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Sample records for adjacent normal thyroid

  1. Differential expression of the Na+/I− symporter protein in thyroid cancer and adjacent normal and nodular goiter tissues

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SHASHA; LIANG, JUN; LIN, YANSONG; YAO, RUYONG

    2013-01-01

    The ability of differentiated thyroid cancer and adjacent thyroid cells to concentrate iodine is dependent on their expression of a functional NA+/I− symporter (NIS). Thyroid cancer is insensitive to 131I treatment if the thyroid cells lack the ability to concentrate iodide. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine whether the NIS protein was differentially expressed in thyroid cancer and various surrounding tissues. We recruited 114 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and divided them into two groups: 60 patients of 9 males and 51 females with a mean age of 49.55 years who had PTC with surrounding nodular goiter tissue (simplified as GNG), and 54 patients of 8 males and 46 females with a mean age of 45.78 years who had PTC with surrounding normal tissue (Gnormal) after total or near total thyroidectomy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections were prepared for immunohistochemical staining of the NIS protein and semi-quantitative analysis. The NIS protein was expressed in the basolateral membrane of the normal epithelium, while PTC and nodular goiter cells expressed NIS in the cytoplasm and basolateral membrane. The expression levels of the NIS protein were higher in the adjacent normal tissues compared with those of the surrounding nodular goiter tissues (P=0.002) and expression levels of the NIS protein were higher in PTC tissues compared with the surrounding nodular goiter tissues (P=0.008). The data from this study indicate that cancer-surrounding tissues may play a significant role in mediating the sensitivity of PTC patients to radioactive iodine treatment. PMID:23255951

  2. Does normal thyroid gland by ultrasonography match with normal serum thyroid hormones and negative thyroid antibodies?

    PubMed

    Trimboli, P; Rossi, F; Condorelli, E; Laurenti, O; Ventura, C; Nigri, G; Romanelli, F; Guarino, M; Valabrega, S

    2010-10-01

    Few papers have shown that a hypoechoic appearance of the thyroid gland at ultrasonography (US) is related to a hypofunction and serum positivity of thyroid antibodies (T-Ab). However, it is not ascertained if normal thyroid appearance at US correspond to normal thyroid laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to assess the value of normal thyroid at US in predicting normal thyroid hormones and negative T-Ab in a cohort of 48 adult patients. All patients (37 females and 11 males) were referred to our hospital to undergo their first thyroid US examination, followed by a thyroid function evaluation. All subjects had normal thyroid gland at US. As a control group 65 patients with hypoechoic and inhomogeneous thyroid gland were enrolled. All 48 patients had normal free-T (3) and free-T (4) levels. While 41 patients (85.4%) showed normal TSH, in 7 subjects (14.6%) TSH was elevated and a significant (p < 0.001) difference was recorded between the two groups in mean TSH value. Positive T-Ab value was found in 5 patients (10.4%) and the remaining 43 patients (89.6%) had negative T-Ab. TSH was not significantly correlated with age, thyroid volume or BMI. The multivariate model showed that only BMI was significantly correlated to thyroid volume (p < 0.01, r(2)=0.31). These results showed that normal thyroid recorded by US matches with normal thyroid laboratory assessment to a large degree. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in a prospective study and in a larger series and should suggest the evaluation of thyrotropin and thyroid antibodies in subjects with normal thyroid gland as assessed by US.

  3. Submandibular ectopic thyroid with normally located thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Mahmut Sinan; Aytürk, Semra; Güven, Mehmet; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland which is defined as the presence of thyroid tissue at a site other than the pretracheal area. Nearly 1 to 3% of all ectopic thyroids are located in the lateral neck. Simultaneous submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. In this article, we report a 37-year-old female case admitted to our clinic with a complaint of swollen neck in whom ultrasonography revealed submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with an orthotopic thyroid gland.

  4. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  5. Low-Normal Thyroid Function and Novel Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J.N.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2015-01-01

    The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures. PMID:25690422

  6. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications. PMID:27105534

  7. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ria, Roberto; Simeon, Vittorio; Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-05-17

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches.This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications.

  8. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ria, Roberto; Simeon, Vittorio; Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-05-17

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches.This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications. PMID:27105534

  9. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  10. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Ana Paula Santin; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Hillebrand, Ana Caroline; Furlanetto, Tania Weber

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P < 0.0001; 2.39 times, P = 0.01; 1.58 times, P = 0.0003; and 1.87 times, P < 0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P < 0.0001; 1.75 times, P = 0.037; and 1.95 times, P < 0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P = 0.069). These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth. PMID:26089899

  11. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bertoni, Ana Paula Santin; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Hillebrand, Ana Caroline; Furlanetto, Tania Weber

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P < 0.0001; 2.39 times, P = 0.01; 1.58 times, P = 0.0003; and 1.87 times, P < 0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P < 0.0001; 1.75 times, P = 0.037; and 1.95 times, P < 0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P = 0.069). These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth. PMID:26089899

  12. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland.

  13. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  14. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  15. Semiquantitative immunohistochemical marker staining and localization in canine thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V; Sartore, I; Borrego, J; Meikle, A

    2016-09-01

    Immunoreactive proteins in follicular cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were assessed in canine thyroid carcinomas and healthy thyroid glands. No differences were detected in thyrotropin receptor and thyroglobulin staining between cancer and normal tissues, but expression was higher in follicular cells than in fibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor-2 staining was more intense in healthy follicular cells than in those of carcinomas. Follicular cells in carcinomas presented two- to three-fold greater staining intensity of thyroid transcription factor-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively, than healthy cells, and a similar trend was found for the latter antigen in fibroblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor staining was more intense in the endothelial cells of tumours than in those of normal tissues. In conclusion, greater expression of factors related to proliferation and angiogenesis was demonstrated in several cell types within thyroid carcinomas compared to healthy tissues, which may represent mechanisms of tumour progression in this disease.

  16. Iodopovidone pleurodesis does not effect thyroid function in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Yeginsu, Ali; Karamustafaoglu, Altemur; Ozugurlu, Fikret; Etikan, Ilker

    2007-08-01

    Iodopovidone is an effective, safe, cheap, and easily available agent for pleurodesis. On the other hand, topical applications of iodopovidone may cause thyroid dysfunction. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the effects of intrapleural administration of iodopovidone on thyroid function. Twelve patients have undergone iodopovidone pleurodesis so far. A mixture of 20 ml 10% iodopovidone and 80 ml 0.9% saline solution was administered into the pleural cavity through the chest tube. Thyroid hormone (TSH, TT4, TT3, FT4, FT3) levels were routinely measured just before pleurodesis, and at the 24th and 72nd h of pleurodesis. No statistically significant alteration in thyroid function was determined (P>0.05). We did not observe any signs or symptoms of hyper- or hypothyroidism in any patient. Nine patients had a complete response to pleurodesis (75%). One patient who had undergone iodopovidone pleurodesis suffered from a moderate degree of transient chest pain. In conclusion, iodopovidone pleurodesis is safe and does not cause any thyroid dysfunction in normal adults.

  17. Thyroid Levels in High-Normal Range May Be Linked to Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160806.html Thyroid Levels in High-Normal Range May Be Linked ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with higher levels of thyroid hormone in their bloodstream may be at greater ...

  18. Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

    1986-09-01

    The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of (/sup 131/I) and (99mTc)pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter.

  19. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored.

