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Sample records for adjacent normal salivary

  1. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  2. S-100 protein antibodies do not label normal salivary gland myoepithelium. Histogenetic implications for salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, I.; Stratis, M.; Parks, W. R.; DeNardi, F. G.; Kahn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Neoplastically modified myoepithelial cells have a key role in developing the histologic characteristics of some salivary gland tumors. S-100 protein expressed in certain of these tumors is suggested to support this role, as the principal component in the human salivary gland reported to be S-100 protein-positive is myoepithelium. Confirmation of such an important aspect is required. Immunoperoxidase staining of parotid salivary gland shows considerably different patterns obtained with antibodies to S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments compared with those for muscle-specific actin and cytokeratin 14; many more cells and their processes associated with acini and ducts are evident with the latter two antibodies. Double immunofluorescent staining with antibodies to either S-100 protein or neuron-specific enolase combined with muscle-specific actin does not reveal colocalization of these antigens in myoepithelial cells. The former localize only to nerve fibers adjacent to, but separate from, acini, and the latter only to myoepithelial cells. It is apparent that S-100 protein staining of the rich network of unmyelinated nerves in the interstitial tissues, evident ultrastructurally, has been misinterpreted as myoepithelium. This result has important implications for histogenetic classifications of salivary gland tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2000939

  3. Salivary composition in obese vs normal-weight subjects: towards a role in postprandial lipid metabolism?

    PubMed

    Vors, C; Drai, J; Gabert, L; Pineau, G; Laville, M; Vidal, H; Guichard, E; Michalski, M-C; Feron, G

    2015-09-01

    In the pathophysiological context of obesity, oral exposure to dietary fat can modulate lipid digestion and absorption, but underlying in-mouth mechanisms have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that salivary components related to dietary fat sensitivity would differ according to body mass index (BMI) and postprandial lipid metabolism in young men. Saliva was collected from nine normal-weight (BMI=22.3±0.5 kg m(-2)) and nine non-morbid obese (BMI=31.7±0.3 kg m(-2)) men before an 8-h postprandial metabolic exploration test involving the consumption of a 40-g fat meal, in which obese subjects revealed a delayed postprandial lipid metabolism. Nine salivary characteristics (flow, protein content, lipolysis, amylase, proteolysis, total antioxidant status, lysozyme, lipocalin 1 and carbonic anhydrase-VI) were investigated. We show that, under fasting conditions, salivary lipolysis was lower in obese vs normal-weight subjects, whereas proteolysis and carbonic anhydrase VI were higher. We reveal through multivariate and Mann-Whitney analysis that differences in fasting salivary lipolysis and proteolysis between both groups are related to differences in postprandial lipid metabolism including exogenous fatty-acid absorption and β-oxidation. These results suggest a potential role of salivary composition on postprandial lipid metabolism and bring novel causal hypotheses on the links between salivary composition, sensitivity to dietary fat oral income and postprandial lipid metabolism according to BMI.

  4. Migrating salivary stones: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Drage, Nicholas A; Brown, Jackie E; Makdissi, Jamil; Townend, John

    2005-04-01

    Patients with salivary calculi are normally managed by removal of the calculus or, if necessary, the affected gland. If it is left untreated, a stone may migrate into the adjacent tissues. We present three patients in whom salivary calculi tracked to the surface of the skin. Two were removed under local anaesthetic, and the third patient was lost to follow up.

  5. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL). Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%), 30 normal-weight children (46.2%), 12 overweight children (18.4%), and 21 obese children (32.3%). The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Conclusion Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses. PMID:25565874

  6. Salivary habituation to food stimuli in successful weight loss maintainers, obese and normal-weight adults

    PubMed Central

    Bond, DS; Raynor, HA; McCaffery, JM; Wing, RR

    2017-01-01

    Objective Research shows that slower habituation of salivary responses to food stimuli is related to greater energy intake and that obese (Ob) individuals habituate slower than those of normal weight (NW). No study has examined habituation rates in weight loss maintainers (WLMs) who have reduced from obese to normal weight, relative to those who are Ob or NW. Design Salivation to two baseline water trials and 10 lemon-flavored lollipop trials were studied in 14 WLMs, 15 Ob and 18 NW individuals comparable in age, gender and ethnicity. Linear mixed models were used to compare WLMs with Ob and NW groups. Results Salivation in the WLM and NW groups decreased significantly (for both P <0.005) across trials, indicative of habituation. Salivary responses in the Ob group did not habituate (P=0.46). When compared with Ob group, WLMs showed a quicker reduction in salivation (P<0.05). WLM and NW groups did not differ in habituation rate (P=0.49). Conclusions WLMs have habituation rates that are comparable to NW individuals without previous history of obesity, and show quicker habituation than those who are currently obese. These results suggest that physiological responses to food may ‘normalize’ with successful weight loss maintenance. PMID:20010900

  7. EXPRESSION MECHANISM AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF NOB1 IN GASTRIC CANCER TISSUE AND ADJACENT NORMAL TISSUE.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W-P; Liu, X; Yang, Y; Liu, Y-F

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect and relationship of NOB1 in the development of gastric cancer, based on an analysis of NOB1expression in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent tissue. Thirty gastric cancer tissue samples taken during surgery with complete pathological data and their related adjacent normal tissue were examined in this study. NOB1 protein expression in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Real-time PCR was used to detect NOB1 mRNA expression, which provided a basis on which to explore the clinical pathological characteristics for patients with gastric cancer. Results show that NOB1 protein in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue were diffusely expressed both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The positive expression rate in gastric cancer tissue was 73%, higher than that in adjacent normal tissue (47%). Both the reference NAPDH and NOB1 amplification are reflected in the amplification curve in standard S-shape and the unimodal solubility curve which was not altered by non-specific amplification and primer dimer. NOB1 mRNA relative expression in cancer tissue was 4.899∓1.412. NOB1 expression had no direct relationship with the patients’ age, gender, tumor differentiation or infiltration degree, lymphatic metastasis, distant metastasis nor pTNM periodization, but was directly related to the size of the tumor. All the findings in this paper suggest that NOB1 can be one of the focuses for diagnosing and treating gastric cancer and that its protein expression is likely to increase with the growth of tumor, thus playing a great role in the incidence and development of gastric cancer.

  8. Quantification of pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in colonic carcinoma and normal adjacent colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bohe, H; Bohe, M; Jönsson, P; Lindström, C; Ohlsson, K

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To measure the content of immunoreactive human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (irPSTI) in colonic carcinoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa. METHODS: From a stable hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibodies specific for human PSTI, a specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human PSTI was developed. In a precipitation assay system these antibodies bound human PSTI in a dose-dependent manner. The specimens were obtained from resectional surgery. RESULTS: The content of irPSTI was 19.9 micrograms/g protein (0.55 micrograms/g tissue wet weight) in colonic carcinoma. In adjacent normal colonic mucosa 43.6 micrograms/g protein (1.12 micrograms/g tissue wet weight) was shown. CONCLUSIONS: The enzymatic degradation of surrounding tissue necessary for tumour cell invasion could be facilitated by this relative deficit of the inhibitor in infiltrative carcinoma. PMID:1479031

  9. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  10. Seasonal variation of salivary testosterone in men, normally cycling women, and women using hormonal contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Steven J.; Mullette-Gillman, O’Dhaniel A.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Humans’ endogenous testosterone concentrations vary over a number of temporal scales, with little known about variation longer than monthly cycles. Past studies of seasonal or circannual variation have principally used male participants and have produced inconsistent results. Thus, little is known about how testosterone concentrations fluctuate throughout the year, whether such variation differs between men and women, and whether there are influences of hormonal contraceptive use. The present study collected saliva samples from a large sample (N=718) of men and women, each collected at one time point within a relatively uniform distribution over a full calendar year. Both men and normally-cycling women displayed seasonal variation in salivary testosterone concentrations, such that testosterone concentrations are maximal in the fall and minimal in the summer. Notably, normally-cycling women had testosterone concentrations that were over 100% greater at their maximum in fall compared to their minimum in summer. Women using hormonal contraceptives not only had consistently lower endogenous testosterone concentrations, but also showed a flatter seasonal testosterone profile. The implications for studies of psychology and human behavioral endocrinology are discussed. PMID:21802437

  11. Expression Quantitative Trait loci (QTL) in tumor adjacent normal breast tissue and breast tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Zárate, Alejandro; Harshfield, Benjamin J; Hu, Rong; Knoblauch, Nick; Beck, Andrew H; Hankinson, Susan E; Carey, Vincent; Tamimi, Rulla M; Hunter, David J; Quackenbush, John; Hazra, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer, the majority of which are located in intergenic or intronic regions. To explore regulatory impacts of these variants we conducted expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analyses on tissue samples from 376 invasive postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) diagnosed from 1990-2004. Expression analysis was conducted on all formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (and on 264 adjacent normal samples) using the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array. Significance and ranking of associations between tumor receptor status and expression variation was preserved between NHS FFPE and TCGA fresh-frozen sample sets (Spearman r = 0.85, p<10^-10 for 17 of the 21 Oncotype DX recurrence signature genes). At an FDR threshold of 10%, we identified 27 trans-eQTLs associated with expression variation in 217 distinct genes. SNP-gene associations can be explored using an open-source interactive browser distributed in a Bioconductor package. Using a new a procedure for testing hypotheses relating SNP content to expression patterns in gene sets, defined as molecular function pathways, we find that loci on 6q14 and 6q25 affect various gene sets and molecular pathways (FDR < 10%). Although the ultimate biological interpretation of the GWAS-identified variants remains to be uncovered, this study validates the utility of expression analysis of this FFPE expression set for more detailed integrative analyses.

  12. Expression Quantitative Trait loci (QTL) in tumor adjacent normal breast tissue and breast tumor tissue

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Zárate, Alejandro; Harshfield, Benjamin J.; Hu, Rong; Knoblauch, Nick; Beck, Andrew H.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Carey, Vincent; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Hunter, David J.; Quackenbush, John; Hazra, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer, the majority of which are located in intergenic or intronic regions. To explore regulatory impacts of these variants we conducted expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analyses on tissue samples from 376 invasive postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) diagnosed from 1990–2004. Expression analysis was conducted on all formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (and on 264 adjacent normal samples) using the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array. Significance and ranking of associations between tumor receptor status and expression variation was preserved between NHS FFPE and TCGA fresh-frozen sample sets (Spearman r = 0.85, p<10^-10 for 17 of the 21 Oncotype DX recurrence signature genes). At an FDR threshold of 10%, we identified 27 trans-eQTLs associated with expression variation in 217 distinct genes. SNP-gene associations can be explored using an open-source interactive browser distributed in a Bioconductor package. Using a new a procedure for testing hypotheses relating SNP content to expression patterns in gene sets, defined as molecular function pathways, we find that loci on 6q14 and 6q25 affect various gene sets and molecular pathways (FDR < 10%). Although the ultimate biological interpretation of the GWAS-identified variants remains to be uncovered, this study validates the utility of expression analysis of this FFPE expression set for more detailed integrative analyses. PMID:28152060

  13. Low-Molecular-Weight Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Carcinomas and Adjacent Normal-Looking Skin.

    PubMed

    Grammenandi, Konstantina; Kyriazi, Maria; Katsarou-Katsari, Alexandra; Papadopoulos, Othon; Anastassopoulou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Georgios T; Sagriotis, Alexandros; Rallis, Michail; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight antioxidants are some of the most efficient agents of the skin defense mechanism against environmental factors, such as cosmic rays, smoke, and pollutants. The total skin concentrations of hydrophilic ascorbic and uric acids, as well as lipophilic α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and ubiquinol-10 antioxidants were determined by an HPLC-EC detector from 18 biopsies of human nonmelanoma skin carcinomas and 18 biopsies from skin areas adjacent to carcinomas. No significant differences in the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in both carcinomas and normal-looking skin areas adjacent to carcinomas were observed. On the contrary, ascorbic and uric acid concentrations were found to be 18 and 36% lower in carcinomas than in normal-looking skin areas, respectively. No statistical significance was observed between antioxidant concentrations and age, sex, phototype, profession, site of tumor, frequency, and time of UV light exposure either. Accordingly the antioxidant concentrations in both cancerous skin and adjacent normal-looking areas were found to be much higher than in normal skin, in contrast to literature data.

  14. Near-infrared optical coefficients of tumors and adjacent normal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, Jan G.

    2001-06-01

    The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tumours of the human breast, liver and kidney and their normal surrounding tissue have been measured in vitro for the near-infrared wavelengths between 600 and 1000 nm as well as 1064 nm. The Monte Carlo inversion technique (Simpson et al) was used to determine the optical coefficients of tissue samples from measurements of the diffuse transmittance and reflectance. The measurements of the diffusely transmitted and reflected intensities were performed using a single integrating sphere 'comparison' method. Four post-mortem samples of both liver adenocarcinoma and normal liver tissue were obtained from one subject and four samples of both tumour and normal kidney tissue were obtained from another subject. Four samples of both breast tumour and normal tissue were obtained from two patients. The scattering coefficient of tumours was found in each case to be significantly higher than that of nondiseased tissue. The absorption coefficient of tumours was generally much smaller than those of normal tissue. The scattering coefficient of tumours was 20% to 200% higher depending on the type of cancer and the wavelength, while the absorption coefficient of tumours was as much as twenty times smaller compared to normal tissue.

  15. Normal Variations of Sphenoid Sinus and the Adjacent Structures Detected in Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Azadeh; Ghafari, Roshanak; AnjomShoa, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The sphenoid sinus is a common target of paranasal surgery. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is likely to endanger the anatomic variations of vital structures adjacent to the sphenoid sinus. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the variations of sphenoid sinus and the related structures by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Method In this descriptive-analytic study, CBCT images of 103 patients aged above 20-years were selected (206 sides). Degree of pneumatization of sphenoid sinus, pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process, pterygoid process, protrusion of optic canal, vidian canal, and foramen rotundum, as well as prevalence of sinus septa were recorded. Examinations were performed using On-Demand software (Version 1); data were analyzed by using chi-square test. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between the pterygoid pneumatization and vidian canal protrusion (p< 0.001), and foramen rotundum protrusion (p< 0.001). The optic canal protrusion was found to be significantly associated with the anterior clinoid pneumatization and pterygoid process (p< 0.001). Statistically significant relationship was also observed between the carotid canal protrusion and pterygoid process pneumatization (p< 0.001). Conclusion The anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinus tend to give rise to a complexity of symptoms and potentially serious complications. This variability necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the regional sphenoid sinus anatomy by a detailed CBCT sinus examination. PMID:26966706

  16. Study of the response of osteogenic sarcoma and adjacent normal tissues to radiation. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan-Yanguas, M.

    1981-05-01

    An analysis is made of the surgical specimens of 18 patients with hystologically-proven osteosarcoma who were treated with radiation as the first treatment, and submitted 6 months later to amputation (2 patients had only a second biopsy). Plotting of dose and treatment time against persistence or sterilization of the tumor shows that there is an intermediate zone that extends from 3200 to 5000 rad in 10 days to 8000 to 10,000 rad in 60 to 70 days, inside which the tumor may or may not be destroyed. All cases located above this zone were sterilized; and all those under it showed persistence of viable tumor cells. A similar correlation is made in 47 irradiated patients of the secondary reactions of normal skin and soft tissues surrounding the tumor. An intermediate zone also exists above which all reactions were severe, in some cases reaching necrosis; below this zone, all reactions were mild. When treatment time was longer than 45 days, reactions were only moderate.

  17. Comparative proteome analysis of human esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yazdian–Robati, Rezvan; Ahmadi, Homa; Riahi, Maryam Matbou; Lari, Parisa; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Ranking as the sixth commonest cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) represents one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. One of the main reasons for the low survival of patients with esophageal cancer is its late diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We used proteomics approach to analyze ESCC tissues with the aim of a better understanding of the malignant mechanism and searching candidate protein biomarkers for early diagnosis of esophageal cancer. The differential protein expression between cancerous and normal esophageal tissues was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Then proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) and MASCOT web based search engine. Results: We reported 4 differentially expressed proteins involved in the pathological process of esophageal cancer, such as annexinA1 (ANXA1), peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2), transgelin (TAGLN) andactin-aortic smooth muscle (ACTA2). Conclusion: In this report we have introduced new potential biomarker (ACTA2). Moreover, our data confirmed some already known markers for EC in our region. PMID:28392898

  18. In vitro synthesis of immunoglobulins, secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and the adjacent mucous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lai A Fat, R. F. M.; Suurmond, D.; Van Furth, R.

    1973-01-01

    A study on the synthesis of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE), secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and in the adjacent mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal, oral and vaginal mucosa) is reported. The results are based on the culture of tissue samples in a medium with two radioactive amino acids and the detection of synthesized proteins by autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretic pattern of the culture fluid, except in the case of IgE for which the Ouchterlony technique was used. The results indicate that the normal skin does not synthesize immunoglobulins, whereas normal mucous membranes produce IgG and IgA. In the lesions of various skin diseases immunoglobulins are synthesized, mainly IgG but sometimes also IgA and IgE. The cells responsible for the production of immunoglobulins are plasma cells and lymphoid cells present in the skin lesions and mucous membranes. Synthesis of the free secretory component could be demonstrated only in certain mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and oral mucosa). Complement (C3) synthesis was found in normal skin, mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal and oral mucosa), and in the lesions of such skin diseases as discoid lupus erythematosus, (bullous) pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, malignant reticulosis, eczema and lichen planus. Complement production was also demonstrated in allergic skin reactions (i.e. tissue from allergic-positive patch tests, positive Mantoux tests and drug eruptions), but no immunoglobulin synthesis was detected in these lesions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4199092

  19. Viscoelastic properties of normal and cancerous human breast cells are affected differently by contact to adjacent cells.

    PubMed

    Schierbaum, Nicolas; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2017-04-07

    Malignant transformation drastically alters the mechanical properties of the cell and its response to the surrounding cellular environment. We studied the influence of the physical contact between adjacent cells in an epithelial monolayer on the viscoelastic behavior of normal MCF10A, non-invasive cancerous MCF7, and invasive cancerous MDA-MB-231 human breast cells. Using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging technique termed force clamp force mapping (FCFM) to record images of the viscoelastic material properties of sparse and confluent cells, we found that normal MCF10A cells are stiffer and have a lower fluidity when at confluent than at sparse density. Contrarily, cancerous MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells do not stiffen and do not decrease their fluidity when progressing from sparse to confluent density. The behavior of normal MCF10A cells appears to be governed by the formation of stable cell-cell contacts, because their disruption with a calcium-chelator (EGTA) causes the stiffness and fluidity values to return to those at sparse density. In contrast, EGTA-treatment of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells does not change their viscoelastic properties. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the change of the viscoelastic behavior in MCF10A cells when going from sparse to confluent density is accompanied by a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton into thick stress fiber bundles, while in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells the actin cytoskeleton is only composed of thin and short fibers, regardless of cell density. While the observed behavior of normal MCF10A cells might be crucial for providing mechanical stability and thus in turn integrity of the epithelial monolayer, the dysregulation of this behavior in cancerous MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells is possibly a central aspect of cancer progression in the epithelium.

  20. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  1. Breast Field Cancerization: Isolation and Comparison of Telomerase-Expressing Cells in Tumor and Tumor Adjacent, Histologically Normal Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Hines, William C.; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Telomerase stabilizes chromosomes by maintaining telomere length, immortalizes mammalian cells, and is expressed in more than 90% of human tumors. However, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is not restricted to tumor cells. We have previously shown that a subpopulation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in tumor-adjacent, histologically normal (TAHN) breast tissues expresses hTERT mRNA at levels comparable with levels in breast tumors. In the current study, we first validated a reporter for measuring levels of hTERT promoter activity in early-passage HMECs and then used this reporter to compare hTERT promoter activity in HMECs derived from tumor and paired TAHN tissues 1, 3, and 5 cm from the tumor (TAHN-1, TAHN-3, and TAHN-5, respectively). Cell sorting, quantitative real-time PCR, and microarray analyses showed that the 10% of HMECs with the highest hTERT promoter activity in both tumor and TAHN-1 tissues contain more than 95% of hTERT mRNA and overexpress many genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. The percentage of HMECs within this subpopulation showing high hTERT promoter activity was significantly reduced or absent in TAHN-3 and TAHN-5 tissues. We conclude that the field of normal tissue proximal to the breast tumors contains a population of HMECs similar in hTERT expression levels and in gene expression to the HMECs within the tumor mass and that this population is significantly reduced in tissues more distal to the tumor. PMID:21775421

  2. Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues in the F344 rat model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) induced in F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) demonstrate considerable phenotypic similarity to human oral cancers and the model has been widely used for carcinogenesis and chemoprevention studies. Molecular characterization of this model needs reliable reference genes (RGs) to avoid false- positive and -negative results for proper interpretation of gene expression data between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Microarray analysis of 11 pairs of OSCC and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from 4-NQO-treated rats identified 10 stably expressed genes in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p>0.5, CV<15%) that could serve as potential RGs in this model. The commonly used 27 RGs in the rat were also analyzed based on microarray data and most of them were found unsuitable for RGs in this model. Traditional RGs such as ACTB and GAPDH were significantly altered in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p<0.01, n=11); however, the Hsp90ab1 was ranked as the best RG candidate and the combination of Hsp90ab1 and HPRT1 was identified by NormFinder to be a superior reference for gene normalization among the commonly used RGs. This result was also validated by RT-PCR based on the selected top RG candidate pool. These data suggest that there are no common RGs suitable for different models and RG(s) should be identified before gene expression analysis. We successfully identified Hsp90ab1 as a stable RG in 4-NQO-induced OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues in F344 rats. The combination of two stably expressed genes may be a better option for gene normalization in tissue samples.

  3. Expression of TAK1/TAB1 expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues and their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Li, Qiang; He, Jin-Tao; Liu, Guang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and its activation ligand, TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1), in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and adjacent normal tissues and to analyze the relevance between TAK1 and TAB1 protein expression and the pathological features of NSCLC patients. Surgical resection NSCLC specimens were collected from 74 patients undergoing surgery in our hospital from September 2003 to July 2008; tumor-adjacent normal tissue specimens were collected as controls. All cases were pathologically confirmed after surgery, and pathological data were complete for all patients. The expression of TAK1/TAB1 proteins in NSCLC and adjacent cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. The correlation between TAK1/TAB1 protein expression and the clinicopathological features and outcome of NSCLC was assessed. The positive expression ratio of TAK1 in NSCLC tissue was 63.5%, which was significantly higher than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissue (31.1%). The positive expression ratio of TAB1 in NSCLC tissue was 51.4%, which was significantly higher than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissue (24.3%). Further analysis showed that positive protein expression of TAK1 and TAB1 was unrelated to patient gender, age, tumor size, degree of differentiation, and history of smoking (P>0.05) but was significantly related to clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Additionally, the expression of TAK1 as well as TAB1 was negatively related to NSCLC patient prognosis, and patients with positive protein expression had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate than those with negative protein expression (P<0.05). TAK1/TAB1 expression in NSCLC tissue is significantly increased and closely associated with patient clinical prognosis. These two proteins are likely to become new therapeutic targets for the treatment of NSCLC.

  4. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  5. Magnetization transfer and T2 quantitation in normal appearing cortical gray matter and white matter adjacent to focal abnormality in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Rao, Sajja B; Chawla, Sanjeev; Husain, Mazhar; Rathore, Ram K S

    2003-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries with posttraumatic epilepsy and functional disability being its major sequelae. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis whether the normal appearing adjacent gray and white matter regions on T2 and T1 weighted magnetization transfer (MT) weighted images show any abnormality on quantitative imaging in patients with TBI. A total of 51 patients with TBI and 10 normal subjects were included in this study. There were significant differences in T2 and MT ratio values of T2 weighted and T1 weighted MT normal appearing gray matter regions adjacent to focal image abnormality compared to normal gray matter regions in the normal individuals as corresponding contralateral regions of the TBI patient's group (p < 0.05). However the adjoining normal appearing white matter quantitative values did not show any significant change compared to the corresponding contralateral normal white matter values. We conclude that quantitative T2 and MT ratio values provide additional abnormality in patients with TBI that is not discernable on conventional T2 weighted and T1 weighted MT imaging especially in gray matter. This additional information may be of value in overall management of these patients with TBI.

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is related to nuclear grade in ductal carcinoma in situ and is increased in its normal adjacent epithelium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shim, Veronica; Gauthier, Mona L.; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Mantei, Kristin; Chew, Karen L.; Moore, Dan H.; Cha, Imok; Tlsty, Thea D.; Esserman, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is emerging as an important cancer biomarker and is now an experimental target for solid tumor treatment.However, no study has exclusively focused on COX-2 expression in early lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We examined COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 46 cases of women undergoing surgical resection for DCIS. We found that COX-2 expression was detected in 85% of all DCIS specimens, with increased COX-2 staining correlating with higher nuclear grade. Strikingly, COX-2 staining intensity in the normal adjacent epithelium was stronger than in the DCIS lesion itself. Our observations demonstrate that COX-2 is up-regulated in the normal adjacent epithelium and supports the hypothesis that the surrounding epithelial tissue is part of the disease process in DCIS.

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in the Urinary Bladder: Comparison Between Cancerous, Adjacent Non-cancerous and Normal Cadaveric Tissue.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Mahmoud; Elsobky, Emad; Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Abd-Elhameed, Mohamed; Abdel-Rahim, Mona; Ali-El-Dein, Bedeir

    2016-12-01

    The role of heavy metals and trace elements (HMTE) in the development of some cancers has been previously reported. Bladder carcinoma is a frequent malignancy of the urinary tract. The most common risk factors for bladder cancer are exposure to industrial carcinogens, cigarette smoking, gender, and possibly diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate HTME concentrations in the cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues and compare them with those of normal cadaveric bladder. This prospective study included 102 paired samples of full-thickness cancer and adjacent non-cancerous bladder tissues of radical cystectomy (RC) specimens that were histologically proven as invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We used 17 matched controls of non-malignant bladder tissue samples from cadavers. All samples were processed and evaluated for the concentration of 22 HMTE by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Outcome analysis was made by the Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. When compared with cadaveric control or cancerous, the adjacent non-cancerous tissue had higher levels of six elements (arsenic, lead, selenium, strontium, zinc, and aluminum), and when compared with the control alone, it had a higher concentration of calcium, cadmium, chromium, potassium, magnesium, and nickel. The cancerous tissue had a higher concentration of cadmium, lead, chromium, calcium, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc than cadaveric control. Boron level was higher in cadaveric control than cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissue. Cadmium level was higher in cancerous tissue with node-positive than node-negative cases. The high concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and zinc, in the cancerous together with arsenic in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues of RC specimens suggest a pathogenic role of these elements in BC. However, further work-up is needed to support this

  8. Immunohistochemical quantification of the cobalamin transport protein, cell surface receptor and Ki-67 in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors and in adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have an obligate need for cobalamin (vitamin B12) to enable DNA synthesis necessary for cellular replication. This study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of the cobalamin transport protein (transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors, and compared these results to expression in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. All malignant tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Expression of TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 was significantly higher in malignant tumor tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues in both species. There was a strong correlation between TCII and TCII-R expression, and a modest correlation between TCII-R and Ki-67 expression in both species; a modest association between TCII and Ki-67 expression was present in canine tissues only. These results demonstrate a quantifiable, synchronous up-regulation of TCII and TCII-R expression by proliferating canine and feline malignant tumors. The potential to utilize these proteins as biomarkers to identify neoplastic tissues, streamline therapeutic options, evaluate response to anti-tumor therapy and monitor for recurrent disease has important implications in the advancement of cancer management for both human and companion animal patients. PMID:25633912

  9. Gene expression in normal-appearing tissue adjacent to prostate cancers are predictive of clinical outcome: evidence for a biologically meaningful field effect

    PubMed Central

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Maddala, Tara; Falzarano, Sara Moscovita; Cherbavaz, Diana B.; Zhang, Nan; Knezevic, Dejan; Febbo, Phillip G.; Lee, Mark; Lawrence, Hugh Jeffrey; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated gene expression in histologically normal-appearing tissue (NT) adjacent to prostate tumor in radical prostatectomy specimens, assessing for biological significance based on prediction of clinical recurrence (cR - metastatic disease or local recurrence). Results A total of 410 evaluable patients had paired tumor and NT. Fortysix genes, representing diverse biological pathways (androgen signaling, stromal response, stress response, cellular organization, proliferation, cell adhesion, and chromatin remodeling) were associated with cR in NT (FDR < 20%), of which 39 concordantly predicted cR in tumor (FDR < 20%). Overall GPS and its stromal response and androgen-signaling gene group components also significantly predicted time to cR in NT (RM-corrected HR/20 units = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.56; P = 0.024). Experimental Design Expression of 732 genes was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately in tumor and adjacent NT specimens from 127 patients with and 374 without cR following radical prostatectomy for T1/T2 prostate cancer. A 17-gene expression signature (Genomic Prostate Score [GPS]), previously validated to predict aggressive prostate cancer when measured in tumor tissue, was also assessed using pre-specified genes and algorithms. Analysis used Cox proportional hazards models, Storey's false discovery rate (FDR) control, and regression to the mean (RM) correction. Conclusions Gene expression profiles, including GPS, from NT adjacent to tumor can predict prostate cancer outcome. These findings suggest that there is a biologically significant field effect in primary prostate cancer that is a marker for aggressive disease. PMID:27121323

  10. The involvement of growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) and aggrecan in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Enescu, Anca Stefania; Mărgăritescu, C L; Crăiţoiu, Monica Mihaela; Enescu, Aurelia; Crăiţoiu, Ştefania

    2013-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland tumor with annual incidence of 2-3.5/100 000 in population. The histogenesis of salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma is still unclear. One concept sustains the existence of an epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) process in pleomorphic adenomas by which neoplastic epithelial cells transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cells and leading to tissue heterogeneity from this salivary gland neoplasia. Here we investigate by immunohistochemistry the expression of growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) and aggrecan in 15 cases of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. We found that both markers were present in normal salivary gland, mainly in the cells that line striated and intercalated ducts suggesting their involvement in the morphogenesis of this duct system. A constant positive reactivity for both markers was recorded in transition regions from tubular proliferative units to myxoid areas suggesting the involvement of an EMT process during the tumorigenesis of such salivary gland neoplasia. Also, both markers may be implicated in the transdifferentiation of neoplastic myoepithelial cells from the myxoid zones to lacuna cells of adjacent chondroid areas completing the morphology of this salivary gland tumor.

  11. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adjacent Apparently Normal Oral Mucosa and its Correlation With Clinicopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sindhu; Nayak, Ramakant; Bhat, Kishore; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Babji, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) is essential for its growth, invasion, and metastasis. This entails a shift in the balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. CD105 and TGF-β1 are 2 such proangiogenic factors wherein CD105 exerts its angiogenic effect by binding to and modulating the TGF-β1 pathway. A total of 50 resected specimens of OSCC were considered. One tissue specimen was taken from tumor proper and another specimen from adjacent apparently normal mucosa (AANM). Both tissues were immunohistochemically stained using CD105 and TGF-β1 antibodies. The expression of each antibody was individually assessed and then compared. Pearson χ test was used for statistical comparison of expression. CD105 was significantly expressed in OSCC as compared with AANM and also correlated with increasing TNM stage. The mean microvessel density was higher in OSCC. TGF-β1 was significantly expressed in epithelium of OSCC as compared with AANM. On comparing expression of TGF-β1 and CD105, 79.54% of endothelial cells expressed positivity for both molecules. Both CD105 and TGF-β1 were increased in OSCC, although based on our results CD105 alone can be used as a prognostic marker. On the basis of immunohistochemical expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in endothelial cells, our results demonstrate that CD105 acts as one of the receptors of TGF-β1 on endothelial cells and induces the angiogenic pathway in OSCC.

  12. Differential gene expression profiling in aggressive bladder transitional cell carcinoma compared to the adjacent microscopically normal urothelium by microdissection-SMART cDNA PCR-SSH.

    PubMed

    Wang, H T; Ma, F L; Ma, X B; Han, R F; Zhang, Y B; Chang, J W

    2006-01-01

    Identifying novel and known genes that are differentially expressed in aggressive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) has important implications in understanding the biology of bladder tumorigenesis and developing new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In this study we identified the differential gene expression profiles comparing tumor to the adjacent microscopically normal mucosa by manual microdissection on frozen sections. The RNAs extracted from microdissected tissues were amplified by SMART cDNA PCR technology to generate forward subtractive cDNA library by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). We obtained 376 positive clones, one hundred clones of aggressive BTCC subtracted cDNA library were selected at random and inserts were reamplified by PCR. After differential screening by reverse dot blotting, 73 positive clones, that contend inserts putatively upregulated in aggressive BTCC, were further analysed by DNA sequencing, GenBank and EST database searching. Sequencing results showed that 66 clones stand for 23 known genes and 7 clones for three new EST (Genbank number: DN236875, DN236874 and DN236873). In conclusion, microdissection-SMART cDNA PCR-SSH allowed for an efficient way to identify aggressive BTCC-specific differential expressed genes that may potentially be involved in the carcinogenesis and/or progression of aggressive BTCC. These differentially expressed genes may be of potential utility as therapeutic and diagnostic targets for aggressive BTCC.

  13. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  14. Exploring the spatial dimension of estrogen and progesterone signaling: detection of nuclear labeling in lobular epithelial cells in normal mammary glands adjacent to breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comprehensive spatial assessment of hormone receptor immunohistochemistry staining in digital whole slide images of breast cancer requires accurate detection of positive nuclei within biologically relevant regions of interest. Herein, we propose a combination of automated region labeling at low resolution and subsequent detailed tissue evaluation of subcellular structures in lobular structures adjacent to breast cancer, as a proof of concept for the approach to analyze estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the spatial context of surrounding tissue. Methods Routinely processed paraffin sections of hormone receptor-negative ductal invasive breast cancer were stained for estrogen and progesterone receptor by immunohistochemistry. Digital whole slides were analyzed using commercially available image analysis software for advanced object-based analysis, applying textural, relational, and geometrical features. Mammary gland lobules were targeted as regions of interest for analysis at subcellular level in relation to their distance from coherent tumor as neighboring relevant tissue compartment. Lobule detection quality was evaluated visually by a pathologist. Results After rule set optimization in an estrogen receptor-stained training set, independent test sets (progesterone and estrogen receptor) showed acceptable detection quality in 33% of cases. Presence of disrupted lobular structures, either by brisk inflammatory infiltrate, or diffuse tumor infiltration, was common in cases with lower detection accuracy. Hormone receptor detection tended towards higher percentage of positively stained nuclei in lobules distant from the tumor border as compared to areas adjacent to the tumor. After adaptations of image analysis, corresponding evaluations were also feasible in hormone receptor positive breast cancer, with some limitations of automated separation of mammary epithelial cells from hormone receptor-positive tumor cells. Conclusions As a proof of

  15. Salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.M.; Garon, E.; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to monitor health status, disease onset and progression, and treatment outcome through non-invasive means is a most desirable goal in the health care promotion and delivery. There are three prerequisites to materialize this goal: specific biomarkers associated with a health or disease state; a non-invasive approach to detect and monitor the biomarkers; and the technologies to discriminate the biomarkers. A national initiative catalyzed by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) has created a roadmap to achieve these goals through the use of oral fluids as the diagnostic medium to scrutinize the health and/or disease status of individuals. Progress has shown this is an ideal opportunity to bridge state of the art saliva-based biosensors, optimized to disease discriminatory salivary biomarkers, for diagnostic applications. Oral fluid being the ‘mirror of body’ is a perfect medium to be explored for health and disease surveillance. The translational applications and opportunities are enormous. PMID:19627522

  16. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  17. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zidi, YSH; Aloui, Raoudha; Zneidi, Nadia; Rammeh, Soumaya; Zermani, Rachida; Jilani, Sarah Ben

    2012-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as “salivary duct carcinoma.” The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:22434951

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  19. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  20. GATA3 immunohistochemical expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

    2013-12-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  2. Pathophysiology of myoepithelial cells in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amisha Ashok Kumar; Mulla, Aamera Farouq; Mayank, Mrinal

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial cells (MECs) are considered to be a key participant in most salivary gland diseases, particularly tumors. MECs structurally resemble both epithelial cells and smooth muscles. Diagnostic dilemmas caused are due to inadequacy of characterizing the wide spectrum of morphologic and immunologic features which are different for both normal and neoplastic MECs. This article discusses the development, functions and structure of both normal and neoplastic MECs, their staining properties and differences in the morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of the MEC in detail. It also describes the role of MEC in pathogenesis and morphogenesis of various nonneoplastic and neoplastic salivary gland lesions and thereby are responsible for the myriad histopathology of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27721615

  3. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland abnormalities and salivary dysfunction are important orofacial disorders. Patients with such problems are usually seen in the dental office for evaluation and therapy, and the dental practitioner is required to make a diagnosis and institute care. Therefore, it is necessary for the dentist to be knowledgeable regarding the more common pathologic entities that involve the salivary apparatus, and also be familiar with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are available. Successful diagnosis is dependent on the organized integration of the information derived from past history, clinical examination, salivary volume study, imaging, serology, and histopathologic examination. This article discusses the most common disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center and indicates the current approaches to diagnosis. Improvement in diagnostic skills will avoid serious complications and lead to specific and effective therapy.

  4. Functional genetic characterization of salivary gland development in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the devastating global impact of mosquito-borne illnesses on human health, very little is known about mosquito developmental biology. In this investigation, functional genetic analysis of embryonic salivary gland development was performed in Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow fever vector and an emerging model for vector mosquito development. Although embryonic salivary gland development has been well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about this process in mosquitoes or other arthropods. Results Mosquitoes possess orthologs of many genes that regulate Drosophila melanogaster embryonic salivary gland development. The expression patterns of a large subset of these genes were assessed during Ae. aegypti development. These studies identified a set of molecular genetic markers for the developing mosquito salivary gland. Analysis of marker expression allowed for tracking of the progression of Ae. aegypti salivary gland development in embryos. In Drosophila, the salivary glands develop from placodes located in the ventral neuroectoderm. However, in Ae. aegypti, salivary marker genes are not expressed in placode-like patterns in the ventral neuroectoderm. Instead, marker gene expression is detected in salivary gland rudiments adjacent to the proventriculus. These observations highlighted the need for functional genetic characterization of mosquito salivary gland development. An siRNA- mediated knockdown strategy was therefore employed to investigate the role of one of the marker genes, cyclic-AMP response element binding protein A (Aae crebA), during Ae. aegypti salivary gland development. These experiments revealed that Aae crebA encodes a key transcriptional regulator of the secretory pathway in the developing Ae. aegypti salivary gland. Conclusions The results of this investigation indicated that the initiation of salivary gland development in Ae. aegypti significantly differs from that of D. melanogaster. Despite these differences

  5. [Salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Gudziol, H

    1995-11-01

    Only about 1% of head and neck tumors are neoplasms of the salivary glands. The majority [80%] of these tumors are benign. Pleomorphic adenomas, the most frequent benign tumors of the salivary glands, can transform into malignancy, especially after a long duration. Treatment of salivary gland tumors consists of complete surgical excision by a surgeon experienced in microsurgery of the facial nerve. Acute suppurative and viral sialadenitis is usually treated by the general practitioner either symptomatically or, if possible, specifically. Chronic sialadenitis, sialadenosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Frey's syndrome often need long-term follow-up and medical treatment, which is also usually delivered by the general practitioner, after the diagnosis has been established. Trauma to the salivary gland with transsection of the duct or facial nerve needs immediate microsurgical repair by an otolaryngologist. Sialolithiasis is also treated surgically in most cases.

  6. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kerémi, Beáta; Beck, Anita; Fábián, Tibor Károly; Fábián, Gábor; Szabó, Géza; Nagy, Ákos; Varga, Gábor

    2017-02-15

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients.

  7. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  8. Causes, natural history, and incidence of salivary stones and obstructions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, John D

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty about the causes and natural history of salivary stones (sialoliths) and other obstructions is being dispelled by clinical and experimental research. Sialoliths are now shown to be secondary to chronic obstructive sialadenitis. Microscopic stones (sialomicroliths) accumulate during secretory inactivity in normal salivary glands and produce atrophic foci by obstruction. Microbes ascend the main salivary duct during secretory inactivity and proliferate in atrophic foci and cause spreading inflammation, leading to inflammatory swelling and fibrosis that can compress large ducts. This leads to stagnation of secretory material rich in calcium that precipitates onto degenerating cellular membranes to form a sialolith.

  9. The effect of social stress on salivary trace elements.

    PubMed

    Sheibaninia, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Social stress can alter the saliva in favor of metabolism of trace elements. This study aimed to assess the effect of social stress on salivary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) contents in dental students before and after a comprehensive English test. Twelve students with an average age of 27 years were selected from three dental schools. The students were carries-free, and salivary samples were collected 1 week before the test day and right before the comprehensive English test. Unstimulated saliva was collected from the participants. The pH of the saliva samples was measured using a portable pH meter, and the salivary trace element contents were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. After checking data to be normally distributed, Student's paired t test was used for statistical analysis. Salivary pH significantly increased right before the English test. Salivary Cu concentration decreased in students after the test (P > 0.05). The level of Zn, Mn, and Fe increased, while only Mn change was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Under the limitations of this study, induction of social stress led to a significant increase in Mn concentration in the saliva. The salivary Cu, Zn, and Fe contents, however, did not exhibit significant changes. Changes in salivary inorganic trace element content, as a result of physiological stress, might influence health of teeth, enamel, and oral mucosal tissues.

  10. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  11. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  12. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  13. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  14. Acute salivary gland hypofunction in the duct ligation model in the absence of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Correia, PN; Carpenter, GH; Osailan, SM; Paterson, KL; Proctor, GB

    2008-01-01

    Objective The commonly associated aetiology of salivary gland inflammation and salivary hypofunction has led to the widely held belief that inflammation causes salivary gland hypofunction. Indeed, our own recent study seemed to support this contention. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in an acute duct ligation model, eliminating inflammation the submandibular gland would recover normal function. Materials and methods Ligation of the rat submandibular gland excretory duct for 24 h was used to induce inflammation and salivary gland hypofunction. A group of duct ligated rats was compared with a second group given dexamethasone, on the day of duct ligation. Twenty-four hours later salivary gland function was assessed and salivary glands were collected. Results Histology and myeloperoxidase activity assay revealed a profound decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration of ligated glands from rats given dexamethasone, compared with ligated glands in the absence of dexamethasone. Salivary flow rate evoked by methacholine was decreased (P < 0.01) by approximately 56% (ligated vs control, 79 ± 9 μl min−1 g−1vs 177 ± 11 μl min−1 g−1) and salivary flow from ligated dexamethasone-treated and ligated glands was similar. Conclusion Despite eliminating the inflammatory reaction in the ligated gland, salivary hypofunction was not reversed, suggesting that other mechanisms must be at work in the ligation-induced salivary hypofunction. PMID:18221457

  15. Analysis of residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Won, S; Kho, H; Kim, Y; Chung, S; Lee, S

    2001-07-01

    Residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions are important for the maintenance of oral mucosal wetness. Salivary proteins and glycoproteins are the major components of the oral mucosal film, which functions as a moisture retainer and a protective barrier. Here, the correlations between the amounts of residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions and their protein concentrations were investigated in 30 normal healthy individuals. The thickness of the mucosal film was measured at six mucosal surfaces and minor salivary gland secretion rate was measured at two mucosal surfaces. The thickness of residual saliva was determined by placing filter-paper strips against the mucosa at each site for 5 s and then measuring the volume electronically with a Periotron 8000 micro-moisture meter. The unstimulated rate of minor salivary gland secretion was measured for 30 s by the same method. Unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was measured with the spitting method. The total protein concentration of all salivary samples was measured by bicinchoninic acid assay. Before the experiment, the intra-/inter-examiner reliability of the method using the Periotron and the filter-paper strips was investigated. With a range of 0.4256-0.8846, the intraclass correlation coefficient, measured within and between examiners, was indicative of good reliability. The oral mucosal site with the thinnest coat of residual saliva was the anterior hard palate. Mucosal wetness on the hard palate and buccal mucosa showed significant positive correlations with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate and significant negative correlations with the total protein concentration of residual saliva. Mucosal wetness on the upper and lower labial mucosa also showed significant negative correlations with the total protein concentration of residual saliva. Mucosal wetness on the soft palate was correlated with the minor salivary gland secretion rate (r=0.477, P<0.01). Among the minor salivary glands, the

  16. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  17. Salivary defense system alters in vegetarian

    PubMed Central

    Amirmozafari, Nour; Pourghafar, Houra; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this research was investigating antimicrobial and enzymatic antioxidant activities in salivary fluids of vegetarians as compared to normal subjects. Material & Methods Antimicrobial activity of the saliva samples was evaluated against four clinically important bacteria. The biological activities of three of the main antioxidant enzymes of saliva were measured using appropriate methods of enzyme assay in both groups. Results According to the results, saliva obtained from vegetarians showed a reduced inhibitory effect on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as compared to those obtained from the non-vegetarian subjects. The activity of salivary peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase showed a statistically marked decrease in vegetarian group. Conclusions According to our literature survey, this is the first report on the antibacterial and antioxidant capacity in saliva of vegetarians. Results obtained from the present study have opened a new line of research with the basis of saliva as a research tool. PMID:25737889

  18. Parotid salivary secretory pattern in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Riad, M; Barton, J R; Wilson, J A; Freeman, C P; Maran, A G

    1991-01-01

    Parotid gland enlargement occurs in about 25% of patients with the binge eating syndrome of bulimia nervosa. The parotid salivary secretory patterns in 28 bulimics were determined in order to investigate the functional abnormality in the glands. Bulimia patients had a reduced resting flow rate. Bulimics who developed sialadenosis (4 patients) had reduced resting and stimulated flow rates. The salivary amylase activity was increased in both the resting and stimulated states in bulimics and the sialadenosis group. The resting total protein levels were greater in the bulimics. The electrolyte and immunoglobulin levels were within normal limits. The possibility of protein and enzymatic secretory disturbances due to autonomic nerve disorders as an explanation for the development of sialadenosis in bulimia nervosa is discussed.

