this problem, five subjects without evidence of liver disease underwent tomography of the liver with Tc-99m sulfur colloid (TSC) and on a separate occasion tomography of the intrahepatic blood pool with Tc-99m autologous red blood cells (RBC). In each case, well demarcated defects were obvious in contiguous TSC liver tomograms in various planes. Direct comparison with RBC tomograms showed that all of these defects corresponded to intrahepatic veins, typically the right portal vein, its posterior branch, and the left portal vein. Knowledge of the intrahepatic vascular anatomy in a variety of tomographic planes, with examination of each defect in multiple orthogonal planes is necessary to avoid false positive interpretations. In some instances a study with RBC may also be required for more conclusive evaluation of defects seen on TSC liver tomograms.

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in the Urinary Bladder: Comparison Between Cancerous, Adjacent Non-cancerous and Normal Cadaveric Tissue.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Mahmoud; Elsobky, Emad; Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Abd-Elhameed, Mohamed; Abdel-Rahim, Mona; Ali-El-Dein, Bedeir

    2016-12-01

    The role of heavy metals and trace elements (HMTE) in the development of some cancers has been previously reported. Bladder carcinoma is a frequent malignancy of the urinary tract. The most common risk factors for bladder cancer are exposure to industrial carcinogens, cigarette smoking, gender, and possibly diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate HTME concentrations in the cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues and compare them with those of normal cadaveric bladder. This prospective study included 102 paired samples of full-thickness cancer and adjacent non-cancerous bladder tissues of radical cystectomy (RC) specimens that were histologically proven as invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We used 17 matched controls of non-malignant bladder tissue samples from cadavers. All samples were processed and evaluated for the concentration of 22 HMTE by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Outcome analysis was made by the Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. When compared with cadaveric control or cancerous, the adjacent non-cancerous tissue had higher levels of six elements (arsenic, lead, selenium, strontium, zinc, and aluminum), and when compared with the control alone, it had a higher concentration of calcium, cadmium, chromium, potassium, magnesium, and nickel. The cancerous tissue had a higher concentration of cadmium, lead, chromium, calcium, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc than cadaveric control. Boron level was higher in cadaveric control than cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissue. Cadmium level was higher in cancerous tissue with node-positive than node-negative cases. The high concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and zinc, in the cancerous together with arsenic in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues of RC specimens suggest a pathogenic role of these elements in BC. However, further work-up is needed to support this

  1. Differential Expression of Matrix-Metalloproteinase-1 and -2 Genes in Normal and Fibrotic Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Stefano; Herbst, Hermann; Schuppan, Detlef; Grappone, Cecilia; Pellegrini, Giulia; Pinzani, Massimo; Casini, Alessandro; Calabró, Antonio; Ciancio, Giuseppe; Stefanini, Francesco; Ciancio, Andrew K.; Surrenti, Calogero

    1994-01-01

    Altered degradation of extracellular matrix has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. We investigated levels and cellular sites of gene expression of two major collagebn-degrading enzymes, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-l (fibroblast type-interstitial collagenase)and MMP-2 (72-kd gelatinase, type IV collagenase) in five normal and 18 fibrotic human livers as well as in cultured human hepatic fat-storing cells by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. Fatstoring cells expressed both MMP-1 and MMP-2 RNA in vitro. In vivo, MMP-1 was undetectable in mesenchymal and parenchymal cells of all liver specimens, whereas MMP-2 transcripts were expressed in all livers by vimentin-positive, CD68 negative mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal cells of all fibrotic livers displayed high transcript levels of transforming growth factor-β1, which is known to modulate MMP expression. Along with de novo fibrogenesis and possibly influenced by transforming growth factor-β1, expression of MMP-2 in the absence of MMP-1 expression may be responsible for the quantitative and qualitative changes of extracellular matrix observed in chronic liver disease. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 7 PMID:8129038

  2. The fractionation of isolated liver cells from normal and carcinogen treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Horsfall, A. C.; Ketterer, B.

    1976-01-01

    Suspensions of isolated cells were obtained from livers of normal rats and rats treated with the hepatocarcinogen N,N-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene. Differential centrifugation of dispersed cells yielded a large parenchymal cell fraction and a small non-parencymal cell fraction. By means of rate sedimentation through different concnetrations of Ficoll, parenchymal cells were separated into cells with fast, intermediate and slow rates of sedimentation. Periods of sedimentation were brief and centrifugal forces low in order to retain the best possible state of preservation of cells. DNA, RNA and protein contents, acid phosphatase activity, cell size and nucleocytoplasmic ratios of parenchymal cells sedimenting at fast, intermediate and slow rates were measured. Cell fractions from normal livers had properties suggesting that faster sedimenting cells were derived from the centre and middle of the lobule whereas slowly sedimenting cells were periportal; however, much of the periportal cell population remained in a residue of undissociated tissue. Compared with normal cells, carcinogen treated cells appeared to fractionate according to different physical and chemical criteria and could not be related to their origin within the liver lobule. They were smaller, slower sedimenting, lower in protein and RNA content and acid phosphatase activity. The tissue residue contained abnromal histological structures. PMID:814912

  3. Immunohistochemical quantification of the cobalamin transport protein, cell surface receptor and Ki-67 in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors and in adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have an obligate need for cobalamin (vitamin B12) to enable DNA synthesis necessary for cellular replication. This study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of the cobalamin transport protein (transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors, and compared these results to expression in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. All malignant tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Expression of TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 was significantly higher in malignant tumor tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues in both species. There was a strong correlation between TCII and TCII-R expression, and a modest correlation between TCII-R and Ki-67 expression in both species; a modest association between TCII and Ki-67 expression was present in canine tissues only. These results demonstrate a quantifiable, synchronous up-regulation of TCII and TCII-R expression by proliferating canine and feline malignant tumors. The potential to utilize these proteins as biomarkers to identify neoplastic tissues, streamline therapeutic options, evaluate response to anti-tumor therapy and monitor for recurrent disease has important implications in the advancement of cancer management for both human and companion animal patients. PMID:25633912

  4. Cellular Organization of Normal Mouse Liver: A Histological, Quantitative Immunocytochemical, and Fine Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Janie L.; Ngo, Anthony; Lopez, Bryan; Kasabwalla, Natasha; Longmuir, Kenneth J.; Robertson, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    The cellular organization of normal mouse liver was studied using light and electron microscopy and quantitative immunocytochemical techniques. The general histological organization of the mouse liver is similar to livers of other mammalian species, with a lobular organization based on the distributions of portal areas and central venules. The parenchymal hepatocytes were detected with immunocytochemical techniques to recognize albumin or biotin containing cells. The macrophage Kupffer cells were identified with F4-80 immunocytochemistry, Ito stellate cells were identified with GFAP immunocytochemistry, and endothelial cells were labeled with the CD-34 antibody. Kupffer cells were labeled with intravascularly administered fluorescently labeled latex microspheres of both large (0.5 μm) and small (0.03 μm) diameters, while endothelial cells were labeled only with small diameter microspheres. Neither hepatocytes nor Ito stellate cells were labeled by intravascularly administered latex microspheres. The principal fine structural features of hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells of mouse liver are similar to those reported for rat. Counts of immunocytochemically labeled cells with stained nuclei indicated that hepatocytes constituted approximately 52% of all labeled cells, Kupffer cells about 18%, Ito cells about 8%, and endothelial cells about 22% of all labeled cells. Approximately 35% of the hepatocytes contained two nuclei; none of the Kupffer or Ito cells were double nucleated. The presence of canaliculi and a bile duct system appear similar to that reported for other mammalian species. The cellular organization of the mouse liver is quite similar to that of other mammalian species, confirming that the mouse presents a useful animal model for studies of liver structure and function. PMID:19255771

  5. Methylation of tRNA by normal mouse liver and Erhlich ascites cell extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.D.; Sitz, T.O.

    1986-05-01

    When Erhlich ascites tumor and normal mouse liver extracts were incubated with (/sup 3/H-CH/sub 3/)-S-adenosylmethionine and E. coli tRNA, the tumor extracts had a ten-fold higher methyltransferase activity than mouse liver extracts. However, only a two-fold higher methyltransferase activity was observed when methyl deficient mouse liver tRNA was used as a substrate. DEAE-Sephadex chromatography of alkaline hydrolysates of methyl deficient mouse liver tRNA (tRNA isolated from mice treated with ethionine) showed 70% of the /sup 3/H-methyl groups in the mononucleotide peak and 30% in alkaline stable di-, tri- and oligonucleotide peaks demonstrating methylation of both the base and ribose moieties. Perchloric acid digest of material isolated from the di-, tri- and oligonucleotide peaks confirm that the /sup 3/H-methyl groups are on the ribose moieties. In hydrolysates of E. coli tRNA /sup 3/H-methyl groups appeared in only the mononucleotide peak, i.e. only base methylation. These data, from Erhlich ascites cells, suggest that ribose methyltransferases may have greater RNA substrate specificity than the base methyltransferases and may act processively to produce alkaline stable oligonucleotides.

  6. Gene expression in normal-appearing tissue adjacent to prostate cancers are predictive of clinical outcome: evidence for a biologically meaningful field effect

    PubMed Central

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Maddala, Tara; Falzarano, Sara Moscovita; Cherbavaz, Diana B.; Zhang, Nan; Knezevic, Dejan; Febbo, Phillip G.; Lee, Mark; Lawrence, Hugh Jeffrey; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated gene expression in histologically normal-appearing tissue (NT) adjacent to prostate tumor in radical prostatectomy specimens, assessing for biological significance based on prediction of clinical recurrence (cR - metastatic disease or local recurrence). Results A total of 410 evaluable patients had paired tumor and NT. Fortysix genes, representing diverse biological pathways (androgen signaling, stromal response, stress response, cellular organization, proliferation, cell adhesion, and chromatin remodeling) were associated with cR in NT (FDR < 20%), of which 39 concordantly predicted cR in tumor (FDR < 20%). Overall GPS and its stromal response and androgen-signaling gene group components also significantly predicted time to cR in NT (RM-corrected HR/20 units = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.56; P = 0.024). Experimental Design Expression of 732 genes was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately in tumor and adjacent NT specimens from 127 patients with and 374 without cR following radical prostatectomy for T1/T2 prostate cancer. A 17-gene expression signature (Genomic Prostate Score [GPS]), previously validated to predict aggressive prostate cancer when measured in tumor tissue, was also assessed using pre-specified genes and algorithms. Analysis used Cox proportional hazards models, Storey's false discovery rate (FDR) control, and regression to the mean (RM) correction. Conclusions Gene expression profiles, including GPS, from NT adjacent to tumor can predict prostate cancer outcome. These findings suggest that there is a biologically significant field effect in primary prostate cancer that is a marker for aggressive disease. PMID:27121323

  7. Normal and Fibrotic Rat Livers Demonstrate Shear Strain Softening and Compression Stiffening: A Model for Soft Tissue Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xuan; van Oosten, Anne; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Janmey, Paul A.; Wells, Rebecca G.

    2016-01-01

    Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G’ and G” and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver. PMID:26735954

  8. Imaging of the postoperative liver: review of normal appearances and common complications.

    PubMed

    Mulé, S; Colosio, A; Cazejust, J; Kianmanesh, R; Soyer, P; Hoeffel, C

    2015-10-01

    Several benign and malignant liver diseases may require surgical treatment for cure, including anatomical resections based on the segmental anatomy of the liver, non-anatomical (wedge) resections, and surgical management of biliary cysts. The type of surgery depends not only on the location and the nature of the disease, but also on the expertise of the surgeon. Whereas ultrasonography is often the first-line imaging examination in case of suspected postoperative complication, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is of greater value for identifying normal findings after surgery, early postoperative pathologic fluid collections and vascular thromboses, and tumor recurrence in patients who have undergone hepatic surgery. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is the imaging modality of choice for depicting early postoperative bile duct injuries and ischemic cholangitis that may occur in the late postoperative phase. Both MDCT and MRCP can accurately depict tumor recurrence. Radiologists should become familiar with these surgical procedures to better understand postoperative changes, and with the normal imaging appearances of various postoperative complications to better differentiate between complications and normal findings.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of the dietary flavones chrysin and apigenin in a normal trout liver cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, P. A.; Walle, T.

    2008-01-01

    Many flavonoids have been shown to possess prooxidant properties, capable of causing oxidative stress, especially at larger doses. Here, we examined the potential cell toxicity caused by exposure to the hydroxylated flavones chrysin, apigenin, luteolin and quercetin in comparison to the methylated flavones 5,7-dimethoxyflavone and 3’,4’-dimethoxyflavone in normal rainbow trout hepatocytes. The hydroxylated flavones, especially chrysin, demonstrated cell toxicity and inhibition of DNA synthesis at very low (2 μM) concentrations. The cytotoxicity of chrysin may partially be due to its metabolism by myeloperoxidase, which was shown to be present in these normal trout liver cells (164 pmol/min/mg protein). In contrast, methylated flavones showed no significant metabolism by myeloperoxidase and no signs of toxicity, even at much higher concentrations. These results may be useful for further investigations of cytotoxicity of dietary flavonoids. PMID:17884029

  10. 78 FR 5817 - Detecting and Evaluating Drug-Induced Liver Injury; What's Normal, What's Not, and What Should We...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Normal, What's Not, and What Should We Do About It?; Public Conference; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food... Evaluating Drug-Induced Liver Injury; What's Normal, What's Not, and What Should We Do About It?'' This... prevented the approval of others. It ] discusses methods of detecting DILI by periodic tests of serum...

  11. Lipocytes from normal rat liver release a neutral metalloproteinase that degrades basement membrane (type IV) collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, M J; Friedman, S L; Roll, F J; Bissell, D M

    1989-01-01

    We report a proteinase that degrades basement-membrane (type IV) collagen and is produced by the liver. Its cellular source is lipocytes (fat-storing or Ito cells). Lipocytes were isolated from normal rat liver and established in primary culture. The cells synthesize and secrete a neutral proteinase, which by gelatin-substrate gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography, has a molecular mass of 65,000 D. The enzyme is secreted in latent form and is activated by p-aminophenylmercuric acetate but not by trypsin. Enzyme activity in the presence of EDTA is restored selectively by zinc and is unaffected by serine-protease inhibitors. In assays with radiolabeled soluble substrates, it degrades native type IV (basement membrane) collagen but not interstitial collagen types I or V and exhibits no activity against laminin or casein. At temperatures causing partial denaturation of soluble collagen in vitro, it rapidly degrades types I and V. Thus, it is both a type IV collagenase and gelatinase. The enzyme may play a role in initiating breakdown of the subendothelial matrix in the Disse space as well as augmenting the effects of collagenases that attack native interstitial collagen. Images PMID:2551922

  12. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adjacent Apparently Normal Oral Mucosa and its Correlation With Clinicopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sindhu; Nayak, Ramakant; Bhat, Kishore; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Babji, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) is essential for its growth, invasion, and metastasis. This entails a shift in the balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. CD105 and TGF-β1 are 2 such proangiogenic factors wherein CD105 exerts its angiogenic effect by binding to and modulating the TGF-β1 pathway. A total of 50 resected specimens of OSCC were considered. One tissue specimen was taken from tumor proper and another specimen from adjacent apparently normal mucosa (AANM). Both tissues were immunohistochemically stained using CD105 and TGF-β1 antibodies. The expression of each antibody was individually assessed and then compared. Pearson χ test was used for statistical comparison of expression. CD105 was significantly expressed in OSCC as compared with AANM and also correlated with increasing TNM stage. The mean microvessel density was higher in OSCC. TGF-β1 was significantly expressed in epithelium of OSCC as compared with AANM. On comparing expression of TGF-β1 and CD105, 79.54% of endothelial cells expressed positivity for both molecules. Both CD105 and TGF-β1 were increased in OSCC, although based on our results CD105 alone can be used as a prognostic marker. On the basis of immunohistochemical expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in endothelial cells, our results demonstrate that CD105 acts as one of the receptors of TGF-β1 on endothelial cells and induces the angiogenic pathway in OSCC.

  13. Differential gene expression profiling in aggressive bladder transitional cell carcinoma compared to the adjacent microscopically normal urothelium by microdissection-SMART cDNA PCR-SSH.

    PubMed

    Wang, H T; Ma, F L; Ma, X B; Han, R F; Zhang, Y B; Chang, J W

    2006-01-01

    Identifying novel and known genes that are differentially expressed in aggressive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) has important implications in understanding the biology of bladder tumorigenesis and developing new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In this study we identified the differential gene expression profiles comparing tumor to the adjacent microscopically normal mucosa by manual microdissection on frozen sections. The RNAs extracted from microdissected tissues were amplified by SMART cDNA PCR technology to generate forward subtractive cDNA library by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). We obtained 376 positive clones, one hundred clones of aggressive BTCC subtracted cDNA library were selected at random and inserts were reamplified by PCR. After differential screening by reverse dot blotting, 73 positive clones, that contend inserts putatively upregulated in aggressive BTCC, were further analysed by DNA sequencing, GenBank and EST database searching. Sequencing results showed that 66 clones stand for 23 known genes and 7 clones for three new EST (Genbank number: DN236875, DN236874 and DN236873). In conclusion, microdissection-SMART cDNA PCR-SSH allowed for an efficient way to identify aggressive BTCC-specific differential expressed genes that may potentially be involved in the carcinogenesis and/or progression of aggressive BTCC. These differentially expressed genes may be of potential utility as therapeutic and diagnostic targets for aggressive BTCC.

  14. Bilirubin conjugates in bile of man and rat in the normal state and in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fevery, J.; Damme, B. Van; Michiels, R.; Groote, J. De; Heirwegh, K. P. M.

    1972-01-01

    Conjugates of bilirubin were studied in normal bile of man and rat, and in bile of liver patients. In general human bile was obtained by duodenal intubation. In addition T-tube bile was examined in patients operated on for mechanical obstruction. The bile pigment compositions of duodenal and T-tube bile were similar in two patients where comparison was possible. Obstruction of the bile duct in rats was used as an animal model for obstructive jaundice. Diazotized ethyl anthranilate was used for determination of total conjugated bile pigment and for thin-layer chromatography (t.l.c.) analysis of the derived azopigments. The available t.l.c. procedures are versatile and allow rapid and quantitative analysis. A variety of conjugated azopigments can be distinguished. With chloroform, negligible amounts of unconjugated bilirubin are extracted from bile of man. Therefore, the percentage of monoconjugated bile pigments present in the initial bile sample can be calculated from the percentage of azodipyrrole found after diazotization. Normal bile from man and rat yields similar azopigment patterns. The dominant component is azopigment-δ (azodipyrrole β-D-monoglucuronoside). Small amounts of azopigments with complex conjugating structures (γ-azopigments) are present in both cases. Human bile further yields small amounts of azopigments containing xylose or glucose (called azopigments-α2 and -α3, respectively). Monoconjugated bilirubin (estimated from the percentage of azodipyrrole) amounts of 22% of total bile pigments in human bile and to 39% in murine bile. In both, the bulk of bile pigment is bilirubin diglucuronoside. From bile of patients with acquired liver diseases a new azopigment group (β-azopigment) was derived. The γ-azopigment group was increased; the δ-azopigment group (containing azodipyrrole β-D-monoglucuronoside) was decreased. No differentiation was possible between intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis. The percentage of β-azopigment showed a positive

  15. Exploring the spatial dimension of estrogen and progesterone signaling: detection of nuclear labeling in lobular epithelial cells in normal mammary glands adjacent to breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comprehensive spatial assessment of hormone receptor immunohistochemistry staining in digital whole slide images of breast cancer requires accurate detection of positive nuclei within biologically relevant regions of interest. Herein, we propose a combination of automated region labeling at low resolution and subsequent detailed tissue evaluation of subcellular structures in lobular structures adjacent to breast cancer, as a proof of concept for the approach to analyze estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the spatial context of surrounding tissue. Methods Routinely processed paraffin sections of hormone receptor-negative ductal invasive breast cancer were stained for estrogen and progesterone receptor by immunohistochemistry. Digital whole slides were analyzed using commercially available image analysis software for advanced object-based analysis, applying textural, relational, and geometrical features. Mammary gland lobules were targeted as regions of interest for analysis at subcellular level in relation to their distance from coherent tumor as neighboring relevant tissue compartment. Lobule detection quality was evaluated visually by a pathologist. Results After rule set optimization in an estrogen receptor-stained training set, independent test sets (progesterone and estrogen receptor) showed acceptable detection quality in 33% of cases. Presence of disrupted lobular structures, either by brisk inflammatory infiltrate, or diffuse tumor infiltration, was common in cases with lower detection accuracy. Hormone receptor detection tended towards higher percentage of positively stained nuclei in lobules distant from the tumor border as compared to areas adjacent to the tumor. After adaptations of image analysis, corresponding evaluations were also feasible in hormone receptor positive breast cancer, with some limitations of automated separation of mammary epithelial cells from hormone receptor-positive tumor cells. Conclusions As a proof of

  16. Comparison of polysomal and nuclear poly(A)-containing RNA populations from normal rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma.

    PubMed Central

    Capetanaki, Y G; Alonso, A

    1980-01-01

    Polysomal and nuclear poly(A)-containing RNA of normal rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma cells have been compared by cDNA.RNA hybridization kinetics. Homologous hybridization reactions revealed at total kinetic complexity of about 1.6 X 10(10) and 1.38 X 10(10) daltons for liver and Novikoff mRNA respectively. The high abundance component present in liver cannot be detected in Novikoff. It was found from heterologous reactions that about 30% by weight of mRNA sequences are specific to liver. Determination of the nuclear poly(A)-containing RNA complexities revealed that about 5.5% and 4% of the haploid genome is expressed in the liver and Novikoff respectively. In a heterologous reaction, up to 30% of the liver cDNA failed to form hybrids with Novikoff nuclear RNA. Cross hybridizations have further revealed abundance shifts in both nuclear and polysomal RNA populations. Some sequences abundant in liver are less abundant in Novikoff and some rare liver sequences are relatively abundant in Novikoff. PMID:6160467

  17. Mössbauer spectroscopic study of the forms of iron in normal human liver and spleen tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua-Anusorn, W.; Pierre, T. G. St.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.; Yansukon, P.; Pootrakul, P.

    1994-12-01

    Mössbauer spectra of 12 normal human spleen and 12 normal human liver samples ( post mortem) from Australia and Thailand have been recorded at 78 K. The spectra show the presence of iron in the form of ferrihydrite, together with some deoxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in some samples. The spectra were used in conjunction with elemental analysis to calculate the non-heme iron concentrations in the tissues. The mean non-heme iron concentration in the Thai livers was significantly less than that for the Australian samples. The goethite-like form of hemosiderin that has been observed in some pathological tissues was not detected.

  18. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Driven Alpha Fetoprotein Expression to Promote Malignant Behaviors of Normal Liver Cells and Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingyue; Lu, Yan; Li, Wei; Guo, Junli; Dong, Xu; Lin, Bo; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is closely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), HBV-X protein(HBx) is able to induce expression of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) in normal liver cells, and AFP harbors a function to promote malignant transformation of normal liver cells, but the role AFP playing in malignant behaviors of HCC cells is still unclear. Methods: Fifty-six liver tissue samples were collected from the clinical patients through hepatectomy(include normal liver tissues, HBV-related hepatitis liver tissues and HBV-related HCC tissues), and diagnosis of these tissues by pathology section, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by immunohisochemical staining and Western blotting; The proliferation of human normal liver cells line L-02 cells and human hepatoma cells line, HLE cells(non AFP-producing) were performed by MTT method; Repaired capacity of L-02 and HLE cells were compared by wound healing assay; Migration and invasion of these cells were analyzed by Transwell chamber assay; HBx expressed vectors(pcDNA3.1-HBx) were constructed and transfected into L-02 and HLE cells, effects of pcDNA3.1-HBx on the malignant behaviors were also detected by MTT, Transwell chamber assay and the expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by Western blotting. Results: we found that expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related HCC and lymph nodes metastasis tissues were significantly elevated compared with HBV-related HCC, non metastasis tissues and HBV-related hepatitis tissues; Expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related hepatitis tissues were significantly enhanced compared with normal liver tissues; The growth ratio, migratory and invasive ability, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 of the cells were outstanding promoted while L-02 and HLE cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-HBx vectors. The proliferation ratio, migration and invasion ability, and expression of Ras and CXCR4 were significantly inhibited while

  19. Definitions of Normal Liver Fat and the Association of Insulin Sensitivity with Acquired and Genetic NAFLD—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Petäjä, Elina M.; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. “Obese/Metabolic NAFLD” is closely associated with obesity and insulin resistance and therefore predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. NAFLD can also be caused by common genetic variants, the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) or the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2). Since NAFL, irrespective of its cause, can progress to NASH and liver fibrosis, its definition is of interest. We reviewed the literature to identify data on definition of normal liver fat using liver histology and different imaging tools, and analyzed whether NAFLD caused by the gene variants is associated with insulin resistance. Histologically, normal liver fat content in liver biopsies is most commonly defined as macroscopic steatosis in less than 5% of hepatocytes. In the population-based Dallas Heart Study, the upper 95th percentile of liver fat measured by proton magnetic spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in healthy subjects was 5.6%, which corresponds to approximately 15% histological liver fat. When measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based techniques such as the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), 5% macroscopic steatosis corresponds to a PDFF of 6% to 6.4%. In contrast to “Obese/metabolic NAFLD”, NAFLD caused by genetic variants is not associated with insulin resistance. This implies that NAFLD is heterogeneous and that “Obese/Metabolic NAFLD” but not NAFLD due to the PNPLA3 or TM6SF2 genetic variants predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27128911

  20. Laminin alpha 5, a major transcript of normal and malignant rat liver epithelial cells, is differentially expressed in developing and adult liver.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, T; Medina, J L; Bade, E G

    1997-11-25

    The laminin family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins plays a major role in cell migration and differentiation and in tumor cell invasion. As previously shown, the laminin deposited by normal and malignant rat liver epithelial cells in their extracellular matrix (ECM) and into their ECM migration tracks does not contain a typical (EHS-like) alpha 1 heavy chain. By RT-PCR screening we have now identified two alpha chains among a total of five additional laminin chains produced by these cells. Three of the newly identified chains were not previously known for the rat. Their sequences have been deposited in the EMBL nucleotide sequence data bank. The alpha 5 chain now identified is expressed at comparably high levels by both the normal and the malignant liver epithelial cells. The chain is also expressed in fetal liver together with the alpha 2 and beta 2 chains, but it is only vestigially expressed in the mature organ as shown by RT-PCR. These results suggest for alpha 5 a role in development and production of the chain by only a small subset of cells in adult liver. At the level of detection used, no changes were observed in regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy. In addition to the alpha 5 chain, the cultured cells express the beta 1 and beta 2 light chains, indicating the expression of more than one laminin isoform by the same cell line. The expression of the alpha 5 chain and of the other new non-EHS isoform chains was also analyzed in various tissues. The malignant liver epithelial cells, but not their nontumorigenic parental cells, also express, in addition to the alpha 5 chain the alpha 2 chain, which is expressed at high level by the NBT II bladder carcinoma cell line, suggesting a relationship with malignancy.

  1. TNF-{alpha} similarly induces IL-6 and MCP-1 in fibroblasts from colorectal liver metastases and normal liver fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Lars; Seggern, Lena von; Schumacher, Jennifer; Goumas, Freya; Wilms, Christian; Braun, Felix; Broering, Dieter C.

    2010-07-02

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent the predominant cell type of the neoplastic stroma of solid tumors, yet their biology and functional specificity for cancer pathogenesis remain unclear. We show here that primary CAFs from colorectal liver metastases express several inflammatory, tumor-enhancing factors, including interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Both molecules were intensely induced by TNF-{alpha} on the transcript and protein level, whereas PDGF-BB, TGF-{beta}1 and EGF showed no significant effects. To verify their potential specialization for metastasis progression, CAFs were compared to fibroblasts from non-tumor liver tissue. Interestingly, these liver fibroblasts (LFs) displayed similar functions. Further analyses revealed a comparable up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by TNF-{alpha}, and of alpha-smooth muscle actin, by TGF-{beta}1. Moreover, the proliferation of both cell types was induced by PDGF-BB, and CAFs and LFs displayed an equivalent migration towards HT29 colon cancer cells in Boyden chamber assays. In conclusion, colorectal liver metastasis may be supported by CAFs and resident fibroblastic cells competent to generate a prometastatic microenvironment through inflammatory activation of IL-6 and MCP-1.

  2. Normal Organ Weights in Women: Part II-The Brain, Lungs, Liver, Spleen, and Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2015-09-01

    Organomegaly can be a sign of disease and pathology, although standard tables defining organomegaly have yet to be established and universally accepted. This study was designed to address the issue and to determine a normal weight for the major organs in adult human females. A prospective study was undertaken of healthy females who had sudden, traumatic deaths at age 18 to 35 years. Cases were excluded if there was a history of medical illness including illicit drug use, prolonged medical treatment was performed, there was a prolonged period between the time of injury and death, body length and weight could not be accurately assessed, or if any illness or intoxication was identified after gross and microscopic analysis including evidence of systemic disease. Individual organs were excluded if there was significant injury to the organ that could have affected the weight. A total of 102 cases met criteria for inclusion in the study during the approximately 10-year period of data collection from 2004 to 2014. The decedents had an average age of 24.4 years and ranged in length from 141 to 182 cm (56.4-72.8 inches) with an average length of 160 cm (64 inches). The weight ranged from 35.9 to 152 kg (79-334 lb) with an average weight of 65.3 kg (143 lb). The majority of the decedents (86%) died of either ballistic or blunt force (including craniocerebral) injuries. The mean brain weight was 1233 g (range, 1000-1618 g); liver mean weight, 1288 g (range, 775-2395 g); spleen mean weight, 115 g (range, 51-275 g); right lung mean weight, 340 g (range, 142-835 g); left lung mean, 299 g (range, 108-736 g); right kidney mean weight, 108 g (range, 67-261 g); and the left kidney mean weight, 116 g (range, 55-274 g). Regression analysis was performed and showed that there were insufficient associations between organ weight and body length, body weight, and body mass index to allow for predictability. The authors therefore propose establishing a reference range for organ weights in

  3. Normal organ weights in men: part II-the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2012-12-01

    Organomegaly can be a sign of disease and pathologic abnormality, although standard tables defining organomegaly have yet to be established and universally accepted. This study was designed to address the issue and to determine a normal weight for the major organs in adult human males. A prospective study of healthy men aged 18 to 35 years who died of sudden, traumatic deaths was undertaken. Cases were excluded if there was a history of medical illness including illicit drug use, if prolonged medical treatment was performed, if there was a prolonged period between the time of injury and death, if body length and weight could not be accurately assessed, or if any illness or intoxication was identified after gross and microscopic analysis including evidence of systemic disease. Individual organs were excluded if there was significant injury to the organ, which could have affected the weight. A total of 232 cases met criteria for inclusion in the study during the approximately 6-year period of data collection from 2005 to 2011. The decedents had a mean age of 23.9 years and ranged in length from 146 to 193 cm, with a mean length of 173 cm. The weight ranged from 48.5 to 153 kg, with a mean weight of 76.4 kg. Most decedents (87%) died of either ballistic or blunt force (including craniocerebral) injuries. The mean weight of the brain was 1407 g (range, 1070-1767 g), that of the liver was 1561 g (range, 838-2584 g), that of the spleen was 139 g (range, 43-344 g), that of the right lung was 445 g (range, 185-967 g), that of the left lung was 395 g (range, 186-885 g), that of the right kidney was 129 g (range, 79-223 g), and that of the left kidney was 137 g (range, 74-235 g). Regression analysis was performed and showed that there were insufficient associations between organ weight and body length, body weight, and body mass index to allow for predictability. The authors, therefore, propose establishing a reference range for organ weights in men, much like those in use

  4. Ethacrynic-acid-induced glutathione depletion and oxidative stress in normal and Mrp2-deficient rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bin; Ito, Kousei; Sekine, Shuichi; Tajima, Ai; Horie, Toshiharu

    2004-12-01

    Oxidative stress in the liver is sometimes accompanied by cholestasis. We investigated the localization and role of multidrug-resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 2, a biliary transporter involved in bile-salt-independent bile flow, under ethacrynic acid (EA)-induced acute oxidative stress. Normal Sprague-Dawley rat (SDR) and Mrp2-deficient Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rat (EHBR) livers were perfused with 500 microM EA. The release of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS) from EHBR liver was markedly delayed compared with that from SDR liver. This is mainly due to the higher basal level of glutathione (GSH) in EHBR liver (59.1 +/- 0.3 nmol/mg protein) compared with SDR liver (39.7 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg protein). EA similarly induced a rapid reduction in GSH followed by mitochondrial permeability transition in the isolated mitochondria from both SDR and EHBR. Internalization of Mrp2 was detected before nonspecific disruption of the canalicular membrane and GPT release in SDR liver perfused with 100 microM EA. SDR liver preperfused with hyperosmolar buffer (405 mosmol/L) for 30 min induced internalization of Mrp2 without changing the basal GSH level, while elimination of hepatic GSH by 300 microM EA perfusion was significantly delayed thereafter. Concomitantly, hepatotoxicity assessed by the release of GPT and TBARS was also significantly attenuated under hyperosmolar conditions. In conclusion, preserved cytosolic and intramitochondrial GSH is the key factor involved in the acute hepatotoxicity induced by EA and its susceptibility could be altered by the presence of Mrp2.

  5. Suitability of boron carriers for BNCT: accumulation of boron in malignant and normal liver cells after treatment with BPA, BSH and BA.

    PubMed

    Chou, F I; Chung, H P; Liu, H M; Chi, C W; Lui, W Y

    2009-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma remains widely prevalent in tropical Africa and south-east Asia. At present, there are no effective treatments for hepatoma and its prognosis is extremely poor unless the tumor was diagnosed in an early stage and resected before metastasis. Therefore, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide an alternative therapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the intracellular concentrations of L-boronophenylalanine (BPA), sodium borocaptate (BSH) and boric acid (BA) were examined in human hepatoma HepG2 and liver Clone 9 cell cultures. With the use of 25 microgB/mL media of BPA, BSH and BA, the intracellular uptake of boron in HepG2 and Clone 9 cells was compared. The suitability of BPA, BSH and BA were further evaluated on the basis of organ-specific boron distribution in normal rat tissues. BPA, BSH and BA were administered via intraperitoneal injection into rats with corresponding boron concentrations of 7, 25, and 25mg/kg body weight, respectively. The accumulation rates of BPA, BSH and BA in HepG2 cells were higher than that of Clone 9 cells. Boron concentration in BPA, BSH and BA treated HepG2 cells were 1.8, 1.5, and 1.6-fold of Clone 9 cells at 4h, respectively. In both HepG2 and Clone 9 cells, although the concentration of boron in BPA-treated cells exceeded that in BA-treated ones, however, cells treated with BPA had similar surviving fraction as those treated with BA after neutron irradiation. The accumulation ratios of boron in liver, pancreas and kidney to boron in blood were 0.83, 4.16 and 2.47, respectively, in BPA treated rats, and 0.75, 0.35 and 2.89, respectively, in BSH treated rats at 3h after treatment. However, boron does not appear to accumulate specifically in soft tissues in BA treated rats. For in situ BNCT of hepatoma, normal organs with high boron concentration and adjacent to liver may be damaged in neutron irradiation. BPA showed high retention in pancreas and may not be a good drug for

  6. Radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines exposed to 12C6+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, X.; Yang, J.; Li, W.; Guo, C.; Dang, B.; Wang, J.; Zhou, L.; Wei, W.; Gao, Q.

    AIM To investigate the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines METHODS Accelerated carbon ions by heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou HIRFL have high LET We employed it to study the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines SMMC-7721 and human normal liver cell lines L02 using premature chromosome condensation technique PCC Cell survive was documented by a colony assay Chromatid breaks were measured by counting the number of chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks immediately after prematurely chromosome condensed by Calyculin-A RESULTS The survival curve of the two cell lines presented a good linear relationship and the survival fraction of L02 is higher than that of SMMC-7721 Additionally the two types of G 2 phase chromosome breaks chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks of L02 are lower than that of SMMC-7721 CONCLUSION Human normal liver cell line have high radioresistance than that of hepatoma cell line It imply that it is less damage to normal organs when radiotherapy to hepatoma

  7. Multiple-indicator dilution technique for characterization of normal and retrograde flow in once-through rat liver perfusions

    SciTech Connect

    St-Pierre, M.V.; Schwab, A.J.; Goresky, C.A.; Lee, W.F.; Pang, K.S.

    1989-02-01

    The technique of normal and retrograde rat liver perfusion has been widely used to probe zonal differences in drug-metabolizing activities. The validity of this approach mandates the same tissue spaces being accessed by substrates during both normal and retrograde perfusions. Using the multiple-indicator dilution technique, we presently examine the extent to which retrograde perfusion alters the spaces accessible to noneliminated references. A bolus dose of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, 125I-albumin, 14C-sucrose and 3H2O was injected into the portal (normal) or hepatic (retrograde) vein of rat livers perfused at 10 ml per min per liver. The outflow perfusate was serially collected over 220 sec to characterize the transit times and the distribution spaces of the labels. During retrograde perfusion, red blood cells, albumin and sucrose profiles peaked later and lower than during normal perfusion, whereas the water curves were similar. The transit times of red blood cells, albumin and sucrose were longer (p less than 0.005), whereas those for water did not change. Consequently, retrograde flow resulted in significantly larger sinusoidal blood volumes (45%), albumin Disse space (42%) and sucrose Disse space (25%) than during normal flow, whereas the distribution spaces for total and intracellular water remained unaltered. The distension of the vascular tree was confirmed by electron microscopy, by which occasional isolated foci of widened intercellular recesses and spaces of Disse were observed. Cellular ultrastructure was otherwise unchanged, and there was no difference found between normal and retrograde perfusion for bile flow rates, AST release, perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption and metabolic removal of ethanol, a substrate with flow-limited distribution, which equilibrates rapidly with cell water (hepatic extraction ratios were virtually identical: normal vs. retrograde, 0.50 vs. 0.48 at 6 to 7.4 mM input concentration).

  8. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ELASTOGRAPHY OF THE LIVER, SPLEEN, KIDNEYS, AND PROSTATE IN CLINICALLY NOR-MAL BEAGLE DOGS [corrected].