  20. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored. PMID:27566169

  1. Different expression of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Stefano; Vaira, Valentina; Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Vicentini, Leonardo; Bosari, Silvano; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Mantovani, Giovanna; Spada, Anna; Lania, Andrea G

    2015-04-01

    The four regulatory subunits (R1A, R1B, R2A, R2B) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in several cancer cell lines and exert distinct roles in both cell growth and cell differentiation control. Mutations of the PRKAR1A gene have been found in patients with Carney complex and in a minority of sporadic anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the expression of different PKA regulatory subunits in benign and non benign human thyroid tumours and to correlate their expression with clinical phenotype. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant increase in PRKAR2B expression in both differentiated and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid tumors in comparison with normal thyroid tissues. Conversely, a significant increase in PRKAR1A expression was only demonstrated in undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas in comparison with normal thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid tumors. In thyroid cancers without lymph nodal metastases PRKAR1A expression was higher in tumours of more than 2 cm in size (T2 and T3) compared to smaller ones (T1). In conclusion, our data shows that an increased PRKAR1A expression is associated with aggressive and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. PMID:25393625

  2. Sonography of Normal and Abnormal Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Valcavi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) represents the most sensitive and efficient method for the evaluation of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Infectious and autoimmune thyroiditis are common diseases, usually diagnosed and followed up by clinical examination and laboratory analyses. Nevertheless, US plays an important role in confirming diagnoses, predicting outcomes and, in autoimmune hyperthyroidism, in titrating therapy. Conversely, in nodular thyroid disease US is the imaging method of choice for the characterization and surveillance of lesions. It provides consistent clues in predicting the risk of malignancy, thus directing patient referral for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. Suspicious US features generally include marked hypoechogenicity, a shape taller than it is wide, ill-defined or irregular borders, microcalcifications and hardness at elastographic evaluation. Finally, the role of US in thyroid cancer is to evaluate extension beyond the thyroid capsule and to assess nodal metastases or tumor recurrence. The main application of US in parathyroid diseases is represented by primary hyperparathyroidism. In this condition, US plays a role after biochemical diagnosis, and it should always be strictly performed for localization purposes. In both thyroidal and parathyroid diseases, US is recommended as a guide in FNA biopsies. PMID:27002829

  3. [Thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  4. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Tumor, Adjacent, and Normal Tissues of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhenzhu; Shen, Yanting; Lu, Jiafeng; Xie, Xueying; Ge, Qinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major type of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression profiles of miRNAs in adenocarcinoma (AC), one major subtype of NSCLC. In this study, the miRNAs were detected in normal, adjacent, and tumor tissues by next-generation sequencing. Then the expression levels of differential miRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the results, 259, 401, and 389 miRNAs were detected in tumor, adjacent, and normal tissues of pooled AC samples, respectively. In addition, for the first time we have found that miR-21-5p and miR-196a-5p were gradually upregulated from normal to adjacent to tumor tissues; miR-218-5p was gradually downregulated with 2-fold or greater change in AC tissues. These 3 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Lastly, we predicted target genes of these 3 miRNAs and enriched the potential functions and regulatory pathways. The aberrant miR-21-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-218-5p may become biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This research may be useful for lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and the study of pathology in lung cancer. PMID:27247934

  5. Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid is used to treat the symptoms of hypothyroidism (a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone). Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lack of energy, depression, constipation, weight gain, ...

  6. Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. Postpartum thyroiditis, which causes ... hormone levels in the blood) followed by temporary hypothyroidism, is a common cause of thyroid problems after ...

  7. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80±0.26 and 3.94±0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90±0.24 and 4.05±0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21±0.14 and 4.63±0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25±0.18 and 3.99±0.39 ns for healthy tissue, 0.24±0.17 and 4.20±0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33±0.32 and 4.55±0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  8. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

  9. Thyroid function in healthy normal, low birthweight and preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Bongers-Schokking, J J; Schopman, W

    1984-12-01

    To delineate more precisely the role of gestational age, weight at birth and thyroid status at birth on the postnatal changes in thyroid hormone levels, serum T4, T3, TSH and in some cases FT3I were measured at birth and at 3-4 h, 24-30 h, 6-9 days and 13-20 days. Subjects studied were healthy appropriate-for-date (AFD) and small-for-date (SFD) term neonates and healthy AFD and SFD preterm children. At birth T4 and T3 are related to both gestational age and weight with T4 and T3 showing lower values in preterm and SFD term neonates than in AFD term children. After birth T4 and T3 concentrations show a better correlation with gestational age than with weight at birth. For TSH no correlation was found at birth, a positive correlation at 24-30 h, no correlation at 6-9 days and a negative correlation at 13-20 days both with gestational age and weight at birth. In term and close-to-term infants (36 weeks) individual T4 levels at 6-7 days show a close relationship with those at birth; in the younger children (34 and 35 weeks) lower T4 values are found, despite equal cord blood values. The individual cord blood FT3I/TSH values correlate well with those at 6-7 days of age. It is concluded that after birth all children have changing T4 and T3 values, but the pattern and level are influenced by the maturity of the child and its thyroid status at birth measured by T4 and by the FT3I/TSH ratio.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6335089

  10. Expression of nuclear membrane proteins in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieying; Kondo, Tetsuo; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakazawa, Tadao; Oish, Naoki; Mochizuki, Kunio; Katoh, Ryohei

    2015-10-01

    Emerin, lamin A/C, lamin B, and lamin-associated polypeptide 2 (LAP2) are nuclear membrane proteins that play an important role in maintaining nuclear structure and coordinating cell activity. We studied the expression and significance of nuclear membrane proteins in neoplastic thyroid cells by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. In papillary carcinomas (PCs), the nuclear proteins most frequently expressed at high levels were emerin (82 % positive), lamin A/C (64 %), and LAP2 (82 %). Follicular carcinomas (FCs) most frequently expressed lamin B, while none of the undifferentiated carcinomas (UCs) showed strong expression of emerin or lamin A/C. In all medullary carcinomas (MCs), intermediate to high levels of expression of lamin A/C and LAP2 were found. By RT-PCR analysis, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of all nuclear membrane proteins except emerin was higher in PC than in normal tissue. Real-time PCR analysis showed that mRNA expression of nuclear membrane protein varied between cell lines. Our findings suggest that expression of nuclear membrane proteins may be related to follicular function in normal and hyperplastic follicles, and we hypothesize that they are also involved in the proliferation and differentiation of neoplastic thyroid cells. We suggest that they reflect the biological nature and/or function of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic thyroid cells and may have some value in diagnosing thyroid tumors.

  11. Estrogen effects on thyroid iodide uptake and thyroperoxidase activity in normal and ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lívia P; Barros, Inês A; Lisbôa, Patrícia C; Araújo, Renata L; Silva, Alba C M; Rosenthal, Doris; Ferreira, Andrea C F; Carvalho, Denise P

    2006-08-01

    Sex steroids interfere with the pituitary-thyroid axis function, although the reports have been controversial and no conclusive data is available. Some previous reports indicate that estradiol might also regulate thyroid function through a direct action on the thyrocytes. In this report, we examined the effects of low and high doses of estradiol administered to control and ovariectomized adult female rats and to pre-pubertal females. We demonstrate that estradiol administration to both intact adult and pre-pubertal females causes a significant increase in the relative thyroid weight. Serum T3 is significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats, and is normalized by estrogen replacement. Neither doses of estrogen produced a significant change in serum TSH and total T4 in ovariectomized, adult intact and pre-pubertal rats. The highest, supraphysiological, estradiol dose produced a significant increase in thyroid iodide uptake in ovariectomized and in pre-pubertal rats, but not in control adult females. Thyroperoxidase activity was significantly higher in intact adult rats treated with both estradiol doses and in ovariectomized rats treated with the highest estradiol dose. Since serum TSH levels were not significantly changed, we suggest a direct action of estradiol on the thyroid gland, which depends on the age and on the previous gonad status of the animal. PMID:16762383

  12. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplantation Can Normalize Thyroid Function in a Cystinosis Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Gaide Chevronnay, H P; Janssens, V; Van Der Smissen, P; Rocca, C J; Liao, X H; Refetoff, S; Pierreux, C E; Cherqui, S; Courtoy, P J

    2016-04-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most frequent and earliest endocrine complication in cystinosis, a multisystemic lysosomal storage disease caused by defective transmembrane cystine transporter, cystinosin (CTNS gene). We recently demonstrated in Ctns(-/-) mice that altered thyroglobulin biosynthesis associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, combined with defective lysosomal processing, caused hypothyroidism. In Ctns(-/-) kidney, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation provides long-term functional and structural protection. Tissue repair involves transfer of cystinosin-bearing lysosomes from HSCs differentiated as F4/80 macrophages into deficient kidney tubular cells, via tunneling nanotubes that cross basement laminae. Here we evaluated the benefit of HSC transplantation for cystinotic thyroid and investigated the underlying mechanisms. HSC engraftment in Ctns(-/-) thyroid drastically decreased cystine accumulation, normalized the TSH level, and corrected the structure of a large fraction of thyrocytes. In the thyroid microenvironment, HSCs differentiated into a distinct, mixed macrophage/dendritic cell lineage expressing CD45 and major histocompatibility complex II but low CD11b and F4/80. Grafted HSCs closely apposed to follicles and produced tunneling nanotube-like extensions that crossed follicular basement laminae. HSCs themselves further squeezed into follicles, allowing extensive contact with thyrocytes, but did not transdifferentiate into Nkx2.1-expressing cells. Our observations revealed significant differences of basement lamina porosity between the thyroid and kidney and/or intrinsic macrophage invasive properties once in the thyroid microenvironment. The contrast between extensive thyrocyte protection and low HSC abundance at steady state suggests multiple sequential encounters and/or remanent impact. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of HSC transplantation to correct thyroid disease and supports a major multisystemic benefit of stem

  13. Sensitivity to radiation of human normal, hyperthyroid, and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.C.; Hiraoka, T.; Kopecky, K.J.; Nakamura, N.; Jones, M.P.; Ito, T.; Clifton, K.H.