  19. Fusion oncogenes in salivary gland tumors: molecular and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of uncommon diseases that pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. However, the recent discovery of a translocation-generated gene fusion network in salivary gland carcinomas as well in benign salivary gland tumors opens up new avenues for improved diagnosis, prognostication, and development of specific targeted therapies. The gene fusions encode novel fusion oncoproteins or ectopically expressed normal or truncated oncoproteins. The major targets of the translocations are transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and transcription factors involved in growth factor signaling and cell cycle regulation. Notably, several of these targets or pathways activated by these targets are druggable. Examples of clinically significant gene fusions in salivary gland cancers are the MYB-NFIB fusion specific for adenoid cystic carcinoma, the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion typical of low/intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and the recently identified ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Similarly, gene fusions involving the PLAG1 and HMGA2 oncogenes are specific for benign pleomorphic adenomas. Continued studies of the molecular consequences of these fusion oncoproteins and their down-stream targets will ultimately lead to the identification of novel driver genes in salivary gland neoplasms and will also form the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies for salivary gland cancers and, perhaps, other neoplasms.

  20. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  1. Disordered salivary immunoglobulin secretion and sodium transport in human chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, K T; Sullivan, K M; Schubert, M M; Truelove, E L; Shulman, H M; Sale, G E; Morton, T H; Rice, J C; Witherspoon, R P; Storb, R; Thomas, E D

    1983-05-01

    Whole saliva samples and lip biopsies were collected from 12 allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients who developed extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and from 10 healthy allogeneic and syngeneic recipients without GVHD. Six of ten biopsies from patients with chronic GVHD had lichenoid stomatitis or sialadenitis, or both, with sialodochitis. Seven of nine biopsies from patients free of chronic GVHD were entirely normal, and two had either mild glandular or mucosal changes. Salivary gland involvement in chronic GVHD was associated with decreased or absent levels of salivary IgA and inorganic phosphate, decreased salivary flow rates, and increased concentrations of salivary sodium, albumin, and IgG. The most striking abnormalities were found in patients with histologic evidence of sialadenitis. In contrast, marrow transplant recipients without chronic GVHD had normal salivary immunoglobulin and electrolyte levels. Secretory IgA deficiency may contribute to the frequent sinobronchial infections observed in patients with chronic GVHD.

  2. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    PubMed

    Gurzu, S; Krause, M; Ember, I; Azamfirei, L; Gobel, G; Feher, K; Jung, I

    2012-02-07

    Mena (mammalian Ena) is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG) and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10) and also benign (n=20) and malignant (n=35) lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin's tumors) were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5), carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5), acinic cell carcinomas (n=5), squamous cell carcinomas (n=10) and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2) were positive. The lymphomas (n=5) and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1) were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  3. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    PubMed

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  4. Salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Almendros-Marqués, Nieves; Espana-Tost, Antonio-Jesús; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (SGCh) is defined as the presence of normal salivary tissue in an abnormal location. It is a rare entity in oral and maxillofacial region and its ethiology is unknown. The typical presentation of salivary gland heterotopia is an asymptomatic mass that may or may not produce saliva. Some examples of ectopic salivary tissue in the pituitary gland, in the lymph nodes, in the middle ear, in the neck, in the jaw, in the thyroid gland, in the mediastinum and in the rectum have been documented in literature. We report the case of a 61-year-old male presented with a bilateral tumorlike mass in the cheek. The mass was painless, of fibrous consistency and had size change with time. The histological diagnosis was salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle. In this article, we will revise the characteristic of salivary gland heterotopias and we present a report case that has not been described in literature: a bilateral choristoma of salivary gland in the buccinator muscle, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of head and neck masses. Key words:Choristoma, heterotopias, ectopic tissue, salivary gland, buccinator muscle. PMID:26535104

  5. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

    PubMed Central

    Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  6. Metabolic Disease Risk in Children by Salivary Biomarker Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, J. Max; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Hartman, Mor-Li; Denis, Gerald V.; Stephens, Danielle; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Wang, Xiaoshan; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study of obesity-related metabolic syndrome or Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children is particularly difficult because of fear of needles. We tested a non-invasive approach to study inflammatory parameters in an at-risk population of children to provide proof-of-principle for future investigations of vulnerable subjects. Design and Methods We evaluated metabolic differences in 744, 11-year old children selected from underweight, normal healthy weight, overweight and obese categories by analyzing fasting saliva samples for 20 biomarkers. Saliva supernatants were obtained following centrifugation and used for analyses. Results Salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) was 6 times higher, salivary insulin and leptin were 3 times higher, and adiponectin was 30% lower in obese children compared to healthy normal weight children (all P<0.0001). Categorical analysis suggested that there might be three types of obesity in children. Distinctly inflammatory characteristics appeared in 76% of obese children while in 13%, salivary insulin was high but not associated with inflammatory mediators. The remaining 11% of obese children had high insulin and reduced adiponectin. Forty percent of the non-obese children were found in groups which, based on biomarker characteristics, may be at risk for becoming obese. Conclusions Significantly altered levels of salivary biomarkers in obese children from a high-risk population, suggest the potential for developing non-invasive screening procedures to identify T2D-vulnerable individuals and a means to test preventative strategies. PMID:24915044

  7. Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Fowell, C; MacBean, A

    2012-01-01

    Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

  8. Cancer Secretome May Influence BSP and DSP Expression in Human Salivary Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Samantha Lynn; Ferando, Blake; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Yu, Jennifer Chian; Joy, Anita Rose

    2017-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges in managing head and neck cancers, especially salivary gland cancers, is the identification of secreted biomarkers of the disease that can be evaluated noninvasively. A relevant source of enriched tumor markers could potentially be found in the tumor secretome. Although numerous studies have evaluated secretomes from various cancers, the influence of the cancer secretome derived from salivary gland cancers on the behavior of normal cells has not yet been elucidated. Our data indicate that secretome derived from salivary gland cancer cells can influence the expression of two potential biomarkers of oral cancer-namely, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP)-in normal salivary gland cells. Using routine immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting techniques, we demonstrate an enrichment of BSP and DSP in human salivary gland (HSG) cancer tissue, unique localizations of BSP and DSP in HSG cancer cells, and enriched expression of BSP and DSP in normal salivary gland cells exposed to a cancer secretome. The secretome domain of the cancer microenvironment could alter signaling cascades responsible for normal cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, thus enhancing cancer cell survival and the potential for cancer progression. The cancer secretome may be critical in maintaining and stimulating "cancer-ness," thus potentially promoting specific hallmarks of metastasis.

  9. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  10. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed. PMID:28286865

  11. A study of the effects of photodynamic therapy on the normal tissues of the rabbit jaw.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, M.; Speight, P.; Bown, S. G.

    1991-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an anti-cancer treatment which involves the systemic administration of a photosensitising drug which is preferentially absorbed by tumour tissue. Relatively little drug should be absorbed by the surrounding normal tissues. Tumour destruction is achieved when the tumour is illuminated with light of a wavelength which activates the photosensitising drug thereby inducing a cytotoxic reaction. However studies in many tissues have shown that the hoped for tumour selectivity is rarely achieved. Using the rabbit mandible and gingiva as our models we have studied the effects of various doses of PDT on the tissues of the oral cavity, namely mucosa, bone, muscle and salivary gland. The photosensitiser used was di-sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine. Results show that whereas bone is extremely resistant to PDT the other tissues are vulnerable to it. In the case of muscle and salivary gland this susceptibility is very much dose related. In salivary tissue necrotising sialometaplasia was observed in areas of the gland adjacent to those that had undergone necrosis. All tissues were noted to heal or regenerate well following PDT injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1764372

  12. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.; Rappaport, S.C.; Southren, A.L.

    1985-08-26

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  13. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the salivary gland in two Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Munday, J S; Richey, L J; Brown, C A; Rodriguez, N A; Kiupel, M

    2005-11-01

    Two Syrian hamsters developed marked swelling of the ventral neck. Histologic examination of both masses revealed that the submaxillary salivary glands were effaced by large numbers of neoplastic plasma cells. In one hamster, neoplastic cells had infiltrated the adjacent lymph node. The neoplastic cells expressed CD79a antigen and were negative for CD3, lambda, and kappa light chains. Ultrastructural features of neoplastic cells in the salivary gland of one hamster included abundant cytoplasmic rough endoplasmic reticulum profiles, and peripherally displaced nuclei that contained marginated heterochromatin, consistent with plasma cells. Salivary gland plasmacytomas are extremely rare in humans and have not previously been reported in nonhuman species. The occurrence of such neoplasms in two hamsters suggests that this species may be predisposed to developing tumors of this type.

  14. The return of postpartum fertility monitored by enzyme-immunoassay for salivary progesterone.

    PubMed

    Bolaji, I I; Tallon, D F; Meehan, F P; O'Dwyer, E M; Fottrell, P F

    1992-03-01

    A longitudinal study in which daily salivary progesterone and estrone were measured by solid-phase enzyme-immunoassays was performed in 30 postpartum women to monitor the return of ovarian activity. Ovulation was inferred from a sustained rise in salivary progesterone over 251 pmol/l, but salivary estrone measurements were not as informative as progesterone in this regard. Recovery of ovarian activity was slower in lactating women compared with non-lactators; the mean delivery-menstruation interval were 123 (+/- 10) and 57 (+/- 7) days, respectively. An abnormal luteal phase was noted in 35% of the first ovulatory cycles, 20% had short luteal phases and 15% were less than the 5th percentile of a normal control corridor. The pregnancy rate in this study of 3.3% was lower than the anticipated rate of 8.8%. We conclude that salivary progesterone measurements are useful for monitoring the return of ovarian activity postnatally.

  15. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    PubMed

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  16. Unhealthy Phenotype as Indicated by Salivary Biomarkers: Glucose, Insulin, VEGF-A, and IL-12p70 in Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J. Max; Shi, Ping; Vargas, Jorel; Yaskell, Tina; Stephens, Danielle; Cugini, Maryann; Hasturk, Hatice; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Here, we investigated the relationships between obesity and the salivary concentrations of insulin, glucose, and 20 metabolic biomarkers in Kuwaiti adolescents. Previously, we have shown that certain salivary metabolic markers can act as surrogates for blood concentrations. Methods. Salivary samples of whole saliva were collected from 8,317 adolescents. Salivary glucose concentration was measured by a high-sensitivity glucose oxidase method implemented on a robotic chemical analyzer. The concentration of salivary insulin and 20 other metabolic biomarkers was assayed in 744 randomly selected saliva samples by multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Results. Obesity was seen in 26.5% of the adolescents. Salivary insulin predicting hyperinsulinemia occurred in 4.3% of normal-weight adolescents, 8.3% of overweight adolescents, and 25.7% of obese adolescents (p < 0.0001). Salivary glucose predicting hyperglycemia was found in only 3% of obese children and was not predictive (p = 0.89). Elevated salivary glucose and insulin occurring together was associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor and reduced salivary interleukin-12. Conclusion. Considering the surrogate nature of salivary insulin and glucose, this study suggests that elevated insulin may be a dominant sign of metabolic disease in adolescent populations. It also appears that a proangiogenic environment may accompany elevated glucose in obese adolescents. PMID:27069678

  17. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  18. Viruses and Salivary Gland Disease (SGD)

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, L.; Webster-Cyriaque, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD. PMID:21441486

  19. Salivary and pellicle proteome: A datamining analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schweigel, Hardy; Wicht, Michael; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to comprehensively compare two compartmented oral proteomes, the salivary and the dental pellicle proteome. Systematic review and datamining was used to obtain the physico-chemical, structural, functional and interactional properties of 1,515 salivary and 60 identified pellicle proteins. Salivary and pellicle proteins did not differ significantly in their aliphatic index, hydrophaty, instability index, or isoelectric point. Pellicle proteins were significantly more charged at low and high pH and were significantly smaller (10–20 kDa) than salivary proteins. Protein structure and solvent accessible molecular surface did not differ significantly. Proteins of the pellicle were more phosphorylated and glycosylated than salivary proteins. Ion binding and enzymatic activities also differed significantly. Protein-protein-ligand interaction networks relied on few key proteins. The identified differences between salivary and pellicle proteins could guide proteome compartmentalization and result in specialized functionality. Key proteins could be potential targets for diagnostic or therapeutic application. PMID:27966577

  20. Salivary and pellicle proteome: A datamining analysis.

    PubMed

    Schweigel, Hardy; Wicht, Michael; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-12-14

    We aimed to comprehensively compare two compartmented oral proteomes, the salivary and the dental pellicle proteome. Systematic review and datamining was used to obtain the physico-chemical, structural, functional and interactional properties of 1,515 salivary and 60 identified pellicle proteins. Salivary and pellicle proteins did not differ significantly in their aliphatic index, hydrophaty, instability index, or isoelectric point. Pellicle proteins were significantly more charged at low and high pH and were significantly smaller (10-20 kDa) than salivary proteins. Protein structure and solvent accessible molecular surface did not differ significantly. Proteins of the pellicle were more phosphorylated and glycosylated than salivary proteins. Ion binding and enzymatic activities also differed significantly. Protein-protein-ligand interaction networks relied on few key proteins. The identified differences between salivary and pellicle proteins could guide proteome compartmentalization and result in specialized functionality. Key proteins could be potential targets for diagnostic or therapeutic application.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in epithelial cells in vivo: rare detection of EBV replication in tongue mucosa but not in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Frangou, Phroso; Buettner, Maike; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2005-01-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted through saliva, but the cellular source is controversial. Putative reservoirs include oral epithelium and salivary glands. Tongue mucosal samples, salivary glands, and tongue carcinomas were studied, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, for evidence of EBV infection. EBV replication was seen in 1.3% of tongue mucosal samples. No latent infection was found at this site. EBV infection was detected neither in normal salivary glands nor in tongue carcinomas. Thus, EBV replication occurs infrequently in tongue epithelial cells, and salivary glands are unlikely to harbor EBV. EBV is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of tongue cancer.

  2. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer About Salivary Gland Cancer What’s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  3. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  4. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pape, S A; MacLeod, R I; McLean, N R; Soames, J V

    1995-09-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) is an uncommon, non-inflammatory condition which usually causes bilateral, diffuse enlargement of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid. We present a series of 7 patients with sialadenosis. Two had bilateral and 4 unilateral parotid involvement. One patient had unilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. One patient had bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. The clinicopathological features and management of the condition are reviewed.

  5. Factors affecting the secretion of submandibular salivary kallikrein in cats.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J R; Smith, R E; Kyriacou, K; Kidd, A; Liao, J

    1987-07-01

    Glandular kallikrein has been assessed in submandibular saliva, homogenates and plasma by the fluorimetric substrate D-Val-Leu-Arg-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (AFC) and histochemically in tissue sections by the 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide (MNA) analogue. Nerve stimulation was used to produce salivary secretion. Parasympathetic saliva contained low concentrations of kallikrein, independently of any circulating catecholamines from the adrenals. Sympathetic saliva contained very high concentrations of kallikrein; the amounts in individual drops rapidly reached a peak then declined gradually. Adrenergic blocking drugs during mixed parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation showed that beta-adrenergic effects normally increase the secretion of kallikrein in response to the alpha-adrenergic influence from sympathetic nerve impulses. Small amounts of a glandular kallikrein-like activity are present in the plasma. Effluent blood from the submandibular gland before, during and after stimulation of either nerve gave no indication that submandibular kallikrein passes from the glandular compartment to the blood under conditions of unobstructed salivary flow. Excision of the chorda tympani indicated that parasympathetic nerve impulses are required for the normal resynthesis of submandibular kallikrein. The secretion of salivary kallikrein is essentially an exocrine function but its role in the saliva remains obscure. The results suggest that sudden mobilization of kallikrein may occur at times into the saliva and that a separate population of adrenergic axons, under separate central control, may pass to the striated ducts specially for this purpose.

  6. Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

  7. The salivary gland and salivary enzymes of the giant waterbugs (Heteroptera; Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Swart, C C; Deaton, L E; Felgenhauer, B E

    2006-09-01

    The giant waterbugs are predators that utilize extra-oral digestion and are known to capture a wide variety of prey. Herein we describe the differences in salivary enzyme composition between large and small species of giant waterbug (Lethocerus uhleri, Lethocerinae and Belostoma lutarium, Belostomatinae, respectively). The saliva of L. uhleri contains 3 proteolytic enzymes and no amylase, while the salivary gland of B. lutarium produces 2 proteolytic enzymes and amylase. This fundamental difference in salivary enzyme composition correlates with the difference in diet preference between the Lethocerinae and Belostomatinae. Furthermore, we describe the ultrastructure of the salivary gland complex of B. lutarium and present data on the division of labor with respect to compartmentalization of enzyme production. Proteolytic enzymes are produced in the accessory salivary gland and amylase is produced in the main salivary gland lobe. This is the first reported evidence of protease production in the accessory salivary gland in the Heteroptera.

  8. Salivary Gland Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2017-03-01

    This current review focuses on current concepts and controversies for select key salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. Rather than the traditional organization of benign and malignant tumors, this review is structured around select key topics: biphasic tumors, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and the controversy surrounding polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin.

  9. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KOIBUCHI, ERI; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of salivary α-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary α-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary α-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary α-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary α-amylase has since been extensively investigated. The present review summarizes relevant studies published in the English and Japanese literature after 2006. A search of the PubMed and CiNii databases identified 54 articles, from which 15 original articles were selected. The findings described in these publications indicate that exercise consistently increases mean salivary α-amylase activities and concentrations, particularly at an intensity of >70% VO2max in healthy young individuals. Thus, these studies have confirmed that salivary α-amylase levels markedly increase in response to physical stress. Salivary α-amylase levels may therefore serve as an effective indicator in the non-invasive assessment of physical stress. PMID:24669232

  10. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  11. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Misk, N.A.; Misk, T.N.; Semieka, M.A.; Ahmed, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases), parotid duct fistula (15 cases) and sialocele (3 cases). Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side. PMID:26623341

  12. Proteome of human minor salivary gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, W L; Salih, E; Wan, D L; Helmerhorst, E J; Oppenheim, F G

    2008-05-01

    Recent research efforts in oral biology have resulted in elucidation of the proteomes of major human salivary secretions and whole saliva. One might hypothesize that the proteome of minor gland secretions may show significantly different characteristics when compared with the proteomes of parotid or submandibular/sublingual secretions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted the first exploration into the proteome of minor salivary gland secretion. Minor gland secretion was obtained from healthy volunteers, and its components were subjected to liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry. This led to the identification of 56 proteins, 12 of which had never been identified in any salivary secretion. The unique characteristics of the minor salivary gland secretion proteome are related to the types as well as the numbers of components present. The differences between salivary proteomes may be important with respect to specific oral functions.

  13. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Misk, N A; Misk, T N; Semieka, M A; Ahmed, A F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases), parotid duct fistula (15 cases) and sialocele (3 cases). Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side.

  14. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Salivary Gland Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Martin G.; Watson, Philip A.; Ho, Alan L.; Morris, Luc G. T.

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers comprise a small subset of human malignancies, and are classified into multiple subtypes that exhibit diverse histology, molecular biology and clinical presentation. Local disease is potentially curable with surgery, which may be combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. However, metastatic or unresectable tumors rarely respond to chemotherapy and carry a poorer prognosis. Recent molecular studies have shown evidence of androgen receptor signaling in several types of salivary gland cancer, mainly salivary duct carcinoma. Successful treatment with anti-androgen therapy in other androgen receptor-positive malignancies such as prostate and breast cancer has inspired researchers to investigate this treatment in salivary gland cancer as well. In this review, we describe the prevalence, biology, and therapeutic implications of androgen receptor signaling in salivary gland cancer. PMID:28208703

  15. Chewing behavior and salivary secretion.

    PubMed

    Gavião, Maria Beatriz D; Engelen, Lina; van der Bilt, Andries

    2004-02-01

    We determined the salivary flow rate in 16 healthy subjects in rest and while chewing artificial and natural foods (Parafilm, Melba toast with and without margarine, and three different volumes of breakfast cake and cheese). We also determined the duration of a chewing cycle, the number of chewing cycles until swallowing, and the time until swallowing. The physical characteristics of the foods were quantified from force-deformation experiments. The flow rates of the saliva as obtained without stimulation, with Parafilm stimulation, and with chewing on the various foods were significantly correlated. An increase in chewing cycle duration, number of chewing cycles until swallowing, and time until swallowing was observed as a function of the volume of the food. More chewing cycles were required for Melba toast than for an equal volume of cake or cheese. This may be caused by the low water and fat percentage of the Melba toast. The number of chewing cycles and the time until swallowing significantly decreased when the Melba toast was buttered. The decrease may be caused by facilitation in bolus formation and lubrication of the food due to buttering the toast. The number of chewing cycles until swallowing was not correlated to the salivary flow rate.

  16. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  17. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Sublingual Salivary Gland Obstructing the Submandibular Salivary Gland Duct

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Venkata Suneel; Prathi, Venkata Sarath; Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Beeraka, Swapna; Natarajan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual salivary gland malignancies are extremely rare and account for only 0.3-1% of all epithelial salivary gland tumors. Here, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the sublingual salivary gland that presented as a swelling in the right anterior floor of the mouth obstructing the submandibular duct. Sublingual salivary gland ACC obstructing the submandibular duct is rare and only three cases have been reported in the literature until date. We discuss the different patterns of ACC seen during the pathologic investigations and its radiologic features. PMID:24516773

  18. Variation in the response to ductal obstruction of feline submandibular and sublingual salivary glands and the importance of the innervation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Fouad, H M; Garrett, J R

    2001-01-01

    A variable response following ductal ligation of feline salivary glands corresponds to the human condition but contrasts with a predictable atrophy in obstructed salivary glands of rodents popularly used as a model for human salivary problems. The present investigation is concerned with a possible reason for the variable response, namely the preservation of the innervation. Ducts of feline submandibular and sublingual salivary glands were ligated with or without the inclusion of the chorda tympani. Inclusion led to a delayed initial response followed by progressive atrophy until the parenchyma was extremely atrophic, whereas avoidance of the chorda led to the variable response in which variable numbers of acini of a similar form to normal persisted. The results establish the atrophic effect of inclusion of the chorda tympani in ductal ligation and indicate the caution that should be exercised in the extrapolation of the rodent model to the human condition.

  19. Surgical management of parotid salivary duct rupture secondary to non-iatrogenic trauma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Hun-Young; MIN, Byong-Su; KIM, Sun-Young; LEE, Da-Eun; KIM, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old French bulldog presented for evaluation of recurrent swelling and a fistula on the right cheek after a dog fight. A large volume of serous fluids was identified on the wound immediately after atropine drops. A diagnosis of parotid salivary duct rupture secondary to trauma was made. On surgical exploration, the thickened proximal segment of the severed duct was identified and circumferentially double ligated with 3–0 silk. No evidence of swelling and normal appearance of the parotid salivary gland were identified 4 months postoperative recheck. No further problems were noted 10 months postoperatively phone-call. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful proximal parotid duct ligation of parotid salivary duct rupture secondary to non-iatrogenic trauma. PMID:27666341

  20. Posttranslational Protein Modification in the Salivary Glands of Sjögren's Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Esparza, Rafael; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mayra; Pérez-Pérez, María Elena; Badillo-Soto, Martha Adriana; Torres-Del-Muro, Felipe; Bollain-Y-Goytia, Juan José; Pacheco-Tovar, Deyanira; Avalos-Díaz, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated posttranslational reactions in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. We analysed the biopsies of primary Sjögren's patients using immunohistochemistry and a tag-purified anticyclic citrullinated protein (CCP) antibody to detect citrullinated peptides, and the presence of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) was assessed simultaneously. The present work demonstrated the weak presence of the PAD2 enzyme in some normal salivary glands, although PAD2 expression was increased considerably in Sjögren's patients. The presence of citrullinated proteins was also detected in the salivary tissues of Sjögren's patients, which strongly supports the in situ posttranslational modification of proteins in this setting. Furthermore, the mutual expression of CCP and PAD2 suggests that this posttranslational modification is enzyme dependent. In conclusion, patients with Sjögren's syndrome expressed the catalytic machinery to produce posttranslational reactions that may result in autoantigen triggering.

  1. Retroductal Submandibular Gland Instillation and Localized Fractionated Irradiation in a Rat Model of Salivary Hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Zheng, Changyu; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    Normal tissues that lie within the portals of radiation are inadvertently damaged. Salivary glands are often injured during head and neck radiotherapy. Irreparable cell damage results in a chronic loss of salivary function that impairs basic oral activities, and increases the risk of oral infections and dental caries. Salivary hypofunction and its complications gravely impact a patient's comfort. Current symptomatic management of the condition is ineffective, and newer therapies to assuage the condition are needed. Salivary glands are exocrine glands, which expel their secretions into the mouth via excretory ducts. Cannulation of these ducts provides direct access to the glands. Retroductal delivery of a contrast agent to major salivary glands is a routine out-patient procedure for diagnostic imaging. Using a similar procedure, localized treatment of the glands is feasible. However, performing this technique in preclinical studies with small animals poses unique challenges. In this study we describe the technique of retroductal administration in rat submandibular glands, a procedure that was refined in Dr. Bruce Baum's laboratory (NIH)1, and lay out a procedure for local gland irradiation. PMID:27168158

  2. New Anthocyanin-Human Salivary Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; de Freitas, Victor

    2015-08-04

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is considered the basis of the poorly understood phenomenon of astringency. Furthermore, this interaction is an important factor in relation to their bioavailability. In this work, interactions between anthocyanin and human salivary protein fraction were studied by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS and FIA-ESI-MS) and saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. Anthocyanins were able to interact with saliva proteins. The dissociation constant (KD) between malvidin 3-glucoside and salivary proline-rich proteins was 1.92 mM for the hemiketal form (pH 3.4) and 1.83 mM for the flavylium cation (pH 1.0). New soluble complexes between these salivary proteins and malvidin 3-glucoside were identified for the first time.

  3. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  4. Neuroscience meets salivary bioscience: An integrative perspective.

    PubMed

    Segal, Sabrina K

    2016-04-01

    Advances in salivary bioscience enable unique opportunities to explore individual differences in biological mechanisms related to learning and memory, psychiatric disorders, and more recently neurodegenerative diseases, neurotrauma/stroke, pain, and sleep. Sampling oral fluid is not only minimally invasive, but specimens can be collected easily and quickly in clinical and field settings. Salivary analytes allow neuroscientists to index endocrine, autonomic, immune, metabolic, and inflammatory processes within close proximity of discrete behavioral, biological, and social events, which is particularly important to advancing our understanding of human neuroscience. This review provides an update on the advances in salivary bioscience for specialty fields within neuroscience, presents novel salivary analytes of interest to neuroscience and the status of their development, and outlines a procedural framework to facilitate integration of these concepts and methods into neuroscience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. The Relationship between Plasma and Salivary NOx

    PubMed Central

    Clodfelter, William H.; Basu, Swati; Bolden, Crystal; Dos Santos, Patricia C.; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that fasting plasma nitrite (NO2−) is an indicator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity while plasma nitrate (NO3−) or the sum of NO2− and NO3− (NOx) do not reflect NOS function. Plasma NO2− can also be elevated through dietary NO3− where the NO3− is partially reduced to NO2− by oral bacteria and enters the plasma through the digestive system. NO3− is taken up from plasma by salivary glands and the cycle repeats itself. Thus, one may propose that salivary NO2− is an indicator of plasma NO2− and consequently of NO production. Many brands of nitric oxide (NO) saliva test strips have been developed that suggest that their product is indicative of circulatory NO availability. However, data supporting a relationship between salivary and plasma NO2− or NO bioavailability is lacking. Here we have measured basal salivary and plasma NO2− and NO3− to determine if any correlation exists between these in 13 adult volunteers. We found no significant correlation between basal salivary and plasma NO2−. Also no correlation exists between salivary NO3− and plasma NO2−. However, we did see a correlation between salivary NO3− and plasma NO3−, and between salivary NO2− and plasma NO3−. In a separate study, we compared the efficiency of salivary NO3− reduction with the efficacy of increasing plasma NO3− and NO2− after drinking beet juice, a high NO3−-containing beverage, in 10 adult volunteers. No significant correlation was observed between the ex vivo salivary reduction of NO3− to NO2− and plasma increases in NO3− or NO2−. These results suggest that measures of salivary NO3−, NO2− or NOx are not good indicators of endothelial function. In addition, the efficiency of saliva to reduce NO3− to NO2− ex-vivo does not demonstrate one’s ability to increase plasma NO2− following consumption of dietary NO3−. PMID:25910583

  6. [Non-neoplastic changes in the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Franz, P; Swoboda, H; Quint, C

    1994-05-01

    Non-neoplastic disorders of the salivary glands are divided into the following groups: malformations, salivary gland cysts, sialadenosis, sialolithiasis, sialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, oncocytosis and necrotizing sialometaplasia (salivary gland infarction). Clinically, an etiological classification of sialadenitis is mandatory. Sialadenosis is distinguishable from sialadenitis by its clinical, radiological, and morphological characteristics. Non-neoplastic cysts make up about 6% of diseases of the salivary glands. Mucoceles represent the majority of these cysts (75%). HIV-associated salivary gland disease includes lymphoepithelial lesions and cysts involving the salivary gland tissue and/or intraglandular lymph nodes, and Sjögren's syndrome-like conditions, diffuse interstitial lymphocytosis syndrome, and other reported lesions of the major salivary glands. The diagnosis, differential diagnosis, symptoms and treatment of different non-neoplastic salivary gland disorders are discussed.

  7. Salivary proteome and its genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, Frank G; Salih, Erdjan; Siqueira, Walter L; Zhang, Weimin; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2007-03-01

    Salivary diagnostics for oral as well as systemic diseases is dependent on the identification of biomolecules reflecting a characteristic change in presence, absence, composition, or structure of saliva components found under healthy conditions. Most of the biomarkers suitable for diagnostics comprise proteins and peptides. The usefulness of salivary proteins for diagnostics requires the recognition of typical features, which make saliva as a body fluid unique. Salivary secretions reflect a degree of redundancy displayed by extensive polymorphisms forming families for each of the major salivary proteins. The structural differences among these polymorphic isoforms range from distinct to subtle, which may in some cases not even affect the mass of different family members. To facilitate the use of modern state-of-the-art proteomics and the development of nanotechnology-based analytical approaches in the field of diagnostics, the salient features of the major salivary protein families are reviewed at the molecular level. Knowledge of the structure and function of salivary gland-derived proteins/peptides has a critical impact on the rapid and correct identification of biomarkers, whether they originate from exocrine or non-exocrine sources.

  8. Salivary gland progenitor cell biology provides a rationale for therapeutic salivary gland regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, I M A; Knox, S M; Hoffman, M P

    2011-07-01

    An irreversible loss of salivary gland function often occurs in humans after removal of salivary tumors, after therapeutic radiation of head and neck tumors, as a result of Sjögren's syndrome and in genetic syndromes affecting gland development. The permanent loss of gland function impairs the oral health of these patients and broadly affects their quality of life. The regeneration of functional salivary gland tissue is thus an important therapeutic goal for the field of regenerative medicine and will likely involve stem/progenitor cell biology and/or tissue engineering approaches. Recent reports demonstrate how both innervation of the salivary gland epithelium and certain growth factors influence progenitor cell growth during mouse salivary gland development. These advances in our understanding suggest that developmental mechanisms of mouse salivary gland development may provide a paradigm for postnatal regeneration of both mice and human salivary glands. Herein, we will discuss the developmental mechanisms that influence progenitor cell biology and the implications for salivary gland regeneration.

  9. Dietary tryptophan effects on plasma and salivary cortisol and meat quality in pigs.

    PubMed

    Guzik, A C; Matthews, J O; Kerr, B J; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2006-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplemental Trp on meat quality, plasma and salivary cortisol, and plasma lactate. Experiment 1 was a preliminary study to measure plasma cortisol concentrations in 4 barrows (50 kg of BW) that were snared for 30 s at time 0 min. Pigs were bled at -60, -30, -15, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Plasma cortisol was near maximum 10 min after the pigs were snared. In Exp. 2, 20 barrows (50 kg of BW) were allotted to a basal corn-soybean meal diet or the basal diet with 0.5% supplemental l-Trp for 5 d. After the 5-d feeding period, pigs were snared for 30 s and bled at -10, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after snaring. Pigs fed the diet with supplemental Trp had a lower (P < 0.01) mean plasma cortisol than pigs fed the basal diet. Plasma lactate also was decreased (P < 0.07) by supplemental Trp. In Exp. 3, the same pigs and treatments were used as in Exp. 2, but 5 pigs were snared and 15 pigs adjacent to those being snared were bled to determine if pigs are stressed when they are adjacent to pigs being snared. For pigs adjacent to snared pigs, the area under the curve (P < 0.06) and mean for plasma cortisol was lower (P < 0.01) in pigs fed Trp relative to those fed the basal diet. In Exp. 4, 90 barrows (initial BW of 106 kg) were allotted to 6 treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. Three diets with Trp (basal diet, basal supplemented with 0.5% Trp for 5 d, or pigs fed the basal diet with a 0.1 g/kg of BW Trp bolus given 2 h before slaughter) were combined with 2 handling methods (minimal and normal handling). Dressing percent, 24-h pH, and 24-h temperature were reduced in the minimally handled pigs (P < 0.10) compared with the normally handled pigs. Pigs fed Trp in the diet relative to those fed the basal diet had increased 45-min temperature, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values, and drip and total

  10. Facilitated saliva secretion and reduced oral inflammation by a novel artificial saliva system in the treatment of salivary hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minkyung; Park, Hyounggeun; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2017-01-01

    Saliva substitutes and/or lubricants are commonly employed to lessen dry mouth symptoms by stimulating and/or substituting for the secretion of saliva. In this study, a novel artificial saliva containing inorganic salts, including sodium chloride and potassium chloride, and bactericidal agents, including potassium thiocyanate and lactoperoxidase, was formulated in the form of a solution (DM-sol) or gel (DM-gel). Those in vivo therapeutic efficacies were assessed in terms of saliva secretion and anti-inflammatory activity in rats and mice, respectively. Salivary secretion was promoted by mucosal application of DM-formulations in normal rats. In particular, DM-gel resulted in 2.5- and 1.9-fold greater salivary flow rates compared to normal saline and DM-sol, respectively. In an in vivo efficacy evaluation in diabetic mice with salivary hypofunction, repeated application of DM-formulations alleviated histopathological changes in the buccal mucosa in terms of atrophy and thinning of the epithelium, compared to vehicle, after 4 weeks. Moreover, the DM-sol and DM-gel were comparably effective for relieving periodontal gingivitis, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells, and normalizing the neutrophil level in the gingival gingiva, after 4 weeks. Therefore, the novel artificial saliva is expected to facilitate salivary secretion and restore physiological conditions in the mouth of patients with salivary hypofunction. PMID:28138222

  11. Salivary proteomics in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun

    2013-01-16

    Proteins that are important indicators of physiological or pathological states, can provide information for the identification of early and differential markers for disease. Saliva, contains an abundance of proteins, offers an easy, inexpensive, safe, and non-invasive approach for disease detection, and possesses a high potential to revolutionize the diagnostics. Discovery of salivary biomarkers could be used to scrutinize health and disease surveillance. The impact of human saliva proteome analysis in the search for clinically relevant disease biomarkers will be realized through advances made using proteomic technologies. The advancements of emerging proteomic techniques have benefited biomarker research to the point where saliva is now recognized as an excellent diagnostic medium for the detection of disease. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool and we aim to summarize the proteomic technologies currently used for global analysis of saliva proteins and to elaborate on the application of saliva proteomics to the discovery of disease biomarkers, and discuss some of the critical challenges and perspectives in this field.

  12. [Sialendoscopy: endoscopic approach to obstructive salivary gland disease].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Pijpe, J; van Ingen, J M; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    Sialendoscopy: endoscopic approach to obstructive salivary gland defects Obstructive defects of the parotid and the submandibular gland often present themselves clinically by mealtime-related swelling of the affected salivary gland, the so-called 'mealtime syndrome'. Salivary ductal obstruction of the parotid and submandibular gland is predominantly caused by the presence of a salivary stone, a mucous plug, or by ductal stenosis. Until recently, diagnostic and treatment options for these obstructive salivary gland defects were restricted. Surgical removal of the affected salivary gland was often the treatment of choice. By applying sialendoscopy, a minimally invasive, semi rigid optical technique, it is possible to diagnose and treat obstructions which are found in the salivary ductal system. In many cases, therefore, the surgical removal of the salivary gland becomes unnecessary.

  13. Salivary Samples for the Diagnosis of Pemphigus vulgaris Using the BIOCHIP Approach: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    RUSSO, IRENE; SAPONERI, ANDREA; MICHELOTTO, ANNA; ALAIBAC, MAURO

    2017-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune intraepithelial blistering skin disease characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 (DSG3) and desmoglein 1 (DSG1), resulting in loss of the normal epithelial cell-to-cell adhesion, through a process called acantholysis. In recent years, a BIOCHIP-based indirect immunofluorescence technique for the determination of anti-DSG3 and anti-DSG1 autoantibodies has been described. Even though, the use of saliva anti-DSG3 and anti-DSG1 ELISA for the diagnosis of PV has been already reported, there are no studies concerning the utilization of saliva by the BIOCHIP approach. In the present pilot study, ELISA and BIOCHIP were performed, using salivary and serum samples from the same patients to investigate if the detection of anti-desmoglein autoantibodies in salivary samples by BIOCHIP could be used as a test for the diagnosis of PV. There was a strong correlation between ELISA and BIOCHIP results both for anti-DSG3 and anti-DSG1 serum autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to DSG3 were detected in 8 out of 8 salivary samples by ELISA and in 6 out of 8 salivary samples by the BIOCHIP approach. Autoantibodies to DSG1 were negative in all salivary samples using both ELISA and BIOCHIP. There were no positive results in the negative control group. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate lack of correlation between serum and salivary results using both ELISA and BIOCHIP, indicating that saliva may not be the ideal substrate for the laboratory diagnosis of PV using these approaches. PMID:28064226

  14. Deep metaproteomic analysis of human salivary supernatant.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Pratik; McGowan, Thomas; Bandhakavi, Sricharan; Tu, Zheng Jin; Seymour, Sean; Griffin, Timothy J; Rudney, Joel D

    2012-04-01

    The human salivary proteome is extremely complex, including proteins from salivary glands, serum, and oral microbes. Much has been learned about the host component, but little is known about the microbial component. Here we report a metaproteomic analysis of salivary supernatant pooled from six healthy subjects. For deep interrogation of the salivary proteome, we combined protein dynamic range compression (DRC), multidimensional peptide fractionation, and high-mass accuracy MS/MS with a novel two-step peptide identification method using a database of human proteins plus those translated from oral microbe genomes. Peptides were identified from 124 microbial species as well as uncultured phylotypes such as TM7. Streptococcus, Rothia, Actinomyces, Prevotella, Neisseria, Veilonella, Lactobacillus, Selenomonas, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Campylobacter were abundant among the 65 genera from 12 phyla represented. Taxonomic diversity in our study was broadly consistent with metagenomic studies of saliva. Proteins mapped to 20 KEGG pathways, with carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, translation, membrane transport, and signal transduction most represented. The communities sampled appear to be actively engaged in glycolysis and protein synthesis. This first deep metaproteomic catalog from human salivary supernatant provides a baseline for future studies of shifts in microbial diversity and protein activities potentially associated with oral disease.

  15. The Effect of Exercise on Salivary Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Ligtenberg, Antoon J. M.; Liem, Erwin H. S.; Brand, Henk S.; Veerman, Enno C. I.

    2016-01-01

    A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present study we explored the effect of exercise on both the salivary viscosity and the secretion of MUC5B in saliva. Twenty healthy dental students performed an aerobic exercise by cycling for 15 min on cycle-ergometers at a heart rate of 130–140 beats per minute. Saliva was collected at three time points: before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 min recovery. Salivary flow rate, viscosity, amylase activity, total protein, carbohydrate and MUC5B concentration were determined. Salivary flow rate, protein and amylase did not change significantly. Immediately after exercise, the salivary viscosity and carbohydrate concentration were significantly higher than at baseline and after 30 min recovery. Immediately after exercise, the MUC5B concentration was significantly higher than after 30 min recovery. It is concluded that the presence of thick saliva after exercise is at least partially due to an increased secretion of MUC5B. PMID:27854320

  16. Documentation of postmortem changes in salivary gland architecture and staining characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Swati; Chaudhary, Minal; Gawande, Madhuri; Gupta, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Context: Estimation of time passed since death continues to be a major problem for the forensic pathologist and its determination plays an important and vital role in medico-legal cases. The histological studies on various tissues after death have been mostly confined to single organ or tissue by individual workers at different atmospheric conditions. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the best rehydrating solution for dehydrated tissues in postmortem examination. Settings and Design: This study was specific to salivary gland tissues and certain pattern of changes were determined during postmortem time intervals using hematoxylin and eosin stain and special stains like mucicarmine and alcian blue. Materials and Methods: The study was divided into two groups. (1) Group A: Normal tissue samples (twenty normal salivary gland tissue samples left without fixation for varying periods of time). (2) Group B: Control group (twenty normal salivary gland tissue samples immediately fixed in formalin). The three different rehydrating agents used in this study were glycerol, normal saline and modified Ruffer solution. Statistical Analysis Used: Not required. Results: Modified Ruffer solution is the best when compared to glycerol and normal saline for rehydration of dehydrated tissues. Conclusions: Thus in our study we conclude that the tissue which had been dehydrated at the crime scene for a fairly long period showed better rehydration with modified Ruffer solution and yield good cellular and nuclear details. PMID:27555735

  17. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R. Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion. PMID:26752884

  18. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  19. Salivary gland calculi – contemporary methods of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartłomiej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

  20. MicroRNA Expression Profiles as Biomarkers of Minor Salivary Gland Inflammation and Dysfunction in Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alevizos, Ilias; Alexander, Stefanie; Turner, R. James; Illei, Gabor G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective MicroRNA reflect physiologic and pathologic processes and may be used as biomarkers of concurrent pathophysiologic events in complex settings such as autoimmune diseases. We generated microRNA microarray profiles from the minor salivary glands of control subjects without Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and patients with SS who had low-grade or high-grade inflammation and impaired or normal saliva production, to identify microRNA patterns specific to salivary gland inflammation or dysfunction. Methods MicroRNA expression profiles were generated by Agilent microRNA arrays. We developed a novel method for data normalization by identifying housekeeping microRNA. MicroRNA profiles were compared by unsupervised mathematical methods to test how well they distinguish between control subjects and various subsets of patients with SS. Several bioinformatics methods were used to predict the messenger RNA targets of the differentially expressed microRNA. Results MicroRNA expression patterns accurately distinguished salivary glands from control subjects and patients with SS who had low-degree or high-degree inflammation. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we validated 2 microRNA as markers of inflammation in an independent cohort. Comparing microRNA from patients with preserved or low salivary flow identified a set of differentially expressed microRNA, most of which were up-regulated in the group with decreased salivary gland function, suggesting that the targets of microRNA may have a protective effect on epithelial cells. The predicted biologic targets of microRNA associated with inflammation or salivary gland dysfunction identified both overlapping and distinct biologic pathways and processes. Conclusion Distinct microRNA expression patterns are associated with salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in patients with SS, and microRNA represent a novel group of potential biomarkers. PMID:21280008

  1. The salivary proteome: challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Walter L; Dawes, Colin

    2011-12-01

    We provide a brief overview of the salivary proteome but with an emphasis on the major challenges in protein identification and quantitation. Precautions are necessary to avoid proteolysis, deglycosylation and dephosphorylation of salivary proteins by microbial and host enzymes in saliva. Many proteins are differentially expressed in secretions from different salivary glands and their proportional contributions to saliva vary with the flow rate. The total protein concentration in the secretion from any one gland varies considerably, depending on factors such as flow rate, duration of stimulation, nature of the stimulus and circadian rhythms. Many plasma proteins enter saliva via gingival crevicular fluid, of which there are increased amounts in persons with gingivitis or periodontal disease. These factors must be taken into account in the identification of potential biomarkers for different oral or systemic diseases.

  2. Biotechnological implications of the salivary proteome.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, Massimo; Cabras, Tiziana; Vitali, Alberto; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Messana, Irene

    2011-08-01

    Although very attractive for noninvasive specimen collection, saliva has not yet been considered a relevant bodily fluid for the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. The functional roles of specific salivary peptides and proteins have also not yet been studied in detail. Recent proteomic analysis of human whole saliva has shown that salivary biomarkers could contribute to the detection of local and systemic diseases, provided the standardization of proper sampling procedures exists. Recently, interesting and novel functions for different families of specific secretory peptides and proteins have been demonstrated, which could be a basis for the design of peptidomimetics with relevant biotechnological applications. In this review, we focus on the most recent advances in analysing salivary proteins and their potential application in biotechnology.