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sunghoon; Lee, Gahyun; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kim, Hyunwoo; Yu, Dohyeon; Choi, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    Standard ultrasonography is often insensitive for distinguishing normal vs. diseased states for canine abdominal organs. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new technique that is becoming increasingly available and may help to improve sensitivity. This study evaluated the feasibility, repeatability, and reproducibility of strain elastography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and prostate in healthy dogs and described the elasticity of each organ using strain values and strain ratios. The reproducibility of strain elastography was excellent, and intraobserver repeatability was moderate to excellent. The strain value of each organ was not significantly different among dogs (liver = 143.38 ± 7.41, spleen = 141.04 ± 9.03, left renal cortex = 141.26 ± 7.50, right renal cortex = 145.80 ± 7.79, and prostate = 135.46 ± 5.80), except for the renal medulla (left = 51.19 ± 4.54 and right = 51.93 ± 5.09) (P < 0.05). The strain ratios for the liver, spleen, renal cortex, and prostate were similar with no significant difference (liver = 10.20 ± 1.47, spleen = 8.40 ± 1.53, left renal cortex = 9.62 ± 1.56, right renal cortex = 8.29 ± 1.63, and prostate = 8.20 ± 1.21), except for the renal medulla (left = 3.48 ± 0.68 and right = 2.95 ± 0.63) (P < 0.05). Our results indicated that strain elastography was feasible for estimating tissue stiffness in the canine liver, spleen, kidneys, and prostate. This study provides basic information for strain values and strain ratios for the liver, spleen, kidneys, and prostate in clinically normal dogs.

  9. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in normal human liver and during active hepatic fibrogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinzani, M.; Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; DeFranco, R.; Grappone, C.; Gentilini, A.; Caligiuri, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Ngo, D. V.; Romanelli, R. G.; Gentilini, P.

    1996-01-01

    Expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor (R) subunits was evaluated in normal human liver and in cirrhotic liver tissue by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In normal liver, PDGF and PDGF-R subunit expression was limited to a few mesenchymal cells of the portal tract stroma and vessels. In cirrhotic liver, PDGF-A and -B chain mRNA expression was markedly increased and was co-distributed with immunoreactivity for PDGF-AA and -BB in infiltrating inflammatory cells and along vascular structures within fibrous septa. These aspects were paralleled by a marked overexpression of PDGF-R alpha- and beta-subunit mRNAs and of the relative immunoreactivities in a wide range of mesenchymal cells in fibrous septa and in perisinusoidal alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-positive cells. In general expression and distribution of PDGF-R subunits appeared to be related to the activation of different mesenchymal cell types involved in the fibroproliferative process. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of PDGF-R subunits in liver tissue specimens with increasing degrees of necroinflammatory activity. The results of this additional study confirmed that expression of PDGF-R subunits is highly correlated with the severity of histological lesions and collagen deposition. Our results, providing evidence for a functional involvement of PDGF/PDGF-R in liver fibrogenesis, greatly support the results of previous in vitro studies and direct attention toward pharmacological strategies able to affect the series of signaling events arising from the autophosphorylation of PDGF-R subunits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8774134

  10. Expression of albumin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-Min; Tan, Wei-Min; Deng, Wei-Xiong; Zhuang, Si-Min; Luo, Jian-Wei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of albumin (ALB), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty-four HCC patients with cirrhosis who underwent hepatectomy were studied. ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA in liver tissues (including tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues) were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Liver Ki67 immunohistochemistry staining was studied. At the same time, 12 patients with cholelithiasis or liver angioma who underwent operation were segregated as normal control. RESULTS: In HCC patients with cirrhosis, hepatic ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA of tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were lower than the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues, hepatic ALB mRNA and IGFBP-3 mRNA were lower, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Liver Ki67 labeling index (Ki67 LI) in tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were higher than that in the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues it was higher than that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. CONCLUSION: Imbalance of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 may play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor development of liver cirrhosis patients. PMID:16015705

  11. Modulation of alpha smooth muscle actin and desmin expression in perisinusoidal cells of normal and diseased human livers.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt-Gräff, A.; Krüger, S.; Bochard, F.; Gabbiani, G.; Denk, H.

    1991-01-01

    It has been suggested that perisinusoidal liver cells (PSC) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of fibrocontractive changes. Using light and electron microscopic immunolocalization techniques, a series of 207 normal and pathologic human liver specimens were evaluated for the expression of alpha smooth muscle (SM) actin and desmin in this and other nonparenchymal cell types. In normal adult liver tissue, PSCs were practically devoid of desmin and exceptionally stained for alpha-SM actin, whereas this actin isoform frequently was encountered in PSCs from the embryonic to the adolescent period. A broad spectrum of pathologic conditions was accompanied by the presence of alpha-SM actin containing PSCs; these were detected preferentially in periportal or perivenular zones according to the predominant location of the underlying hepatocellular damage. The occurrence of this PSC phenotype generally was associated with fibrogenesis and was in some cases detected earlier than overt collagen accumulation. Fibrous bands subdividing liver tissue in cirrhosis and focal nodular hyperplasia, as well as desmoplastic reaction to malignant tumors, contained alpha-SM actin-rich cells admixed with variable proportions of cells coexpressing desmin. In end stages, this population was less numerous than in active fibrotic or cirrhotic processes. Using immunogold electron microscopy, alpha-SM actin was localized in microfilament bundles of typical PSCs. Our results are compatible with the assumption that the appearance of alpha-SM actin and desmin-expressing myofibroblasts results at least in part from a phenotypic modulation of PSCs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2024709

  12. Interaction of Lens culinaris lectin, concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin and wheat germ agglutinin with the cell surface of normal and transformed rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, J; Neupert, G; Thoss, K

    1975-01-01

    The observation of BOREK et al. (1973) on nonagglutinability of transformed rat liver cells by Lens culinaris lectin and our ultrastructural findings of a greater mobility of the Lens culinaris lectin receptors on transformed rat liver cells as compared to normal rat liver cells (ROTH 1975) initiated the present agglutination experiments on liver cells with lectins. For agglutination assay the microhemadsorption technique after FURMANSKI et al. (1973) was used with exception of several tests on EDTA-detached cells. The transformed rat liver cells exhibited, in contrast to the findings of BOREK et al. (1973), a positive microhemadsorption with Lens culinaris lectin as well as with Concanavalin A, Ricinus communis lectin and wheat germ agglutinin whereas the normal rat liver cells became positive only after a brief trypsin treatment. The significance of the difference in agglutinability of rat liver cells with Lens culinaris lectin and the other lectins used is discussed with regard to the cell-cell interaction mediated by lectins.

  13. The Effect of Intraoperative Restricted Normal Saline during Orthotopic Liver Transplantation on Amount of Administered Sodium Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Sahmeddini, Mohammad Ali; Janatmakan, Farahzad; Khosravi, Mohammad Bagher; Ghaffaripour, Sina; Eghbal, Mohammad Hossein; Shokrizadeh, Sakine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe metabolic acidosis occurs during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) particularly during the anhepatic phase. Although NaHCO3 is considered as the current standard therapy, there are numerous adverse effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether the restricted use of normal saline during anesthesia could reduce the need for NaHCO3. Methods: In this study we enrolled 75 patients with end-stage liver disease who underwent OLT from February 2010 until September 2010 at the Shiraz Organ Transplantation Center. Fluid management of two different transplant anesthetics were compared. The effect of restricted normal saline fluid was compared with non-restricted normal saline fluid on hemodynamic and acid-base parameters at three times during OLT: after the skin incision (T1), 15 min before reperfusion (T2), and 5 min after reperfusion (T3). Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics of the donors and recipients (P>0.05). In the restricted normal saline group there was significantly lower central venous pressure (CVP) than in the non-restricted normal saline group (P=0.002). No significant differences were noted in the other hemodynamic parameters between the two groups (P>0.05). In the non-restricted normal saline group arterial blood pH (P=0.01) and HCO3 (P=0.0001) were significantly less than the restricted normal saline group. The NaHCO3 requirement before reperfusion was significantly more than with the restricted normal saline group (P=0.001). Conclusion: Restricted normal saline administration during OLT reduced the severity of metabolic acidosis and the need for NaHCO3 during the anhepatic phase. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013110711662N5 PMID:24850981

  14. Regulation of collagen production in freshly isolated cell populations from normal and cirrhotic rat liver: Effect of lactate

    SciTech Connect

    Cerbon-Ambriz, J.; Cerbon-Solorzano, J.; Rojkind, M. )

    1991-03-01

    Previous work has shown that lactic acid, and to a lesser extent pyruvic acid, is able to increase collagen synthesis significantly in liver slices of CCl4-treated rats but not normal rats. The purpose of this report is to document which cells in the cirrhotic liver are responsible for the lactate-stimulated increase in collagen synthesis. It was found that (a) incorporation of 3H-proline into protein-bound 3H-hydroxyproline is increased threefold to fourfold in hepatocytes from CCl4-treated rats as compared with normal rat hepatocytes; (b) neither the hepatocytes from normal nor those from CCl4-treated rats modify their collagen synthesizing capacity when 30 mmol/L lactic acid was added to the incubation medium; (c) nonparenchymal cells obtained from livers of CCl4-treated rats synthesize much less collagen than hepatocytes, but their synthesis is stimulated twofold by lactic acid; (d) from the different nonparenchymal cells, only fat-storing (Ito) cells increase collagen synthesis when lactic acid is present in the incubation medium. These results suggest that the increased lactic acid levels observed in patients with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis may play an important role in the development of fibrosis by stimulating collagen production by fat-storing (Ito) cells.

  15. Optical properties of normal and thermally coagulated chicken liver tissue measured ex-vivo with diffuse reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez-Ullah; Atif, M.; Firdous, S.; Mehmood, M. S.; Hamza, M. Y.; Imran, M.; Hussain, G.; Ikram, M.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the optical properties of normal and thermally coagulated chicken liver at 720, 740, 770, 810, 825 and 840 nm wavelengths of laser irradiation. So, we were able to evaluate these optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients) with ex-vivo study using Kubelka Munk Model (KMM) from the radial dependence of the diffuse reflectance with femtosecond pulsed laser in near IR region. These coefficients were significantly increased with coagulation. The penetration depths of the diffused light have been reported to a maximum value of 8.12 ± 0.36 mm in normal liver and 2.49 ± 0.17 mm in coagulated liver at 840 nm showing increasing behavior towards IR region. The Monte Carlo simulation was used to check the theoretical validation of measured optical properties of the tissue that showed a good match with our experimental results. We believe that these differences in optical properties will be helpful for the understanding arid optimal use of laser applications in medicine and differential diagnosis of tissues by using different optical methods. Especially for the investigation of biological tissue for photodynamic therapy (PDT), the knowledge of the specific optical properties and their thermo-induced changes is important.

  16. The acute effects of ethanol on acetanilide disposition in normal subjects, and in patients with liver disease.

    PubMed

    McKay, J; Rawlings, M D; Cobden, I; James, O F

    1982-10-01

    1 The effects of single doses (25 g and 50 g) oral ethanol on the disposition of acetanilide (50 mg/kg metabolic active mass) has been studied in normal subjects, and in patients with chronic non-alcoholic liver disease. 2 In normal subjects, ethanol produced a dose-dependent increase in acetanilide half-life, and a decrease in acetenilide clearance. There was a significant correlation (rs = 0.71, P less than 0.01) between the 90 min blood ethanol concentration and the reduction in acetanilide clearance. 3 In patients with liver disease, ethanol produced a similar proportional change in acetanilide half-life and clearance, but these were less consistent. Moreover, liver disease itself was associated with an increase in acetenilide half-life, and a reduction in clearance. 4 It is concluded that single oral doses of ethanol, comparable to those consumed during social drinking, may inhibit some forms of microsomal oxidation and thus have important clinical implications.

  17. The allele combinations of three loci based on, liver, stomach cancers, hematencephalon, COPD and normal population: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gai, Liping; Liu, Hui; Cui, Jing-Hui; Yu, Weijian; Ding, Xiao-Dong

    2017-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine the specific allele combinations of three loci connected with the liver cancers, stomach cancers, hematencephalon and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to explore the feasibility of the research methods. We explored different mathematical methods for statistical analyses to assess the association between the genotype and phenotype. At the same time we still analyses the statistical results of allele combinations of three loci by difference value method and ratio method. All the DNA blood samples were collected from patients with 50 liver cancers, 75 stomach cancers, 50 hematencephalon, 72 COPD and 200 normal populations. All the samples were from Chinese. Alleles from short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined using the STR Profiler plus PCR amplification kit (15 STR loci). Previous research was based on combinations of single-locus alleles, and combinations of cross-loci (two loci) alleles. Allele combinations of three loci were obtained by computer counting and stronger genetic signal was obtained. The methods of allele combinations of three loci can help to identify the statistically significant differences of allele combinations between liver cancers, stomach cancers, patients with hematencephalon, COPD and the normal population. The probability of illness followed different rules and had apparent specificity. This method can be extended to other diseases and provide reference for early clinical diagnosis.

  18. Angiocrine Bmp2 signaling in murine liver controls normal iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Friederike; Sticht, Carsten; Demory, Alexandra; Henzler, Thomas; Meyer, Mathias; Zierow, Johanna; Schneider, Sven; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Gaitantzi, Haristi; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Arnold, Bernd; Klapproth, Kay; Géraud, Cyrill

    2017-01-01

    Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) display a high degree of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among different organs. Organ-specific ECs control their tissue microenvironment by angiocrine factors in health and disease. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are uniquely differentiated to fulfill important organ-specific functions in development, under homeostatic conditions, and in regeneration and liver pathology. Recently, Bmp2 has been identified by us as an organ-specific angiokine derived from LSECs. To study angiocrine Bmp2 signaling in the liver, we conditionally deleted Bmp2 in LSECs using EC subtype-specific Stab2-Cre mice. Genetic inactivation of hepatic angiocrine Bmp2 signaling in Stab2-Cre;Bmp2fl/fl (Bmp2LSECKO) mice caused massive iron overload in the liver and increased serum iron levels and iron deposition in several organs similar to classic hereditary hemochromatosis. Iron overload was mediated by decreased hepatic expression of hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis. Thus, angiocrine Bmp2 signaling within the hepatic vascular niche represents a constitutive pathway indispensable for iron homeostasis in vivo that is nonredundant with Bmp6. Notably, we demonstrate that organ-specific angiocrine signaling is essential not only for the homeostasis of the respective organ but also for the homeostasis of the whole organism. PMID:27903529

  19. Angiocrine Bmp2 signaling in murine liver controls normal iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Philipp-Sebastian; Olsavszky, Victor; Ulbrich, Friederike; Sticht, Carsten; Demory, Alexandra; Leibing, Thomas; Henzler, Thomas; Meyer, Mathias; Zierow, Johanna; Schneider, Sven; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Gaitantzi, Haristi; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Arnold, Bernd; Klapproth, Kay; Schledzewski, Kai; Goerdt, Sergij; Géraud, Cyrill

    2017-01-26

    Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) display a high degree of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among different organs. Organ-specific ECs control their tissue microenvironment by angiocrine factors in health and disease. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are uniquely differentiated to fulfill important organ-specific functions in development, under homeostatic conditions, and in regeneration and liver pathology. Recently, Bmp2 has been identified by us as an organ-specific angiokine derived from LSECs. To study angiocrine Bmp2 signaling in the liver, we conditionally deleted Bmp2 in LSECs using EC subtype-specific Stab2-Cre mice. Genetic inactivation of hepatic angiocrine Bmp2 signaling in Stab2-Cre;Bmp2(fl/fl) (Bmp2(LSECKO)) mice caused massive iron overload in the liver and increased serum iron levels and iron deposition in several organs similar to classic hereditary hemochromatosis. Iron overload was mediated by decreased hepatic expression of hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis. Thus, angiocrine Bmp2 signaling within the hepatic vascular niche represents a constitutive pathway indispensable for iron homeostasis in vivo that is nonredundant with Bmp6. Notably, we demonstrate that organ-specific angiocrine signaling is essential not only for the homeostasis of the respective organ but also for the homeostasis of the whole organism.

  20. Distribution of albumin and alpha-fetoprotein mRNAs in normal, hyperplastic, and preneoplastic rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Alpini, G.; Aragona, E.; Dabeva, M.; Salvi, R.; Shafritz, D. A.; Tavoloni, N.

    1992-01-01

    The nature of bile duct-like (oval) cells proliferating during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis has been controversial. To investigate this issue further, the authors compared the hepatic distribution of albumin (ALB) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNAs in rats in which oval cell proliferation was induced by feeding a choline-devoid diet containing 0.1% ethionine (CDE, a hepatocarcinogenic diet) with that in normal rats and in rats in which biliary epithelial cell hyperplasia was induced by either bile duct ligation or feeding alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). Northern blot analysis in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells isolated from these animals demonstrated that ALB mRNA was present in the hepatocytes of both control and experimental animals, whereas this transcript was detected in nonparenchymal epithelial cells only in CDE-fed rats. Alpha-fetoprotein mRNA was not seen in either parenchymal or nonparenchymal cells isolated from normal or hyperplastic livers induced by bile duct ligation or ANIT feeding. In CDE-fed rats, however, both parenchymal and nonparenchymal cell populations displayed AFP message. In situ hybridization directly demonstrated nonparenchymal cell expression of both ALB and AFP transcripts in CDE-fed rats. Most surprisingly, ALB and AFP mRNAs were also detected by in situ hybridization in occasional nonparenchymal cells located in portal tracts near the limiting plate in normal liver, as well as under conditions associated with bile duct hyperplasia. Immunohistochemical studies of intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin 19 (a marker of glandular epithelia), vimentin (a marker of mesenchymal lineage), and desmin (a marker of muscle cell differentiation) demonstrated that oval cells, as well as normal and hyperplastic bile duct cells, were positive for cytokeratin 19 and negative for both vimentin and desmin. Cytokeratin-positive oval cells formed duct profiles and were connected to preexisting ductules and ducts. These results are

  1. Estimating Functional Liver Reserve Following Hepatic Irradiation: Adaptive Normal Tissue Response Models

    PubMed Central

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Cao, Yue; Wang, Hesheng; Jackson, Andrew; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the limit of functional liver reserve for safe application of hepatic irradiation using changes in indocyanine green, an established assay of liver function. Materials and Methods From 2005–2011, 60 patients undergoing hepatic irradiation were enrolled in a prospective study assessing the plasma retention fraction of indocyanine green at 15-min (ICG-R15) prior to, during (at 60% of planned dose), and after radiotherapy (RT). The limit of functional liver reserve was estimated from the damage fraction of functional liver (DFL) post-RT [1−(ICG-R15pre-RT/ICG-R15post-RT)] where no toxicity was observed using a beta distribution function. Results Of 48 evaluable patients, 3 (6%) developed RILD, all within 2.5 months of completing RT. The mean ICG-R15 for non-RILD patients pre-RT, during-RT and 1-month post-RT was 20.3%(SE 2.6), 22.0%(3.0), and 27.5%(2.8), and for RILD patients was 6.3%(4.3), 10.8%(2.7), and 47.6%(8.8). RILD was observed at post-RT damage fractions of ≥78%. Both DFL assessed by during-RT ICG and MLD predicted for DFL post-RT (p<0.0001). Limiting the post-RT DFL to 50%, predicted a 99% probability of a true complication rate <15%. Conclusion The DFL as assessed by changes in ICG during treatment serves as an early indicator of a patient’s tolerance to hepatic irradiation. PMID:24813090

  2. Levels of liver glycogen during normal and radiation-induced metamorphosis in Rana cyanophlyctis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Ashraf, J; Siddiqui, P Q; Khan, K R

    1979-01-01

    This study shows that significant changes in the pattern of glycogen deposition are brought about by irradiation with 2,000 R gamma-rays. The sharp fall during the 1st week can be attributed to its emergent mobilization. However, glycogen stored in the liver during the 2nd and 3rd week prior to the resorptive process substantiates the fact that tadpoles complete metamorphic transformations in spite of sublethal irradiation.

  3. An ultrastructural and morphometric study of the liver of normal and copper-poisoned sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, S. R.; Howell, J. M.; Cook, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    In sheep given copper (Cu) at the level of 10 ml of a 0.2% solution of CuSO4.5H2O/kg body weight, the volume density of nuclei and cytoplasm of hepatocytes increased and the volume density of the sinusoids and the space of Disse decreased. These changes were interpreted as an indication of cellular swelling. There was a significant increase in volume density, number, and absolute volume of lysosomes when Cu was given. The greatest increase in number occurred during the pre-hemolytic period (mean = 48 days), and the highest increase in volume occurred thereafter. Thus, the most extensive proliferation of lysosomes occurred in livers of the pre-hemolytic sheep, and the hemolytic sheep had the largest and heaviest lysosomes. The liver necrosis in sheep undergoing hemolysis was possible caused by hydrolytic enzymes released by the rupture of the enclosing lysosomal membranes. The significant increase in volume density of mitochondria observed in livers of sheep given Cu was due to an increase in volume (swelling) rather than an increase in number. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7377289

  4. Low-level direct electrical current therapy for hepatic metastases. I. Preclinical studies on normal liver.

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, D. T.; Dodd, N. J.; Zhao, S.; Pullan, B. R.; Moore, J. V.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level direct electrical current has shown promise as a potential therapeutic modality (direct current therapy; DCT) in the treatment of malignant disease, including metastases, but to date much experimental work has been empirical and has added little to our knowledge of the mechanisms involved. As a prerequisite to a clinical trial for metastases in the liver, we have employed an in vivo liver model to examine the quantitative and qualitative relationships between electrode polarity, charge and tissue necrosis. Two distinct regions of necrosis were induced, distinguishable histologically and by magnetic resonance imaging: (i) a cylindrical region of primary necrosis centred on the electrode, its volume directly proportional to the charge passed, but greater at the anode than cathode; and (ii) a wedge-shaped infarct, apex at the electrode and base extending to the liver edge. The extent of this infarct was again greater at the anode than the cathode, but showed a sigmoidal relationship with charge. Results indicate pH changes at the electrodes as likely mediators of tissue injury, but show also that significant distant ischaemic injury can occur as a consequence of primary damage. These findings should be considered when selecting tumours for possible direct current therapy and when determining the sites of electrode placement. Images Figure 1 PMID:7599063

  5. Modulated expression of a nuclear-associated glycoprotein during normal rat liver development and in various hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Francine; Napa, Ioana Diana; Solomon, Luc; Morin, Odette; Islam, Nazrul

    2006-01-01

    Liver plays a major role in systemic detoxification and drug metabolism. NF-164, a protein of 164 kDa predominantly localized in hepatocyte nuclei, was found to be present in increasing amounts during liver maturation. In addition, fetal rat hepatocytes had ten times, and neonatal five times less of this protein than adult hepatocytes. It was also detected in an albumin producing hepatoma cell line, but not in three other lines that have lost several differentiated functions. These data suggest that NF-164 expression is development-dependent and that it may be a marker for both normal and malignant hepatocyte differentiation. NF-164 seems to be liver-specific, since it was not detected in rat brain, spleen, kidney, lung and bovine thymus. It was purified from adult rat hepatocyte nuclei. Its estimated pI is 6.8. Its total amino acid composition and partial amino acid sequence is also being reported. Despite major differences between their respective contents in amino acids, partial sequences showed homologies with carbamyl phosphate synthetase I (CPSI). These observations may suggest that NF-164 also shares some functional features with this enzyme.

  6. Prediction of radiation-induced liver disease by Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for primary liver carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu ZhiYong; Liang Shixiong; Zhu Ji; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhao Jiandong; Lu Haijie; Yang Yunli; Chen Long; Wang Anyu; Fu Xiaolong; Jiang Guoliang . E-mail: jianggl@21cn.com

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To describe the probability of RILD by application of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal-tissue complication (NTCP) model for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) treated with hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 109 PLC patients treated by 3D-CRT were followed for RILD. Of these patients, 93 were in liver cirrhosis of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 16 were in Child-Pugh Grade B. The Michigan NTCP model was used to predict the probability of RILD, and then the modified Lyman NTCP model was generated for Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B patients by maximum-likelihood analysis. Results: Of all patients, 17 developed RILD in which 8 were of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 9 were of Child-Pugh Grade B. The prediction of RILD by the Michigan model was underestimated for PLC patients. The modified n, m, TD{sub 5} (1) were 1.1, 0.28, and 40.5 Gy and 0.7, 0.43, and 23 Gy for patients with Child-Pugh A and B, respectively, which yielded better estimations of RILD probability. The hepatic tolerable doses (TD{sub 5}) would be MDTNL of 21 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, for Child-Pugh A and B patients. Conclusions: The Michigan model was probably not fit to predict RILD in PLC patients. A modified Lyman NTCP model for RILD was recommended.

  7. [Enzyme levels and morphological picture of normal and cirrhotic rat livers following portal vein ligation and subcutaneous transposition of the spleen].

    PubMed

    Zelder, O; Dorn, R; Bürcklein, H H; Bode, Ch; Bode, J C; Jerusalem, C R

    1975-01-01

    The effect of portal vein ligation after subcutaneous transposition of the spleen is investigated on enzyme-activities. and morphological pattern of the normal and cirrhotic rat-liver. The increase of glycolytic enzyme-activities and the decrease of enzyme-activities of oxidative metabolic pathways can be explained by adaptation on throttled blood supply of the liver. Significant decrease of arginase-activity (urea-cycle) can not be explained by reduced protein content of food (pair-fed-animals). Diminished substrate (ammonia)-level (NH3/t/hepatocytes) may be an explanation. Histological pattern of normal and cirrhotic rat liver is nearly unchanged after portal vein ligation.

  8. Glutamate Cysteine Ligase—Modulatory Subunit Knockout Mouse Shows Normal Insulin Sensitivity but Reduced Liver Glycogen Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Suzie; Steullet, Pascal; Kulak, Anita; Preitner, Frederic; Do, Kim Q.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) deficits have been observed in several mental or degenerative illness, and so has the metabolic syndrome. The impact of a decreased glucose metabolism on the GSH system is well-known, but the effect of decreased GSH levels on the energy metabolism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity to insulin in the mouse knockout (KO) for the modulatory subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Compared to wildtype (WT) mice, GCLM-KO mice presented with reduced basal plasma glucose and insulin levels. During an insulin tolerance test, GCLM-KO mice showed a normal fall in glycemia, indicating normal insulin secretion. However, during the recovery phase, plasma glucose levels remained lower for longer in KO mice despite normal plasma glucagon levels. This is consistent with a normal counterregulatory hormonal response but impaired mobilization of glucose from endogenous stores. Following a resident-intruder stress, during which stress hormones mobilize glucose from hepatic glycogen stores, KO mice showed a lower hyperglycemic level despite higher plasma cortisol levels when compared to WT mice. The lower hepatic glycogen levels observed in GCLM-KO mice could explain the impaired glycogen mobilization following induced hypoglycemia. Altogether, our results indicate that reduced liver glycogen availability, as observed in GCLM-KO mice, could be at the origin of their lower basal and challenged glycemia. Further studies will be necessary to understand how a GSH deficit, typically observed in GCLM-KO mice, leads to a deficit in liver glycogen storage. PMID:27148080

  9. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Yoon, Kijung; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2017-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138) of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (p< 0.001). As the hs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range) may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development. PMID:28234943

  10. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Yoon, Kijung; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2017-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138) of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (p< 0.001). As the hs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range) may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development.

  11. Small difference in international normalized ratio may yield a significant impact on prioritizing patients listed for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sarvary, E; Seregely, Zs; Fazakas, J; Kovacs, F; Gaal, I; Beko, G; Varga, J; Kobori, L; Nemes, B; Gorog, D; Varga, M; Langer, R M; Monostory, K; Jaray, J; Gerlei, Zs

    2010-01-01

    Priority for liver transplantation is currently based on the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. The aim of our study was to assess in detail the contribution of international normalized ratio (INR) differences for MELD scores because of interlaboratory variability. The samples from 92 cirrhotic patients were measured on different systems combining three coagulometers and three thromboplastin products to determine variations in INR and MELD score. The INR differences among the first four systems varied between 0 and 0.2, resulting in MELD differences of 0 to 2. The MELD scores of 92 patients changed only among 10 possible integers so that normally 2 to 10 patients shared the same MELD value. In some cases, one MELD score difference resulted in a 10 superpositioning on the waiting list. Including one more system (mechanical vs optical) into our investigations achieved a five MELD difference. Supposing an extreme situation where one patient competes with his or her lowest, all the other with their highest possible score (and visa versa), the difference may be even 20 positions, overturning the complete waiting list. In conclusion substantial interlaboratory differences in MELD score have profound clinical consequences.

  12. Effects of catechin-rich oil palm leaf extract on normal and hypertensive rats' kidney and liver.

    PubMed

    Jaffri, Juliana M; Mohamed, Suhaila; Ahmad, Intan Natasya; Mustapha, Noordin M; Manap, Yazid A; Rohimi, Nordanial

    2011-09-15

    Catechin-rich oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaf extract (OPLE) possesses good ex vivo vasodilation, antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This study evaluated the beneficial or toxic effects of OPLE on the liver and kidneys of normal and hypertensive rats. The OPLE (500mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to normal Wistar Kyoto rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and N-ω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced NO-deficient hypertensive rats. The OPLE reduced hypertension in NO-deficient rats, but not in SHR. Hepatocytes or glomeruli injury and oxidative markers were high in hypertensive rats compared to normal rats, and they were reduced (p<0.05) by OPLE supplementation, even when there was no blood pressure reduction. Unlike the hypertensive drug captopril, the OPLE showed no toxicity to normal rats. The dose reported is equivalent 0.5g of catechins/day for humans or 2.5cups of tea. The catechins are from an abundant alternative source for potential use as functional food.

  13. Normal birth weight piglets with impaired preweaning growth utilize alternative metabolic pathways in the liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered hepatic metabolism, as reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Eight pairs of average birth weight pigs (1.57 +/- 0.05 kg) were identified that diverged in weight by...

  14. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. II. Comparison of beta-adrenergic responsiveness of rat ascites hepatoma cells with cultured normal rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Matsunaga, T; Takemoto, N; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R

    1985-05-01

    The pharmacological properties of beta-adrenoceptors in rat ascites hepatoma cells were compared with those in normal rat liver cells which were cultured for 24 hr after collagenase digestion. Adenylate cyclases in the homogenates of cultured normal rat liver cells and rat ascites hepatoma cells, AH44, AH66, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974, were all activated by isoproterenol or NaF to different degrees. The enzyme in rat liver cells was activated by several beta 2-agonists but those in all hepatoma cells hardly responded. Furthermore, salbutamol, a beta 2-partial agonist, antagonized the cyclase activation by isoproterenol in AH130 cells. The Kact value of isoproterenol for the activation of adenylate cyclase in AH130 cells was smaller than that in rat liver cells. A comparison of the Ki values of beta-antagonists for the inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cyclase activity shows that while the Ki values of propranolol and butoxamine in AH130 cells were similar to those in rat liver cells, a significant difference was observed in the values for beta 1-selective antagonists between AH130 cells and rat liver cells. The Ki values of metoprolol and atenolol for AH130 cells were 137- and 90-fold lower, respectively, than for normal rat liver cells. From these findings, it is strongly suggested that beta-adrenoceptors in rat ascites hepatoma cells including AH130 cells have similar properties to the mammalian beta 1-receptor.

  15. Comparison of the coagulation profile of fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome-susceptible laying hens and normal laying hens.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A E; Gentry, P A; Squires, E J

    2003-09-01

    1. The rate of thrombin generation in plasma from Fatty Liver Haemorrhagic Syndrome-susceptible laying hens (FLHS, UCD-003) is more rapid than in plasma from age-matched normal Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) laying hens. 2. The rate of thrombin generation in plasma was determined by measuring the biological activity of the specific coagulation proteins, Factors V, VII, VIII, IX and X. 3. The higher activity of Factors V, VII and X in FLHS-susceptible laying hens compared with normal SCWL hens remained consistent after plasma lipid concentrations were reduced. 4. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids showed that in normal SCWL laying hens phosphatidylethanolamine contained C18:3n3 whereas it contained C20:3n3 in FLHS-susceptible laying hens. 5. The results suggest that alterations in the composition of the phospholipids that are essential cofactors in the biochemical reactions involved in thrombin generation may be a contributing factor in the development of FLHS.

  16. Zonation of gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis and intracellular pH in livers from normal and diabetic ketoacidotic rats: evidence for intralobular redistribution of metabolic events in ketoacidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, S P; Cohen, R D; Iles, R A; Bailey, R A; Desai, M; Germain, J P; Going, T C

    1999-01-01

    The intralobular distribution of metabolism was examined in the livers from rats with severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), perfused at pH 6.8, and compared with that in livers from normal starved animals perfused at either pH 7.4 or 6.8. With lactate and palmitate as substrates, the perivenous uptake of periportally synthesized glucose seen in normal livers at pH 7.4 was abolished during DKA; indeed, gluconeogenesis was most active in the perivenous region. Whereas in normal livers perfused at pH 7.4 the periportal region showed a markedly elevated intracellular pH (pH(i)) compared with the perivenous zone, this distribution of pH(i) was reversed in DKA, with an intermediate distribution in normal livers perfused at pH 6. 8. 3-Hydroxybutyrate was generated throughout the lobule. Some acetoacetate generated periportally was converted to 3-hydroxybutyrate more perivenously. A steep gradient of oxygen uptake along the radius of the lobule was apparent in all three groups; oxygen uptake was greatly decreased perivenously despite adequate oxygen supply. These findings are consistent with our previous observations of the lobular co-location of high pH(i) and gluconeogenesis, and might offer an explanation of how high gluconeogenic rates can continue in spite of severe systemic acidosis in DKA. The findings provide direct evidence for a marked redistribution of intralobular metabolism in DKA. PMID:10493939

  17. Choline supplementation protects against liver damage by normalizing cholesterol metabolism in Pemt/Ldlr knockout mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Al Rajabi, Ala; Castro, Gabriela S F; da Silva, Robin P; Nelson, Randy C; Thiesen, Aducio; Vannucchi, Helio; Vine, Donna F; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J; Curtis, Jonathan M; Jacobs, René L

    2014-03-01

    Dietary choline is required for proper structure and dynamics of cell membranes, lipoprotein synthesis, and methyl-group metabolism. In mammals, choline is synthesized via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt), which converts phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. Pemt(-/-) mice have impaired VLDL secretion and developed fatty liver when fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Because of the reduction in plasma lipids, Pemt(-/-)/low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice are protected from atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of dietary choline in the metabolic phenotype of Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) male mice. At 10-12 wk of age, Pemt(+/+)/Ldlr(-/-) (HF(+/+)) and half of the Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) (HF(-/-)) mice were fed an HF diet with normal (1.3 g/kg) choline. The remaining Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) mice were fed an HF diet supplemented (5 g/kg) with choline (HFCS(-/-) mice). The HF diet contained 60% of calories from fat and 1% cholesterol, and the mice were fed for 16 d. HF(-/-) mice lost weight and developed hepatomegaly, steatohepatitis, and liver damage. Hepatic concentrations of free cholesterol, cholesterol-esters, and triglyceride (TG) were elevated by 30%, 1.1-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, in HF(-/-) compared with HF(+/+) mice. Choline supplementation normalized hepatic cholesterol, but not TG, and dramatically improved liver function. The expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and esterification increased by 50% to 5.6-fold in HF(-/-) mice when compared with HF(+/+) mice. Markers of macrophages, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were elevated in the HF(-/-) mice. Choline supplementation normalized the expression of these genes. In conclusion, HF(-/-) mice develop liver failure associated with altered cholesterol metabolism when fed an HF/normal choline diet. Choline supplementation normalized cholesterol metabolism, which was sufficient to prevent nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development

  18. Opposite effects of sleep deprivation on the continuous reaction times in patients with liver cirrhosis and normal persons.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Mette Munk; Frøjk, Jesper; de Muckadell, Ove B Schaffalitzky; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    The continuous reaction times (CRT) method describes arousal functions. Reaction time instability in a patient with liver disease indicates covert hepatic encephalopathy (cHE). The effects of sleep deprivation are unknown although cirrhosis patients frequently suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to determine if sleep deprivation influences the CRT test. Eighteen cirrhosis patients and 27 healthy persons were tested when rested and after one night's sleep deprivation. The patients filled out validated sleep quality questionnaires. Seven patients (38%) had unstable reaction times (a CRTindex < 1.9) compatible with cHE. In these patients, the wakefulness improved or normalized their reaction speed and CRTindex (p = 0.01). There was no change in the other patients' reaction speed or stability. Seven patients (38%) reported poor sleep that was not related to their CRT tests before or after the sleep deprivation. In the healthy participants, the sleep deprivation slowed their reaction times by 11% (p < 0.0001) and in 7 persons (25%) destabilized them. The acute sleep deprivation normalized or improved the reaction time stability of the patients with a CRTindex below 1.9 and had no effect in the patients with a CRTindex above 1.9. There was no relation between reported sleep quality and reaction time results. Thus, in cirrhosis patients, sleep disturbances do not lead to 'falsely' slowed and unstable reaction times. In contrast, the acute sleep deprivation slowed and destabilized the reaction times of the healthy participants. This may have negative consequences for decision-making.

  19. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  20. Changes in Normal Liver and Spleen Volume after Radioembolization with {sup 90}Y-Resin Microspheres in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: Findings and Clinical Significance

    SciTech Connect

    Paprottka, Philipp M. Schmidt, G. P.; Trumm, C. G.; Hoffmann, R. T.; Reiser, M. F.; Jakobs, T. F.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: In clinical trials with yttrium-90-resin-microspheres for the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases, it was observed that radioembolization might result in splenomegaly and an increase in portal vein size. Subclinical hepatitis in normal liver tissue as well as the effects of radioembolization and prior chemotherapy are suspected to be responsible for this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter after radioembolization. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with liver-dominant metastatic disease from breast cancer who had not responded to chemotherapy or had to abandon chemotherapy because of its toxic effects were evaluated. Changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter as well as liver tumor volume and diameter were quantified using computed tomography scans. Results: Radioembolization was associated with a significant mean decrease in the whole liver volume of 10.2% (median 16.7%; P = 0.0024), mainly caused by a reduction in the right lobe volume (mean 16.0%; P < 0.0001). These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the diameter of the main portal vein (mean 6.8%; P < 0.0001) as well as splenic volume (mean 50.4%; P < 0.0001). Liver-tumor volume and diameter decreased by a median of 24 and 39.7%. Conclusions: Radioembolization is an effective treatment for tumor size reduction in patients with breast cancer liver metastases. Treatment is associated with changes of hepatic parenchymal volume, splenic volume, and portal vein size that appear not to represent clinically important sequelae in this patient cohort.