    1987-07-01

    Samples of thyroid tissue removed surgically from 63 patients were cultured in vitro and exposed to X irradiation to investigate the radiosensitivities of various types of thyroid epithelial cells. A total of 76 samples were obtained, including neoplastic cells from patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) or follicular adenoma (FA), cells from hyperthyroidism (HY) patients, and normal cells from the surgical margins of PC and FA patients. Culturing of the cells was performed in a manner which has been shown to yield a predominance of epithelial cells. Results of colony formation assays indicated that cells from HY and FA patients were the least radiosensitive: when adjusted to the overall geometric mean plating efficiency of 5.5%, the average mean lethal dose Do was 97.6 cGy for HY cells and 96.7 and 94.3 cGy, respectively for neoplastic and normal cells from FA patients. Cells from PC patients were more radiosensitive, normal cells having an adjusted average Do of 85.0 cGy and PC cells a significantly lower average Do of 74.4 cGy. After allowing for this variation by cell type, in vitro radiosensitivity was not significantly related to age at surgery or sex. These results suggest that malignant thyroid cells may be especially radiosensitive.

  14. Response to hypogravity of normal in vitro cultured follicular cells from thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, Antonella; Perrella, Giuseppina; Curcio, Francesco; Saverio, F.; Impiombato, Ambesi

    Aim of this investigation is the study of molecular modifications occurring in differentiated mammalian cells exposed to gravitational changes. The test system chosen is a well characterized clone of differentiated, normal thyroid follicular cells (FRTL5) in long-term culture. As a follow-up to our recent experiment performed during the MASER-7 sounding rocket mission, flown for European Space Agency by Swedish Space Corporation in May 1996, we evaluated FRTL5 cells responses to Thyroid Stimulating Hormone dependent cAMP production under acute hypogravity conditions obtained in a fast rotating clinostat. Following this approach, we evaluated the FRTL5 cells response to TSH under microgravity conditions in order to optimize experimental tools and strategies in preparation to, and in between real flight missions.

  15. Distinctive Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Human Seminoma and Adjacent Normal Tissues by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Timothy A.; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Mattarozzi, Monica; Cheng, Liang; Beck, Stephen D. W.; Bianchi, Federica; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-08-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has been successfully used to discriminate between normal and cancerous human tissue from different anatomical sites. On the basis of this, DESI-MS imaging was used to characterize human seminoma and adjacent normal tissue. Seminoma and adjacent normal paired human tissue sections (40 tissues) from 15 patients undergoing radical orchiectomy were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned to 15 μm thickness and thaw mounted to glass slides. The entire sample was two-dimensionally analyzed by the charged solvent spray to form a molecular image of the biological tissue. DESI-MS images were compared with formalin-fixed, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides of the same material. Increased signal intensity was detected for two seminolipids [seminolipid (16:0/16:0) and seminolipid (30:0)] in the normal tubule testis tissue; these compounds were undetectable in seminoma tissue, as well as from the surrounding fat, muscle, and blood vessels. A glycerophosphoinositol [PI(18:0/20:4)] was also found at increased intensity in the normal testes tubule tissue when compared with seminoma tissue. Ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C) was found at increased amounts in seminoma tissue when compared with normal tissue. DESI-MS analysis was successfully used to visualize the location of several types of molecules across human seminoma and normal tissues. Discrimination between seminoma and adjacent normal testes tubules was achieved on the basis of the spatial distributions and varying intensities of particular lipid species as well as ascorbic acid. The increased presence of ascorbic acid within seminoma compared with normal seminiferous tubules was previously unknown.

  16. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  17. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  18. Histochemical localization of Statin--a non-proliferation-specific nuclear protein--in nuclei of normal and abnormal human thyroid tissue.

    PubMed

    Mitmaker, B; Kyzer, S; Gordon, P H; Wang, E

    1992-01-01

    Surgical specimens of 29 human thyroid masses, both benign and malignant, were examined by means of a novel monoclonal antibody immunoreactive to statin, which is expressed only in quiescent G0 cells. The nuclei of normal thyroid follicle tissue together with nodular goitres and follicular adenomata had similar labelling indices of 96 +/- 2.67, 95 +/- 2.43 and 94 +/- 1.98 respectively. By contrast the labelling indices of papillary and undifferentiated thyroid malignancies were 82 +/- 3.05 and 15.2, respectively. These results indicate that normal thyroid tissues as well as benign thyroid tumors have similar non-proliferative activities. The differentiated papillary cancers have a smaller non-cycling compartment, the smallest being present in the most biologically aggressive undifferentiated thyroid cancer. The immunohistological evaluation of statin in the nuclei of human thyroid malignancies correlates with their biological behaviour in an inverse relationship. PMID:1380846

  19. Study of the response of osteogenic sarcoma and adjacent normal tissues to radiation. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan-Yanguas, M.

    1981-05-01

    An analysis is made of the surgical specimens of 18 patients with hystologically-proven osteosarcoma who were treated with radiation as the first treatment, and submitted 6 months later to amputation (2 patients had only a second biopsy). Plotting of dose and treatment time against persistence or sterilization of the tumor shows that there is an intermediate zone that extends from 3200 to 5000 rad in 10 days to 8000 to 10,000 rad in 60 to 70 days, inside which the tumor may or may not be destroyed. All cases located above this zone were sterilized; and all those under it showed persistence of viable tumor cells. A similar correlation is made in 47 irradiated patients of the secondary reactions of normal skin and soft tissues surrounding the tumor. An intermediate zone also exists above which all reactions were severe, in some cases reaching necrosis; below this zone, all reactions were mild. When treatment time was longer than 45 days, reactions were only moderate.

  20. Comparative immunohistochemical study of normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic C cells of the rat thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lacave, I; Rojas, F; Bernabé, R; Utrilla, J C; Fernández-Santos, J M; De Miguel, M; Conde, E

    2002-09-01

    In rats, the frequency of spontaneous C-cell tumours is very high and is both age and gender dependent. The three specific stages of neoplastic progression can be distinguished into diffuse C-cell hyperplasia, focal C-cell hyperplasia and bona fide C-cell tumours. Based on this hypothetical model of human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we carried out an immunohistochemical study using different markers (calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, somatostatin and chromogranin) to verify the existence of any relationship between their expression and the successive steps of tumour development. We found a characteristic immunohistochemical staining pattern, particularly for calcitonin and somatostatin, which distinguishes C-cell tumours from both normal and hyperplastic C cells, with no differences related to the gender of the animals under study. Specifically, a considerable heterogeneity in calcitonin expression was only displayed by C-cell carcinomas, being less pronounced in C-cell adenomas. As for somatostatin, this regulatory peptide was found only in a minority of calcitonin-positive cells in normal and hyperplastic glands. However, in some C-cell adenomas and most C-cell carcinomas nearly all calcitonin-positive cells also coexpressed somatostatin. We conclude that rat C-cell neoplasms constitute a very particular tumour entity which shares many but not all immunohistochemical features with human MTC.