  3. Genetic alterations in salivary gland cancers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Linda X; Ha, Patrick K

    2016-06-15

    Salivary gland cancers are an incredibly heterogeneous group of tumors that include 24 histologically distinct tumor types. The use of new genetic methods has paved the way for promising advancements in our understanding of the molecular biology underlying each type of tumor. The objective of this review was to highlight common oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and cytogenetic and epigenetic changes associated with the most common tumor types: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, and acinic cell carcinoma. Recent insights into the pathogenesis of each cancer subtype have helped better define and classify these tumors. Further research in salivary gland cancers should focus on determining the key genes involved in the tumorigenesis of each distinct malignancy and identifying individualized chemotherapies directed at these targets. Cancer 2016;122:1822-31. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity and Salivary Flow Rate in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Karagiannis, Vasilis; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is more associated with psychoneuroendocrinological response to stress than with the flow rate and age. The aim of this cross sectional study is to build an explanatory model based on patterns of relationship between age 20-39 in resting and stimulated saliva under no stressful condition in healthy volunteers. Both resting and stimulated saliva were collected from 40 subjects. The sAA values were log-transformed, the normality assumption was verified with the Shapiro-Wilk test and the reliability of the measurements was estimated by the Pearsons’ r correlation coefficient. The estimated model was based on the theory of the Linear Mixed Models. Significant mean changes were observed in flow rate and sAA activity between resting and stimulated saliva. The final model consists of two components, the first revealed a positive correlation between age and sAA while the second one revealed a negative correlation between the interaction of age × flow rate in its condition (resting or stimulated saliva), with sAA. Both flow rate and age influence sAA activity. PMID:23524385

  5. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  6. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  7. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  8. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  9. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  10. Iodine deficiency induces a VEGF-dependent microvascular response in salivary glands and in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Jessica; Derradji, Hanane; Craps, Julie; Sonveaux, Pierre; Colin, Ides M; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Despite efforts to optimize iodine supply in iodine deficient countries, iodine deficiency (ID) remains a global problem worldwide. Activation of the local microvasculature by ID in the thyroid gland aims at improving the local supply of iodide. For this purpose, the thyrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that acts on adjacent capillaries, via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)/Hypoxia Inducible factor (HIF)-dependent pathway. Beside the thyroid, other organs including salivary glands and the stomach do express the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and are able to take iodide up, potentially rendering them sensitive to ID. To verify this hypothesis, ID-induced effects on the local microvasculature were studied in salivary glands and in the stomach. ID was induced by feeding young mice with an iodide-deficient diet and NIS inhibitor perchlorate in the drinking water. In salivary glands, ID induced a transient increase in HIF-1α protein expression accompanied by a transient, VEGF-dependent increase in blood flow. In the gastric mucosa, ID transiently increased VEGF expression in the mucin-secreting epithelium and in ghrelin-secreting endocrine cells. These observations suggest that microvascular changes in response to ID occur in NIS-expressing tissues other than the thyroid. NIS expressing cells could be viewed as iodide sensors that respond to ID by inducing vascular changes, probably to optimize iodide bioavailability at regional or systemic levels.

  11. Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Lisa; Weinreb, Ilan; Alexander, Cherupushpam; Perez Ordoñez, Bayardo

    2008-09-01

    Salivary gland cystadenomas are cystic neoplasms with diverse architecture and cytology. Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented. The patient was a 68-year-old man with a slow growing right submandibular mass. He has no recurrence 13 months after resection. The tumor was polycystic and measured 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm. The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells. Many of the larger cysts showed "Roman bridges", epithelial tufting, and papillae. The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens. The ductal cells were surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells. Adjacent to the larger cysts, there was an adenomatoid proliferation of small ducts surrounded by myoepithelial cells. No mitotic activity, necrosis, or stromal invasion was identified. The ductal cells were diffusely positive for keratin 7 and androgen receptors with focal expression of keratin 19 and high-molecular weight keratin. S-100, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and BRST-2 were negative in the ductal cells. Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.

  12. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight exciting new advances and opportunities in studies of cell-cell interactions, mechanical forces, growth factors, and gene expression patterns to improve our understanding of this important process. PMID:21125789

  13. [Salivary 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentration in monitoring of the treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Arisaka, O; Shimura, N; Nakayama, Y; Arisaka, M; Yabuta, K

    1988-12-09

    The salivary concentration of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) was determined in 11 patients (aged 6 months to 13 years) with congenital adrenogenital syndrome (AGS) due to C21-hydroxylase deficiency and six healthy controls, in order to assess its value in monitoring treatment of AGS. Salivary 17-OHP was measured by a specific radioimmunoassay after extraction with dichloromethane. Only 100 microliters of saliva was needed for the assay. There was a good correlation (r = 0.93; P less than 0.01) between 17-OHP concentrations in paired saliva and serum samples from the patients and the control subjects. There was a wide scatter in salivary 17-OHP levels in the range between 164 ng/l (1.7 ng/ml in serum) of satisfactorily or overtreated patients and 15,500 ng/l (247 ng/l in serum) of undertreated patients. Levels in normal children were between 200 and 300 ng/l. It is concluded that treatment of congenital AGS (21-hydroxylase deficiency) can be carefully monitored in children with the noninvasive, frequently repeatable measurement of salivary 17-OHP.

  14. Community-based interference against integration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into human salivary microbial biofilm

    PubMed Central

    He, Xuesong; Hu, Wei; He, Jian; Guo, Lihong; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2012-01-01

    As part of the human gastrointestinal tract, the oral cavity represents a complex biological system and harbors diverse bacterial species. Unlike the gut microbiota which is often considered a health asset, studies of the oral commensal microbial flora have been largely limited to their implication in oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontal diseases; Little emphasis has been given to their potential beneficial roles, especially the protective effects against oral colonization by foreign/pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we used the salivary microbiota derived from healthy human subjects to investigate protective effects against the colonization and integration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, into developing and pre-formed salivary biofilms. When co-cultivated in saliva medium, P. aeruginosa persisted in the planktonic phase, but failed to integrate into salivary microbial community during biofilm formation. Furthermore, in the saliva medium supplemented with 0.05% (w/v) sucrose, the oral flora inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa by producing lactic acid. More interestingly, while pre-formed salivary biofilms were able to prevent P. aeruginosa colonization, the same biofilms recovered from mild chlorhexidine gluconate treatment displayed a shift in microbial composition and showed a drastic reduction in protection. Our study indicates that normal oral communities with balanced microbial compositions could be important in effectively preventing the integration of foreign/pathogenic bacterial species, such as P. aeruginosa. PMID:22053962

  15. Algorithm for cytological diagnosis of nonneoplastic lesions of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Purnima; Arora, Vinod K; Singh, Navjeevan; Bhatia, Arati

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate an algorithm for the cytologic diagnosis of nonneoplastic enlargements of the salivary gland.Smear cellularity and cytological features such as presence of epithelial cells and types of inflammation were assessed in a retrospective study of 201 aspirates. One hundred and forty-six were inflammatory, 19 were noninflammatory nonneoplastic, and 36 were cystic lesions. Of the cystic lesions, cytological evidence of retention cyst was seen in seven, while two aspirates with only hemosiderin-laden macrophages were hematomas. The remaining 27 defied subclassification. Noninflammatorynonneoplastic lesions included 5 fatty infiltrations, 2 sialadenosis, and 12 normal salivary glands. Forty-two lesions were acute inflammations, 89 were chronic, and 15 were granulomatous. Cytomorphologic patterns identified in samples with acute inflammation were 9 abscesses, 29 acute obstructive sialadenitis, and 4 acute infective sialadenitis. Three aspirates with chronic inflammation were lymphoepithelial lesions, 82 chronic sialadenitis, and 4 lymph node in salivary gland. Fifteen granulomatous lesions were 10 tuberculosis, 3 sarcoidosis, and 2 foreign body granulomas. Using the proposed algorithmic approach, nonneoplastic salivary gland enlargement could be placed into distinct, clinically relevant diagnostic categories.

  16. Psychiatric Symptoms, Salivary Cortisol and Cytokine Levels in Young Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Cloak, Christine C; Alicata, Daniel; Ernst, Thomas M; Chang, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Psychological maturation continues into young adulthood when substance abuse and several psychiatric disorders often emerge. Marijuana is the most common illicit drug abused by youths, typically preceding other illicit substances. We aimed to evaluate the complex and poorly studied relationships between marijuana use, psychiatric symptoms, and cortisol levels in young marijuana users. Psychiatric symptoms and salivary cortisol were measured in 122 youths (13-23 years old) with and without marijuana use. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Symptom-Checklist-90-R and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Mid-day salivary cortisol levels were measured. Additionally, salivary cytokine levels were measured in a subset of participants. Although the cortisol levels and salivary cytokine levels were similar, the young marijuana users had more self-reported and clinician rated psychiatric symptoms than controls, especially anxiety-associated symptoms. Moreover, marijuana users with earlier age of first use had more symptoms, while those with longer abstinence had fewer symptoms. Greater cumulative lifetime marijuana use was also associated with greater psychiatric symptoms. The discordant anxiety (feeling stressed or anxious despite normal cortisol) in the marijuana users, as well as symptom exacerbations with early and continued marijuana use in young marijuana users suggest that marijuana use may contribute to an aberrant relationship between stress response and psychiatric symptoms. The greater symptomatology, especially in those with earlier initiation and greater marijuana usage, emphasize the need to intervene for substance use and perceived anxiety in this population. PMID:25875137

  17. Salivary and Urinary Total Antioxidant Capacity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:26966611

  18. The Salivary Glands of Adult Blackflies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Salivary glands of adult female blackflies of known ages were examined by histological methods. These studies showed that each of the paired...secretory cells when the blackfly takes a blood meal. During the first 24 h after a blood meal the secretory cells again synthesize some PAS-positive

  19. The aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Walz, Bernd; Baumann, Otto; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    The acinar salivary glands of cockroaches receive a dual innervation from the subesophageal ganglion and the stomatogastric nervous system. Acinar cells are surrounded by a plexus of dopaminergic and serotonergic varicose fibers. In addition, serotonergic terminals lie deep in the extracellular spaces between acinar cells. Excitation-secretion coupling in cockroach salivary glands is stimulated by both dopamine and serotonin. These monoamines cause increases in the intracellular concentrations of cAMP and Ca(2+). Stimulation of the glands by serotonin results in the production of a protein-rich saliva, whereas stimulation by dopamine results in saliva that is protein-free. Thus, two elementary secretory processes, namely electrolyte/water secretion and protein secretion, are triggered by different aminergic transmitters. Because of its simplicity and experimental accessibility, cockroach salivary glands have been used extensively as a model system to study the cellular actions of biogenic amines and to examine the pharmacological properties of biogenic amine receptors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge concerning the aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands and discuss our efforts to characterize Periplaneta biogenic amine receptors molecularly.

  20. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  1. Suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kun; Duan, Zejun; Bian, Yu; Wang, Mengyang; Qi, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    Suprasellar salivary gland-Like pleomorphic adenoma is not a common disease and seldom reported so far. We are reporting a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrent suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma, who underwent an operation of subtotal, subfrontal resection under the wrong pathology diagnosis of benign teratoma in another hospital 4-year-ago. Four years later, he was admitted to our hospital for additional visual loss of the right eye (left, 1.0; right, 0.4) resulting from tumor regrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that suprasellar extension and compressed optic chiasm resulted in visual disturbance of the patient. The tumor was totally excised and histological examination evidenced the pathological features of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma. The patient did not receive any further treatment and he is free from tumor recurrence for 30 months after the operation. From this point of view, clinical prognosis of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma was good after total surgical resection.

  2. Advances in Diagnosis and Management of Salivary Gland Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Dale H.

    1984-01-01

    Salivary glands may be involved in a wide variety of diseases, which may be broadly grouped into (1) inflammatory, (2) noninflammatory, nonneoplastic and (3) neoplastic categories. Most inflammatory and noninflammatory, nonneoplastic diseases should be managed conservatively and symptomatically. The common exceptions are first-arch branchialcleft cysts and calculi. Neoplastic lesions always require resection if that is feasible. For benign tumors, simple excision with a cuff of normal tissue around it will usually suffice. The prevailing trend for treatment of malignant neoplasms is conservatism. No longer is the facial nerve routinely sacrificed. The resection done is dictated by the tumor size and the facial nerve is spared unless directly invaded. Postoperative radiation therapy is increasingly used. PMID:6328773

  3. Habit-associated salivary pH changes in oral submucous fibrosis–A controlled cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, Mandana; Basandi, Praveen S; Adarsh, H; Madhushankari, GS; Selvamani, M; Nayak, Prachi

    2015-01-01

    Context: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a multi-causal inflammatory reaction to the chemical or mechanical trauma caused due to exposure to arecanut containing products with or without tobacco (ANCP/T). Arecanut and additional components such as lime and chewing tobacco render ANCP/T highly alkaline. Fibrosing repair is a common reaction to an alkaline exposure in the skin. OSF may be related to the alkaline exposure by ANCP/T in a similar manner. Aims: The study was aimed at establishing the relationship of habit-associated salivary pH changes and OSF. Settings and Design: The study design was controlled cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Base line salivary pH (BLS pH), salivary pH after chewing the habitual ANCP/T substance, post chew salivary pH (PCSpH) for 2 min and salivary pH recovery time (SpHRT) were compared in 30 OSF patients and 30 sex-matched individuals with ANCP/T habits and apparently healthy oral mucosa. Results: The group's mean BLSpH values were similar and within normal range and representative of the population level values. The average PCSpH was significantly higher (P ˂ 0.0001) than the average BLSpH in both groups. There was no significant difference (P = 0.09) between PCSpH of OSF patients and controls. OSF patients had a significantly longer (P = 0.0076) SpHRT than controls. Factors such as age, daily exposure, cumulative habit years, BLSpH and PCSpH, had varying effects on the groups. Conclusions: Chewing ANCP/T causes a significant rise in salivary pH of all individuals. SpHRT has a significant association with OSF. The effect of salivary changes in OSF patients differs with those in healthy controls. PMID:26604493

  4. P63 expression can be used in differential diagnosis of salivary gland acinic cell and mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sams, Ralph N; Gnepp, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    Differentiation of salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma from mucoepidermoid carcinoma can be diagnostically challenging as both may have prominent mucin production. P63 is a p53 homologue required for limb and epidermal morphogenesis. It is expressed in basal and myoepithelial cells of normal salivary gland tissues. In this immunohistochemical study, we examined the expression of p63 in salivary gland acinic cell and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and its use in differentiating these two entities. A search was performed and appropriate cases were selected from Lifespan Hospital System archives as well as the consult archives of one author (DRG). 31 salivary gland acinic cell carcinomas (ACC) and 24 MEC were examined for p63 expression by immunohistochemistry. The nuclear immunoreactivity was examined by both authors and was graded semi-quantitatively with negative being less than 10 % of cells staining. Positive staining was graded as follows: 10-25 % of tumor cells staining was weakly positive, 26-75 % of tumor cells staining was moderately positive, and 76-100 % of tumor cells staining was strongly positive. Negative nuclear staining of the tumor cells was seen in 30/31 (96 %) of salivary gland ACC while 1/31 (3 %) showed diffuse nuclear staining of the tumor cells. This latter case was later reclassified as mammary analogue secretory carcinoma following confirmatory molecular testing for the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. Strong positive nuclear staining of the tumor cells was seen in 24 (100 %) of salivary gland MEC cases. P63 is an immunohistochemical stain that can potentially aid in differentiating unusual ACC with prominent mucin production from MEC of the salivary gland. According to this study, acinic cell carcinoma is always negative for p63 immunoreactivity while mucoepidermoid carcinoma is always positive.

  5. Salivary prions in sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID₅₀ units for sheep and 7.0 log ID₅₀ units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID₅₀ units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission.

  6. Salivary thyroxine as an estimate of free thyroxine: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Elson, M.K.; Morley, J.E.; Shafer, R.B.

    1983-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the levels of salivary thyroxine (T/sub 4/) reflect those of circulating free T/sub 4/, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) sensitive to low levels of T/sub 4/. Concurrent saliva and serum samples were obtained from 32 euthyroid volunteers, ages 19 to 64. Salivary and serum T/sub 4/ and cortisol levels were measured by RIA. Salivary albumin was measured by nephelometry. Salivary T/sub 4/ levels were higher than predicted. No correlation was found between salivary T/sub 4/ and serum levels of free T/sub 4/ and total T/sub 4/ but there was a significant correlation between salivary T/sub 4/ and albumin (r = 0.82). Salivary cortisol levels agreed with reported results and showed no correlation with salivary albumin. We conclude that salivary levels of drugs and hormones may be strongly affected by protein binding, and caution must be exercised in using salivary levels as an estimate of circulating free levels.

  7. Expression of gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1, COX-2) in some benign salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Lipari, L; Mauro, A; Gallina, S; Tortorici, S; Buscemi, M; Tete, S; Gerbino, A

    2012-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors, most of which are rare benign tumors, represent a histologically heterogenous group with the greatest diversity of morphological and cellular features. The aim of this study is to analyse the expression and possible interactions between gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1, COX-2) in some benign salivary gland tumors. We investigated the expression of gelatinases and cyclooxigenases in control salivary gland, Pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumor through immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We identified the expression of both classes of enzyme in normal samples and in the two types of pathological samples without any quantitative differences. From the present data no significant differences emerge in the expression of these enzymes among the different pathologies examined. Nevertheless, due to the small number of samples included in this study, general statements regarding correlation between the degree of severity of the tumoral pathology and the quantitative expression of these potential tumoral markers can not be made.

  8. Immunolocalisation of cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein in pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Devlin, H; Sloan, P

    2001-02-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid salivary glands often contains chondroid elements and may exhibit cartilaginous and osseous differentiation, although the latter is extremely rare. Twenty-nine pleomorphic adenomas (PAs) of the parotid gland were examined immunohistochemically for the distribution of cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (CD-RAP), a recently described marker of chondrocytes, which may be important in the morphogenesis and development of the salivary gland. In the normal parotid gland, the ductal cells expressed CD-RAP, but not the myoepithelial cells. In the pleomorphic salivary adenomas, the duct-like cells, but not the myoepithelial cells, expressed CD-RAP. Since many authorities consider myoepithelial cells to be the source of the chondroid matrix, it is surprising that these cells do not express the chondrocytic marker, CD-RAP. Putative neoplastic myoepithelium in the pleomorphic adenoma and some cells in the myxochondroid areas expressed S-100 and calponin.

  9. The relation of salivary cortisol to patterns of performance on a word list learning task in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Julie; Demireva, Petya; Heffner, Kathi

    2008-10-01

    A pattern of performance on a word list learning task known as a reduced primacy effect has been shown to be characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can distinguish AD from depression. Deficits in memory and hippocampal atrophy seen in AD have been associated with hypercortisolism. The present study evaluated whether the reduced primacy effect is associated with elevated salivary cortisol in a sample of 40 healthy older community-dwelling adults participating in a study of memory and stress. We found that primacy, but not recency, was associated with higher salivary cortisol levels. In addition, participants who showed a reduced primacy had higher salivary cortisol levels than those with a normal serial position curve. Results suggest that there may be value to examining both serial position curves and changes to cortisol patterns over time as potential predictors of cognitive decline in healthy older adults.

  10. Investigation of Salivary Function and Oral Microbiota of Radiation Caries-Free People with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Hongling; Liang, Xue; Zhang, Min; Wang, Renke; Peng, Guang; Li, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals. PMID:25860481

  11. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyang; Liu, Hongling; Liang, Xue; Zhang, Min; Wang, Renke; Peng, Guang; Li, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  12. Antiviral activity of salivary microRNAs for ophthalmic herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Irmak, M Kemal; Erdem, Uzeyir; Kubar, Ayhan

    2012-06-07

    Ophthalmic herpes zoster is a common ocular infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Viral mRNA transcripts play a major role in the replicative cycle of the virus and current antiviral agents have little effect in preventing and treating the complications. Therapeutic use of saliva for certain painful ocular diseases such as ophthalmic herpes zoster is a well-known public practice in our region. We thought that antiviral activity of saliva may stem from salivary microvesicles and we aimed to look for molecules with antiviral activity in these vesicles. As a possible candidate for antiviral activity, salivary microvesicles contain at least 20 microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, which suppress the translation of target mRNAs. miRNAs not only participate in maintenance of normal cell functions, but are also involved in host-virus interactions and limit the replication of certain virus types. Thus, miRNA gene therapy by targeting mRNAs required for VZV survival may find a niche in the treatment of ophthalmic herpes zoster. But, how could salivary microvesicles reach into the corneal cells to demonstrate their antiviral activity. We suggest that human salivary microvesicles can be effective carriers of miRNA for corneal cells, because they contain a molecular machinery for vesicle trafficking and fusion allowing them to be endocytosed by target cells. After binding to the plasma membrane, microvesicles seem to enter into the corneal cells through the clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In the cytosol, human salivary miRNAs base-pair with specific viral mRNAs and inhibit their translation, thus limiting the replication of the virus.

  13. Estimation of Salivary Amylase in Diabetic Patients and Saliva as a Diagnostic Tool in Early Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, L.; Masthan, K.M.K.; Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Rajesh, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the salivary amylase levels in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients and to correlate these findings with those in normal individuals, in order to provide salivary amylase level as a bio-chemical indicator for diagnosing and monitoring the glucose levels. Material and Methods: The study samples consisted of 60 individuals. Both males and females participated in the study. Thirty non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients of age group of 30 to 60 years and healthy individuals of same number and age group were included in this study. The data obtained in this study were statistically analyzed by using Student’s t–test. Results: In estimation of salivary amylase levels, the comparison of mean and standard deviation showed the highest mean score (2739.48 +1525.20) among the diabetic patients and lowest mean score (1740.38 + 638.51) among the non-diabetic patients. The p-value obtained was less than 0.01. Hence, a highly significant difference in the mean scores regarding salivary amylase (u/l) was found among the two groups. Conclusion: The mean scores of age, fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar, HbA1c and salivary amylase levels were greater in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients. PMID:24392426

  14. Hypo-phosphorylation of salivary peptidome as a clue to the molecular pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene; Inzitari, Rosanna; Fanali, Chiara; Cabras, Tiziana; Morelli, Alessandra; Pecoraro, Anna Maria; Neri, Giovanni; Torrioli, Maria Giulia; Gurrieri, Fiorella

    2008-12-01

    RP-HPLC-ESI-MS profile of naturally occurring salivary peptides of subjects with autistic spectrum disorder [ASD; N = 27:12 with diagnosis of autism, 1 with diagnosis of Asperger, 14 with diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)] was compared to that of age-matched controls with the goal of identifying differences that could turn out to become hallmarks of at least a subgroup of ASD individuals. Phosphorylation level of four specific salivary phospho-peptides, namely statherin, histatin 1 (both, p < 0.0001) and acidic proline-rich proteins (both entire and truncated isoforms) (p < 0.005) was found significantly lower in autistic patients, with hypo-phosphorylation of at least one peptide observed in 18 ASD subjects (66%). Developmental scale assessment (Griffith or WISC-R) carried out on 14 ASD subjects highlighted a normal to borderline cognitive development in 10 of them, all included in the hypo-phosphorylated group. Phosphorylation of salivary peptides involves a Golgi casein kinase common to many organs and tissues, CNS included, whose expression seems to be synchronized during fetal development. Hypo-phosphorylation of salivary peptides suggests potential asynchronies in the phosphorylation of other secretory proteins, which could be relevant in CNS development either during embryonic development or in early infancy. These results suggest that analysis of salivary phospho-peptides might help to discriminate a considerable subgroup of ASD patients.

  15. Comparative human salivary and plasma proteomes.

    PubMed

    Loo, J A; Yan, W; Ramachandran, P; Wong, D T

    2010-10-01

    The protein compositions, or the proteomes, found in human salivary and plasma fluids are compared. From recent experimental work by many laboratories, a catalogue of 2290 proteins found in whole saliva has been compiled. This list of salivary proteins is compared with the 2698 proteins found in plasma. Approximately 27% of the whole-saliva proteins are found in plasma. However, despite this apparent low degree of overlap, the distribution found across Gene Ontological categories, such as molecular function, biological processes, and cellular components, shows significant similarities. Moreover, nearly 40% of the proteins that have been suggested to be candidate markers for diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke can be found in whole saliva. These comparisons and correlations should encourage researchers to consider the use of saliva to discover new protein markers of disease and as a diagnostic non-proximal fluid to detect early signs of disease throughout the body.

  16. Comparative Human Salivary and Plasma Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Loo, J.A.; Yan, W.; Ramachandran, P.; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The protein compositions, or the proteomes, found in human salivary and plasma fluids are compared. From recent experimental work by many laboratories, a catalogue of 2290 proteins found in whole saliva has been compiled. This list of salivary proteins is compared with the 2698 proteins found in plasma. Approximately 27% of the whole-saliva proteins are found in plasma. However, despite this apparent low degree of overlap, the distribution found across Gene Ontological categories, such as molecular function, biological processes, and cellular components, shows significant similarities. Moreover, nearly 40% of the proteins that have been suggested to be candidate markers for diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke can be found in whole saliva. These comparisons and correlations should encourage researchers to consider the use of saliva to discover new protein markers of disease and as a diagnostic non-proximal fluid to detect early signs of disease throughout the body. PMID:20739693

  17. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  18. Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Scores for Children Using Salivary Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Goodson, J. Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    children as compared to underweight and normal-weight children. Conclusion We have derived continuous summary scores for MetS from a large-scale pediatric study using two different approaches, incorporating salivary measures as surrogate for plasma measures. The derived scores were viable expressions of metabolic risk, and can be utilized to study the relationships of MetS with various aspects of the metabolic disease process. PMID:26418011

  19. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  20. Effect of pilocarpine mouthwash on salivary flow.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, R; Perin, C; Becker, F L; Ramos, G Z; Gheno, G Z; Lopes, L R; Pires, M; Barros, H M T

    2002-01-01

    Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist that increases salivary flow and has been used to treat xerostomia. Oral intake is the most frequent route of administration. Adverse effects are dose-dependent and include sudoresis, facial blushing and increased urinary frequency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of topical pilocarpine solutions as mouthwashes on salivary flow and their adverse effects on healthy subjects. Forty volunteers received 10 ml 0.5, 1 and 2% pilocarpine solutions or 0.9% saline in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled manner. Salivation was measured before and 45, 60 and 75 min after mouth rinsing for 1 min with 10 ml of saline or pilocarpine solutions. Vital signs were measured and ocular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms, anxiety and flushing were estimated using visual analog scales. There was a dose-dependent increase in salivation. Salivation measured after 1 and 2% pilocarpine (1.4 +/- 0.36 and 2.22 +/- 0.42 g, respectively) was significantly (P<0.001) higher than before (0.70 +/- 0.15 and 0.64 +/- 0.1 g), with a plateau between 45 and 75 min. Cardiovascular, visual, gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms and signs were not changed by topical pilocarpine. Mouth rinsing with pilocarpine solutions at concentrations of 1 to 2% induced a significant objective and subjective dose-dependent increase in salivary flow, similar to the results reported by others studying the effect of oral 5 mg pilocarpine. The present study revealed the efficacy of pilocarpine mouthwash solutions in increasing salivary flow in healthy volunteers, with no adverse effects. Additional studies on patients with xerostomia are needed.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of CFTR in salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Minkyoung; Choi, Se-Young; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guang-Yan; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-12-02

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays a key role in exocrine secretion, including salivary glands. However, its functional expression in salivary glands has not been rigorously studied. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and regulatory mechanism of CFTR in salivary glands using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, Ussing chamber study, methylation-specific PCR, and bisulfite sequencing. Using an organ culture technique, we found that CFTR expression was first detected on the 15th day at the embryonic stage (E15) and was observed in ducts but not in acini. CFTR expression was confirmed in HSG and SIMS cell lines, which both originated from ducts, but not in the SMG C-6 cell line, which originated from acinar cells. Treatment of SMG C-6 cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) restored the expression level of CFTR mRNA in a time-dependent manner. Restoration of CFTR was further confirmed by a functional study. In the Ussing chamber study, 10 μM Cact-A1, a CFTR activator, did not evoke any currents in SMG C-6 cells. In contrast, in SMG C-6 cells pretreated with 5-Aza-CdR, Cact-A1 evoked a robust increase of currents, which were inhibited by the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh-172. Furthermore, forskolin mimicked the currents activated by Cact-A1. In our epigenetic study, SMG C-6 cells showed highly methylated CG pairs in the CFTR CpG island and most of the methylated CG pairs were demethylated by 5-Aza-CdR. Our results suggest that epigenetic regulation is involved in the development of salivary glands by silencing the CFTR gene in a tissue-specific manner.

  2. Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.

  3. [Pleomorphic adenoma on heterotopic salivary inclusion: case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Papuzinski Aguayo, Cristian; Selamé Glena, Rodrigo; Bermeo Sanchez, Jaime; Lozano Burgos, Carlo

    2015-07-23

    Heterotopic salivary gland tissue is the presence of salivary tissue outside of the salivary glands. It is an uncommon condition but it can be the source of the full spectrum of salivary gland diseases. We present a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma developing from heterotopic salivary gland tissue in an upper neck lymph node not related to the major salivary glands. This article reviews the difficulty of the differential diagnosis with other cervical masses, embryogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment of this condition.

  4. Optical approach to the salivary pellicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jae Ho; Krasieva, Tatiana; Tang, Shuo; Ahn, Yehchan; Kim, Chang Soo; Vu, Diana; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2009-07-01

    The salivary pellicle plays an important role in oral physiology, yet noninvasive in situ characterization and mapping of this layer remains elusive. The goal of this study is to develop an optical approach for the real-time, noninvasive mapping and characterization of salivary pellicles using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM). The long-term goals are to improve diagnostic capabilities in the oral cavity, gain a better understanding of physiological and pathological processes related to the oral hard tissues, and monitor treatment responses. A salivary pellicle is incubated on small enamel cubes using human whole saliva. OCT and OCM imaging occurs at 0, 10, 30, 60 min, and 24 h. For some imaging, spherical gold nanoparticles (15 nm) are added to determine whether this would increase the optical signal from the pellicle. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides the baseline information. In the saliva-incubated samples, a surface signal from the developing pellicle is visible in OCT images. Pellicle ``islands'' form, which increase in complexity over time until they merge to form a continuous layer over the enamel surface. Noninvasive, in situ time-based pellicle formation on the enamel surface is visualized and characterized using optical imaging.

  5. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-Wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little is known about the distribution of TJ proteins in adult human salivary cells and thus what key molecular components might be desirable for the cellular component of an artificial salivary gland device. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of TJ proteins in human salivary glands. Salivary gland samples were obtained from 10 patients. Frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained using IHC methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in ductal, endothelial, and ∼25% of serous cells. Claudins-2, -3, and -4 and JAM-A were expressed in both ductal and acinar cells, whereas claudin-5 was expressed only in endothelial cells. Occludin and ZO-1 were expressed in acinar, ductal, and endothelial cells. These results provide new information on TJ proteins in two major human salivary glands and should serve as a reference for future studies to assess the presence of appropriate TJ proteins in a tissue-engineered human salivary gland. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1093–1098, 2008) PMID:18765838

  6. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  7. Sialendoscopy-based diagnosis and treatment of salivary ductal obstructions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Gui Qing; Su, Yu Xiong; Zheng, Guang Sen; Liang, Li Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Salivary gland ductal obstruction is traditionally treated by sialoadenectomy when conservative measures fail. During the last decade, sialendoscopy has become the preferred approach in the management of salivary ductal obstructions. Sialendoscopy can provide direct, accurate and reliable visualisation of the salivary duct lumen and ductal pathologies, and can eliminate pathologies with miniaturised instrumentation. Now, sialendoscopic surgery is a promising option for patients who can be offered a satisfactory clinical outcome while avoiding sialoadenectomy. The present article briefly outlines sialendoscopy-based diagnosis and treatment of salivary ductal obstructions.

  8. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  9. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-07-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and thrombosis of small and large vessels. Within the necrotic tissue, there was marked ductal hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of duct and acinar epithelium. The mass was diagnosed as necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular gland. Hyperplastic ductal elements and squamous metaplasia can be mistaken microscopically with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of this lesion as to avoid errors in the diagnosis of this benign pathologic condition.

  10. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-01-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and thrombosis of small and large vessels. Within the necrotic tissue, there was marked ductal hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of duct and acinar epithelium. The mass was diagnosed as necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular gland. Hyperplastic ductal elements and squamous metaplasia can be mistaken microscopically with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of this lesion as to avoid errors in the diagnosis of this benign pathologic condition. PMID:26441480

  11. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  13. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  14. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  15. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  16. endoProteoFASP: a novel FASP approach to profile salivary peptidome and disclose salivary proteases.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Fábio; Amado, Francisco; Gomes, Pedro S; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The salivary peptidome, which can represent up to 20% of total secreted proteins in human saliva, is highly influenced by proteolytic events. However, the development of strategies to understand the dynamics underlying the generation of salivary peptides has been a challenging task. In order to disclose in more detail the proteolytic events taking place in saliva, we aimed to characterize salivary peptidome and predict salivary proteases by applying, for the first time, a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) approach to saliva. Thus, as a proof-of-concept of this application, harvested saliva samples from healthy individuals were incubated in 30 kDa cut-off spin filters for 18 or 115 h, at 37 °C, to promote saliva autolysis and the attained peptidome was characterized and compared with the naturally occurring one. In ex vivo conditions, proline-rich proteins, P-B peptide, histatin 1 and statherin were found to be the most susceptible salivary proteins to proteolysis. Peptide fragments were mainly attributed to the activity of cathepsin L1 and K at 18 h, whereas at 115 h, the attained peptide fragments were attributed to the activity of cathepsins K and L1, and MEP1A. Overall, the described endoProteoFASP approach makes the most of saliva׳s own protease pool and avoids the use of synthetic peptides and exogenous proteases to understand the proteolytic events occurring in the oral fluid. Hence, it could be very helpful in future studies targeting the characterization of salivary proteases and peptidome from different pathophysiological conditions.

  17. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Shi, Ping; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Song, Xiaoqing; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Background Type II diabetes (T2D) has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects. Methods We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years) using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175) and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537). Results HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83%) of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64%) were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness. Conclusions HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence

  18. Erosion protection by calcium lactate/sodium fluoride rinses under different salivary flows in vitro.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alessandra B; Scaramucci, Taís; Lippert, Frank; Zero, Domenick T; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a calcium lactate prerinse on sodium fluoride protection in an in vitro erosion-remineralization model simulating two different salivary flow rates. Enamel and dentin specimens were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n = 8), according to the combination between rinse treatments - deionized water (DIW), 12 mM NaF (NaF) or 150 mM calcium lactate followed by NaF (CaL + NaF) - and unstimulated salivary flow rates - 0.5 or 0.05 ml/min - simulating normal and low salivary flow rates, respectively. The specimens were placed into custom-made devices, creating a sealed chamber on the specimen surface connected to a peristaltic pump. Citric acid was injected into the chamber for 2 min, followed by artificial saliva (0.5 or 0.05 ml/min) for 60 min. This cycle was repeated 4×/day for 3 days. Rinse treatments were performed daily 30 min after the 1st and 4th erosive challenges, for 1 min each time. Surface loss was determined by optical profilometry. KOH-soluble fluoride and structurally bound fluoride were determined in specimens at the end of the experiment. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). NaF and CaL + NaF exhibited significantly lower enamel and dentin loss than DIW, with no difference between them for normal flow conditions. The low salivary flow rate increased enamel and dentin loss, except for CaL + NaF, which presented overall higher KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride levels. The results suggest that the NaF rinse was able to reduce erosion progression. Although the CaL prerinse considerably increased F availability, it enhanced NaF protection against dentin erosion only under hyposalivatory conditions.

  19. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  20. Quantitative study of salivary secretion in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tumilasci, Omar R; Cersósimo, M G; Belforte, Juan E; Micheli, Federico E; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Pazo, Jorge H

    2006-05-01

    We examined basal and reflex salivary flow rate and composition in 46 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), both in off and on conditions, compared to 13 age-matched controls without underlying disease or treatment affecting autonomic function. Whole saliva was collected 12 hours after withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs and at the peak of levodopa-induced motor improvement. Twenty-three of the 46 PD patients had received domperidone a week before the study. Basal salivary flow rate was significantly lower in PD patients in the off state compared to controls (P<0.005). Levodopa increased salivary flow rate (P<0.05) both in the domperidone-pretreated and untreated groups. Citric acid stimulated salivary flow rate in both the off and on states in PD patients. This effect was higher in the domperidone-pretreated patients. Salivary concentration of sodium, chloride, and amylase was higher in PD patients than in controls and was not affected by levodopa or domperidone treatment. Levodopa stimulates both basal and reflex salivary flow rate in PD. The mechanism appears to be central, as the effect is not blocked by domperidone. Domperidone may have a peripheral effect that potentiates reflex salivary secretion. Salivary composition is abnormal in PD and is not affected by levodopa treatment.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  2. Salivary epithelial cells: an unassuming target site for gene therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Paola; Rowzee, Anne M.; Zheng, Changyu; Adriaansen, Janik; Baum, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands are classical exocrine glands whose external secretions result in the production of saliva. However, in addition to the secretion of exocrine proteins, salivary epithelial cells are also capable of secreting proteins internally, into the bloodstream. This brief review examines the potential for using salivary epithelial cells as a target site for in situ gene transfer, with an ultimate goal of producing therapeutic proteins for treating both systemic and upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. The review discusses the protein secretory pathways reported to be present in salivary epithelial cells, the viral gene transfer vectors shown useful for transducing these cells, model transgenic secretory proteins examined, and some clinical conditions that might benefit from such salivary gland gene transfer. PMID:20219693

  3. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    PubMed Central

    Kuennen, M.; Gourley, C.; Schneider, S.; Dokladny, K.; Moseley, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). Salivary IgA (IgA) has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys) and lactoferrin (Lac). Objective To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort), IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males) completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post) and 1.5 hrs post race (+1.5). Results Lac concentration was higher at +1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p < 0.05). Lys was unaffected by the race (p > 0.05). IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower +1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p < 0.05). Cort concentration was higher at post compared to +1.5 (p < 0.05), but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81±1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p < 0.05) compared to pre race. Conclusions The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running. PMID:24744458

  4. Oral intercourse or secondary transfer? A Bayesian approach of salivary amylase and foreign DNA findings.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Michelle; Moore, Elizabeth

    2013-06-10

    The Bayesian Approach allows forensic scientists to evaluate the significance of scientific evidence in light of two conflicting hypothesis. This aids the investigator to calculate a numerical value of the probability that the scientific findings support one hypothesis over conflicting opinions. In the case where oral intercourse is alleged, α-amylase, an indicator of saliva, is detected on penile swabs. The value of this finding is unknown as it may indicate the presence of saliva resulting from oral intercourse however it may also represent the presence of saliva due to innocent means such as background levels of salivary-α-amylase in the male population due to secondary transfer. Therefore, it is difficult to attach significance to this finding without background information and knowledge. A population study of the background levels of salivary-α-amylase was performed by analysing items of underwear worn under normal circumstances by 69 male volunteers. The Phadebas press test was used to screen the garments for amylase-containing stains and the positive areas were subjected to further confirmation of saliva by the RSID-Saliva kit. 44% of underwear screened had stains containing amylase. This study determined the background level of salivary-α-amylase and DNA on the inside front of male underwear which has potential implications on the interpretation of evidence in alleged oral intercourse.

  5. Patterns of salivary analytes provide diagnostic capacity for distinguishing chronic adult periodontitis from health.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Schuster, Julie L; Stevens, Jason; Dawson, Dolph; Kryscio, Richard J; Lin, Yushin; Thomas, Mark V; Miller, Craig S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary biomarker discovery requires identification of analytes with high discriminatory capacity to distinguish disease from health, including day-to-day variations that occur in analyte levels. In this study, seven biomarkers associated with inflammatory and tissue destructive processes of periodontal disease were investigated. In a prospective cohort study design, analyte expression levels were determined in unstimulated whole saliva samples collected on multiple occasions from 30 healthy adults (i.e., orally and systemically) and 50 chronic adult periodontitis patients. Salivary levels of IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-8, and albumin were significantly elevated (5.4 to 12.6X) and levels of IFNα were consistently lower (8.7X) in periodontitis patients compared with the daily variation observed in healthy adults. ROC analyses of IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-8 yielded areas under the curves of 0.963-0.984 for discriminating periodontitis from health. These results demonstrate that levels of salivary bioanalytes of patients who have periodontitis are uniquely different from normal levels found in healthy subjects, and a panel consisting of IL-1β, MMP-8 and IL-6 shows particular diagnostic potential.

  6. Genetic salivary protein polymorphism in Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Banderas Tarabay, J A; González Begné, M

    1996-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism is the major contributor that affects human salivary composition. In order to determine the molecular phenotypes in saliva, it is important to know the distribution of proteins with specific functions which allows the clinical diagnosis of specific diseases. Unstimulated human whole saliva samples from 120 subjects were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The phenotype distribution of several molecules including MG1, MG2, alpha-Amylase, PRP-I and cystatins were similar. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics were specific in each subject.

  7. Assessment of salivary gland function in patients after successful kidney transplantation using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Orsal, Ebru; Seven, Bedri; Keles, Mustafa; Ayan, Arif Kursad; Cankaya, Erdem; Ozkan, Ozalkan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic renal failure and its treatment can induce oral health problems and salivary glands dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess salivary glands function in patients with kidney transplantation using technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) salivary glands scintigraphy. We prospectively studied 34 patients with kidney transplantation (30 males and 4 females,mean age 39.76±11.6 years) and 28 healthy controls (12 males and 16 females, mean age 36.1±9.5 years). Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed nearly 4.4±2.9 years after successful kidney transplantation. Dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy was performed during 25min after the intravenous administration of 185MBq of (99m)Tc-P. Time-activity curves and glands functional parameters were calculated for the parotid and submandibular salivary glands: uptake ratio, maximum accumulation of the radionuclide, and excretion fraction. Statistical analysis of the functional parameters showed no significant differences between patients with kidney transplantation and healthy controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that using (99m)Tc-P salivary gland scintigraphy, salivary glands function of patients with successful kidney transplantation do not differ statistically from those in healthy controls.

  8. Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Papacosta, Elena; Gleeson, Michael; Nassis, George P

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the time course of change of salivary testosterone (sT), cortisol (sC), and IgA (SIgA); mood state; and performance capacity during a 2-week taper in judo athletes and to examine the diurnal variation in these salivary markers. Eleven male judo athletes completed 5 weeks of training: 1 week of normal training (NORM), 2 weeks of intensified training (INT), and 2 weeks of exponential tapering (TAPER). Once per week subjects completed vertical and horizontal countermovement jump tests, a grip strength test, a Special Judo Fitness Test, a multistage aerobic fitness test, a 3 × 300-m run test, and anthropometric measurement. Subjects also completed questionnaires to assess mood state and muscle soreness. Two daily saliva samples (at 0700 and 1900) were collected at the end of each week during NORM and INT and every day during TAPER. Increased morning sT, decreased evening sC, lower muscle soreness, and enhanced mood state (p < 0.05) were evident by the early phases of TAPER. A significant 7.0% improvement in 3 × 300-m performance time, a 6.9% improvement in the vertical jump (p < 0.05), and increased morning and evening SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.01) were observed during the middle-late phases of TAPER. The higher values of salivary variables were observed in the morning. This study indicates that salivary hormones display diurnal variation. Furthermore, changes in hormonal responses, mood state, and muscle soreness precede enhancements in performance and mucosal immunity, suggesting that judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition.

  9. The effectiveness of the Uchida-Kraepelin test for psychological stress: an analysis of plasma and salivary stress substances

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Koreaki; Kanai, Aya; Shoji, Noriaki

    2009-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system are the major stress-response pathways. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) represents HPA axis activity, while plasma catecholamines are used as markers of the SAM system. Salivary alpha amylase (AA), chromogranin A (CgA), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are candidate markers of stress activation, although their role has not been established. The Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test is a questionnaire that requires intense concentration and effort, and has been used as a tool to induce mental stress. However, it is not clear whether or not the test is effective as a psychological/mental stressor. Methods In this study, normal young women took the U-K test and serial measurements of plasma ACTH and catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline) (n = 10), as well as salivary AA, CgA, and IgA (n = 16) before, during and after the test. Results We found no changes in any of these parameters at any time point during or after the U-K test. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the U-K test is not a suitable for measuring the psychological/mental stress of young women because the plasma data showed that it did not affect the HPA axis and SAM system. The U-K test should be employed carefully as a psychological/mental stressor due to insufficient scientific evidence of its effectiveness. In addition, salivary AA, CgA, and IgA should not simply be compared with previous reports, because the mechanism of secretion and normal range of each salivary parameter remain unknown. Salivary AA, CgA, and IgA may not be suitable candidate markers of psychological/mental stress. PMID:19341484

  10. Glycoprofiling of the Human Salivary Proteome.

    PubMed

    Sondej, Melissa; Denny, Patricia A; Xie, Yongming; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Si, Yan; Takashima, Jona; Shi, Wenyuan; Wong, David T; Loo, Joseph A; Denny, Paul C

    2009-03-01

    Glycosylation is important for a number of biological processes and is perhaps the most abundant and complicated of the known post-translational modifications found on proteins. This work combines two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and lectin blotting to map the salivary glycome, and mass spectrometry to identity the proteins that are associated with the glycome map. A panel of 15 lectins that recognize six sugar-specific categories was used to visualize the type and extent of glycosylation in saliva from two healthy male individuals. Lectin blots were compared to 2-D gels stained either with Sypro Ruby (protein stain) or Pro-Q Emerald 488 (glycoprotein stain). Each lectin shows a distinct pattern, even those belonging to the same sugar-specific category. In addition, the glycosylation profiles generated from the lectin blots show that most of the salivary proteins are glycosylated and that the pattern is more widespread than is demonstrated by the glycoprotein stained gel. Finally, the co-reactivity between two lectins was measured to determine the glycan structures that are most and least often associated with one another along with the population variation of the lectin reactivity for 66 individuals.