  1. Heparin Saline Versus Normal Saline for Flushing and Locking Peripheral Venous Catheters in Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Ming-Guang; Luo, Ou; He, Liu; Li, Jia-Xin; Tang, Yun-Jing; Luo, Yan-Li; Zhou, Min; Tang, Li; Zhang, Zong-Xia; Wu, Hao; Chen, Xin-Zu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A prospective randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of heparin saline (HS) to those of normal saline (NS) as flushing and locking solutions for peripheral venous catheter (PVC) in decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC) patients. Patients with DLC at our institution between April 2012 and March 2013 were enrolled after obtaining informed consent. The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the NS group received preservative-free 0.9% sodium chloride as the flushing and locking solution, while the HS group received HS (50 U/mL). PVC-related events and the duration of PVC maintenance were compared between the 2 groups. Moreover, the preinfusion and postinfusion levels of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and platelet (PLT) were also compared. A total of 32 and 36 DLC patients in the NS (125 PVCs) and HS (65 PVCs) groups, respectively, were analyzed. Baseline characteristics, including gender, age, Child–Pugh grade, PVC type and administration of anticoagulant, and irritant agents, were comparable between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The maintenance times of the HS and NS groups were 80.27 ± 26.47 and 84.19 ± 29.32 hours, respectively (P = 0.397). Removal of PVC for abnormal reasons occurred in 30.7% and 22.4% of patients in the HS and NS groups (P = 0.208). The PVC occlusion rates were 6.2% and 5.6% in the HS and NS groups, respectively (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.31–3.92). The PT, APTT, and PLT levels were comparable between the 2 groups both before and after infusion (P > 0.05). Incremental analyses showed that Child–Pugh grade C might be a risk factor for the suppression of PLT in the HS group. We consider NS to be as effective as and safer than conventional HS for flushing and locking PVC in decompensated liver cirrhosis patients. PMID:26252305

  2. Cytotoxicity mechanism of α-MMC in normal liver cells through LRP1 mediated endocytosis and JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Shen, Fubing; Zhang, Min; He, Qianchuan; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Xiaoping; Yang, Shuxia; Liu, Yang; Deng, Nianhua; Zheng, Juecun; Zhu, Lixia; Liu, Xiaolan

    2016-05-16

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC), a type I ribosome-inactivating protein isolated from Momordica charantia, is a potential drug candidate with strong anti-tumor activity. However, α-MMC has a severe hepatotoxicity when applied in vivo, which may greatly hinders its use in clinic in the future. The biological mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by α-MMC is largely unknown, especially the mechanism by which α-MMC enters the hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated α-MMC-induced cytotoxicity in normal liver L02 cell line as well as the mechanism underlying it. As expected, α-MMC is more toxic in L02 cells than in various normal cells from other organs. The cytotoxic effect of α-MMC on L02 cells is found to be mediated through cell apoptosis as detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Importantly, α-MMC was shown to bind to a specific receptor on cell membrane, as the density of the cell membrane receptor is closely related to both the amount of α-MMC endocytosed and the cytotoxicity in different cell lines. By using LRP1 competitive inhibitor α2-M or siRNA targeting LRP1, we further identified that LRP1 protein served as the membrane receptor for α-MMC. Both α2-M and siRNA targeting LRP1 can significantly inhibit α-MMC's endocytosis as well as its cytotoxicity in L02 cells. In addition, it was found that α-MMC can activate the JNK signalling pathways via LRP1 in L02 cells. As JNK activation often leads to cell apoptosis, the activation of JNK may play an important role in α-MMC-induced cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that LRP1 mediates the cytotoxicity of α-MMC through (1) endocytosis and induced apoptosis and (2) the activation of the JNK pathway. Our findings shed light on the fundamental mechanism of hepatotoxicity of α-MMC and offer reference to understand its mechanism of lymphocytotoxicity and neurotoxicity.

  3. Biorhythms of activities of liver and blood dehydrogenases and changes in body weight of the rats feeding normal diet or excess of sugar substitutes.

    PubMed

    Petrovich, Yu A; Volozhin, A I; Zubtsov, V A; Kichenko, S M

    2007-12-01

    Biorhythms with higher levels of activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in blood plasma, specific activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase in the liver, and body weight of rats were more pronounced in the spring-summer period than in the autumn-winter period. These specific features were revealed in animals feeding a normal diet or food with 54 and 27% sugar substitute sorbitol. However, specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the liver was higher in the autumn-winter period. Activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase in blood plasma increased by tens of times due to induction of sorbitol synthesis (substrate) in the liver. Sugar substitute xylitol is structurally similar to sorbitol, but is not the substrate for sorbitol dehydrogenase. However, the effect of xylitol on activities of lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the spring-summer period was similar to that of sorbitol.

  4. [The toxic and protective effects of Polygonum multiflorum on normal and liver injured rats based on the symptom-based prescription theory].

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing-yao; Bai, Zhao-fang; Niu, Ming; Tu, Can; Ma, Zhi-jie; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhao, Kui-jun; You, Yun; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-08-01

    The dosage-efficacy/toxicity relationship of the 50% alcohol extracts of Polygonum multiflorum was comparatively investigated on either normal or CCl4-induced chronic liver injury rats, by determining the general condition, serum biochemical indices and liver histopathology, coupled with the factor analysis. The dosages were 10 and 20 g raw materials per kg body weight. Compared with the normal control group, the normal high dose group showed significant increases of the serum alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), as well the frequent incidences of inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatic sinus enlargement and fiber stripes formation in histopathological sections. Compared with the model control group, the model low dose group showed significant declines of serum ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST) and total bile acid (TBA) (P < 0.05), as well the alleviation of vacuoles of hepatocytes, but no amelioration of the inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrous tissue hyperplasia; moreover, the model high dose group showed significant degeneration declines of serum HMGB-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), as well the evident alleviation of vacuoles degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis degree. The factor analysis showed that the low dosage treatment had almost neither injuring effect on the normal rats nor protective effect on the model rats; while the high dosage treatment showed observable injuring effect on the normal rats, expressed by the significant increases of the factor-1 (HMGB-1, TNF-α and IL-1β as the main contributors) and factor-2 (TBIL, ALT and TBA as the main contributors) relative to the normal control group. The liver protective effect of the high dosage treatment could be observed with the significant reduction of the factor-1, indicating the effective alleviation of the expression of

  5. Modulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the normal and regenerating rat liver by various doses of the peptide morphogen of Hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Yarygin, K.N.; Kazimirskii, A.N.; Kositskii, G.I.; Rubina, A.Yu.; Vinogradov, V.A.; Pylaev, A.S.

    1986-11-01

    In this investigation, changes in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity were studied in the normal and regenerating liver of rats receiving injections of various doses of Hydra peptide morphogen (HPM). Activity of ODC was determined by a radioisotope method based on liberation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(1-/sup 14/C)-ornithine. The results indicate in the author's opinion that HPM may have a role in the regulation of anabolic processes and, in particular, of regenerative processes in mammals.

  6. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa; Bellavista, Elena; Mishto, Michele; Santoro, Aurelia; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Capri, Miriam; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; Grigioni, Walter Franco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Franceschi, Claudio

    2010-06-25

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive ({alpha}4 and {beta}1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28{alpha}{beta} regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28{alpha}{beta}. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  7. Iron in spleen and liver: Some cases of normal tissues and tissues from patients with hematological malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alenkina, Irina V.; Oshtrakh, Michael I.; Felner, Israel; Vinogradov, Alexander V.; Konstantinova, Tatiana S.; Semionkin, Vladimir A.

    2016-10-01

    Iron deposits in spleen and liver tissues obtained from several healthy people and patients with mantle cell lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia and primary myelofibrosis were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The results obtained demonstrated differences in the iron content in tissues as well as some variations in the ferrihydrite-like iron core structure in the iron storage proteins in these tissues. The presence of tiny amount of magnetite and paramagnetic component in spleen and liver tissue was also detected in different quantities in the studied tissues.

  8. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  9. Dithiothreitol abrogates the effect of arsenic trioxide on normal rat liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Manash K. Kumar, Rajinder; Mukhopadhyay, Anup K.

    2008-01-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a known environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. Significant correlation has been reported between consumption of arsenic-contaminated water and occurrence of liver cancer; moreover, ATO-treated leukemia patients also suffers from liver toxicity. Hence, modulation of ATO action may help to prevent populations suffering from arsenic toxicity as well as help reduce the drug-related side effects. Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a well-known dithiol agent reported to modulate the action of ATO. Controversial reports exist regarding the effect of DTT on ATO-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, no report illustrates the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced liver toxicity, the prime target for arsenic. Mitochondria serve as the doorway to apoptosis and have been implicated in ATO-induced cell death. Hence, we attempted to study the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced dysfunction of mammalian liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hep3B). We, for the first time, report that ATO produces complex I-mediated electron transfer inhibition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, respiration inhibition, and ATO-induced ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) opening. DTT at low concentration (100 {mu}M and less) prevents the effect of ATO-induced complex I-malfunctions. DTT protects mitochondria from ATO-mediated opening of MPT and membrane potential depolarization. DTT also prevented ATO-induced Hep3B cell death. Thus, at low concentrations DTT abrogates the effect of ATO on rat liver mitochondria and Hep3B cell line. Therefore, the present result suggests, that use of low concentration of dithiols as food supplement may prevent arsenic toxicity in affected population.

  10. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. III. Difference between the receptor-adenylate cyclase regulating systems in AH130 cells and cultured normal rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Matsunaga, T; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1986-10-01

    The responsiveness to three beta-adrenergic agonists, isoproterenol (IPN), epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) in AH13O cells was examined compared with that in normal rat liver cells which were cultured for 24 hr after collagenase digestion. As regards to the activation of adenylate cyclase in the cell homogenates, the relative affinity of the three agonists was in order of IPN greater than NE greater than Epi in AH130 cells and IPN greater than Epi greater than NE in cultured normal liver cells. While the efficacies of the three agonists were similar in cultured liver cells, those of NE and Epi were markedly lower than that of IPN in AH13O cells and were increased to the similar level of IPN by pretreatment with phentolamine, but not with prazosin. Clonidine inhibited the activation of adenylate cyclase by IPN in AH13O cells. When cells were preincubated with islet-activating protein (IAP), the activity of adenylate cyclase in the presence or absence of agonist in both cell lines increased. In IAP-treated AH13O cells, the efficacies of NE and Epi became close to that of IPN. Adenylate cyclase in IAP-treated AH13O cells was activated by GTP in a dose-dependent manner, but that in IAP-treated cultured liver cells was not. In the presence of IPN, biphasic (activatory and inhibitory) effects of GTP on the cyclase were observed, and the inhibitory phase was eliminated by the IAP-treatment in both cell lines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Liver transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100090.htm Liver transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver ...

  12. Dielectric properties of human normal, malignant and cirrhotic liver tissue: in vivo and ex vivo measurements from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Ann P; Lazebnik, Mariya; Bertram, John M; Converse, Mark C; Hagness, Susan C; Webster, John G; Mahvi, David M

    2007-08-07

    Hepatic malignancies have historically been treated with surgical resection. Due to the shortcomings of this technique, there is interest in other, less invasive, treatment modalities, such as microwave hepatic ablation. Crucial to the development of this technique is the accurate knowledge of the dielectric properties of human liver tissue at microwave frequencies. To this end, we characterized the dielectric properties of in vivo and ex vivo normal, malignant and cirrhotic human liver tissues from 0.5 to 20 GHz. Analysis of our data at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz indicates that the dielectric properties of ex vivo malignant liver tissue are 19 to 30% higher than normal tissue. The differences in the dielectric properties of in vivo malignant and normal liver tissue are not statistically significant (with the exception of effective conductivity at 915 MHz, where malignant tissue properties are 16% higher than normal). Also, the dielectric properties of in vivo normal liver tissue at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz are 16 to 43% higher than ex vivo. No statistically significant differences were found between the dielectric properties of in vivo and ex vivo malignant tissue (with the exception of effective conductivity at 915 MHz, where malignant tissue properties are 28% higher than normal). We report the one-pole Cole-Cole parameters for ex vivo normal, malignant and cirrhotic liver tissue in this frequency range. We observe that wideband dielectric properties of in vivo liver tissue are different from the wideband dielectric properties of ex vivo liver tissue, and that the in vivo data cannot be represented in terms of a Cole-Cole model. Further work is needed to uncover the mechanisms responsible for the observed wideband trends in the in vivo liver data.

  13. Selected Cytokines Serve as Potential Biomarkers for Predicting Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Normal to Mildly Elevated Aminotransferases.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong-Qiong; Zhao, Hong; Ma, An-Lin; Zhou, Ji-Yuan; Xie, Shi-Bin; Zhang, Xu-Qing; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Guo; Shang, Jia; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies of small cohorts have implicated several circulating cytokines with progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, to date there have been no reliable biomarkers for assessing histological liver damage in CHB patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between circulating cytokines and histological liver damage in a large cohort. Also, this study was designed to assess the utility of circulating cytokines in diagnosing liver inflammation and fibrosis in CHB patients with ALT less than 2 times the upper limit of normal range (ULN). A total of 227 CHB patients were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent liver biopsy and staging by Ishak system. Patients with at least moderate inflammation showed significantly higher levels of CXCL-11, CXCL-10, and interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (R) than patients with less than moderate inflammation (P < 0.001). Patients with significant fibrosis had higher levels of IL-8 (P = 0.027), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) (P = 0.011), IL-2R (P = 0.002), and CXCL-11 (P = 0.032) than the group without significant fibrosis. In addition, 31.8% and 29.1% of 151 patients with ALT < 2 × ULN had at least moderate inflammation and significant fibrosis, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CXCL-11 was independently associated with at least moderate inflammation, and TGF-α and IL-2R independently correlated with significant fibrosis in patients with ALT < 2 × ULN. Based on certain cytokines and clinical parameters, an inflammation-index and fib-index were developed, which showed areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.84) for at least moderate inflammation and 0.82 (95% CI 0.75-0.90) for significant fibrosis, correspondingly. Compared to existing scores, fib-index was significantly superior to aspartate aminotransferase

  14. Selected Cytokines Serve as Potential Biomarkers for Predicting Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Normal to Mildly Elevated Aminotransferases

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yong-Qiong; Zhao, Hong; Ma, An-Lin; Zhou, Ji-Yuan; Xie, Shi-Bin; Zhang, Xu-Qing; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Guo; Shang, Jia; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies of small cohorts have implicated several circulating cytokines with progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, to date there have been no reliable biomarkers for assessing histological liver damage in CHB patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between circulating cytokines and histological liver damage in a large cohort. Also, this study was designed to assess the utility of circulating cytokines in diagnosing liver inflammation and fibrosis in CHB patients with ALT less than 2 times the upper limit of normal range (ULN). A total of 227 CHB patients were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent liver biopsy and staging by Ishak system. Patients with at least moderate inflammation showed significantly higher levels of CXCL-11, CXCL-10, and interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (R) than patients with less than moderate inflammation (P < 0.001). Patients with significant fibrosis had higher levels of IL-8 (P = 0.027), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) (P = 0.011), IL-2R (P = 0.002), and CXCL-11 (P = 0.032) than the group without significant fibrosis. In addition, 31.8% and 29.1% of 151 patients with ALT < 2 × ULN had at least moderate inflammation and significant fibrosis, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CXCL-11 was independently associated with at least moderate inflammation, and TGF-α and IL-2R independently correlated with significant fibrosis in patients with ALT < 2 × ULN. Based on certain cytokines and clinical parameters, an inflammation-index and fib-index were developed, which showed areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of 0.75 (95% CI 0.66–0.84) for at least moderate inflammation and 0.82 (95% CI 0.75–0.90) for significant fibrosis, correspondingly. Compared to existing scores, fib-index was significantly superior to aspartate

  15. Liver X receptor ligand cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells and not in normal colon epithelial cells depends on LXRβ subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Courtaut, Flavie; Derangère, Valentin; Chevriaux, Angélique; Ladoire, Sylvain; Cotte, Alexia K; Arnould, Laurent; Boidot, Romain; Rialland, Mickaël; Ghiringhelli, François; Rébé, Cédric

    2015-09-29

    Increasing evidence indicates that Liver X Receptors (LXRs) have some anticancer properties. We recently demonstrated that LXR ligands induce colon cancer cell pyroptosis through an LXRβ-dependent pathway. In the present study, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines presented differential cytoplasmic localizations of LXRβ. This localization correlated with caspase-1 activation and cell death induction under treatment with LXR ligand. The association of LXRβ with the truncated form of RXRα (t-RXRα) was responsible for the sequestration of LXRβ in the cytoplasm in colon cancer cells. Moreover t-RXRα was not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells. These cells presented a predominantly nuclear localization of LXRβ and were resistant to LXR ligand cytotoxicity. Our results showed that predominant cytoplasmic localization of LXRβ, which occurs in colon cancer cells but not in normal colon epithelial cells, allowed LXR ligand-induced pyroptosis. This study strengthens the hypothesis that LXRβ could be a promising target in cancer therapy.

  16. Liver transplantation☆

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M.; Mennini, G.; Lai, Q.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Drudi, F.M.; Pugliese, F.; Berloco, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) involves the substitution of a diseased native liver with a normal liver (or part of one) taken from a deceased or living donor. Considered an experimental procedure through the 1980s, OLT is now regarded as the treatment of choice for a number of otherwise irreversible forms of acute and chronic liver disease. The first human liver transplantation was performed in the United States in 1963 by Prof. T.E. Starzl of the University of Colorado. The first OLT to be performed in Italy was done in 1982 by Prof. R. Cortesini. The procedure was successfully performed at the Policlinico Umberto I of the University of Rome (La Sapienza). The paper reports the indications for liver transplantation, donor selection and organ allocation in our experience, surgical technique, immunosuppression, complications and results of liver transplantation in our center. PMID:23396075

  17. Factors Predicting HBsAg Seroclearance and Alanine Transaminase Elevation in HBeAg-Negative Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients with Persistently Normal Liver Function

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Tai-Long; Wang, Jing-Houng; Kee, Kwong-Ming; Chen, Chien-Hung; Hung, Chao-Hung; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Background A certain proportion of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with persistently normal alanine transaminase (ALT) levels have significant fibrosis. Using liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan®) and laboratory data, including serum ALT, quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg), and HBV DNA, we attempted to predict the natural histories of these patients. Methods Non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal ALT were followed up prospectively with the end points of HBsAg seroclearance and ALT elevation above the upper limit of normal. The factors that were predictive of the end points were identified. Results A total of 235 patients with an average age of 48.1 +/- 10.7 years were followed up for 7 years. Eight patients (3.4%) lost HBsAg, and 15 patients (6.4%) experienced ALT elevation. The overall cumulative HBsAg seroclearances were 0.4%, 1.3% and 2.3% at years 1, 3 and 5, respectively. Regarding HBsAg seroclearance, the qHBsAg (< 30 IU/ml) cutoff resulted in a hazard ratio (HR) of 19.6 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.2–166.7 (P = 0.008). The baseline ALT level (odd ratio (OR) 1.075, 95% CI 1.020–1.132, P = 0.006) and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (3.7, 1.1–12.4, P = 0.032) were associated with ALT elevation. Limited to men, the baseline liver stiffness (1.6, 1.0–2.5, P = 0.031) and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (10.4, 2.1–52.4, P = 0.004) were factors that were independently associated with ALT elevation. Conclusion A low qHBsAg level predicted HBsAg clearance. Baseline ALT and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml were independent predictive factors for ALT elevation. Among the men, the independent predictive factors for ALT elevation were qHBsAg and liver stiffness. PMID:27935953

  18. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients' spleen and liver tissues.

  19. The expression and concentration of CD40 ligand in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, and hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Hanan A G; Abousamra, Nashwa K; Goda, Hossam; El-Shouky, Reda; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia has been associated with increased platelet activation detected before disease onset. Inappropriate activation of platelets may be involved in pathogenesis in preeclampsia by promoting coagulation and thrombosis and also as a mediator of inflammation. The exaggerated platelet activation and inflammation leading to endothelial damage in preeclampsia can be explained by the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) system. Expression of CD40L on platelets was determined by whole-blood flow cytometry, and serum levels of soluble CD40L (sCD40L) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 11 women with mild preeclampsia, 11 women with severe preeclampsia, and six women with hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome compared with 13 normotensive pregnant women as a control group. The platelet surface expression of CD40L was significantly higher in women with mild and severe preeclampsia and HELLP compared with normal pregnancy group (P = 0.001; P ≤ 0.001; P = 0.003, respectively), with no significant difference being found between women with mild preeclampsia compared with HELLP and severe preeclampsia compared with HELLP (P = 0.2; P = 0.8, respectively). The serum concentration of sCD40L was significantly higher in women with mild and severe preeclampsia and HELLP compared with the normal pregnancy group (P = 0.001; P ≤ 0.001; P = 0.022, respectively), with no significant difference being found between women with mild compared with severe preeclampsia or HELLP and severe preeclampsia compared with HELLP (P = 0.7; P = 0.6; P = 0.6, respectively). In conclusion, the higher expression and concentration of CD40L in women with preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome compared with normal pregnant women may indicate an exaggerated activation of platelets and endothelial cells in the disorder.

  20. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  1. Comparison of CT scanning and radionuclide imaging in liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.L.; Esposito, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    Early experience with body CT suggested its usefulness in many diagnostic problems; jaundice, renal and pancreatic masses, and in the evaluation of relatively inaccessible parts of the body, such as the retroperitineum, mediastinum, and pelvis. Investigation of hepatic disease by CT was not unexpectedly compared to radionuclide liver scanning, the major preexisting modality for imaging the liver. In the evaluation of the jaundiced patient, CT rapidly assumed a major role, providing more specific information about the liver than the RN liver scan, as well as demonstrating adjacent organs. CT differentiate obstructive from non-obstructive jaundice. With respect to mass lesions of the liver, the RN liver scan is more sensitive than CT but less specific. The abnormalities on an isotope image of the liver consist of normal variants in configuration, extrinsic compression by adjacent structures, cysts, hemangiomata, abscesses, and neoplasms. These suspected lesions may then be better delineated by the CT image, and a more precise diagnosis made. The physiologic information provided by the RN liver scan is an added facet which is helpful in the patient with diffuse hepatic disease. The CT image will be normal in many of these patients, however, hemochromatosis and fatty infiltration lend themselves especially to density evaluation by CT. The evaluation of lymphoma is more thorough with CT. Structures other than the liver, such as lymph nodes, are visualized. Gallium, however, provides additional isotopic information in patients with lymphoma, and in addition, is known to be useful in the investigation of a febrile patient with an abscess. Newer isotopic agents expand hepatic imaging in other directions, visualizing the biliary tree and evaluating the jaundiced patient.

  2. Chromosome region maintenance 1 expression and its association with clinical pathological features in primary carcinoma of the liver

    PubMed Central

    XIE, QIAO-LING; LIU, YUE; ZHU, YING

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Recurrence and metastasis are the major factors affecting the prognosis; thus, investigation of the underlying molecular mechanisms of invasion and metastasis, and detection of novel drug target may improve the mortality rate of liver cancer patients. Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) recognizes specific leucine-rich nuclear export signal sequences, and its overexpression is associated with tumor-suppressor gene inactivation, proliferation, invasion and resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of CRM1 expression with the clinical and pathological features of primary liver cancer. In total, 152 cases diagnosed with liver cancer were included. CRM1 expression was detected in cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical assay. No statistically significant difference was found between the CRM1 expression levels in tumor and adjacent normal tissues (P=0.106). However, CRM1 expression in adjacent normal tissues was higher compared with that in tumor tissues in the negative hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg; P=0.029) and low differentiation (P=0.004) groups. In tumor tissues, CRM1 expression was significantly correlated with differentiation (P=0.045), whereas in adjacent normal tissues, CRM1 expression was significantly correlated with the tumor diameter (P=0.004). Therefore, it can be concluded that CRM1 is highly expressed in both tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, CRM1 expression is associated with the tumor differentiation degree and diameter. Lower differentiation and larger tumor diameter resulted in higher CRM1 expression in adjacent normal tissues, and higher tendency for invasion and metastasis. In addition, the risk of invasion and metastasis remains in chronic hepatitis B patients with negative HBeAg. PMID:27347018

  3. Chromosome region maintenance 1 expression and its association with clinical pathological features in primary carcinoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiao-Ling; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Recurrence and metastasis are the major factors affecting the prognosis; thus, investigation of the underlying molecular mechanisms of invasion and metastasis, and detection of novel drug target may improve the mortality rate of liver cancer patients. Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) recognizes specific leucine-rich nuclear export signal sequences, and its overexpression is associated with tumor-suppressor gene inactivation, proliferation, invasion and resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of CRM1 expression with the clinical and pathological features of primary liver cancer. In total, 152 cases diagnosed with liver cancer were included. CRM1 expression was detected in cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical assay. No statistically significant difference was found between the CRM1 expression levels in tumor and adjacent normal tissues (P=0.106). However, CRM1 expression in adjacent normal tissues was higher compared with that in tumor tissues in the negative hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg; P=0.029) and low differentiation (P=0.004) groups. In tumor tissues, CRM1 expression was significantly correlated with differentiation (P=0.045), whereas in adjacent normal tissues, CRM1 expression was significantly correlated with the tumor diameter (P=0.004). Therefore, it can be concluded that CRM1 is highly expressed in both tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, CRM1 expression is associated with the tumor differentiation degree and diameter. Lower differentiation and larger tumor diameter resulted in higher CRM1 expression in adjacent normal tissues, and higher tendency for invasion and metastasis. In addition, the risk of invasion and metastasis remains in chronic hepatitis B patients with negative HBeAg.

  4. Combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound irradiation and hydroxyapatite nanoparticle injection to injure normal goat liver tissue in vivo without costal bone incision.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Xiao, Z; Xiao, Y; Wang, Z; Li, F; Li, M; Peng, X

    2014-10-20

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the in vivo safety of intravenous nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA), to explore how nano-HA might influence the effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on normal liver tissue, and to investigate whether intravenous nano-HA could enhance HIFU for hepatocellular carcinoma ablation in a goat model. The present study, for the first time, indicated that the delivery of abundant nano-HA into the body over short periods of time could be assembled by the hepatic reticuloendothelial system, subsequently leading to a rapid rise of ultrasound-induced overheating, and ultimately resulting in enlargement of the coagulation necrotic area for ablated hepatocellular carcinoma in goats both in vivo and ex vivo. On the other hand, therapeutic doses of nano-HA were much lower than the lethal dose, and consequently presented transient and mild abnormalities of hepatic enzymes and renal function during the first 24 h after nano-HA injection. These results suggested that the combined application of nano-HA and HIFU is potentially a more effective alternative option compared to surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma local ablation in a safe and feasible manner.

  5. Radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines exposed in vitro to carbon ions and argon ions at the HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xigang; Li, Wenjian; Wang, Zhuanzi; Wei, Wei; Guo, Chuanling; Lu, Dong; Yang, Jianshe

    2009-05-01

    Human hepatoma (SMMC-7721) and normal liver (L02) cells were irradiated with γ-rays, 12C 6+ and 36Ar 18+ ion beams at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). By using the Calyculin-A induced premature chromosome condensation technique, chromatid-type breaks and isochromatid-type breaks were scored separately. Tumor cells irradiated with heavy ions produced a majority of isochromatid break, while chromatid breaks were dominant when cells were exposed to γ-rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for irradiation-induced chromatid breaks were 3.6 for L02 and 3.5 for SMMC-7721 cell lines at the LET peak of 96 keVμm -112C 6+ ions, and 2.9 for both of the two cell lines of 512 keVμm -136Ar 18+ ions. It suggested that the RBE of isochromatid-type breaks was pretty high when high-LET radiations were induced. Thus we concluded that the high production of isochromatid-type breaks, induced by the densely ionizing track structure, could be regarded as a signature of high-LET radiation exposure.

  6. Liver Failure in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bacak, Stephen J; Thornburg, Loralei L

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare but life-threatening medical emergency in pregnancy whose true incidence remains unknown. Many cases of acute liver failure are caused by pregnancy-related conditions such as acute fatty liver of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. However, acute deterioration in liver function can also be caused by drug overdose, viral infections, and an exacerbation of underlying chronic liver disease. This article provides an overview of the normal liver changes that occur during pregnancy, and summarizes the most common conditions and general management strategies of liver failure during pregnancy.

  7. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  8. LIVER INJURY, LIVER PROTECTION, AND SULFUR METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1942-01-01

    Protein-depleted dogs are very susceptible to injurious agents—in particular, chloroform. Methionine given shortly before chloroform anesthesia will give complete protection against chloroform. Methionine (or cysteine plus choline) given 3 or 4 hours after chloroform anesthesia will give significant protection against the liver injury of chloroform anesthesia. Methionine given more than 4 hours after chloroform anesthesia gives no protection against liver injury. Choline alone given before chloroform gives no protection against liver injury. The protein-depleted dogs have livers which are deficient in both nitrogen and sulfur, but sulfur is depleted more than is the nitrogen. The N/S ratio therefore rises. Methionine or cystine feeding promptly makes up this liver sulfur deficit. Viable liver cells are necessary for this uptake of sulfur. Livers of fetuses in utero or of newborn pups tolerate a chloroform anesthesia which will cause fatal liver injury in adults. The nitrogen and sulfur values of these fetus or pup livers are within the high normal values for adults. Blood-forming cells are present in the fetus or pup livers during this period. When these blood islands are eliminated during the 3rd or 4th week of life, the liver then becomes normally susceptible to chloroform liver injury. Methionine or methionine-rich protein digests (e.g. casein) or various proteins by mouth or by vein should prove useful to protect the liver against certain types of injury and to aid in organ repair. PMID:19871248

  9. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  10. Effect of MRP2 and MRP3 Polymorphisms on Anastrozole Glucuronidation and MRP2 and MRP3 Gene Expression in Normal Liver Samples

    PubMed Central

    Edavana, Vineetha Koroth; Penney, Rosalind B; Yao- Borengasser, Aiwei; Starlard-Davenport, Athena; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Kadlubar, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Anastrozole is an aromatase inhibitor (AI) used as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Anastrozole is subject to direct glucuronidation catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A4 (UGT1A4). Interindividual variability in anastrozole glucuronidation may be affected by UGT1A4 SNPs. Interplay between drug metabolizing genes such as UGT1A4 and transporter genes may also be affected by genetic variability. Thus, we hypothesize that genetic variability in MRPs could influence anastrozole glucuronidation. The correlation between UGT1A4 and MRP2 or MRP3 transporter gene expressions and the correlation between MRP2 or MRP3 mRNA and anastrozole glucuronidation were analyzed in normal human liver samples. MRP2 and MRP3 mRNA levels were significantly correlated with UGT1A4 mRNA, with anastrozole glucuronidation and with each other (p<0.05). The data also demonstrated that MRP2 SNPs are positively correlated with MRP2 mRNA expression, while there was no association between MRP3 SNPs from this study and MRP3 expression. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between certain MRP2 SNPs (3972C>T, 2366C>T and −24C>T) and anastrozole glucuronidation were observed. There were no observed correlations between MRP3 SNPs and anastrozole glucuronidation. MRP2 polymorphisms have been identified as playing a role in the disposition of other drugs, and the data presented here indicate for the first time that MRP2 SNPs could influence anastrozole metabolism and contribute to interindividual variation in treatment responses. PMID:26985457

  11. Normalization of nano-sized TiO2-induced clastogenicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity by chlorophyllin administration in mice brain, liver, and bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    El-Ghor, Akmal A; Noshy, Magda M; Galal, Ahmad; Mohamed, Hanan Ramadan H

    2014-11-01

    The intensive uses of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in sunscreens, toothpaste, sweats, medications, etc. making humans exposed to it daily by not little amounts and also increased its risks including genotoxicity. Thus, the present study was designed as one way to reduce nano-titanium-induced clastogenicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity in mice by co-administration of the free radical scavenger chlorophyllin (CHL). In addition, markers of oxidative stress were detected to shed more light on mechanism(s) underlying nano-sized TiO2 genotoxicity. Male mice were exposed to multiple injection into the abdominal cavity for five consecutive days with either CHL (40 mg/kg bw/day), or each of three dose levels of nano-sized TiO2 (500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg bw/day) alone, or both simultaneously and sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last treatment. After CHL co-administration, the observed dose-dependent genotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles indicated by the significant elevations in frequencies of both micronuclei and DNA damage induction was significantly decreased and returned to the negative control level. The observed induced mutations in p53 exons 5, 7, & 8 and 5 & 8 in the liver and brain, respectively, were declined in most cases. Moreover, CHL significantly decreased hepatic malondialdehyde level and significantly increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities that were significantly disrupted in animal groups treated with nano-TiO2 alone. In conclusion, the evidenced in vivo genotoxicity of nano-TiO2 in the present study was normalized after CHL co-administration which supports the previously suggested oxidative stress as the possible mechanism for titanium toxicity.

  12. Liver transplantation nearly normalizes brain spontaneous activity and cognitive function at 1 month: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yue; Huang, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhong, Jianhui; Ji, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Chen, Lihua; Zuo, Panli; Zhang, Long Jiang; Shen, Wen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the short-term brain activity changes in cirrhotic patients with Liver transplantation (LT) using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Twenty-six cirrhotic patients as transplant candidates and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. The assessment was repeated for a sub-group of 12 patients 1 month after LT. ReHo values were calculated to evaluate spontaneous brain activity and whole brain voxel-wise analysis was carried to detect differences between groups. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between the change of ReHo with the change of clinical indexes pre- and post-LT. Compared to pre-LT, ReHo values increased in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right supplementary motor area (SMA), right STG and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in patients post-LT. Compared to controls, ReHo values of post-LT patients decreased in the right precuneus, right SMA and increased in bilateral temporal pole, left caudate, left MFG, and right STG. The changes of ReHo in the right SMA, STG and IFG were correlated with change of digit symbol test (DST) scores (P < 0.05 uncorrected). This study found that, at 1 month after LT, spontaneous brain activity of most brain regions with decreased ReHo in pre-LT was substantially improved and nearly normalized, while spontaneous brain activity of some brain regions with increased ReHo in pre-LT continuously increased. ReHo may provide information on the neural mechanisms of LT' effects on brain function.

  13. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > Liver Transplant Liver Transplant Explore this section to learn more about ... resource. www.paulcox.com.au Why is the liver important? The liver is the second largest organ ...

  14. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Liver Biopsy What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that ... remove the liver tissue sample. What is the liver and what does it do? The liver is ...

  15. Determination of hepatic galactose elimination capacity using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose PET/CT: reproducibility of the method and metabolic heterogeneity in a normal pig liver model

    PubMed Central

    SØRENSEN, MICHAEL

    2011-01-01

    Objective A PET method is developed for non-invasive measurement of regional metabolic liver function using the galactose analog 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose, FDGal. The aim of the present study was to determine the reproducibility of the method in pigs before translating it to human studies. Material and methods Five anesthetized pigs were studied twice within an interval of three days. A dynamic PET recording was performed with an injection of 100 MBq FDGal. Non-radioactive galactose was administered throughout the PET recordings to achieve near-saturated elimination kinetics. Arterial blood samples were collected for determination of blood concentrations of FDGal and galactose (cgal). Net metabolic clearance of FDGal, KFDGal, was calculated from linear representation of data. The approximate maximal hepatic removal rate, Vmax, of galactose (mmol/l tissue/min) was calculated as KFDGal cgal. The estimates from Day 1 and Day 2 were compared and the coefficient of variation, COV, of the estimates calculated. Functional heterogeneity in normal pig liver was evaluated as COV of the tissue concentration of radioactivity during quasi steady-state metabolism. Results There was no significant difference between Vmax from Day 1 and Day 2 (p = 0.38), and the reproducibility was good with a COV of 14% for the whole liver. In normal pig liver tissue, mean COV after an injection of FDGal was on average 15.6% with no day-to-day variation (p = 0.7). Conclusions The novel FDGal PET method for determination of hepatic metabolic function has a good reproducibility and is promising for future human studies of regional liver function. PMID:20695723

  16. Liver intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance imaging: a comprehensive review of published data on normal values and applications for fibrosis and tumor evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yáo T.; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weitian; Loffroy, Romaric

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review was performed on liver intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique and its applications. Heterogeneous data have been reported. IVIM parameters are magnetic field strength dependent to a mild extent. A lower Dslow (D) value at 3 T than at 1.5 T and higher perfusion fraction (PF) value at 3 T than at 1.5 T were noted. An increased number of b values are associated with increased IVIM parameter measurement accuracy. With the current status of art, IVIM technique is not yet capable of detecting early stage liver fibrosis and diagnosing liver fibrosis grades, nor can it differentiate liver tumors. Though IVIM parameters show promise for tumor treatment monitoring, till now how PF and Dfast (D*) add diagnostic value to Dslow or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) remains unclear. This paper shows the state-of-art IVIM MR technique is still not able to offer reliable measurement for liver. More works on the measurement robustness are warranted as they are essential to justify follow-up clinical studies on patients. PMID:28275560

  17. [Effect of dihydropyrrol and maleimide derivatives on the state of the liver and colon in normal rats and those with colorectal carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine].

    PubMed

    Kuznietsova, H M; Lynchak, O V; Danylov, M O; Kotliar, I P; Rybal'chenko, V K

    2013-01-01

    No liver and colon alterations in rats, caused by cytostatic compounds 5-amino-4-(1,3-benzothyazol-2-yl)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrrol-3-one (D1) and 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-phenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2,5-dione (MI-1) when administered over a long time were found, as evidenced by the histopathological data and the data of activity of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in the blood serum. D1 and MI-1 in vivo decrease the total area of DMH-induced colon tumors in rats by 46-60%. Furthermore, D1 and MI-1 partially protect the liver and colon mucosa from toxic effects caused by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) reducing DNA oxidative modifications, as evidenced by urine 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine level. The effects of both compounds are similar, but MI-1 is less toxic for the liver and colon of intact animals possessing more pronounced antitumor activity and protective properties in the setting of chemically induced carcinogenesis.