  1. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  2. Actin stress fiber disruption and tropomysin isoform switching in normal thyroid epithelial cells stimulated by thyrotropin and phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Roger, P.P.; Rickaert, F.; Lamy, F.; Authelet, M.; Dumont, J.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH), through cyclic AMP, promotes both proliferation and differentiation expression in dog thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture, whereas the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) also stimulates proliferation but antagonizes differentiating effects of TSH. In this study, within 20 min both factors triggered the disruption of actin-containing stress fibers. This process preceded distinct morphological changes: cytoplasmic retraction and arborization in response to TSH and cyclic AMP, cell shape distortion, and increased motility in response to TPA and diacylglycerol. TSH and TPA also induced a marked decrease in the synthesis of three high M{sub r} tropomyosin isoforms, which were not present in dog thyroid tissue but appeared in culture during cell spreading and stress fiber formation. The tropomyosin isoform switching observed here closely resembled similar processes in various cells transformed by oncogenic viruses. However, it did not correlate with differentiation or mitogenic activation. Contrasting with current hypothesis on this process in transformed cells, tropomyosin isoform switching in normal thyroid cells was preceded and thus might be caused by early disruption of stress fibers.

  3. Higher Plasma ApoE Levels are Associated with Low-Normal Thyroid Function: Studies in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    van Tienhoven-Wind, L J N; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Dullaart, R P F

    2016-07-01

    Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may confer higher plasma triglycerides, but relationships with plasma apolipoprotein (apo) E, which plays an important role in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins, are unknown. We determined relationships of plasma apoE with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T4) in euthyroid subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TSH, free T4, lipids, and apoE were measured in fasting plasma from 72 T2DM subjects and 82 nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype was also determined. Free T4 was slightly higher in T2DM (p=0.030), but TSH levels were not different vs. nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype distribution was not different between the groups. None of the participants had the ε2/ε2 genotype. Plasma triglycerides were higher in T2DM (p=0.037). ApoB and apoE levels were not different between the groups. In all subjects combined, multivariable analysis showed that plasma triglycerides (p=0.039), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (p=0.030), and apoE levels (p=0.002) were each independently and positively associated with TSH after adjustment for age, sex, T2DM and the presence of the APOE ε3 allele. Furthermore, the associations of TSH with apoE remained present after adjustment for either triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, or apoB (p=0.005 to 0.023). The presence of T2DM did not modify the relationships of TSH with these (apo) lipoprotein variables (p=0.11 to 0.36). In conclusion, low-normal thyroid function, as indicated by higher TSH levels within the euthyroid range, may influence the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by affecting apoE regulation.

  4. Alteration of Thyroid-Related Hormones within Normal Ranges and Early Functional Outcomes in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wen-Yu; Hu, Xing-Yue

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic value of thyroid-related hormones within normal ranges after acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study and we reviewed 1072 ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted within 72 h after symptom onset. Total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free T3, free T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed to determine their values for predicting functional outcome at the first follow-up clinic visits, which usually occurred 2 to 4 weeks after discharge from the hospital. 722 patients were finally included. On univariate analysis, poor functional outcome was associated with presence of atrial fibrillation as the index event. Furthermore, score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), total T4, free T4, and C-reactive protein at admission were significantly higher in patients with poor functional outcome, whereas free T3 and total T3 were significantly lower. On multiple logistic regression analysis, lower total T3 concentrations remained independently associated with poor functional outcome [odds ratio (OR), 0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.84; P = 0.035]. The only other variables independently associated with poor functional outcome were NIHSS scores. In sum, lower total T3 concentrations that were within the normal ranges were independently associated with poor short-term outcomes. PMID:27375741

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is related to nuclear grade in ductal carcinoma in situ and is increased in its normal adjacent epithelium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shim, Veronica; Gauthier, Mona L.; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Mantei, Kristin; Chew, Karen L.; Moore, Dan H.; Cha, Imok; Tlsty, Thea D.; Esserman, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is emerging as an important cancer biomarker and is now an experimental target for solid tumor treatment.However, no study has exclusively focused on COX-2 expression in early lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We examined COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 46 cases of women undergoing surgical resection for DCIS. We found that COX-2 expression was detected in 85% of all DCIS specimens, with increased COX-2 staining correlating with higher nuclear grade. Strikingly, COX-2 staining intensity in the normal adjacent epithelium was stronger than in the DCIS lesion itself. Our observations demonstrate that COX-2 is up-regulated in the normal adjacent epithelium and supports the hypothesis that the surrounding epithelial tissue is part of the disease process in DCIS.

  6. SU-E-I-78: Establishing a Protocol for Quick Estimation of Thyroid Internal Contamination with 131I in Normal and Emergency Situations

    SciTech Connect

    Naderi, S Mehdizadeh; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Zamani, E; Molaeimanesh, Z; Sadeghi, M; Sina, S; Faghihi, R; Entezarmahdi, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: I-131 is one of the most frequent radionuclides used in nuclear medicine departments. The radiation workers, who manipulate the unsealed radio-toxic iodine, should be monitored for internal contamination. In this study a protocol was established for estimating I-131 activity absorbed in the thyroid glands of the nuclear medicine staff in normal working condition and also in accidents. Methods: I-131 with the activity of 10 μCi was injected inside the thyroid gland of a home-made anthropomorphic neck phantom. The phantom is made up of PMMA as soft tissue, and Aluminium as bone. The dose rate at different distances from the surface of the neck phantom was measured using a scintillator detector for duration of two months. Then, calibration factors were obtained, for converting the dose rate at each distance to the iodine activity inside the thyroid. Results: According to the results of this study, the calibration factors for converting the dose rates (nSv/h) at distances of 0cm, 1cm, 6cm, 11cm, and 16cm to the activity (kBq) inside the thyroid were found to be 0.03, 0.04, 0.14, 0.29, and 0.49 . Conclusion: This method can be effectively used for quick estimation of the I-131 concentration inside the thyroid of the staff for daily checks in normal working conditions and also in accidents.

  7. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  8. Thyroid Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem that is directly affecting the thyroid (primary hypothyroidism). The opposite situation, in which the TSH level ... making enough TSH to stimulate the thyroid (secondary hypothyroidism). In most healthy individuals, a normal TSH value ...

  9. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to closely replicate normal thyroid functioning. Pure, synthetic thyroxine (T4) works in the same way as ... needing thyroid hormone replacement (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). Pure synthetic thyroxine (T4), taken once daily by mouth, successfully ...

  10. Thyroid Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the thyroid gland Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs Hypothyroidism - when your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones Thyroid cancer ...

  11. Tumor-induced solid stress activates β-catenin signaling to drive malignant behavior in normal, tumor-adjacent cells

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Guanqing; Weaver, Valerie Marie

    2016-01-01

    Recent work by Fernández-Sánchez and coworkers examining the impact of applied pressure on the malignant phenotype of murine colon tissue in vivo revealed that mechanical perturbations can drive malignant behavior in genetically normal cells. Their findings build upon an existing understanding of how the mechanical cues experienced by cells within a tissue become progressively modified as the tissue transforms. Using magnetically stimulated ultra-magnetic liposomes to mimic tumor growth -induced solid stress, Fernández-Sánchez and coworkers were able to stimulate β-catenin to promote the cancerous behavior of both a normal and genetically modified colon epithelium. In this perspective, we discuss their findings in the context of what is currently known regarding the role of the mechanical landscape in cancer progression and β-catenin as a mechanotransducer. We review data that suggest that mechanically regulated activation of β-catenin fosters development of a malignant phenotype in tissue and predict that mechanical cues may contribute to tumor heterogeneity. PMID:26439949

  12. Selection and validation of miRNAs as normalizers for profiling expression of microRNAs isolated from thyroid fine needle aspiration smears

    PubMed Central

    Titov, Sergei E.; Demenkov, Pavel S.; Ivanov, Mikhail K.; Malakhina, Ekaterina S.; Poloz, Tatiana L.; Tsivlikova, Elena V.; Ganzha, Maria S.; Shevchenko, Sergei P.; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila F.; Kolesnikov, Nikolay N.