  11. The human salivary proteome is radiation responsive.

    PubMed

    Moore, Heather D; Ivey, Richard G; Voytovich, Uliana J; Lin, Chenwei; Stirewalt, Derek L; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2014-05-01

    In the event of a nuclear incident in a heavily populated area, the surge in demand for medical evaluation will likely overwhelm our emergency care system, compromising our ability to care for victims with life-threatening injuries or exposures. Therefore, there exists a need for a rapidly deployable biological assay for radiation exposure that can be performed in the field by individuals with little to no medical training. Saliva is an attractive biofluid for this purpose, due to the relative ease of its collection and the wide array of biomolecules it contains. To determine whether the human salivary proteome is responsive to ionizing radiation exposure, we characterized the abundances of salivary proteins in humans before and after total body irradiation. Using an assay panel targeting 90 analytes (growth factors, chemokines and cytokines), we identified proteins that were significantly radiation responsive in human saliva. The responses of three proteins (monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1, interleukin 8 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1) were confirmed using independent immunoassay platforms and then verified and further characterized in 130 saliva samples from a completely independent set of 38 patients undergoing total body irradiation. The results demonstrate the potential for detecting radiation exposure based on analysis of human saliva.

  12. The Human Salivary Proteome is Radiation Responsive

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Heather D.; Ivey, Richard G.; Voytovich, Uliana J.; Lin, Chenwei; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear incident in a heavily populated area, the surge in demand for medical evaluation will likely overwhelm our emergency care system, compromising our ability to care for victims with life-threatening injuries or exposures. Therefore, there exists a need for a rapidly deployable biological assay for radiation exposure that can be performed in the field by individuals with little to no medical training. Saliva is an attractive biofluid for this purpose, due to the relative ease of its collection and the wide array of biomolecules it contains. To determine whether the human salivary proteome is responsive to ionizing radiation exposure, we characterized the abundances of salivary proteins in humans before and after total body irradiation. Using an assay panel targeting 90 analytes (growth factors, chemokines and cytokines), we identified proteins that were significantly radiation responsive in human saliva. The responses of three proteins (monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1, interleukin 8 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1) were confirmed using independent immunoassay platforms and then verified and further characterized in 130 saliva samples from a completely independent set of 38 patients undergoing total body irradiation. The results demonstrate the potential for detecting radiation exposure based on analysis of human saliva. PMID:24720749

  13. Variation of Human Salivary O-Glycome

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Radoslaw P.; Urbanowicz, Paulina A.; Punyadeera, Chamindie; Reiding, Karli R.; Jansen, Bas C.; Royle, Louise; Spencer, Daniel I.; Fernandes, Daryl L.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers. This study aims to analyse and compare O-glycans released from whole human mouth saliva collected 3 times a day from a healthy individual over a 5 days period. O-linked glycans were released by hydrazinolysis, labelled with procainamide and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FLR) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The sample preparation method showed excellent reproducibility and can therefore be used for biomarker discovery. Our data demonstrates that the O-glycosylation in human saliva changes significantly during the day. These changes may be related to changes in the salivary concentrations of specific proteins. PMID:27610614

  14. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES ON SALIVARY GLAND CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, J.; Sirlin, J. L.

    1963-01-01

    Salivary glands were fixed in cold 1 per cent osmium tetroxide in veronal-acetate buffer containing sucrose and embedded in methacrylate mixture or Araldite. The salivary gland nuclei of sciarids show a continuous production of nucleoli, which remain multiple and not consolidated into a single structure. The earliest recognizable nucleoli, which we call "elementary nucleoli," are aggregations of a few paired 40 A fibrils and a few 150 A particles, at many points within chromosome bands. Further development consists of the detachment of the elementary nucleoli from their points of origin and their subsequent mutual coalescence. As a result, dense patches of nucleolar material are formed which become large nucleoli at the surface of chromosomes, either attached to the band or free. The fully formed nucleoli have a characteristic dual structure with a narrow dense periphery and a broader less dense internum. Fibrils and particles are present in both regions, and the difference in density reflects differences in the packing of the two structural elements. The duality in structure is lost in later stages. The nucleolar fibrils appear to be similar to the chromosomal fibrils. The 150 A particles in nucleoli, chromosomes, and nuclear sap seem identical. The significance of these observations is discussed for nucleologenesis in general. PMID:13964284

  15. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeun J.; Hong, Hyun S.; Jeong, Sun H.; Lee, Eun H.; Jung, Min J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) is a rare malignancy with the histopathological feature of undifferentiated carcinoma and an intermixed reactive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Although clinically significant because of its malignant nature, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis by preoperative imaging. Here, we report 3 cases of primary LEC arising in the major salivary glands, which showed unusual imaging features unlike other malignant tumors. Patient concerns: Our first case is a 44-year-old man with LEC in the right parotid gland, the second case is a 71-year-old woman with LEC in the right submandibular gland, and the third case is a 35-year-old woman with LEC in the right parotid gland. All of the patients presented with a palpable mass of variable duration. Diagnoses: Computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a relatively well-defined, slightly hyperattenuated exophytic solid mass that had homogeneous well-enhanced regions. Ultrasonography (US) in the first 2 cases showed well-defined, hypoechoic solid masses with posterior enhancement. The CT findings seem to be benign tumors, but US features are compatible with highly cellular and hypervascular tumors. Interventions: The resection of the involved salivary gland with postoperative radiation therapy was performed. Outcomes: There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 5 years in all 3 patients. Lessons: Understanding these unusual imaging findings may be helpful in detecting LEC, and may also help clinicians provide adequate management to patients, such as surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy, because of its malignant entity. PMID:28207533

  16. Podoplanin is a novel myoepithelial cell marker in pleomorphic adenoma and other salivary gland tumors with myoepithelial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Masayuki; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Essa, Ahmed; Abé, Tatsuya; Babkair, Hamzah Ali; Ahsan, Md Shahidul; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The expression of podoplanin, one of the representative immunohistochemical markers for lymphatic endothelium, is upregulated in various kinds of cancers. Based on our previous studies, we have developed a hypothesis that podoplanin plays a role in cell adhesion via its association with extracellular matrix (ECM). Since salivary pleomorphic adenoma is histologically characterized by its ECM-enriched stroma, we firstly wanted to explore the expression modes of podoplanin in pleomorphic adenoma and related salivary tumors by immunohistochemistry. In normal salivary gland, podoplanin was specifically localized in myoepithelial cells, which were also positively labeled by antibodies against P63, of the intercalated duct as well as acini. In pleomorphic adenoma, podoplanin was colocalized with P63 and CD44 in basal cells of glandular structures as well as in stellate/spindle cells in myxochondroid matrices, where perlecan and hyaluronic acid were enriched. The expression of podoplanin was confirmed at both protein and mRNA levels in pleomorphic adenoma cell systems (SM-AP1 and SM-AP4) by using immunofluorescence, western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Podoplanin was localized on the cell border as well as in the external periphery of the cells. Moreover, podoplanin expression was also confirmed in tumor cells with myoepithelial differentiation in myoepithelioma and intraductal papilloma. The results indicate that podoplanin can be regarded as a novel myoepithelial marker in salivary gland tumors and suggest that podoplanin's communication with ECM molecules is essential to phenotypic differentiation to myoepithelial cells.

  17. Attenuated acute salivary α-amylase responses to gustatory stimulation with citric acid in thin children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long Hui; Yang, Ze Min; Chen, Wei Wen; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao Rong; Zhao, Ling Bo

    2015-04-14

    Salivary α-amylase (sAA) is responsible for the 'pre-digestion' of starch in the oral cavity and accounts for up to 50 % of salivary protein in human saliva. An accumulating body of literature suggests that sAA is of nutritional importance; however, it is still not clear how sAA is related to individual's nutritional status. Although copy number variations (CNV) of the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) are associated with variation in sAA levels, a significant amount of sAA variation is not explained by AMY1 CNV. To measure sAA responses to gustatory stimulation with citric acid, we used sAA ratio (the ratio of stimulated sAA levels to those of resting sAA) and investigated acute sAA responses to citric acid in children with normal (Normal-BMI, n 22) and low (Low-BMI, n 21) BMI. The AMY1 gene copy number was determined by quantitative PCR. We, for the first time, demonstrated attenuated acute sAA responses (decreased sAA ratio) to gustatory stimulation in Low-BMI (thinness grade 3) children compared with the Normal-BMI children, which suggest that sAA responses to gustatory stimulation may be of nutritional importance. However, child's nutritional status was not directly related to their resting or stimulated sAA levels, and it was not associated with AMY1 gene copy number. Finally, AMY1 CNV might influence, but did not eventually determine, sAA levels in children.

  18. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  19. Evolution of the salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2013-09-15

    Phylogenetic analyses of three families of arthropod apyrases were used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of salivary-expressed apyrases, which have an anti-coagulant function in blood-feeding arthropods. Members of the 5'nucleotidase family were recruited for salivary expression in blood-feeding species at least five separate times in the history of arthropods, while members of the Cimex-type apyrase family have been recruited at least twice. In spite of these independent events of recruitment for salivary function, neither of these families showed evidence of convergent amino acid sequence evolution in salivary-expressed members. On the contrary, in the 5'-nucleotide family, salivary-expressed proteins conserved ancestral amino acid residues to a significantly greater extent than related proteins without salivary function, implying parallel evolution by conservation of ancestral characters. This unusual pattern of sequence evolution suggests the hypothesis that purifying selection favoring conservation of ancestral residues is particularly strong in salivary-expressed members of the 5'-nucleotidase family of arthropods because of constraints arising from expression within the vertebrate host.

  20. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-06-25

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands.

  1. Salivary and serum immunoglobulin levels in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2003-02-01

    The salivary and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G, M and A (IgG, IgM and IgA), and the salivary concentrations of albumin were measured by ELISA in 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 32 healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis had significantly higher salivary concentrations of IgG, IgM and albumin, and higher serum concentrations of IgG, IgM and IgA, but significantly lower salivary concentrations of IgA than the healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis were treated with either methylprednisolone, sodium aurothiomalate, metronidazole and spiramycin, or oral hygiene products. After three months of treatment, the cats receiving methylprednisolone had a significant reduction in serum IgG levels compared to the cats treated with sodium aurothiomalate or metronidazole and spiramycin, but after six months of treatment there were no significant differences between the groups. Before the treatments, the levels of oral inflammation were not correlated significantly with any of the serum or salivary immunoglobulin levels. However, the changes in oral inflammation were correlated significantly with the changes in the salivary IgM concentration after three and six months of treatment, and with the change in the salivary IgA concentration after six months of treatment.

  2. Stafne bone cavity with ectopic salivary gland tissue in the anterior of mandible

    PubMed Central

    Deyhimi, Parviz; Darisavi, Soheila; Khalesi, Saeideh

    2016-01-01

    Stafne bone cavities (SBCs) are uncommon well-demarcated defects of the mandible, which often occur in the posterior portion of the jaw bone and are usually asymptomatic. Furthermore, SBC is found in men aged 50–70-year-old. Anterior mandibular variants of SBC are very rare. This article describes a case of anterior SBC in a 45-year-old man that resembled endodontic periapical lesions. Upon histopathological examination, it turned out to be a normal salivary gland tissue. PMID:27857772

  3. Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression and humoral response in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sumit; Parashar, Deepak; Gupta, Namita; Jagadish, Nirmala; Thakar, Alok; Suri, Vaishali; Kumar, Rajive; Gupta, Anju; Ansari, Abdul S; Lohiya, Nirmal Kumar; Suri, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers are highly aggressive epithelial tumor associated with metastatic potential and high mortality. The tumors are biologically diverse and are of various histotypes. Besides, the detection and diagnosis is a major problem of salivary gland cancer for available treatment modalities. In the present study, we have investigated the association of sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression with salivary gland tumor (SGT). Clinical specimens of benign (n = 16) and malignant tumors (n = 86) were examined for the SPAG9 expression. In addition, the sera and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (n = 72) from available patients were obtained. Our in situ RNA hybridization and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed significant difference (p = 0.0001) in SPAG9 gene and protein expression in benign (63%) and malignant tumor (84%) specimens. Further, significant association was also observed between SPAG9 expression and malignant tumors (P = 0.05). A cut-off value of >10% cells expressing SPAG9 protein designated as positive in IHC, predicted presence of malignant SGT with 83.72% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 83.72% NPV. Humoral response against SPAG9 protein was generated in 68% of SGT patients. A cut-off value of 0.212 OD for anti-SPAG9 antibodies in ELISA predicted presence of malignant SGT with 69.23% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 78.94% NPV. Collectively, our data suggests that the majority of SGT show significant difference and association among benign and malignant tumors for SPAG9 gene and protein expression and also exhibit humoral response against SPAG9 protein. Hence, SPAG9 may be developed as a biomarker for detection and diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. PMID:25941602

  4. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  5. Idiopathic salivary gland enlargement (sialadenosis) in dogs: a microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Sozmen, M; Brown, P J; Whitbread, T J

    2000-06-01

    A histological, histochemical and morphometric study was performed on submandibular salivary glands from 13 dogs which had presented with a submandibular mass or swelling that proved to be a portion of non-inflammatory and non-neoplastic submandibular salivary gland. There were no consistent changes in lectin-binding histochemistry or immunohistochemical expression of various cell markers, and, in most cases, there was no measurable difference in acinar size in the affected gland. The possible explanation for the clinical salivary gland enlargement is therefore unclear.

  6. Implications of salivary protein binding to commensal and pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Seok-Mo; Ruhl, Stefan; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    An important function of salivary proteins is to interact with microorganisms that enter the oral cavity. For some microbes, these interactions promote microbial colonization. For others, these interactions are deleterious and result in the elimination of the microbe from the mouth, This paper reviews recent studies of the interaction of salivary proteins with two model bacteria; the commensal species Streptococcus gordonii, and the facultative pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. These organisms selectively interact with a variety of salivary proteins to influence important functions such as bacterial adhesion to surfaces, evasion of host defense, bacterial nutrition and metabolism and gene expression. PMID:24707190

  7. Establishing population distribution of drug-metabolizing enzyme activities for the use of salivary caffeine as a dynamic liver function marker in a Singaporean Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chia, Hazel Yiting; Yau, Wai-Ping; Ho, Han Kiat

    2016-04-01

    The salivary paraxanthine/caffeine molar ratio has been proposed as a novel dynamic liver function test to guide dose adjustments of drugs hepatically cleared by CYP1A2. Its usability requires an established population norm as well as the factors influencing the ratio and actual concentrations. To address this knowledge gap, salivary caffeine and paraxanthine concentrations were measured at 4 h post caffeine dose in healthy Chinese individuals who had undergone 24 h of caffeine abstinence. The metabolic ratio was calculated and statistical analysis was performed. From the 52 participants (26 males; 30 regular caffeine consumers) recruited, the salivary paraxanthine/caffeine molar ratio was normally distributed with a mean and SD of 0.5 ± 0.2. No statistically significant factors (BMI, body weight, gender and regularity of caffeine intake) affecting the metabolic ratio were found. The caffeine concentration and total caffeine plus paraxanthine concentrations were lower in males than in females, and lower in regular caffeine consumers than in non-regular caffeine consumers. The 4 h salivary metabolic ratio (mean: 0.5) was generally not significantly different from the literature reported salivary, serum and plasma ratios measured at 4-9 h in healthy individuals (mean range 0.4-0.7) but was significantly higher than the literature reported 6 h plasma ratio and salivary ratios measured at 1-6 h in patients with liver disease or mild abnormal liver function tests (mean range 0.03-0.2). Overall, the population norm of the salivary metabolic ratio in a Singaporean Chinese population established in this study is distinct from individuals with liver disease or mild abnormal liver function tests and provides the benchmark for dosage adjustments of drugs metabolized by CYP1A2. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer.

  9. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer. PMID:27091080

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jiajia; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Xiujun; Hu, Fen

    2015-05-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  12. Comparison of Gingival Health and Salivary Parameters among Autistic and Non-Autistic School Children in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Hafez M; Motlaq, Suha Saeed; Alsharare, Amal; Alshammery, Ashwaq; Alshammery, Nadia; Khawja, Shabnam Gulzar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder which is manifested as impairment of social interaction, communication and a repetitive behaviour. Autism can obscure dental treatment for the affected patients; furthermore, children with autism commonly have destructive oral habits. Aim The aims of this study were to evaluate the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Plaque Index (PI), salivary pH and buffering capacity of the saliva among autistic children compared to normal children in Riyadh City that may provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services for autistic children. Materials and Methods A total of 50 children diagnosed with autism (mean age 8.5 years) were selected from Azzam Autism School, Riyadh City. The control group consisted of 50 non-autistic school children (mean age 8.7 years), gender matched, selected from Outpatient Clinic, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy. MGI, PI, salivary pH and salivary buffer capacity tests were done for all participants. The buffering capacity of the stimulated saliva was grouped under ‘very low’, ‘low’ and ‘normal’. Pearson’s Chi square and one way ANOVA were used to find statistical significance if any among the autistic and the normal control group. Results The results of the study showed that the mean ± standard deviation of MGI, PI and pH of unstimulated resting saliva for autistic group were 1.82 ± 0.65, 1.92 ± 0.35 and 6.8 ± 0.5 respectively. Normal control group had values 1.35 ± 0.85, 1.44 ± 0.43 and 7 ± 0.4 respectively. A statistically significant difference between both groups for all parameters was found. Salivary buffering capacity was found to be normal for the majority among both groups. However, 60% children among the autistic group presented with normal buffering capacity of the stimulated saliva as compared to 70% among the normal control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.544). Conclusion Children

  13. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Tara A. van de; Lomax, Antony J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Hug, Eugen B.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality

  14. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Rockenbach, Maria I; Marinho, Sandra A; Veeck, Elaine B; Lindemann, Laura; Shinkai, Rosemary S

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05). Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05). Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7) than non-pregnant women (7.5) (p < 0.001), but higher sIgA level (118.9 mg/L) than the latter (90.1 mg/L) (p = 0.026). Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality. PMID:17132167

  15. Biomaterials-Based Strategies for Salivary Gland Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Fowler, Eric W.; Hao, Ying; Ravikrishan, Anitha; Harrington, Daniel A.; Witt, Robert L.; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-01-01

    The salivary gland is a complex, secretory tissue that produces saliva and maintains oral homeostasis. Radiation induced salivary gland atrophy, manifested as “dry mouth” or xerostomia, poses a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering recently has emerged as an alternative, long-term treatment strategy for xerostomia. In this review, we summarize recent efforts towards the development of functional and implantable salivary glands utilizing designed polymeric substrates or synthetic matrices/scaffolds. Although the in vitro engineering of a complex implantable salivary gland is technically challenging, opportunities exist for multidisciplinary teams to harvest the regenerative potential of stem/progenitor cells found in the adult glands and combine them with biomimetic and cell-instructive materials to assemble implantable tissue modules. PMID:26878077

  16. Alternatives for the treatment of salivary duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    McGurk, Mark; Brown, Jackie

    2009-12-01

    Minimally invasive alternatives for treatment of salivary duct obstruction are discussed. Radiologically- and endoscopically-guided interventions using wire baskets and dilating balloons, including cutting balloons, are covered as are combined endoscopic and open approaches.

  17. Antarctic Isolation and Associated Changes in Salivary Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-05

    salivary oral flora of man not only may reflect overall biologic reaction, but also represent an obvious source of microbial transmission. FINDINGS...streptococci and lactobacilli make up about half of the total oral flora of virtually all hum- ans, 14 it seemed important to study these groups...characterizing the salivary flora of this population. Preliminary statis- tical analysis on individual raw count values produced variances too

  18. Saliva-microbe interactions and salivary gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Baker, O J; Edgerton, M; Kramer, J M; Ruhl, S

    2014-05-01

    Adequate salivary secretion is crucial to both oral and general health, since it provides a complex milieu for support of the microbial populations of the mouth, while at the same time containing antimicrobial products that help control these microbial populations. This paper summarizes several aspects of salivary component function, gland secretion mechanisms, and immunopathogenesis as related to oral health and disease. Salivary components mediate microbial attachment to oral surfaces, and also interact with planktonic microbial surfaces to facilitate agglutination and elimination of pathogens from the oral cavity. Adhesive interactions are often mediated by lectin-like bacterial proteins that bind to glycan motifs on salivary glycoproteins. An important salivary antimicrobial protein is histatin 5 (Hst 5), which shows potent and selective antifungal activity and also susceptibility to proteolytic degradation. Coupling of Hst 5 with the carrier molecule spermidine significantly enhanced killing of C. albicans and resistance to proteolytic degradation, compared with the parent peptide. Loss of salivary secretion may be caused by disorders such as Sjögren's syndrome (SS) or ectodermal dysplasia, or may be a side-effect of radiation therapy. Two new approaches to the treatment of salivary gland dysfunction include the use of resolvins and the creation of differentiated acinar structures to construct an artificial salivary gland. B-cells contribute to the pathogenesis of SS by releasing cytokines and autoantibodies and by influencing T-cell differentiation. CXCL13, a potent B-cell chemokine associated with autoimmune diseases, is elevated locally and systemically in SS and may represent a novel biomarker or therapeutic target in the management and treatment of SS.

  19. Function of salivary glands and sialochemistry in sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Arglebe, C

    1983-01-01

    Human sialadenosis is a non-inflammatory disease affecting the cephalic salivary glands, mainly the parotid, characterized by a mostly bilateral, painless swelling due to a substantial increase of the glandular parenchyma. After the presentation of clinical, cytological and biochemical data the probable etiology of this disease is discussed. It is concluded that sialadenosis is not a disease of the salivary glands themselves but of their sympathetic innervation.

  20. Extracellular Ca(2+) sensing in salivary ductal cells.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C; Swaim, William D; Sarkar, Ankana; Liu, Xibao; Ambudkar, Indu S

    2012-08-31

    Ca(2+) is secreted from the salivary acinar cells as an ionic constituent of primary saliva. Ions such as Na(+) and Cl(-) get reabsorbed whereas primary saliva flows through the salivary ductal system. Although earlier studies have shown that salivary [Ca(2+)] decreases as it flows down the ductal tree into the oral cavity, ductal reabsorption of Ca(2+) remains enigmatic. Here we report a potential role for the G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CSR), in the regulation of Ca(2+) reabsorption by salivary gland ducts. Our data show that CSR is present in the apical region of ductal cells where it is co-localized with transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3). CSR is activated in isolated salivary gland ducts as well as a ductal cell line (SMIE) by altering extracellular [Ca(2+)] or by aromatic amino acid, L-phenylalanine (L-Phe, endogenous component of saliva), as well as neomycin. CSR activation leads to Ca(2+) influx that, in polarized cells grown on a filter support, is initiated in the luminal region. We show that TRPC3 contributes to Ca(2+) entry triggered by CSR activation. Further, stimulation of CSR in SMIE cells enhances the CSR-TRPC3 association as well as surface expression of TRPC3. Together our findings suggest that CSR could serve as a Ca(2+) sensor in the luminal membrane of salivary gland ducts and regulate reabsorption of [Ca(2+)] from the saliva via TRPC3, thus contributing to maintenance of salivary [Ca(2+)]. CSR could therefore be a potentially important protective mechanism against formation of salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis) and infection (sialoadenitis).

  1. Salivary glands: a new player in phosphorus metabolism.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Santoro, Giuseppe; Muraca, Ugo; Davis, Paul A; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders and dietary phosphate limitation in addition to dialysis, only 50% of dialysis patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. The identification of other approaches for serum phosphorus reduction is therefore necessary. We have approached this issue by taking into account the relationships between serum phosphate, kidney function, and saliva. Saliva was chosen because the anatomy and/or physiology of acini, the secretive units of salivary glands, shares similarities with that of the renal tubules. Salivary fluid contains electrolytes including phosphate that, when related with the amount of salivary secretion per day, raises the interest in identifying another possible approach for phosphorus removal in uremic patients. This article reports studies from our laboratory in the last 3 to 4 years, which have demonstrated a hyperphosphoric salivary content in patients with chronic renal failure and those with end-stage renal disease under chronic dialysis that, in patients with chronic renal failure, linearly correlates with serum phosphate in patients with chronic renal failure and negatively with GFR. The ingestion of the saliva and later its absorption in the intestinal tract starts a vicious circle between salivary phosphate secretion and fasting phosphate absorption, thereby worsening hyperphosphatemia. Therefore, salivary phosphate binding could be a useful approach to serum phosphate level reduction in dialysis patients. The reduction of salivary phosphate with the salivary phosphate binder, chitosan-loaded chewing gum, chewed during fasting periods, as an add-on to phosphate binders could lead to a better control of hyperphosphatemia, as demonstrated in our study, which confirms the importance of this approach.

  2. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis.

  3. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Moffa, Eduardo B.; Machado, Maria A. A. M.; Mussi, Maria C. M.; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S.; Giampaolo, Eunice T.; Siqueira, Walter L.

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein’s function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein–protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein–protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance. PMID:26544073

  4. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Moffa, Eduardo B; Machado, Maria A A M; Mussi, Maria C M; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S; Giampaolo, Eunice T; Siqueira, Walter L

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein's function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein-protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein-protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance.

  5. Effect of a kickboxing match on salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; Arsati, Franco; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco De Oliveira; Franchini, Emerson; De Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis that salivary cortisol would increase and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) decrease after a kickboxing match was tested among 20 male athletes. Saliva samples collected before and after the match were analyzed. Salivary cortisol and salivary IgA concentrations (absolute concentration, salivary IgAabs) and the secretion rate of IgA (salivary IgArate) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A Wilcoxon test for paired samples showed significant increases in salivary cortisol from pre- to postmatch. No significant changes were observed in salivary IgAabs or secretory IgArate and saliva flow rate. This study indicates that a kickboxing match might increase salivary concentration and thereafter it could be considered a significant source of exercise-related stress. On the other hand, the effect of a kickboxing match on mucosal immunity seems not to be relevant.

  6. Recurrent rearrangements of the Myb/SANT-like DNA-binding domain containing 3 gene (MSANTD3) in salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Barasch, Nicholas; Gong, Xue; Kwei, Kevin A.; Varma, Sushama; Biscocho, Jewison; Qu, Kunbin; Xiao, Nan; Lipsick, Joseph S.; Pelham, Robert J.; West, Robert B.; Pollack, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic gene fusions have been identified in several histologic types of salivary gland neoplasia, but not previously in acinic cell carcinoma (AcCC). To discover novel gene fusions, we performed whole-transcriptome sequencing surveys of three AcCC archival cases. In one specimen we identified a novel HTN3-MSANTD3 gene fusion, and in another a novel PRB3-ZNF217 gene fusion. The structure of both fusions was consistent with the promoter of the 5’ partner (HTN3 or PRB3), both highly expressed salivary gland genes, driving overexpression of full-length MSANTD3 or ZNF217. By fluorescence in situ hybridization of an expanded AcCC case series, we observed MSANTD3 rearrangements altogether in 3 of 20 evaluable cases (15%), but found no additional ZNF217 rearrangements. MSANTD3 encodes a previously uncharacterized Myb/SANT domain-containing protein. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated diffuse nuclear MSANTD3 expression in 8 of 27 AcCC cases (30%), including the three cases with MSANTD3 rearrangement. MSANTD3 displayed heterogeneous expression in normal salivary ductal epithelium, as well as among other histologic types of salivary gland cancer though without evidence of translocation. In a broader survey, MSANTD3 showed variable expression across a wide range of normal and neoplastic human tissue specimens. In preliminary functional studies, engineered MSANTD3 overexpression in rodent salivary gland epithelial cells did not enhance cell proliferation, but led to significant upregulation of gene sets involved in protein synthesis. Our findings newly identify MSANTD3 rearrangement as a recurrent event in salivary gland AcCC, providing new insight into disease pathogenesis, and identifying a putative novel human oncogene. PMID:28212443

  7. Minor salivary gland carcinoma: a review of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Haymerle, Georg; Schneider, Sven; Harris, Luke; Häupl, Theresia; Schopper, Christian; Pammer, Johannes; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch; Erovic, Boban M

    2016-09-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with broad variation in clinical appearance and histopathology. Clinical data of patients with small salivary gland malignancies were collected from the medical records. Tissue microarray was constructed to determine the expression pattern of 24 proteins in 35 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. The choice of markers was based on involvement in neoangiogenesis, cell-to-cell contact, cell-cycle regulation and carcinogenesis. Protein expression data were correlated to patients' clinical data. Overexpression of patched (p = 0.046) and Smo (p = 0.032) was linked to a better overall survival and Glutathione S-transferase π overexpression was linked to prolonged disease-free survival (p = 0.005). Cox-1 (p = 0.035) and VEGFR2 (p = 0.009) were significantly linked to decreased survival for recurrent disease. Bcl-x (84 %), β-catenin (87 %) and Cox-2 (87 %) were significantly overexpressed in minor salivary gland carcinomas. We have shown that Smo resulted in a better overall survival, whereas Gstπ in improved disease-free survival. VEGFR2 was a prognostic factor for survival after recurrence in patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and anti-Wnt-1 antibodies might be a potential therapeutic option in an adjuvant setting or for patients with unresectable tumors of the minor salivary glands.

  8. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  9. Diseases of the salivary glands in infants and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diseases of the salivary glands are rare in infants and children (with the exception of diseases such as parotitis epidemica and cytomegaly) and the therapeutic regimen differs from that in adults. It is therefore all the more important to gain exact and extensive insight into general and special aspects of pathological changes of the salivary glands in these age groups. Etiology and pathogenesis of these entities is still not yet fully known for the age group in question so that general rules for treatment, based on clinical experience, cannot be given, particularly in view of the small number of cases of the different diseases. Swellings of the salivary glands may be caused by acute and chronic inflammatory processes, by autoimmune diseases, by duct translocation due to sialolithiasis, and by tumors of varying dignity. Clinical examination and diagnosis has also to differentiate between salivary gland cysts and inflammation or tumors. Conclusion Salivary gland diseases are rare in childhood and adolescence. Their pattern of incidence differs very much from that of adults. Acute and chronic sialadenitis not responding to conservative treatment requires an appropriate surgical approach. The rareness of salivary gland tumors is particularly true for the malignant parotid tumors which are more frequent in juvenile patients, a fact that has to be considered in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:20156335

  10. Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. Their prevalence and negative effects on the patient's quality of life oblige the clinician to confront the issue. Aim: To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. Methods: In this article, a literature search of these dysfunctions was conducted with the assistance of a research librarian in the MEDLINE/PubMed Database. Results: Xerostomia, or dry mouth syndrome, can be caused by medication, systemic diseases such as Sjögren's Syndrome, glandular pathologies, and radiotherapy of the head and neck. Treatment of dry mouth is aimed at both minimizing its symptoms and preventing oral complications with the employment of sialogogues and topical acting substances. Sialorrhea and drooling, are mainly due to medication or neurological systemic disease. There are various therapeutic, pharmacologic, and surgical alternatives for its management. The pharmacology of most of the substances employed for the treatment of salivary disorders is well-known. Nevertheless, in some cases a significant improvement in salivary function has not been observed after their administration. Conclusion: At present, there are numerous frequently prescribed drugs whose unwanted effects include some kind of salivary disorder. In addition, the differing pathologic mechanisms, and the great variety of existing treatments hinder the clinical management of these patients. The authors have designed an algorithm to facilitate the decision making process when physicians, oral surgeons, or dentists face these salivary dysfunctions. PMID:26516310

  11. Salivary hypofunction: an update on aetiology, diagnosis and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Jamil; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Saliva is of paramount importance for the maintenance of oral and general homeostasis. Salivary hypofunction predispose patients to disorders such as dysgeusia, pain and burning mouth, caries and other oral infectious diseases, dysphagia and dysphonia. The aim of this study was to provide an update on the aetiology, diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies for the management of hyposalivation and xerostomia. The present paper describes subjective and objective methods for the diagnosis of salivary dysfunctions; moreover a number of drugs, and systemic disorders associated with decreased salivary flow rate are listed. We also focused on the underlying mechanisms to radiotherapy-induced salivary damage. Therapeutics for hyposalivation and xerostomia were discussed and classified as preventive, symptomatic, topical and systemic stimulants, disease-modifying agents, and regenerative. New therapeutic modalities have been studied and involve stem cells transplantation, with special attention to regeneration of damage caused by ionizing radiation to the salivary glands. More studies in this area are needed to provide new perspectives in the treatment of patients with salivary dysfunctions.

  12. Salivary biomarkers of neural hypervigilance in trauma-exposed women

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seungyeon A.; Weierich, Mariann R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives More than half of all adults will be exposed to a traumatic event at some point in their lives, yet we do not yet have reliable biomarkers to help predict who experiences trauma-related symptoms in response to exposure. We tested the utility of salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase as markers of (1) neural reactivity to negative affective information and (2) neural hypervigilance in the absence of threat. Participants 20 women (mean age 23.6 +/− 5.8 years) with a history of trauma exposure. Measures Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase reactivity were measured in response to a trauma reminder during a clinical interview. Neural reactivity to novel and familiar affective scenes was measured in a later session using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Salivary alpha amylase, but not cortisol, increased in response to the trauma reminder. Salivary alpha amylase reactivity was associated with neural reactivity in the salience network in response to novel negative scenes and neural hypervigilance as indexed by reactivity to novel neutral scenes. Conclusions Salivary alpha amylase might serve as a more reliable marker of trauma-related reactivity to negative affective information, and also as a marker of hypervigilance in the absence of threatening information. PMID:26398002

  13. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma--unusual presentation of a salivary gland tumor in the neck of a child.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K V; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bansal, Vishal; Saxena, Susmita; Elhence, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic salivary gland tumors are rare in children. When salivary gland tumors do develop, they preferentially affect major salivary glands and then minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma, also referred to as a benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. Approximately 90% of these tumors occur in the parotid gland, while the remaining 10% affect the minor salivary glands. However, it is uncommon to find them elsewhere in the head and neck region. We report a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma in the upper neck, an unusual site in an 8-year-old boy.

  15. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, PJ; Kazial, KA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U · ml−1) and high intensity (284 ± 30 U · ml−1) as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U · ml−1) and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1) and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug · dL−1) as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug · dL−1) and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1) compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1). This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption. PMID:26681828

  16. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  17. Salivary inflammatory markers and microbiome in normoglycemic lean and obese children compared to obese children with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Amarpeet; Tsompana, Maria; Berman, Harvey A.; Haase, Elaine M.; Miecznikowski, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence linking diabetes with periodontal disease. Diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for periodontal disease. Conversely, pro-inflammatory molecules released by periodontally-diseased tissues may enter the circulation to induce insulin resistance. While this association has been demonstrated in adults, there is little information regarding periodontal status in obese children with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that children with T2D have higher rates of gingivitis, elevated salivary inflammatory markers, and an altered salivary microbiome compared to children without T2D. Methods Three pediatric cohorts ages 10–19 years were studied: lean (normal weight—C), obese (Ob), and obese with T2D (T2D). Each subject completed an oral health survey, received a clinical oral examination, and provided unstimulated saliva for measurement of inflammatory markers and microbiome analysis. Results The diabetes group was less likely to have had a dental visit within the last six months. Body mass index (BMI) Z-scores and waist circumference/height ratios were similar between Ob and T2D cohorts. The number of carious lesions and fillings were similar for all three groups. The gingival index was greater in the T2D group compared to the Ob and C groups. Although salivary microbial diversity was minimal between groups, a few differences in bacterial genus composition were noted. Conclusions Obese children with T2D show a trend toward poorer oral health compared to normal weight and obese children without T2D. This study characterizes the salivary microbiome of children with and without obesity and T2D. This study supports a modest link between T2D and periodontal inflammation in the pediatric population. PMID:28253297

  18. Salivary Biomarkers of Physical Fatigue as Markers of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Darren J.; Valle, Bianca; Cox, Jennifer; Kalns, John E.; Fogt, Donovan L.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: Determine whether a salivary biomarker of physical fatigue, referred to as the fatigue biomarker index (FBI), can discriminate a control group from a sleep deprived group when saliva is collected under controlled conditions. The study expands on previous work examining changes in the composition of saliva during periods of prolonged exercise. Methods: Thirty (30) young adults (14 Control [CON]; 16 Sleep Deprived [SDEP]) were monitored for mood state (Profile of Mood States [POMS]), cognitive performance (Stroop Color-Conflict Tests), and salivary biomarkers of physical fatigue over a 48-h period with sampling at 3-h intervals. Trials lasted from 06:00 on day 1 (time = -3 h) to 09:00 on day 3 (time = 48 h). Levels of salivary biomarkers were calculated from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data. Statistical comparisons were made using Wilcoxon rank sum tests with a Bonferroni correction to limit type 1 error. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of the various parameters to distinguish the SDEP population from the CON population. Results: Longitudinal analysis demonstrated significant between-group differences in all three parameters. ROC analysis demonstrated that cognitive performance tests and salivary biomarkers of physical fatigue distinguish the SDEP population from the CON population. Conclusions: A previously identified salivary biomarker of physical fatigue may provide an alternative method for discriminating sleep deprived from rested individuals. The salivary biomarker of physical fatigue holds promise as an objective measure of sleep deprivation, perhaps eventually removing the reliance on self-reported sleep diaries and/or repeated polysomnographs for longitudinal tracking of sleep quality and/or diagnosis of sleep disorders. Citation: Michael DJ; Valle B; Cox J; Kalns JE; Fogt DL. Salivary biomarkers of physical fatigue as markers of sleep deprivation. J Clin Sleep Med 2013

  19. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  20. Salivary Alterations in Rats with Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ana Carolina; Bergamaschi, Cassia Toledo; de Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze changes in saliva composition and salivary secretion process of rats with chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy to set the foundation for salivary studies related to CKD. Methods CKD was induced in Wistar rats via 5/6 nephrectomy. Blood and saliva samples were collected from Control, Sham and CKD groups at 8 and 12 weeks after the surgery. Salivation was stimulated via intraperitoneal injections of pilocarpine (1.0 mg/Kg body weight) or isoproterenol (5.0 mg/Kg body weight). Saliva was collected and immediately stored at -80°C until analysis. The salivary flow rate, total protein, amylase and peroxidase activities, and urea concentrations were measured. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations were also evaluated. Results Increases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations were observed in the CKD groups. Amylase activity was significantly reduced in response to both stimuli in the CKD groups at 8 weeks and increased in the CKD groups at 12 weeks in response to isoproterenol stimulus. The peroxidase activities of the CKD groups were significantly reduced in response to isoproterenol stimulation and were increased at 12 weeks in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary urea was significantly increased in the CKD groups at 8 weeks in response to the isoproterenol stimuli and at 12 weeks in response to both salivary agonists. Conclusions The pattern of alterations observed in this experimental model is similar to those observed in patients and clearly demonstrates the viability of 5/6 nephrectomy as an experimental model in future studies to understand the alterations in salivary compositions and in salivary glands that are elicited by CKD. PMID:26859883

  1. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  2. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase in Post menopausal Women with and without Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sophia, Khumukcham; Sudhakar, Uma; Jayakumar, Parvathee; Mathew, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alkaline phosphatase is an intracellular destruction enzyme in the periodontium, and it takes part in the normal turnover of the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and root cementum formation and maintenance. Aim The aim of this case control study was to evaluate the enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) level in saliva of post menopausal women with and without chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods In this study, 40 individuals, satisfying the study inclusion and exclusion criteria, were recruited. They were categorically divided, on the basis of gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, into two groups: Group I (post menopausal women with a clinically healthy periodontium, n=20); and Group II (post menopausal women with generalized chronic periodontitis, n=20). Clinical parameters assessed were Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). Unstimulated salivary samples were obtained in which the ALP concentration was measured using p-Nitrophenylphosphate, and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol reagents in Beckman and Coulter, AU 480 auto analyser. Mann-Whitney U test was used to find statistical difference with respect to all clinical parameters such as PI, GI, CAL, PPD and salivary ALP levels. Results The mean ALP in saliva was found to be higher in Group II compared to Group I and the difference was statistically significant with the p-value of 0.008. Conclusion A noteworthy increase in the ALP concentration was seen in saliva in our study (Group II) may be due to increased periodontal inflammation in post menopausal women. Thus salivary ALP can be taken as an additional biomarker to early diagnosis, development and progression of periodontitis especially among post menopausal women. PMID:28274061

  3. Association among stress, salivary cortisol levels, and chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Refulio, Zoila; Rocafuerte, Marco; de la Rosa, Manuel; Mendoza, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic periodontitis (CP) seems to be associated with stress and depression, but little information on this possible association is available in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association among stress, the salivary cortisol level (SCL), and CP. Methods Seventy systemically healthy subjects were included in the study from January to September 2011. Full medical and dental histories were obtained, and the following measurements were recorded: 1) probing depth; 2) clinical attachment level; 3) bleeding on probing; and 4) tooth mobility. Saliva samples were collected for the evaluation of SCL (via a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), and all subjects also answered a questionnaire (i.e., the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale). The odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated, and one way analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer method were performed. Results A total of 36 subjects with CP (51.4%) and 34 without CP were evaluated. Of them, all of the subjects with CP and one periodontally healthy subject were diagnosed with depression. Subjects with moderate CP had statistically significantly higher levels of SCL than subjects with a diagnosis of slight CP (P=0.006). Also, subjects with severe CP showed the same outcome when compared to those with slight CP (P=0.012). In addition, 46 subjects presented high SCL whereas 24 had a normal level. CP was found to be correlated with the SCL, with an OR of 4.14 (95% CI, 1.43 to 12.01). Conclusions Subjects with a high SCL and depression may show an increased risk for CP. PMID:23678393

  4. Enhancement of both salivary protein-enological tannin interactions and astringency perception by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Obreque-Slíer, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio

    2010-03-24

    Red wine astringency has been associated with interactions of tannins with salivary proteins. Tannins are active protein precipitants. Not much evidence exists demonstrating contribution of other wine components to astringency. We aimed to investigate an eventual role of ethanol both in astringency and salivary protein-enological tannin interactions. A trained sensory panel scored perceived astringency. Salivary protein-tannin interactions were assessed by observing both tannin-dependent changes in salivary protein diffusion on cellulose membranes and tannin-induced salivary protein precipitation. Proanthocyanidins and gallotannins in aqueous and hydroalcoholic solutions were assayed. A biphasic mode of diffusion on cellulose membranes displayed by salivary proteins was unaffected after dilution with water or enological concentrations of ethanol. At those concentrations ethanol was not astringent. In aqueous solution, tannins provoked both restriction of salivary protein diffusion, protein precipitation, and astringency. Those effects were exacerbated by 13% ethanol. In summary, enological concentrations of ethanol exacerbate astringency and salivary protein-tannin interactions.

  5. Use of Salivary Cortisol Measurements in Young Infants: A Note of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnano, Catherine L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Findings indicate that high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk could contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. To insure accurate results, appropriate controls should be taken for salivary cortisol measurements of young infants. (RH)

  6. Is salivary gland function altered in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity-insulin resistance?

    PubMed

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-04-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction in several systemic diseases has been shown to decrease the quality of life in patients. In non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), inadequate salivary gland function has been evidenced to closely associate with this abnormal glycemic control condition. Although several studies demonstrated that NIDDM has a positive correlation with impaired salivary gland function, including decreased salivary flow rate, some studies demonstrated contradictory findings. Moreover, the changes of the salivary gland function in pre-diabetic stage known as insulin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the relationship between NIDDM and salivary gland function, as well as the correlation between obesity and salivary gland function. Consistent findings as well as controversial reports and the mechanistic insights regarding the effect of NIDDM and obesity-insulin resistance on salivary gland function are also presented and discussed.