  18. T1-Weighted MR imaging of liver tumor by gadolinium-encapsulated glycol chitosan nanoparticles without non-specific toxicity in normal tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jin Hee; Lee, Sangmin; Koo, Heebeom; Han, Hyounkoo; Lee, Kyung Eun; Han, Seung Jin; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Hyuncheol; Lee, Seulki; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we have synthesized Gd(iii)-encapsulated glycol chitosan nanoparticles (Gd(iii)-CNPs) for tumor-targeted T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 contrast agent, Gd(iii), was successfully encapsulated into 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-modified CNPs to form stable Gd(iii)-encapsulated CNPs (Gd(iii)-CNPs) with an average particle size of approximately 280 nm. The stable nanoparticle structure of Gd(iii)-CNPs is beneficial for liver tumor accumulation by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, the amine groups on the surface of Gd(iii)-CNPs could be protonated and could induce fast cellular uptake at acidic pH in tumor tissue. To assay the tumor-targeting ability of Cy5.5-labeled Gd(iii)-CNPs, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and MR imaging were used in a liver tumor model as well as a subcutaneous tumor model. Cy5.5-labeled Gd(iii)-CNPs generated highly intense fluorescence and T1 MR signals in tumor tissues after intravenous injection, while DOTAREM®, the commercialized control MR contrast agent, showed very low tumor-targeting efficiency on MR images. Furthermore, damaged tissues were found in the livers and kidneys of mice injected with DOTAREM®, but there were no obvious adverse effects with Gd(iii)-CNPs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the superiority of Gd(iii)-CNPs as a tumor-targeting T1 MR agent.Herein, we have synthesized Gd(iii)-encapsulated glycol chitosan nanoparticles (Gd(iii)-CNPs) for tumor-targeted T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 contrast agent, Gd(iii), was successfully encapsulated into 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-modified CNPs to form stable Gd(iii)-encapsulated CNPs (Gd(iii)-CNPs) with an average particle size of approximately 280 nm. The stable nanoparticle structure of Gd(iii)-CNPs is beneficial for liver tumor accumulation by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, the

  19. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  20. Parenteral and enteral metabolism of anaplerotic triheptanoin in normal rats. II. Effects on lipolysis, glucose production, and liver acyl-CoA profile

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Lei; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Kombu, Rajan S.; Allen, Frederick; Kutz, Gerd; Brewer, Wolf-Ulrich; Roe, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    The anaplerotic odd-medium-chain triglyceride triheptanoin is used in clinical trials for the chronic dietary treatment of patients with long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. We previously showed (Kinman RP, Kasumov T, Jobbins KA, Thomas KR, Adams JE, Brunengraber LN, Kutz G, Brewer WU, Roe CR, Brunengraber H. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291: E860–E866, 2006) that the intravenous infusion of triheptanoin increases lipolysis traced by the turnover of glycerol. In this study, we tested whether lipolysis induced by triheptanoin infusion is accompanied by the potentially harmful release of long-chain fatty acids. Rats were infused with heptanoate ± glycerol or triheptanoin. Intravenous infusion of triheptanoin at 40% of caloric requirement markedly increased glycerol endogenous Ra but not oleate endogenous Ra. Thus, the activation of lipolysis was balanced by fatty acid reesterification in the same cells. The liver acyl-CoA profile showed the accumulation of intermediates of heptanoate β-oxidation and C5-ketogenesis and a decrease in free CoA but no evidence of metabolic perturbation of liver metabolism such as propionyl overload. Our data suggest that triheptanoin, administered either intravenously or intraduodenally, could be used for intensive care and nutritional support of metabolically decompensated long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. PMID:19903863

  1. Cooperation of bcl-2 and myc in the neoplastic transformation of normal rat liver epithelial cells is related to the down-regulation of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    DeoCampo, N D; Wilson, M R; Trosko, J E

    2000-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to isolate several rat liver epithelial cell clones containing the human bcl-2 and myc/bcl-2 genes in order to study their potential cooperative effect on neoplastic transformation and gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) and to test the hypothesis that the loss of GJIC leads to tumorigenesis. Using anchorage-independent growth as a surrogate marker for neoplastic transformation, we transfected both normal rat liver epithelial cells, WB-F344, and a WB-F344 cell line overexpressing v-myc with human bcl-2 cDNA. Those cell lines that only expressed v-myc or human bcl-2 were unable to form colonies in soft agar. However, those cell lines that overexpressed both v-myc and human bcl-2 showed varying ability to form colonies in soft agar, which did not correlate with their human bcl-2 expression level. In order to test if there was a correlation between cell line growth in soft agar and the ability to communicate through gap junctions, we performed scrape load dye transfer and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assays. Our results show that v-myc and human bcl-2 can cooperate in the transformation of normal cells, but the degree to which the cells are transformed is dependent on the cells' ability to communicate through gap junctions.

  2. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  4. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  5. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  6. Returning to normal? Assessing transcriptome recovery over time in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) liver in response to wastewater-treatment plant upgrades.

    PubMed

    Marjan, Patricija; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Fuzzen, Meghan L M; MacLatchy, Deborah L; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2017-01-20

    The present study measured hepatic transcriptome responses in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) exposed to 2 municipal wastewater-treatment plants (MWWTPs; Kitchener and Waterloo) over 4 fall seasons (2011-2014) in the Grand River (Ontario, Canada). The overall goal was to determine if upgrades at the Kitchener MWWTP (in 2012) resulted in transcriptome responses indicative of improved effluent quality. The number of differentially expressed probes in fish downstream of the Kitchener outfall (904-1223) remained comparable to that downstream of Waterloo (767-3867). Noteworthy was that year and the interaction of year and site explained variability in more than twice the number of transcripts than site alone, suggesting that year and the interaction of year and site had a greater effect on the transcriptome than site alone. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed a gradual reduction in the number of gene ontologies over time at exposure sites, which corresponded with lower contaminant load. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed that there were noticeable shifts in the cell pathways differently expressed in the liver preupgrade and postupgrade. The dominant pathways altered preupgrade were related to genetic modifications and cell division, whereas postupgrade they were associated with the immune system, reproduction, and biochemical responses. Molecular pathways were dynamic over time, and following the upgrades, there was little evidence that gene expression profiles in fish collected from high-impact sites postupgrade were more similar to those in fish collected from reference site. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-15. © 2017 SETAC.

  7. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

  8. GRP78 as a regulator of liver steatosis and cancer progression mediated by loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN.

    PubMed

    Chen, W-T; Zhu, G; Pfaffenbach, K; Kanel, G; Stiles, B; Lee, A S

    2014-10-16

    Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a molecular chaperone widely elevated in human cancers, is critical for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein folding, stress signaling and PI3K/AKT activation. Genetic knockout models of GRP78 revealed that GRP78 maintains homeostasis of metabolic organs, including liver, pancreas and adipose tissues. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC) are the most common liver cancers. There is a lack of effective therapeutics for HCC and CC, highlighting the need to further understand liver tumorigenic mechanisms. PTEN (phosphatase and tenson homolog deleted on chromosome 10), a tumor suppressor that antagonizes the PI3K/AKT pathway, is inactivated in a wide range of tumors, including 40-50% of human liver cancers. To elucidate the role of GRP78 in liver cancer, we created a mouse model with biallelic liver-specific deletion of Pten and Grp78 mediated by Albumin-Cre-recombinase (cP(f/f)78(f/f)). Interestingly, in contrast to PTEN, deletion of GRP78 was progressive but incomplete. At 3 months, cP(f/f)78(f/f) livers showed hepatomegaly, activation of lipogenic genes, exacerbated steatosis and liver injury, implying that GRP78 protects the liver against PTEN-null-mediated pathogenesis. Furthermore, in response to liver injury, we observed increased proliferation and expansion of bile duct and liver progenitor cells in cP(f/f)78(f/f) livers. Strikingly, bile duct cells in cP(f/f)78(f/f) livers maintained wild-type (WT) GRP78 level, whereas adjacent areas showed GRP78 reduction. Analysis of signaling pathways revealed selective JNK activation, β-catenin downregulation, along with PDGFRα upregulation, which was unique to cP(f/f)78(f/f) livers at 6 months. Development of both HCC and CC was accelerated and was evident in cP(f/f)78(f/f) livers at 8-9 months, coinciding with intense GRP78 expression in the cancer lesions, and GRP78 expression in adjacent normal areas reverted back to the WT level. In contrast, c78(f/f) livers

  9. Pancreatic islet regeneration and some liver biochemical parameters of leaf extracts of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oche, Okpe; Sani, Ibrahim; Chilaka, Njoku Godwin; Samuel, Ndidi Uche; Samuel, Atabo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test two water soluble extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) obtained from the leaves of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for their effects on pancreatic endocrine tissues and serum marker enzymes for a period of 21 d. Methods A total of 55 rats divided into 11 groups of 5 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups and followed by a daily administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts for 21 d. Group 1 was the normal control while group 7 was treated with standard drug. Results The histopathological studies of the diabetic rats indicated increase in the volume density of islets, percent of β-cells and size of islet in the groups that received the plant extracts, which suggested regeneration of β-cells along with β-cells repairs, as compared with the non-treated diabetic control which showed complete degeneration of the islet cells. There was significant reduction (P<0.05) in the serum activities of marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in diabetes treated rats, whereas an insignificant increase (P>0.01) in the serum activities of marker enzymes was observed for non-diabetic treated rats. Results of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin showed that diabetic control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) in total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin compared with treated groups while non-diabetic treated groups showed no significant increase (P>0.01) in total bilirubin and direct bilirubin compared with the normal control. Conclusion This herbal therapy appears to bring about repair/regeneration of the endocrine pancreas and hepatic cells protection in the diabetic rat. PMID:25182283

  10. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for oligometastatic disease in liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungsoo; Son, Seok Hyun; Won, Yong Kyun; Kay, Chul Seung

    2014-01-01

    Liver metastasis in solid tumors, including colorectal cancer, is the most frequent and lethal complication. The development of systemic therapy has led to prolonged survival. However, in selected patients with a finite number of discrete lesions in liver, defined as oligometastatic state, additional local therapies such as surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, and radiotherapy can lead to permanent local disease control and improve survival. Among these, an advance in radiation therapy made it possible to deliver high dose radiation to the tumor more accurately, without impairing the liver function. In recent years, the introduction of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has offered even more intensive tumor dose escalation in a few fractions with reduced dose to the adjacent normal liver. Many studies have shown that SABR for oligometastases is effective and safe, with local control rates widely ranging from 50% to 100% at one or two years. And actuarial survival at one and two years has been reported ranging from 72% to 94% and from 30% to 62%, respectively, without severe toxicities. In this paper, we described the definition and technical aspects of SABR, clinical outcomes including efficacy and toxicity, and related parameters after SABR in liver oligometastases from colorectal cancer.

  11. Stem Cells and Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    DUNCAN, ANDREW W.; DORRELL, CRAIG; GROMPE, MARKUS

    2011-01-01

    One of the defining features of the liver is the capacity to maintain a constant size despite injury. Although the precise molecular signals involved in the maintenance of liver size are not completely known, it is clear that the liver delicately balances regeneration with overgrowth. Mammals, for example, can survive surgical removal of up to 75% of the total liver mass. Within 1 week after liver resection, the total number of liver cells is restored. Moreover, liver overgrowth can be induced by a variety of signals, including hepatocyte growth factor or peroxisome proliferators; the liver quickly returns to its normal size when the proliferative signal is removed. The extent to which liver stem cells mediate liver regeneration has been hotly debated. One of the primary reasons for this controversy is the use of multiple definitions for the hepatic stem cell. Definitions for the liver stem cell include the following: (1) cells responsible for normal tissue turnover, (2) cells that give rise to regeneration after partial hepatectomy, (3) cells responsible for progenitor-dependent regeneration, (4) cells that produce hepatocyte and bile duct epithelial phenotypes in vitro, and (5) transplantable liver-repopulating cells. This review will consider liver stem cells in the context of each definition. PMID:19470389

  12. Several microRNAs could predict survival in patients with hepatitis B-related liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Ye; Xinghui, Zhao; Chao, Wu; Yi, Zhao; Jinwen, Chen; Ruifang, Gao; Chao, Zhang; Min, Zhao; Chunlei, Guo; Yan, Fang; Lingfang, Du; Long, Shen; Wenzhi, Shen; Xiaohe, Luo; Rong, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs as biomarkers play an important role in the tumorigenesis process, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). In this paper, we used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to mine hepatitis B-related liver cancer microRNAs that could predict survival in patients with hepatitis B-related liver cancer. There were 93 cases of HBV-HCC and 49 cases of adjacent normal controls included in the study. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis of a liver cancer group versus a normal control group of differentially expressed genes identified eight genes with statistical significance. Compared with the normal liver cell line, hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines had high expression of 8 microRNAs, albeit at different levels. A Cox proportional hazards regression model for multivariate analysis showed that four genes had a significant difference. We established classification models to distinguish short survival time and long survival time of liver cancers. Eight genes (mir9-3, mir10b, mir31, mir519c, mir522, mir3660, mir4784, and mir6883) were identified could predict survival in patients with HBV-HCC. There was a significant correlation between mir10b and mir31 and clinical stages (p < 0.05). A random forests model effectively estimated patient survival times. PMID:28322348

  13. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  14. Liver Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Liver Panel Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Liver Profile; Liver Function Tests; LFTs Formal name: Hepatic ...

  15. Association of fish and fish liver oil intake in pregnancy with infant size at birth among women of normal weight before pregnancy in a fishing community.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Halldorsdottir, Sveinbjorg; Geirsson, Reynir T

    2004-09-01

    This 1998 study investigated the association between intake of fish and fish oil during pregnancy and full-term infants' size at birth in an Icelandic fishing community. Healthy women aged 20-40 years of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index: 19.5-25.5 kg/m(2)) and at 38-43 weeks of gestation were selected randomly. Information on infant size at birth was collected from maternity records. Intake of fish and fish oil in pregnancy was ascertained (n = 491, 80.1%) by using a validated, focused, food frequency questionnaire. Infants of women in the lowest quartile of fish consumption weighed less (p = 0.036), were shorter (p < 0.001), and had a smaller head circumference (p < 0.001) at birth than those of women consuming higher amounts of fish. Infants of women in the highest quartile of fish oil intake (> or =1 tablespoon (11 ml)/day), consuming threefold the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A and twofold that of vitamin D, were shorter (p = 0.036) and had a smaller head circumference (p = 0.003) than those of women consuming less. Infant size at birth increased with fish consumption, especially for women in the lower quartiles of consumption. Smaller birth size was linked to the highest levels of fish oil intake. Constituents of fish and fish oil might affect birth size differently depending on the amount consumed.

  16. Expression of VLA-alpha 2, VLA-alpha 6, and VLA-beta 1 chains in normal mucosa and adenomas of the colon, and in colon carcinomas and their liver metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Koretz, K.; Schlag, P.; Boumsell, L.; Möller, P.

    1991-01-01

    'Very late antigen' (VLA) proteins are members of the integrin superfamily with cell-surface receptor function and are involved in the cell-cell matrix interaction. They are heterodimers with a common beta 1 chain and different alpha chains counted through VLA-1 to VLA-6. The VLA-2 complex (alpha 2/beta 1) was found to act as collagen receptor on platelets and the VLA-6 complex (alpha 6/beta 1) as laminin receptor. Using monoclonal antibodies and an indirect immunoperoxidase method, we investigated the expression of VLA-alpha 2, VLA-alpha 6, and VLA-beta 1 chains in 20 normal colonic mucosa samples, in 20 colonic adenomas, and in 96 carcinomas together with 10 accompanying liver metastases. All three proteins were expressed throughout the colonic epithelium, except for VLA-alpha 2, which was present in the cryptic gland but was absent on the mucosal surface in some cases. In general, adenomas were strongly positive for the VLA proteins but 3 of 20 cases showed focal VLA-alpha 2-negative areas. The carcinomas revealed considerable heterogeneity of VLA-alpha 2 expression; ie, 59 tumors were completely positive, 35 tumors revealed a focal loss of antigen, and 2 cases were negative. This reduced antigen expression was statistically associated with Dukes' stage C/D (P = 0.003). VLA-alpha 6 was expressed throughout in all tumors. VLA-beta 1 was found extensively expressed in 77 carcinomas, partially expressed in 17 carcinomas, and was absent in 2 carcinomas. As compared to their primary tumors, liver metastases showed roughly corresponding patterns of antigen expression. The down regulation/loss of VLA proteins in a subset of epithelial colon tumors might cause a disturbed cell-cell/cell-matrix interaction that might augment the invasive property of their cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2000944

  17. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  18. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  19. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  20. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  1. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  2. Costaining for keratins 8/18 plus ubiquitin improves detection of hepatocyte injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Guy, Cynthia D; Suzuki, Ayako; Burchette, James L; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Cardona, Diana; McCall, Shannon J; Ünalp, Aynur; Belt, Patricia; Ferrell, Linda D; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2012-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a global health dilemma. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. Ballooned hepatocytes are histologic manifestations of hepatocellular injury and are characteristic of steatohepatitis, the more severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Definitive histologic identification of ballooned hepatocytes on routine stains, however, can be difficult. Immunohistochemical evidence for loss of the normal hepatocytic keratin 8/18 can serve as an objective marker of ballooned hepatocytes. We sought to explore the utility of a keratin 8/18 plus ubiquitin double immunohistochemical stain for the histologic evaluation of adult nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Double immunohistochemical staining for keratin 8/18 and ubiquitin was analyzed using 40 adult human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease core liver biopsies. Ballooned hepatocytes lack keratin 8/18 staining as previously shown by others, but normal-size hepatocytes with keratin loss are approximately 5 times greater in number than keratin-negative ballooned hepatocytes. Keratin-negative ballooned hepatocytes, normal-size hepatocytes with keratin loss, and ubiquitin deposits show a zonal distribution, are positively associated with each other, and are frequently found adjacent to or intermixed with fibrous matrix. All 3 lesions correlate with fibrosis stage and the hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis of steatohepatitis (all P < .05). Compared with hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining improves the receiver operating characteristics curve for advanced fibrosis (0.77 versus 0.83, 0.89, and 0.89 for keratin-negative ballooned hepatocytes, normal-size hepatocytes with keratin loss, and ubiquitin, respectively) because immunohistochemistry is more sensitive and specific for fibrogenic hepatocellular injury than hematoxylin and eosin staining. Keratin 8/18 plus ubiquitin double immunohistochemical stain improves detection of hepatocyte injury in nonalcoholic fatty

  3. Simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides, two anthraquinones and four flavonoid glycosides of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma by UFLC-MS/MS: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and cholestatic liver injury rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Bi, Kaishun; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Tang, Zheng; Chen, Kelin; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Yin, Ran; Hou, Xiaohong

    2014-06-01

    A selective, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides (geniposide and genipin gentiobioside), two anthraquinones (rhein and emodin) and four flavonoid glycosides (isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin), the major active ingredients of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), in rat plasma using paeoniflorin as internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v), separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 mm×3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Detection was performed on 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometry equipped with turbo ion spray source in the negative ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) were less than 11.4%, and accuracy (as relative error) was within ± 10.0%. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 4.0, 0.5, 2.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0 ng/mL for geniposide, genipin gentiobioside, rhein, emodin, isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin, respectively. The extraction recoveries of the analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 86.0%. The method was fully validated and applied to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the analytes in normal and cholestatic liver injury (CLI) rats after oral administration of ZZDHD. Results showed that there were remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic properties of the analytes between normal and CLI group.

  4. Immunofluorescence identifies distinct subsets of endothelial cells in the human liver

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Otto; Phillips, Anthony; Ruggiero, Katya; Bartlett, Adam; Dunbar, P. Rod

    2017-01-01

    As well as systemic vascular endothelial cells, the liver has specialised sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). LSEC dysfunction has been documented in many diseased states yet their phenotype in normal human liver has not been comprehensively assessed. Our aim was to improve characterisation of subsets of endothelial cells and associated pericytes in the human liver. Immunofluorescence microscopy was performed on normal human liver tissue samples to assess endothelial and structural proteins in a minimum of three donors. LSEC are distributed in an acinar pattern and universally express CD36, but two distinctive subsets of LSEC can be identified in different acinar zones. Type 1 LSEC are CD36hiCD32−CD14−LYVE-1− and are located in acinar zone 1 of the lobule, while Type 2 LSEC are LYVE-1+CD32hiCD14+CD54+CD36mid-lo and are located in acinar zones 2 and 3 of the lobule. Portal tracts and central veins can be identified using markers for systemic vascular endothelia and pericytes, none of which are expressed by LSEC. In areas of low hydrostatic pressure LSEC are lined by stellate cells that express the pericyte marker CD146. Our findings identify distinctive populations of LSEC and distinguish these cells from adjacent stellate cells, systemic vasculature and pericytes in different zones of the liver acinus. PMID:28287163

  5. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  6. Enlarged Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to the patient with liver disease. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, ... DL, et al., eds. Alcoholic liver disease. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, ...

  7. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nuclear scan - technetium; Nuclear scan - liver or spleen Images Liver scan References Lidofsky S. Jaundice. In: Feldman M, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  8. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...

  9. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  10. [Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease.

  11. Elastin in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kanta, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    A characteristic feature of liver cirrhosis is the accumulation of large amounts of connective tissue with the prevailing content of type I collagen. Elastin is a minor connective tissue component in normal liver but it is actively synthesized by hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts in diseased liver. The accumulation of elastic fibers in later stages of liver fibrosis may contribute to the decreasing reversibility of the disease with advancing time. Elastin is formed by polymerization of tropoelastin monomers. It is an amorphous protein highly resistant to the action of proteases that forms the core of elastic fibers. Microfibrils surrounding the core are composed of fibrillins that bind a number of proteins involved in fiber formation. They include microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs), microfibrillar-associated proteins (MFAPs) and fibulins. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs) are responsible for tropoelastin cross-linking and polymerization. TGF-β complexes attached to microfibrils release this cytokine and influence the behavior of the cells in the neighborhood. The role of TGF-β as the main profibrotic cytokine in the liver is well-known and the release of the cytokines of TGF-β superfamily from their storage in elastic fibers may affect the course of fibrosis. Elastic fibers are often studied in the tissues where they provide elasticity and resilience but their role is no longer viewed as purely mechanical. Tropoelastin, elastin polymer and elastin peptides resulting from partial elastin degradation influence fibroblastic and inflammatory cells as well as angiogenesis. A similar role may be performed by elastin in the liver. This article reviews the results of the research of liver elastic fibers on the background of the present knowledge of elastin biochemistry and physiology. The regulation of liver elastin synthesis and degradation may be important for the outcome of liver fibrosis. PMID:27826254

  12. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  13. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > Liver Function Tests Liver Function Tests Explore this section to learn more ... including a description and diagnosis. Why is the liver important? The liver is the second largest organ ...

  14. What Is Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What Is Liver Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jiajia; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Xiujun; Hu, Fen

    2015-05-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis.

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  17. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha controls the development of a hepatic epithelium and liver morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Parviz, Fereshteh; Matullo, Christine; Garrison, Wendy D; Savatski, Laura; Adamson, John W; Ning, Gang; Kaestner, Klaus H; Rossi, Jennifer M; Zaret, Kenneth S; Duncan, Stephen A

    2003-07-01

    Although advances have been made in understanding cell differentiation, only rudimentary knowledge exists concerning how differentiated cells form tissues and organs. We studied liver organogenesis because the cell and tissue architecture of this organ is well defined. Approximately 60% of the adult liver consists of hepatocytes that are arranged as single-cell anastomosing plates extending from the portal region of the liver lobule toward the central vein. The basal surface of the hepatocytes is separated from adjacent sinusoidal endothelial cells by the space of Disse, where the exchange of substances between serum and hepatocytes takes place. The hepatocyte's apical surface forms bile canaliculi that transport bile to the hepatic ducts. Proper liver architecture is crucial for hepatic function and is commonly disrupted in disease states, including cirrhosis and hepatitis. Here we report that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (Hnf4alpha) is essential for morphological and functional differentiation of hepatocytes, accumulation of hepatic glycogen stores and generation of a hepatic epithelium. We show that Hnf4alpha is a dominant regulator of the epithelial phenotype because its ectopic expression in fibroblasts induces a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Most importantly, the morphogenetic parameters controlled by Hnf4alpha in hepatocytes are essential for normal liver architecture, including the organization of the sinusoidal endothelium.

  18. Biomaterials for liver tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jain, Era; Damania, Apeksha; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-04-01

    Liver extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, topography and biomechanical properties influence cell-matrix interactions. The ECM presents guiding cues for hepatocyte phenotype maintenance, differentiation and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Current understanding of such cell-guiding cues along with advancement of techniques for scaffold fabrication has led to evolution of matrices for liver tissue culture from simple porous scaffolds to more complex 3D matrices with microarchitecture similar to in vivo. Natural and synthetic polymeric biomaterials fabricated in different topographies and porous matrices have been used for hepatocyte culture. Heterotypic and homotypic cell interactions are necessary for developing an adult liver as well as an artificial liver. A high oxygen demand of hepatocytes as well as graded oxygen distribution in liver is another challenging attribute of the normal liver architecture that further adds to the complexity of engineered substrate design. A balanced interplay of cell-matrix interactions along with cell-cell interactions and adequate supply of oxygen and nutrient determines the success of an engineered substrate for liver cells. Techniques devised to incorporate these features of hepatic function and mimic liver architecture range from maintaining liver cells in mm-sized tailor-made scaffolds to a more bottoms up approach that starts from building the microscopic subunit of the whole tissue. In this review, we discuss briefly various biomaterials used for liver tissue engineering with respect to design parameters such as scaffold composition and chemistry, biomechanical properties, topography, cell-cell interactions and oxygenation.

  19. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  20. Assessment of liver volume variation to evaluate liver function.

    PubMed

    Tong, Cong; Xu, Xinsen; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Tianzheng; Qu, Kai

    2012-12-01

    In order to assess the value of liver volumetry in cirrhosis and acute liver failure (ALF) patients, we explored the correlation between hepatic volume and severity of the hepatic diseases. The clinical data of 48 cirrhosis patients with 60 normal controls and 39 ALF patients were collected. Computed tomography-derived liver volume (CTLV) and body surface area (BSA) of normal controls were calculated to get a regression formula for standard liver volume (SLV) and BSA. Then CTLV and SLV of all patients were calculated and grouped by Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification for cirrhosis patients and assigned according to prognosis of ALF patients for further comparison. It turned out that the mean liver volume of the control group was 1,058 ± 337 cm(3). SLV was correlated with BSA according to the regression formula. The hepatic volume of cirrhosis patients in Child A, B level was not reduced, but in Child C level it was significantly reduced with the lowest liver volume index (CTLV/SLV). Likewise, in the death group of ALF patients, the volume index was significantly lower than that of the survival group. Based on volumetric study, we proposed an ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis to predict the prognosis of ALF patients that CTLV/SLV < 83.9% indicates a poor prognosis. In conclusion, the CTLV/SLV ratio, which reflects liver volume variations, correlates well with the liver function and progression of cirrhosis and ALF. It is also a very useful marker for predicting the prognosis of ALF.

  1. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  2. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a liver biopsy by talking with a health care provider having blood tests arranging for a ride home fasting before the ... for a liver biopsy by talking with a health care provider having blood tests arranging for a ride home fasting before the ...

  3. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  4. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  5. Polycystic Liver Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Linda, Nguyen

    2016-03-25

    A 77-year-old African American male presented with intermittent abdominal pain for one week. He denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fevers, anorexia, or weight loss. He denied a family history of liver disease, recent travel, or history of intravenous drug abuse. His vital signs were normal. Labs revealed total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dl, hypoalbuminaemia 3.0 gm/dl and prolonged prothrombin time of 14.8 sec. Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multiple hepatic cysts with the largest cyst occupying the right abdomen, measuring 20.6 cm (Panel A and). This cyst had predominantly fluid attenuation, but also contained several septations. The patient underwent laparoscopic fenestration of the large hepatic cyst with hepatic cyst wall biopsy. Pathology revealed blood without malignant cells. The patient tolerated the procedure well with improvement of his abdominal pain and normalization of his liver function tests and coagulation profile.

  6. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ... may put your life in danger. The Healthy Liver Your liver helps fight infections and cleans your ...

  7. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  8. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  9. The impact of obesity on liver histology.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Zachary D

    2014-02-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance produce alterations in the liver's normal role in lipid metabolism resulting in a sequence of changes recognizable on liver biopsy. Hepatocellular fat vacuoles increase with BMI, producing steatosis. Steatohepatitis occurs when there is also cytoskeletal damage with loss of keratin filaments, ballooning of affected liver cells and formation of Mallory-Denk bodies. Activation of hepatic stellate cells produces fibrosis in the perisinusoidal spaces. With continuing fibrogenesis there is progression to bridging fibrosis and cirrhosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma may develop in the cirrhotic liver, but both hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma may occur in pre-cirrhotic fatty liver disease.

  10. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  11. Autophagy and Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Liver ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury occurs during liver resection, liver transplantation, and hemorrhagic shock. The main mode of liver cell death after warm and/or cold liver I-R is necrosis, but other modes of cell death, as apoptosis and autophagy, are also involved. Autophagy is an intracellular self-digesting pathway responsible for removal of long-lived proteins, damaged organelles, and malformed proteins during biosynthesis by lysosomes. Autophagy is found in normal and diseased liver. Although depending on the type of ischemia, warm and/or cold, the dynamic process of liver I-R results mainly in adenosine triphosphate depletion and in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leads to both, a local ischemic insult and an acute inflammatory-mediated reperfusion injury, and results finally in cell death. This process can induce liver dysfunction and can increase patient morbidity and mortality after liver surgery and hemorrhagic shock. Whether autophagy protects from or promotes liver injury following warm and/or cold I-R remains to be elucidated. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge in liver I-R injury focusing on both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of liver autophagy following warm and/or cold liver I-R. PMID:25861623

  12. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  13. The liver in haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Ulvik, Rune J

    2015-01-01

    The review deals with genetic, regulatory and clinical aspects of iron homeostasis and hereditary haemochromatosis. Haemochromatosis was first described in the second half of the 19th century as a clinical entity characterized by excessive iron overload in the liver. Later, increased absorption of iron from the diet was identified as the pathophysiological hallmark. In the 1970s genetic evidence emerged supporting the apparent inheritable feature of the disease. And finally in 1996 a new "haemochromatosis gene" called HFE was described which was mutated in about 85% of the patients. From the year 2000 onward remarkable progress was made in revealing the complex molecular regulation of iron trafficking in the human body and its disturbance in haemochromatosis. The discovery of hepcidin and ferroportin and their interaction in regulating the release of iron from enterocytes and macrophages to plasma were important milestones. The discovery of new, rare variants of non-HFE-haemochromatosis was explained by mutations in the multicomponent signal transduction pathway controlling hepcidin transcription. Inhibited transcription induced by the altered function of mutated gene products, results in low plasma levels of hepcidin which facilitate entry of iron from enterocytes into plasma. In time this leads to progressive accumulation of iron and subsequently development of disease in the liver and other parenchymatous organs. Being the major site of excess iron storage and hepcidin synthesis the liver is a cornerstone in maintaining normal systemic iron homeostasis. Its central pathophysiological role in HFE-haemochromatosis with downgraded hepcidin synthesis, was recently shown by the finding that liver transplantation normalized the hepcidin levels in plasma and there was no sign of iron accumulation in the new liver.

  14. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  15. Multi-institutional Quantitative Evaluation and Clinical Validation of Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE) Autosegmentation of Target Structures and Normal Tissues on Computer Tomography Images in the Head and Neck, Thorax, Liver, and Male Pelvis Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bzdusek, Karl; Brink, Carsten; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Hansen, Olfred; Jensen, Helle Anita; Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade; Widder, Joachim; Brouwer, Charlotte L.; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Vanhauten, Hubertus A.M.; Cao, Jeffrey Q.; McBrayne, Gail; Patel, Salil H.; Cannon, Donald M.; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Guckenberg, Matthias; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE). Methods and Materials: CT images of 125 treated patients (32 head and neck [HN], 40 thorax, 23 liver, and 30 prostate) in 7 independent institutions were autosegmented using SPICE and computational times were recorded. The number of structures autocontoured were 25 for the HN, 7 for the thorax, 3 for the liver, and 6 for the male pelvis regions. Using the clinical contours as reference, autocontours of 22 selected structures were quantitatively evaluated using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and Mean Slice-wise Hausdorff Distance (MSHD). All 40 autocontours were evaluated by a radiation oncologist from the institution that treated the patients. Results: The mean computational times to autosegment all the structures using SPICE were 3.1 to 11.1 minutes per patient. For the HN region, the mean DSC was >0.70 for all evaluated structures, and the MSHD ranged from 3.2 to 10.0 mm. For the thorax region, the mean DSC was 0.95 for the lungs and 0.90 for the heart, and the MSHD ranged from 2.8 to 12.8 mm. For the liver region, the mean DSC was >0.92 for all structures, and the MSHD ranged from 5.2 to 15.9 mm. For the male pelvis region, the mean DSC was >0.76 for all structures, and the MSHD ranged from 4.8 to 10.5 mm. Out of the 40 autocontoured structures reviews by experts, 25 were scored useful as autocontoured or with minor edits for at least 90% of the patients and 33 were scored useful autocontoured or with minor edits for at least 80% of the patients. Conclusions: Compared with manual contouring, autosegmentation using SPICE for the HN, thorax, liver, and male pelvis regions is efficient and shows significant promise for clinical utility.

  16. Significant overexpression of DVL1 in Taiwanese colorectal cancer patients with liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Yii; Yen, Li-Chen; Liu, Hsueh-Chiao; Liu, Po-Ping; Chung, Fu-Yen; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Lin, Shiu-Ru

    2013-10-14

    Undetected micrometastasis plays a key role in the metastasis of cancer in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The aim of this study is to identify a biomarker of CRC patients with liver metastasis through the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Microarray and bioinformatics analysis of 10 CRC cancer tissue specimens compared with normal adjacent tissues revealed that 31 genes were up-regulated (gene expression ratio of cancer tissue to paired normal tissue > 2) in the cancer patients. We used a weighted enzymatic chip array (WEnCA) including 31 prognosis-related genes to investigate CTCs in 214 postoperative stage I-III CRC patients and to analyze the correlation between gene expression and clinico-pathological parameters. We employed the immunohistochemistry (IHC) method with polyclonal mouse antibody against DVL1 to detect DVL1 expression in 60 CRC patients. CRC liver metastasis occurred in 19.16% (41/214) of the patients. Using univariate analysis and multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis, we found that DVL1 mRNA overexpression had a significant, independent predictive value for liver metastasis in CRC patients (OR: 5.764; 95% CI: 2.588-12.837; p < 0.0001 on univariate analysis; OR: 3.768; 95% CI: 1.469-9.665; p = 0.006 on multivariate analysis). IHC staining of the immunoreactivity of DVL1 showed that DVL1 was localized in the cytoplasm of CRC cells. High expression of DVL1 was observed in 55% (33/60) of CRC tumor specimens and was associated significantly with tumor depth, perineural invasion and liver metastasis status (all p < 0.05). Our experimental results demonstrated that DVL1 is significantly overexpressed in CRC patients with liver metastasis, leading us to conclude that DVL1 could be a potential prognostic and predictive marker for CRC patients.

  17. Liver in obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, A; Capron, J P; Hervé, M A; Degott, C; Quenum, C

    1985-01-01

    We report on clinical, nutritional, and hepatic histological findings in 50 non-selected obese subjects (mean overweight +74%; range +21-138%). The pathogenesis of the liver damage was assessed with the help of multidimensional analysis of a number of clinical variables. According to the severity of the hepatic lesions, the patients have been ranged in five groups: O (normal liver) 10%; I (fatty liver) 48%; II (fatty hepatitis) 26%; III (fatty fibrosis) 8%; IV (fatty cirrhosis) 8%. The more severe changes (groups III and IV) were constantly associated with excessive alcohol intake. The multidimensional analysis was unable to find a relationship between obesity and the development of fibrosis and cirrhosis whereas it showed that: (a) there was a highly significant correlation between the daily ethanol intake and the degree of overweight, (b) severe fatty metamorphosis was significantly associated with the degree of overweight, the existence of diabetes mellitus, and the amount of alcohol and fat intake, (c) nutritional factors, in particular deficient protein intake, have only an accessory effect in the development of mild inflammation and fibrosis, (d) the consumption of potentially hepatotoxic drugs, very high in the obese (about five drugs per day) could have a role in the development of cirrhosis. In conclusion in our study, there was no evidence that obesity per se could result in severe liver damage. PMID:3967830

  18. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  19. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  20. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  1. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  7. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Helling, Gunnel; Wahlin, Staffan; Smedberg, Marie; Pettersson, Linn; Tjäder, Inga; Norberg, Åke; Rooyackers, Olav; Wernerman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations. Methods Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40), acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20), acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20), and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20). Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion. Results All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100), severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong. Conclusion Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure. PMID:26938452

  8. Liver Progenitors Isolated from Adult Healthy Mouse Liver Efficiently Differentiate to Functional Hepatocytes In Vitro and Repopulate Liver Tissue.

    PubMed

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Ishii, Masayuki; Kino, Junichi; Mizuguchi, Toru; Hirata, Koichi; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2016-12-01

    It has been proposed that tissue stem cells supply multiple epithelial cells in mature tissues and organs. However, it is unclear whether tissue stem cells generally contribute to cellular turnover in normal healthy organs. Here, we show that liver progenitors distinct from bipotent liver stem/progenitor cells (LPCs) persistently exist in mouse livers and potentially contribute to tissue maintenance. We found that, in addition to LPCs isolated as EpCAM(+) cells, liver progenitors were enriched in CD45(-) TER119(-) CD31(-) EpCAM(-) ICAM-1(+) fraction isolated from late-fetal and postnatal livers. ICAM-1(+) liver progenitors were abundant by 4 weeks (4W) after birth. Although their number decreased with age, ICAM-1(+) liver progenitors existed in livers beyond that stage. We established liver progenitor clones derived from ICAM-1(+) cells between 1 and 20W and found that those clones efficiently differentiated into mature hepatocytes (MHs), which secreted albumin, eliminated ammonium ion, stored glycogen, and showed cytochrome P450 activity. Even after long-term culture, those clones kept potential to differentiate to MHs. When ICAM-1(+) clones were transplanted into nude mice after retrorsine treatment and 70% partial hepatectomy, donor cells were incorporated into liver plates and expressed hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, and carbamoylphosphate synthetase I. Moreover, after short-term treatment with oncostatin M, ICAM-1(+) clones could efficiently repopulate the recipient liver tissues. Our results indicate that liver progenitors that can efficiently differentiate to MHs exist in normal adult livers. Those liver progenitors could be an important source of new MHs for tissue maintenance and repair in vivo, and for regenerative medicine ex vivo. Stem Cells 2016;34:2889-2901.

  9. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  10. Feature Learning Based Random Walk for Liver Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yongchang; Ai, Danni; Zhang, Pan; Gao, Yefei; Xia, Likun; Du, Shunda; Sang, Xinting; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Liver segmentation is a significant processing technique for computer-assisted diagnosis. This method has attracted considerable attention and achieved effective result. However, liver segmentation using computed tomography (CT) images remains a challenging task because of the low contrast between the liver and adjacent organs. This paper proposes a feature-learning-based random walk method for liver segmentation using CT images. Four texture features were extracted and then classified to determine the classification probability corresponding to the test images. Seed points on the original test image were automatically selected and further used in the random walk (RW) algorithm to achieve comparable results to previous segmentation methods. PMID:27846217

  11. Pregnancy Complications: Liver Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Liver disorders Liver disorders Now playing: E-mail to a friend ... have blood on them (razors, toothbrushes). Acute fatty liver of pregnancy What is acute fatty liver of ...