    2016-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is currently the method of choice for malignancy prediction in thyroid nodules. Nevertheless, in some cases the interpretation of FNAC results may be problematic due to limitations of the method. The expression level of some microRNAs changes with the development of thyroid tumors, and its quantitation can be used to refine the FNAC results. For this quantitation to be reliable, the obtained data must be adequately normalized. Currently, no reference genes are universally recognized for quantitative assessments of microRNAs in thyroid nodules. The aim of the present study was the selection and validation of such reference genes. Expression of 800 microRNAs in 5 paired samples of thyroid surgical material corresponding to different histotypes of tumors was analyzed using NanoString technology and four of these (hsa-miR-151a-3p, -197-3p, -99a-5p and -214-3p) with the relatively low variation coefficient were selected. The possibility of use of the selected microRNAs and their combination as references was estimated by RT-qPCR on a sampling of cytological smears: benign (n=226), atypia of undetermined significance (n=9), suspicious for follicular neoplasm (n=61), suspicious for malignancy (n=19), medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) (n=32), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (n=54) and non-diagnostic material (ND) (n=34). In order to assess the expression stability of the references, geNorm algorithm was used. The maximum stability was observed for the normalization factor obtained by the combination of all 4 microRNAs. Further validation of the complex normalizer and individual selected microRNAs was performed using 5 different classification methods on 3 groups of FNAC smears from the analyzed batch: benign neoplasms, MTC and PTC. In all cases, the use of the complex classifier resulted in the reduced number of errors. On using the complex microRNA normalizer, the decision-tree method C4.5 makes it possible to distinguish between

  13. Lipid Profiles of Canine Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Adjacent Normal Tissue by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Allison L.; Ifa, Demian R.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Costa, Anthony B.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Knapp, Deborah W.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used in an imaging mode to interrogate the lipid profiles of thin tissue sections of canine spontaneous invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (a model of human invasive bladder cancer) as well as adjacent normal tissue from four different dogs. The glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids that appear as intense signals in both the negative ion and positive ion modes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion scans using collision-induced dissociation. Differences in the relative distributions of the lipid species were present between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue in both the negative and positive ion modes. DESI-MS images showing the spatial distributions of particular glycerophospholipids, sphinoglipids and free fatty acids in both the negative and positive ion modes were compared to serial tissue sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Increased absolute and relative intensities for at least five different glycerophospholipids and three free fatty acids in the negative ion mode and at least four different lipid species in the positive ion mode were seen in the tumor region of the samples in all four dogs. In addition, one sphingolipid species exhibited increased signal intensity in the positive ion mode in normal tissue relative to the diseased tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to generate unsupervised statistical images from the negative ion mode data and these images are in excellent agreement with the DESI images obtained from the selected ions and also the H&E stained tissue PMID:19810710

  14. Gene expression in normal-appearing tissue adjacent to prostate cancers are predictive of clinical outcome: evidence for a biologically meaningful field effect

    PubMed Central

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Maddala, Tara; Falzarano, Sara Moscovita; Cherbavaz, Diana B.; Zhang, Nan; Knezevic, Dejan; Febbo, Phillip G.; Lee, Mark; Lawrence, Hugh Jeffrey; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated gene expression in histologically normal-appearing tissue (NT) adjacent to prostate tumor in radical prostatectomy specimens, assessing for biological significance based on prediction of clinical recurrence (cR - metastatic disease or local recurrence). Results A total of 410 evaluable patients had paired tumor and NT. Fortysix genes, representing diverse biological pathways (androgen signaling, stromal response, stress response, cellular organization, proliferation, cell adhesion, and chromatin remodeling) were associated with cR in NT (FDR < 20%), of which 39 concordantly predicted cR in tumor (FDR < 20%). Overall GPS and its stromal response and androgen-signaling gene group components also significantly predicted time to cR in NT (RM-corrected HR/20 units = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.56; P = 0.024). Experimental Design Expression of 732 genes was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately in tumor and adjacent NT specimens from 127 patients with and 374 without cR following radical prostatectomy for T1/T2 prostate cancer. A 17-gene expression signature (Genomic Prostate Score [GPS]), previously validated to predict aggressive prostate cancer when measured in tumor tissue, was also assessed using pre-specified genes and algorithms. Analysis used Cox proportional hazards models, Storey's false discovery rate (FDR) control, and regression to the mean (RM) correction. Conclusions Gene expression profiles, including GPS, from NT adjacent to tumor can predict prostate cancer outcome. These findings suggest that there is a biologically significant field effect in primary prostate cancer that is a marker for aggressive disease. PMID:27121323

  15. Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. A novel case and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, João; Borges, Fátima; Costa, António; Alvelos, Maria Inês; Mazeto, Glaúcia; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) represents a syndrome in which patients present elevated circulating thyroid hormones in the presence of non-suppressed TSH. We report a novel case where a patient with RTH presented a differentiated thyroid cancer. A19 year-old female had been referred due to thyroid disease that disclosed features characteristic of a RTH. During the follow up it was detected a follicular tumor that led to the recommendation for thyroid surgical ablation, where an incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (mPTC) was found. The increase of thyroglobulin (TG) levels following thyroid removal referred the patient for radioiodine treatment. Post-treatment, it was detected jugular adenopathies and the patient was subjected to cervical lymph node drainage where metastases of the mPTC were found. RTH syndrome was confirmed by the detection of a THRB germline mutation. A BRAF mutation was also found in the mPTC but not detected in the follicular adenoma or normal adjacent tissue. The young age of the patient, the rarity of BRAF mutations in childhood and the high dissemination of the malignancy, lead us to the speculation that increased TSH stimulation in a RTH background and oncogenic activation of BRAF could have served as (co) drivers and might have triggered an advanced stage of the neoplastic disease. These findings together with a review of published cases add novel information to the management of RTH patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:25988151

  16. Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. A novel case and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Vinagre, João; Borges, Fátima; Costa, António; Alvelos, Maria Inês; Mazeto, Glaúcia; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) represents a syndrome in which patients present elevated circulating thyroid hormones in the presence of non-suppressed TSH. We report a novel case where a patient with RTH presented a differentiated thyroid cancer. A19 year-old female had been referred due to thyroid disease that disclosed features characteristic of a RTH. During the follow up it was detected a follicular tumor that led to the recommendation for thyroid surgical ablation, where an incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (mPTC) was found. The increase of thyroglobulin (TG) levels following thyroid removal referred the patient for radioiodine treatment. Post-treatment, it was detected jugular adenopathies and the patient was subjected to cervical lymph node drainage where metastases of the mPTC were found. RTH syndrome was confirmed by the detection of a THRB germline mutation. A BRAF mutation was also found in the mPTC but not detected in the follicular adenoma or normal adjacent tissue. The young age of the patient, the rarity of BRAF mutations in childhood and the high dissemination of the malignancy, lead us to the speculation that increased TSH stimulation in a RTH background and oncogenic activation of BRAF could have served as (co) drivers and might have triggered an advanced stage of the neoplastic disease. These findings together with a review of published cases add novel information to the management of RTH patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:25988151

  17. Ki-67 Expression in Sclerosing Adenosis and Adjacent Normal Breast Terminal Ductal Lobular Units: A Nested Case-Control Study from the Mayo Benign Breast Disease Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Aziza; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Stallings-Mann, Melody L.; Degnim, Amy C.; Radisky, Derek C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Visscher, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sclerosing adenosis (SA) increases risk for invasive breast cancer (BC) 2.1 times relative to that in the general population. Here, we sought to evaluate whether the proliferation marker Ki-67 stratifies risk among women with SA. Methods A nested case-control sample of patients with SA was obtained from the Mayo Clinic Benign Breast Disease Cohort. Ki-67 expression was evaluated in SA lesions and in the adjacent normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) in women who did (cases, n =133) or did not (controls, n =239) develop BC. Ki67 was scored by intensity and number of positively stained cells per one high-power field (magnification, ×40) (40×HPF) for both SA and normal TDLU. Associations of Ki-67 expression with case-control status were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results Higher Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with case-control status in both SA (P=.03) and normal background TDLU (P=.006). For the SA lesion, >2 average positively stained cells/40×HPF showed an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.1–3.4) compared to samples with an average of ≤2 positively stained cells. For background TDLU, lobules with >2 but ≤6 average positively stained cells showed an adjusted OR of 1.3 to 1.5, whereas those with an average of >6 positively stained cells had an OR of 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1–5.3) compared to those with an average of <2 positively stained cells. Conclusions Among women with SA, increased Ki-67 expression in either the SA lesion or the normal background TDLU carried an approximately 2-fold increased odds of subsequent BC as compared to lower Ki-67 expression. PMID:25863475

  18. Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility.