  7. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  8. Salivary Sialic Acid Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Mollashahi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. Objectives In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected. Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein concentration were measured by standard biochemical methods, and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 20 through the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results The concentration of salivary free sialic acid (23.21 ± 18.98 mg/L) was significantly increased in paan consumers. The concentration of salivary Total sialic acid (TSA) (39.57 ± 26.58 mg/L) and total protein (0.77 ± 0.81 mg/mL) showed increases in paan consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were higher in the paan consumers compared to non-consumers. Due to the carcinogenic effect of smokeless tobacco, measurement of these parameters in saliva may be useful in early detection of oral cancer. PMID:27622172

  9. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma) were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis. PMID:21943228

  10. Salivary fluoride levels after use of high-fluoride dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Vale, Glauber Campos; Cruz, Priscila Figueiredo; Bohn, Ana Clarissa Cavalcante Elvas; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary fluoride (F) availability after toothbrushing with a high-F dentifrice. Twelve adult volunteers took part in this crossover and blind study. F concentration in saliva was determined after brushing with a high-F dentifrice (5000 µg F/g) or with a conventional F concentration dentifrice (1100 µg F/g) followed by a 15 mL distilled water rinse. Samples of nonstimulated saliva were collected on the following times: before (baseline), and immediately after spit (time = 0) and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. F analysis was performed with a fluoride-sensitive electrode and the area under curve of F salivary concentration × time (µg F/mL × min(-1)) was calculated. At baseline, no significant difference was found among dentifrices (P > 0.05). After brushing, both dentifrices caused an elevated fluoride level in saliva; however salivary F concentration was significantly higher at all times, when high-F dentifrice was used (P < 0.01). Even after 120 min, salivary F concentration was still higher than the baseline values for both dentifrices (P < 0.001). High-F dentifrice enhanced the bioavailability of salivary F, being an option for caries management in patients with high caries risk.

  11. Systems analysis of salivary gland development and disease.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Melinda; Yamada, Kenneth M; Musselmann, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a crucial developmental process in which vertebrate organs generate extensive epithelial surface area while retaining a compact size. In the vertebrate submandibular salivary gland, branching morphogenesis is crucial for the generation of the large surface area necessary to produce sufficient saliva. However, in many salivary gland diseases, saliva-producing acinar cells are destroyed, resulting in dry mouth and secondary health conditions. Systems-based approaches can provide insights into understanding salivary gland development, function, and disease. The traditional approach to understanding these processes is the identification of molecular signals using reductionist approaches; we review current progress with such methods in understanding salivary gland development. Taking a more global approach, multiple groups are currently profiling the transcriptome, the proteome, and other 'omes' in both developing mouse tissues and in human patient samples. Computational methods have been successful in deciphering large data sets, and mathematical models are starting to make predictions regarding the contribution of molecules to the physical processes of morphogenesis and cellular function. A challenge for the future will be to establish comprehensive, publicly accessible salivary gland databases spanning the full range of genes and proteins; plans are underway to provide these resources to researchers in centralized repositories. The greatest challenge for the future will be to develop realistic models that integrate multiple types of data to both describe and predict embryonic development and disease pathogenesis.

  12. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera -Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. Results There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). Conclusions The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Key words:Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia. PMID:26535097

  13. Influence of bethanechol on salivary parameters in irradiated patients

    PubMed Central

    Cotomacio, Claudia; Campos, Luana; Simões, Alyne; Jaguar, Graziela; Crosato, Edgard-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown evidence that the prophylactic use of bethanechol chloride (BC) may be useful in preventing the incidence and/or severity of xerostomia (XT). However, the indication of BC in irradiated patients with XT needs to be better characterized. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of BC on XT, salivary flow rate, and salivary composition in patients previously submitted to head and neck radiotherapy. Material and Methods Forty five irradiated patients complaining of XT used 50 mg/day of BC for 3 months, and the salivary parameters were evaluated in 4 Phases (Before BC therapy, after one month of BC, 2 months of BC, and 3 months of BC). Biochemical analysis included buffering capacity; pH; total protein concentration (TP); amylase concentration (AM); catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (PX) activities. In addition, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and XT was classified. Results According to the XT grading system used, patients showed improvement in XT between Phase 1, and Phases 2, 3 and 4. In addition, some changes were observed in TP concentration (decreased); AM concentration (increased); and PX and CAT activities (decreased and increased, respectively) after Phase 2, for stimulated saliva collection (p<0.05). Conclusions Our results suggested that when BC was used to treat salivary gland dysfunction induced by head and neck radiotherapy, improvement in XT symptoms, and some changes in saliva composition were shown. Key words:Radiotherapy, xerostomia, hyposalivation, saliva, biochemistry. PMID:27918737

  14. Oral manifestation and salivary changes in renal patients undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Sargolzaie, Fahimeh

    2017-01-01

    Background Salivary changes in hemodialysis patients may result in various oral manifestations. This research intended to determine oral manifestations and some salivary markers in hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 hemodialysis patients (the patient group) and 30 healthy individuals (the control group). Saliva urea and calcium levels and pH values of the participants were measured, and oral manifestations such as pale mucosa, xerostomia, halitosis, changes in the sense of taste, increased calculus formation, gingival bleeding, etc. were recorded in the information collection form. The data was analyzed using T-test and chi-square, and p<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The mean salivary urea level and pH value in the patient group were significantly higher compared to those of the control group (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to salivary calcium. Halitosis, xerostomia, and increased calculus were the most prevalent manifestations, and gum bleeding was the least prevalent among the patients. Conclusions Advanced chronic renal insufficiency can increase salivary urea level, pH value, halitosis, xerostomia, and calculus formation, and may cause pale mucosa. Key words:Renal dialysis, biomarkers, oral manifestation, saliva. PMID:28210437

  15. Salivary conditioning with antennal gustatory unconditioned stimulus in an insect.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Sato, Chihiro; Kuramochi, Tomokazu; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Classical conditioning of olfactory conditioning stimulus (CS) with gustatory unconditioned stimulus (US) in insects has been used as a pertinent model for elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. However, a conditioning system in which stable intracellular recordings from brain neurons are feasibly obtained while monitoring the conditioning effect has remained to be established. Recently, we found classical conditioning of salivation in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, in which an odor was associated with sucrose solution applied to the mouth, and this conditioning could be monitored by activities of salivary neurons. Application of gustatory US to the mouth, however, leads to feeding movement accompanying a movement of the brain that prevents stable recordings from brain neurons. Here we investigated whether a gustatory stimulus presented to an antenna could serve as an effective US for producing salivary conditioning. Presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution to an antenna induced salivation and also increased activities of salivary neurons. A single pairing trial of an odor with antennal presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution produced conditioning of salivation or of activities of salivary neurons. Five pairing trials led to a conditioning effect that lasted for one day. Water or tactile stimulus presented to an antenna was not effective for producing conditioning. The results demonstrate that gustatory US presented to an antenna is as effective as that presented to the mouth for producing salivary conditioning. This conditioning system provides a useful model for studying the neural basis of learning at the level of singly identifiable neurons.

  16. Some factors influencing salivary function when treating with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mira, J.G.; Wescott, W.B.; Starcke, E.N.; Shannon, I.L.

    1981-04-01

    Salivary flow rate was studied in 29 patients treated with external irradiation to head and neck areas. Resting saliva samples were collected before, during the radiotherapy course and follow-up. Several parameters were investigated: field arrangement, amount of salivary glands irradiated, dose to these glands, initial FR, its recovery during and after irradiation, and influence of therapy interruption in FR. It was found that the level of the upper border of the field is a critical factor when using parallel-opposed lateral fields to the upper neck area and lateral face. More than 50% of the parotids have to be outside the fields to prevent severe dryness. Neck fields which do not encompass salivary glands do not decrease salivary secretion. There is some relation between the initial FR and the dose necessary to produce dryness: patients with high initial salivary FR require higher doses. FR recovery occurs during weekend interruptions before xerostomia develops. Interruptions of therapy for more than two weeks during the radiotherapy course prior to development of dryness might decrease late xerostomia, at least in patients with high initial FR. Objective recovery of the FR has not been observed after treatment in spite of the subjective improvement in the sensation of dryness of some patients.

  17. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  18. Post-sialendoscopy ductoplasty by salivary duct stent placements.

    PubMed

    Su, Chin-Hui; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Tseng, Te-Ming; Hung, Shih-Han

    2016-01-01

    With damage to a duct or papilla after sialendoscopy, a stent may be necessary to prevent re-stenosis and for maintaining the salivary duct open after complete sialendoscopy. However factors affecting outcomes and complications after stent placement remain unclear. This study aimed to report preliminary experiences in salivary duct stent placement after sialendoscopy. Data from 35 procedures in 33 patients who received sialendoscopy with salivary duct stent placements at Mackay Memorial Hospital between October 2013 and June 2014 were recorded and compared for clinical data, as well as procedural techniques, findings, and outcomes. In the 35 stent placement procedures, the hypospadias silastic stent tubes were used in 27 and the Fr. 5 pediatric feeding tubes were used in the remaining eight. When the hypospadias silastic stent tubes were used for stenting, the stent obstruction and irritation rates were higher compared to those who used the Fr. 5 pediatric feeding tube (100 vs. 0 % and 67 vs. 33 %, respectively). None of the stents secured by a 5-0 nylon suture were complicated by dislocation but when the stents were secured by 6-0 nylon sutures, the dislocation rate went as high as 47.4 %. The duration needed for salivary duct stent placement might be potentially shortened to only 2 weeks. If a salivary duct stent is intended to be placed for a certain period before its scheduled removal, a suture strength equivalent or stronger than the 5-0 nylon suture should be considered for stent fixation.

  19. MDM2 and CDK4 amplifications are rare events in salivary duct carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Grünewald, Inga; Trautmann, Marcel; Busch, Alina; Bauer, Larissa; Huss, Sebastian; Schweinshaupt, Petra; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Odenthal, Margarete; Quaas, Alexander; Büttner, Reinhard; Meyer, Moritz F.; Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Wardelmann, Eva; Stenner, Markus; Hartmann, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands associated with poor clinical outcome. SDCs are known to carry TP53 mutations in about 50%, however, only little is known about alternative pathogenic mechanisms within the p53 regulatory network. Particularly, data on alterations of the oncogenes MDM2 and CDK4 located in the chromosomal region 12q13-15 are limited in SDC, while genomic rearrangements of the adjacent HMGA2 gene locus are well documented in subsets of SDCs. We here analyzed the mutational status of the TP53 gene, genomic amplification of MDM2, CDK4 and HMGA2 rearrangement/amplification as well as protein expression of TP53 (p53), MDM2 and CDK4 in 51 de novo and ex pleomorphic adenoma SDCs. 25 of 51 cases were found to carry TP53 mutations, associated with extreme positive immunohistochemical p53 staining levels in 13 cases. Three out of 51 tumors had an MDM2 amplification, one of them coinciding with a CDK4 amplification and two with a HMGA2 rearrangement/amplification. Two of the MDM2 amplifications occurred in the setting of a TP53 mutation. Two out of 51 cases showed a CDK4 amplification, one synchronously being MDM2 amplified and the other one displaying concurrent low copy number increases of both, MDM2 and HMGA2. In summary, we here show that subgroups of SDCs display genomic amplifications of MDM2 and/or CDK4, partly in association with TP53 mutations and rearrangement/amplification of HMGA2. Further research is necessary to clarify the role of chromosomal region 12q13-15 alterations in SDC tumorigenesis and their potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance. PMID:27662657

  20. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  1. Functional salivary gland regeneration as the next generation of organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Oral health is maintained by the coordinated function of many organs including the teeth and salivary glands. Dysfunction of these organs causes many problems, such as dental caries, swallowing dysfunction and periodontal disease. Regenerative therapy for salivary gland tissue repair and whole-salivary gland replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept that may have potential for the full recovery of salivary gland function. Salivary gland tissue stem cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for salivary gland tissue repair therapies. In addition, whole-salivary gland replacement therapy may become a novel next-generation organ regenerative therapy. Almost all organs arise from reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the germ layers. We developed a novel bioengineering method, an organ germ method that can reproduce organogenesis through the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. A bioengineered salivary gland germ can regenerate a structurally correct salivary gland in vitro, and bioengineered salivary glands successfully secrete saliva into the oral cavity from ducts in the recipient through the reestablishment of the afferent-efferent neural network. The bioengineered salivary gland can also improve the symptoms of xerostomia, such as bacterial infection and swallowing dysfunction. In this review, we describe recent findings and technological developments of salivary gland regenerative therapy.

  2. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  3. Comparison of some salivary variables between vegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Johansson, G; Ravald, N

    1995-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare salivary variables in a group of vegetarians with a group of omnivores. Twenty-nine vegetarians, 19 women and 10 men, mean age 35 yr, and 28 omnivores, 20 women and 8 men, mean age 35 yr, were compared in terms of salivary secretion rate, pH, buffer capacity, mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The vegetarians had a significantly higher secretion rate, but there were no other significant differences regarding the salivary variables. The difference in secretion rate may have been caused by some lifestyle factor(s) differing between vegetarians and omnivores which probably mainly include nutrient(s), texture and roughness of the food.

  4. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  5. Anorexia/bulimia-related sialadenosis of palatal minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, M D; Fedele, S; Lo Russo, L

    2004-08-01

    In patients affected by alimentary disorders sialadenosis is frequently observed. This non-inflammatory condition is described to affect major salivary glands, leading to the characteristic parotid and/or submandibular swelling. Thus fine-needle aspiration cytology or parotid open biopsy are generally required to diagnose histologically the disorder. We report the case of a 28-year-old patient affected by bulimia/anorexia nervosa who presented, in addition to parotid enlargement, a bilateral symmetric painless soft swelling of the hard palate. The lesion was biopsied and histopathological examination showed the classical features of sialadenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of sialadenosis affecting palatal minor salivary glands. It underlines that when sialadenosis is clinically suspected, clinicians could check also patients' oral cavity for minor salivary glands involvement, in order to potentially avoid invasive extra-oral procedures and to easily confirm diagnosis with an intra-oral biopsy.

  6. Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obel, C; Hedegaard, M; Henriksen, T B; Secher, N J; Olsen, J; Levine, S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy.

  7. Salivary and serum analysis in children diagnosed with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Klein Kremer, Adi; Kuzminsky, Ela; Bentur, Lea; Nagler, Rafael M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate specific markers for pneumonia by using a non-invasive assessment of inflammatory/oxidative biomarkers in saliva accompanying a routine serum analysis. No study evaluating saliva of children with pneumonia has been published previously. Salivary analysis was performed in 15 children diagnosed with lobar pneumonia and in a parallel group of 16 children matching in age and gender in whom there was no respiratory illness, and compared to the serum analysis obtained routinely in both groups of children. Salivary flow rate was lower in the patients' group as was uric acid concentration (by 60%). Increase in salivary concentrations of almost all parameters analyzed was found: Ca, P, and Mg concentrations were higher in the patients' group by 23%, 55%, and 33%, respectively, while LDH, total protein amylase and albumin concentrations were higher by 275%, 79%, and 42%, respectively. In the serum, white cell counts and neutrophils were significantly higher, and sodium level significantly lower in the patients' group. Compositional changes were in the range of 3-80% while the saliva alterations were more profound, in the range of 42-275%. The results demonstrated in the current study indicate salivary analysis as a potentially novel tool for children with pneumonia. Human salivary collection and analysis is a non-invasive tool that could provide additional information for diagnosis and follow-up of pneumonia, especially in children. This is especially beneficial for pediatric patients, as salivary collection is simple, non-invasive, and patient-friendly.

  8. What interactions drive the salivary mucosal pellicle formation?

    PubMed Central

    Gibbins, Hannah L.; Yakubov, Gleb E.; Proctor, Gordon B.; Wilson, Stephen; Carpenter, Guy H.

    2014-01-01

    The bound salivary pellicle is essential for protection of both the enamel and mucosa in the oral cavity. The enamel pellicle formation is well characterised, however the mucosal pellicle proteins have only recently been clarified and what drives their formation is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary pellicle on particles with different surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic with a positive or negative charge), to determine a suitable model to mimic the mucosal pellicle. A secondary aim was to use the model to test how transglutaminase may alter pellicle formation. Particles were incubated with resting whole mouth saliva, parotid saliva and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Following incubation and two PBS and water washes bound salivary proteins were eluted with two concentrations of SDS, which were later analysed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Experiments were repeated with purified transglutaminase to determine how this epithelial-derived enzyme may alter the bound pellicle. Protein pellicles varied according to the starting salivary composition and the particle chemistry. Amylase, the single most abundant protein in saliva, did not bind to any particle indicating specific protein binding. Most proteins bound through hydrophobic interactions and a few according to their charges. The hydrophobic surface most closely matched the known salivary mucosal pellicle by containing mucins, cystatin and statherin but an absence of amylase and proline-rich proteins. This surface was further used to examine the effect of added transglutaminase. At the concentrations used only statherin showed any evidence of crosslinking with itself or another saliva protein. In conclusion, the formation of the salivary mucosal pellicle is probably mediated, at least in part, by hydrophobic interactions to the epithelial cell surface. PMID:24921197

  9. Use of microgravity bioreactors for development of an in vitro rat salivary gland cell culture model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Moriarity, D. M.; Campbell, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    During development, salivary gland (SG) cells both secrete factors which modulate cellular behavior and express specific hormone receptors. Whether SG cell growth is modulated by an autocrine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway is not clearly understood. SG tissue is the synthesis site for functionally distinct products including growth factors, digestive enzymes, and homeostasis maintaining factors. Historically, SG cells have proven difficult to grow and may be only maintained as limited three-dimensional ductal-type structures in collagen gels or on reconstituted basement membrane gels. A novel approach to establishing primary rat SG cultures is use of microgravity bioreactors originally designed by NASA as low-shear culture systems for predicting cell growth and differentiation in the microgravity environment of space. These completely fluid-filled bioreactors, which are oriented horizontally and rotate, have proven advantageous for Earth-based culture of three-dimensional cell assemblies, tissue-like aggregates, and glandular structures. Use of microgravity bioreactors for establishing in vitro models to investigate steroid-mediated secretion of EGF by normal SG cells may also prove useful for the investigation of cancer and other salivary gland disorders. These microgravity bioreactors promise challenging opportunities for future applications in basic and applied cell research.

  10. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit.

  11. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855

  12. AGR2 promotes the proliferation, migration and regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Si-Rui; Mao, Liang; Deng, Wei-Wei; Li, Yi-Cun; Bu, Lin-Lin; Yu, Guang-Tao; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a common head and neck cancer with the propensity for local spread and distant metastasis. In our previous study, elevated expression of Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) was detected in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stemness. However, to date, the expression and function of AGR2 in AdCC has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, human AdCC tissue microarrays including 18 cases of normal salivary gland (NSG), 12 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 72 cases of AdCC were employed for immunohistochemical staining analysis. Results indicated that AGR2, which was remarkably correlated with Ki-67, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and CD147, was significantly elevated in human salivary AdCC tissues. Knockdown of AGR2 significantly repressed the proliferation and migration of human SACC-83 and SACC-LM cell lines. Additionally, AGR2 silencing obviously reversed the EMT phenomena induced by TGF-β1. Taken together, our present study revealed the potential pro-metastasis role of AGR2 in AdCC, indicating that AGR2 might be a novel therapeutic target of AdCC with distant metastasis. PMID:28337279

  13. Evaluation of p27 Expression in Salivary Gland Neoplasms; A Step Forward in Unveiling the Role of p27

    PubMed Central

    Malgaonkar, Nikhil I.; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Kharma, MY; Al-Maweri, SA; Alaizari, NA; Altamimi, MA.; Darwish, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Salivary gland neoplasms are not uncommon lesions that are seen in the head and neck region. The role of cell cycle regulators as well as that of oncogenes remains unexplored in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. Aim Present study was conducted to evaluate the expression of p27 in the three common salivary gland neoplasms. Materials and Methods A total of 34 cases (19 pleomorphic adenoma, 8 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 7 adenoid cystic carcinoma) were included. The sections were subjected to p27 staining and rated for the expression. Results Of the total 52.6% of pleomorphic adenoma cases, 25% of mucoepidermoid carcinoma cases and only 14.2% of adenoid cystic carcinoma cases showed strong expression suggesting variable p27 expression in both malignant neoplasms. Normal salivary gland tissue was stained as a positive control for the evaluation. Conclusion The results of the study suggest an important role for p27 in pathogenesis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma as well as adenoid cystic carcinoma while its role in pathogenesis of pleomorphic adenoma remains questionable keeping in view the strong expression of p27 in the same. PMID:27630940

  14. Cytologic characteristics and histomorphologic correlations of 21 salivary duct carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1998-11-01

    Fine-needle samplings (FNS) of 21 salivary duct carcinomas, histologically correlated, including 19 primaries, one local recurrence, and one lymph node metastasis from 19 patients, are reported. Cytologic diagnosis of high-grade adenocarcinoma was established in 15 (71%). Five (24%) cases were misclassified as high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas and one (5%) as squamous-cell carcinoma. The histologic evaluation in all cases showed cytomorphologic features resembling mammary duct carcinoma with marked cytonuclear atypia and occasional oncocytic appearance. Our cytohistologic correlations indicate that irregular clusters of high-grade adenocarcinoma cells with necrotic background and oncocytic features suggest a cytologic diagnosis of either primary salivary duct carcinoma or metastatic mammary carcinoma.

  15. Emerging horizons of salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, L; Yakob, M; Wong, D T W

    2014-11-01

    The field of salivary diagnostics to allow risk determination for periodontal diseases is advancing. New technologies in proteomics, genomics and nanotechnologies have continued the discovery of discriminatory periodontal disease biomarkers. This review briefly overviews biomarker studies that have been completed in saliva for the detection of periodontal disease since 2010. Disease specific biomarkers could be used in risk determination, treatment planning and disease progression. Currently, diagnostic tests are commercially available, and the development of point-of-care tests is expanding. Even though challenges remain, salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease is promising and could facilitate the diagnostics and treatment in a clinical practice by dental practitioners.

  16. [Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands. Report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    BenJelloun, H; Jouhadi, H; Maazouzi, A; Benchakroun, N; Acharki, A; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2005-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is rare. Tumours develop mostly in children and young patients but can be diagnosed in older people. We report three new cases in women 7, 14 and 75 years old. Tumefaction of the parotid region and facial paralysis were the principle clinical symptoms. Two patients underwent a total parotidectomy and radiotherapy. The third patient had a locally advanced tumour and received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Loco-regional recurrence was observed in all cases and median survival was 12 months. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is locally aggressive. Treatments include surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains to be discussed.

  17. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described. PMID:27757344

  18. Effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y F; Zheng, J; Zheng, L; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-01

    Salivary pellicle is a biofilm that is formed by the selective adsorption of salivary proteins. Almost all the functions of the salivary pellicle (lubricating properties, anti-caries properties, etc.) are closely associated with its adhesion strength to tooth surface. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel, aiming to understand what act as the determinant of the interfacial adhesion. In this study, human tooth enamel samples were immersed in human whole saliva in vitro to obtain a salivary pellicle on the surface of enamel. Immersion treatments lasting up to 1, 3, 10 and 60 min were conducted, respectively. Nano-scratch tests were conducted on the surface of enamel after different adsorption times. The wettability of enamel surface was measured through water contact angle. Results showed that the shear energy between salivary pellicle and enamel surface increased exponentially with the adsorption time. The adhesion force between salivary pellicle and bare enamel surface was more than twice that between salivary pellicle and salivary pellicle. It was found that both the wettability and zeta potential of enamel increased obviously after 1 min saliva-adsorption treatment, and then they almost kept stable as the adsorption time further increased. In summary, the adhesion strength between initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface was much higher than that between initial salivary pellicle and outer salivary pellicle. It seemed that electrostatic interaction contributed to the adhesion between the initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface, but not to the adhesion between the initial and outer salivary pellicle. The results would be helpful to extend the understanding of the adhesion mechanism of salivary pellicle and then to develop new artificial saliva and dental restorative materials.

  19. Changes in the salivary protein profile of morbidly obese women either previously subjected to bariatric surgery or not.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Elsa; Simões, Carla; Rodrigues, Lénia; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia; do Carmo, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is a non-invasive source of biomarkers useful in the study of physiological mechanisms. Moreover, this fluid has diverse functions, among which food perception and ingestion, making it particularly suitable for the study of obesity. The aims of this study were to assess changes in salivary proteome among morbidly obese women, with a view to provide information about mechanisms potentially related to the development of obesity, and to evaluate whether these changes persist after weight loss. Mixed saliva samples from morbidly obese women (N = 18) who had been either subjected (group O-BS) or not (group O) to bariatric surgery and women with normal weight (N = 14; group C) were compared for protein profiles, alpha-amylase abundance and enzymatic activity, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI abundance. Differences in salivary obese profiles were observed for 23 different spots. Zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein-containing spots showed higher abundance in group O only, whereas cystatin S-containing spots presented higher abundance in the two groups of obese subjects. Most of the spots identified as salivary amylase were present at lower levels in group O-BS. With regard to the amylase enzymatic activity, increases were observed for group O and decreases for group O-BS. One interesting finding was the high correlation between levels of CA VI and body mass index in group O, which was not observed for groups O-BS or C. The differences between groups, mainly regarding salivary proteins involved in taste sensitivity and metabolism, point to the potential of using saliva in the study of obesity development.

  20. Radioprotective Effect of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Salivary Gland Dysfunction After Radioiodine Ablation in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Seok; An, Hye-Young; Park, In Suh; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Young-Mo; Lim, Jae-Yol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Radioiodine (RI) therapy is known to subject cellular components of salivary glands (SG) to oxidative stress leading to SG dysfunction. However, the protective effects of antioxidants on RI-induced SG damage have not been well investigated. The authors investigated the morphometric and functional effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) administered prior to RI therapy and compared this with the effects of amifostine (a well-known antioxidant) in a murine model of RI sialadenitis. Methods. Four-week-old female C57BL/6 mice (n=48) were divided into four groups; a normal control group, a RI-treated group (0.01 mCi/g mouse, orally), an EGCG and RI-treated group, and an amifostine and RI-treated group. Animals in these groups were divided into 3 subgroups and euthanized at 15, 30, and 90 days post-RI treatment. Salivary flow rates and lag times were measured, and morphologic and histologic examinations and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUDP nick end labeling) assays were performed. Changes in salivary 99mTc pertechnetate uptake and excretion were followed by single-photon emission computed tomography. Results. Salivary flow rates and lag times to salivation in the EGCG or amifostine groups were better than in the RI-treated group. Histologic examinations of SGs in the EGCG or amifostine group showed more mucin-rich parenchyma and less periductal fibrosis than in the RI-treated group. Fewer apoptotic cells were observed in acini, ducts, and among endothelial cells in the EGCG or amifostine group than in the RI group. In addition, patterns of 99mTc pertechnetate excretion were quite different in the EGCG or amifostine group than in the RI group. Conclusion. EGCG supplementation before RI therapy could protect from RI-induced SG damage in a manner comparable to amifostine, and thus, offers a possible means of preventing SG damage by RI. PMID:27136365

  1. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  2. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  3. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  4. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  10. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  11. Short- and long-term effects of tactile massage on salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: a randomised controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with limited knowledge about the normal function and effects of non-pharmacological therapies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the study was to analyse the basal diurnal and total secretion of salivary cortisol in short- and long-term aspects of tactile massage (TM). Methods Design: Prospective, Controlled and Randomised Multicentre Trial. Setting and interventions: Forty-five women and men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. Twenty-nine of them were blindly randomised to tactile massage (TM) and 16 of them to the control group, rest to music (RTM). Ten interventions were given during 8 weeks followed by a 26 weeks of follow up. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, 8 pm, and 8 am the next day, on five occasions. With the first and eighth interventions, it was collected immediately before and after intervention. Main outcome measures: The primary aim was to assess and compare cortisol concentrations before and immediately after intervention and also during the follow-up period. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration and severity of PD, effects of interventional time-point of the day, and levodopa doses on cortisol concentration. Results The median cortisol concentrations for all participants were 16.0, 5.8, 2.8, and 14.0 nmol/L at baseline, later reproduced four times without significant differences. Cortisol concentrations decreased significantly after TM intervention but no change in diurnal salivary cortisol pattern was found. The findings of reduced salivary cortisol concentrations immediately after the interventions are in agreement with previous studies. However, there was no significant difference between the TM and control groups. There were no significant correlations between cortisol concentrations and age, gender, BMI, time-point for intervention, time interval between anti

  12. The CIRCORT database: Reference ranges and seasonal changes in diurnal salivary cortisol derived from a meta-dataset comprised of 15 field studies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert; Stalder, Tobias; Jarczok, Marc; Almeida, David M.; Badrick, Ellena; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Coe, Christopher L.; Dekker, Marieke C. J.; Donzella, Bonny; Fischer, Joachim E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Kumari, Meena; Lederbogen, Florian; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Power, Christine; Rosmalen, Judith G.; Ryff, Carol D.; Subramanian, S V; Tiemeier, Henning; Watamura, Sarah E.; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal salivary cortisol profiles are valuable indicators of adrenocortical functioning in epidemiological research and clinical practice. However, normative reference values derived from a large number of participants and across a wide age range are still missing. To fill this gap, data were compiled from 15 independently conducted field studies with a total of 104,623 salivary cortisol samples obtained from 18,698 unselected individuals (mean age: 48.3 years, age range: 0.5 to 98.5 years, 39% females). Besides providing a descriptive analysis of the complete dataset, we also performed mixed-effects growth curve modeling of diurnal salivary cortisol (i.e., 1 to 16 hours after awakening). Cortisol decreased significantly across the day and was influenced by both, age and sex. Intriguingly, we also found a pronounced impact of sampling season with elevated diurnal cortisol in spring and decreased levels in autumn. However, the majority of variance was accounted for by between-participant and between-study variance components. Based on these analyses, reference ranges (LC/MS-MS calibrated) for cortisol concentrations in saliva were derived for different times across the day, with more specific reference ranges generated for males and females in different age categories. This integrative summary provides important reference values on salivary cortisol to aid basic scientists and clinicians in interpreting deviations from the normal diurnal cycle. PMID:27448524

  13. RNA Interference of the Salivary Gland Nitrophorin 2 in the Triatomine Bug Rhodnius Prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) by dsRNA Ingestion or Injection

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, R.N.; Santos, A.; Pinto, F.S.; Gontijo, N.F.; Lehane, M.J.; Pereira, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Mass sequencing of cDNA libraries from salivary glands of triatomines has resulted in the identification of many novel genes of unknown function. The aim of the present work was to develop a functional RNA interference (RNAi) technique for Rhodnius prolixus, which could be widely used for functional genomics studies in triatomine bugs. To this end, we investigated whether double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can inhibit gene expression of R. prolixus salivary nitrophorin 2 (NP2) and what impact this might have on anticoagulant and apyrase activity in the saliva. dsRNA was introduced by two injections or by ingestion. RT-PCR of the salivary glands showed that injections of 15 μg of NP2 dsRNA in fourth-instar nymphs reduced gene expression by 75±14% and that feeding 1 μg/μL of NP2 dsRNA into second-instar nymphs (approx. 13 μg in total) reduced gene expression by 42±10%. Phenotype analysis showed that saliva of normal bugs prolonged plasma coagulation by about four-fold when compared to saliva of knockdown bugs. These results and the light color of the salivary gland content from some insects are consistent with the knockdown findings. The findings suggest that RNAi will prove a highly valuable functional genomics technique in triatomine bugs. The finding that feeding dsRNA can induce knockdown is novel for insects. PMID:16935217

  14. Sialadenosis of the major salivary glands in a patient with central diabetes insipidus--implications of aquaporin water channels in the pathomechanism of sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Mandic, R; Teymoortash, A; Kann, P H; Werner, J A

    2005-04-01

    Sialadenosis, also referred to as sialosis, is a disease of unknown aetiology. It regularly manifests itself as a massive swelling in both parotid regions involving the major salivary glands, preferably the parotid glands and is characterized by lack of any detectable, underlying pathologies. In this case report we describe a 24-year-old white female patient with diabetes insipidus who developed sialadenosis of the major salivary glands during a period of enhanced water requirement, which the patient tried to compensate for by more frequent nasal ADH application. Since ADH acts on aquaporins (AQPs) in the kidney, we were interested if AQP expression in the patients salivary glands was affected. Surprisingly, compared to normal control tissues we observed an extensively high signal for AQP5, which is the dominant AQP found in salivary acinar cells. Interestingly, previous studies on AQP5 knock out mice found AQP5 to be required for cell volume regulation. We therefore suggest that aquaporin water channels and antidiuretic hormone together with a disturbance in the body's water household are potential key-factors in the pathophysiological events leading to the development of the disease entity called sialadenosis.

  15. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Gland in a 14 year Old Child.

    PubMed

    Pramod Krishna, B

    2013-06-01

    Salivary gland tumours are rare in childhood, and almost all of them occur in parotid gland. Minor salivary gland tumours are even rarer, pleomorphic adenoma being the most frequently found tumour. Only seventeen cases of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland tumour have been reported in children and adolescents. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland represents about 45% of all the tumours of the minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma is slowly enlarging tumour indistinguishable from adenoid cystic carcinoma clinically, except for pain and ulceration, which is more common in the latter. Carcinoma arising from pleomorphic adenoma has been reported in 3% cases amongst the minor salivary gland tumours. This report presents a case of pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland in a 14 year old female patient with a brief review of literature.

  16. [Effect of dietary VE on the contents of salivary acid and MDA in RBC membrane].

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Dong, Z; Zhang, Y; Chen, Y

    1997-05-01

    Vitamin E can protect membrane from the damage of lipid peroxidation, Salivary acid is the residual of carbohydrate on the membrane. To evaluate the effect of dietary VE on salivary acid, the contents of MDA and salivary acid of erythrocyte (RBC) membrane of rats were measured. The rats were fed with different amounts of dietary VE and stayed at different temperatures. The results revealed that the content of salivary acid of RBC membrane reduced markly (P < 0.01) and the content of MDA of RBC membrane was stable (P > 0.05) after the rats were exposed to cold for 10 days. High dietary VE intake increased the content of salivary acid of RBC membrane (P < 0.01). There was no correlation between the content of salivary acid and MDA of RBC membrane. It suggested that dietary VE could raise the content of salivary acid in RBC membrane, but it can not be explained by the reduction of LPO.

  17. The Salivary Microbiome and Oral Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Furquim, C P; Soares, G M S; Ribeiro, L L; Azcarate-Peril, M A; Butz, N; Roach, J; Moss, K; Bonfim, C; Torres-Pereira, C C; Teles, F R F

    2017-03-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by chromosomal instability and impaired DNA damage repair. FA patients develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) earlier and more frequently than the general population, especially after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although evidence of an etiological role of the local microbiome and carcinogenesis has been mounting, no information exists regarding the oral microbiome of FA patients. The aim of this study was to explore the salivary microbiome of 61 FA patients regarding their oral health status and OSCC risk factors. After answering a questionnaire and receiving clinical examination, saliva samples were collected and analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region. The microbial profiles associated with medical and clinical parameters were analyzed using general linear models. Patients were young (mean age, 22 y) and most had received HSCT ( n = 53). The most abundant phyla were Firmicutes [mean relative abundance (SD), 42.1% (10.1%)] and Bacteroidetes [(25.4% (11.4%)]. A history of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) ( n = 27) was associated with higher proportions of Firmicutes (43.8% × 38.5%, P = 0.05). High levels of gingival bleeding were associated with the genera Prevotella (22.25% × 20%), Streptococcus (19.83% × 17.61%), Porphyromonas (3.63% × 1.42%, P = 0.03), Treponema (1.02% × 0.28%, P = 0.009), Parvimonas (0.28% × 0.07%, P = 0.02) and Dialister (0.27% × 0.10%, P = 0.04). Finally, participants transplanted over 11 y ago showed the highest levels of Streptococcus (18.4%), Haemophilus (12.7%) and Neisseria (6.8%). In conclusion, FA patients that showed poor oral hygiene harbored higher proportions of the genera of bacteria compatible with gingival disease. Specific microbial differences were associated with a history of oral GVHD and a history of oral mucositis.

  18. Collection of salivary proteins of psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phloem-feeding insects discharge into the phloem of host plants copious amounts of enzymatically active saliva which prevents phloem occlusion and suppresses plant defenses. Although previous reports have documented the composition and roles of salivary proteins from aphids, there are no published ...

  19. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Kirkby, Nikolai; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce J.; Bardow, Allan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from 85 individuals with low levels of caries experience (healthy group) and 79 individuals with high levels of caries experience (caries group) were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbiome Identification Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique. Subsequently, saliva samples from caries-free individuals in the healthy group (n = 57) and the caries group (n = 31) were compared. A significantly higher α-diversity (p < 0.0001) and a twofold higher relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Fusobacterium were recorded in saliva samples from the healthy group compared with the caries group. Differences observed were more pronounced when limiting the analyses to caries-free individuals in each group. Data from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that low levels of caries experience might associate with a characteristic salivary bacterial composition different from that in individuals with high caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level. PMID:28326153

  20. Insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome of Dipetalogaster maxima.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Teresa C F; Charneau, Sébastien; Santiago, Paula B M; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Meng, Zhaojing; Araújo, Carla N; Pham, Van M; Queiroz, Rayner M L; de Castro, Cleudson Nery; Ricart, Carlos André; Santana, Jaime M; Ribeiro, José M C

    2011-02-04

    Dipetalogaster maxima is a blood-sucking Hemiptera that inhabits sylvatic areas in Mexico. It usually takes its blood meal from lizards, but following human population growth, it invaded suburban areas, feeding also on humans and domestic animals. Hematophagous insect salivary glands produce potent pharmacologic compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anticlotting, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory molecules. To obtain further insight into the salivary biochemical and pharmacologic complexity of this insect, a cDNA library from its salivary glands was randomly sequenced. Salivary proteins were also submitted to one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE) followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We present the analysis of a set of 2728 cDNA sequences, 1375 of which coded for proteins of a putative secretory nature. The saliva 2DE proteome displayed approximately 150 spots. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed mainly lipocalins, pallidipins, antigen 5-like proteins, and apyrases. The redundancy of sequence identification of saliva-secreted proteins suggests that proteins are present in multiple isoforms or derive from gene duplications.

  1. Does diet influence salivary enzyme activities in elephant species?

    PubMed

    Boehlke, Carolin; Pötschke, Sandra; Behringer, Verena; Hannig, Christian; Zierau, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are herbivore generalists; however, Asian elephants might ingest a higher proportion of grasses than Africans. Although some studies have investigated nutrition-specific morphological adaptations of the two species, broader studies on salivary enzymes in both elephant species are lacking. This study focuses on the comparison of salivary enzymes activity profiles in the two elephant species; these enzymes are relevant for protective and digestive functions in humans. We aimed to determine whether salivary amylase (sAA), lysozyme (sLYS), and peroxidase (sPOD) activities have changed in a species-specific pattern during evolutionary separation of the elephant genera. Saliva samples of 14 Asian and eight African elephants were collected in three German zoos. Results show that sAA and sLYS are salivary components of both elephant species in an active conformation. In contrast, little to no sPOD activity was determined in any elephant sample. Furthermore, sAA activity was significantly higher in Asian compared with African elephants. sLYS and sPOD showed no species-specific differences. The time of food provision until sample collection affected only sAA activity. In summary, the results suggest several possible factors modulating the activity of the mammal-typical enzymes, such as sAA, sLYS, and sPOD, e.g., nutrition and sampling procedure, which have to be considered when analyzing differences in saliva composition of animal species.

  2. Salivary biomarkers in the diagnosis of breast cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Porto-Mascarenhas, Elisa Cançado; Assad, Daniele Xavier; Chardin, Hélène; Gozal, David; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2017-02-01

    Salivary biomarkers could be helpful to characterize breast cancer. Therefore, this review was performed to evaluate the capability of salivary biological markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they assessed the potential diagnostic value or other discriminatory properties of biological markers in saliva of patients with breast cancer. The search was performed in six electronic databases (Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science). In addition the biomarkers were classified according to their potential clinical application. We identified 567 pertinent studies, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria. Combined biomarker approaches demonstrated better ability to predict breast cancer patients than individual biomarkers. As single biomarker, namely proline, reported great capacity in both early and late stage breast cancer diagnosis. Taurine showed interesting capability to identify early breast cancer individuals. Furthermore, valine also demonstrated excellent diagnostic test accuracy for advanced stages of breast cancer. Only seven studies reported sensitivity and specificity (Zhang et al., 2010; Streckfus et al., 2000a; Brooks et al., 2008; Cheng et al., 2015; Bigler et al., 2002; Zhong et al., 2016; Streckfus, 2009), which varied considerably from 50% to 100%, and from 51% to 97%, respectively. In general, salivary biomarkers identified advanced stages of breast cancer better than early stages. There is currently limited evidence to confirm the putative implementation of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools for breast cancer. However, current review provides new research directions.

  3. Effect of Caffeinated Soft Drinks on Salivary Flow

    PubMed Central

    Tantbirojn, Daranee; Augustson, David G.; Guo, Hongfei

    2013-01-01

    Background Soft drinks containing caffeine have been associated with more aggressive forms of dental decay. Cariogenicity of caffeinated soft drinks may be attributed to the effect of caffeine on salivary flow. This study assessed whether caffeinated soft drinks produced short-term oral dryness in healthy adults. Methods The authors collected saliva on two separate days from 35 participants before and one hour after drinking a soft drink. On one of the days the soft drink was caffeinated and on the other day it was not. Saliva collection involved 15 minutes unstimulated whole saliva, 5 minutes paraffin-stimulated whole saliva, and 10 seconds labial minor salivary gland output. Results Unstimulated and stimulated flow rates slightly increased and minor gland output slightly decreased one hour after the soft drink consumption regardless of caffeine content. These changes were not statistically significant (two-period two-treatment crossover trial using two-stage Grizzle model, p>0.05). A linear mixed model statistic did not show the caffeine effect on salivary flow rate. Conclusions Caffeinated soft drink consumption had no significant effect on salivary flow rate after one hour by any of the three measures employed in this study. Caffeine's contribution to the cariogenicity of soft drinks is likely by centrally-mediated effects on consumption patterns. PMID:24761280

  4. Immunosensor with fluid control mechanism for salivary cortisol analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed a R(2)=0.98 and CV=14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1-10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 min and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R(2)=0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels.

  5. Insight into the Salivary Transcriptome and Proteome of Dipetalogaster maxima

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Charneau, Sébastien; Santiago, Paula B. M.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Meng, Zhaojing; Araújo, Carla N.; Pham, Van M.; Queiroz, Rayner M. L.; de Castro, Cleudson Nery; Ricart, Carlos André; Santana, Jaime M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Dipetalogaster maximais a blood-sucking Hemiptera that inhabits sylvatic areas in Mexico. It usually takes its blood meal from lizards, but following human population growth, it invaded suburban areas, feeding also on humans and domestic animals. Hematophagous insect salivary glands produce potent pharmacologic compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anticlotting, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory molecules. To obtain further insight into the salivary biochemical and pharmacologic complexity of this insect, a cDNA library from its salivary glands was randomly sequenced. Salivary proteins were also submitted to one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE) followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We present the analysis of a set of 2728 cDNA sequences, 1375 of which coded for proteins of a putative secretory nature. The saliva 2DE proteome displayed approximately 150 spots. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed mainly lipocalins, pallidipins, antigen 5-like proteins, and apyrases. The redundancy of sequence identification of saliva-secreted proteins suggests that proteins are present in multiple isoforms or derive from gene duplications. Supplemental files can be downloaded from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_maxima/Dm-S1-web.xls and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_maxima/Dm-S2-web.xls. PMID:21058630

  6. Rabies viral antigen in human tongues and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Feng, Z; Ye, H

    1995-10-01

    Lingual and major salivary tissue samples from three cases of rabies were stained with the immunoperoxidase (ABC) technique. All tissue blocks had been embedded in paraffin 4-10 years before. The first antibody used was monoclonal antirabies nucleocapsin (N) mouse antibody (HAM). Four out of five pieces of tongue from two cases showed a large amount of granular staining indicating rabies antigen (RVAg) inside serous glandular cells, terminal nerves, muscle cells and covering epithelial cells including taste cells. In the tissue probes from the third case only minimal granular staining was found, probably due to complete absence of the serous gland. In contrast to the tongue, only a little weakly reacting material was found in 4 out of 9 probes of salivary gland, either in acini or in nerve fibres. The amount of RVAg is evidently much greater in the human tongue than in major salivary glands, whereas major salivary glands from infected dogs, foxes and skunks reportedly contain much RVAg. As the human tongue's serous gland appears to be a preferred location for RVAg, it may be a source of oral infection.

  7. Evaluation of radioprotective effect of pilocarpine ingestion on salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Filho, Mário Márcio Vasconcelos Batista; Araújo, Mariângela; Gomes, Daliana Queiroga; DA Costa, Lino João

    2014-04-01

    There is controversy concerning the effect of pilocarpine in the reversal of radio-induced xerostomia; however, the tests are usually performed at the end of radiotherapy. The present study evaluated the radioprotective effects of pilocarpine when ingested during radiation treatment. Eleven patients (recently diagnosed with head and neck cancer who were not undergoing radiotherapy) were divided into two groups: the control group (saline solution intake n=6) and the pilocarpine-treated (5 mg pilocarpine three times daily, n=5) group, in a prospective and double-blinded study. For five weeks, oral conditions, unstimulated salivary flow and stimulated saliva flow were collected weekly, with the first collection occurring prior to radiation therapy. As early as the second week, the control group exhibited oral complications and greater reduction in salivary flow rate. At the end of the study, the pilocarpine-treated group presented mean values of salivary flow greater than those of the control group. Pilocarpine intake applied simultaneously with radiotherapy demonstrated encouraging results with regard to lowering salivary flow reduction and incidence of xerostomia, as well as of oral complications.