  12. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  13. Tests for Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Liver Cancer If you have some of the signs ... Health Care Team About Liver Cancer? More In Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  14. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  15. Detection of liver cancer and abnormal liver tissue by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Ding, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiujun; Lin, Junxiu; Wang, Deli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, laser induced human serum Raman spectra of liver cancer are measured. The spectra differences in serum from normal people and liver disease patients are analyzed. For the typical spectrum of normal serum, there are three sharp Raman peaks and relative intensity of Raman peaks excited by 514.5nm is higher than that excited by 488.0nm. For the Raman spectrum of liver cancer serum there are no peaks or very weak Raman peaks at the same positions. Results from more than two hundred case measurements show that clinical diagnostic accuracy is 92.86%. And then, the liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis are studied applying the technology of LIF. To liver cirrhosis, the shape of Raman peak is similar to normal and fluorescence spectrum is similar to that of liver cancer from statistic data. The experiment indicates that there is notable fluorescence difference between the abnormal and normal liver tissue and have blue shift in fluorescence peak. Except for human serum, we use rats serum for researching either. Compared with results of path al examination, we analyze the spectra of normal cases, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis respectively in an attempt to find some difference between them. Red shift of fluorescence peak is observed with disease evolution using 514.5nm excitation of an Ar-ion laser. However, no distinct changes happen with 488.0nm excitation. These results have important reference values to explore the method of laser spectrum diagnosis.

  16. Nutritional status and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2011-12-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review

  17. Liver segmentation for CT images using GVF snake

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Fan; Zhao Binsheng; Kijewski, Peter K.; Wang Liang; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    2005-12-15

    Accurate liver segmentation on computed tomography (CT) images is a challenging task especially at sites where surrounding tissues (e.g., stomach, kidney) have densities similar to that of the liver and lesions reside at the liver edges. We have developed a method for semiautomatic delineation of the liver contours on contrast-enhanced CT images. The method utilizes a snake algorithm with a gradient vector flow (GVF) field as its external force. To improve the performance of the GVF snake in the segmentation of the liver contour, an edge map was obtained with a Canny edge detector, followed by modifications using a liver template and a concavity removal algorithm. With the modified edge map, for which unwanted edges inside the liver were eliminated, the GVF field was computed and an initial liver contour was formed. The snake algorithm was then applied to obtain the actual liver contour. This algorithm was extended to segment the liver volume in a slice-by-slice fashion, where the result of the preceding slice constrained the segmentation of the adjacent slice. 551 two-dimensional liver images from 20 volumetric images with colorectal metastases spreading throughout the livers were delineated using this method, and also manually by a radiologist for evaluation. The difference ratio, which is defined as the percentage ratio of mismatching volume between the computer and the radiologist's results, ranged from 2.9% to 7.6% with a median value of 5.3%.

  18. Normal conus medullaris: CT criteria for recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, J.P.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, I.L.; Rauschning, W.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-06-01

    The normal CT configuration and dimension of the conus medullaris and adjacent spinal cord were determined in 30 patients who had no clinical evidence of conus compression. CT studies were also correlated with anatomic sections in cadavers. The normal conus on CT has a distinctive oval configuration, an arterior sulcus, and a posterior promontory. The anteroposterior diameter ranged from 5 to 8 mm; the transverse diameter from 8 to 11 mm. Intramedullary processes altered both the dimensions and configuration of the conus.

  19. Feature statistic analysis of ultrasound images of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuqin; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, a specific feature analysis of liver ultrasound images including normal liver, liver cancer especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other hepatopathy is discussed. According to the classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), primary carcinoma is divided into four types. 15 features from single gray-level statistic, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM) are extracted. Experiments for the discrimination of each type of HCC, normal liver, fatty liver, angioma and hepatic abscess have been conducted. Corresponding features to potentially discriminate them are found.

  20. Characterization of rat c-myc and adjacent regions.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, K; Makino, R; Kawamura, H; Arisawa, A; Yoneda, K

    1987-01-01

    Rat genomic regions covering c-myc were cloned from the DNA of both normal liver and two lines of Morris hepatomas, one of which had c-myc amplification. The three restriction maps showed perfect agreement within the overlapping regions. The 7 kb regions, which included the entire normal rat c-myc and the region 2.2 kb upstream, and one from the hepatomas, were sequenced and found to be identical. The coding regions of exons 2 and 3 were highly conserved between rat, mouse and man, but some differences in amino acids were noted. Exon 1 and the non-coding region of exon 3 showed limited homology between the three species. Rat exon 1 contained several nonsense codons in each frame and no ATG codon, indicating there to be no coding capacity in this exon. The 2.2 kb upstream regions and the introns compared showed unusual conservation between the rat and human genes. Some motifs, previously proposed as having a functional role in human c-myc, were also found in equivalent positions of the rat sequence. Nucleas S1 protection mapping revealed the second promoter to be preferentially used in most tissues or in hepatoma cells, and the second poly A addition signal to be the only one functional in all the RNA sources examined. Images PMID:3306601

  1. A NEW RECEIPT FOR LIVER INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, T.; Sadique, J.

    1987-01-01

    A new receipe consisting of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster, Eclipta alba and curcumin was prepared. The efficacy of this preparation was tested in carbontetrachloride (CCl4) induced fatty liver model in rats. This preparation was able to normalize the level of lipids accumulating in liver due to CCl4 injury and it was also able to bring down elevated levels of serum bilirubin. Further, the decreased levels of serum triglycerides, pre B-lipoproteins and cholesterol in CCl4 liver injured rats was raised after treatment with new preparation. Further, the decreased level of liver glycogen was also normalized. From these results, it can be inferred that the new receipe is able to offer protection against the liver injury caused by CCl4 injection. PMID:22557595

  2. Liver fibrogenesis and metabolic factors.

    PubMed

    Anty, Rodolphe; Lemoine, Maud

    2011-06-01

    Mechanisms of liver fibrosis are complex and varied. Among them, metabolic factors are particularly important in the development of fibrosis associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). These factors are some of the "multiple parallel hits" responsible for liver damage during NASH. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Major profibrogenic protagonists, such as hepatic stellate cells and Kupffer cells, are activated by insulin resistance, apoptosis and local inflammation. Relations between steatosis, insulin resistance and fibrosis are complex. Initially, simple steatosis may be a way to store deleterious free fatty acid in neutral triglycerides. If the lipid storage threshold is exceeded, steatosis may become associated with lipotoxicity. Similarly, interindividual variations of adipose tissue expandability might explain various phenotypes, ranging from "metabolically obese patients with normal weight" to "metabolically normal morbidly obese patients". The metabolic abnormalities in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue are insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, which are associated with increased release of free fatty acid flux and changes in adipocytokines production such as leptin, adiponectin and interleukin 6. The nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and the endocannabinoid system might have important roles in liver fibrogenesis and are potential therapeutic targets. Finally, with the development of new molecular tools, gut microbiota has been recently identified for its pleiotropic functions, including metabolism regulation. Better knowledge of these mechanisms should lead to new strategies for the treatment of metabolic factors that play a key role in liver injuries.

  3. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Panis, C.; Victorino, V. J.; Herrera, A. C. S. A.; Cecchini, A. L.; Simão, A. N. C.; Tomita, L. Y.; Cecchini, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  4. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide.

  5. COMT inhibitors and liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the issue of hepatotoxicity with the use of the catechol-O-methly transferase (COMT) inhibitors tolcapone and entacapone. Neither drug caused hepatotoxicity in preclinical toxicity testing. However, in clinical trials of tolcapone, liver chemistry tests were elevated more than 3 times above the upper limit of normal in approximately 1% of patients who took the 100 mg dose and in approximately 3% of patients who took the 200 mg dose. These observations led to the recommendation that periodic monitoring of liver function be performed. Post-marketing surveillance studies noted 3 instances of acute liver failure with death after 60,000 patients had received tolcapone for a total of 40,000 patient-years. For this reason, the drug was withdrawn from the market in Europe and Canada, and a black box warning issued in the United States. In contrast, clinical trials with entacapone demonstrated no increase in liver enzymes above those observed with placebo. Further, no instances of acute liver failure or death attributed to the drug have been observed in post-marketing surveillance studies. Consequently, liver monitoring is not required with this agent. These data demonstrate that tolcapone is associated with a risk of hepatotoxicity but that no such risk has been detected with entacapone.

  6. The relationship between the thyroid gland and the liver.

    PubMed

    Malik, R; Hodgson, H

    2002-09-01

    Thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine are essential for normal organ growth, development and function. These hormones regulate the basal metabolic rate of all cells, including hepatocytes, and thereby modulate hepatic function; the liver in turn metabolizes the thyroid hormones and regulates their systemic endocrine effects. Thyroid dysfunction may perturb liver function, liver disease modulates thyroid hormone metabolism, and a variety of systemic diseases affect both organs. We highlight the intricate relations between the thyroid gland and the liver in health and disease.

  7. Liver collagen synthesis in murine schistosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, M A; Rojkind, M; Warren, K S; Hait, P K; Rifas, L; Seifter, S

    1977-01-01

    Collagen synthesis was measured in liver slices obtained from mice with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Enlarged fibrotic livers from these mice contained 20 times more collagen than normal. This model of hepatic fibrosis results from an inflammatory granulomatous host response to Schistosoma mansoni ova in portal tracts, rather than from direct lover cell injury as with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. Collagen synthesis, as measured by the formation of labeled protein-bound hydroxyproline, occurred in granulomas isolated from fibrotic livers. Labeled collagen that cochromatographed with type I collagen was extracted with neutral salt solution from liver slices incubated with labeled proline. The free proline pool of the liver was doubled in infected mice; coordinately, liver slices from these animals showed maximal collagen production when the concentration of free proline in the medium was raised to 0.4 mM, the same level measured in the fibrotic livers. Under such conditions, collagen synthesis was at a rate equivalent to the formation of 5.4 nmol of protein-bound hydroxyproline per g liver in 6 h. In comparative incubations in medium containing 0.2 mM proline, fibrotic liver slices produced 16-fold more collagen than normal slices. The proline analogue, L-azetidine 2-carboxylic acid, effectively inhibited synthesis of labeled collagen by fibrotic liver slices. These studies show the synthesis of collagen in a reproducible animal model of the most prevalent form of human liver fibrosis. Difinitition of the controlling factors in this system is of interest for the general problem of fibrosis produced by immunological responses. Images PMID:845255

  8. Cirrhosis and autoimmune liver disease: Current understanding

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues. Patients with cirrhosis have higher risks or morbidity and mortality, and that in the decompensated phase, complications of portal hypertension and/or liver dysfunction lead to rapid deterioration. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of cirrhosis is, therefore of upmost importance. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard technique, but highly promising non-invasive methodology is under development. Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective therapeutic option for the management of end-stage liver disease secondary to AIH, PBC and PSC. LT is indicated for AILD patients who have progressed to end-stage chronic liver disease or developed intractable symptoms or hepatic malignancy; in addition, LT may also be indicated for patients presenting with acute liver disease due to AIH who do not respond to steroids. PMID:27729952

  9. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-08-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination.

  10. Embryonic porcine liver as a source for transplantation: advantage of intact liver implants over isolated hepatoblasts in overcoming homeostatic inhibition by the quiescent host liver.

    PubMed

    Katchman, Helena; Tal, Orna; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Shezen, Elias; Aronovich, Anna; Tchorsh, Dalit; Cohen, Sivan; Shtabsky, Alexander; Hecht, Gil; Dekel, Benjamin; Freud, Enrique; Reisner, Yair

    2008-05-01

    Cell therapy as an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation represents a major challenge, since negligible proliferation of isolated hepatocytes occurs after transplantation because of the stringent homeostatic control displayed by the host liver. Thus, different modalities of liver injury as part of the pretransplant conditioning are a prerequisite for this approach. The major objective of the present study was to test whether xenotransplantation of pig fetal liver fragments, in which potential cell-cell and cell-stroma interactions are spared, might afford more robust growth and proliferation compared with isolated pig fetal hepatoblasts. After transplantation into SCID mice, fetal liver tissue fragments exhibited marked growth and proliferation, in the setting of a quiescent host liver, compared with isolated fetal hepatoblasts harvested at the same gestational age (embryonic day 28). The proliferative advantage of fetal pig liver fragments was clearly demonstrated by immunohistochemical and morphometric assays and was observed not only after implantation into the liver but also into extrahepatic sites, such as the spleen and the subrenal capsule. The presence of all types of nonparenchymal liver cells that is crucial for normal liver development and regeneration was demonstrated in the implants. Preservation of the three-dimensional structure in pig fetal liver fragments enables autonomous proliferation of transplanted hepatic cells in the setting of a quiescent host liver, without any requirement for liver injury in the pretransplant conditioning. The marked proliferation and functional maturation exhibited by the pig fetal liver fragments suggests that it could afford a preferable source for transplantation.

  11. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... the build up of fat in your liver (fatty liver), inflammation or swelling of your liver (alcoholic hepatitis), and/or scarring of your liver (cirrhosis). For people with liver disease, even a small amount of alcohol can make the disease worse. Talk to your ...

  12. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT.

  13. Insidious manifestation of pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius and Micrococcus luteus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Antreas; Xenophontos, Eleni; Karatsi, Alexandra; Petrides, Christos; Kleridou, Maro; Zintilis, Chrysostomos

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscesses are caused by various microorganisms and usually present with fever, abdominal pain, leukocytosis and liver enzyme abnormalities. This case presents the insidious manifestation of a pyogenic liver abscess in a 34-year-old immunocompetent male, where classical manifestations of a liver abscess were absent. The microorganisms cultured from the abscess belonged to oral cavity's and gastrointestinal tract's normal flora.

  14. A case of hepatocolic fistula after percutaneous drainage for a gas-containing pyogenic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Matsuyama, S; Mashima, H; Imoto, A; Hidaka, K; Hisatsugu, T

    1994-12-01

    We describe a rare case of gas-containing pyogenic liver abscess which penetrated the adjacent colon, forming a hepatocolic fistula, after percutaneous transhepatic abscess drainage (PTAD) had been performed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hepatocolic fistula associated with a gas-forming liver abscess in a diabetic patient, with radiological and surgical confirmation of the fistula.

  15. Trends in trace organic and metal concentrations in the Pechora and Kara Seas and adjacent rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Champ, M.A.; Wade, T.L.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Chambers, L.; Davis, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trace organic (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and dioxin/furan) and trace metal concentrations have been measured in surficial sediment and tissue (i.e., clam, fish liver and flesh) samples from the Pechora and Kara Seas and their adjacent rivers -- Pechora, Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Total PAH, PCB and total DDT and chlordane concentrations ranged in surficial sediments from n.d. to 810 ppb, n.d.--8.7 ppb, n.d.--1.2 ppb, and n.d.--1.2 ppb, respectively, in a suite of 40 samples from the Kara Sea and its adjacent rivers. The highest concentrations of many of the trace organic and metal contaminants were found in the lower part of the Yenisey River below the salt wedge. Some trace metals (As for example) were elevated in the Pechora River dispositional plume region. Dioxin ranged from 1.36 to 413 ppt in a subset of 20 sediment samples. Higher trace organic contaminant concentrations compared to sediments were found in tissue samples from the region, especially fish liver samples. Concentrations as high as 1,114 ppb total PAHs, 89 ppb chlordane, 1,011 ppb for total DDT and 663 ppb PCBs were found in some fish liver samples. Dioxin concentrations in tissue samples ranged from 11.7 to 61 ppt. Concentrations of many trace organic and metal contaminants in these Russian marginal seas are influenced by inputs from these large Arctic rivers. Many organic contaminant concentrations in sediments are low, however detecting these compounds in tissue show they are bioavailable.

  16. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  17. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  19. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  20. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of ras oncogene p21 product in human gastric carcinomas and their adjacent mucosas.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, F; David, L; Sunkel, C; Lopes, C; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    1992-04-01

    In an attempt to clarify the relationship between ras oncogene expression and the clinico-pathological features of malignant and pre-malignant lesions of the stomach we undertook the immunohistochemical study of the expression of ras gene p21 product in a series of eighty gastric carcinomas and their respective adjacent mucosas. In two cases the mRNA of Ha-ras was also studied by in situ hybridization. The majority of gastric carcinomas as well as their adjacent non-neoplastic mucosas expressed ras gene product. There was a significant relationship between the expression of ras gene p21 product and the morphologic pattern of the tumours. An enhanced ras expression was found in several conditions regarded as precursor lesions of intestinal and/or diffuse types of gastric carcinoma (dysplasia, foveolar hyperplasia and even the neck zone of normal-appearing gastric glands, namely in the mucosa adjacent to diffuse carcinomas). Ras expression was actually more prominent in most of these conditions than in their respective adjacent carcinomas. No significant relationship was found between ras expression and invasiveness of the wall, nodal metastases and venous invasion.

  12. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  13. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  14. Liver Disease and IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Liver Disease and IBD Go Back Liver Disease and IBD Email Print + Share Several complications ... be necessary to make the definitive diagnosis. FATTY LIVER DISEASE (HEPATCI STEATOSIS) This is the most common ...

  15. Liver function tests

    MedlinePlus

    Liver function tests are common tests that are used to see how well the liver is working. Tests include: ... M, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  16. Towards a Humanized Mouse Model of Liver Stage Malaria Using Ectopic Artificial Livers

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shengyong; March, Sandra; Galstian, Ani; Gural, Nil; Stevens, Kelly R.; Mota, Maria M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2017-01-01

    The malaria liver stage is an attractive target for antimalarial development, and preclinical malaria models are essential for testing such candidates. Given ethical concerns and costs associated with non‐human primate models, humanized mouse models containing chimeric human livers offer a valuable alternative as small animal models of liver stage human malaria. The best available human liver chimeric mice rely on cellular transplantation into mice with genetically engineered liver injury, but these systems involve a long and variable humanization process, are expensive, and require the use of breeding-challenged mouse strains which are not widely accessible. We previously incorporated primary human hepatocytes into engineered polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based nanoporous human ectopic artificial livers (HEALs), implanted them in mice without liver injury, and rapidly generated human liver chimeric mice in a reproducible and scalable fashion. By re-designing the PEG scaffold to be macroporous, we demonstrate the facile fabrication of implantable porous HEALs that support liver stage human malaria (P. falciparum) infection in vitro, and also after implantation in mice with normal liver function, 60% of the time. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a tissue engineering strategy towards the development of scalable preclinical models of liver stage malaria infection for future applications. PMID:28361899

  17. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-09-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems. The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours. The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  18. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei

    2015-10-07

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems.The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours.The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  19. Fatty liver - nonalcoholic

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight Eat a healthy diet Exercise regularly Limit alcohol consumption Use medicines properly Alternative Names Fatty liver; Steatosis; Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NASH Images Liver References ...

  20. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  1. American Liver Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Give Join Our Mail List Search: Resources Liver Disease Information Select Info Center Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign ...

  2. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression after Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments.

  3. Getting a New Liver: Facts about Liver Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2002 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Liver Facts About Liver Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ 1 Getting a New Liver Facts About Liver Transplants A liver transplant is ...

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YA-LEI; ZHU, RONG-TAO; SUN, YU-LING

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the result of a sustained wound healing response to sustained chronic liver injury, which includes viral, alcoholic and autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatic regeneration is the dominant outcome of liver damage. The outcomes of successful repair are the replacement of dead epithelial cells with healthy epithelial cells, and reconstruction of the normal hepatic structure and function. Prevention of the development of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may control and even reverse liver fibrosis. EMT is a critical process for an epithelial cell to undergo a conversion to a mesenchymal phenotype, and is believed to be an inflammation-induced response, which may have a central role in liver fibrosis. The origin of fibrogenic cells in liver fibrosis remains controversial. Numerous studies have investigated the origin of all fibrogenic cells within the liver and the mechanism of the signaling pathways that lead to the activation of EMT programs during numerous chronic liver diseases. The present study aimed to summarize the evidence to explain the possible role of EMT in liver fibrosis. PMID:26998262

  5. Liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmes, Ludger

    2005-01-01

    During the last three decades liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis have emerged as new clinical entities in hepato-logical practice due to the widespread use of oral contraceptives and increased imaging of the liver. On review of published series there is evidence that 10% of liver cell adenomas progress to hepatocellular carcinoma, diagnosis is best made by open or laparoscopic excision biopsy, and the preferred treatment modality is resection of the liver cell adenoma to prevent bleeding and malignant transformation. In liver cell adenomatosis, the association with oral contraceptive use is not as high as in solitary liver cell adenomas. The risk of malignant transformation is not increased compared with solitary liver cell adenomas. Treatment consists of close monitoring and imaging, resection of superficially located, large (>4 cm) or growing liver cell adenomas. Liver transplantation is the last resort in case of substantive concern about malignant transformation or for large, painful adenomas in liver cell adenomatosis after treatment attempts by liver resection. PMID:18333188

  6. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  7. Ultrasonic characterization of porcine liver tissue at frequency between 25 to 55 MHz

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Gong, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Dong; Ye, Shi-Gong; Rui, Bing

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the relation between acoustic parameters and histological structure of biological tissue and to provide the basis for high-resolution image of biological tissues and quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis of liver disease. METHODS: Ultrasonic imaging and tissue characterization of four normal porcine liver and five cirrhotic liver tissue samples were performed using a high frequency imaging system. RESULTS: The acoustic parameters of cirrhotic liver tissue were larger than those of normal liver tissue. The sound velocity was 1577 m/s in normal liver tissue and 1631 m/s in cirrhotic liver tissue. At 35 MHz, the attenuation coefficient was 3.0 dB/mm in normal liver tissue and 4.1 dB/mm in cirrhotic liver tissue. The backscatter coefficient was 0.00431 dB/Srmm in cirrhotic liver tissue and 0.00303 dB/Srmm in normal liver tissue. The backscatter coefficient increased with the frequency. The high frequency images coincided with their histological features. CONCLUSION: The acoustic parameters, especially the sound backscatter coefficient, are sensitive to the changes of liver tissues and can be used to differentiate between the normal and pathological liver tissues. High frequency image system is a useful device for high-resolution image and tissue characterization. PMID:16610036

  8. CT Imaging Findings after Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Olga R.; Thornton, Eavan; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Mahadevan, Anand; Raptopoulos, Vassilious; Brook, Alexander; Najarian, Robert; Sheiman, Robert; Siewert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To study radiological response to stereotactic radiotherapy for focal liver tumors. Materials and Methods. In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study CTs of 68 consecutive patients who underwent stereotactic radiotherapy for liver tumors between 01/2006 and 01/2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Two independent reviewers evaluated lesion volume and enhancement pattern of the lesion and of juxtaposed liver parenchyma. Results. 36 subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 25 with liver metastases, and seven with cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) were included in study. Mean follow-up time was 5.6 ± 7.1 months for HCC, 6.4 ± 5.1 months for metastases, and 10.1 ± 4.8 months for the CCC. Complete response was seen in 4/36 (11.1%) HCCs and 1/25 (4%) metastases. Partial response (>30% decrease in long diameter) was seen in 25/36 (69%) HCCs, 14/25 (58%) metastases, and 7/7 (100%) of CCCs. Partial response followed by local recurrence (>20% increase in long diameter from nadir) occurred in 2/36 (6%) HCCs and 4/25 (17%) metastases. Liver parenchyma adjacent to the lesion demonstrated a prominent halo of delayed enhancement in 27/36 (78%) of HCCs, 19/21 (91%) of metastases, and 7/7 (100%) of CCCs. Conclusion. Sustainable radiological partial response to stereotactic radiotherapy is most frequent outcome seen in liver lesions. Prominent halo of delayed enhancement of the adjacent liver is frequent finding. PMID:26221135

  9. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Martin; Zong, Wenjing; Biank, Vincent F; Hageman, Joseph R

    2016-02-01

    A 16-year-old Hispanic girl with an elevated body mass index in an otherwise normal state of health presented for her well-child examination. She had signs of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance including increased waist circumference and acanthosis nigricans. Laboratory results revealed elevated transaminases with otherwise normal hepatic function. Based on the physical examination and laboratory results, she was diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). After further evaluation, she eventually underwent a liver biopsy. The biopsy revealed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with stage 2 fibrosis. This article reviews the definition of NAFLD and NASH, an increasingly prevalent cause of pediatric chronic liver disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The article also outlines the epidemiology, risk factors, and natural history of NAFLD, which may help identify and prevent high-risk pediatric patients from progressing to irreversible liver disease. Understanding the diagnostic and treatment options offers the best chance at preventing and reversing the early stages of this disease.

  10. Liver myofibroblasts up-regulate monocyte CD163 expression via PGE2 during hepatitis B induced liver failure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although patients with liver failure exhibit a generalized inflammatory-imbalance status, substantial evidence indicates that this immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory state may be deleterious. Increased expression of CD163 (known to be involved in several anti-inflammatory functions of the immune system) in patients with liver failure is significantly correlated with a fatal outcome. However, little is known of the regulatory mechanisms that influence the expression of CD163. Methods We assessed the expression of CD163 on monocytes from both circulating cells and the liver tissues of patients with hepatitis B induced liver failure using flow cytometry and isolated the myofibroblasts from diseased livers. The ability of human liver myofibroblasts to regulate CD163 expression on monocytes was studied in vitro. Results We showed that CD163+ monocytes were enriched primarily in diseased livers and that they were associated with liver myofibroblasts in the same area. Accordingly, liver myofibroblasts were significantly superior to normal skin fibroblasts in inducing the expression of CD163 on monocytes in vitro. Moreover, we found that liver myofibroblasts triggered the activation of monocytes by secreting PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 production in liver myofibroblasts using NS-398 markedly reduced CD163 expression in vitro. Conclusion These results suggest that liver myofibroblasts play a direct role in regulating the expression of CD163 on monocytes in human liver tissues and thereby may regulate monocyte function during hepatitis B induced liver failure. PMID:24597777

  11. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  12. Early Growth Response1and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression is Altered in Tumor Adjacent Prostate Tissue and Indicates Field Cancerization

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Fleet, Trisha M.; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Severns, Virginia; Shah, Satyan K.; Davis, Michael S.; Smith, Anthony Y.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field cancerization denotes the occurrence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. In prostate cancer, identification of field cancerization has several potential clinical applications. However, prostate field cancerization remains ill defined. Our previous work has shown up-regulated mRNA of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) in tissues adjacent to prostate cancer. METHODS Immunofluorescence data were analyzed quantitatively by spectral imaging and linear unmixing to determine the protein expression levels of EGR-1 and FAS in human cancerous, histologically normal adjacent, and disease-free prostate tissues. RESULTS EGR-1 expression was elevated in both structurally intact tumor adjacent (1.6× on average) and in tumor (3.0× on average) tissues compared to disease-free tissues. In addition, the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear EGR-1 expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent and tumor tissues. Similarly, FAS expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent (2.7× on average) and in tumor (2.5× on average) compared to disease-free tissues. CONCLUSIONS EGR-1 and FAS expression is similarly deregulated in tumor and structurally intact adjacent prostate tissues and defines field cancerization. In cases with high suspicion of prostate cancer but negative biopsy, identification of field cancerization could help clinicians target areas for repeat biopsy. Field cancerization at surgical margins on prostatectomy specimen should also be looked at as a predictor of cancer recurrence. EGR-1 and FAS could also serve as molecular targets for chemoprevention. PMID:22127986

  13. Using multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to characterize liver damage and fluorescein disposition in liver in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Studier, Hauke; Crawford, Darrell; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Liver disease is the fifth most common cause of death and unlike many other major causes of mortality, liver disease rates are increasing rather than decreasing. There is no ideal measurement of liver disease and although biopsies are the gold standard, this only allows for a spot examination and cannot follow dynamic processes of the liver. Intravital imaging has the potential to extract detailed information over a larger sampling area continuously. The aim of this project was to investigate whether multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy could detect early liver damage and to assess whether it could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein in normal and diseased livers. Four experimental groups were used in this study: 1) control; 2) ischemia reperfusion injury; 3) steatosis and 4) steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. Results showed that multiphoton microscopy could visualize morphological changes such as decreased fluorescence of endogenous fluorophores and the presence of lipid droplets, characteristic of steatosis. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy showed increase in NADPH in steatosis with and without ischemia reperfusion injury and could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein to fluorescein monoglurcuronide, which was impaired in steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. These results concluded that the combination of multiphoton microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging is a promising method of assessing early stage liver damage and that it can be used to study changes in drug metabolism in the liver as an indication of liver disease and has the potential to replace the traditional static liver biopsy currently used.

  14. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, ... ear infections (otitis media). Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. ...

  15. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  16. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure.

  17. Effect of a poloxamer 407-based thermosensitive gel on minimization of thermal injury to diaphragm during microwave ablation of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Li; Xia, Gui-Min; Liu, Yu-Jiang; Dou, Rui; Eisenbrey, John; Liu, Ji-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Qian, Lin-Xue

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the insulating effect of a poloxamer 407 (P407)-based gel during microwave ablation of liver adjacent to the diaphragm. METHODS We prepared serial dilutions of P407, and 22.5% (w/w) concentration was identified as suitable for ablation procedures. Subsequently, microwave ablations were performed on the livers of 24 rabbits (gel, saline, control groups, n = 8 in each). The P407 solution and 0.9% normal saline were injected into the potential space between the diaphragm and liver in experimental groups. No barriers were applied to the controls. After microwave ablations, the frequency, size and degree of thermal injury were compared histologically among the three groups. Subsequently, another 8 rabbits were injected with the P407 solution and microwave ablation was performed. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in serum were tested at 1 d before microwave ablation and 3 and 7 d after operation. RESULTS In vivo ablation thermal injury to the adjacent diaphragm was evaluated in the control, saline and 22.5% P407 gel groups (P = 0.001-0.040). However, there was no significant difference in the volume of ablation zone among the three groups (P > 0.05). Moreover, there were no statistical differences among the preoperative and postoperative gel groups according to the levels of ALT, AST, BUN and Cr in serum (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION Twenty-two point five percent P407 gel could be a more effective choice during microwave ablation of hepatic tumors adjacent to the diaphragm. Further studies for clinical translation are warranted.

  18. Neonatal acute liver failure: a diagnosis challenge.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Mirta; Álvarez, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal acute liver failure is a rare, very severe disease with a high rate of mortality. It is clinically and etiologically different from acute liver failure seen in older children and adults. Coagulopathy with an international normalized ratio ≥ 3 is the critical parameter that defines it. The most common causes are fetal alloimmune hepatitis, previously called neonatal hemochromatosis, viral infections, metabolic disorders, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. There is a group of treatable diseases that require a very early diagnosis for the prescription of an adequate treatment. Patients should be immediately referred to a specialized facility where pediatric liver transplantation is available to implement such therapeutic alternative, if indicated.

  19. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  20. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  1. 10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  2. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  3. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  4. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  5. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature.

  8. 15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 5 and portion of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. 7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 1 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. 8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 2 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  11. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  14. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  15. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  17. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  20. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  1. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  5. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Reversibility of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengxi; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2015-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is a serious health problem worldwide, which can be induced by a wide spectrum of chronic liver injuries. However, until today, there is no effective therapy available for liver fibrosis except the removal of underlying etiology or liver transplantation. Recent studies indicate that liver fibrosis is reversible when the causative agent(s) is removed. Understanding of mechanisms of liver fibrosis regression will lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for liver fibrosis. This review summarizes recent research progress on mechanisms of reversibility of liver fibrosis. While most of the research has been focused on HSCs/myofibroblasts and inflammatory pathways, the crosstalk between different organs, various cell types and multiple signaling pathways should not be overlooked. Future studies that lead to fully understanding of the crosstalk between different cell types and the molecular mechanism underlying the reversibility of liver fibrosis will definitely give rise to new therapeutic strategies to treat liver fibrosis.

  7. Liver disease in menopause.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-07-07

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.

  8. Metal content of biopsies adjacent to dental cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Garhammer, Pauline; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T

    2003-06-01

    Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.

  9. Successful endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer adjacent to gastric cardia varix

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ko; Hikichi, Takuto; Nakamura, Jun; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Waragai, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 58-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and renal failure was diagnosed with esophageal varices (EVs) and a gastric cardia varix (GCV) by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The patient also exhibited early gastric cancer (EGC) in the upper gastric body adjacent to the GCV. The EVs and GCV were treated using endoscopy before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the EGC to prevent variceal bleeding during ESD. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) was performed to treat the EVs. In addition, extra-variceal polidocanol injection and argon plasma coagulation (APC) were performed after EVL. Follow-up EGD two months after APC revealed that the GCV had diminished in size. Then, ESD was performed with polidocanol injection into the submucosa around the GCV to prevent bleeding. During ESD, the EGC was resected en bloc without severe bleeding. Complications were not observed after ESD. Histopathological examination of the ESD specimens indicated that the resection was curative. PMID:27477990

  10. 67Gallium scanning in the diagnosis of liver disease

    PubMed Central

    James, Oliver; Wood, E. J.; Sherlock, Sheila

    1974-01-01

    67Gallium (67Ga) citrate liver scanning has been carried out on 60 selected patients following a scan with a radioactive colloid preparation. The 67Ga scan correctly identified the site of primary liver carcinoma in 14 of 16 patients, including nine of 10 patients in whom the carcinoma arose in a cirrhotic liver, whereas a colloid scan positively identified the site in only four of these 10 cirrhotic subjects. Alpha-1-fetoprotein estimation was positive in eight of the 16 patients, including the two in whom 67Ga scanning was negative. No positive 67Ga scans were seen in 15 patients with cirrhosis but no primary liver cell cancer in whom a space-occupying lesion could not be excluded on colloid scan. 67Ga citrate scanning appears to be the most reliable investigation available in the diagnosis of primary liver cell cancer. Uptake of 67Ga in secondary metastatic tumours within the liver was less frequent, and appears to have much less value in the detection of these lesions and of bile duct carcinoma than in primary liver cell carcinoma. The 67Ga scan was positive in six out of six patients with pyogenic abscess either in the liver or adjacent to it. In four of these patients a preceding colloid scan had shown no definite filling defect in the liver. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:18668852

  11. [MRT of the liver in Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Steiner, S; Hammerstingl, R; Schwarz, S; Kraft, E; Weinzierl, M; Felix, R

    1994-01-01

    To show that Wilson's disease is one likely cause of multiple low-intensity nodules of the liver we obtained MR images in 16 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Wilson's disease. Corresponding to morphological changes MRI enabled the subdivision of the patients into two groups. Using a T2-weighted spin-echo sequence (TR/TE = 2000/45-90) liver parenchyma showed multiple tiny low-intensity-nodules surrounded by high-intensity septa in 10 out of 16 patients. 5 patients had also low-intensity nodules in T1-weighted images (TR/TE = 600/20). In patients of this group histopathology revealed liver cirrhosis (n = 7) and fibrosis (n = 2). Common feature of this patient group was marked inflammatory cell infiltration into fibrous septa, increase of copper concentration in liver parenchyma and distinct pathological changes of laboratory data. In the remaining 6 patients no pathological change of liver morphology was demonstrated by MRI corresponding to slight histopathological changes of parenchyma and normal laboratory data. As low-intensity nodules surrounded by high intensity septa can be demonstrated in patients with marked inflammatory infiltration of liver parenchyma MRI may help to define Wilson patients with poorer prognosis. In patients with low-intensity nodules of the liver and unknown cause of liver cirrhosis laboratory data and histopathology should be checked when searching for disorders of copper metabolism.

  12. Quantitative Study of Elasticity of Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor with Alternated Cooling and Heating Treatment based on ARFI Ultrasound Imaging Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Di; Wei, Cong; Shen, E.; Ying, Tao; Hu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound imaging technique is used to quantitatively evaluate the elasticity of rabbit VX2 liver tumor with alternated cooling and heating treatment (ACHT). ACHT was performed on fifteen VX2 liver tumor models established in fifteen male New Zealand white rabbits with open tumor plant. ARFI was performed on day 0, 1, 7 and 14 after ACHT and shear wave velocity (SWV) in ARFI was recorded to evaluate the elasticity of the treated area. The SWV value of the lesion on day 0, 1, 7 and 14 was 2.33 ± 0.19 m/s, 3.09 ± 0.40 m/s, 2.64 ± 0.37 m/s and 2.26 ± 0.24 m/s, respectively, indicating the treated areas get stiffer on day 1 and then get softer gradually by day. All the difference between adjacent time points was statistically significant. The SWV value of different parts on day 7 approved that the hardness of the treated area is heterogenous: the treated area in the center >the peripheral strip-shaped area >normal liver tissues, consistent with pathological changes. Meanwhile, ARFI combined with conventional US imaging can qualitatively and quantitatively exam the healing process of rabbit VX2 liver tumor after ACHT, and corresponds well to the pathological results. PMID:27381362

  13. Liver progenitor cells-mediated liver regeneration in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Shang, Haitao; Wang, Zhijun; Song, Yuhu

    2016-05-01

    Cirrhosis is defined as the histological development of regenerative nodules surrounded by fibrous bands in response to chronic liver injury. In cirrhotic liver where hepatocytes proliferation is compromised, liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are activated and then differentiated into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, leading to the generation of regenerative nodules and functional restoration. Here, we summarize and discuss recent findings on the mechanisms underlying LPCs-mediated regeneration in liver cirrhosis. Firstly, we provide recent research on the mechanism underlying LPCs activation in severe or chronic liver injury. Secondly, we present new and exciting data on exploring the origin of LPCs, which reveal that the hepatocytes give rise to duct-like progenitors that then differentiate back into hepatocytes in chronic liver injury or liver cirrhosis. Finally, we highlight recent findings from the literature exploring the role of LPCs niche in directing the behavior and fate of LPCs. This remarkable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of LPCs-mediated regeneration in liver cirrhosis will provide a basis for translating this knowledge into clinical application.

  14. Self-renewing diploid Axin2+ cells fuel homeostatic renewal of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bruce; Zhao, Ludan; Fish, Matt; Logan, Catriona Y.; Nusse, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Summary The source of new hepatocytes in the uninjured liver has remained an open question. By lineage tracing using the Wnt-responsive gene Axin2, we identify a population of proliferating and self-renewing cells adjacent to the central vein in the liver lobule. These pericentral cells express the early liver progenitor marker Tbx3, are diploid, and thus differ from mature hepatocytes, which are mostly polyploid. The descendants of pericentral cells differentiate into Tbx3-negative, polyploid hepatocytes and can replace all hepatocytes along the liver lobule during homeostatic renewal. Adjacent central vein endothelial cells provide Wnt signals that maintain the pericentral cells, thereby constituting the niche. Thus, we identify a cell population in the liver that subserves homeostatic hepatocyte renewal, characterize its anatomical niche, and identify molecular signals that regulate its activity. PMID:26245375

  15. Self-renewing diploid Axin2(+) cells fuel homeostatic renewal of the liver.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bruce; Zhao, Ludan; Fish, Matt; Logan, Catriona Y; Nusse, Roel

    2015-08-13

    The source of new hepatocytes in the uninjured liver has remained an open question. By lineage tracing using the Wnt-responsive gene Axin2 in mice, we identify a population of proliferating and self-renewing cells adjacent to the central vein in the liver lobule. These pericentral cells express the early liver progenitor marker Tbx3, are diploid, and thereby differ from mature hepatocytes, which are mostly polyploid. The descendants of pericentral cells differentiate into Tbx3-negative, polyploid hepatocytes, and can replace all hepatocytes along the liver lobule during homeostatic renewal. Adjacent central vein endothelial cells provide Wnt signals that maintain the pericentral cells, thereby constituting the niche. Thus, we identify a cell population in the liver that subserves homeostatic hepatocyte renewal, characterize its anatomical niche, and identify molecular signals that regulate its activity.