    PubMed

    Cho, Moon Kyoung

    2015-12-01

    The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. Moreover, the thyroid gland continuously interacts with the ovaries, and the thyroid hormones are involved in almost all phases of reproduction. Thyroid dysfunctions are relatively common among women of reproductive age, and can affect fertility in various ways, resulting in anovulatory cycles, high prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. Undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease can be a cause of subfertility. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), also known as mild thyroid failure, is diagnosed when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within the normal reference laboratory range, but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are mildly elevated. Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) is characterized by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, which include anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. SCH and TAI may remain latent, asymptomatic, or even undiagnosed for an extended period. It has also been demonstrated that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a significant impact on thyroid function, particularly in women with TAI. In the current review, we describe the interactions between thyroid dysfunctions and subfertility, as well as the proper work-up and management of thyroid dysfunctions in subfertile women. PMID:26816871

  19. Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. Moreover, the thyroid gland continuously interacts with the ovaries, and the thyroid hormones are involved in almost all phases of reproduction. Thyroid dysfunctions are relatively common among women of reproductive age, and can affect fertility in various ways, resulting in anovulatory cycles, high prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. Undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease can be a cause of subfertility. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), also known as mild thyroid failure, is diagnosed when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within the normal reference laboratory range, but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are mildly elevated. Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) is characterized by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, which include anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. SCH and TAI may remain latent, asymptomatic, or even undiagnosed for an extended period. It has also been demonstrated that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a significant impact on thyroid function, particularly in women with TAI. In the current review, we describe the interactions between thyroid dysfunctions and subfertility, as well as the proper work-up and management of thyroid dysfunctions in subfertile women. PMID:26816871

  20. Thyroid transplantation developing autoimmune thyroiditis following thymectomy and irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S A; Penhale, W J

    1981-01-01

    Post-irradiation transplantation of normal thyroids under the renal capsule of syngenetic thymectomized and irradiated (Tx-X) rats leads to the development of thyroiditis in the ectopic grafted thyroids. A close correlation was observed between the extent of the lesions in the grafted and recipient's own thyroid. The histopathology of both grafted and recipient thyroid was similar and was characterized by infiltration with mononuclear cells together with some plasma cells. Conversely, grafting of affected thyroids from Tx-X rats to normal animals resulted in the regression of the lesion in the graft and no evidence thyroiditis was observed in either the graft or the recipient's thyroid when these were examined 60 days post-grafting. Thyroids derived from normal animals grafted to syngenetic normal rats were found to remain healthy and intact over a 60-day period. In contrast to normal animals, Tx-X rats were unable to reject totally in transplanted allogeneic thyroids by 28 days post-grafting, suggesting that some impairment of cell-mediated immunity follows this treatment. These findings indicate that the pathological change occurring in the thyroid gland of Tx-X rats is not attributable to the local effect of irradiation of the thyroids and adds further support to the concept that the process is immunologically mediated by thyroid-specific circulating components in the absence of normal immune regulatory function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6896018

  1. Significance of Interleukin-6 in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kobawala, Toral P.; Trivedi, Trupti I.; Gajjar, Kinjal K.; Patel, Darshita H.; Patel, Girish H.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to reveal the significance of IL-6 in papillary thyroid carcinoma by determining its circulating levels, tumoral protein, and mRNA expressions. As compared to the healthy individuals, serum IL-6 was significantly higher in patients with benign thyroid diseases and PTC. Further, its level was significantly higher in PTC patients as compared to patients with benign thyroid diseases. ROC curves also confirmed a good discriminatory efficacy of serum IL-6 between healthy individuals and patients with benign thyroid diseases and PTC. The circulating IL-6 was significantly associated with poor overall survival in PTC patients. IL-6 immunoreactivity was significantly high in PTC patients as compared to the benign thyroid disease patients. Significantly higher IL-6 mRNA expression was also observed in the primary tumour tissues of PTC patients than the adjacent normal tissues. The protein expression of IL-6 at both the circulating and tissue level correlated with disease aggressiveness in PTC patients. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between the IL-6 protein and mRNA expression in the primary tumours of PTC patients. Finally in conclusion, IL-6 has an important role in thyroid cancer progression. Thus targeting IL-6 signalling can help in clinical management of thyroid carcinoma patients. PMID:27034885

  2. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  3. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  4. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism; Thyroid crisis; Thyrotoxicosis - thyroid storm ... Thyroid storm occurs due to a major stress such as trauma, heart attack , or infection. In rare cases, thyroid ...

  5. Thyroid and the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Grais, Ira Martin; Sowers, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones modulate every component of the cardiovascular system necessary for normal cardiovascular development and function. When cardiovascular disease is present, thyroid function tests are characteristically indicated to determine if overt thyroid disorders or even subclinical dysfunction exists. As hypothyroidism, hypertension and cardiovascular disease all increase with advancing age monitoring of TSH, the most sensitive test for hypothyroidism, is important in this expanding segment of our population. A better understanding of the impact of thyroid hormonal status on cardiovascular physiology will enable health care providers to make decisions regarding thyroid hormone evaluation and therapy in concert with evaluating and treating hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The goal of this review is to access contemporary understanding of the effects of thyroid hormones on normal cardiovascular function and the potential role of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24662620

  6. THYROID FUNCTION IN DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Boral, G. C.; Ghosh, A. B.; Pal, S. K; Ghosh, K. K.; Nandi, D. N.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Studies on thyroid functions were performed on patients suffering from depression and compared with normal control group. 31 different cases of depression were studied for their thyroid function andshowed a diminished level of T3 and T4 with a concomitant rise in TSH level. When the female population of these 31 cases was compared with their male counterparts the females showed a significantly lower thyroidal functional status than the males. PMID:22058497

  7. Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  8. Ectopic Lingual Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Khamassi, Khaled; Jaafoura, Habib; Masmoudi, Fahmi; Lahiani, Rim; Bougacha, Lobna; Ben Salah, Mamia

    2015-01-01

    Ectopy of the thyroid gland is an abnormal embryological development. Its occurrence in children is rare. In this study, we report the case of a 12-year-old girl that presented with dysphagia and nocturnal dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a lingual thyroid. Thyroid scintigraphy showed intense and elective uptake of radiotracer at the base of the tongue. Hormonal tests revealed hypothyroidism. Treatment consisted of opotherapy based on levothyroxine. Evolution has been favourable and the patient showed significant improvement with reduction of the dyspnea and the dysphagia and normalization of thyroid hormone tests. PMID:25893126

  9. [Thyroid disease].