  8. Approaches to salivary cortisol collection and analysis in infants.

    PubMed

    Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota D; Letourneau, Nicole; Azar, Rima

    2014-10-01

    Salivary cortisol is becoming more commonly utilized as a biologic marker of stress in observational studies and intervention research. However, its use with infants (12 months of age or younger) is less widespread and poses some special challenges to researchers. In order to decide on the most suitable collection procedure for salivary cortisol in infants, a number of criteria should be considered. This article will aid investigators interested in integrating salivary cortisol measurement into their research studies by presenting (1) an overview of the patterns of cortisol secretion in infancy including the development of diurnal rhythm and response to stress; (2) a comparison of the most commonly used approaches for collecting salivary cortisol samples in infants including cotton rope, syringe aspiration technique, filter paper, hydrocellulose microsponge, and the Salimetrics children's swab; (3) a discussion of the factors contributing to heightened cortisol variability in infancy and how these can be limited; (4) analytical issues associated with cortisol measurement; and (5) examples of criteria to consider when choosing a saliva sampling method and lab for conducting assays.

  9. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  10. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K A Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39-4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51-4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94-6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T

  11. [Sialochemical studies of isolated secretions of the major salivary glands of the head].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Werner, E

    1994-09-01

    The sialochemical parameters total protein, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, amylase, sodium, potassium, calcium as well as flow rate were estimated in parotid saliva (PS) and submandibular saliva (SMS) in the course of differential diagnostics of salivary gland diseases. In addition to this the quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis based on 80 PS and 80 SMS normal secretions was performed. Sialochemistry was performed on parotid adenomas (29), carcinomas (9); sialadenosis (8); acute (8) and chronic (13) sialadenitis; dental caries (12 PS and 12 SMS); cystic fibrosis (21 PS and 12 SMS); diabetes mellitus (13 PS and 13 SMS); and hyperthyroilism (9 PS and 9 SMS). Our sialochemical analysis does not allow to distinguish between benign and malignant parotid neoplasms. The significant decrease of sodium in sialadenosis and increase of sodium and total protein in sialadenitis as well as interesting results in cystic fibrosis, diabetes mellitus and dental caries, are emphasised.

  12. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  13. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Malicka, Barbara; Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: type 1 diabetics (D1), type 2 diabetics (D2), and a healthy control group (C). Each group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects. Total protein (P, by Lowry method), LDH, AST, ALT (with Alpha Diagnostics kits), and salivary flow rate were measured in unstimulated mixed saliva. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured with DCA 2000 Reagent Kit. The obtained data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test and the Spearman rank at a significance level of P < 0.05 with the use of STATISTICA 9.0 software. In comparison with C, D1 presented a significantly higher activity of LDH (P < 0.001), AST (P < 0.001), and ALT (P < 0.01), whereas D2 indicated higher levels of LDH (P < 0.001) and ALT (P < 0.05) compared with C. Comparing D1 to D2, approximately 3-fold higher activity of AST (P < 0.01) and approximately 4.5-fold higher activity of ALT (P < 0.01) was observed. Higher levels of salivary LDH, AST, and ALT in D1 compared with D2 and C confirm that salivary glands of D1 might be attributed to autoimmunological damage associated with the pathomechanism of DM. PMID:27893660

  14. Tennis, incidence of URTI and salivary IgA.

    PubMed

    Novas, A M P; Rowbottom, D G; Jenkins, D G

    2003-04-01

    Tennis played at an elite level requires intensive training characterized by repeated bouts of brief intermittent high intensity exercise over relatively long periods of time (1 - 3 h or more). Competition can place additional stress on players. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal association between specific components of tennis training and competition, the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), and salivary IgA, in a cohort of seventeen elite female tennis players. Timed, whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after selected 1-h training sessions at 2 weekly intervals, over 12 weeks. Salivary IgA concentration was measured by ELISA and IgA secretion rate calculated (microg IgA x ml -1 x ml saliva x min -1). Players reported URTI symptoms and recorded training and competition in daily logs. Data analysis showed that higher incidence of URTI was significantly associated with increased training duration and load, and competition level, on a weekly basis. Salivary IgA secretion rate (S-IgA) dropped significantly after 1 hour of tennis play. Over the 12-week period, pre-exercise salivary IgA concentration and secretion rate were directly associated with the amount of training undertaken during the previous day and week (p < 0.05). However, the decline in S-IgA after 1 h of intense tennis play was also positively related to the duration and load of training undertaken during the previous day and week (p < 0.05). Although exercise-induced suppression of salivary IgA may be a risk factor, it could not accurately predict the occurrence of URTI in this cohort of athletes.

  15. Replication of Oral BK Virus in Human Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Madden, Victoria; Hallett, Ryan A.; Gingerich, Aaron D.; Nickeleit, Volker

    2014-01-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is the most common viral pathogen among allograft patients. Increasing evidence links BKPyV to the human oral compartment and to HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIVSGD). To date, few studies have analyzed orally derived BKPyV. This study aimed to characterize BKPyV isolated from throat wash (TW) samples from HIVSGD patients. The replication potential of HIVSGD-derived clinical isolates HIVSGD-1 and HIVSGD-2, both containing the noncoding control region (NCCR) architecture OPQPQQS, were assessed and compared to urine-derived virus. The BKPyV isolates displayed significant variation in replication potential. Whole-genome alignment of the two isolates revealed three nucleotide differences that were analyzed for a potential effect on the viral life cycle. Analysis revealed a negligible difference in NCCR promoter activity despite sequence variation and emphasized the importance of functional T antigen (Tag) for efficient replication. HIVSGD-1 encoded full-length Tag, underwent productive infection in both human salivary gland cells and kidney cells, and expressed viral DNA and Tag protein. Additionally, HIVSGD-1 generated DNase-resistant particles and by far surpassed the replication potential of the kidney-derived isolate in HSG cells. HIVSGD-2 encoded a truncated form of Tag and replicated much less efficiently. Quantitation of infectious virus, via the fluorescent forming unit assay, suggested that HIVSGD BKPyV had preferential tropism for salivary gland cells over kidney cells. Similarly, the results suggested that kidney-derived virus had preferential tropism for kidney cells over salivary gland cells. Evidence of HIVSGD-derived BKPyV oral tropism and adept viral replication in human salivary gland cells corroborated the potential link between HIVSGD pathogenesis and BKPyV. PMID:24173219

  16. Putative salivary allergens of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis.

    PubMed

    Lee, S E; Johnstone, I P; Lee, R P; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-08-02

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis, is the major initiator of flea bite hypersensitivity in dogs. Previous analyses of whole extracts of the flea and flea salivary secretions have failed to identify the allergens responsible. We dissected >2000 salivary glands from adult female fleas, extracted them into buffered saline containing protease inhibitors and fractionated the extract using gel permeation HPLC. Dogs were classified as hypersensitive to fleas (flea-feeding positive, FF+) or insensitive (flea-feeding negative, FF-) using a provocative test with live fleas. The allergenicity of the components of the salivary gland extract was tested by intradermal injection of samples of the column eluates. Dogs were also injected intradermally with a sample of whole salivary gland extract, and with histamine as a positive control. Negative control injections consisted of eluate from the column collected prior to fractions containing any protein. The skin of FF- dogs either did not respond or had a minimal response (a bleb approximately 2 mm larger than the injection blebs at the negative control injection sites) to all fractions and to the whole extract; histamine control injections produced positive responses (defined as wheals 5 mm greater than the blebs at the negative control injection sites) in all dogs. The skin of three of the nine FF+ dogs reacted positively to injection of a fraction containing protein/s with apparent MW 40k. Five other FF+ dogs reacted positively to the fractions containing proteins with apparent MW 12-8k. A single dog responded with very large, red wheals to injection of both the approximately MW 40k and MW12-8k fractions. These findings suggest that proteins with apparent MW 40k and MW 12k-8k are important in flea bite hypersensitivity. This work also supports a previous finding that mice which had been exposed to flea bites had antibodies to proteins with approximately MW 40k that were detected in salivary secretions of the flea.

  17. Normal conus medullaris: CT criteria for recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, J.P.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, I.L.; Rauschning, W.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-06-01

    The normal CT configuration and dimension of the conus medullaris and adjacent spinal cord were determined in 30 patients who had no clinical evidence of conus compression. CT studies were also correlated with anatomic sections in cadavers. The normal conus on CT has a distinctive oval configuration, an arterior sulcus, and a posterior promontory. The anteroposterior diameter ranged from 5 to 8 mm; the transverse diameter from 8 to 11 mm. Intramedullary processes altered both the dimensions and configuration of the conus.

  18. Mass spectrometry-based salivary proteomics for the discovery of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jarai, Tamas; Maasz, Gabor; Burian, Andras; Bona, Agnes; Jambor, Eva; Gerlinger, Imre; Mark, Laszlo

    2012-07-01

    The 5-year survival rates for cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are only some 60%, mainly because 20%-40% of the patients develop a local relapse in the same or an adjacent anatomic region, even when the surgical margins are histologically tumour-free. Tumours are often discovered in an advanced stage because of the lack of specific symptoms and the diagnostic difficulties. The more advanced the stage of the tumour, the more invasive the diagnostic and treatment interventions needed. An early molecular diagnosis is therefore of vital importance in order to increase the survival rate. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient rapid and sensitive mass spectrometric method for the detection of differentially expressed proteins as tumour-specific biomarkers in saliva from HNSCC patients. Whole saliva samples were collected from patients with HNSCC and from healthy subjects. The proteins were profiled by using SDS PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and the Mascot database search engine. Several potential tumour markers were identified, including annexin A1, beta- and gamma-actin, cytokeratin 4 and 13, zinc finger proteins and P53 pathway proteins. All of these proteins play a proven role in tumour genesis, and have not been detected previously in saliva. Salivary proteomics is a non-invasive specific method for cancer diagnosis and follow-up treatment. It provides facilities for the readily reproducible and reliable detection of tumours in early stages.

  19. Altered expression of apoptosis-regulating miRNAs in salivary gland tumors suggests their involvement in salivary gland tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Flores, Bianca de Cássia Troncarelli de Campos Parra; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Damascena, Aline Santos; Kowaslki, Luiz Paulo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Coutinho-Camillo, Cláudia Malheiros

    2017-03-01

    Salivary gland tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions with different histological features and diverse clinical pathophysiology. They account for about 3% of all head and neck tumors. Apoptosis plays an important role during morphogenesis of glandular structures, including that of the salivary gland. Recent studies have demonstrated that several microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the control of apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of apoptosis-related miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-29, and miR-34) and their target mRNAs in 25 pleomorphic adenomas, 23 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 10 non-neoplastic salivary gland samples by real-time RT-PCR. We observed upregulation of miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29, and miR-34a in pleomorphic adenomas. The expression of miR-21 and miR-34a was upregulated in 91 and 74% of mucoepidermoid carcinomas, respectively. Downregulation of miR-20a was observed in 75% of pleomorphic adenomas and in 57% of mucoepidermoid carcinomas. APAF1, BAX, BCL2, BID, CASP2, CASP8, DIABLO , and TP53 transcripts were upregulated in both tumor types. BAD transcripts were upregulated in pleomorphic adenomas. CASP3 and CASP6 transcripts were upregulated in mucoepidermoid carcinomas. BCL2, CASP2, CASP6, and CASP8 proteins were mostly absent in mucoepidermoid carcinomas but expressed in few cells in pleomorphic adenomas. Our study provides evidence of alterations in the expression of apoptosis-regulating miRNAs in salivary gland tumors, suggesting possible involvement of these microRNAs in salivary gland tumorigenesis.

  20. senseless is necessary for the survival of embryonic salivary glands in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beckendorf, Steven K

    2003-10-01

    Apoptosis in developing Drosophila embryos is rare and confined to specific groups of cells. We explain how one organ, salivary glands, of Drosophila embryos avoids apoptosis. senseless (sens), a Zn-finger transcription factor, is expressed in the salivary primordium and later in the differentiated salivary glands. The regulation of sens expression in the salivary placodes is more complex than observed in the embryonic PNS. We have shown that sens expression is initiated in the salivary placodes by fork head (fkh), a winged helix transcription factor. The expression of sens is maintained in the salivary glands by fkh and by daughterless (da), a bHLH family member. In this study, we have identified sage, a salivary-specific bHLH protein as a new heterodimeric partner for da protein in the salivary glands. In addition, our data suggest that sage RNAi embryos have a phenotype similar to sens and that sage is necessary to maintain expression of sens in the embryonic salivary glands. Furthermore, we show that in the salivary glands, sens acts as an anti-apoptotic protein by repressing reaper and possibly hid.

  1. Salivary Stress-Related Responses in Tinnitus: A Preliminary Study in Young Male Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Alsalman, Ola A.; Tucker, Denise; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This preliminary study examined if baseline measures of stress-related biomarkers as measured by salivary secretions of specific autonomic [measured by salivary α-amylase (sAA)], endocrine (measured by salivary cortisol), and immune (measured by salivary neopterin) responses are greater in male subjects with tinnitus in response to an induced-stress task. Method: Twenty male subjects with no significant hearing loss, 10 with tinnitus, and 10 without tinnitus were enrolled in this study.Salivary secretions were collected before and after the induced stress task at four different time intervals. Results: sAA levels were lower in the tinnitus group in comparison to subjects without tinnitus, suggesting impaired sympathetic activity in the subjects with tinnitus although these levels remained stable throughout the stress experiment.While no significant effects could be obtained for salivary cortisol or neopterin, salivary neopterin levels were trending toward significance over all measurements. Behavioral measures of stress were found to correlate negatively with measures of sAA and salivary neopterin. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest impaired stress-related sAA mechanisms in male subjects with tinnitus, as evidenced by the different stress reactions induced in the endocrine system (as measured by salivary cortisol) and the immune system (as measured by salivary neopterin). PMID:27489534

  2. Orchestration of salivary secretion mediated by two different dopamine receptors in the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghun; Šimo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    Salivary secretion is crucial for successful tick feeding, and it is the mediator of pathogen transmission. Salivation functions to inhibit various components of the host immune system and remove excess water and ions during the ingestion of large blood meals. Control of salivary glands involves autocrine/paracrine dopamine, which is the most potent inducer of tick salivation. Previously, we reported the presence of two dopamine receptors in the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis): dopamine receptor (D1) and invertebrate specific D1-like dopamine receptor (InvD1L). Here, we investigated the different physiological roles of the dopamine receptors in tick salivary glands by using pharmacological tools that discriminate between the two distinct receptors. Heterologous expressions followed by reporter assays of the dopamine receptors identified receptor-specific antagonists and agonists. These pharmacological tools were further used to discriminate the physiological role of each receptor by using in vitro assays: measuring salivary secretions of isolated salivary glands and monitoring dynamic changes in the size of individual salivary gland acini. We propose that the D1 receptor acts on salivary gland acini epithelial cells for inward fluid transport. InvD1L controls (or modulates) each acinus for expelling saliva from the acini to the salivary ducts, presumably through the actions of myoepithelial cells and valves for pumping/gating. We conclude that dopamine acts on the D1 and the InvD1L receptors and leads different physiological actions to orchestrate tick salivary secretion. PMID:25320269

  3. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 06: The influence of regional dose sensitivity on salivary loss and recovery in the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, H; Thomas, S; Moiseenko, V; Hovan, A; Wu, J

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC 2010) survey of radiation dose-volume effects on salivary gland function has called for improved understanding of intragland dose sensitivity and the effectiveness of partial sparing in salivary glands. Regional dose susceptibility of sagittally- and coronally-sub-segmented parotid gland has been studied. Specifically, we examine whether individual consideration of sub-segments leads to improved prediction of xerostomia compared with whole parotid mean dose. Methods: Data from 102 patients treated for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency were used in this study. Whole mouth stimulated saliva was collected before (baseline), three months, and one year after cessation of radiotherapy. Organ volumes were contoured using treatment planning CT images and sub-segmented into regional portions. Both non-parametric (local regression) and parametric (mean dose exponential fitting) methods were employed. A bootstrap technique was used for reliability estimation and cross-comparison. Results: Salivary loss is described well using non-parametric and mean dose models. Parametric fits suggest a significant distinction in dose response between medial-lateral and anterior-posterior aspects of the parotid (p<0.01). Least-squares and least-median squares estimates differ significantly (p<0.00001), indicating fits may be skewed by noise or outliers. Salivary recovery exhibits a weakly arched dose response: the highest recovery is seen at intermediate doses. Conclusions: Salivary function loss is strongly dose dependent. In contrast no useful dose dependence was observed for function recovery. Regional dose dependence was observed, but may have resulted from a bias in dose distributions.

  4. [Study of free-radical processes and antioxidant defense parameters during hirudotherapy of patients with diseases of salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Abal'masov, D V; Pozharitskaia, M M; Starosel'tseva, L K; Afanas'ev, V V

    2004-01-01

    Hirudotherapy was used in the treatment of 39 patients (10 male and 29 female) aged 28-58 years with chronic sialadenitis and sialadenosis. Control group consisted of 15 normal subjects without diseases of salivary glands. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant defense (AOD) parameters were under study. Hirudotherapy led to improvement of the clinical status in the majority of patients with sialadenosis; the content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) normalized and ceruloplasmin (CP) level increased. The status of patients with sialadenitis also improved; catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels normalized and SOD and CP levels increased. The best therapeutic effect was attained in patients with sialadenitis. No appreciable improvement was observed in patients with chronic parenchymatous parotitis in the presence of Sjogren's syndrome.

  5. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J H; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P

    2016-03-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) stem/progenitor cells and demonstrate at the single cell level in vitro self-renewal and differentiation into multilineage organoids. We also show in vivo functionality, long-term engraftment, and functional restoration in a xenotransplantation model. Indeed, transplanted human salisphere-derived cells restored saliva production and greatly improved the regenerative potential of irradiated SGs. Further selection for c-Kit expression enriched for cells with enhanced regenerative potencies. Interestingly, interaction of transplanted cells with the recipient SG may also be involved in functional recovery. Thus, we show for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia.

  6. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Panis, C.; Victorino, V. J.; Herrera, A. C. S. A.; Cecchini, A. L.; Simão, A. N. C.; Tomita, L. Y.; Cecchini, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  7. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide.

  8. Bone marrow cells are a source of undifferentiated cells to prevent Sjögren’s syndrome and to preserve salivary glands function in the non-obese diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Saeed; Liu, Younan; Sumita, Yoshinori; Maria, Ola M.; Blank, David; Key, Sharon; Mezey, Eva; Tran, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop Sjögren’s-like syndrome (Ss) and a gradual loss of saliva secretory function. Our previous study showed that injections of matched normal spleen cells with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) reversed salivary gland dysfunction in 14-week-old NOD mice, which had established Ss. The spleen and bone marrow are closely related organs, and both are among the first sites of hematopoiesis during gestation. Noticing a rapidly increasing number of clinical trials using bone marrow (BM) cells treatments for autoimmune diseases, we tested if BM cells can prevent Ss and restore salivary glands’ function. We injected CFA and MHC class I-matched normal BM cells in 7-week-old NOD mice, which had not yet developed Ss. We found at week 52 post-treatment that all NOD mice receiving BM cells and CFA had a recovery of salivary flow and were protected from Ss and diabetes. BM cells-treated mice had their salivary function restored quantitatively and qualitatively. Saliva flow was higher (p < 0.05) in BM cells-transplanted mice when compared to control mice, which continued to deteriorate over time. Total proteins, epidermal growth factor, amylase, and electrolytes concentrations in saliva of BM cells-treated mice were not significantly changed at week 44 and 52 post-therapy when compared to pre-therapy (when the mice did not have Ss). Restoration of salivary flow could have resulted from a combination of rescue and paracrine effects from BM cells. This study suggests that a combined immuno- and cell-based therapy can permanently prevent Ss and restored salivary function in NOD mice. PMID:20732442

  9. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association.

  10. Effect of chronic training on heart rate variability, salivary IgA and salivary alpha-amylase in elite swimmers with a disability.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Rohan; Burkett, Brendan; Leicht, Anthony; McKean, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to a) determine the heart rate variability (HRV) and saliva markers of immunity (salivary immunoglobulin A; sIgA) and stress (salivary alpha-amylase; sAA) responses to chronic training in elite swimmers with a disability; and b) identify the relationships between HRV, sIgA, sAA and training volume. Eight members of a high performance Paralympic swimming program were monitored for their weekly resting HRV, sIgA and sAA levels in the 14 weeks leading up to a major international competition. The 14 week training program included aerobic, anaerobic, power and speed, and taper training phases, while also incorporating two swimming step tests and two swimming competitions. Specific time (root mean square of the successive differences; RMSSD) and frequency (high frequency normalized units [HFnu]) domain measures, along with non-linear indices (standard deviation of instantaneous RR variability; SD1 and short term fractal scaling exponent; α1) of HRV were used for all analyses with effects examined using magnitude-based inferences. Relationships between HRV and saliva markers were identified by Spearman rank rho (ρ) correlation coefficients. Compared with week 1, SD1 was very likely lower (96/4/0, ES = -2.21), while sAA was very likely elevated (100/0/0, ES = 2.32) at the beginning of week 7 for all athletes. The training program did not alter HRV or saliva whereas competition did. There were also no apparent differences observed for HRV, sIgA and sAA between each of the training phases during the 14 week swimming program. Correlations were observed between sAA and SD1 (ρ = -0.212, p<0.05), along with sAA and mean HR (ρ = 0.309, p<0.05). These results show that high level national competition influences depresses HRV (SD1) and increases saliva biomarkers of stress (sAA). It appears that a well-managed and periodised swimming program can maintain these indices within normal baseline levels. The study also highlighted the parasympathetic

  11. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory.

  12. Primary Salivary Gland Type Tumors of the Thymus.

    PubMed

    Kalhor, Neda; Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2017-01-01

    The existence of primary salivary gland type tumors (SGTs), similar to those occurring in the major salivary glands, is well known in the thoracic cavity. When they occur in this anatomic area, these tumors more commonly arise from the lung. However, the existence of these tumors primarily affecting the thymus, although recognized in the literature, is rather not well documented or known. In addition, contrary to the primary lung SGTs, which are predominantly of the malignant type, these tumors when occur in thymus encompass a wider spectrum of biology ranging from benign to low grade, and high grade malignancy. The recognition of SGTs in the thymus, even though rare, is important to properly address treatment and prognosis. Herein, we will discuss the numerous benign a malignant SGTs that have been described in the thymus and highlight the difficulty that these tumors may pose when occurring in the thymic area.

  13. Transepithelial ion transport across duct cells of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Ohana, E

    2015-10-01

    Fluid and electrolyte secretions are vital for all epithelia and when aberrant lead to numerous pathophysiological conditions. Electrolyte transport across epithelia generates the osmotic force for fluid movement and is mediated by several membrane proteins expressed on both apical and basolateral poles of epithelial cells. Sodium and chloride are crucial for regulation of fluid secretion, thus regulating salivary volume. Bicarbonate (HCO3-), on the other hand, is the major pH buffer; hence, aberrant HCO3- secretion is a major factor in diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) causing altered mucin hydration and solubilization. Here, the structure-function mechanisms of the major membrane transporters involved in salivary duct electrolyte transport are reviewed focusing on transepithelial movement of Cl(-) and HCO3-.

  14. Relationship between Salivary Oxytocin Levels and Generosity in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takayuki; Schug, Joanna; Nishina, Kuniyuki; Takahashi, Taiki; Okada, Hiroyuki; Takagishi, Haruto

    2016-12-08

    This study examined the association between salivary oxytocin (sOT) levels and generosity in preschoolers. Fifty preschoolers played two dictator games (DG) by deciding how to allocate 10 chocolates between themselves and another child, who was either from the same class as the participant (ingroup member), or an unknown child from another class (outgroup member). sOT levels were assessed in saliva collected from the children immediately prior to the DG tasks. While sOT levels were negatively associated with allocations made to both ingroup and outgroup members by boys, among girl sOT levels were positively related to allocations made to ingroup members, and unrelated to allocations made to outgroup members. These results suggest sex differences in the association between salivary oxytocin and generosity.

  15. The morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of Zoraptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Mashimo, Y; Machida, R; Beutel, R G

    2017-03-02

    The salivary glands of two species of Zoraptera, Zorotypus caudelli and Zorotypus hubbardi, were examined and documented mainly using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained for males and females of the two species are compared and functional aspects related to ultrastructural features are discussed. The salivary glands are divided into two regions: the secretory cell region and the long efferent duct, the latter with its distal end opening in the salivarium below the hypopharyngeal base. The secretory region consists of a complex of secretory cells provided with microvillated cavities connected by short ectodermal ducts to large ones, which are connected with the long efferent duct. The secretory cell cytoplasm contains a large system of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus producing numerous dense secretions. The cells of the efferent duct, characterized by reduced cytoplasm and the presence of long membrane infoldings associated with mitochondria, are possibly involved in fluid uptaking from the duct lumen.

  16. Histology and mucosubstance histochemistry of mongoose salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Poddar, S; Jacob, S

    1978-01-01

    The histology and mucosubstance histochemistry of the mongoose salivary glands were studied. Histologically, the mongoose salivary glands were generally similar to those in other carnivores (dog, cat and ferret). The mucosubstance histochemistry demonstrated considerable variations in the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands in comparison to the other carnivores. The partoid gland contained carboxylated mucin which was sialidase-resistant. Granules in a few cells also contained sulphated mucin. Both submandibular and sublingual glands contained mainly carboxylated sialomucin which was sialidase-labile except in a few cell, some neutral mucin but no sulphated mucin. The molar and zygomatic glands were similar to those in the other carnivores. They contained both sulphated and carboxylated mucins but no neutral mucin. The carboxylated mucin was sialidase-resistant.

  17. The salivary gland chromosomes of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis pseudopunctipennis*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard H.; Kitzmiller, J. B.; Chowdaiah, B. N.

    1965-01-01

    The authors present a salivary chromosome map of Anopheles p. pseudopunctipennis, an important malaria vector in the Americas. The salivary chromosomes appear as a short metacentric X and two metacentric autosomes. The arms of chromosome 2 are of almost equal length, but the right arm of chromosome 3 is almost twice as long as the left. The metacentric X is the first to be described in the subgenus Anopheles. The banding patterns of the autosomes show many similarities to those of the North American maculipennis complex and to those of the Central American A. vestitipennis and A. neomaculipalpus. Three chromosomal aberrations, one in the X and two in the right arm of chromosome 3, occur commonly in several different populations. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:5295407

  18. Maternal trait anxiety, emotional distress, and salivary cortisol in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Michael; Bolten, Margarete; Pirke, Karl-Martin; Hellhammer, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Animal models suggest that stress-induced hormonal changes in the mother during pregnancy lead to enduring changes in the fetus and empirical links between prenatal maternal stress and negative child development have been discerned repeatedly in human studies. But the role of heritable personality traits has received little attention in the latter work. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between maternal personality, psychological measures of maternal distress and maternal salivary cortisol during pregnancy. Maternal reports of personality (16 PF) and stress-related psychological measures (depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived stress, negative life events) as well as salivary cortisol samples of 66 healthy pregnant women were collected in early and late pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety proved related to all stress-related psychological measures and high anxiety predicted low baseline cortisol awakening levels in early pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety is related to both psychological and biological stress measures during pregnancy.

  19. Relationship between Salivary Oxytocin Levels and Generosity in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takayuki; Schug, Joanna; Nishina, Kuniyuki; Takahashi, Taiki; Okada, Hiroyuki; Takagishi, Haruto

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between salivary oxytocin (sOT) levels and generosity in preschoolers. Fifty preschoolers played two dictator games (DG) by deciding how to allocate 10 chocolates between themselves and another child, who was either from the same class as the participant (ingroup member), or an unknown child from another class (outgroup member). sOT levels were assessed in saliva collected from the children immediately prior to the DG tasks. While sOT levels were negatively associated with allocations made to both ingroup and outgroup members by boys, among girl sOT levels were positively related to allocations made to ingroup members, and unrelated to allocations made to outgroup members. These results suggest sex differences in the association between salivary oxytocin and generosity. PMID:27929138

  20. Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary α- Amylase Levels Authors Brandon L. Mulrine Michael F. Sheehan Lolita M. Burrell Michael...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha Amylase Levels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...stress-related conditions. The findings suggest that measuring salivary α- amylase levels may help to determine a Soldier’s resilience or risk of

  1. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for salivary calculi in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, F; Marchisio, P; Arisi, E; Capaccio, P

    2001-10-01

    Salivary gland lithiasis is uncommon in pediatric patients. Color Doppler ultrasonography (US) enables an accurate diagnosis of lithiasis to be made without exposure to the radiation of traditional imaging techniques. The development of minimally invasive techniques in the ENT field has made salivary lithotripsy a feasible alternative to traditional invasive surgery. The safety and efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy for salivary calculi were evaluated in pediatric patients. Seven children (5 males; age 4-15 years) with single calculi (mean diameter 4.4 mm) of the submandibular (n = 4) and parotid glands (n = 3) underwent extracorporeal electromagnetic shock wave lithotripsy (EESWL). In four cases the stone was intraductal (two submandibular and two parotideal) and in the remaining three cases it was intraparenchymal (two submandibular and one parotideal). In one case sedative anesthesia was performed. The mean number of therapeutic sessions was five. Patients were followed up clinically and with US for 6-72 months (mean 32 months). Complete disintegration of the calculi was achieved in five cases while in two cases a residual fragment < 2 mm in diameter was observed. None of the patients had recurrence of calculi in the treated gland. Mild self-limited adverse effects (pain, swelling of the gland, self-limiting bleeding from the duct, cutaneous petechiae) were observed in four cases. Our data suggest that EESWL is effective, safe and well tolerated; the minimal invasiveness of the technique suggests that EESWL should be used as the primary approach to salivary calculi in pediatric patients. The continuous US monitoring enables the efficacy of EESWL to be evaluated during both treatment and follow-up, with only slight discomfort for the pediatric patient.

  2. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands.

  3. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Salivary Biomarkers of Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mirrielees, Jeffrey; Crofford, Leslie J.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; Dawson, Dolphus R.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that rheumatoid arthritis influenced levels of salivary biomarkers of periodontal disease. Methods Medical assessments, periodontal examinations, and pain ratings were obtained from 35 rheumatoid arthritis, 35 chronic periodontitis and 35 age and gender-matched healthy controls in a cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were analyzed for interleukin-1β (IL-1β), matrix-metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-α concentrations. Results The arthritis and healthy groups had significantly less oral disease than the periodontitis group (p<0.0001), with the arthritis group having significantly more sites bleeding on probing (BOP) than matched controls (p=0.012). Salivary levels of MMP-8 and IL-1β were significantly elevated in the periodontal disease group (p≤0.002), and IL-1β was the only biomarker with significantly higher levels in the arthritis group compared with controls (p=0.002). Arthritis patients receiving anti-TNF-α antibody therapy had significantly lower IL-1β and TNF-α levels compared with arthritis patients not on anti-TNF-α therapy (p=0.016, p=0.024) and healthy controls (p<0.001, p=0.011), respectively. Conclusion Rheumatoid arthritis patients have higher levels of periodontal inflammation than healthy controls, ie. increased BOP. Systemic inflammation appears to influence levels of select salivary biomarkers of periodontal disease, and anti-TNF-α antibody-based disease modifying therapy significantly lowers salivary IL-1β and TNF-α levels in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:20880053

  4. Working hours, sleep, salivary cortisol, fatigue and neuro-behavior during Mars analog mission: five crews study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Balwant; Foing, Bernard H; Kaur, Jasdeep

    2012-05-16

    The buoyancy of humans in exploring extreme space environments has been established during missions to the moon. Long duration missions like mission to Mars however, requires humans to adapt to systemic and complex environments beyond the human body's capacity. Astronauts will encounter both physiological and psychological extremes during this trip. Very few studies are conducted on effect of long duration work and sleepiness on cognitive performance. So, this study was planned to find out effects of leadership responsibility, sleepiness and long duration working hours on cognitive performance. The 30 members (leadership: normal; 10:20) were selected from MDRS crews (Mars Desert Research Station, USA). Neurobehavioral test performance, self-ratings of fatigue and sleepiness, and salivary cortisol levels were evaluated during first day, mid and end day of mission. The leadership group did not show any signs of reduced test performance, even in elevated fatigue and sleepiness. The leadership group had faster reaction times on end of mission as compared to first and after 7 day of mission. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher in leadership group as compared to normal group. The results suggest that long duration work and sleepiness does not affect the cognitive performance of crew member. Further study is required while taking into account all factors and large sample size to prove this fact.

  5. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Analysis of Salivary Transcriptome in Non-Syndromic Autistic Male Children

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yasin; Salasar Moghaddam, Fahimeh; Ghasemi, Zahra; Hadi Jafari, Mandana; Shervin Badv, Reza; Eskandari, Mohamad Reza; Pedram, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Childhood autism is a severe form of complex genetically heterogeneous and behaviorally defined set of neurodevelopmental diseases, collectively termed as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive technique for transcriptome analysis, and it has been frequently used in ASD gene expression studies. However, normalization to stably expressed reference gene(s) is necessary to validate any alteration reported at the mRNA level for target genes. The main goal of the present study was to find the most stable reference genes in the salivary transcriptome for RT-qPCR analysis in non-syndromic male childhood autism. Saliva samples were obtained from nine drug naïve non-syndromic male children with autism and also sex-, age-, and location-matched healthy controls using the RNA-stabilizer kit from DNA Genotek. A systematic two-phased measurement of whole saliva mRNA levels for eight common housekeeping genes (HKGs) was carried out by RT-qPCR, and the stability of expression for each candidate gene was analyzed using two specialized algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, in parallel. Our analysis shows that while the frequently used HKG ACTB is not a suitable reference gene, the combination of GAPDH and YWHAZ could be recommended for normalization of RT-qPCR analysis of salivary transcriptome in non-syndromic autistic male children. PMID:27754318

  6. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Salivary Secretory IgA and Alpha-Amylase in South African Children

    PubMed Central

    Starzak, Dorota E.; Konkol, Kristen F.; McKune, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition are associated with salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), a mucosal immunity marker, and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of stress-related sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, in South African children. Morning (7:30–8:00 a.m.) saliva samples were collected from 132 children (10.05 ± 1.68 years old, 74 females, 58 males). Body composition, resting blood pressure, and predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were determined, and SIgA and sAA were quantified. Obese children had significantly higher sAA compared with overweight and normal weight children (p < 0.01). SIgA secretion rate was significantly lower in obese and overweight vs. normal weight children (p < 0.01). Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of sAA with CRF acting as a mitigator. Age and BMI predicted SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.05) with BMI (p < 0.001) found to be an independent predictor of SIgA secretion rate. Obesity, based on BMI, was associated with elevated SNS activity and lowered mucosal immunity. CRF-mitigated sympathetic activation was not associated with mucosal immunity. PMID:27483329

  7. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Analysis of Salivary Transcriptome in Non-Syndromic Autistic Male Children.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yasin; Salasar Moghaddam, Fahimeh; Ghasemi, Zahra; Hadi Jafari, Mandana; Shervin Badv, Reza; Eskandari, Mohamad Reza; Pedram, Mehrdad

    2016-10-12

    Childhood autism is a severe form of complex genetically heterogeneous and behaviorally defined set of neurodevelopmental diseases, collectively termed as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive technique for transcriptome analysis, and it has been frequently used in ASD gene expression studies. However, normalization to stably expressed reference gene(s) is necessary to validate any alteration reported at the mRNA level for target genes. The main goal of the present study was to find the most stable reference genes in the salivary transcriptome for RT-qPCR analysis in non-syndromic male childhood autism. Saliva samples were obtained from nine drug naïve non-syndromic male children with autism and also sex-, age-, and location-matched healthy controls using the RNA-stabilizer kit from DNA Genotek. A systematic two-phased measurement of whole saliva mRNA levels for eight common housekeeping genes (HKGs) was carried out by RT-qPCR, and the stability of expression for each candidate gene was analyzed using two specialized algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, in parallel. Our analysis shows that while the frequently used HKG ACTB is not a suitable reference gene, the combination of GAPDH and YWHAZ could be recommended for normalization of RT-qPCR analysis of salivary transcriptome in non-syndromic autistic male children.

  8. Transformation techniques for cross-sectional and longitudinal endocrine data: application to salivary cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert; Plessow, Franziska

    2013-06-01

    Endocrine time series often lack normality and homoscedasticity most likely due to the non-linear dynamics of their natural determinants and the immanent characteristics of the biochemical analysis tools, respectively. As a consequence, data transformation (e.g., log-transformation) is frequently applied to enable general linear model-based analyses. However, to date, data transformation techniques substantially vary across studies and the question of which is the optimum power transformation remains to be addressed. The present report aims to provide a common solution for the analysis of endocrine time series by systematically comparing different power transformations with regard to their impact on data normality and homoscedasticity. For this, a variety of power transformations of the Box-Cox family were applied to salivary cortisol data of 309 healthy participants sampled in temporal proximity to a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test). Whereas our analyses show that un- as well as log-transformed data are inferior in terms of meeting normality and homoscedasticity, they also provide optimum transformations for both, cross-sectional cortisol samples reflecting the distributional concentration equilibrium and longitudinal cortisol time series comprising systematically altered hormone distributions that result from simultaneously elicited pulsatile change and continuous elimination processes. Considering these dynamics of endocrine oscillations, data transformation prior to testing GLMs seems mandatory to minimize biased results.

  9. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; Červenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  10. Enamel Defects and Salivary Methylmalonate in Methylmalonic Acidemia

    PubMed Central

    Bassim, CW; Wright, JT; Guadagnini, JP; Muralidharan, R; Sloan, J; Domingo, DL; Venditti, CP; Hart, TC

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and Objective To characterize enamel defects in patients with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and cobalamin metabolic disorders and to examine salivary methylmalonate levels in MMA. Subjects and Methods Teeth from patients (n=32) were evaluated for enamel defects and compared with age- and gender-matched controls (n=55). Complementation class (mut, cblA, cblB, cblC) and serum methylmalonate levels were examined. Primary teeth from two patients were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and salivary methylmalonate levels from two patients were analyzed. Results Enamel defects were significantly more prevalent per tooth in the affected group than the control group, across complementation types (p<0.0001). The mut MMA subgroup had a significantly higher prevalence per individual of severe enamel defects than controls (p=0.021), and those with enamel defects exhibited higher serum methylmalonate levels than those without (p=0.017). Salivary methylmalonate levels were extremely elevated and were significantly higher than controls (p=0.002). Primary teeth were free of enamel defects except for two cblC patients who exhibited severe enamel hypoplasia. One primary tooth from a cblC patient manifested markedly altered crystal microstructure. Conclusion Enamel anomalies represent a phenotypic manifestation of MMA and cobalamin metabolic disorders. These findings suggest an association between enamel developmental pathology and disordered metabolism. PMID:19143946

  11. Salivary proteins associated with hyperglycemia in diabetes: a proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bencharit, Sompop; Baxter, Sarah Schwartz; Carlson, Jim; Byrd, Warren C; Mayo, Mary Virginia; Border, Michael B; Kohltfarber, Heidi; Urrutia, Eugene; Howard-Williams, Escher L; Offenbacher, Steven; Wu, Michael C; Buse, John B

    2013-11-01

    Effective monitoring of glucose levels is necessary for patients to achieve greater control over their diabetes. However, only about a quarter of subjects with diabetes who requires close serum glucose monitoring, regularly check their serum glucose daily. One of the potential barriers to patient compliance is the blood sampling requirement. Saliva and its protein contents can be altered in subjects with diabetes, possibly due to changes in glycemic control. We propose here that salivary proteomes of subjects with diabetes may be different based on their glycemic control as reflected in A1C levels. A total of 153 subjects with type 1 or 2 diabetes were recruited. Subjects in each type of diabetes were divided into 5 groups based on their A1C levels; <7, 7-8, 8-9, 9-10, >10. To examine the global proteomic changes associated with A1C, the proteomic profiling of pooled saliva samples from each group was created using label-free quantitative proteomics. Similar proteomic analysis for individual subjects (N=4, for each group) were then applied to examine proteins that may be less abundant in pooled samples. Principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (p<0.01 and p<0.001) were used to define the proteomic differences. We, therefore, defined the salivary proteomic changes associated with A1C changes. This study demonstrates that differences exist between salivary proteomic profiles in subjects with diabetes based on the A1C levels.

  12. Exploring salivary proteomes in edentulous patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Border, Michael B; Schwartz, Sarah; Carlson, Jim; Dibble, Christopher F; Kohltfarber, Heidi; Offenbacher, Steven; Buse, John B; Bencharit, Sompop

    2012-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes and tooth loss are linked both epidemiologically and pathophysiologically. We applied label-free differential protein expression analysis using multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) to explore the proteomic profile of saliva samples collected from selected type 2 diabetic edentulous patients and non-diabetic controls. Ninety-six peptides corresponding to 52 proteins were differentially expressed between the diabetic edentulous patients and controls (p < 0.05). Some diabetes-related inflammatory biomarkers including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and serum amyloid A were detected with levels increased in diabetic samples. Other biomarkers including amylase, palate, lung and nasal epithelium associated protein (PLUNC), and serotransferrin levels were decreased in diabetic samples. In contrast with previous findings, salivary carbonic anhydrase 6 and alpha-2 macroglobulin levels, however, were decreased in this diabetic patient population. Cluster analysis and principle component analysis demonstrated a differential pattern of protein biomarker expression between diabetic and control subjects. Western blot analysis was completed to confirm the relatively lower expression level of two biomarkers, including PLUNC and amylase in the diabetic group compared to control subjects. The presence of salivary biomarkers specific for diabetes in edentulous subjects mimics those in serum, especially those related to inflammatory/lipid metabolism. While this exploratory study requires further validation with a larger population, it provides proof-of-principle for salivary proteomics for edentulous subjects with diabetes.

  13. Whole-saliva proteolysis and its impact on salivary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Thomadaki, K; Helmerhorst, E J; Tian, N; Sun, X; Siqueira, W L; Walt, D R; Oppenheim, F G

    2011-11-01

    There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins-histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1-was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes.

  14. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    SciTech Connect

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  15. Identification of salivary metabolomic biomarkers for oral cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Kenichiro; Sugano, Ayako; Nakamura, Marina; Kaneko, Miku; Ota, Sana; Hiwatari, Kana; Enomoto, Ayame; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0.05 correlated by false discovery rate); 17 metabolites showed consistent differences in both saliva and tissue-based comparisons. Of these, a combination of only two biomarkers yielded a high area under receiver operating characteristic curves (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.726–0.928, P < 0.0001) for discriminating oral cancers from controls. Various validation tests confirmed its high generalization ability. The demonstrated approach, integrating both saliva and tumor tissue metabolomics, helps eliminate pseudo-molecules that are coincidentally different between oral cancers and controls. These combined salivary metabolites could be the basis of a clinically feasible method of non-invasive oral cancer screening. PMID:27539254

  16. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  17. Drugs or disease: evaluating salivary function in RA patients.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra Regina; Pedrazas, Carlos Henrique Silva; Correia, Marcos Paulo Veloso; Azevedo, Mario Newton Leitão de; Zamprogno, Thaís; Silva, Arley; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Papi, José Angelo de Souza

    2016-10-10

    Oral complications of RA may include temporomandibular joint disorders, mucosa alterations and symptoms of dry mouth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary gland function of subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) comparing it to healthy controls. Subjects with other systemic conditions known to affect salivary functions were excluded. A questionnaire was applied for the evaluation of xerostomia. Resting and chewing-stimulated salivary flow rates (SFR) were obtained under standard conditions. There were 145 subjects included of the study (104 RA and 38 controls). About 66.7% of the RA subjects and 2.4% in control group presented xerostomia. The median resting SFR were 0.24 ml/min for RA subjects and 0.40 mL/min for controls (p = 0.04). The median stimulated SFR were 1.31 mL/min for RA subjects and 1.52 ml/min for controls (p = 0.33). No significant differences were found between resting and stimulated SFR of RA subjects not using xerogenic medications and controls. There was significantly higher number of subjects presenting hyposalivation in the RA group than among controls, even when subjects using xerogenic medications were eliminated from the analysis. In conclusion, hyposalivation and xerostomia were more frequent among RA subjects not using xerogenic medication than among controls, although there were no significant differences in the median SFR between groups.