  16. Mortality of passerines adjacent to a North Carolina corn field treated with granular carbofuran.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Tom; Smith, Milton R.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1996-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were collected during an epizootic in southeastern North Carolina (USA). Activity of brain cholinesterase (ChE) was inhibited by 14 to 48% in three of five specimens, and returned to normal levels after incubation. Gastrointestinal tracts were analyzed for 30 anti-ChE agents. Carbofuran, the only compound detected, was present in all specimens at levels from 5.44 to 72.7 μg/g wet weight. Application of granular carbofuran in an adjacent corn field, results of necropsy examinations, and chemical analyses are consistent with a diagnosis of carbofuran poisoning in these specimens.

  17. Localized arteriole formation directly adjacent to the site of VEGF-induced angiogenesis in muscle.

    PubMed

    Springer, Matthew L; Ozawa, Clare R; Banfi, Andrea; Kraft, Peggy E; Ip, Tze-Kin; Brazelton, Timothy R; Blau, Helen M

    2003-04-01

    We have shown previously that implantation of myoblasts constitutively expressing the VEGF-A gene into nonischemic mouse skeletal muscle leads to overgrowth of capillary-like blood vessels and hemangioma formation. These aberrant effects occurred directly at the implantation site. We show here that these regions result from angiogenic capillary growth and involve a change in capillary growth pattern and that smooth muscle-coated vessels similar to arterioles form directly adjacent to the implantation site. Myoblasts genetically engineered to produce VEGF were implanted into mouse leg muscles. Implantation sites were surrounded by a zone of dense capillary-sized vessels, around which was a second zone of muscle containing larger, smooth-muscle-covered vessels but few capillaries, and an outer zone of muscle exhibiting normal capillary density. The lack of capillaries in the middle region suggests that the preexisting capillaries adjacent to the implantation site underwent enlargement and/or fusion and recruited a smooth muscle coat. Capillaries at the implantation site were frequently wrapped around VEGF-producing muscle fibers and were continuous with the circulation and were not observed to include bone-marrow-derived endothelial cells. In contrast with the distant arteriogenesis resulting from VEGF delivery described in previous studies, we report here that highly localized arterioles also form adjacent to the site of delivery.

  18. Drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Katarey, Dev; Verma, Sumita

    2016-12-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains the most common cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the western world. Excluding paracetamol overdose, nearly all DILI encountered in the clinical setting is idiosyncratic in nature because affected individuals represent only a small proportion of those treated with such drugs. In many cases, the mechanism for idiosyncrasy is immune-mediation and is often identified by genetic risk determined by human leukocyte antigen variants. In the absence of diagnostic tests and/or biomarkers, the diagnosis of DILI requires a high index of suspicion after diligently excluding other causes of abnormal liver tests. Antibiotics are the class of drugs most frequently associated with idiosyncratic DILI, although recent studies indicate that herbal and dietary supplements are an increasingly recognised cause. It is imperative that upon development of DILI the culprit drug be discontinued, especially in the presence of elevated transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio ≥5 times the upper limit of normal) and/or jaundice. Risk factors for the development ALF include hepatocellular DILI and female gender, the treatment being supportive with some benefit of N-acetylcysteine in the early stages. In view of the poor transplant-free survival in idiosyncratic DILI, early consideration for liver transplant is mandatory.

  19. Polycystic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Onori, P.; Franchitto, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Carpino, G.; Alvaro, D.; Francis, H.; Alpini, G.; Gaudio, E.

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic liver diseases (PCLDs) are genetic disorders with heterogeneous etiologies and a range of phenotypic presentations. PCLD exhibits both autosomal or recessive dominant pattern of inheritance and is characterized by the progressive development of multiple cysts, isolated or associated with polycystic kidney disease, that appear more extensive in women. Cholangiocytes have primary cilia, functionally important organelles (act as mechanosensors) that are involved in both normal developmental and pathological processes. The absence of polycystin-1, 2, and fibrocystin/polyductin, normally localized to primary cilia, represent a potential mechanism leading to cyst formation, associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis, enhanced fluid secretion, abnormal cell–matrix interactions, and alterations in cell polarity. Proliferative and secretive activities of cystic epithelium can be regulated by estrogens either directly or by synergizing growth factors including nerve growth factor, IGF1, FSH and VEGF. The abnormalities of primary cilia and the sensitivity to proliferative effects of estrogens and different growth factors in PCLD cystic epithelium provide the morpho-functional basis for future treatment targets, based on the possible modulation of the formation and progression of hepatic cysts. PMID:20138815

  20. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p < 0.05), and the maximal torque in the fusion model was about threefold (p < 0.05) that in the control model. And in axial rotation, the ROM of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was increased by about 100 % (p < 0.001), and the maximal torque was about sixfold (p < 0.01) that in the control model. The ROM of adjacent segments was significantly increased after pedicle screw fixation as assessed by biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, but not in those regulated by torque. We present the results of biomechanical tests regulated by torque and angular displacement and show that the maximum torque of the fusion model was larger than that of the control model in the biomechanical test regulated by an angular displacement load, suggesting that mechanical stress on the segments adjacent to the fused segment is large. We think that ASD arises after spinal fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically

  1. Cadmium, zinc, and copper in horse liver and in horse liver metallothionein: comparisons with kidney cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Nordberg, M.; Palm, B.; Piscator, M.

    1981-10-01

    Cadmium, zinc, and copper were determined in liver and in kidney cortex samples obtained from 33 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in liver ranged from 0.002 to 0.165 mmole/kg and in kidney from 0.01 to 2.15 mmole/kg. There was a significant correlation between liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium. The average kidney concentration of cadmium was about 15 times that of liver. Zinc concentrations increased with increasing cadmium concentrations in both liver and kidney. The relative increase of zinc with cadmium was more pronounced in liver than in kidney. However, the absolute increase of zinc was larger in kidney due to the much higher concentration of cadmium in kidney compared to liver. Any significant correlation between copper and cadmium, or copper and zinc, could not be revealed. Sephadex gel filtration was performed on supernatants from homogenates of kidney and liver from 19 of the horses. In both organs the major part of cadmium was recovered in protein fractions corresponding to metallothionein (MT), in which the increase of zinc also took place. The molar ratio between zinc and cadmium was higher in MT fractions obtained from liver than in MT fractions obtained from kidney.

  2. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  3. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  4. Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Elyaderani, M.K.; Gabriele, O.F.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in hepatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys.

  5. Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Elyaderani, M.K.; Gabriele, O.F.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in heptatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys.

  6. Fusion angle affects intervertebral adjacent spinal segment joint forces-Model-based analysis of patient specific alignment.

    PubMed

    Senteler, Marco; Weisse, Bernhard; Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Farshad, Mazda T; Snedeker, Jess G

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the hypothesis that adjacent segment intervertebral joint loads are sensitive to the degree of lordosis that is surgically imposed during vertebral fusion. Adjacent segment degeneration is often observed after lumbar fusion, but a causative mechanism is not yet clearly evident. Altered kinematics of the adjacent segments and potentially nonphysiological mechanical joint loads have been implicated in this process. However, little is known of how altered alignment and kinematics influence loading of the adjacent intervertebral joints under consideration of active muscle forces. This study investigated these effects by simulating L4/5 fusions using kinematics-driven musculoskeletal models of one generic and eight sagittal alignment-specific models. Models featured different spinopelvic configurations but were normalized by body height, masses, and muscle properties. Fusion of the L4/5 segment was implemented in an in situ (22°), hyperlordotic (32°), and hypolordotic (8°) fashion and kinematic input parameters were changed accordingly based on findings of an in vitro investigation. Bending motion from upright standing to 45° forward flexion and back was simulated for all models in intact and fused conditions. Joint loads at adjacent levels and moment arms of spinal muscles experienced changes after all types of fusion. Hypolordotic configuration led to an increase of adjacent segment (L3/4) shear forces of 29% on average, whereas hyperlordotic fusion reduced shear by 39%. Overall, L4/5 in situ fusion resulted in intervertebral joint forces closest to intact loading conditions. An artificial decrease in lumbar lordosis (minus 14° on average) caused by an L4/5 fusion lead to adverse loading conditions, particularly at the cranial adjacent levels, and altered muscle moment arms, in particular for muscles in the vicinity of the fusion. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:131-139, 2017.

  7. [Extracorporeal liver support of liver failure].

    PubMed

    Gerth, Hans Ulrich; Pohlen, Michele; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Schmidt, Hartmut

    2017-03-14

    Extracorporeal liver support can be classified into cell-free, artificial methods (artificial liver support, ALS) and cell-based bioartificial methods (bioartificial liver support, BLS). ALS improves biochemical parameters of liver failure by the simultaneous removal of protein-bound and water-soluble substances. Here, the MARS therapy belongs to the most studied methods with a proved beneficial effect on hepatic encephalopathy (HE), hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) or hyperbilirubinemia. However, a general survival advantage of any liver support for liver failure has not been shown yet and is restricted to meta-analyses or patient subgroups. There are no prospective randomized studies on the treatment of liver failure by intoxication. However, several case series report positive treatment effects using the MARS system, particularly in mushroom poisoning or acetaminophen intoxication. In acute liver failure (ALF) studies, the usage of BLS showed no survival advantage. Using ALS systems, a positive effect on mortality could be demonstrated in patient subgroups after several consecutive MARS therapies. The first randomized controlled trial demonstrating a survival benefit used large-volume plasmapheresis. Apparently, immunomodulatory and hemodynamic effects of the treatment play a crucial role in this context. In patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) accompanied by hyperbilirubinemia without any further organ failure (singular hepatic dysfunction), prognostic favorable effects by using a BLS system have been shown. However, once other extrahepatic organ systems are affected, indicating a progressive transition to multi-organ failure, a survival advantage could be achieved with the MARS and Prometheus system. Decisive for a successful therapy is the exact indication of the respective liver dialysis procedure for this very heterogeneous disease. Future studies are needed to define more accurate patient selection criteria for each liver support.

  8. Liver regeneration microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma for prevention and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanmin; Zhang, Lisheng

    2017-01-01

    Research on liver cancer prevention and treatment has mainly focused on the liver cancer cells themselves. Currently, liver cancers are no longer viewed as only collections of genetically altered cells but as aberrant organs with a plastic stroma, matrix, and vasculature. Improving the microenvironment of the liver to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting immune function, inflammation and vasculature can regulate the dynamic imbalance between normal liver regeneration and repair and abnormal liver regeneration, thus improving the microenvironment of liver regeneration for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer. This review addresses the basic theory of the liver regeneration microenvironment, including the latest findings on immunity, inflammation and vasculature. Attention is given to the potential design of molecular targets in the microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In an effort to improve the liver regeneration microenvironment of HCC, researchers have extensively utilized the enhancement of immunity, anti-inflammation and the vasculature niche, which are discussed in detail in this review. In addition, the authors summarize the latest pro-fibrotic transition characteristics of the vascular niche and review potential cell therapies for liver disease. PMID:27655683

  9. Hepatic progenitor cells of biliary origin with liver repopulation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Boulter, Luke; Tsuchiya, Atsunori; Cole, Alicia M; Hay, Trevor; Guest, Rachel V; Wojtacha, Davina; Man, Tak Yung; Mackinnon, Alison; Ridgway, Rachel A; Kendall, Timothy; Williams, Michael J; Jamieson, Thomas; Raven, Alex; Hay, David C; Iredale, John P; Clarke, Alan R; Sansom, Owen J; Forbes, Stuart J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes self renew following liver injury. Following severe injury hepatocytes are increasingly senescent, whether Hepatic Progenitor Cells (HPCs) then contribute to liver regeneration is unclear. Here, we describe a mouse model where Mdm2 is inducibly deleted in over 98% of hepatocytes, causing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence with nearly all hepatocytes expressing p21. This results in florid HPC activation, which is necessary for survival, followed by complete, functional liver reconstitution. HPCs isolated from genetically normal mice, using cell surface markers, were highly expandable and phenotypically stable in vitro. These HPCs were transplanted into adult mouse livers where hepatocyte Mdm2 was repeatedly deleted, creating a non-competitive repopulation assay. Transplanted HPCs contributed significantly to restoration of liver parenchyma, regenerating hepatocytes and biliary epithelia, highlighting their in vivo lineage potency. HPCs are therefore a potential future alternative to hepatocyte or liver transplantation for liver disease. PMID:26192438

  10. Targeting Dysbiosis for the Treatment of Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Anand, Gobind; Zarrinpar, Amir; Loomba, Rohit

    2016-02-01

    The gut microbiome is composed of a vast number of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract, which benefit host metabolism, aid in digestion, and contribute to normal immune function. Alterations in microbial composition can result in intestinal dysbiosis, which has been implicated in several diseases including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and liver diseases. Over the past several years, significant interactions between the intestinal microbiota and liver have been discovered, with possible mechanisms for the development as well as progression of liver disease and promising therapeutic targets to either prevent or halt the progression of liver disease. In this review the authors examine mechanisms of dysbiosis-induced liver disease; highlight current knowledge regarding the role of dysbiosis in nonalcoholic liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis; and discuss potential therapeutic targets.

  11. Best Merge Region Growing Segmentation with Integrated Non-Adjacent Region Object Aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Montesano, Paul M.; Gofman, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Best merge region growing normally produces segmentations with closed connected region objects. Recognizing that spectrally similar objects often appear in spatially separate locations, we present an approach for tightly integrating best merge region growing with non-adjacent region object aggregation, which we call Hierarchical Segmentation or HSeg. However, the original implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg required excessive computing time even for moderately sized images because of the required intercomparison of each region with all other regions. This problem was previously addressed by a recursive approximation of HSeg, called RHSeg. In this paper we introduce a refined implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg that reduces the computational requirements of HSeg without resorting to the recursive approximation. In this refinement, HSeg s region inter-comparisons among non-adjacent regions are limited to regions of a dynamically determined minimum size. We show that this refined version of HSeg can process moderately sized images in about the same amount of time as RHSeg incorporating the original HSeg. Nonetheless, RHSeg is still required for processing very large images due to its lower computer memory requirements and amenability to parallel processing. We then note a limitation of RHSeg with the original HSeg for high spatial resolution images, and show how incorporating the refined HSeg into RHSeg overcomes this limitation. The quality of the image segmentations produced by the refined HSeg is then compared with other available best merge segmentation approaches. Finally, we comment on the unique nature of the hierarchical segmentations produced by HSeg.

  12. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    PubMed

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  13. Liver disease in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Noel M; Brady, Carla W

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy. PMID:19248187

  14. A Comprehensive Method for Predicting Fatal Liver Failure of Patients With Liver Cancer Resection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiangfa; Lei, Biao; Nie, Xingju; Lin, Linku; Tahir, Syed Abdul; Shi, Wuxiang; Jin, Junfei; He, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are many methods to assess liver function, but none of them has been verified as fully effective. The purpose of this study is to establish a comprehensive method evaluating perioperative liver reserve function (LRF) in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC). In this study, 310 PLC patients who underwent liver resection were included. The cohort was divided into a training set (n = 235) and a validation set (n = 75). The factors affecting postoperative liver dysfunction (POLD) during preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods were confirmed by logistic regression analysis. The equation for calculating the preoperative liver functional evaluation index (PLFEI) was established; the cutoff value of PLFEI determined through analysis by receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to predict postoperative liver function. The data showed that body mass index, international normalized ratio, indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes (ICGR15), ICG elimination rate, standard remnant liver volume (SRLV), operative bleeding volume (OBV), blood transfusion volume, and operative time were statistically different (all P < 0.05) between 2 groups of patients with and without POLD. The relationship among PLFEI, ICGR15, OBV, and SRLV is expressed as an equation of “PLFEI = 0.181 × ICGR15 + 0.001 × OBV − 0.008 × SRLV.” The cutoff value of PLFEI to predict POLD was −2.16 whose sensitivity and specificity were 90.3% and 73.5%, respectively. However, when predicting fatal liver failure (FLF), the cutoff value of PLFEI was switched to −1.97 whose sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 68.8%, respectively. PLFEI will be a more comprehensive, sensitive, and accurate index assessing perioperative LRF in liver cancer patients who receive liver resection. And keeping PLFEI <−1.97 is a safety margin for preventing FLF in PLC patients who underwent liver resection. PMID:25929924

  15. A comprehensive method for predicting fatal liver failure of patients with liver cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangfa; Lei, Biao; Nie, Xingju; Lin, Linku; Tahir, Syed Abdul; Shi, Wuxiang; Jin, Junfei; He, Songqing

    2015-05-01

    There are many methods to assess liver function, but none of them has been verified as fully effective. The purpose of this study is to establish a comprehensive method evaluating perioperative liver reserve function (LRF) in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC).In this study, 310 PLC patients who underwent liver resection were included. The cohort was divided into a training set (n = 235) and a validation set (n = 75). The factors affecting postoperative liver dysfunction (POLD) during preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods were confirmed by logistic regression analysis. The equation for calculating the preoperative liver functional evaluation index (PLFEI) was established; the cutoff value of PLFEI determined through analysis by receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to predict postoperative liver function.The data showed that body mass index, international normalized ratio, indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes (ICGR15), ICG elimination rate, standard remnant liver volume (SRLV), operative bleeding volume (OBV), blood transfusion volume, and operative time were statistically different (all P < 0.05) between 2 groups of patients with and without POLD. The relationship among PLFEI, ICGR15, OBV, and SRLV is expressed as an equation of "PLFEI = 0.181 × ICGR15 + 0.001 × OBV - 0.008 × SRLV." The cutoff value of PLFEI to predict POLD was -2.16 whose sensitivity and specificity were 90.3% and 73.5%, respectively. However, when predicting fatal liver failure (FLF), the cutoff value of PLFEI was switched to -1.97 whose sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 68.8%, respectively.PLFEI will be a more comprehensive, sensitive, and accurate index assessing perioperative LRF in liver cancer patients who receive liver resection. And keeping PLFEI <-1.97 is a safety margin for preventing FLF in PLC patients who underwent liver resection.

  16. Usefulness of liver stiffness measurement during acute cellular rejection in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Gonzalo; Castro-Narro, Graciela; García-Juárez, Ignacio; Benítez, Carlos; Ruiz, Pablo; Sastre, Lydia; Colmenero, Jordi; Miquel, Rosa; Sánchez-Fueyo, Alberto; Forns, Xavier; Navasa, Miquel

    2016-03-01

    Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) is a useful method to estimate liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. The inflammatory process that takes place in post-liver transplant acute cellular rejection (ACR) may also increase liver stiffness. We aimed to explore the association between liver stiffness and the severity of ACR, as well as to assess the relationship between liver stiffness and response to rejection treatment in a prospective study that included 27 liver recipients with biopsy-proven ACR, 30 stable recipients with normal liver tests, and 30 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected LT recipients with histologically diagnosed HCV recurrence. Patients with rejection were stratified into 2 groups (mild and moderate/severe) according to the severity of rejection evaluated with the Banff score. Routine biomarkers and LSM with FibroScan were performed at the time of liver biopsy (baseline) and at 7, 30, and 90 days in patients with rejection and at baseline in control patients. Median baseline liver stiffness was 5.9 kPa in the mild rejection group, 11 kPa in the moderate/severe group (P = 0.001), 4.2 kPa in stable recipients (P = 0.02 versus mild rejection), and 13.6 kPa in patients with recurrent HCV (P = 0.17 versus moderate/severe rejection). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of LSM to discriminate mild versus moderate/severe ACR was 0.924, and a LSM value of 8.5 kPa yielded a positive predictive value of 100% to diagnose moderate/severe rejection. Liver stiffness improved in 7%, 21%, and 64% of patients with moderate/severe rejection at 7, 30, and 90 days. In conclusion, according to the results of this exploratory study, LSM is associated with the severity of ACR in liver transplantation and thus may be of help in its assessment.

  17. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  18. Comparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver pate as markers for solid-phase gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Moore, J.G.; Datz, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    A radionuclide marker for studies of solid-phase gastric emptying should have a high labeling efficiency and remain relatively stable during gastric emptying. The availability of materials and the ease of preparation are also considerations in selecting radionuclide markers. The stability of intracellularly labeled chicken liver, surface-labeled chicken liver, and labeled pureed meat (liver pate) incubated with hydrochloric acid solution or gastric juice have been compared. Intracellularly labeled chicken liver and labeled liver pate were also compared in gastric emptying studies in humans. In vitro results demonstrated labeling efficiencies greater than 92% for both intracellularly labeled liver and labeled liver pate. The pate labeled with Tc-99m sulfur colloid was more stable than Tc-99m surface-labeled liver in vitro and its prepartion was easier than with the intracellular labeling technique. Gastric emptying studies on normal subjects demonstrated equal performance of the intracellularly labeled liver and the labeled liver pate. Labeled liver pate is thus an alternative to intracellularly labeled chicken liver in measuring solid-phase gastric emptying.

  19. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  20. Management of adjacent segment disease after cervical spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) was described after long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical fusion. The term describes new-onset radiculopathy or myelopathy referable to a motion segment adjacent to previous arthrodesis and often attributed to alterations in the biomechanical environment after fusion. Evidence suggests that ASD affects between 2% and 3% of patients per year. Although prevention of ASD was one major impetus behind the development of motion-sparing surgery, the literature does not yet clearly distinguish a difference in the rate of ASD between fusion and disk replacement. Surgical techniques during index surgery may reduce the rate of ASD.

  1. Antioxidants in liver health

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals (FR). However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases. PMID:26261734

  2. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing bile (which helps break down food during digestion), and storing energy in the form of a ... complete blood count , liver function panel , and blood chemistries can show how well the liver and other ...

  3. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  4. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  5. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet ...

  6. Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  7. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of liver tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reistad, Nina; Nilsson, Jan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Sturesson, Christian; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with a fiber-optic contact probe is a cost-effective, rapid, and non-invasive optical method used to extract diagnosis information of tissue. By combining commercially available VIS- and NIR-spectrometers with various fiber-optic contact-probes, we have access to the full wavelength range from around 400 to 1600 nm. Using this flexible and portable spectroscopy system, we have acquired ex-vivo DRS-spectra from murine, porcine, and human liver tissue. For extracting the tissue optical properties from the measured spectra, we have employed and compared predictions from two models for light propagation in tissue, diffusion theory model (DT) and Monte Carlo simulations (MC). The focus in this work is on the capacity of this DRS-technique in discriminating metastatic tumor tissue from normal liver tissue as well as in assessing and characterizing damage to non-malignant liver tissue induced by preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases.

  8. Multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Crawford, Darrell; Burczynski, Frank J.; Liu, Xin; Liau, Ian; Roberts, Michael S.

    2014-09-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is the preferred method when in vivo deep-tissue imaging is required. This review presents the application of multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function. In particular, multiphoton microscopy is useful in imaging intracellular events, such as mitochondrial depolarization and cellular metabolism in terms of NAD(P)H changes with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The morphology of hepatocytes can be visualized without exogenously administered fluorescent dyes by utilizing their autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signal of collagen, which is useful in diagnosing liver disease. More specific imaging, such as studying drug transport in normal and diseased livers are achievable, but require exogenously administered fluorescent dyes. If these techniques can be translated into clinical use to assess liver function, it would greatly improve early diagnosis of organ viability, fibrosis, and cancer.

  9. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis promotes liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Moffitt, Andrea; Ndungu, Joan; Dellinger, Ryan W; Davis, James G; Agarwal, Beamon; Baur, Joseph A

    2017-02-01

    The regenerative capacity of the liver is essential for recovery from surgical resection or injuries induced by trauma or toxins. During liver regeneration, the concentration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) falls, at least in part due to metabolic competition for precursors. To test whether NAD availability restricts the rate of liver regeneration, we supplied nicotinamide riboside (NR), an NAD precursor, in the drinking water of mice subjected to partial hepatectomy. NR increased DNA synthesis, mitotic index, and mass restoration in the regenerating livers. Intriguingly, NR also ameliorated the steatosis that normally accompanies liver regeneration. To distinguish the role of hepatocyte NAD levels from any systemic effects of NR, we generated mice overexpressing nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme for NAD synthesis, specifically in the liver. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase overexpressing mice were mildly hyperglycemic at baseline and, similar to mice treated with NR, exhibited enhanced liver regeneration and reduced steatosis following partial hepatectomy. Conversely, mice lacking nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase in hepatocytes exhibited impaired regenerative capacity that was completely rescued by administering NR.

  10. Hot topics in liver intensive care.

    PubMed

    Bacher, A; Zimpfer, M

    2008-05-01

    Liver dysfunction is an independent predictor of mortality among intensive care patients. Avoidance or early restoration of normal liver function should therefore be targeted in all critically ill patients. The present work seeks to provide an overview of the "hottest topics" among liver-related problems in intensive care. The management of increased intracranial pressure in severe hepatic encephalopathy is still not sufficiently documented. The promising results with regard to intracranial pressure control by the molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS) in animal studies are only partially reproducible in patients. Intracranial pressure monitoring is inconsistently applied in various centers, mainly because of the lack of information about the risk benefit ratio. Further, we still do not know which coagulation management protocol reduces the risk of intracranial bleeding. Type I hepatorenal syndrome is a complication of liver failure that is strongly associated with bad outcomes. Only about the half of the patients will recover from dialysis-dependent hepatorenal syndrome after liver transplantation. The usefulness of combined liver and kidney transplantation has not been sufficiently clarified. Terlipressin together with fluid and albumin substitution appear to be the most promising therapeutic interventions. Extracorporeal liver support systems, such as single-pass albumin dialysis, MARS, and the dialysis- and plasmapheresis-based Prometheus, are still under investigation with regard to effectiveness of toxin elimination, appropriate indications, and number duration of treatments.

  11. Humanized mice with ectopic artificial liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alice A; Thomas, David K; Ong, Luvena L; Schwartz, Robert E; Golub, Todd R; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2011-07-19

    "Humanized" mice offer a window into aspects of human physiology that are otherwise inaccessible. The best available methods for liver humanization rely on cell transplantation into immunodeficient mice with liver injury but these methods have not gained widespread use due to the duration and variability of hepatocyte repopulation. In light of the significant progress that has been achieved in clinical cell transplantation through tissue engineering, we sought to develop a humanized mouse model based on the facile and ectopic implantation of a tissue-engineered human liver. These human ectopic artificial livers (HEALs) stabilize the function of cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes through juxtacrine and paracrine signals in polymeric scaffolds. In contrast to current methods, HEALs can be efficiently established in immunocompetent mice with normal liver function. Mice transplanted with HEALs exhibit humanized liver functions persistent for weeks, including synthesis of human proteins, human drug metabolism, drug-drug interaction, and drug-induced liver injury. Here, mice with HEALs are used to predict the disproportionate metabolism and toxicity of "major" human metabolites using multiple routes of administration and monitoring. These advances may enable manufacturing of reproducible in vivo models for diverse drug development and research applications.

  12. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Month Personal Story - David Roncori Liver Disease - The Big Picture 13 Ways to a Healthy Liver In the Field Call to Action - Change Tomorrow, Give Today Liver Lowdown Sept 2013 Recovery Month Path to Wellness 5 Facts About Recovery Patient Story In the Field ...

  13. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Liver Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Liver Tumors Print A A A What's in this ... Malignant (Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  14. Structure, regulation and function of gap junctions in liver

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Michaël; Decrock, Elke; Wang, Nan; Leybaert, Luc; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Veloso Alves Pereira, Isabel; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are a specialized group of cell-to-cell junctions that mediate direct intercellular communication between cells. They arise from the interaction of 2 hemichannels of adjacent cells, which in turn are composed of 6 connexin proteins. In liver, gap junctions are predominantly found in hepatocytes and play critical roles in virtually all phases of the hepatic life cycle, including cell growth, differentiation, liver-specific functionality and cell death. Liver gap junctions are directed through a broad variety of mechanisms ranging from epigenetic control of connexin expression to posttranslational regulation of gap junction activity. This paper reviews established and novel aspects regarding the architecture, control and functional relevance of liver gap junctions. PMID:27001459

  15. Investigation on Reflection of Tectonic Pattern in ASG EUPOS Data in the Sudetes and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczerbowski, Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    The GNSS data evaluated from on observation of ASG EUPOS stations in the Sudety Mts. and in adjacent areas is analyzed by the author in the scope of disturbances in daily solutions that can be induced by tectonics stress. The daily position changes derived from GNSS data demonstrate the long or short term trends, which are affected by offsets of different nature. Author presents an analysis based on frequency of parameter - displacement vector azimuth. The aim of the analysis is to show statistical significance of observed small values of temporal displacements, which values are not normally distributed. There are "outliers" of the normal distribution of displacement azimuths, which values show a certain reproducibility, which corresponds to orientations of tectonic lines. That suggests small, short time movements along boundaries of horsts and grabens - a crustal-extension structure of the area. However derived results (values of displacements) are less than a limitation error, temporal distributions of coordinates are not random as usually data errors. So in author's opinion the spatial-temporal evolution of horizontal displacements of ASG EUPOS stations in the Sudety Mts. and in adjacent areas are determined by expressions of underlying geological structures.

  16. Tolerance of the liver to the effects of Yttrium-90 radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, B.N.; Burton, M.A.; Kelleher, D.; Klemp, P.; Matz, L. )

    1990-03-01

    There are no reliable data documenting the tolerance of the human liver to ionizing radiation from a continuous Yttrium-90 source. As Yttrium-90 incorporated into microspheres is being used to treat patients with liver cancer, it is imperative that the tolerance of the human liver to this form of radiation damage be determined. Four patients with metastatic liver cancer were treated with Yttrium-90 to deliver radiation doses above that considered tolerable when given by conventional external sources. Patients were monitored with serial estimations of liver function tests and between 7 and 9 months after treatment liver biopsies were performed. Histological examination of the liver biopsies confirmed only minimal changes in the normal liver parenchyma. These data indicate that the human liver may tolerate relatively large radiation doses when delivered by Yttrium-90 microspheres embedded in the liver parenchyma as a number of discrete point sources.

  17. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  19. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  20. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Price, Phillip N.

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  1. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  3. 11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  4. 12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  5. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  6. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  7. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  8. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent property. Original wood siding and trim is visible. Note: later addition to rear of house is shown in right side of photograph. - 322 South Fifteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  14. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  16. MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST TOWARD NORTH SIDE OF PUMP HOUSE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2690. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN BUILDING (BASSIN'S RESTAURANT) (HABS No. DC-357), 501-511 14TH STREET (THE LOCKER ROOM) HABS No. DC-356) ON CORNER, AND MUNSEY BUILDING (HABS No. DC-358) - William J. Stone Building, 1345 E Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  19. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  20. Pregnancy and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Rachel H; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Williamson, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy associated liver diseases affect up to 3% of pregnant women and are the most frequent cause of liver dysfunction in pregnancy. When severe, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality for both mother and infant. A rapid evaluation to distinguish them from non-pregnancy related liver dysfunction is essential, in order to facilitate appropriate management. Liver disease unrelated to pregnancy can present de novo in pregnancy, or pregnancy can occur in women with preexisting liver pathology (Table 1). Research and subsequent advances in medical care have resulted in improved but still not satisfactory maternal and fetal outcomes. In this review we provide an overview of the liver diseases specific to the pregnant state and an update on their pathogenesis, treatment and outcomes. The risks of pregnancy in women with pre-existent liver pathology is detailed and recent advances in our understanding of specific risks and outcomes are discussed.

  1. Coffee and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C.

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality. PMID:27194895

  2. In hepatic fibrosis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells acquire enhanced immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michael K; Bedrosian, Andrea S; Malhotra, Ashim; Henning, Justin R; Ibrahim, Junaid; Vera, Valery; Cieza-Rubio, Napoleon E; Hassan, Burhan U; Pachter, H Leon; Cohen, Steven; Frey, Alan B; Miller, George

    2010-08-15

    The normal liver is characterized by immunologic tolerance. Primary mediators of hepatic immune tolerance are liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). LSECs block adaptive immunogenic responses to Ag and induce the generation of T regulatory cells. Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by both intense intrahepatic inflammation and altered hepatic immunity. We postulated that, in liver fibrosis, a reversal of LSEC function from tolerogenic to proinflammatory and immunogenic may contribute to both the heightened inflammatory milieu and altered intrahepatic immunity. We found that, after fibrotic liver injury from hepatotoxins, LSECs become highly proinflammatory and secrete an array of cytokines and chemokines. In addition, LSECs gain enhanced capacity to capture Ag and induce T cell proliferation. Similarly, unlike LSECs in normal livers, in fibrosis, LSECs do not veto dendritic cell priming of T cells. Furthermore, whereas in normal livers, LSECs are active in the generation of T regulatory cells, in hepatic fibrosis LSECs induce an immunogenic T cell phenotype capable of enhancing endogenous CTLs and generating potent de novo CTL responses. Moreover, depletion of LSECs from fibrotic liver cultures mitigates the proinflammatory milieu characteristic of hepatic fibrosis. Our findings offer a critical understanding of the role of LSECs in modulating intrahepatic immunity and inflammation in fibro-inflammatory liver disease.

  3. Growth-related alterations during liver carcinogenesis: Effect of promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Seglen, P.O.; Gerlyng, P. )

    1990-08-01

    Bromodeoxyuridine labeling of DNA, binuclearity counting, and flow cytometric analysis of isolated hepatocytes and hepatocyte nuclei has been used to assess heptocellular growth patterns related to liver carcinogenesis. Three growth patterns can be distinguished. Mononucleating growth is observed during liver regeneration and after treatment with the tumor promoter 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and its analogue 4-AAF. In this growth mode binucleation does not occur, resulting in a decrease in the fraction of binucleated cells. Binucleating growth is observed during normal liver development and after treatment with compounds such as phenobarbital, characterized by progressive polyploidization and maintenance of a binucleated cell fraction. Diploid growth is the growth pattern of neoplastic liver hepatocytes. Most of the cells in neoplastic lesions (foci, nodules, and carcinomas) are diploid, in contrast to the normal liver. Diploid tumor cells have a much higher proliferative activity than tetraploid tumor cells, suggesting that the latter may posses a limited growth potential that makes abrogation of binucleation proliferatively advantageous.

  4. [Liver diseases and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Guettrot-Imbert, G; Plessier, A; Hillaire, S; Delluc, C; Leroux, G; Le Guern, V; Costedoat-Chalumeau, N

    2015-03-01

    Liver disease can be observed in pregnant women whether or not related to pregnancy. Liver disorders can be revealed by pruritus, vomiting, jaundice or abnormal liver blood tests during pregnancy. These liver manifestations can lead to the diagnosis of liver disease specifically associated to pregnancy as intrahepatic pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver of pregnancy and preeclampsia-induced liver injury. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for other liver diseases coincident with pregnancy as viral hepatitis, thrombosis, drug toxicity or gallstone. Finally, pre-existing liver disease must be taken into account given the risk of fœto-maternal transmission risk as well as the risk of decompensation of underlying cirrhosis secondary to the hemodynamic changes caused by pregnancy. The aim of this revue is to perform an update on the various situations that can be observed, the principles of management of these liver diseases, in order to reduce the risk of complications and to ensure the best maternal and fetal prognosis.

  5. Pancreatitis following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J A; Demetrius, A J; Gavaler, J S; Makowka, L; Starzl, T E; Van Thiel, D H

    1988-06-01

    Since 1981, when the liver transplantation program was initiated at the University of Pittsburgh, we have been impressed with the prevalence of pancreatitis occurring following liver transplantation in patients transplanted for hepatitis B-related liver disease. To either confirm this clinical impression or refute it, the records of the 27 HbsAg+ patients and those of an additional 24 HbsAg- but HbcAb and/or HbsAb+ patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation were reviewed to determine the prevalence of clinical pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia (biochemical pancreatitis) following liver transplantation (OLTx). Post-OLTx hyperamylasemia occurred significantly more frequently in HbsAg+ patients (6/27) than it did in the HbsAg- patients (0/24) (P less than 0.05). More importantly, clinical pancreatitis occurred in 14% (4/27) of the HbsAg+ patients and 0% (0/24) of the HbsAg- patients. Interestingly, in each case, the pancreatitis was associated with the occurrence of acute hepatitis B infection of the allograft. Based upon these data, we conclude that pancreatitis occurring after liver transplantation is more common in patients transplanted for active viral liver disease caused by hepatitis B than in those with inactive viral liver disease. These observations suggest that pancreatitis occurring in, at least some cases following liver transplantation for viral liver disease, may result from hepatitis B virus infection of the pancreas.

  6. Percutaneous Liver Biopsies Guided with Ultrasonography: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Cakmakci, Emin; Caliskan, Kosti Can; Tabakci, Omer Naci; Tahtabasi, Mehmet; Karpat, Zeki

    2013-01-01

    Background Although liver biopsy is an easy procedure for hospitalized patients and outpatients, some complications may occur. Objectives To evaluate the efficiency, complications, safety and clinicopathological utility of ultrasonographic-guided percutaneous liver biopsy in diffuse liver disease. Patients and Methods In our retrospective study, we evaluated ultrasound-assisted needle biopsies that were performed in outpatients from October 2006 to July 2010. The liver biopsies were performed following one-night fasting using the tru-cut biopsy gun (18-20 gauge) after marking the best seen and hypovascular part of the liver, distant enough from the adjacent organs. Results A total of 1018 patients were referred to our radiology department. Most of the patients had hepatitis B (60.6%). The biopsy specimens were recorded and sent to our pathology department for histopathological examination. Conclusion According to the results of our series, percutaneous liver biopsy using the tru-cut biopsy gun guided by ultrasonography can be performed safely. We resolve that routine ultrasound of the puncture site is a quick, effective and safe procedure. The complication rate is very low. The US-assisted percutaneous liver biopsy should be used for all cases. PMID:24348609

  7. TLR4-dependent immune response promotes radiation-induced liver disease by changing the liver tissue interstitial microenvironment during liver cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhi-Feng, Wu; Le-Yuan, Zhou; Xiao-Hui, Zhou; Ya-Bo, Gao; Jian-Ying, Zhang; Yong, Hu; Zhao-Chong, Zeng

    2014-12-01

    Liver tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) a special microenvironment around liver cells, which may play a vital role in cell communication during liver injury. Moreover, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important trigger of the immune response that may also play a role in liver injuries, including radiation-induced liver disease (RILD). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the roles of the TLR4-dependent immune response and TIFs in RILD after radiation therapy (RT) for liver cancer. This study consisted of two phases, and in the primary phase, the livers of TLR4 mutant (TLR4(-)) and normal (TLR4(+)) mice were irradiated with 30 Gy. TIF was then obtained from mouse livers and assessed by cytokine array analysis 20 days after irradiation, and cytokines in the TIFs, TLR4 and RILD were analyzed. In the second or validation phase, hepatocytes were isolated from TLR4(+) or TLR4(-) mice irradiated with 8 Gy and were co-cultured with TIFs from mouse livers, apoptosis of the hepatocytes was then measured using flow cytometry. We found that severe RILD was accompanied by higher expression of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2(VEGFR-2) in liver TIFs, from in TLR4(+) mice compared with TLR4(-) mice (P < 0.05). In both TLR4(+) and TLR4(-) hepatocytes, apoptosis after irradiaton was increased significantly after co-culture in TIFs from TLR4(+) mice that had their livers irradiated, compared with TIFs from TLR4(-) mice that had their livers irradiated or TIFs from unirradiated mice (P < 0.05). In summary, these findings indicate that the TLR4-dependent immune response may promote RILD by enhancing the expression of GM-CSF, VEGFR-2 and TRAIL in liver TIFs.