    PubMed

    Ashitaka, Y

    1990-08-01

    The incidence of pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction has been reported to be around 0.1-0.4%. Graves' disease accounts for more than half of these disorders. The main cause of thyroid disease in pregnancy and puerperium is autoimmune dysfunction. Whether there may be goitre or exophthalmus present, clinical signs as inappropriate weight gain, high systolic pressure, palpitation (greater than or equal to 110/min), emotional lability, fatigue, acceleration of suppression of the Achilles' tendon reflex should induce changes in the biochemical thyroid function tests. Parameters for the diagnosis and management for hyperthyroidism are serum levels of free T4 and TSH, while those of T3, reverse T3, and TSH are for hypothyroidism. Serum anti-microsomal antibodies and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies which have no effect on the fetus are also good markers for severity. The transplacental transfer of maternal TSH receptor antibodies consisting of stimulatory and inhibitory immunoglobulins and maternal thyroid-binding inhibiting immunoglobulins play roles in the development of transient neonatal hyper- or hypothyroidism. Fetal control is achieved by optimal maternal management. Untreated hyperthyroidism may be associated with fetal malformations. This risk may be reduced by antithyroid drug treatment of up to 150 mg/day of propylthiouracil which has less chance of placental passage and less secretion into the mother's milk than methyl-mercapto-imidazol. Maternal thyroid function should be kept in the upper limit of normal range, taking into consideration the fetal dysfunction induced by over-administration of the drug which passes through placenta. Children of hypothyroid women taking inadequate replacement therapy manifested lower IQ values compared to the progeny of euthyroid or hypothyroid women taking adequate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Primary Thyroid Sarcoma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Gottschling, Sebastian; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Dralle, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Different types of malignant tumors can occur within the thyroid. Primary cancer is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. Non-epithelial malignancies can also arise within the thyroid. The aim of the present study was to analyze clinical and radiological characteristics of reported primary thyroid sarcomas (PTS), based on a large sample of cases. The PubMed database was screened for articles from between 1990 and 2014. Overall, 86 articles with 142 patients were identified. Ultrasound evaluation was reported for 36 patients. Data regarding computed tomography of the neck were available for 29 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed for eight patients. The following data were retrieved for the identified sarcomas: localization, size, homogeneity, internal texture, and margin characteristics. In most cases, PTS occurred in patients over 40 years of age, with a peak incidence for the group aged 60-79 years. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed in 29 cases (20.4%), followed by malignant hemangioendothelioma (n=23, 16.3%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n=20, 14.1%), leiomyosarcoma (n=16, 11.3%), and fibrosarcoma (n=13, 9.2%). In most patients (n=113, 79.6%), PTS manifested clinically as a painless goiter. On ultrasound, PTS were predominantly mixed hypo-to-hyperechoic in comparison to the normal thyroid tissue. On non-contrast computed tomography, most sarcomas were inhomogeneous hypo-to-hyperdense. On post-contrast magnetic resonance images, most sarcomas showed marked non-homogenous enhancement. In 26.8%, infiltration of the adjacent organs was seen. The trachea or esophagus was affected more frequently in patients with malignant histiocytoma and liposarcoma. Different strategies were used in the treatment of PTS. Our analysis provides clinical and radiological characteristics of PTS. The described features should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. PMID:26408676

  11. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Thyroid Tests Page Content On this page: What is the ... Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess ...

  12. Subacute thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests that may be done include: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level T4 (thyroid hormone, thyroxine) and T3 level Radioactive iodine uptake Thyroglobulin level Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) In some cases, a thyroid ...

  13. Silent thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, ... Later symptoms may be of an underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ), including fatigue and cold intolerance, until the thyroid ...

  14. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid surgery, requiring treatment with thyroid hormone (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). This is especially true if you had ... Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism (Overactive) Hypothyroidism (Underactive) Iodine Deficiency Low Iodine Diet Radioactive Iodine ...

  15. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  16. microRNA-141 inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis by targeting insulin receptor substrate 2.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Meng, Xianying; Xue, Shuai; Yan, Zewen; Ren, Peiyou; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    microRNA-141 (miR-141), a member of the miR-200 family, and has been reported to involve in tumor initiation and development in many types of cancers. However, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-141 in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify its expression, function, and molecular mechanism in thyroid cancer. In this study, we found that miR-141 expression levels were downregulated in human thyroid cancer specimens compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and its expression were strongly correlated with clinical stages and lymph node metastases. Function assays showed that overexpression of miR-141 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and decreased migration, invasion in thyroid cancer cells, as well as tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), a known oncogene, was confirmed as a direct target of miR-141, and IRS2 expression levels were upregulated in thyroid cancer, and its expression were inversely correlated with miR-141 expression levels in human thyroid cancer specimens. Forced expression of IRS2 reversed the inhibition effect induced by miR-141 overexpression in thyroid cancer cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that miR-141 suppressed thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis through inhibition of IRS2. Thus, miR-141 might serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer treatment.

  17. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroiditis and identify autoimmune thyroid conditions Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody—a marker for autoimmune thyroid disease; ... for thyroid gland abnormalities and to evaluate thyroid function (for iodine) in different areas of the thyroid ...

  18. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Within Normal Range Does Not Affect Bone Turnover in Euthyroid Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporotic Fracture - A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, Wieslaw; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2011-01-01

    Background Pathogenic role of TSH suppression in the damaged bone tissue, in contrast to increased concentrations of thyroid hormones is still unknown. The aim of study was to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH and biochemical bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with normal thyroid function and to answer whether the differences in TSH concentration within reference range may affect bone metabolism. Material and Methods 34 women (60-93 years old) admitted to the hospital after osteoporotic fracture participated in the study. Serum propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) as a bone formation marker and crosslinked C-terminal telopeptides (CTX-I), as a bone resorption marker and TSH were assayed. Results Median P1NP (p=0,05) was significantly higher in the 1st tertile of TSH values (0,35-1,88 mlU/mL). In the 3rd tertile of TSH concentrations (3,42-4,94 mlU/mL), the highest CTX-I value was found that exceed the reference range for age. No differences were found in bone markers between a group of euthyroid and a group of subjects with TSH<0,35 mlU/mL. No relationship was observed between TSH and bone formation and resorption markers in the whole group of euthyroid postmenopausal women, however bone formation was found to be in the lower reference range for age in the euthyroid subjects as well as in these with decreased TSH. Weight and BMI correlated negatively with CTX (r=-0,68 p<0,03) in fractured women in the 1st tertile of TSH. Conclusion We found no consistent evidence that TSH concentrations within reference range was associated with changes in bone turnover markers.

  19. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Thyroid Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Thyroid Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ...

  20. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  1. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum.

  2. Thyroid function and obesity.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-10-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail. PMID:24783015

  3. Thyroid ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in these diseases, and illustrates major diagnostic pitfalls of thyroid ultrasound. PMID:23776892

  4. The STIR sequence MRI in the assessment of extraocular muscles in thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Hoh, H B; Laitt, R D; Wakeley, C; Kabala, J; Goddard, P; Potts, M J; Harrad, R A

    1994-01-01

    Nineteen patients with thyroid eye disease were examined with magnetic resonance imaging using the Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequence and compared with normal controls. The Signal Intensity Ratio (SIR) of each of the four recti was obtained by comparison with the signal intensity of the adjacent temporalis muscle. The SIR was compared with disease activity assessed using Werner's grading system, a clinical inflammatory score, and the range of extraocular movements. Results show that a high SIR is associated with a high index of disease activity. This technique is likely to prove useful in assessing disease activity and planning the management of thyroid eye disease, particularly with respect to immunosuppression.

  5. Thyroid volume in type 1 diabetes patients without overt thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, G; Montanari, P; Fabbri, A; Gamberini, A; Zoli, M; Marchesini, G

    1995-03-01

    An association between insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1) and thyroid diseases has long been reported, but the morphological evaluation of the thyroid in type 1 diabetes patients without overt thyroid disease has always been limited to physical examination. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland was performed in 45 patients with type 1 diabetes without overt thyroid disease, to study thyroid volume and the prevalence of thyroid nodules. Data were compared with those obtained in 45 age- and sex-matched control subjects residing in the same area. In the patients, thyroid volume had increased on average by 46%; 35% of male and 32% of female patients had a thyroid volume exceeding the 95% confidence limits of the matched controls. The prevalence of thyroid nodules was only slightly raised. On average, free thyroxine was increased in the presence of normal triiodothyronine levels. Four patients were frankly hyperthyroid. The patients also showed a higher prevalence of thyroid-microsomal antibodies, but the thyroid hormone status was not different in relation to thyroid volume, nor was thyroid volume in relation to the presence of autoantibodies. Patients with type 1 diabetes without overt thyroid disorders may have morphological, ultrasonographically detectable alterations of the thyroid gland, the expression of a possible involvement of the thyroid in an autoimmune disorder not limited to the islet cells.