  18. Whole-saliva Proteolysis and Its Impact on Salivary Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Thomadaki, K.; Helmerhorst, E.J.; Tian, N.; Sun, X.; Siqueira, W.L.; Walt, D.R.; Oppenheim, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins—histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1—was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes. PMID:21917601

  19. Salivary proteins associated with hyperglycemia in diabetes: a proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bencharit, Sompop; Baxter, Sarah Schwartz; Carlson, Jim; Byrd, Warren C.; Mayo, Mary Virginia; Border, Michael B.; Kohltfarber, Heidi; Urrutia, Eugene; Howard-Williams, Escher L.; Offenbacher, Steven; Wu, Michael C.; Buse, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Effective monitoring of glucose levels is necessary for patients to achieve greater control over their diabetes. However, only about a quarter of subjects with diabetes who requires close serum glucose monitoring, regularly check their serum glucose daily. One of the potential barriers to patient compliance is the blood sampling requirement. Saliva and its protein contents can be altered in subjects with diabetes, possibly due to changes in glycemic control. We propose here that salivary proteomes of subjects with diabetes may be different based on their glycemic control as reflected in A1C levels. A total of 153 subjects with type 1 or 2 diabetes were recruited. Subjects in each type of diabetes were divided into 5 groups based on their A1C levels; <7, 7–8, 8–9, 9–10, >10. To examine the global proteomic changes associated with A1C, the proteomic profiling of pooled saliva samples from each group was created using label-free quantitative proteomics. Similar proteomic analysis for individual subjects (N=4, for each group) were then applied to examine proteins that may be less abundant in pooled samples. Principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (p<0.01 and p<0.001) were used to define the proteomic differences. We, therefore, defined the salivary proteomic changes associated with A1C changes. This study demonstrates that differences exist between salivary proteomic profiles in subjects with diabetes based on the A1C levels. PMID:24056972

  20. Assessing salivary cortisol in large-scale, epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Kumari, Meena

    2009-11-01

    Salivary cortisol measures are increasingly being incorporated into large-scale, population-based, or epidemiological research, in which participants are selected to be representative of particular communities or populations of interest, and sample sizes are in the order of hundreds to tens of thousands of participants. These approaches to studying salivary cortisol provide important advantages but pose a set of challenges. The representative nature of sampling, and large samples sizes associated with population-based research offer high generalizability and power, and the ability to examine cortisol functioning in relation to: (a) a wide range of social environments; (b) a diverse array individuals and groups; and (c) a broad set of pre-disease and disease outcomes. The greater importance of high response rates (to maintain generalizability) and higher costs associated with this type of large-scale research, however, requires special adaptations of existing ambulatory cortisol protocols. These include: using the most efficient sample collection protocol possible that still adequately address the specific cortisol-related questions at hand, and ensuring the highest possible response and compliance rates among those individuals invited to participate. Examples of choices made, response rates obtained, and examples of results obtained from existing epidemiological cortisol studies are offered, as are suggestions for the modeling and interpretation of salivary cortisol data obtained in large-scale epidemiological research.

  1. Minor intraoral salivary gland tumors: a clinical-pathological study

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Morais, Maria de Lourdes Silva de Arruda; Costa, Antonio de Lisboa Lopes; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical-pathological profile of patients with minor salivary gland neoplasms. Methods A retrospective study of specific cases diagnosed as benign and malignant tumors of the minor salivary glands was performed. The data were collected from medical records of patients seen at a hospital over a period of 15 years. The sample was made up of 37 cases. For the pathological study, slides containing 5μm thick sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were used. The data were tabulated using descriptive statistics. Results Malignant neoplasms represented 70.3% of cases. The mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common neoplasm (45.9%), followed by pleomorphic adenoma (24.4%). Most patients were female (70.3%), aged between 71 and 80 years. The palate (67.6%) and the retromolar region (10.8%) were the most affected sites. Conclusion Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common tumor in minor salivary glands. These tumors are more common in females aged over 40 years. The palate was the most common affected site. PMID:28076598

  2. [Rabies virus isolation in the salivary glands of insectivorous bats].

    PubMed

    Gury Dohmen, F; Beltrán, F

    2009-12-01

    This study determined the presence of the rabies virus in salivary glands, as well as its titre and antigenic characterisation and the level of exposure to the virus from contact between domestic animals and humans. Twenty-six positive brain samples were selected, 80% of which were from the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, corresponding to the period 1999-2005. Antigenic characterisation was conducted on a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotein supplied by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta in the United States of America. The results revealed a high percentage of isolations in salivary glands (76.9%). Their average titres were compared in a batch of positive samples of brain and salivary glands, giving values of 4.75 and 3.81 respectively (expressed as log LD50/0.03 ml). The isolated viruses corresponded principally to variant 4 associated with T brasiliensis and variant 6 associated with the hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus, and the red bat, L. borealis, and their respective subvariants. The level of exposure in domestic animals and humans was 50% during the period under study.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Hattori, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    The green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps, is one of the most important pests of rice in temperate Asian countries. GRH, a vascular feeder, secretes watery and gelling saliva in the process of feeding on phloem and xylem sap. It is known that GRH saliva contains several bioactive proteins, including enzymes such as laccase and beta-glucosidase. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of GRH using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Of 51,788 assembled contigs, 16,017 (30.9%) showed significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI nr database, while 34,978 (67.5%) could not be annotated by similarity search, Pfam, or gene ontology (GO). Contigs (905) with predicted signal peptides and no putative transmembrane domains are suggested to represent secreted protein coding genes. Among the 76 most highly expressed putative secretory protein contigs, 68 transcripts were found to be salivary gland-specific or at least -dominant, but not expressed in stomach or Malpighian tubules. However, 45 of the 68 transcripts were unknown proteins. These findings suggest that most of the GRH transcripts encoding secreted proteins expressed in salivary glands are species and/or tissue specific. Our results provide a fundamental list of genes involved in GRH-Poaceae host plant interactions including successful feeding and plant pathogen transmission.

  4. Therapeutic effects of isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ryo, Koufuchi; Takahashi, Ayako; Tamaki, Yoh; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Inoue, Hiroko; Saito, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Dry mouth, which is characterized by decreased salivation, has a number of causes; the involvement of estrogen has been suggested as symptoms typically develop in middle-aged females. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of this condition. Soy isoflavones, a subgroup of flavonoids, are abundantly found in the soy germ. They are thought to exert a number of effects by specifically binding to estrogen receptors due to their structural similarity to estrogen. Recently, soy isoflavones have been found to exert antioxidant effects, ameliorating disorders caused by reactive oxygen/free radicals. Based on these observations, the effects of soybean isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion were studied in patients with dry mouth. Soy isoflavone aglycones were administered at 25 mg per day to 15 subjects with an average age of 67.9 ± 8.0 years for 2 months, and salivary secretion was analyzed. The results showed a significant improvement based on the saliva flow rate and self-completed questionnaire, thus suggesting the usefulness of isoflavones in improving the symptoms of salivary gland hypofunction. PMID:25411521

  5. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Amini, Somayyeh; Elmi, Zahra; Namazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Cigarette smoke can induce oral cancer by its free radicals and oxidative damage. Salivary anti-oxidants system is believed to have an important role in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study was compared total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 male smokers with mean age of 45.23 years and 30 nonsmokers with mean age of 45.30 years participated. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in the morning in two groups by spitting method. TAoC of saliva was measured with the special kit in two groups at the same time. Statistical analysis was performed by covariance test. Results. The mean salivary TAoC in nonsmokers (0.741±0.123 U/ml) was higher than that in smokers (0.529±0.167 U/ml). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion. Smoking can alter salivary antioxidant capacity. PMID:26889367

  6. Management of obstructive salivary disorders by sialendoscopy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Atienza, G; López-Cedrún, J L

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effectiveness and safety of sialendoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic technique in the management of obstructive salivary disorders. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, The Cochrane Library, and the National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (up to April 2014). References from the studies included and from review articles were scanned. A study was eligible for inclusion if it was a fully published peer-reviewed report with original data, if participants included adult patients with obstructive disease of the major salivary glands, if the outcome variables gave information about the success rates of the procedure in terms of freedom from symptoms and absence of residual obstruction, and if the paper was published in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish. The data were extracted and summarised in tables of evidence. We report weighted pooled proportions, 95% CI, and test results for heterogeneity. The weighted pooled proportion of success rates of the obstruction's resolution was 76% (95% CI 71 to 82) for 40 studies involving 2654 patients undergoing sialendoscopy alone, and 91% (95% CI 88 to 94) for the 23 studies and 1480 procedures made with sialendoscopy and a combined surgical approach. In general, few complications were reported and the rate of sialadenectomy was low (4.6%). This systematic review suggests that sialendoscopy is effective and safe for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with obstructive salivary gland disease.

  7. Salivary Acetylcholinesterase Activity Is Increased in Parkinson's Disease: A Potential Marker of Parasympathetic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Tatyana; Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe; Mouridsen, Kim; Nexo, Ebba; Borghammer, Per

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Decreased salivary flow and xerostomia are frequent findings in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly caused by alterations in the parasympathetic tonus. Here we explore salivary acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as a potential biomarker in PD. Methods. We measured salivary flow, AChE activity, and total protein concentration in 30 PD patients and 49 healthy controls. We also performed exploratory correlation analyses with disease duration, motor symptom severity, autonomic complaints, and other nonmotor symptoms. Results. PD patients displayed significantly decreased salivary flow rate, significantly increased salivary AChE activity, and total protein concentration. Importantly, the AChE activity/total protein ratio was significantly increased in PD patients, suggesting that increased AChE activity cannot be explained solely by upconcentration of saliva. The Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) score displayed significant correlation with total salivary protein (P = 0.002) and near-significant correlation with salivary flow (P = 0.07). Color vision test scores were also significantly correlated with AChE activity (P = 0.04) and total protein levels (P = 0.002). Conclusion. Salivary AChE activity is increased in PD patients compared to healthy controls. Future studies are needed to elucidate whether this parameter reflects the extent of neuronal damage and parasympathetic denervation in the salivary glands of PD patients. PMID:25767737

  8. Effects of red wine intake on human salivary antiradical capacity and total polyphenol content.

    PubMed

    Varoni, Elena Maria; Vitalini, Sara; Contino, Daniele; Lodi, Giovanni; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Iriti, Marcello

    2013-08-01

    The protective effects of grape polyphenols have been reported on oral health, though unreasonable alcohol consumption represents a risk factor for developing oral cancer. The possible effects of red wine consumption on salivary antiradical activity were investigated in healthy volunteers for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Time-course (from 0 min to 240 min) changes of salivary radical-scavenging capacity were measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, in twelve healthy volunteers, after the intake of red wine (125 mL), a capsule of red wine extract (300 mg) or water (125 mL). Furthermore, time-course of salivary total polyphenol levels, detected by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, was also determined. Both ABTS and DPPH tests showed that red wine consumption did not increase salivary antiradical activity in volunteers. Conversely, red wine extract administration caused a marked rise in salivary ABTS radical-scavenging capacity within 30 min, followed by a plateau up to 240 min. The same treatment also raised salivary DPPH radical-scavenging activity at any time point, though to a minor extent. The highest salivary polyphenol concentration was reached 30 min after wine drinking, followed by a steady decrease up to 240 min. Wine drinking was not associated to a reduced salivary antiradical capacity. However, wine extract greatly improved the salivary antioxidant status.

  9. Pleomorphic adenoma of an accessory submandibular salivary gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Meshram, Deepashree; Jangam, Sagar S; Singh, Jatinder S

    2015-10-01

    An accessory submandibular salivary gland is a rare anatomical variant, and a tumour within one is even rarer. We describe a 54-year-old man who presented with a slowly-enlarging mass in the right submandibular region which on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seemed to be close to, but not arising from, the right submandibular salivary gland. This was found to be a benign pleomorphic adenoma arising from an accessory submandibular salivary gland. To our knowledge it is only the second report of a pleomorphic adenoma that developed within an accessory submandibular salivary gland.

  10. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.

  11. Neurons Self-Organize Around Salivary Epithelial Cells in Novel Co-Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Sommakia, Salah; Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland bioengineering requires understanding the interaction between salivary epithelium and surrounding tissues. An important component of salivary glands is the presence of neurons. No previous studies have investigated how neurons and salivary epithelial cells interact in an in vitro co-culture model. In this study, we describe the self-organization of neurons around salivary epithelial cells in co-culture, in a similar fashion to what occurs in native tissue. We cultured primary mouse cortical neurons (m-CN) with a salivary epithelial cell line (Par-C10) on growth factor-reduced Matrigel (GFR-MG) for 4 days. After this time, co-cultures were compared with native salivary glands using confocal microscopy. Our findings indicate that m-CN were able to self-organize basolaterally to salivary epithelial cell clusters in a similar manner to what occurs in native tissue. These results indicate that this model can be developed as a potential platform for studying neuron-salivary epithelial cell interactions for bioengineering purposes. PMID:27833941

  12. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed. PMID:27518822

  13. WT1 expression in salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas: a reliable marker of the neoplastic myoepithelium.

    PubMed

    Langman, Gerald; Andrews, Claire L; Weissferdt, Annikka

    2011-02-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is a benign salivary gland neoplasm with a diverse morphology. This is considered to be a function of the neoplastic myoepithelium, which shows histological and immunophenotypical variability. Wilms' tumor 1 gene (WT1) protein, involved in bidirectional mesenchymal-epithelial transition, has been detected by reverse transcription PCR in salivary gland tumors showing myoepithelial-epithelial differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoreactivity of WT1 in pleomorphic adenomas and to compare the pattern of staining with p63 and calponin, two reliable markers of myoepithelial cells. A total of 31 cases of pleomorphic adenoma were selected. The myoepithelium was classified as myoepithelial-like (juxtatubular and spindled), modified myoepithelium (myxoid, chondroid and plasmacytoid) and transformed myoepithelium (solid epithelioid, squamous and basaloid cribriform). Immunohistochemistry for WT1, p63 and calponin was assessed in each myoepithelial component, as well as in nonneoplastic myoepithelial cells and inner tubular epithelial cells. There was no immunostaining of tubular epithelial cells by any of the markers. In contrast to p63 and calponin, WT1 did not react with normal myoepithelial cells. Cytoplasmic WT1 staining was present in all pleomorphic adenomas, and in 29 cases (94%), >50% of neoplastic myoepithelial cells were highlighted. p63 and calponin stained the myoepithelium in 30 tumors. In comparison, 50% of cells were positive in 21 (68%) and 9 (29%) cases of p63 and calponin, respectively. Staining with WT1 showed less variability across the spectrum of myoepithelial differentiation with the difference most marked in the transformed myoepithelium. WT1 is a sensitive marker of the neoplastic myoepithelial cell in pleomorphic adenomas. The role of this protein in influencing the mesenchymal-epithelial state of cells suggests that WT1 and the myoepithelial cell have an important role in the histogenesis of

  14. Evaluation of Salivary Nitric Oxide Levels in Smokers, Tobacco Chewers and Patients with Oral Lichenoid Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Joy Idiculla; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Sabarinath, B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, acts as a signalling molecule affecting numerous physiological and pathological processes. Role of nitric oxide as a mediator in tobacco related habits and the resultant oral lichenoid reactions was assessed. Aim The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the salivary nitric oxide levels in normal patients with that of smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study which included 30 healthy patients without any chronic inflammatory lesion and habit as controls (group I), 30 smokers without the habit of tobacco/betel nut chewing and any oral lesion (group II), 30 tobacco chewers without the habit of smoking and any oral lesion (group III) and 30 histologically confirmed cases of oral lichenoid reaction with the habit of tobacco usage (group IV). Saliva from these patients was collected and the nitrite concentration was assessed. Results Our results concluded that there was highly significant increase in the nitric oxide levels in smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions compared to that of controls. Also, there was a significant increase in nitric oxide levels in patients with smoking associated oral lichenoid reactions in comparison with smokers and in patients with lichenoid reactions associated with tobacco chewing in comparison with tobacco chewers. Conclusion Estimation of salivary nitric oxide levels is a simple, non-invasive procedure and could be analysed to suggest the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of these lesions. The increased activity of the enzyme may indicate that nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in these lesions. PMID:26894179

  15. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  16. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  18. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  19. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  20. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  6. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of ras oncogene p21 product in human gastric carcinomas and their adjacent mucosas.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, F; David, L; Sunkel, C; Lopes, C; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    1992-04-01

    In an attempt to clarify the relationship between ras oncogene expression and the clinico-pathological features of malignant and pre-malignant lesions of the stomach we undertook the immunohistochemical study of the expression of ras gene p21 product in a series of eighty gastric carcinomas and their respective adjacent mucosas. In two cases the mRNA of Ha-ras was also studied by in situ hybridization. The majority of gastric carcinomas as well as their adjacent non-neoplastic mucosas expressed ras gene product. There was a significant relationship between the expression of ras gene p21 product and the morphologic pattern of the tumours. An enhanced ras expression was found in several conditions regarded as precursor lesions of intestinal and/or diffuse types of gastric carcinoma (dysplasia, foveolar hyperplasia and even the neck zone of normal-appearing gastric glands, namely in the mucosa adjacent to diffuse carcinomas). Ras expression was actually more prominent in most of these conditions than in their respective adjacent carcinomas. No significant relationship was found between ras expression and invasiveness of the wall, nodal metastases and venous invasion.

  11. Salivary epidermal growth factor (EGF) in Sjögren's syndrome: association between salivary EGF levels and the severity of intraoral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Naoto; Katada, Yoshinori; Kitano, Sachie; Nishioka, Aki; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Kitano, Masayasu; Hashimoto, Naoaki; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Hajime

    2016-01-01

      Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands, especially the salivary and lacrimal glands. As a result of salivary gland dysfunction, most patients with SS have xerostomia, related to a reduced salivary flow rate. In addition to the discomfort due to xerostomia, dry mouth can cause various intraoral manifestations such as refractory stomatitis, ulcer and atrophic changes in the oral mucosa and tongue, and patients' quality of life (QOL) is impaired severely. These manifestations are believed to be caused mainly by a decrease in the clearance in the oral cavity owing to hyposalivation. However, since saliva has several beneficial physiological effects on the intraoral environment, qualitative changes in sialochemistry should also be considered a cause of the refractory intraoral manifestations in SS. Salivary epidermal growth factor (EGF) is considered an important cytoprotective factor against injuries, and it contributes to wound healing in the oral cavity. We evaluated changes in salivary EGF levels and assessed the association between salivary EGF levels and the severity of intraoral manifestations in SS patients. The results showed that the salivary EGF levels decreased with the progression of SS, and this deterioration in saliva quality as well as hyposalivation could play a role in the pathogenesis of refractory intraoral manifestations in SS patients. Our findings provide new target for therapeutic intervention in SS.

  12. Reduction of VSC and salivary bacteria by a multibenefit mouthrinse.

    PubMed

    Boyd, T; Vazquez, J; Williams, M

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multibenefit mouthrinse containing 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 0.025% sodium fluoride in reducing volatile sulfur compound (VSC) levels and total cultivable salivary bacteria, at both 4 h and overnight. In vitro analysis of efficacy was performed using saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disc substrates first treated with the mouthrinse, then exposed to whole human saliva, followed by overnight incubation in air-tight vials. Headspace VSC was quantified by gas chromatography (GC). A clinical evaluation was conducted with 14 subjects using a crossover design. After a seven-day washout period, baseline clinical measurement of VSC was performed by GC analysis of mouth air sampled in the morning prior to eating, drinking or performing any oral hygiene. A 10 mL saline rinse was used to sample and enumerate cultivable salivary bacterial levels via serial dilution and plating. Subjects were instructed to use the treatment rinse twice daily in combination with a controlled brushing regimen. After one week the subjects returned in the morning prior to eating, drinking or performing oral hygiene to provide samples of overnight mouth air and salivary bacteria. The subjects were then immediately rinsed with the test product, and provided additional mouth air and saliva rinse samples 4 h later. A multibenefit rinse containing 0.05% CPC and 0.025% sodium fluoride was found to reduce VSC in vitro by 52%. The rinse also demonstrated a significant clinical reduction in breath VSC (p < 0.05) of 55.8% at 4 h and 23.4% overnight relative to baseline VSC levels. At both time points, the multibenefit rinse was more effective than the control; this difference was statistically significant at the overnight time point (p < 0.05). Total cultivable salivary bacteria levels were also reduced significantly (p < 0.05) at 4 h and overnight by this mouthrinse compared to baseline levels and the control. A multibenefit mouthrinse was shown to reduce in

  13. Salivary Composition Is Associated with Liking and Usual Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Méjean, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Neyraud, Eric; Issanchou, Sylvie; Martin, Christophe; Bozonnet, Sophie; Urbano, Christine; Schlich, Pascal; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine; Feron, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Salivary flow and composition have an impact on flavor perception. However, very few studies have explored the relationship between saliva, individual liking and usual dietary intake. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of salivary flow and composition with both a liking for fat, saltiness and sweetness and the usual nutrient intake in an adult French population. Liking for fat, saltiness, and sweetness were inferred from liking scores obtained during hedonic tests on 32 food products among 282 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé Study. Before assessing liking, resting saliva was collected. Standard biochemical analyses were performed to assess specific component concentrations and enzymatic activities. Dietary data were collected using three web-based 24h records. Relationships between salivary flow and composition, sensory liking and nutrient intake were assessed using linear regression. Total antioxidant capacity was positively associated with simple carbohydrate intake (β = 31.3, 95% CI = 1.58; 60.99) and inversely related to complex carbohydrate consumption (β = -52.4, 95% CI = -87.51; -19.71). Amylolysis was positively associated with both total (β = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.38) and simple carbohydrate intake (β = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.39). Salivary flow was positively associated with liking for fat (β = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03; 0.25). Proteolysis was positively associated with liking for saltiness and for fat (β = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.59; β = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.56, respectively). Amylolysis was inversely associated with liking for sweetness (β = -10.13, 95% CI = -19.51; -0.75). Carbonic anhydrase 6 was inversely associated with liking for saltiness (β = -46.77, 95% CI = -86.24; -7.30). Saliva does not substantially vary according to a usual diet, except for carbohydrate intake, whereas the specific association between salivary flow/composition and sensory liking suggests the influence of saliva characteristics in

  14. The effect of Cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats (a preliminary study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary total antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats. Methods The study was conducted on 28 male Wistar rats, 7–11 weeks of age and 160 ± 20 g body weight, divided into four groups of seven rats each. The first group receiving normal saline (S), the second group receiving saline and gamma radiation (SR), the third group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% (C), and the fourth group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% and gamma radiation (CR). SR and CR groups were exposed to 15 Gy gamma irradiation for 7 min and 39 s. Rats were intraperitoneally injected each day during the 10-day period of the experiment, and their tongues and lips were examined to assess the incidence and severity of mucositis. The saliva samples were taken from the animals three times on day zero, six, and ten. Results The mean mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the CR than the SR group (P = 0.024), and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the CR group;the difference was statistically significant on the second day (P = 0.027). In the evaluation of salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary antioxidant concentration was significantly higher in the C than the S, SR, and CR groups on the tenth day of the experiment (p <0.05). Conclusion The clinical effects in the CR group seem to be due to antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde; this conclusion, however, requires further investigations. Delayed antioxidant effect in the CR group was evident in ip cinnamaldehyde injection, the exact mechanism is not clear. PMID:23351595

  15. Immunoglobulin-producing cells in labial salivary glands of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J B; Potts, A J; Hamburger, J; Struthers, G; Scott, D G

    1986-11-01

    The distribution of immunoglobulin-producing cells within labial salivary glands from normal individuals (n = 7) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 10) and systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 9) was studied using morphometric and indirect immunoperoxidase methods. Cell counts revealed a significant increase in the density of IgG cells within glands from both patient groups compared with glands from normal individuals. No significant differences in the density of IgA- or IgM-producing cells between the 3 groups were observed although large individual variations were apparent. Histomorphometric studies showed an increase in the lymphoid compartment and a decrease in glandular elements within glands from the 2 patient groups. When data for all specimens were pooled a significant positive correlation was obtained between the percent area of stromal lymphoid tissue and density of IgG and IgM cells.

  16. Contribution of Human Oral Cells to Astringency by Binding Salivary Protein/Tannin Complexes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Susana; Ferrer-Galego, Raúl; Brandão, Elsa; Silva, Mafalda; Mateus, Nuno; Freitas, Victor de

    2016-10-10

    The most widely accepted mechanism to explain astringency is the interaction and precipitation of salivary proteins by food tannins, in particular proline-rich proteins. However, other mechanisms have been arising to explain astringency, such as binding of tannins to oral cells. In this work, an experimental method was adapted to study the possible contribution of both salivary proteins and oral cells to astringency induced by grape seed procyanidin fractions. Overall, in the absence of salivary proteins, the extent of procyanidin complexation with oral cells increased with increasing procyanidin degree of polymerization (mDP). Procyanidin fractions rich in monomers were the ones with the lowest ability to bind to oral cells. In the presence of salivary proteins and for procyanidins with mDP 2 the highest concentrations (1.5 and 2.0 mM) resulted in an increased binding of procyanidins to oral cells. This was even more evident for fractions III and IV at 1.0 mM and upper concentrations. Regarding the salivary proteins affected, it was possible to observe a decrease of P-B peptide and aPRP proteins for fractions II and III. This decrease is greater as the procyanidins' mDP increases. In fact, for fraction IV an almost total depletion of all salivary proteins was observed. This decrease is due to the formation of insoluble salivary protein/procyanidin complexes. Altogether, these data suggest that some procyanidins are able to bind to oral cells and that the salivary proteins interact with procyanidins forming salivary protein/procyanidin complexes that are also able to link to oral cells. The procyanidins that remain unbound to oral cells are able to bind to salivary proteins forming a large network of salivary protein/procyanidin complexes. Overall, the results presented herein provide one more step to understand food oral astringency onset.

  17. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; An, Xing-Kui; Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome) of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2) were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1) have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a foundational

  18. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence. PMID:23798838

  19. Salivary IgA versus HIV and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Malay; Acharya, Sonu; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Mohanty, Susant; Saha, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inter-relationship of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and dental caries as well as Salivary Immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA) level appear to remain under explored while a manual and electronic search of the literature was made. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the relationship of S-IgA and dental caries status in HIV positive children. Aim The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of S-IgA antibody with dental caries by measuring the concentration of IgA in saliva of HIV positive and negative children and determine the dental caries status in HIV positive and HIV negative children, which may help in treatment planning and prevention of the same. Materials and Methods A total of 28 HIV positive children aged between 6-14 years and 28 age matched HIV negative children were included in this study and both samples were randomly selected from the same Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). The HIV status of both these samples was confirmed from their medical records provided by the NGO. Only 2cc of unstimulated saliva was collected from both groups in special tubes coded numerically using the method described by Collins and Dawes and the samples were analyzed to measure the concentration of IgA using commercially available ELISA kit (DRG Diagnostics, Germany). Examination of dental caries was carried out according to WHO criteria (1997) using a flat mouth mirror and CPI probe. Results In HIV +ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 81.61 ± 6.20 μg/ml, mean DMFT was 3.86 ± 3.37, mean deft was 4.75 ± 2.86. In HIV -ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 145.57 ± 17.83μg/ml, mean DMFT was 2.54 ± 0.69, mean deft was 2.43 ± 2.01. Strong-ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.781, t = 6.38, p < 0.001) and negative but Not Significant (N.S.) correlation (r = -0.19, t = 0.99, p > 0.05) between S-IgA and deft was found in HIV +ve group. Strong –ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.655, t = 4

  20. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  1. Spatial organization of chromosomes in the salivary gland nuclei of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Using a computer-based system for model building and analysis, three- dimensional models of 24 Drosophila melanogaster salivary gland nuclei have been constructed from optically or physically sectioned glands, allowing several generalizations about chromosome folding and packaging in these nuclei. First and most surprising, the prominent coiling of the chromosomes is strongly chiral, with right-handed gyres predominating. Second, high frequency appositions between certain loci and the nuclear envelope appear almost exclusively at positions of intercalary heterochromatin; in addition, the chromocenter is always apposed to the envelope. Third, chromosomes are invariably separated into mutually exclusive spatial domains while usually extending across the nucleus in a polarized (Rabl) orientation. Fourth, the arms of each autosome are almost always juxtaposed, but no other relative arm positions are strongly favored. Finally, despite these nonrandom structural features, each chromosome is found to fold into a wide variety of different configurations. In addition, a set of nuclei has been analyzed in which the normally aggregrated centromeric regions of the chromosomes are located far apart from one another. These nuclei have the same architectural motifs seen in normal nuclei. This implies that such characteristics as separate chromosome domains and specific chromosome-nuclear envelope contacts are largely independent of the relative placement of the different chromosomes within the nucleus. PMID:3079766

  2. Quest for Cells Responsible for Age-related Increase of Salivary Glycine and Proline.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shunsuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Horie, Norio; Shimoyama, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shoji; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that salivary glycine and proline levels are increased to nearly butanoate level in elderly people. In order to identify the source of glycine and proline, we performed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of amino acid production to a total of seven oral cells before and after stimulation with inflammation inducers. We found that production of amino acids (per a given number of cells) by normal oral mesenchymal cells (gingival fibroblast, pulp cell, periodontal ligament fibroblast) was approximately three-fold that of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22), and that production of glycine and especially proline by all these seven cells was much lower than that of glutamine and glutamic acid. Treatment of three oral mesenchymal cells with interleukin (IL)-1β or lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) reproducibly increased the production of glutamic acid and glutamine, but not that of glycine and proline. Glycine and proline only marginally stimulated the IL-8 production by IL-1β-stimulated gingival fibroblast, whereas glycine dose-dependently inhibited the nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. These data demonstrated that normal oral mesenchymal cells are not the major source of glycine and proline that accumulates in the saliva of aged people, suggesting the involvement of the deregulation of collagen metabolism during aging.

  3. Early Growth Response1and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression is Altered in Tumor Adjacent Prostate Tissue and Indicates Field Cancerization

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Fleet, Trisha M.; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Severns, Virginia; Shah, Satyan K.; Davis, Michael S.; Smith, Anthony Y.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field cancerization denotes the occurrence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. In prostate cancer, identification of field cancerization has several potential clinical applications. However, prostate field cancerization remains ill defined. Our previous work has shown up-regulated mRNA of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) in tissues adjacent to prostate cancer. METHODS Immunofluorescence data were analyzed quantitatively by spectral imaging and linear unmixing to determine the protein expression levels of EGR-1 and FAS in human cancerous, histologically normal adjacent, and disease-free prostate tissues. RESULTS EGR-1 expression was elevated in both structurally intact tumor adjacent (1.6× on average) and in tumor (3.0× on average) tissues compared to disease-free tissues. In addition, the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear EGR-1 expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent and tumor tissues. Similarly, FAS expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent (2.7× on average) and in tumor (2.5× on average) compared to disease-free tissues. CONCLUSIONS EGR-1 and FAS expression is similarly deregulated in tumor and structurally intact adjacent prostate tissues and defines field cancerization. In cases with high suspicion of prostate cancer but negative biopsy, identification of field cancerization could help clinicians target areas for repeat biopsy. Field cancerization at surgical margins on prostatectomy specimen should also be looked at as a predictor of cancer recurrence. EGR-1 and FAS could also serve as molecular targets for chemoprevention. PMID:22127986

  4. Radioprotective Effect of Thymol Against Salivary Glands Dysfunction Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Yarmand, Fateme; Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moslemi, Dariush; Bijani, Ali; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of thymol as a natural product against salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in rats. The rats were treated with thymol at dose of 50 mg/Kg before exposure to ionizing radiation at dose 15 Gy. Salivary gland function was evaluated with radioisotope scintigraphy and then salivary gland to background counts ratio was calculated. Ionizing radiation caused significant salivary glands dysfunction at the 3th and the 70th days with reduction in radioactivity uptake in salivary glands. Ratios of salivary gland to background radioactivities were 2.0 ± 0.05, 1.58 ± 0.62 and 1.99 ± 0.07 at 3th days for control, radiation, and thymol plus radiation groups, respectively. Thymol significantly protected acute and chronic salivary gland dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in the rats.This finding may have been a promising application of thymol for the protection of salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing irradiation in patients exposed to radiation in head and neck cancer therapy. PMID:28243283

  5. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Major Salivary Gland Function Before and After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Stroobants, Sigrid; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI as a noninvasive tool to investigate major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: DW-MRI was performed in 8 HNC patients before and after parotid-sparing RT (mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland <26 Gy). A DW sequence was performed once at rest and then repeated continuously during salivary stimulation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for both parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Findings were compared with salivary gland scintigraphy. Results: Before RT, the mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotid than in the submandibular glands. During the first 5 min of stimulation, the ADC value of the salivary glands showed a decrease, followed by a steady increase until a peak ADC, significantly higher than the baseline value, was reached after a median of 17 min. The baseline ADC value at rest was significantly higher after RT than before RT in the nonspared salivary glands but not in the spared parotid glands. In the contralateral parotid glands, the same response was seen as before RT. This pattern was completely lost in the nonspared glands. These results corresponded with remaining or loss of salivary function, respectively, as confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted-MRI allows noninvasive evaluation of functional changes in the major salivary glands after RT and is a promising tool for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia.

  6. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C.; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3–4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12–22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  7. Do counts of salivary sheath flanges predict food consumption in herbivorous stink bugs [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae]?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For Pentatomid stink bug agricultural pests, the number of salivary sheaths and sheath flanges—the portion of the sheath visible on the exterior surface of a food item—are good predictors of the loss of crop yield or quality from stink bug feeding. As the often assumed relationship between salivary ...

  8. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Jennifer L.; Grundmann, Oliver; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine{sup 18}) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo.

  9. Comparative behavioral and protein study of salivary secretions in Homalodisca spp. sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel brush-induced method to physically stimulate salivation was applied to the glassy-winged and smoke tree sharpshooters. This technique enabled the direct observation of salivary secretion processes, solidification of saliva and for collection of salivary secretions. For both species, brush...

  10. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  11. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow and its effect on sialolithogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, P; Lin, Y; Lin, H; Xu, Y; Zheng, QY; Han, Y

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Sialolithiasis is a common disease caused by intraductal stones, formed by reduction in salivary flow, salivary stagnation, and metabolic events. We used computational fluid dynamics to investigate changes in salivary flow field around parotid stones of different shapes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three-dimensional configurations of the Stensen’s duct were reconstructed from computed tomography sialographic images. Fluid dynamics modeling was used to analyze the salivary flow field around stones under unstimulated and stimulated conditions. RESULTS The majority of sialoliths were oval-shaped (59/98), followed by irregular (24/98) and round (15/98). Salivary velocity was significantly higher around streamlined stones, compared with round (P = 0.013) and oval (P = 0.025) types. Changes in salivary flow field around sialoliths were found to affect the pattern of mineral deposition in saliva. The area of low velocity around the round stone was double the size observed around the streamlined stone during the unstimulated state, whereas in the stimulated state, local vortexes were formed on the downstream side of round and oval stones. CONCLUSIONS Salivary flow field around sialoliths plays an important role in the progression of multicentric stones, and analysis of the salivary dynamics during sialolithiasis may provide deeper understandings of the condition and aid in developing successful treatment strategies. PMID:24164693

  12. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  13. New procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes by mass spectrometry. Effect of salivary protein profile, tannin concentration, and time stability.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gregorio, Maria Rosa; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-10-15

    Several factors could influence the tannin-protein interaction such as the human salivary protein profile, the tannin tested, and the tannin/protein ratio. The goal of this study aims to study the effect of different salivas (A, B, and C) and different tannin concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) on the interaction process as well as the complex's stability over time. This study is focused on the identification of new procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes. Thus, 48 major B3-human salivary protein aggregates were identified regardless of the saliva and tannin concentration tested. A higher number of aggregates was found at lower tannin concentration. Moreover, the number of protein moieties involved in the aggregation process was higher when the tannin concentration was also higher. The selectivity of the different groups of proteins to bind tannin was also confirmed. It was also verified that the B3-human salivary protein complexes formed evolved over time.

  14. Feline immunodeficiency virus replicates in salivary gland ductular epithelium during the initial phase of infection.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Kyaw-Tanner, M; Thomas, J; Robinson, W F

    1995-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antigen was detected by immunochemistry in salivary glands of cats experimentally inoculated with West Australian isolate T91. Six cats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1.0 ml of tissue culture supernatant fluid from a feline T-lymphoblastoid cell line (MYA-1) infected with T91. FIV antigens were detected in the interlobular ducts of the salivary gland of cats infected with FIV 2, 4 and 6 weeks previously. FIV antigen was not detected in the salivary glands of three FIV negative cats and one naturally infected cat. Further, FIV antigen was located only in interlobular duct epithelial cells. The distribution of FIV in the interlobular ducts confirms the important role of salivary glands as a major reservoir of FIV in the early phase of infection and strengthens suggestions that the salivary route is an important mode of transmission of FIV.

  15. Salivary gland accumulation of meta-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajo, M.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Intense uptake of m-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been observed in the salivary glands of patients undergoing scintigraphy for the location of suspected pheochromocytomas. This uptake of radioativity was not due to free I-131 derived from the I-131 MIBG but rather to uptake of I-131 MIBG by sympathetic neuronal elements in the salivary glands. In keeping with this, administration of tricycle antidepressants reversibly blocked salivary uptake of I-131 MIBG. Furthermore, I-131 MIBG uptake was markedly diminished by the ipsilateral salivary glands in a patient with Horner's syndrome, and was bilaterally diminished in a patient with severe idiopathic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The salivary gland uptake of I-131 MIBG may provide a means for the study of sympathetic innervation of these organs, and thus for the study of generalized disorders of autonomic innervation.

  16. Frequency and Histopathology by Site, Major Pathologies, Symptoms and Signs of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    The frequency distribution of salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) is, in decreasing order, parotid neoplasms, submandibular gland neoplasms, minor SGNs, and sublingual gland neoplasms. The larger the salivary gland (e.g. parotid), the more likely a neoplasm is benign, and the smaller the gland (e.g. minor salivary gland), the more likely the neoplasm is malignant. The majority of SGNs, benign and/or malignant, irrespective of site, present as a painless swelling or mass. Definitive symptoms and signs of salivary gland malignancy are the presence of named nerve palsy in anatomical proximity to the gland and/or the presence of cervical lymphadenopathy. All discrete major salivary gland masses and non-ulcerated submucosal masses presenting in the head and neck region, irrespective of age, should be investigated, with the aim of excluding an SGN.

  17. Proteomic identification of salivary biomarkers of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Paturi V; Reddy, Ashok P; Lu, Xinfang; Dasari, Surendra; Krishnaprasad, Adiraju; Biggs, Evan; Roberts, Charles T; Nagalla, Srinivasa R

    2009-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers to noninvasively detect prediabetes/diabetes will facilitate interventions designed to prevent or delay progression to frank diabetes and its attendant complications. The purpose of this study was to characterize the human salivary proteome in type-2 diabetes to identify potential biomarkers of diabetes. Whole saliva from control and type-2 diabetic individuals was characterized by multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS). Label-free quantification was used to identify differentially abundant protein biomarkers. Selected potential biomarkers were then independently validated in saliva from control, diabetic, and prediabetic subjects by Western immunoblotting and ELISA. Characterization of the salivary proteome identified a total of 487 unique proteins. Approximately 33% of these have not been previously reported in human saliva. Of these, 65 demonstrated a greater than 2-fold difference in abundance between control and type-2 diabetes samples. A majority of the differentially abundant proteins belong to pathways regulating metabolism and immune response. Independent validation of a subset of potential biomarkers utilizing immunodetection confirmed their differential expression in type-2 diabetes, and analysis of prediabetic samples demonstrated a trend of relative increase in their abundance with progression from the prediabetic to the diabetic state. This comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human salivary proteome in type-2 diabetes provides the first global view of potential mechanisms perturbed in diabetic saliva and their utility in detection and monitoring of diabetes. Further characterization of these markers in a larger cohort of subjects may provide the basis for new, noninvasive tests for diabetes screening, detection, and monitoring.

  18. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wijffels, Karien; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Lok, Jasper; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Wilde, Peter C.M. de; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm{sup -2} (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  19. Multiscale Feature Analysis of Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baydil, Banu; Daley, William P.; Larsen, Melinda; Yener, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Pattern formation in developing tissues involves dynamic spatio-temporal changes in cellular organization and subsequent evolution of functional adult structures. Branching morphogenesis is a developmental mechanism by which patterns are generated in many developing organs, which is controlled by underlying molecular pathways. Understanding the relationship between molecular signaling, cellular behavior and resulting morphological change requires quantification and categorization of the cellular behavior. In this study, tissue-level and cellular changes in developing salivary gland in response to disruption of ROCK-mediated signaling by are modeled by building cell-graphs to compute mathematical features capturing structural properties at multiple scales. These features were used to generate multiscale cell-graph signatures of untreated and ROCK signaling disrupted salivary gland organ explants. From confocal images of mouse submandibular salivary gland organ explants in which epithelial and mesenchymal nuclei were marked, a multiscale feature set capturing global structural properties, local structural properties, spectral, and morphological properties of the tissues was derived. Six feature selection algorithms and multiway modeling of the data was performed to identify distinct subsets of cell graph features that can uniquely classify and differentiate between different cell populations. Multiscale cell-graph analysis was most effective in classification of the tissue state. Cellular and tissue organization, as defined by a multiscale subset of cell-graph features, are both quantitatively distinct in epithelial and mesenchymal cell types both in the presence and absence of ROCK inhibitors. Whereas tensor analysis demonstrate that epithelial tissue was affected the most by inhibition of ROCK signaling, significant multiscale changes in mesenchymal tissue organization were identified with this analysis that were not identified in previous biological studies. We

  20. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  1. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  2. 10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  3. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  5. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature.

  9. 15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 5 and portion of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. 7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 1 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  11. 8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 2 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  12. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  15. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  16. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  18. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  1. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  2. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1-Mediated DNA Repair in Irradiated Salivary Glands Is Sirtuin-1 Dependent.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Chibly, A M; Burd, R; Limesand, K H

    2017-02-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of the most common cancer treatments; however, the treatment leads to a wide range of debilitating side effects. In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), the surrounding normal salivary gland is extremely sensitive to therapeutic radiation, and damage to this tissue results in various oral complications and decreased quality of life (QOL). In the current study, mice treated with targeted head and neck radiation showed a significant increase in double-stranded breaks (DSB) in the DNA of parotid salivary gland cells immediately after treatment, and this remained elevated 3 h posttreatment. In contrast, mice pretreated with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) showed resolution of the same amount of initial DNA damage by 3 h posttreatment. At acute time points (30 min to 2 h), irradiated parotid glands had significantly decreased levels of the histone deactylase Sirtuin-1 (SirT-1) which has been previously shown to function in DNA repair. Pretreatment with IGF-1 increased SirT-1 protein levels and increased deacetylation of SirT-1 targets involved in DNA repair. Pharmacological inhibition of SirT-1 activity decreased the IGF-1-mediated resolution of DSB. These data suggest that IGF-1 promotes DNA repair in irradiated parotid glands through the maintenance and activation of SirT-1.

  8. Estimation and correlative study of salivary nitrate and nitrite in tobacco related oral squamous carcinoma and submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Vaishali; Biviji, AT; Akarte, N

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the ten leading cancers of the world. In India, it is one of the common cancers and is an important public health problem. Tobacco plays significant role in etiology of oral squamous carcinoma. Tobacco which is chewed or smoked contains many alkaloids which are known carcinogens. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a disease of the Indian subcontinent, which through immigration has a worldwide distribution. Betel nut chewing plays significant role in etiology of OSMF. The nut alkaloids have been shown experimentally to result in stimulation of collagen synthesis by fibroblasts in vitro, which can induce precancerous conditions. Materials and Methods: The present study was undertaken to detect nitrate and nitrite factor in saliva of cases with oral carcinoma, OSMF and normal individuals without any habits and to determine whether increased salivary nitrate and nitrite level is significant in oral carcinoma and submucous fibrosis using biochemical parameters. Conclusion: We conclude that the major inducer of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is exposure to tobacco. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxidative and nitrosative stress contributes to the development of oral carcinogenesis through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. Salivary composition of OSCC patients is substantially altered with respect to free radical-involved mechanisms. PMID:24574656

  9. B7-H3 regulates migration and invasion in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Teng-Fei; Deng, Wei-Wei; Bu, Lin-Lin; Wu, Tian-Fu; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2017-01-01

    B7 Homolog 3 (B7-H3), a newly identified member of the B7 family, is over-expressed in various human cancers and plays a vital role in tumor progression. To identify the expression pattern of B7-H3 in human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) and its underlying mechanisms, we characterized B7-H3 expression in AdCC tissue microarrays using immunohistochemical staining, and analyzed potentially associated molecules. The results showed that B7-H3 was highly expressed in salivary AdCC, compared with normal salivary glands. Statistical analyses of immunohistochemical staining showed that B7-H3 was closely correlated with Slug and p-STAT3. Functional studies showed that knockdown of B7-H3 in AdCC cell lines using RNA interference did not influence cell growth and apoptosis, but decreased migration and invasion in vitro. Further mechanism studies suggested that B7-H3 influenced the migration and invasion of AdCC cells by regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via JAK2/STAT3 pathway components. Collectively, these findings suggested that B7-H3 may be a potential therapeutic target for AdCC. PMID:28386362

  10. Salivary Gland Pathology in Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Campos, Joana; Hillen, Maarten R; Barone, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) can be considered a systemic autoimmune disease with a strong organ bias. The involvement of the exocrine glands is prevalent and drives the pathognomonic manifestations of dryness that define the sicca syndrome. The salivary glands also represent the hub of pSS pathology. Elements belonging to both innate and acquired immune responses have been described at this site that contribute to disease establishment and progression. The interaction between those elements and their relative contributions to the clinical manifestations and lymphoma progression largely remain to be addressed.