  8. Radiographically occult intrasinusoidal liver metastases leading to hepatic failure in a case of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gulia, Seema; Khurana, Sachin; Shet, Tanuja; Gupta, Sudeep

    2016-02-15

    The liver is one of the commonest sites of metastatic involvement in breast cancer, usually evident as focal lesions on imaging tests. Rarely, the pattern of metastatic spread is so diffuse that it remains radiologically occult. Such patients usually present with signs of hepatic insufficiency without any focal lesions on liver imaging. In such cases, liver biopsy is required to make a definitive diagnosis. We report a case of a 56-year-old postmenopausal woman with metastatic breast cancer who presented with subacute progressive liver failure. Repeated imaging of the liver was normal or non-descript. Liver biopsy finally established the diagnosis of intrasinusoidal metastases from breast cancer.

  9. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in rat liver regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Cimica, Velasco . E-mail: vcimica@aecom.yu.edu; Batusic, Danko; Haralanova-Ilieva, Borislava; Chen, Yonglong; Hollemann, Thomas; Pieler, Tomas; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2007-08-31

    We have applied serial analysis of gene expression for studying the molecular mechanism of the rat liver regeneration in the model of 70% partial hepatectomy. We generated three SAGE libraries from a normal control liver (NL library: 52,343 tags), from a sham control operated liver (Sham library: 51,028 tags), and from a regenerating liver (PH library: 53,061 tags). By SAGE bioinformatics analysis we identified 40 induced genes and 20 repressed genes during the liver regeneration. We verified temporal expression of such genes by real time PCR during the regeneration process and we characterized 13 induced genes and 3 repressed genes. We found connective tissue growth factor transcript and protein induced very early at 4 h after PH operation before hepatocytes proliferation is triggered. Our study suggests CTGF as a growth factor signaling mediator that could be involved directly in the mechanism of liver regeneration induction.

  10. Lipid content in the liver of fatty metamorphosis of pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, J. W.; Barker, E. A.; Smuckler, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lipid analyses were performed on the liver of a patient who died during an episode of acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and on livers from normal subjects and from subjects suffering from nutritional fatty livers. Comparison of these data indicates that in fatty liver of pregnancy the increased hepatic lipids consist primarily of free fatty acids. The recognized toxicity of fatty acids suggests a pathogenic mechanism for the disease. Nutritional fatty liver is associated predominantly with an increase in triglyceride. These changes are not the result of postmortem change, and they confirm and extend the previous data concerning the fat accumulation in human hepatic illness. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 PMID:1239955

  11. Surgical treatment of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xia, Tian; Dong, Shuanghai; Zhao, Qinghua; Tian, Jiwei

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the clinical and radiographic characteristics of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability and describes the outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients (14 male, seven female; mean age=34 years) with complex axis fractures and adjacent segment instability who were treated between August 2003 and June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment selection was based on fracture type and stability of the upper cervical segments. All patients were immobilized with a hard collar for three months after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (range=6-36 months). No intraoperative surgery-related complications were observed and fusion was achieved in all patients. The outcome was excellent for 17 patients, good for two patients, fair for one patient, and poor for one patient. The upper cervical segments that can become unstable due to complex axis fractures include the atlantoaxial and C2-3 joints. Recommended surgical treatments produce good results.

  12. On the Circulation Manifold for Two Adjacent Lifting Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetti, Luca; Iollo, Angelo

    1998-01-01

    The circulation functional relative to two adjacent lifting sections is studied for two cases. In the first case we consider two adjacent circles. The circulation is computed as a function of the displacement of the secondary circle along the axis joining the two centers and of the angle of attack of the secondary circle, The gradient of such functional is computed by deriving a set of elliptic functions with respect both to their argument and to their Period. In the second case studied, we considered a wing-flap configuration. The circulation is computed by some implicit mappings, whose differentials with respect to the variation of the geometrical configuration in the physical space are found by divided differences. Configurations giving rise to local maxima and minima in the circulation manifold are presented.

  13. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  14. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  15. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Four-body central configurations with adjacent equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiyang; Li, Bingyu; Zhang, Shiqing

    2017-04-01

    For any convex non-collinear central configuration of the planar Newtonian 4-body problem with adjacent equal masses m1 =m2 ≠m3 =m4, with equal lengths for the two diagonals, we prove it must possess a symmetry and must be an isosceles trapezoid; furthermore, which is also an isosceles trapezoid when the length between m1 and m4 equals the length between m2 and m3.

  17. Processing multiple non-adjacent dependencies: evidence from sequence learning.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Meinou H; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Geukes, Sebastian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-07-19

    Processing non-adjacent dependencies is considered to be one of the hallmarks of human language. Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)B(2)B(1)) and crossed dependencies (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)B(2)B(3)), containing either three or two dependencies. Both reaction times and prediction errors highlighted problems with processing the middle dependency in nested structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)_B(1)), reminiscent of the 'missing-verb effect' observed in English and French, but not with crossed structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)_B(3)). Prior linguistic experience did not play a major role: native speakers of German and Dutch-which permit nested and crossed dependencies, respectively-showed a similar pattern of results for sequences with three dependencies. As for sequences with two dependencies, reaction times and prediction errors were similar for both nested and crossed dependencies. The results suggest that constraints on the processing of multiple non-adjacent dependencies are determined by the specific ordering of the non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed), as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved (i.e. two or three). Furthermore, these constraints may not be specific to language but instead derive from limitations on structured sequence learning.

  18. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Iatrogenic amyloid polyneuropathy after domino liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mnatsakanova, Diana; Živković, Saša A

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplantation has been used in treatment of transthyretin amyloidosis, and some patients undergo domino liver transplantation (DLT) with explanted liver being transplanted to another patient with liver failure as the liver is otherwise usually functionally normal. Until end of 2015, there were 1154 DLT performed worldwide. DLT for transthyretin amyloidosis is associated with the risk of developing de novo systemic amyloidosis and amyloid neuropathy, and the risk may be greater with some non-Val30Met mutations. De novo amyloid neuropathy has been described in up to 23% of transplant recipients. Neuropathy may be preceded by asymptomatic amyloid deposition in various tissues and symptoms of neuropathy started after a median of 7 years following DLT (5.7 ± 3.2 years; range 2 mo to 10 years). Typical initial symptoms include neuropathic pain and sensory loss, while dysautonomia usually starts later. Progression of neuropathy may necessitate liver re-transplantation, and subsequent improvement of neuropathy has been reported in some patients. Explant allograft recipients need close monitoring for signs of systemic amyloidosis, neuropathy and dysautonomia as progressive symptoms may require re-transplantation. PMID:28217248

  20. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  1. Preimplant Normothermic Liver Perfusion of a Suboptimal Liver Donated After Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    Watson, C J E; Kosmoliaptsis, V; Randle, L V; Russell, N K; Griffiths, W J H; Davies, S; Mergental, H; Butler, A J

    2016-01-01

    Livers retrieved after circulatory death are associated with an increased incidence of primary nonfunction, early allograft dysfunction, and biliary strictures. The authors report a case of preimplant normothermic perfusion of a suboptimal liver from a 57-year-old donor after circulatory death who had been hospitalized for 9 days; predonation alanine transaminase level was 63 IU/L, and the period from withdrawal of life-supporting treatment to circulatory arrest was 150 minutes. After 5 hours of static cold storage, the liver was subject to normothermic machine perfusion with a plasma-free red cell-based perfusate. Perfusate lactate level fell from 7.2 to 0.3 mmol/L within 74 minutes of ex situ perfusion, at which point perfusate alanine transaminase level was 1152 IU/L and urea concentration was 9.4 mmol/L. After 132 minutes, normothermic perfusion was stopped and implantation begun. After transplantation, the patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on day 8; liver biochemistry was normal by day 19 and has remained normal thereafter. Donor common bile duct excised at implantation showed preservation of peribiliary glands, and cholangiography 6 months posttransplantation showed no evidence of cholangiopathy. Preimplant ex situ normothermic perfusion of the liver appears to be a promising way to evaluate a marginal liver before transplantation and may modify the response to ischemia.

  2. Predicting Agenesis of the Mandibular Second Premolar from Adjacent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of agenesis of the mandibular second premolar (P2) enhances management of the dental arch in the growing child. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship in the development of the mandibular first molar (M1) and first premolar (P1) at early stages of P2 (second premolar). Specifically, we ask if the likelihood of P2 agenesis can be predicted from adjacent developing teeth. We selected archived dental panoramic radiographs with P2 at crown formation stages (N = 212) and calculated the likelihood of P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ given the tooth stage of adjacent teeth. Our results show that the probability of observing mandibular P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ decreased as both the adjacent P1 and M1 matured. The modal stage at P2 ‘Ci’ was P1 ‘Coc’ (cusp outline complete) and M1 ‘Crc’ (crown complete). Initial mineralisation of P2 was observed up to P1 ‘Crc’ and M1 stage ‘R½’ (root half). The chance of observing P2 at least ‘Coc’ (coalescence of cusps) was considerably greater prior to these threshold stages compared to later stages of P1 and M1. These findings suggest that P2 is highly unlikely to develop if P1 is beyond ‘Crc’ and M1 is beyond ‘R½’. PMID:26673218

  3. Adjacent Segment Disease in the Cervical and Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Tobert, Daniel G; Antoci, Valentin; Patel, Shaun P; Saadat, Ehsan; Bono, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is disappointing long-term outcome for both the patient and clinician. In contrast to adjacent segment degeneration, which is a common radiographic finding, ASD is less common. The incidence of ASD in both the cervical and lumbar spine is between 2% and 4% per year, and ASD is a significant contributor to reoperation rates after spinal arthrodesis. The etiology of ASD is multifactorial, stemming from existing spondylosis at adjacent levels, predisposed risk to degenerative changes, and altered biomechanical forces near a previous fusion site. Numerous studies have sought to identify both patient and surgical risk factors for ASD, but a consistent, sole predictor has yet to be found. Spinal arthroplasty techniques seek to preserve physiological biomechanics, thereby minimizing the risk of ASD, and long-term clinical outcome studies will help quantify its efficacy. Treatment strategies for ASD are initially nonoperative, provided a progressive neurological deficit is not present. The spine surgeon is afforded many surgical strategies once operative treatment is elected. The goal of this manuscript is to consider the etiologies of ASD, review its manifestations, and offer an approach to treatment.

  4. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  5. Perceptual processing of adjacent and nonadjacent tactile nontargets.

    PubMed

    Evans, P M; Craig, J C; Rinker, M A

    1992-11-01

    Previous research has shown that subjects appear unable to restrict processing to a single finger and ignore a stimulus presented to an adjacent finger. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that, at least for moving stimuli, an adjacent nontarget is fully processed to the level of incipient response activation. The present study replicated and expanded upon these original findings. The results of Experiment 1 showed that an equally large response-competition effect occurred when the nontarget was presented to adjacent and nonadjacent fingers (on the same hand). The results of Experiment 2 showed that the effects observed in Experiment 1 (and in previous studies) were also obtained with stationary stimuli. Although small, there was some indication in the results of Experiment 2 that interference may dissipate more rapidly with distance with stationary stimuli. An additional finding was that interference effects were observed in both experiments with temporal separations between the target and nontarget of up to 100 msec. In Experiment 3, target and nontarget stimuli were presented to opposite hands. Although reduced, interference was still evident with target and nontarget stimuli presented to opposite hands. Varying the physical distance between hands did not produce any change in the amount of interference. The results suggest that the focus of attention on the skin extends nearly undiminished across the fingers of one hand and is not dependent upon the physical distance between sites of stimulation.

  6. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  7. Transplantable liver production plan

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Organ grafts developed in the xenogeneic pig scaffold are expected to resolve most issues of donor safety and ethical concerns about living-donor liver transplantation in Japan. We have been working on so-called “Yamaton” projects to develop transplantable organs using genetically engineered pigs. Our goal is to produce chimeric livers with human parenchyma in such pigs. The Yamaton-Liver project demonstrated the proof of concept by showing that rat–mouse chimeric livers could develop in mice and be successfully transplanted into syngeneic or allogeneic rats. Under conventional immunosuppression, the transplanted livers showed long-term function and protection against rejection. Because chimeric liver grafts have xenogeneic components, additional strategies, such as humanization of pig genes, induction of hematopoietic chimeras in donors, and replacement of pig endothelial cells with human ones, might be required in clinical use. Our projects still need to overcome various hurdles but can bring huge benefits to patients in the future. PMID:23896578

  8. Orchestrating liver development

    PubMed Central

    Gordillo, Miriam; Evans, Todd; Gouon-Evans, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a central regulator of metabolism, and liver failure thus constitutes a major health burden. Understanding how this complex organ develops during embryogenesis will yield insights into how liver regeneration can be promoted and how functional liver replacement tissue can be engineered. Recent studies of animal models have identified key signaling pathways and complex tissue interactions that progressively generate liver progenitor cells, differentiated lineages and functional tissues. In addition, progress in understanding how these cells interact, and how transcriptional and signaling programs precisely coordinate liver development, has begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this complexity. Here, we review the lineage relationships, signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that orchestrate hepatogenesis. PMID:26081571

  9. Liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart; Leffert, Hyam L

    2008-06-10

    In an effort to review the evidence that liver cancer stem cells exist, two fundamental questions must be addressed. First, do hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arise from liver stem cells? Second, do HCCs contain cells that possess properties of cancer stem cells? For many years the finding of preneoplastic nodules in the liver during experimental induction of HCCs by chemicals was interpreted to support the hypothesis that HCC arose by dedifferentiation of mature liver cells. More recently, recognition of the role of small oval cells in the carcinogenic process led to a new hypothesis that HCC arises by maturation arrest of liver stem cells. Analysis of the cells in HCC supports the presence of cells with stem-cell properties (ie, immortality, transplantability, and resistance to therapy). However, definitive markers for these putative cancer stem cells have not yet been found and a liver cancer stem cell has not been isolated.

  10. Association of serum level of growth differentiation factor 15 with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuying; Chi, Xiumei; Gong, Qiaoling; Gao, Lei; Niu, Yuqiang; Chi, Xiaojing; Cheng, Min; Si, Youhui; Wang, Maorong; Zhong, Jin; Niu, Junqi; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver cirrhosis are associated with high mortality worldwide. Currently, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is used as a standard serum marker for the detection of HCC, but its sensitivity and specificity are unsatisfactory, and optimal diagnostic markers for cirrhosis are lacking. We previously reported that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was significantly induced in HCV-infected hepatocytes. This study aimed to investigate GDF15 expression and its correlation with hepatitis virus-related liver diseases. A total of 412 patients with various liver diseases were studied. Healthy and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected subjects were included as controls. Serum and tissue GDF15 levels were measured. Serum GDF15 levels were significantly increased in patients with HCC (6.66±0.67 ng/mL, p<0.0001) and cirrhosis (6.51±1.47 ng/mL, p<0.0001) compared with healthy controls (0.31±0.01 ng/mL), though the GDF15 levels in HBV and HCV carriers were moderately elevated (1.34±0.19 ng/mL and 2.13±0.53 ng/mL, respectively). Compared with HBV or HCV carriers, GDF15 had a sensitivity of 63.1% and a specificity of 86.6% at the optimal cut-off point of 2.463 ng/mL in patients with liver cirrhosis or HCC. In HCC patients, the area under the receiver operating curve was 0.84 for GDF15 and 0.76 for AFP, but 0.91 for the combined GDF15 and AFP. Serum GDF15 levels did not significantly differ between the high-AFP and low-AFP groups. GDF15 protein expression in HCC was significantly higher than that in the corresponding adjacent paracarcinomatous tissue and normal liver. Using a combination of GDF15 and AFP will improve the sensitivity and specificity of HCC diagnosis. Further research and the clinical implementation of serum GDF15 measurement as a biomarker for HCC and cirrhosis are recommended.

  11. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  12. [Preoperative imaging/operation planning for liver surgery].

    PubMed

    Schoening, W N; Denecke, T; Neumann, U P

    2015-12-01

    The currently established standard for planning liver surgery is multistage contrast media-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CM-CT), which as a rule enables an appropriate resection planning, e.g. a precise identification and localization of primary and secondary liver tumors as well as the anatomical relation to extrahepatic and/or intrahepatic vascular and biliary structures. Furthermore, CM-CT enables the measurement of tumor volume, total liver volume and residual liver volume after resection. Under the condition of normal liver function a residual liver volume of 25 % is nowadays considered sufficient and safe. Recent studies in patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer showed a clear staging advantage of contrast media-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CM-MRI) versus CM-CT. In addition, most recent data showed that the use of liver-specific MRI contrast media further increases the sensitivity and specificity of detection of liver metastases. This imaging technology seems to lead closer to the ideal "one stop shopping" diagnostic tool in preoperative planning of liver resection.

  13. Liver gender dimorphism--insights from quantitative morphology.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ricardo; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Miranda, Helena; Carneiro, Fatima

    2015-12-01

    It was shown recently that many genes are differentially expressed in the liver of males and females, thus strengthening the concept of liver gender dimorphism. This dimorphism exists in many pathological scenarios, from regeneration to fibrosis, which has led to the development of gender hepatology. Nevertheless, it is still unknown if gender dimorphism occurs in the structure of the normal liver. In recent years, it has been shown that, compared with male, the female rat liver bears less fibrotic tissue, more Kupffer cells (per volume unit) and has higher hepatocellularity, including binucleated hepatocytes (per volume unit). Our hypothesis is that the human liver also hides a gender dimorphic pattern. Baseline differences in fibrotic tissue would contribute to explain severe liver fibrosis in men. As to the disparity of Kupffer cells, this would clarify the stronger response to post-surgery infections in women, and it could be equated when appraising the higher susceptibility to alcohol. Regarding differences in hepatocytes, they not only justify existing differences in some liver parameters (e.g., transaminases and bilirubin), but they could also account for the higher regenerative potential of the female liver. The structural dimorphism in the human liver would sustain the concept of gender hepatology and, eventually, should be considered in the context of liver transplantation.

  14. Management of coagulopathy in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Amarapurkar, Pooja D; Amarapurkar, Deepak N

    2011-01-01

    Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis have significantly impaired synthetic function. Many proteins involved in the coagulation process are synthesized in the liver. Routinely performed tests of the coagulation are abnormal in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. This has led to the widespread belief that decompensated liver cirrhosis is prototype of acquired hemorrhagic coagulopathy. If prothrombin time is prolonged more than 3 seconds over control, invasive procedures like liver biopsy, splenoportogram, percutaneous cholangiography, or surgery were associated with increased risk of bleeding, and coagulopathy should be corrected with infusion of fresh frozen plasma. These practices were without any scientific evidence and were associated with significant hazards of fresh frozen plasma transfusion. Now, it is realized that coagulation is a complex process involving the interaction of procoagulation and anticoagulation factors and the fibrinolytic system. As there is reduction in both anti and procoagulant factors, global tests of coagulation are normal in patients with acute and chronic liver disease indicating that coagulopathy in liver disease is more of a myth than a reality. In the last few years, surgical techniques have substantially improved, and complex procedures like liver transplantation can be done without the use of blood or blood products. Patients with liver cirrhosis may also be at increased risk of thrombosis. In this paper, we will discuss coagulopathy, increased risk of thrombosis, and their management in decompensated liver cirrhosis.

  15. Liver immunology and its role in inflammation and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark W; Harmon, Cathal; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2016-01-01

    The human liver is usually perceived as a non-immunological organ engaged primarily in metabolic, nutrient storage and detoxification activities. However, we now know that the healthy liver is also a site of complex immunological activity mediated by a diverse immune cell repertoire as well as non-hematopoietic cell populations. In the non-diseased liver, metabolic and tissue remodeling functions require elements of inflammation. This inflammation, in combination with regular exposure to dietary and microbial products, creates the potential for excessive immune activation. In this complex microenvironment, the hepatic immune system tolerates harmless molecules while at the same time remaining alert to possible infectious agents, malignant cells or tissue damage. Upon appropriate immune activation to challenge by pathogens or tissue damage, mechanisms to resolve inflammation are essential to maintain liver homeostasis. Failure to clear ‘dangerous' stimuli or regulate appropriately activated immune mechanisms leads to pathological inflammation and disrupted tissue homeostasis characterized by the progressive development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventual liver failure. Hepatic inflammatory mechanisms therefore have a spectrum of roles in the healthy adult liver; they are essential to maintain tissue and organ homeostasis and, when dysregulated, are key drivers of the liver pathology associated with chronic infection, autoimmunity and malignancy. In this review, we explore the changing perception of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in normal liver homeostasis and propose targeting of liver-specific immune regulation pathways as a therapeutic approach to treat liver disease. PMID:27063467

  16. Microarrays, antiobesity and the liver

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chávez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    In this review, the microarray technology and especially oligonucleotide arrays are exemplified with a practical example taken from the perilipin−/− mice and using the dChip software, available for non-lucrative purposes. It was found that the liver of perilipin−/− mice was healthy and normal, even under high-fat diet when compared with the results published for the scd1−/− mice, which under high-fat diets had a darker liver, suggestive of hepatic steatosis. Scd1 is required for the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids and plays a key role in the hepatic synthesis of triglycerides and of very-low-density lipoproteins. Both models of obesity resistance share many similar phenotypic antiobesity features, however, the perilipin−/− mice had a significant downregulation of stearoyl CoA desaturases scd1 and scd2 in its white adipose tissue, but a normal level of both genes inside the liver, even under high-fat diet. Here, different microarray methodologies are discussed, and also some of the most recent discoveries and perspectives regarding the use of microarrays, with an emphasis on obesity gene expression, and a personal remark on my findings of increased expression for hemoglobin transcripts and other hemo related genes (hemo-like), and for leukocyte like (leuko-like) genes inside the white adipose tissue of the perilipin−/− mice. In conclusion, microarrays have much to offer in comparative studies such as those in antiobesity, and also they are methodologies adequate for new astounding molecular discoveries [free full text of this article PMID:15657555

  17. Gender-based differences in the relationship between fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lim, Chae-Wan; Lee, Jae hyuk; Park, Hyung-Bok; Suh, Yongsung; Cho, Yoon-Hyeong; Choi, Tae-Young; Hwang, Eui-Seok; Cho, Deok-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate of subclinical atherosclerosis. Fatty liver disease is also linked to increased risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fatty liver disease and CIMT according to gender. Methods Patients who had undergone carotid and abdominal ultrasound between June 2011 and December 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. The differences between the CIMT values measured in the common carotid artery and the prevalence of carotid plaque in patients with fatty liver disease and those with normal livers were investigated. Results Out of a total of 1 121 patients, the men had more fatty liver disease than the women. The mean CIMT of the men was significantly higher than that of the women, and the men had more plaque than the women. The women with fatty liver disease had a significantly higher mean CIMT value and more plaque than the women with normal livers. The differences between the men with fatty liver and those with normal livers in mean CIMT values and in the prevalence of plaque were not significant. In the women, multivariate analysis showed that fatty liver disease was independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis [adjusted hazards ratio (HR) 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.007–2.697, p = 0.047]. Conclusions The men had more fatty liver disease, carotid plaque and higher CIMT values than the women. Fatty liver disease was a useful predictor of atherosclerosis, especially for the female study patients. PMID:26972662

  18. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  19. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  20. Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in hens overfed a purified diet. Selected enzyme activities and liver histology in relation to liver hemorrhage and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Walzem, R L; Simon, C; Morishita, T; Lowenstine, L; Hansen, R J

    1993-08-01

    A nutritionally adequate, purified diet was developed and used in studies to characterize selected aspects of laying hens in which fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) was induced by overfeeding. Hens consuming the diet ad libitum or intubated with the diet in quantities equivalent to usual daily energy intake maintained normal rates of lay, did not become obese, and did not develop liver hemorrhage. Overfed hens had a 33% incidence of FLHS, as indicated by the presence of severe liver hemorrhage score, and displayed the full range of symptoms associated with spontaneous outbreaks of FLHS, including definitive lesions of hepatic reticulin. Among four groups of hens clinically classified according to rates of liver hemorrhage and egg production, there were no differences noted in total liver fat, liver fat concentration, or final body weight. Liver hemorrhage was associated with the degree of induction of liver lipogenic accessory enzymes. Serum enzyme activities indicate that overfed hens, unlike the overfed goose, retain hepatocellular membrane integrity. Overfeeding caused altered reproductive performance in 72% of hens. Alterations included erratic laying, increased incidence of double ovulations, shell defects, follicular collapse, and oviduct involution. Pattern of lay preceding necropsy seemed to influence follicle weight at necropsy. The data presented re-emphasize the interdependence among liver, ovary, and oviduct function in the etiology of FLHS.

  1. Advocating for Normal Birth With Normal Clothes

    PubMed Central

    Waller-Wise, Renece

    2007-01-01

    Childbirth educators need to be aware that the clothes they wear when teaching classes send a nonverbal message to class participants. Regardless of who wears the clothing or what is worn, clothes send a message; thus, both the advantages and disadvantages related to clothing choice should be considered. Ultimately, the message should reflect the values of supporting normal birth. For childbirth educators who are allowed to choose their own apparel to wear in their classes, street clothes may be the benchmark for which to strive. This article discusses the many nonverbal messages that clothes convey and provides support for the choice of street clothes as the dress for the professional childbirth educator; thus, “normal clothes to promote normal birth.” PMID:18408807

  2. Multiscale bi-Gaussian filter for adjacent curvilinear structures detection with application to vasculature images.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Changyan; Staring, Marius; Wang, Yaonan; Shamonin, Denis P; Stoel, Berend C

    2013-01-01

    The intensity or gray-level derivatives have been widely used in image segmentation and enhancement. Conventional derivative filters often suffer from an undesired merging of adjacent objects because of their intrinsic usage of an inappropriately broad Gaussian kernel; as a result, neighboring structures cannot be properly resolved. To avoid this problem, we propose to replace the low-level Gaussian kernel with a bi-Gaussian function, which allows independent selection of scales in the foreground and background. By selecting a narrow neighborhood for the background with regard to the foreground, the proposed method will reduce interference from adjacent objects simultaneously preserving the ability of intraregion smoothing. Our idea is inspired by a comparative analysis of existing line filters, in which several traditional methods, including the vesselness, gradient flux, and medialness models, are integrated into a uniform framework. The comparison subsequently aids in understanding the principles of different filtering kernels, which is also a contribution of this paper. Based on some axiomatic scale-space assumptions, the full representation of our bi-Gaussian kernel is deduced. The popular γ-normalization scheme for multiscale integration is extended to the bi-Gaussian operators. Finally, combined with a parameter-free shape estimation scheme, a derivative filter is developed for the typical applications of curvilinear structure detection and vasculature image enhancement. It is verified in experiments using synthetic and real data that the proposed method outperforms several conventional filters in separating closely located objects and being robust to noise.

  3. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion arising adjacent to vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: a tertiary institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Go Eun; Yoon, Gun; Song, Yong Jung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva occurs in patients who have undergone radical hysterectomy, lymph node dissection, or radiation therapy for management of advanced uterine cancer. Since vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum typically presents as multiple, grossly verrucous vesicles of various sizes, it may be impossible to clinically distinguish vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum from other vulvoperineal cutaneous diseases. In the present study, 16 (1.6%) out of the 1,024 vulvar biopsy or excision specimens were diagnosed as lymphangioma circumscriptum. In two (12.5%) out of the 16 cases, unusual histopathological findings were observed. Both patients had previously undergone radical hysterectomy with lymph node dissection and postoperative radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy for advanced cervical cancer. Microscopic examination revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, which were located immediately adjacent to the normal squamous epithelium covering the dilated subepithelial lymphatic vessels. Further, human papillomavirus genotyping confirmed that both patients were infected with high-risk human papillomavirus. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cannot be grossly distinguished from vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum because the multiple, verrucous vesicles that constitute the characteristic gross appearance of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum hinder its distinction. In this regard, our cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, located adjacent to vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum, support the notion that active surgical excision is necessary for the treatment of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum. PMID:27329721

  4. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

  5. Groundwater recharge to the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Montgomery and Adjacent Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Timothy D.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Simply stated, groundwater recharge is the addition of water to the groundwater system. Most of the water that is potentially available for recharging the groundwater system in Montgomery and adjacent counties in southeast Texas moves relatively rapidly from land surface to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Recharge in southeast Texas is generally balanced by evapotranspiration, discharge to surface waters, and the downward movement of water into deeper parts of the groundwater system; however, this balance can be altered locally by groundwater withdrawals, impervious surfaces, land use, precipitation variability, or climate, resulting in increased or decreased rates of recharge. Recharge rates were compared to the 1971–2000 normal annual precipitation measured Cooperative Weather Station 411956, Conroe, Tex.

  6. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  7. Pyogenic liver abscess: contrast-enhanced MR imaging in rats.

    PubMed

    Weissleder, R; Saini, S; Stark, D D; Elizondo, G; Compton, C; Wittenberg, J; Ferrucci, J T

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging was used to evaluate experimentally induced pyogenic liver abscesses in an animal model. Rats were examined before and after IV administration of either gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), ferrite particles, or both contrast agents together. Pyogenic liver abscesses appeared hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Bolus administration of Gd-DTPA using a fast spin-echo sequence with repetition time of 250 msec and echo time of 20 msec (SE 250/20) showed transient selective enhancement of normal hepatic tissue and increased lesion conspicuity, quantitatively assessed by the contrast-to-noise ratio, which increased from -35.7 to -59.0. Delayed leakage of Gd-DTPA into the abscess center partially obscured small lesions at 30-60 min. Ferrite particles reduced the signal intensity of normal liver, and the abscess then appeared homogenously hyperintense. Applying the SE 500/32 sequence, the contrast-to-noise ratio increased from -1.2 to +74.0. Coordinated administration of both contrast agents showed a further increase in contrast to +94.0, with a hyperintense abscess rim surrounded by hypointense liver. Gd-DTPA increases abscess-liver contrast by rim enhancement of the abscess wall, and ferrite increases the abscess-liver contrast by selectively decreasing the signal intensity of surrounding normal liver. As a result of increased contrast-to-noise ratio, both contrast agents, alone or in combination, increase the conspicuity of hepatic abscesses.

  8. Split liver transplantation benefits the recipient of the 'leftover liver'.

    PubMed

    Dunn, S P; Haynes, J H; Nicolette, L A; Falkenstein, K; Pierson, A; Billmire, D F; Vinocur, C D; Weintraub, W

    1997-02-01

    The division of a single hepatic allograft to create two reduced-size grafts has been reported with decreased graft survival (50%) resulting in decreased enthusiasm for this approach. The authors reviewed their experience with 12 recipients of this procedure to evaluate the outcome of the children electively undergoing transplant with the "leftover liver." A retrospective review of six pairs of children receiving part of one hepatic allograft included donor anatomy, recipient operation, and allograft and patient outcomes. Recipient pairs were selected according to blood type compatibility, medical priority, and size restrictions of the larger right lobe and the smaller left lateral segment. Patient and graft survival were compared with elective and urgent patients undergoing whole or reduced-size transplants. Six donors weighed 71.8 +/- 17.4 kg and were 22.6 +/- 11.0 years of age. Recipients of the right lobe were 11.8 +/- 4.2 years of age and weighed 41.9 +/- 14 kg. Recipients of the left lateral segment were 1.81 +/- 1.1 years of age and weighed 9.85 +/- 1.82 kg. Six patients were initially offered the donor allograft because of their hospitalization, critical illness or waiting time. Six additional patients electively underwent transplantation with the leftover liver. Donor organs were screened for normal arterial anatomy. Division of the allograft was performed on the back table in the falciform groove. Generally the left lateral segment graft received the major portion of the hepatic artery and the right lobe the major portion of the portal vein. Five of six (83%) elective patients, two receiving the right lobe and three receiving the left lateral segment had prompt recovery and left the hospital without surgical complication. One recipient of a right lobe transplant died from primary allograft nonfunction. These results are not different from the outcomes of all elective patients who underwent transplantation with whole or reduced-sized transplants in the

  9. Assessment of liver function in chronic liver diseases and regional function of irradiated liver by means of 99mTc-galactosyl-human serum albumin liver scintigraphy and quantitative spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Fukui, A; Murase, K; Tsuda, T; Fujii, T; Ikezoe, J

    2000-12-01

    Scintigraphy with 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid galactosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) was performed on 102 patients, then the hepatic extraction fraction (HEF), the rate constant for liver uptake of the tracer from the blood (K1) and the hepatic blood flow index (HBFI) were determined by spectral analysis. The HEF, K1 and HBFI values correlated moderately or closely with various indices of hepatic function, and the HEF and K1 values decreased according to the stage of liver dysfunction. The HEF and K1 values linearly and nonlinearly correlated with HH15 and LHL15, respectively. The HEF, K1 and HBFI values for the irradiated portion of 20 patients before and alter irradiation were compared. The HEF value in patients with a cirrhotic liver significantly (p < 0.002) decreased compared with that in patients with a normal liver at a dose of less than 40 Gy, whereas the HBFI value in patients with a normal liver significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared with that in patients with a cirrhotic liver at a dose of 40 Gy or greater. This method appears to be a simple, non-invasive and useful tool with which to quantitatively evaluate liver function and it also helps clarify changes in regional function of the irradiated liver.

  10. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination Recommendations Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

  11. Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Liver Disease Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you have liver disease, you are at risk for pulmonary hypertension? ... tissue diseases (scleroderma and lupus for example), chronic liver disease, congenital heart disease, or HIV infec- tion. ...

  12. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Liver Tumors Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a treatment that ... of Liver Tumors? What is Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, sometimes referred to as RFA, ...

  14. About the Operation: Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Transplant There are two very different surgical approaches to liver transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach, both ...

  15. Human liver nucleolar antigens.

    PubMed

    Busch, R K; Busch, H

    1981-10-01

    In an extension of previous studies on the antigens in rat liver nucleoli (R. K. Busch, R. C. Reddy, D. H. Henning, and H. Busch, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160, 185 (1979); R. K. Busch and H. Busch, Tumori 63, 347 (1977); F. M. Davis, R. K. Busch, L. C. Yeoman, and H. Busch, Cancer Res. 38, 1906 (1978), rabbit antibodies were elicited to human liver nucleoli isolated by the sucrose--Mg2+ method (10). Fluorescent nucleoli were found in liver cryostat sections treated with rabbit anti-human liver nucleolar antibodies followed by fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibodies. In HeLa cells, fluorescence was distributed throughout the nucleus and in a nuclear network but was not localized to the nucleolus. In placental cryostat sections, an overall nuclear fluorescence was observed with some localization to nucleoli. Immunodiffusion analysis revealed two immunoprecipitin bands which appeared to be liver specific. Other immunoprecipitin bands were common to liver, placenta, and HeLa nuclear extracts. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis revealed two liver-specific antigens, one migrating to the cathode and the other to the anode Other rockets exhibited identity to antigens of other nuclear extracts. These results demonstrate the presence of human liver nucleolar-specific antigens which were not found in the HeLa and placental cells.

  16. Angiography of Liver Transplantation Patients 1

    PubMed Central

    Zajko, Albert B.; Bron, Klaus M.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Van Thiel, David H.; Gartner, J. Carlton; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Shaw, Byers W.; Zitelli, Basil J.; Malatack, J. Jeffrey; Urbach, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Over 45 months, 119 angiographic examinations were performed in 95 patients prior to liver transplantation, and 53 examinations in 44 patients after transplantation. Transplantation feasibility was influenced by patency of the portal vein and inferior vena cava. Selective arterial portography, wedged hepatic venography, and transhepatic portography were used to assess the portal vein if sonography or computed tomography was inconclusive. Major indications for angiography after transplantation included early liver failure, sepsis, unexplained elevation of liver enzyme levels, and delayed bile leakage, all of which may be due to hepatic artery thrombosis. Other indications included gastrointestinal tract bleeding, hemobilia, and evaluation of portal vein patency in patients with chronic rejection who were being considered for retransplantation. Normal radiographic features of hepatic artery and portal vein reconstruction are demonstrated. Complications diagnosed using results of angiography included hepatic artery or portal vein stenoses and thromboses and pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms. Intrahepatic arterial narrowing, attenuation, slow flow, and poor filling were seen in five patients with rejection PMID:3901102

  17. Complement activation in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, L E; De Villiers, D; Markham, D; Whaley, K; Thomas, H C

    1982-01-01

    Patients with HBsAg positive chronic active liver disease (CALD) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) exhibit increased C3d concentrations and changes in the serum concentrations of the complement components consistent with activation of the classical and alternative pathways. In these patients the concentrations of the regulatory proteins, C3b inactivator (C3bINA) and beta IH globulin, are normal. Patients with HBsAg negative CALD and alcohol induced liver disease (ALD) exhibit no evidence of an increased level of complement system activation. In these patients diminished serum concentrations of complement components appear to be related to diminished hepatic synthetic function. C4 synthesis may be specifically reduced in autoimmune chronic active liver disease. PMID:7083631

  18. High liver glycogen in hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Cain, A R; Ryman, B E

    1971-11-01

    A case of hereditary fructose intolerance is reported in a girl aged 2 years at the time of her death. She had apparently progressed normally until the age of 14 months. At 19 months she was admitted to hospital with failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, and superficial infections. Investigations revealed hypoglycaemia, persistent acidosis, aminoaciduria, and a high liver glycogen level which suggested that she had glycogen storage disease. There was also some evidence of malabsorption. At necropsy the liver enzyme estimations showed that fructose 1-phosphate aldolase activity was absent and that fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase activity was reduced. Hereditary fructose intolerance and glycogen storage disease have been confused in the past on clinical grounds, but a high liver glycogen level has not previously been reported in hereditary fructose intolerance.

  19. Acute liver failure following intravenous methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui; Nishida, Manami; Namera, Akira; Ohwada, Takashi

    2002-08-01

    A 41-y-o Pakistani man presented with psychosis, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and liver dysfunction approximately 6 h after i.v. injection of methamphetamine. Serum concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine on admission were 0.30 microg/mL and 0.04 microg/mL, respectively. Total serum bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase concentrations peaked on the 3rd hospital day at 8.6 mg/dL and 4155 IU/L, respectively, and gradually returned to normal with supportive care. The patient had no evidence of infectious hepatitis or intake of other drugs. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen obtained on the 11th d showed confluent necrosis and ballooning degeneration in centrilobular zones. No inflammatory changes were seen in portal tracts. Liver damage can be a complication of illicit methamphetamine use, even in patients without viral infection or intake of other drugs.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of liver hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, R.; Lanir, A.; Atlan, H.; Naschitz, J.E.; Simon, J.S.; Enat, R.; Front, D.; Israel, O.; Chisin, R.; Krausz, Y.

    1985-10-01

    Nine patients with cavernous hemangioma of the liver were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 0.5 T superconductive magnet. Spin-echo technique was used with varying time to echo (TE) and repetition times (TR). Results were compared with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), echography, and arteriography. Four illustrated cases are reported. It was possible to establish a pattern for MRI characteristics of cavernous hemangiomas; rounded or smooth lobulated shape, marked increase in T1 and T2 values as compared with normal liver values. It is concluded that, although more experience is necessary to compare the specificity with that of ultrasound and CT, MRI proved to be very sensitive for the diagnosis of liver hemangioma, especially in the case of small ones which may be missed by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy.

  1. Autophagy regulates sphingolipid levels in the liver.

    PubMed

    Alexaki, Aikaterini; Gupta, Sita D; Majumder, Saurav; Kono, Mari; Tuymetova, Galina; Harmon, Jeffrey M; Dunn, Teresa M; Proia, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Sphingolipid levels are tightly regulated to maintain cellular homeostasis. During pathologic conditions such as in aging, inflammation, and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, levels of some sphingolipids, including the bioactive metabolite ceramide, are elevated. Sphingolipid metabolism has been linked to autophagy, a critical catabolic process in both normal cell function and disease; however, the in vivo relevance of the interaction is not well-understood. Here, we show that blocking autophagy in the liver by deletion of the Atg7 gene, which is essential for autophagosome formation, causes an increase in sphingolipid metabolites including ceramide. We also show that overexpression of serine palmitoyltransferase to elevate de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis induces autophagy in the liver. The results reveal autophagy as a process that limits excessive ceramide levels and that is induced by excessive elevation of de novo sphingolipid synthesis in the liver. Dysfunctional autophagy may be an underlying mechanism causing elevations in ceramide that may contribute to pathogenesis in diseases.

  2. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  3. Adjacent segment disease and C-ADR: promises fulfilled?

    PubMed Central

    Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312

  4. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  5. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-06

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R.

  6. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  7. Astronaut Charles Duke stands at rock adjacent to 'House Rock'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, stands at a rock adjacent (south) to the huge 'House Rock' (barely out of view at right edge). Note shadow at extreme right center where the two moon-exploring crewmen of the mission sampled what they referred to as the 'eastwest split of House Rock' or the open space between this rock and 'House Rock'. Duke has a sample bag in his hand, and a lunar surface rake leans against the large boulder.

  8. Empires and percolation: stochastic merging of adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldous, D. J.; Ong, J. R.; Zhou, W.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a stochastic model in which adjacent planar regions A, B merge stochastically at some rate λ(A, B) and observe analogies with the well-studied topics of mean-field coagulation and of bond percolation. Do infinite regions appear in finite time? We give a simple condition on λ for this hegemony property to hold, and another simple condition for it to not hold, but there is a large gap between these conditions, which includes the case λ(A, B) ≡ 1. For this case, a non-rigorous analytic argument and simulations suggest hegemony.

  9. [Xenotransplantation of the liver].

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Schlitt, H J

    1999-01-01

    The development of pigs transgenic for human regulators of complement activation resulted in the nearly total elimination of episodes of hyperacute rejection following discordant solid organ xenotransplantation. Following discordant heart or kidney transplantation, in subhuman primates, graft survival rates of up to several months can be observed. In contrast to these organs, the xenotransplantation of the liver is associated with the inherent problem of the immunological and metabolic compatibility of the large variety of xenoproteins generated. Based on a review of data mainly derived from experimental ex-vivo xenoliver perfusions in patients with hepatic coma, whole organ orthotopic or heterotopic liver xenotransplantation currently is not likely to become a relevant option for the treatment of patients with endstage liver failure. In contrast, clinical studies utilizing different forms of bioartificial liver assist devices are currently underway. Based on preliminary data published, this form of liver support therapy might enter the clinic in the near future.

  10. SIRT of liver metastases: physiological and pathophysiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Van de Wiele, Christophe; Maes, Alex; Brugman, Eddy; D'Asseler, Yves; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Mees, Gilles; Stellamans, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Available literature on the differences in circulation and microcirculation of normal liver and liver metastases as well as in rheology of the different radiolabelled microspheres [(99m)Tc-labelled macroaggregates of albumin (MAA), (90)Y-TheraSpheres and (90)Y-SIR-spheres] used in selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) are reviewed and implications thereof on the practice of SIRT discussed. As a result of axial accumulation and skimming, large microspheres are preferentially deposited in regions of high flow, whereas smaller microspheres are preferentially diverted to regions of low flow. As flow to normal liver tissue is considerably variable between segments and also within one segment, microspheres will be delivered heterogeneously within the microvasculature of normal liver tissue. This non-uniformity in microsphere distribution in normal liver tissue has a significant "liver-sparing" effect on the dose distribution of (90)Y-labelled microspheres. Arterial flow to liver metastases is most pronounced in the hypervascular rim of metastases, followed by the smaller metastases and finally by the central hypoperfused region of the larger metastases. Because of the wide variability in size of labelled MAAs and because of the skimming effect, existing differences in flow between metastatic lesions of variable size are likely exaggerated on (99m)Tc-MAA scintigraphy when compared to (90)Y-TheraSpheres and (90)Y-SIR-spheres (smaller variability in size and probably also in specific activity). Ideally, labelled MAAs would contain a size range similar to that of (90)Y-SIR-spheres or (90)Y-TheraSpheres. Furthermore, the optimal number of MAA particles to inject for the pretreatment planning scintigraphy warrants further exploration as it was shown that concentrated suspensions of microspheres produce more optimal tumour to normal liver distribution ratios. Finally, available data suggest that the flow-based heterogeneous distribution of microspheres to metastatic

  11. Disposition of nitrendipine in patients with chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Zilly, W; Rämsch, K D; Gothe, M

    1988-01-01

    Metabolism of nitrendipine occurs principally in the liver. Therefore, an alteration of pharmacokinetics has to be discussed in patients with hepatic impairment. To evaluate steady-state plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics, a low dose of nitrendipine (5 mg/day for 3 weeks) was administered orally to patients with different chronic liver diseases (fatty liver, n = 3; chronic hepatitis, n = 2; and cirrhosis of the liver, n = 5). Nitrendipine plasma concentrations were analyzed by using a gas-liquid chromatography procedure. Twenty-two days after beginning the study, steady-state plasma concentrations were lower than 1.0 microgram/L in one patient without liver disease and in seven patients with chronic liver diseases, in contrast to three patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (5.5, 1.3, and 2.9 micrograms/L). The maximum concentration (Cmax) was 2.3 micrograms/L in the patient without liver disease and 8.3 +/- 3.9 micrograms/L in the hepatic patients. The elimination half-life was prolonged in three of five patients with cirrhosis of the liver (35, 67, and 43 h), whereas in the other patients the half-life was in a normal range (4.2-21.3 h). The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was enhanced in three patients with liver cirrhosis (387, 69, and 126 h/micrograms/L); in the other seven hepatic patients, results were normal (35-49 h/micrograms/L). There were no alterations observed in any patient in blood pressure and laboratory data. Oral administration of a low dose of nitrendipine resulted in slightly enhanced steady state plasma concentrations only in patients with advanced cirrhosis of the liver. The half-life, AUC, and bioavailability also seem to be altered only in a more severe state of liver disease.

  12. Augmenting atlas-based liver segmentation for radiotherapy treatment planning by incorporating image features proximal to the atlas contours.

    PubMed

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Chen, Jinhu; Li, Hongsheng; Yin, Yong; Ibragimov, Bulat; Xing, Lei

    2017-01-07

    Atlas-based segmentation utilizes a library of previously delineated contours of similar cases to facilitate automatic segmentation. The problem, however, remains challenging because of limited information carried by the contours in the library. In this studying, we developed a narrow-shell strategy to enhance the information of each contour in the library and to improve the accuracy of the exiting atlas-based approach. This study presented a new concept of atlas based segmentation method. Instead of using the complete volume of the target organs, only information along the organ contours from the atlas images was used for guiding segmentation of the new image. In setting up an atlas-based library, we included not only the coordinates of contour points, but also the image features adjacent to the contour. In this work, 139 CT images with normal appearing livers collected for radiotherapy treatment planning were used to construct the library. The CT images within the library were first registered to each other using affine registration. The nonlinear narrow shell was generated alongside the object contours of registered images. Matching voxels were selected inside common narrow shell image features of a library case and a new case using a speed-up robust features (SURF) strategy. A deformable registration was then performed using a thin plate splines (TPS) technique. The contour associated with the library case was propagated automatically onto the new image by exploiting the deformation field vectors. The liver contour was finally obtained by employing level set based energy optimization within the narrow shell. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparing quantitatively the auto-segmentation results with that delineated by physicians. A novel atlas-based segmentation technique with inclusion of neighborhood image features through the introduction of a narrow-shell surrounding the target objects was established. Application of the technique to

  13. Augmenting atlas-based liver segmentation for radiotherapy treatment planning by incorporating image features proximal to the atlas contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Chen, Jinhu; Li, Hongsheng; Yin, Yong; Ibragimov, Bulat; Xing, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Atlas-based segmentation utilizes a library of previously delineated contours of similar cases to facilitate automatic segmentation. The problem, however, remains challenging because of limited information carried by the contours in the library. In this studying, we developed a narrow-shell strategy to enhance the information of each contour in the library and to improve the accuracy of the exiting atlas-based approach. This study presented a new concept of atlas based segmentation method. Instead of using the complete volume of the target organs, only information along the organ contours from the atlas images was used for guiding segmentation of the new image. In setting up an atlas-based library, we included not only the coordinates of contour points, but also the image features adjacent to the contour. In this work, 139 CT images with normal appearing livers collected for radiotherapy treatment planning were used to construct the library. The CT images within the library were first registered to each other using affine registration. The nonlinear narrow shell was generated alongside the object contours of registered images. Matching voxels were selected inside common narrow shell image features of a library case and a new case using a speed-up robust features (SURF) strategy. A deformable registration was then performed using a thin plate splines (TPS) technique. The contour associated with the library case was propagated automatically onto the new image by exploiting the deformation field vectors. The liver contour was finally obtained by employing level set based energy optimization within the narrow shell. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparing quantitatively the auto-segmentation results with that delineated by physicians. A novel atlas-based segmentation technique with inclusion of neighborhood image features through the introduction of a narrow-shell surrounding the target objects was established. Application of the technique to

  14. Comparison of Histologic Characteristics of Chinese Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Persistently Normal or Mildly Elevated ALT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Xue, Li; Yan, Rong; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Mei-Juan; Hai-Jun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease can develop in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) who seldom undergo liver biopsy. We aimed to determine histologic characteristics of a large cohort of Chinese CHB patients undergoing liver biopsy and to evaluate the utility of ALT and HBV DNA values at the time of biopsy in predicting liver disease in this population. This prospective study enrolled 230 treatment-naïve patients with persistently normal or mildly elevated ALT. All patients had a liver biopsy. ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and HBV DNA levels were some of the other parameters measured. Using Scheuer's classification, significant histology was defined as stage ≧2 fibrosis and/or stage 1 fibrosis plus≧ grade 2 inflammation. Liver disease was observed in 34.4% and 61.8% of patients with normal ALT and mildly elevated ALT, respectively. Patients with mildly elevated ALT levels had significantly more events, including liver disease, elevated AST, and moderate to severe inflammation and liver fibrosis, than patients with normal ALT (all P≤0.005). A total of 107 patients (46.5%) had liver disease and 123 (53.5%) did not. PLT and ALT were significantly associated with liver disease (both P<0.001). Patients with elevated ALT, lower platelet count and HBV DNA < 7 log10copies/mL may have histologically significant changes associated with liver disease. Multivariate analysis showed that PLT and HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with liver disease in patients with normal ALT while gender and HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with liver disease in patients with mildly elevated ALT. Assessing liver damage via biopsy in patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT may help to identify those who would benefit from antiviral therapy. PMID:24260428

  15. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice.

  16. Liver resection using a water jet.

    PubMed

    Une, Y; Uchino, J; Horie, T; Sato, Y; Ogasawara, K; Kakita, A; Sano, F

    1989-01-01

    The water-jet method has been used during hepatic resection. The instrument cuts the hepatic tissue with the high pressure of the fine water flow, while the exposed elastic intrahepatic vessels are spared injury. A comparative study on the water-jet method with the previously employed conventional methods was undertaken. Hepatic resections were performed on 35 patients using the water-jet method. Cirrhosis of the liver was associated with 10 of the 24 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. An ordinary saline solution was used as the jet, which was projected at a pressure of between 12 kg/cm2 and 20 kg/cm2 through a 0.15/mm-diameter nozzle. A higher jet pressure was needed to cut the fibrotic hepatic parenchyma. In the case of normal liver, the intrahepatic vessels of more than 0.2 mm were well preserved. In most of the cases, the loss of blood when cutting the hepatic parenchyma can be easily reduced with a jet pressure of 15-16 kg/cm2, thus preserving the fine vessels more than 0.2 mm in diameter without injury. When the same pressure was applied in the cutting of a cirrhotic liver, it took much longer time compared to that of a non-cirrhotic normal liver parenchyma. The cut surface was smooth compared to that after using CUSA, although its disadvantages lie in the formation of air bubbles, which obscure the operative field. The controlled projection of a jet of water under optimal pressure may ensure a safe hepatic resection of both normal and cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, because of its uncomplicated form, a wide range of applications can be expected, while the lower cost will also expedite its large-scale use for economic reasons.

  17. Examination of the liver in personnel working with liquid rocket propellant

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Palle; Bredahl, Erik; Lauritsen, Ove; Laursen, Thomas

    1970-01-01

    Petersen, P., Bredahl, E., Lauritsen, O., and Laursen, T. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 141-146. Examination of the liver in personnel working with liquid rocket propellants. Personnel working with liquid rocket propellants were subjected to routine health examinations, including liver function tests, as the propellant, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) is potentially toxic to the liver. In 46 persons the concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) were raised. Liver biopsy was performed in 26 of these men; 6 specimens were pathological (fatty degeneration), 5 were uncertain, and 15 were normal. All 6 pathological biopsies were from patients with a raised SGPT at the time of biopsy. Of the 15 persons with a normal liver biopsy, 14 had a normal SGPT, while one (who was an alcoholic) had a raised SGPT. The connection between SGPT and histology of the liver, as well as the possible causal relation between the pathological findings and exposure to UDMH, is discussed. Images PMID:5428632

  18. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  19. Coexistence Analysis of Adjacent Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Olama, Mohammed M

    2013-01-01

    As the licensing and deployment of Long term evolution (LTE) systems are ramping up, the study of coexistence of LTE systems is an essential topic in civil and military applications. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of adjacent LTE systems aiming at evaluating the effect of inter-system interference on system capacity and performance as a function of some of the most common mitigation techniques: frequency guard band, base station (BS) antenna coupling loss, and user equipment (UE) antenna spacing. A system model is constructed for two collocated macro LTE networks. The developed model takes into consideration the RF propagation environment, power control scheme, and adjacent channel interference. Coexistence studies are performed for a different combination of time/frequency division duplex (TDD/FDD) systems under three different guard-bands of 0MHz, 5MHz, and 10MHz. Numerical results are presented to advice the minimum frequency guard band, BS coupling loss, and UE antenna isolation required for a healthy system operation.

  20. Non invasive tools for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Cervello, Melchiorre; Licata, Anna; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of many forms of chronic hepatitis of different etiologies is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules surrounded by annular fibrosis. This chronic progressive clinical condition, leads to liver cell failure and portal hypertension, which can favour the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Defining the phase of the natural history is crucial for therapeutic choice and prognosis. Liver biopsy is currently considered the best available standard of reference but it has some limits, so alternative tools have been developed to substitute liver biopsy when assessing liver fibrosis. Serum markers offer a cost-effective alternative to liver biopsy being less invasive and theoretically without complications. They can be classified into direct and indirect markers which may be used alone or in combination to produce composite scores. Diagnostic imaging includes a number of instruments and techniques to estimate liver fibrosis and cirrhosis like ultrasound (US), US Doppler, contrast enhanced US and Elastography. US could be used for the diagnosis of advanced LC while is not able to evaluate progression of fibrosis, in this case Elastography is more reliable. This review aims to revise the most recent data from the literature about non invasive methods useful in defining liver fibrosis. PMID:25561782

  1. Gene expression profile analysis of type 2 diabetic mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ben; He, Zhishui; Zhai, Qiwei

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis, and impaired hepatic glucose metabolism contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the precise gene expression profile of diabetic liver and its association with diabetes and related diseases are yet to be further elucidated. In this study, we detected the gene expression profile by high-throughput sequencing in 9-week-old normal and type 2 diabetic db/db mouse liver. Totally 12132 genes were detected, and 2627 genes were significantly changed in diabetic mouse liver. Biological process analysis showed that the upregulated genes in diabetic mouse liver were mainly enriched in metabolic processes. Surprisingly, the downregulated genes in diabetic mouse liver were mainly enriched in immune-related processes, although all the altered genes were still mainly enriched in metabolic processes. Similarly, KEGG pathway analysis showed that metabolic pathways were the major pathways altered in diabetic mouse liver, and downregulated genes were enriched in immune and cancer pathways. Analysis of the key enzyme genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism showed that some key enzyme genes were significantly increased and none of the detected key enzyme genes were decreased. In addition, FunDo analysis showed that liver cancer and hepatitis were most likely to be associated with diabetes. Taken together, this study provides the digital gene expression profile of diabetic mouse liver, and demonstrates the main diabetes-associated hepatic biological processes, pathways, key enzyme genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism and potential hepatic diseases.

  2. ADOPTION OF MELD SCORE INCREASES THE NUMBER OF LIVER TRANSPLANT

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; ANDRAUS, Wellington; MARTINO, Rodrigo Bronze; SANTOS, Vinicius Rocha; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; HADDAD, Luciana BP; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation is performed at large transplant centers worldwide as a therapeutic intervention for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Aim To analyze the outcomes and incidence of liver transplantation performed at the University of São Paulo and to compare those with the State of São Paulo before and after adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Method Evaluation of the number of liver transplantations before and after adoption of the MELD score. Mean values and standard deviations were used to analyze normally distributed variables. The incidence results were compared with those of the State of São Paulo. Results There was a high prevalence of male patients, with a predominance of middle-aged. The main indication for liver transplantation was hepatitis C cirrhosis. The mean and median survival rates and overall survival over ten and five years were similar between the groups (p>0.05). The MELD score increased over the course of the study period for patients who underwent liver transplantation (p>0.05). There were an increased number of liver transplants after adoption of the MELD score at this institution and in the State of São Paulo (p<0.001). Conclusion The adoption of the MELD score led to increase the number of liver transplants performed in São Paulo. PMID:25184772

  3. Non invasive tools for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Cervello, Melchiorre; Licata, Anna; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2014-12-28

    Liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of many forms of chronic hepatitis of different etiologies is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules surrounded by annular fibrosis. This chronic progressive clinical condition, leads to liver cell failure and portal hypertension, which can favour the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Defining the phase of the natural history is crucial for therapeutic choice and prognosis. Liver biopsy is currently considered the best available standard of reference but it has some limits, so alternative tools have been developed to substitute liver biopsy when assessing liver fibrosis. Serum markers offer a cost-effective alternative to liver biopsy being less invasive and theoretically without complications. They can be classified into direct and indirect markers which may be used alone or in combination to produce composite scores. Diagnostic imaging includes a number of instruments and techniques to estimate liver fibrosis and cirrhosis like ultrasound (US), US Doppler, contrast enhanced US and Elastography. US could be used for the diagnosis of advanced LC while is not able to evaluate progression of fibrosis, in this case Elastography is more reliable. This review aims to revise the most recent data from the literature about non invasive methods useful in defining liver fibrosis.

  4. Mimicking liver sinusoidal structures and functions using a 3D-configured microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Li, Ning; Yang, Hao; Luo, Chunhua; Gong, Yixin; Tong, Chunfang; Gao, Yuxin; Lü, Shouqin; Long, Mian

    2017-02-28

    Physiologically, four major types of hepatic cells - the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells, and hepatocytes - reside inside liver sinusoids and interact with flowing peripheral cells under blood flow. It is hard to mimic an in vivo liver sinusoid due to its complex multiple cell-cell interactions, spatiotemporal construction, and mechanical microenvironment. Here we developed an in vitro liver sinusoid chip by integrating the four types of primary murine hepatic cells into two adjacent fluid channels separated by a porous permeable membrane, replicating liver's key structures and configurations. Each type of cells was identified with its respective markers, and the assembled chip presented the liver-specific unique morphology of fenestration. The flow field in the liver chip was quantitatively analyzed by computational fluid dynamics simulations and particle tracking visualization tests. Intriguingly, co-culture and shear flow enhance albumin secretion independently or cooperatively, while shear flow alone enhances HGF production and CYP450 metabolism. Under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulations, the hepatic cell co-culture facilitated neutrophil recruitment in the liver chip. Thus, this 3D-configured in vitro liver chip integrates the two key factors of shear flow and the four types of primary hepatic cells to replicate key structures, hepatic functions, and primary immune responses and provides a new in vitro model to investigate the short-duration hepatic cellular interactions under a microenvironment mimicking the physiology of a liver.

  5. Cells and materials for liver tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Sheng; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Hsieh, Dean-Kuo; Wen, Tung-Chou; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Sun, Li-Yi; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Liver transplantation is currently the most efficacious treatment for end-stage liver diseases. However, one main problem with liver transplantation is the limited number of donor organs that are available. Therefore, liver tissue engineering based on cell transplantation that combines materials to mimic the liver is under investigation with the goal of restoring normal liver functions. Tissue engineering aims to mimic the interactions among cells with a scaffold. Particular materials or a matrix serve as a scaffold and provide a three-dimensional environment for cell proliferation and interaction. Moreover, the scaffold plays a role in regulating cell maturation and function via these interactions. In cultures of hepatic lineage cells, regulation of cell proliferation and specific function using biocompatible synthetic, biodegradable bioderived matrices, protein-coated materials, surface-modified nanofibers, and decellularized biomatrix has been demonstrated. Furthermore, beneficial effects of addition of growth factor cocktails to a flow bioreactor or coculture system on cell viability and function have been observed. In addition, a system for growing stem cells, liver progenitor cells, and primary hepatocytes for transplantation into animal models was developed, which produces hepatic lineage cells that are functional and that show long-term proliferation following transplantation. The major limitation of cells proliferated with matrix-based transplantation systems is the high initial cell loss and dysfunction, which may be due to the absence of blood flow and the changes in nutrients. Thus, the development of vascular-like scaffold structures, the formation of functional bile ducts, and the maintenance of complex metabolic functions remain as major problems in hepatic tissue engineering and will need to be addressed to enable further advances toward clinical applications.

  6. Update on liver transplants in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Walid; Haydar, Ali; Nounou, Ghina El; Naaj, Abdallah Abou El; Khoury, Ghattas; Jabbour, Samar; Khalife, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    Objective-To review all liver transplants performed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center from 1998 to present. Materials and Methods-From 1998 to present, 21 liver transplants (15 into adults and 6 into children) were performed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. Of the 21 transplants, 5 were living related liver transplants. Results-Patient survival was 76% at 1, 5, and 10 years. Five recipients died at a median of 9 (range, 1-56) days after transplant. Causes of death included 1 case of severe cellular rejection, 1 case of portal and hepatic artery thrombosis, 1 case of intraoperative cardiac arrest, and 2 cases of primary nonfunction. Two biliary complications and 2 major vascular complications also occurred. All 16 survivors are well, with normal findings on liver function tests at a median follow-up time of 93 (range, 10-185) months after transplant. Conclusions-Although our numbers are small, the 10-year survival rate is comparable to reported rates for other series around the world. Deceased organ donations must be encouraged so that we can perform more transplants. As a source of organs, living related liver transplant is important; however, it cannot replace deceased donation.

  7. The gut microbiota and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Cristina; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-05-01

    The leaky gut hypothesis links translocating microbial products with the onset and progression of liver disease, and for a long time was considered one of its major contributors. However, a more detailed picture of the intestinal microbiota contributing to liver disease started to evolve. The gut is colonized by trillions of microbes that aid in digestion, modulate immune response, and generate a variety of products that result from microbial metabolic activities. These products together with host-bacteria interactions influence both normal physiology and disease susceptibility. A disruption of the symbiosis between microbiota and host is known as dysbiosis and can have profound effects on health. Qualitative changes such as increased proportions of harmful bacteria and reduced levels of beneficial bacteria, and also quantitative changes in the total amount of bacteria (overgrowth) have been associated with liver disease. Understanding the link between the pathophysiology of liver diseases and compositional and functional changes of the microbiota will help in the design of innovative therapies. In this review, we focus on factors resulting in dysbiosis, and discuss how dysbiosis can disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to liver disease.

  8. Autophagy in alcohol-induced liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Dolganiuc, Angela; Thomes, Paul G; Ding, Wen-Xing; Lemasters, John J; Donohue, Terrence M

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol is the most abused substance worldwide and a significant source of liver injury; the mechanisms of alcohol-induced liver disease are not fully understood. Significant cellular toxicity and impairment of protein synthesis and degradation occur in alcohol-exposed liver cells, along with changes in energy balance and modified responses to pathogens. Autophagy is the process of cellular catabolism through the lysosomal-dependent machinery, which maintains a balance among protein synthesis, degradation, and recycling of self. Autophagy is part of normal homeostasis and it can be triggered by multiple factors that threaten cell integrity, including starvation, toxins, or pathogens. Multiple factors regulate autophagy; survival and preservation of cellular integrity at the expense of inadequately folded proteins and damaged high-energy generating intracellular organelles are prominent targets of autophagy in pathological conditions. Coincidentally, inadequately folded proteins accumulate and high-energy generating intracellular organelles, such as mitochondria, are damaged by alcohol abuse; these alcohol-induced pathological findings prompted investigation of the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver damage. Our review summarizes the current knowledge about the role and implications of autophagy in alcohol-induced liver disease.

  9. Independence of sialic acid levels in normal and malignant growth.

    PubMed

    Khadapkar, S V; Sheth, N A; Bhide, S V

    1975-06-01

    Sialic acid content in breast or tumor tissue and serum of mouse strains that are either susceptible or resistant to breast cancer was measured at various age periods. Sialic acid content was also studied in normal lung tissue and in lung adenoma and hepatoma. Sialic acid levels during nonmalignant growth of a tissue were measured in breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation, and in regenerating liver, as well as in newborn and postnatal liver. The sialic acid content, when expressed per mg of protein, increased in mammary tumor, lung adenoma, and hepatoma. It also increased in nonmalignant growth of breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation and of regenerating liver and postnatal liver. Increase in sialic acid per mg DNA was observed only in lung tumors, regenerating liver, and postnatal liver. It appears that the changes in sialic acid level are independent of the normal or malignant growth of a tissue and that these changes might be the function of the parameter used to express the sialic acid values, i.e., either the DNA content or protein content of a given tissue.

  10. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-06-21

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions.

  11. Proteoglycans in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  12. Propylthiouracil-induced liver failure and artificial liver support systems: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dong-Bo; Chen, En-Qiang; Bai, Lang; Tang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background Antithyroid drugs carry a potential risk of hepatotoxicity. Propylthiouracil (PTU) is commonly prescribed for patients with hyperthyroidism. PTU, however, can induce liver injury, ranging from mild asymptomatic elevation of aminotransferases to acute liver failure (ALF). Case presentation This case reports on a 16-year-old Chinese girl with hyperthyroidism, who was admitted to our hospital for jaundice, nausea, and fatigue associated with severe hyperbilirubinemia and coagulopathy. She had been prescribed PTU 5 months earlier. There was no history of hypersensitivity to drugs, viral liver diseases, blood transfusion, or surgery. On the basis of her symptoms and the clinical data, she was diagnosed with PTU-induced ALF. Due to the limited number of available donor organs for liver transplantation, she was started on treatment with artificial liver support system (ALSS). After four sessions of ALSS, her clinical signs and symptoms were found to be markedly improved, and she was discharged 25 days after admission. Four months later, her liver function normalized. Conclusion Although PTU-induced liver failure is rare in clinical practice, liver function should be appropriately monitored during treatment with PTU. PTU-induced ALF in this patient was successfully managed with an ALSS, suggesting that the latter may be an alternative to liver transplantation. PMID:28138249

  13. Lactoferrin Enhanced Apoptosis and Protected Against Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hessin, Alyaa; Hegazy, Rehab; Hassan, Azza; Yassin, Nemat; Kenawy, Sanaa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is the common pathologic consequence of all chronic liver diseases. AIM: Lactoferrin (Lf) was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats received TAA (200 mg/kg/biweekly, ip) for four successive weeks. Lf (200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or vehicle (VHC) was administered for one month before and another month during TAA injection. Body weight and mortality rate were assessed during the month of TAA-intoxication. Thereafter, serum and liver tissues were analyzed for liver function, oxidative, fibrotic and apoptotic markers. RESULTS: Lf conserved rats against TAA-induced body weight-loss and mortality. Preservation of serum albumin, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels was also observed. Lf also protected rats against TAA-induced decrease in reduced glutathione and increase in malondialdehyde liver contents. Normal liver contents of hydroxyproline, nuclear factor kappa B and alpha fetoprotein; as markers of fibrosis; were increased with TAA and conserved with Lf-TAA. Lf maintained the normal architecture of the liver and immunohistochemical findings revealed increase in apoptotic bodies compared to TAA that favored necrosis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Lf improved liver function, reduced oxidative stress and liver fibrosis, and enhanced apoptosis in rats with liver fibrosis, suggesting it to have useful therapeutic potential in patients with liver fibrosis. PMID:27275221

  14. Using ultrasound Nakagami imaging to assess liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Chih; Lin, Jen-Jen; Shu, Yu-Chen; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Chang, King-Jen; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2012-02-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using the ultrasound Nakagami image to assess the degree of liver fibrosis in rats. The rat has been widely used as a model in investigations of liver fibrosis. Ultrasound grayscale imaging makes it possible to observe fibrotic rat livers in real time. Statistical analysis of the envelopes of signals backscattered from rat livers may provide useful clues about the degree of liver fibrosis. The Nakagami-model-based image has been shown to be useful for characterizing scatterers in tissues by reflecting the echo statistics, and hence the Nakagami image may serve as a functional imaging tool for quantifying rat liver fibrosis. To validate this idea, fibrosis was induced in each rat liver (n=21) by an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5% dimethylnitrosamine. Livers were excised from rats for in vitro ultrasound scanning using a single-element transducer. The backscattered-signal envelopes of the acquired raw ultrasound signals were used for Nakagami imaging. The Metavir score determined by a pathologist was used to histologically quantify the degree of liver fibrosis. It was found that the Nakagami image could be used to distinguish different degrees of liver fibrosis in rats, since the average Nakagami parameter increased from 0.55 to 0.83 as the fibrosis score increased from 0 (i.e., normal) to 4. This correlation may be due to liver fibrosis in rats involving an increase in the concentration of local scatterers and the appearance of the periodic structures or clustering of scatterers that would change the backscattering statistics. The current findings indicate that the ultrasound Nakagami image has great potential as a functional imaging tool to complement the use of the conventional B-scan in animal studies of liver fibrosis.

  15. Normalized medical information visualization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  16. Normal Shock Vortex Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Figure 9: Breakdown map for normal-shock vortex-interaction. References [1] O. Thomer, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Numerical Simulation of Normal...and Oblique-Shock Vortex Interaction, ZAMM Band 80, Sub. 1, pp. 181-184, 2000. [2] O. Thomer, E. Krause, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Computational

  17. Liver Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handouts Liver transplant (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Liver Transplantation updates ... ENCYCLOPEDIA Liver transplant Liver transplant - slideshow Related Health Topics Cirrhosis Hepatitis Liver Diseases Organ Transplantation National Institutes ...

  18. General Information about Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  19. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  20. Scintigraphic variations of normal biliary physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Brar, H.S.; Bobba, V.R.

    1984-02-01

    The authors studied 115 healthy adult volunteers, fasting overnight, to establish the normal scintigraphic variability. Five Tc-99m IDA agents with liver excretion half-times ranging from 18 to 108 min were used. The time of appearance of the common bile duct correlated directly with the liver's excretion half-time. The appearance of the gallbladder and the small intestine were independent of the excretion half-time and showed a reciprocal relationship suggesting a major role for the sphincter of Oddi. In 22% of the subjects, the sphincter tonus was tight enough to divert all of the hepatic bile into the gallbladder, allowing none into the intestine. All of such subjects showed normal dynamic response to intravenous cholecystokinin. The pattern of the bile drainage from the two lobes differed, resulting in asymmetry of the right and left hepatic ducts. It is concluded that the selection of a Tc-99m IDA agent should be based on the clinical problem at hand and that a clinician's understanding of the scintigraphic variability in normal subjects is critical before attempting diagnosis.

  1. Liver glucose metabolism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Pérez-Felpete, Noemi; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Pazos-García, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Information about normal hepatic glucose metabolism may help to understand pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and diabetes mellitus. In addition, liver glucose metabolism is involved in glycosylation reactions and connected with fatty acid metabolism. The liver receives dietary carbohydrates directly from the intestine via the portal vein. Glucokinase phosphorylates glucose to glucose 6-phosphate inside the hepatocyte, ensuring that an adequate flow of glucose enters the cell to be metabolized. Glucose 6-phosphate may proceed to several metabolic pathways. During the post-prandial period, most glucose 6-phosphate is used to synthesize glycogen via the formation of glucose 1-phosphate and UDP–glucose. Minor amounts of UDP–glucose are used to form UDP–glucuronate and UDP–galactose, which are donors of monosaccharide units used in glycosylation. A second pathway of glucose 6-phosphate metabolism is the formation of fructose 6-phosphate, which may either start the hexosamine pathway to produce UDP-N-acetylglucosamine or follow the glycolytic pathway to generate pyruvate and then acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA may enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to be oxidized or may be exported to the cytosol to synthesize fatty acids, when excess glucose is present within the hepatocyte. Finally, glucose 6-phosphate may produce NADPH and ribose 5-phosphate through the pentose phosphate pathway. Glucose metabolism supplies intermediates for glycosylation, a post-translational modification of proteins and lipids that modulates their activity. Congenital deficiency of phosphoglucomutase (PGM)-1 and PGM-3 is associated with impaired glycosylation. In addition to metabolize carbohydrates, the liver produces glucose to be used by other tissues, from glycogen breakdown or from de novo synthesis using primarily lactate and alanine (gluconeogenesis). PMID:27707936

  2. Acute renal failure in liver transplant patients: Indian study.

    PubMed

    Naik, Pradeep; Premsagar, B; Mallikarjuna, M

    2015-01-01

    The acute renal failure is the frequent medical complication observed in liver transplant patients. The objective of this study was to determine the cause of acute renal failure in post liver transplant patients. A total of 70 patients who underwent (cadaveric 52, live 18) liver transplantation were categorized based on clinical presentation into two groups, namely hepatorenal failure (HRF, n = 29), and Hepatic failure (HF, n = 41). All the patients after the liver transplant had received tacrolimus, mycophenolate and steroids. We analyzed the modification of diet in renal disease, (MDRD) serum urea, creatinine and albumin before and after 5th and 30th day of liver transplant and data was categorized into survivors and non-survivors group. In HRF survivor group, serum creatinine, and urea levels were high and, albumin, MDRD were low in pre- transplant and reached to normal levels on 30th day of post transplant, and 79.3 % of patients in this group showed resumption of normal kidney function. On the contrary in HRF nonsurvivor group, we did not observed any significant difference and 20.7 % of patients showed irreversible changes after the liver transplant. In HF survivor group, 82.9 % of liver failure patients did not show any deviation in serum creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD, whereas in HF non survivor group, 17.1 % of liver failure patients who had HCV positive before the transplant developed acute renal failure. The levels of creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD were normal before the transplant and on day 30th, the levels of albumin and MDRD were significantly low whereas serum urea, creatinine levels were high. In conclusion, based on these observations, an diagnosis and treatment of Acute renal failure is important among the liver transplantation cases in the early postoperative period.

  3. [Liver injury and hepatic encephalopathy induced by the herbal medicine Hochuekkito].

    PubMed

    Negishi, Ryoju; Ichikawa, Takeshi; Tawa, Yoshiyuki; Fujimura, Akira; Tanaka, Sayo; Tenmoku, Akira; Akazawa, Kimika; Kanno, Masataka; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Okubo, Sae; Machida, Nobuaki; Fukuda, Yuh; Oi, Itaru; Fujino, Masayuki A

    2014-06-01

    A 57-year-old man was admitted with pruritus and jaundice following treatment for fatigue with the herbal medicine Hochuekkito. The patient was prescribed prednisolone and ursodeoxycholic acid, but he developed progressive cholestasis that required intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy. After treatment with plasma exchange for prolonged prothrombin time, the patient recovered; however, his liver function deteriorated because of liver injury induced by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for pneumocystis pneumonia. After reduction of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, his liver function almost returned to normal by day 130 of admission. It has remained normal for 10 months since then. Therefore, when prescribing Hochuekkito, the possibility of drug-induced liver injury should be taken in account.

  4. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  5. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  6. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  7. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  8. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  9. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  10. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  11. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  12. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  13. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  14. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  15. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-08-04

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented.

  16. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  17. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  18. Examination of the Spatial Correlation of Statistics Information in the Ultrasonic Echo from Diseased Liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2002-05-01

    To realize a quantitative diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, we have been analyzing the characteristics of echo amplitude in B-mode images. Realizing the distinction between liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis is required in the field of medical ultrasonics. In this study, we examine the spatial correlation, with the coefficient of correlation between the frames and the amplitude characteristics of each frame, using the volumetric data of RF echo signals from normal and diseased liver. It is found that there is a relationship between the tissue structure of liver and the spatial correlation of echo information.

  19. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... related side effects. The hepatic function panel evaluates: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This enzyme, found in the liver, ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase ( ...

  20. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... poultry, eggs, fish, tofu, and soy protein. Low Sodium -- Symptoms of advanced liver disease include excess fluid ... in the legs (edema). A high level of sodium, or salt, intake increases the amount of water ...