  11. Cancer Salivary Biomarkers for Tumours Distant to the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Rapado-González, Óscar; Majem, Blanca; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; López-López, Rafa; Suarez-Cunqueiro, María Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of saliva as a diagnostic approach for systemic diseases was proposed just two decades ago, but recently great interest in the field has emerged because of its revolutionary potential as a liquid biopsy and its usefulness as a non-invasive sampling method. Multiple molecules isolated in saliva have been proposed as cancer biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, drug monitoring and pharmacogenetic studies. In this review, we focus on the current status of the salivary diagnostic biomarkers for different cancers distant to the oral cavity, noting their potential use in the clinic and their applicability in personalising cancer therapies. PMID:27626410

  12. The oral-systemic connection: role of salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Utilizing saliva instead of blood for diagnosis of both local and systemic health is a rapidly emerging field. Recognition of oral-systemic interrelationships for many diseases has fostered collaborations between medicine and dentistry, and many of these collaborations rely on salivary diagnostics. The oral cavity is easily accessed and contains most of the analytes present in blood. Saliva and mucosal transudate are generally utilized for oral diagnostics, but gingival crevicular fluid, buccal swabs, dental plaque and volatiles may also be useful depending on the analyte being studied. Examples of point-of-care devices capable of detecting HIV, TB, and Malaria targets are being developed and discussed in this overview.

  13. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  14. Dispatches from the interface of salivary bioscience and neonatal research.

    PubMed

    Voegtline, Kristin M; Granger, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the interdisciplinary field of salivary bioscience has created opportunity for neonatal researchers to measure multiple components of biological systems non-invasively in oral fluids. The implications are profound and potentially high impact. From a single oral fluid specimen, information can be obtained about a vast array of biological systems (e.g., endocrine, immune, autonomic nervous system) and the genetic polymorphisms related to individual differences in their function. The purpose of this review is to describe the state of the art for investigators interested in integrating these unique measurement tools into the current and next generation of research on gonadal steroid exposure during the prenatal and neonatal developmental periods.

  15. The Salivary Protein Repertoire of the Polyphagous Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae: A Quest for Effectors.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Wim; Dermauw, Wannes; Zhurov, Vladimir; Wybouw, Nicky; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Villarroel, Carlos A; Greenhalgh, Robert; Grbić, Mike; Schuurink, Rob C; Tirry, Luc; Baggerman, Geert; Clark, Richard M; Kant, Merijn R; Vanholme, Bartel; Menschaert, Gerben; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an extremely polyphagous crop pest. Alongside an unparalleled detoxification potential for plant secondary metabolites, it has recently been shown that spider mites can attenuate or even suppress plant defenses. Salivary constituents, notably effectors, have been proposed to play an important role in manipulating plant defenses and might determine the outcome of plant-mite interactions. Here, the proteomic composition of saliva from T. urticae lines adapted to various host plants-bean, maize, soy, and tomato-was analyzed using a custom-developed feeding assay coupled with nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry. About 90 putative T. urticae salivary proteins were identified. Many are of unknown function, and in numerous cases belonging to multimembered gene families. RNAseq expression analysis revealed that many genes coding for these salivary proteins were highly expressed in the proterosoma, the mite body region that includes the salivary glands. A subset of genes encoding putative salivary proteins was selected for whole-mount in situ hybridization, and were found to be expressed in the anterior and dorsal podocephalic glands. Strikingly, host plant dependent expression was evident for putative salivary proteins, and was further studied in detail by micro-array based genome-wide expression profiling. This meta-analysis revealed for the first time the salivary protein repertoire of a phytophagous chelicerate. The availability of this salivary proteome will assist in unraveling the molecular interface between phytophagous mites and their host plants, and may ultimately facilitate the development of mite-resistant crops. Furthermore, the technique used in this study is a time- and resource-efficient method to examine the salivary protein composition of other small arthropods for which saliva or salivary glands cannot be isolated easily.

  16. Tooth wear and the role of salivary measures in general practice patients

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Marilynn; Scott, JoAnna; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the association between tooth wear and salivary measures in a random sample of patients from practices of dentist members of a practice-based research network. Materials and methods Patients completed a questionnaire on oral self-care, health, dietary habits, medications, and socio-demographic variables. Six salivary characteristics (consistency, resting salivary flow, resting salivary pH, stimulated salivary flow, stimulated salivary pH, and buffering capacity) were measured, and a dental examination included categorizing patients according to the dentist’s judgment of the degree of tooth wear (i.e., none/minimal, some, or severe/extreme). Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression models were used to relate salivary characteristics and other factors to the outcome of tooth wear. Results Data are reported from 1,323 patients (age range 16–97 years) from 61 practices. Patient age, gender, number of teeth, and perception of dry mouth were associated with tooth wear, but salivary and dietary factors were either weakly or not related. Conclusions The findings of this cross-sectional assessment suggest that using these salivary tests and dietary assessments in real-life clinical settings is unlikely to be useful in assessing tooth wear risk. Suggestions are offered about risk assessment for tooth wear. Clinical relevance Assessing a dental patient’s risk of tooth wear using salivary measures and dietary assessments as described is not recommended for general dental practice until stronger evidence exists indicating its utility. PMID:24647789

  17. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  18. Correlation between Salivary Glucose and Blood Glucose and the Implications of Salivary Factors on the Oral Health Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puttaswamy, Kavitha A.; Puttabudhi, Jaishankar H.; Raju, Shashidara

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate and assess any correlation between random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) and unstimulated whole salivary glucose (UWSG), as well as to estimate various salivary parameters, such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and the influence of these factors on the oral health status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: Sixty individuals suffering from type 2 DM and 40 healthy individuals in the age group of 30–60 years were included in the study. RCBG was estimated using glucometer and UWSG was estimated using photocolorimeter. Salivary parameters such as flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity were assessed using GC® Saliva kit. Oral health status was recorded using the Russell's periodontal index (RPI) and the Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RCBG levels and UWSG. Type 2 diabetics had low mean salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RPI. Conclusion: Among the salivary factors studied, salivary glucose significantly influenced the periodontal status in Type 2 diabetics. PMID:28316946

  19. Mature salivary gland rests within sonic hedgehog-positive medulloblastoma: case report and insights into the molecular genetics and embryopathology of ectopic intracranial salivary gland analogs.

    PubMed

    Shammassian, Berje; Manjila, Sunil; Cox, Efrem; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Wang, Dehua; Rodgers, Mark; Stearns, Duncan; Selman, Warren R

    2016-12-01

    Intracranial ectopic salivary gland rests within dural-based lesions are reported very infrequently in the literature. The authors report the unique case of a 12-year-old boy with a cerebellar medulloblastoma positive for sonic hedgehog (Shh) that contained intraaxial mature ectopic salivary gland rests. The patient underwent clinical and radiological monitoring postoperatively, until he died of disseminated disease. An autopsy showed no evidence of salivary glands within disseminated lesions. The intraaxial presence of salivary gland rests and concomitant Shh positivity of the described tumor point to a disorder in differentiation as opposed to ectopic developmental foci, which are uniformly dural based in the described literature. The authors demonstrate the characteristic "papilionaceous" appearance of the salivary glands with mucicarmine stain and highlight the role of Shh signaling in explaining the intraaxial presence of seromucous gland analogs. This article reports the first intraaxial posterior fossa tumor with heterotopic salivary gland rests, and it provides molecular and embryopathological insights into the development of these lesions.

  20. Metal content of biopsies adjacent to dental cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Garhammer, Pauline; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T

    2003-06-01

    Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.

  1. Experimental vaccination of chicks with Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites. I. Circumsporozoite proteins are expressed by sporozoites recovered from both salivary glands and midguts of mosquitoes

    SciTech Connect

    Daher, V.R.; Krettli, A.U.

    1987-08-01

    Immunogenicity of Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites for chicks and their in vitro reactivity with normal and specific immune sera were studied. Two sporozoite populations recovered from experimentally infected Aedes fluviatilis were used: sporozoites from salivary glands and sporozoites from midgut oocysts. Populations seven to nine days old of sporozoites recovered from salivary glands were infective for all chicks until the chicks were three weeks old; however, sporozoites recovered from midguts containing oocysts infected these chicks only if isolated on days 8-9, but not on day 7 after the mosquitoes' infective blood meal. Infectivity of the sporozoites was lost after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light (30 min) or X-rays (13 krad). Inactivated sporozoites from both sources proved highly immunogenic to chicks that were immunized by several intravenous or intramuscular injections. These parasites elicited a strong humoral immune response in the chicks, as measured by the circumsporozoite precipitation (CSP) reaction. The levels of the CSP antibodies were similar with sporozoites from both sources, there being no detectable differences in the percentage of reactive sporozoites or the intensity of the CSP reaction with sera containing antibodies to either sporozoites from salivary glands or sporozoites from oocysts. These results provide the first evidence that avian malaria sporozoites express the circumsporozoite protein that has been extensively characterized in mammalian malaria (rodent, simian, human sporozoites). Furthermore, we observed that the yields of sporozoites obtained from mosquito midguts, on days 8 and 9 of the P. gallinaceum infection, were at least twice as great as those obtained by salivary gland dissection, even 20 days after a blood meal.

  2. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Joselene Martinelli; Moura-Grec, Patrícia Garcia de; Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues de; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05). Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects.

  3. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2013-02-01

    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  4. Influence of dietary nutritional composition on caterpillar salivary enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Babic, Branislav; Poisson, Alexandre; Darwish, Shireef; Lacasse, Jean; Merkx-Jacques, Magali; Despland, Emma; Bede, Jacqueline C

    2008-01-01

    Caterpillars are faced with nutritional challenges when feeding on plants. In addition to harmful secondary metabolites and protein- and water-limitations, tissues may be carbohydrate-rich which may attenuate optimal caterpillar performance. Therefore, caterpillars have multiple strategies to cope with surplus carbohydrates. In this study, we raise the possibility of a pre-ingestive mechanism to metabolically deal with excess dietary sugars. Many Noctuid caterpillars secrete the labial salivary enzyme glucose oxidase (GOX), which oxidizes glucose to hydrogen peroxide and gluconate, a nutritionally unavailable carbohydrate to the insect. Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, larvae were restricted to diets varying in protein to digestible carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (42p:21c; 33p:30c; 21p:42c) and total nutrient concentration (42% and 63%). High mortality and longer developmental time were observed when caterpillars were reared on the C-biased, P-poor diet (21p:42c). As the carbohydrate content of the diet increased, caterpillars egested excess glucose and a diet-dependent difference in assimilated carbohydrates and pupal biomass was not observed, even though caterpillars restricted to the C-biased diet (21p:42c) accumulated greater pupal lipid reserves. Larval labial salivary GOX activity was also diet-dependent and gluconate, the product of GOX activity, was detected in the frass. Unexpectedly, GOX activity was strongly and positively correlated with dietary protein content.

  5. Plasma and salivary amoxicillin concentrations and effect against oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Baglie, S; Del Ruenis, A P Bortolo; Motta, R H Lopes; Baglie, R C Catelli; Franco, G C Nobre; Franco, L M; Rosalen, P L; Silva, P; Groppo, F C

    2007-10-01

    Plasma and salivary amoxicillin (AMO) concentrations were quantified following a single oral dose (875 mg) of two formulations of AMO (Amoxicillin-EMS Sigma Pharma and Amoxil BD 875 mg). In addition, the effect of amoxicillin against oral microorganisms was accessed. The open, randomized, two-period crossover study was carried out in 20 volunteers. Saliva and blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h after drug administration, and quantified using HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC, respectively. Streptococci counts, anaerobe counts and total microorganism counts were obtained. No differences were observed between formulations (p > 0.05) in the plasma and salivary AMO concentrations and the pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), t(max), AUC(0-8), and AUC(0-infinity)) also showed no statistically significant differences between formulations (p > 0.05). Microorganism counts for the two formulations at all sampling times did not differ (p > 0.05) but all microorganism counts at 60 min post-dose showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). Amoxicillin was effective in reducing oral microorganism levels up to 12 h post-dose.

  6. Salivary duct carcinoma: A clinopathological report of 11 cases

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, XIAOFENG; HAO, JING; CHEN, SHENG; DENG, RUNZHI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to summarize the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and to evaluate the currently available treatment modalities. Between 2001 and 2011, 11 patients with SDC were diagnosed and treated at the Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology of Nanjing University (Nanjing, Jiangsu, China). The present study retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data of these 11 patients and the results indicated that the parotid gland was the most commonly affected site, followed by the submandibular gland and the palate. Furthermore, the mean age of onset was 58.8 years and all cases were treated with surgery, with 72.7% receiving post-operative radiation therapy. The range for the follow-up period was 10–89 months and of the 11 patients investigated, only two succumbed to the disease. In addition, the two-year overall survival rate was 75% according to Kaplan-Meier analysis and the mean overall survival time was 72.8 months. In conclusion, the present study determined that the site of the malignancy is the best predictor of survival in patients with the rare salivary malignancy SDC, while age, gender, T stage, N stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, nerve paralysis, post-operative radiation, neck dissection, and protein expression levels of Ki-67, androgen receptor and human epidermal growth factor-2/neu are less influential factors. PMID:26171026

  7. Recent evolution of the salivary mucin MUC7

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Duo; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Thamadilok, Supaporn; Redwood, Emilie; Fox, Sara; Blekhman, Ran; Ruhl, Stefan; Gokcumen, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Genomic structural variants constitute the majority of variable base pairs in primate genomes and affect gene function in multiple ways. While whole gene duplications and deletions are relatively well-studied, the biology of subexonic (i.e., within coding exon sequences), copy number variation remains elusive. The salivary MUC7 gene provides an opportunity for studying such variation, as it harbors copy number variable subexonic repeat sequences that encode for densely O-glycosylated domains (PTS-repeats) with microbe-binding properties. To understand the evolution of this gene, we analyzed mammalian and primate genomes within a comparative framework. Our analyses revealed that (i) MUC7 has emerged in the placental mammal ancestor and rapidly gained multiple sites for O-glycosylation; (ii) MUC7 has retained its extracellular activity in saliva in placental mammals; (iii) the anti-fungal domain of the protein was remodified under positive selection in the primate lineage; and (iv) MUC7 PTS-repeats have evolved recurrently and under adaptive constraints. Our results establish MUC7 as a major player in salivary adaptation, likely as a response to diverse pathogenic exposure in primates. On a broader scale, our study highlights variable subexonic repeats as a primary source for modular evolutionary innovation that lead to rapid functional adaptation. PMID:27558399

  8. Cytogenetic analysis of myoepithelial cell carcinoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Magrini, Elisabetta; Pragliola, Antonella; Farnedi, Anna; Betts, Christine M; Cocchi, Roberto; Foschini, Maria P

    2004-01-01

    Myoepithelial cell carcinoma (MCC) of the salivary gland is a rare entity. Here, we describe the karyotype of MCC. The patient was a 53-year-old man, with a rapidly growing lesion of the palate. Despite complete surgical excision, radio- and chemotherapy, the lesion rapidly harboured local and distant metastases leading to the death of the patient, 4 months after the diagnosis. On histological and ultrastructural examination, the primary tumour and the related metastases were composed of oval and spindle cells, with features of myoepithelial cell differentiation reported in the literature. Cytogenetic analysis showed a composite karyotype in the primary tumour: 45-46,XY, +3[cp3]/ 44-45,XY, -17[cp4]/ 46,XY[5]. The lymph-node metastasis was near-triploid and showed a complex karyotype. Our cytogenetic data differ from those described in benign or slowly growing salivary gland tumours showing myoepithelial cell differentiation. It is suggested that highly aggressive tumours might follow a different pathway of malignant transformation.

  9. Xerostomia, Hyposalivation, and Salivary Flow in Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Casañas, Elisabeth; Ramírez, Lucía; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Hernández, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is frequent among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. It is not clear if the presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is greater in DM than non-DM patients. The aims of this systematic review are (1) to compare the prevalence rates of xerostomia, (2) to evaluate the salivary flow rate, and (3) to compare the prevalence rates of hyposalivation in DM versus non-DM population. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in biomedical databases from 1970 until January 18th, 2016. All studies showed higher prevalence of xerostomia in DM patients in relation to non-DM population, 12.5%–53.5% versus 0–30%. Studies that analyzed the quantity of saliva in DM population in relation to non-DM patients reported higher flow rates in non-DM than in DM patients. The variation flow rate among different studies in each group (DM/CG) is very large. Only one existing study showed higher hyposalivation prevalence in DM than non-DM patients (45% versus 2.5%). In addition, quality assessment showed the low quality of the existing studies. We recommend new studies that use more precise and current definitions concerning the determination and diagnosis of DM patients and salivary flow collection. PMID:27478847

  10. Salivary Mucins Protect Surfaces from Colonization by Cariogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the body's natural defenses function to protect the oral cavity from the myriad of bacteria that colonize its surfaces is an ongoing topic of research that can lead to breakthroughs in treatment and prevention. One key defense mechanism on all moist epithelial linings, such as the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs, is a layer of thick, well-hydrated mucus. The main gel-forming components of mucus are mucins, large glycoproteins that play a key role in host defense. This study focuses on elucidating the connection between MUC5B salivary mucins and dental caries, one of the most common oral diseases. Dental caries is predominantly caused by Streptococcus mutans attachment and biofilm formation on the tooth surface. Once S. mutans attaches to the tooth, it produces organic acids as metabolic by-products that dissolve tooth enamel, leading to cavity formation. We utilize CFU counts and fluorescence microscopy to quantitatively show that S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation are most robust in the presence of sucrose and that aqueous solutions of purified human MUC5B protect surfaces by acting as an antibiofouling agent in the presence of sucrose. In addition, we find that MUC5B does not alter S. mutans growth and decreases surface attachment and biofilm formation by maintaining S. mutans in the planktonic form. These insights point to the importance of salivary mucins in oral health and lead to a better understanding of how MUC5B could play a role in cavity prevention or diagnosis. PMID:25344244

  11. Biomarkers in Autoimmune Salivary Gland Disorders: A Review.

    PubMed

    Hofauer, Benedikt; Thuermel, Klaus; Gahleitner, Constanze; Knopf, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Salivary glands are frequent sites of manifestations of autoimmune disorders in the head and neck. Sjögren syndrome, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and IgG4-related sialadenitis represent the most important autoimmune salivary gland disorders. Due to the lack of specific symptoms, diagnosis of these conditions remains a challenge. Diagnosis is usually based on classification criteria involving clinical tests, histopathological evaluation, and serological examinations. Depending on the disease, biomarkers are of different value and have to be interpreted carefully. In Sjögren syndrome, antibodies against Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B are essential and part of established classification criteria. In sarcoidosis, biomarkers such as angiotensin-converting enzyme, serum amyloid A, adenosine deaminase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor are not suitable to confirm a diagnosis due to low sensitivity and specificity, but allow a differentiation between active and inactive disease. In patients with suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis, positivity for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) allows a diagnosis without histopathological confirmation in selected cases. In the head and neck, limited manifestations are common, in which less patients are positive for ANCA and histopathological confirmation is required. Diagnosis of IgG4-related sialadenitis solely based on elevated IgG4 serum levels is not possible. The concentration of blood plasmablasts is reported to have a higher diagnostic value.

  12. Infant hair cortisol: associations with salivary cortisol and environmental context.

    PubMed

    Flom, Megan; St John, Ashley M; Meyer, Jerrold S; Tarullo, Amanda R

    2017-01-01

    Early chronic stress has enduring implications for physical and mental health outcomes. Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has emerged as a marker of cumulative cortisol exposure, yet HCC in infants is not well understood. We examined how infant HCC relates to widely used basal salivary cortisol measures, maternal HCC, and environmental context in 111 infants assessed at 6 and 12 months of age. Maternal HCC at 6 and 12 months was correlated with infant HCC at 12 months. At 12 months, infant HCC was positively associated with waking salivary cortisol concentration (SCC), evening SCC, and area under the curve (AUC), but was independent of diurnal slope. Breastfeeding was associated with lower HCC, whereas increased sleep disruption was related to flatter slope. Reduced nighttime sleep duration was related both to higher HCC and to flatter slope. A person-focused analysis indicated that the combination of high HCC and flattened slope was associated with more environmental risks, highlighting the importance of investigating the interplay between HCC and diurnal cortisol slope. Results support the validity of HCC as a marker of cumulative cortisol exposure in infancy, while emphasizing the value of including multiple cortisol measures assessing distinct aspects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function.

  13. Papillary cystoadenoma lymphomatosum (Warthin-like) of minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Párraga-Linares, Laura; Aguirre-Urízar, Jose-María; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2009-11-01

    Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum is a benign salivary gland tumor most frequently located in the parotid gland (Warthin's tumor). Its presentation in other major, or in minor, salivary glands is rare. Clinically, it manifests as a slow growing tumor, fluctuant on palpation due to its cystic morphology. The treatment of choice is complete excision with wide tumor-free margins. We present a 73-year-old female patient with an asymptomatic tumor of 8 years evolution in the right posterior area of the hard palate. We performed surgical excision and a biopsy, which was reported as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum. During the post-operative examination carried out after 3 weeks, it was observed that the lesion had recurred. The lesion was re-operated, performing the excision with CO2 laser and including the periosteum to ensure complete resection of the tumor. At 10 months follow-up, there was no recurrence of the lesion. This article includes a review of this condition and discusses its most important clinical and pathologic features and therapeutic approaches.

  14. Social network characteristics and salivary cortisol in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Lai, Julian C L; Chong, Alice M L; Siu, Oswald T; Evans, Phil; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2012-01-01

    Psychobiological research on aging in humans has been confounded by individual differences that have not been adequately characterized in the literature. This paper is an attempt to shed light on this issue by examining the impact of social network characteristics predictive of successful aging on salivary cortisol among 78 older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Eight salivary cortisol samples were collected each day for two consecutive days from immediately after awakening to 12 hours later. Two components of the cortisol diurnal cycle, response to awakening and diurnal decline, were examined in relation to social network characteristics including size, emotional support, and cultivation. ANOVAs with repeated measured were run to examine influences of the three social network characteristics on the cortisol awakening response and diurnal decline, with the effects of gender, age, socioeconomic status, and waking time controlled. Results indicated that those who spent more time and effort in developing and strengthening their social ties (i.e., those high in "cultivation") exhibited a significantly greater rise in cortisol in the morning and a significantly steeper decline over the day, thus attesting to more effective activation and deactivation of the HPA axis. Network cultivation reflected a positive motivation to nurture social relationships more than the other two network characteristics. Its effect on cortisol might stem from the positivity underlying the motivation.

  15. Dental anxiety and salivary cortisol levels before urgent dental care.

    PubMed

    Kanegane, Kazue; Penha, Sibele S; Munhoz, Carolina D; Rocha, Rodney G

    2009-12-01

    Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment, and affects the utilization of health care services. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if patients with different degrees of dental anxiety and pain undergoing emergency dental care have different stress reactions as measured by salivary cortisol. Seventy three patients completed the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and described any previous dental traumatic experience. Their socio-demographic characteristics were also recorded. They also rated pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A saliva sample was collected before the procedure, and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Thirty patients were dentally anxious and forty one complained of pain. In this sample, dental anxiety was not related to gender, age, educational level and family income; however, a previous traumatic event was related to dental anxiety. There was no association between salivary cortisol concentrations and gender or dental anxiety. Patients with pain showed higher cortisol levels. When gathering patient information, the dentist should note patients' negative dental experiences in order to provide more effective, less traumatic treatment.

  16. Mortality of passerines adjacent to a North Carolina corn field treated with granular carbofuran.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Tom; Smith, Milton R.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1996-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were collected during an epizootic in southeastern North Carolina (USA). Activity of brain cholinesterase (ChE) was inhibited by 14 to 48% in three of five specimens, and returned to normal levels after incubation. Gastrointestinal tracts were analyzed for 30 anti-ChE agents. Carbofuran, the only compound detected, was present in all specimens at levels from 5.44 to 72.7 μg/g wet weight. Application of granular carbofuran in an adjacent corn field, results of necropsy examinations, and chemical analyses are consistent with a diagnosis of carbofuran poisoning in these specimens.

  17. Localized arteriole formation directly adjacent to the site of VEGF-induced angiogenesis in muscle.

    PubMed

    Springer, Matthew L; Ozawa, Clare R; Banfi, Andrea; Kraft, Peggy E; Ip, Tze-Kin; Brazelton, Timothy R; Blau, Helen M

    2003-04-01

    We have shown previously that implantation of myoblasts constitutively expressing the VEGF-A gene into nonischemic mouse skeletal muscle leads to overgrowth of capillary-like blood vessels and hemangioma formation. These aberrant effects occurred directly at the implantation site. We show here that these regions result from angiogenic capillary growth and involve a change in capillary growth pattern and that smooth muscle-coated vessels similar to arterioles form directly adjacent to the implantation site. Myoblasts genetically engineered to produce VEGF were implanted into mouse leg muscles. Implantation sites were surrounded by a zone of dense capillary-sized vessels, around which was a second zone of muscle containing larger, smooth-muscle-covered vessels but few capillaries, and an outer zone of muscle exhibiting normal capillary density. The lack of capillaries in the middle region suggests that the preexisting capillaries adjacent to the implantation site underwent enlargement and/or fusion and recruited a smooth muscle coat. Capillaries at the implantation site were frequently wrapped around VEGF-producing muscle fibers and were continuous with the circulation and were not observed to include bone-marrow-derived endothelial cells. In contrast with the distant arteriogenesis resulting from VEGF delivery described in previous studies, we report here that highly localized arterioles also form adjacent to the site of delivery.

  18. Salivary cortisol determination in patients from the Basque Country with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Conde-Llamosas, Rafael; López-Vicente, José; Uribarri-Etxebarria, Agurne; Aguirre-Urizar, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Stress and anxiety are controversial factors involved in the complex pathogenesis of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS). The determination of salivary cortisol is a useful, simple and safe test to detect states of high stress or anxiety. The aim of this study is to check for changes in salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS during periods of active disease. Study design: A measurement of cortisol employing Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was carried out in samples of unstimulated saliva from 20 patients with active lesions of RAS and 10 healthy individuals used as controls. Results: Increased levels of salivary cortisol were detected in 3 cases, all of them within the group of patients with RAS. In none of the control group patients the level of salivary cortisol was increased. The mean level of salivary cortisol was 0.64 mg / dl (range 0.2 to 1.62) for patients with RAS and 0.57 mg / dl (range 0.25 to 1.09) for controls. Conclusion: Salivary cortisol levels are not statistically higher in patients with active lesions of RAS. Key words:Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, cortisol, oral ulcers, canker sores, salivary cortisol. PMID:23385495

  19. Effect of Acute Noise Exposure on Salivary Cortisol: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Mehrdad, Ramin; Valipouri, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular adverse effects are interesting aspects of occupational noise exposure. One possible mechanism of these effects is an alternation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Our aim was to measure salivary cortisol response to relatively high-intensity noise exposure in a controlled randomized trial study. We exposed 50 male volunteers to 90 dBA noise for 20 minutes and compared their level of salivary cortisol with 50 non-exposed controls. Salivary samples obtained before and after exposure. Before intervention means (SD) salivary cortisol level were 3.24 (0.47)ng/ml and 3.25 (0.41)ng/ml for exposed and non-exposed groups respectively. Mean salivary cortisol level increased to 4.17 ng/mlafter intervention in exposure group. This increment was statistically significant (P=0.00). Mean salivary cortisol level of the non-exposed group had statistically non-significant decrement after this period (0.2 ng/ml). The difference between salivary cortisol level of non-exposed and exposed groups after the intervention was statistically significant. Noise exposure may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and this may be one of the mechanisms of noise exposure cardiovascular effects.

  20. Overexpression of DCLK1 is predictive for recurrent disease in major salivary gland malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kadletz, Lorenz; Aumayr, Klaus; Heiduschka, Gregor; Schneider, Sven; Enzenhofer, Elisabeth; Lill, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas are a rare malignancy. Therefore, little is known about biomarkers and cancer stem cells in salivary gland malignancies. Double cortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is a promising therapeutic target and cancer stem cell marker, predominantly investigated in pancreatic and colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of DCLK1 in major and minor salivary gland carcinomas and its influence on survival. We examined a total of 80 patients with major or minor salivary gland cancer in this retrospective study. Immunohistochemistry with anti-DCLK1 antibody was applied to assess the expression of DCLK1. Moreover, we evaluated the impact of DCLK1 on overall and disease-free survival. DCLK1 expression could be detected in 66.3 % of all examined cases. Overexpression of DCLK1 was associated with reduced overall and disease-free survival in patients with major salivary gland cancer. Disease-free survival reached statistical significance (p = 0.0107). However, expression of DCLK1 had no influence on survival in patients with minor salivary gland cancer. Since treatment of recurrent disease in oncologic patients is utterly challenging, DCLK1 may be a promising prognostic biomarker that helps to identify patients with a high risk for recurrence of major salivary gland carcinoma.

  1. Role of the lateral hypothalamus in submandibular salivary secretion during feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Ryuji; Kobashi, Motoi; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Masako

    2015-01-30

    To evaluate the role of the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) in the masticatory-salivary reflex, we investigated submandibular salivary secretion and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the jaw-closer masseter muscle in sham-operated rats and rats with unilateral LH lesions. One week prior to surgery and recording, the rats were given daily experience of eating pellets; powder; or hard, medium or soft mash, all of which were composed of laboratory chow. Salivary secretion was induced during eating and grooming behavior. During eating, the powdered food induced the highest salivary flow rate, and the soft (wet) mash induced the lowest salivary flow rate. Conversely, the amount of food consumed (dry weight) was greatest when soft mash was provided and lowest when the powder or pellets (a dry diet) were provided. The EMG activity of the masseter muscle during eating was greatest during consumption of the pellets and weakest during consumption of the powder. LH lesions that were ipsilateral to the examined submandibular gland reduced salivary secretion to about 20-30% of the control value, whereas contralateral LH lesions reduced it to about 40-50% of the control value. Neither masseter muscle EMG activity nor food consumption was markedly affected by the presence of an LH lesion. These results suggest that the texture of food, especially its water content, affects the flow rate of saliva and that the LH is heavily involved in the masticatory-salivary reflex.

  2. THE SALIVARY TRANSCRIPTOME OF Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) LARVAE: A MICROARRAY-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Neira Oviedo, M.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Heyland, A.; VanEkeris, L.; Moroz, T.; Linser, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the many recent developments in the field of vector sialomics, the salivary glands of larval mosquitoes have been largely unexplored. We used whole-transcriptome microarray analysis to create a gene-expression profile of the salivary gland tissue of fourth-instar Anopheles gambiae larvae, and compare it to the gene-expression profile of a matching group of whole larvae. We identified a total of 221 probes with expression values that were (a) significantly enriched in the salivary glands, and (b) sufficiently annotated as to allow the prediction of the presence/absence of signal peptides in their corresponding gene products. Based on available annotation of the protein sequences associated with these probes, we propose that the main roles of larval salivary secretions include: (a) immune response, (b) mouthpart lubrication, (c) nutrient metabolism, and (d) xenobiotic detoxification. Other highlights of the study include the cloning of a transcript encoding a previously unknown salivary defensin (AgDef5), the confirmation of mucus secretion by the larval salivary glands, and the first report of salivary lipocalins in the Culicidae. PMID:19328852

  3. Primary salivary duct carcinoma of the lung, mucin-rich variant.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Grimes, Brandon S; Xian, Rena R; Lee, Jay M; Barjaktarevic, Igor; Xu, Haodong

    2016-01-01

    Primary salivary gland-type lung cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the seromucinous glands of the respiratory tract. Histopathologically, they are identical to salivary gland neoplasms of the head and neck. While mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are overwhelmingly the most common subtypes found in the lung, reports of uncommon subtypes can be found in the literature. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman with primary lung salivary duct carcinoma, mucin-rich variant--an exceedingly rare subtype of an already rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm. One case of primary lung salivary duct carcinoma has been reported in the literature; however, the mucin-rich variant has never been described in the lung. Furthermore, the tumor in our case bears a rare BRAF G464V mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a BRAF G464V mutation detected in a salivary duct carcinoma or any other salivary-type neoplasm.

  4. Invasion of mosquito salivary glands by malaria parasites: Prerequisites and defense strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Kohlhepp, Florian; Hammerschmidt, Christiane; Michel, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between vector and pathogen is essential for vector-borne disease transmission. Dissecting the molecular basis of refractoriness of some vectors may pave the way to novel disease control mechanisms. A pathogen often needs to overcome several physical barriers, such as the peritrophic matrix, midgut epithelium and salivary glands. Additionally, the arthropod vector elicites immune responses that can severely limit transmission success. One important step in the transmission of most vector-borne diseases is the entry of the disease agent into the salivary glands of its arthropod vector. The salivary glands of blood-feeding arthropods produce a complex mixture of molecules that facilitate blood feeding by inhibition of the host haemostasis, inflammation and immune reactions. Pathogen entry into salivary glands is a receptor-mediated process, which requires molecules on the surface of the pathogen and salivary gland. In most cases, the nature of these molecules remains unknown. Recent advances in our understanding of malaria parasite entry into mosquito salivary glands strongly suggests that specific carbohydrate molecules on the salivary gland surface function as docking receptors for malaria parasites. PMID:20621627

  5. Neuromuscular performance of elite rugby union players and relationships with salivary hormones.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Lowe, Tim; Weatherby, Robert P; Gill, Nicholas; Keogh, Justin

    2009-10-01

    This study compared the neuromuscular performance (speed, power, strength) of elite rugby union players, by position, and examined the relationship between player performance and salivary hormones, by squad and position. Thirty-four professional male rugby players were assessed for running speed (10-m, 20-m or 30-m sprints), concentric mean (MP) and peak power (PP) during a 70-kg squat jump (SJ) and 50-kg bench press throw (BT), and estimated 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength for a box squat (BS) and bench press (BP). Tests were performed on separate days with absolute and normalized (power and strength only) values computed. Saliva was collected before each test and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). In absolute terms, the backs demonstrated greater speed and BT MP, whereas the forwards produced greater SJ PP and MP and BS 1RM (p < 0.01). However, BT, SJ and BS performances were no different when normalized for body mass in kg (p > 0.05). A comparison (absolute and normalized) of BT PP showed no positional differences (p > 0.05), whereas BP 1RM was greater for the forwards (p < 0.05). These results may be attributed to genetic and/or training factors relating to the positional demands of rugby. The Sal-T and/or Sal-C concentrations of players correlated to speed, power, and strength, especially for the backs (p < 0.05), thereby confirming relationships between neuromuscular performance and hormone secretion patterns. Based on these findings, it was suggested that training to increase whole-body and muscle mass might facilitate general performance improvements. Training prescription might also benefit from acute and chronic hormone monitoring to identify those individuals likely to respond more to hormonal change.

  6. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p < 0.05), and the maximal torque in the fusion model was about threefold (p < 0.05) that in the control model. And in axial rotation, the ROM of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was increased by about 100 % (p < 0.001), and the maximal torque was about sixfold (p < 0.01) that in the control model. The ROM of adjacent segments was significantly increased after pedicle screw fixation as assessed by biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, but not in those regulated by torque. We present the results of biomechanical tests regulated by torque and angular displacement and show that the maximum torque of the fusion model was larger than that of the control model in the biomechanical test regulated by an angular displacement load, suggesting that mechanical stress on the segments adjacent to the fused segment is large. We think that ASD arises after spinal fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically

  7. Expression of albumin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-Min; Tan, Wei-Min; Deng, Wei-Xiong; Zhuang, Si-Min; Luo, Jian-Wei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of albumin (ALB), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty-four HCC patients with cirrhosis who underwent hepatectomy were studied. ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA in liver tissues (including tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues) were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Liver Ki67 immunohistochemistry staining was studied. At the same time, 12 patients with cholelithiasis or liver angioma who underwent operation were segregated as normal control. RESULTS: In HCC patients with cirrhosis, hepatic ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA of tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were lower than the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues, hepatic ALB mRNA and IGFBP-3 mRNA were lower, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Liver Ki67 labeling index (Ki67 LI) in tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were higher than that in the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues it was higher than that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. CONCLUSION: Imbalance of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 may play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor development of liver cirrhosis patients. PMID:16015705

  8. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  9. Impaired mitochondria and intracellular calcium transients in the salivary glands of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Tanajak, Pongpan; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes not only obese-insulin resistance, but is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in several organs. However, the effect of obese-insulin resistance on salivary glands has not been investigated. We hypothesized that obese-insulin resistance induced by HFD impaired salivary gland function by reducing salivation, increasing inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as impairing mitochondrial function and calcium transient signaling. Male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were fed either a ND or an HFD (n = 8/group) for 16 weeks. At the end of week 16, salivary flow rates, metabolic parameters, and plasma oxidative stress were determined. Rats were then sacrificed and submandibular glands were removed to determine inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, mitochondrial function and dynamics, and intracellular calcium transient signaling. Long-term consumption of an HFD caused obese-insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation, and apoptosis in the salivary glands. In addition, impaired mitochondrial function, as indicated by increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and mitochondrial swelling in salivary glands and impaired intracellular calcium regulation, as indicated by a reduced intracellular calcium transient rising rate, decay rates, and amplitude of salivary acinar cells, were observed in HFD-fed rats. However, salivary flow rate and level of aquaporin 5 protein were not different between both groups. Although HFD consumption did not affect salivation, it caused obese-insulin resistance, leading to pathophysiological alteration of salivary glands, including impaired intracellular calcium transients, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and salivary mitochondrial dysfunction.

  10. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Limesand, Kirsten H.; Avila, Jennifer L.; Victory, Kerton; Chang, Hui-Hua; Shin, Yoon Joo; Grundmann, Oliver; Klein, Rob R.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

  11. Evaluation of Salivary Leptin Levels in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Afshin; Bayani, Mojtaba; Torabi, Sepehr; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadnejhad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Leptin is a hormone-like protein produced by the adipose tissue. It plays an important role in protection of host against inflammation and infection. Some studies have reported changes in leptin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva and blood serum of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary leptin levels in patients with advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the salivary samples of healthy individuals and patients with advanced periodontitis with clinical attachment loss >5mm were obtained using a standardized method and the leptin levels were measured in the salivary samples by means of ELISA. The effects of the periodontal status and sex on the salivary leptin levels of both groups were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Results: The means ± standard deviation (SD) of salivary leptin levels in healthy subjects and patients with advanced periodontitis were 34.27±6.88 and 17.87±5.89 pg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of sex on the salivary leptin levels was not significant (P=0.91), while the effect of advanced periodontitis on the salivary leptin levels was significant compared to healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Conclusions: In patients with advanced periodontitis, the salivary leptin levels were significantly lower compared to healthy individuals. Thus, assessment of salivary leptin can be done as a non-invasive and simple method to determine the susceptibility of patients to advanced periodontitis. PMID:27536322

  12. Fusion angle affects intervertebral adjacent spinal segment joint forces-Model-based analysis of patient specific alignment.

    PubMed

    Senteler, Marco; Weisse, Bernhard; Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Farshad, Mazda T; Snedeker, Jess G

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the hypothesis that adjacent segment intervertebral joint loads are sensitive to the degree of lordosis that is surgically imposed during vertebral fusion. Adjacent segment degeneration is often observed after lumbar fusion, but a causative mechanism is not yet clearly evident. Altered kinematics of the adjacent segments and potentially nonphysiological mechanical joint loads have been implicated in this process. However, little is known of how altered alignment and kinematics influence loading of the adjacent intervertebral joints under consideration of active muscle forces. This study investigated these effects by simulating L4/5 fusions using kinematics-driven musculoskeletal models of one generic and eight sagittal alignment-specific models. Models featured different spinopelvic configurations but were normalized by body height, masses, and muscle properties. Fusion of the L4/5 segment was implemented in an in situ (22°), hyperlordotic (32°), and hypolordotic (8°) fashion and kinematic input parameters were changed accordingly based on findings of an in vitro investigation. Bending motion from upright standing to 45° forward flexion and back was simulated for all models in intact and fused conditions. Joint loads at adjacent levels and moment arms of spinal muscles experienced changes after all types of fusion. Hypolordotic configuration led to an increase of adjacent segment (L3/4) shear forces of 29% on average, whereas hyperlordotic fusion reduced shear by 39%. Overall, L4/5 in situ fusion resulted in intervertebral joint forces closest to intact loading conditions. An artificial decrease in lumbar lordosis (minus 14° on average) caused by an L4/5 fusion lead to adverse loading conditions, particularly at the cranial adjacent levels, and altered muscle moment arms, in particular for muscles in the vicinity of the fusion. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:131-139, 2017.

  13. Best Merge Region Growing Segmentation with Integrated Non-Adjacent Region Object Aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Montesano, Paul M.; Gofman, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Best merge region growing normally produces segmentations with closed connected region objects. Recognizing that spectrally similar objects often appear in spatially separate locations, we present an approach for tightly integrating best merge region growing with non-adjacent region object aggregation, which we call Hierarchical Segmentation or HSeg. However, the original implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg required excessive computing time even for moderately sized images because of the required intercomparison of each region with all other regions. This problem was previously addressed by a recursive approximation of HSeg, called RHSeg. In this paper we introduce a refined implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg that reduces the computational requirements of HSeg without resorting to the recursive approximation. In this refinement, HSeg s region inter-comparisons among non-adjacent regions are limited to regions of a dynamically determined minimum size. We show that this refined version of HSeg can process moderately sized images in about the same amount of time as RHSeg incorporating the original HSeg. Nonetheless, RHSeg is still required for processing very large images due to its lower computer memory requirements and amenability to parallel processing. We then note a limitation of RHSeg with the original HSeg for high spatial resolution images, and show how incorporating the refined HSeg into RHSeg overcomes this limitation. The quality of the image segmentations produced by the refined HSeg is then compared with other available best merge segmentation approaches. Finally, we comment on the unique nature of the hierarchical segmentations produced by HSeg.

  14. Salivary duct cyst on lower lip: A rare entity and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Ankita; Sircar, Keya; Chowdhry, Aman; Bablani, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lips. Salivary duct cyst, however, is a type of mucous retention cyst which is almost never located on the lower lip. The aim of this paper is to report this extremely rare salivary duct cyst present on the lower lip and to critically review the literature to build important concepts that would help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25364168

  15. Diagnostic value of minor salivary glands biopsy for the detection of Lewy pathology.

    PubMed

    Folgoas, Emmanuelle; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Cersosimo, Maria-Graciela; Barthelaix, Annick; Derkinderen, Pascal; Letournel, Franck

    2013-09-13

    The recent demonstration of the presence of Lewy pathology in the submandibular glands of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients prompted us to evaluate the diagnostic performance of minor salivary gland biopsy for PD. Minor salivary glands were examined for Lewy pathology using phosphorylated alpha-synuclein antibody in 16 patients with clinically diagnosed PD and 11 control subjects with other neurological disorders. Abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein was found in 3 out of 16 PD patients. Two control subjects exhibited weak phosphorylated alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity. Our results do not support the use of minor salivary glands biopsy for the detection of Lewy pathology in living subjects.

  16. Influence of altered CSF solute composition on parotid salivary secretion in goats.

    PubMed

    Olsson, K

    1976-06-01

    Infusions of hypertonic NaCl solution into the CSF of the lateral cerebral ventricle of the goat caused a marked reduction in parotid salivary flow concomitant with a rise in salivary [Na+]. Corresponding infusions of iso- or hypertonic glucose and glycerol solutions affected salivary secretion in the opposite direction. The possibility is discussed that a periventricular sodium-sensitive mechanism, which is of importance in the central control of fluid balance, also may participate in the regulation of parotid secretion in the goat. This interpretation of the results is to some extent obscured by the observation of a high incidence of intermittent rumination during the intraventricular infusions of glucose and glycerol solution.

  17. Metastasizing "benign" pleomorphic salivary adenoma: a dramatic case-report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Foschini, Maria Pia; Farneti, Paolo; Pasquini, Ernesto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    Pleomorphic salivary adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms affecting the salivary glands. Very occasionally however, metastatic lesions are identified in patients with a history of PSA, which, on detailed pathological evaluation, are found to exhibit all the histological hallmarks of the preceding benign lesions. Diagnosis of benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland is extremely rare and still under debate. We present the first case-report in literature of multiple metachronous nasal cavity, scalp and encephalic metastases of a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland in a young girl.

  18. Signet-ring cell (mucin-producing) adenocarcinomas of minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, Julien E; Freedman, Paul D

    2004-01-01

    We report seven cases of minor salivary gland carcinomas characterized by the marked presence of mucin-containing signet-ring cells. These tumors were distinctive in their microscopic appearance and displayed features not seen in any other type of salivary gland malignancy. They typically exhibited invasive growth by narrow parallel strands, randomly scattered small nests, or individually infiltrating cells. Solid, cribriform, or targetoid areas were absent, as well as papillary components. Ductal differentiation was minimal, and seen in only four cases. Degrees of cellularity varied from one area to another. The tumors were cytologically bland. We think that these tumors represent a unique subset of intraoral minor salivary gland carcinomas.

  19. Detection of heparin in the salivary gland and midgut of Aedes togoi.

    PubMed

    Ha, Young-Ran; Oh, So-Ra; Seo, Eun-Seok; Kim, Bo-Heum; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-04-01

    Mosquitoes secrete saliva that contains biological substances, including anticoagulants that counteract a host's hemostatic response and prevent blood clotting during blood feeding. This study aimed to detect heparin, an anticoagulant in Aedes togoi using an immunohistochemical detection method, in the salivary canal, salivary gland, and midgut of male and female mosquitoes. Comparisons showed that female mosquitoes contained higher concentrations of heparin than male mosquitoes. On average, the level of heparin was higher in blood-fed female mosquitoes than in non-blood-fed female mosquitoes. Heparin concentrations were higher in the midgut than in the salivary gland. This indicates presence of heparin in tissues of A. togoi.

  20. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.