  6. Detection of human parvovirus B19 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J H; Zhang, W P; Liu, H X; Wang, D; Li, Y F; Wang, W Q; Wang, L; He, F R; Wang, Z; Yan, Q G; Chen, L W; Huang, G S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate whether parvovirus B19, a common human pathogen, was also involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 112 paraffin-embedded thyroid specimens of benign nodules, papillary, medullary and follicular carcinomas, and normal controls were examined for B19 DNA and capsid protein by nested PCR, in situ hybridisation (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was investigated by IHC. The results showed B19 DNA commonly exists in human thyroid tissues; however, there were significant differences between PTC group and normal controls, and between PTC and nonneoplastic adjacent tissues (P<0.001). The presence of viral DNA in PTC neoplastic epithelium was confirmed by laser-capture microdissection and sequencing of nested PCR products. B19 capsid protein in PTC group was significantly higher than that of all the control groups and nonneoplastic adjacent tissues (P⩽0.001). Compared with control groups, the activation of NF-κB in PTC group was significantly increased (P⩽0.02), except for medullary carcinomas, and the activation of NF-κB was correlated with the viral protein presence (P=0.002). Moreover, NF-κB was colocalised with B19 DNA in the neoplastic epithelium of PTC by double staining of IHC and ISH. These results indicate for the first time a possible role of B19 in pathogenesis of PTC. PMID:18212749

  7. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  8. Thyroid Antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocking production of thyroid hormones and resulting in hypothyroidism . TBII is not routinely tested, but TSI is ... autoimmune disease . A low level of thyroid hormones ( hypothyroidism ) can cause symptoms, such as: Weight gain Fatigue ...

  9. Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ...

  10. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... food Nodules that produce thyroid hormones will likely cause symptoms of overactive thyroid gland , including: Warm, sweaty skin Fast pulse Increased appetite Nervousness Restlessness Skin blushing or flushing Weight loss Irregular menstrual periods Older ...

  11. Thyroid Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Myxedema coma and thyroid storm are thyroid emergencies associated with increased mortality. Prompt recognition of these states-which represent the severe, life-threatening conditions of extremely reduced or elevated circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively-is necessary to initiate treatment. Management of myxedema coma and thyroid storm requires both medical and supportive therapies and should be treated in an intensive care unit setting. PMID:27598067

  12. Thyroid hormone antibodies and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in mongrel dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Rajatanavin, R.; Fang, S.L.; Pino, S.; Laurberg, P.; Braverman, L.E.; Smith, M.; Bullock, L.P.

    1989-05-01

    Abnormally elevated serum T3 concentrations measured by RIA were observed in 19 clinically euthyroid or hypothyroid mongrel dogs. The serum T4 concentrations in these sera were low, normal, or high. Measurement of the intensity of thyroid hormone binding to serum proteins was determined by equilibrium dialysis. A marked decrease in the percent free T3 was observed in these abnormal sera. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pH 7.4, of normal dog serum enriched with tracer /sup 125/I-labeled thyroid hormones demonstrated binding of (/sup 125/I)T4 to transthyretin, thyroid hormone-binding globulin, and albumin and of (/sup 125/I)T3 primarily to thyroid hormone-binding globulin. In all abnormal sera, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated strikingly higher binding of T3 to immunoglobulin (Ig). Eleven of 16 abnormal sera had minimal to moderate binding of T4 to Ig. The percent free T4 was lower only in dogs whose sera demonstrated markedly increased binding of T4 to Ig. All abnormal sera tested had positive antithyroglobulin antibodies, consistent with the diagnosis of autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis. As in humans, antibodies to thyroid hormones in dogs are more common in the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and should be considered when elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations are observed in the absence of clinical thyrotoxicosis. When an antibody to only one thyroid hormone is present, a marked discrepancy in the serum concentrations of T3 and T4 will be observed.

  13. Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Gregory B; Neelis, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment management of feline hyperthyroidism but is also used in the evaluation of canine hypothyroidism and canine thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the normal scintigraphic appearance of the thyroid in the cat, the dog, and the horse and the principles of interpretation of abnormal scan results in the cat and the dog. Radioiodine is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, and the principles of its use in the cat are reviewed.

  14. [Thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research.

  15. [Thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  16. Altered expression of mir-222 and mir-25 influences diverse gene expression changes in transformed normal and anaplastic thyroid cells, and impacts on MEK and TRAIL protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, Sinéad T.; Smyth, Paul; Freeley, Michael; Smith, Leila; Spillane, Cathy; O'leary, John; Sheils, Orla

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer-related deaths each year. Our group and others have previously demonstrated dysfunctional microRNA (miRNA or miR) expression in the context of thyroid cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of synthetic manipulation of expression of miR-25 and miR-222 in benign and malignant thyroid cells. miR-25 and miR-222 expression was upregulated in 8505C (an anaplastic thyroid cell line) and Nthy-ori (a SV40-immortalised thyroid cell line) cells, respectively. A transcriptomics-based approach was utilised to identify targets of the two miRNAs and real-time PCR and western blotting were used to validate a subset of the targets. Almost 100 mRNAs of diverse functions were found to be either directly or indirectly targeted by both miR-222 and miR-25 [fold change ≥2, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05]. Gene ontology analysis showed the miR-25 gene target list to be significantly enriched for genes involved in cell adhesion. Fluidigm real-time PCR technologies were used to validate the downregulation of 23 and 22 genes in response to miR-25 and miR-222 overexpression, respectively. The reduction of the expression of two miR-25 protein targets, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MEK4), was also validated. Manipulating the expression of both miR-222 and miR-25 influenced diverse gene expression changes in thyroid cells. Increased expression of miR-25 reduced MEK4 and TRAIL protein expression, and cell adhesion and apoptosis are important aspects of miR-25 functioning in thyroid cells. PMID:27353001

  17. [Pregnancy and the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, J L; Dreyfus, M

    1993-01-01

    During pregnancy the thyroid should adapt itself to the availability of the least quantities of iodides necessary to synthesis hormones and to several other possible modifications such as a rise in the thyroxine-binding globulin and the thyroid stimulating effect of beta-hCG. An increase in size of the thyroid gland is very common. The interpretation of the parameters used to diagnose abnormalities of thyroid function can be carried out. Although the development of the fetal thyroid can take place independently of the maternal thyroid behaviour, an abnormal thyroid function in the mother can not occur without affecting the pregnancy. Grave's disease can cause either fetal or neonatal hyperthyroidism due to a transplacental transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins or hypothyroidism secondary to the use of too large doses of synthetic antithyroid products. Pregnancy itself favours hyperthyroidism. Maternal hypothyroidism which has not been treated is rarer because of a lack of fertility. It can cause repercussions on the fetus that have probably been over estimated. When pregnancy occurs in a hypothyroid woman who is being treated the dosages of drugs that she is being given should be increased by 20-30%. Providing a good knowledge of the thyroid parameters and keeping the patient preferably euthyroid in cases where thyroid dysfunction can occur, the pregnancy can continue normally whatever the state of the mother thyroid function was. The risks to the fetus are minimal. In women who are at risk it is very important to keep controlling the thyroid state after delivery when there is an immunological rebound which may lead to a relapse in Grave's disease and to post-partum thyroiditis. PMID:7693795

  18. Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Jisang; Lee, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules.

  19. Ultrasonography of Various Thyroid Diseases in Children and Adolescents: A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Jisang; Lee, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules. PMID:25741204

  20. Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Multifocal Synchronous Transformation to Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a common malignancy to affect the thyroid and is typified by a nonaggressive nature and low rates of mortality. In contrast, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most aggressive thyroid malignancy with a mortality rate of nearly 90% and survival typically of only six months after the diagnosis is made. The transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is well documented in the literature but is uncommon and in most instances is reported as a case report or small series only. Transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma usually takes place in the thyroid itself or in the adjacent lymph nodes. Only on rare occasions does a transformation occur in a papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis outside of these locations. In the present case report and subsequent discussion we highlight an unusual case of PTC with transformation to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is shown to involve numerous locations to include near total lung parenchyma obliteration. We also discuss the differential diagnostic challenges when faced with a thyroid malignancy that is negative for thyroglobulin. PMID:27774331

  1. Thyroid disease and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Becks, G P; Burrow, G N

    1991-01-01

    Thyroid disease is common in younger women and may be a factor in reproductive dysfunction. This probably only applies to severe cases of hyper- or hypothyroidism. Once adequately treated, neither of these disorders significantly impacts on fertility. The key is to recognize and to treat thyroid disorders in the reproductive-age woman before conception. Thyroxine therapy and even antithyroid drug therapy should be continued during pregnancy as necessary. Pregnancy is a euthyroid state that is normally maintained by complex changes in thyroid physiology. The fetal and neonatal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system develops independently, but it may be influenced by thyroid disease in the mother. Early pregnancy is characterized by an increase in maternal T4 secretion stimulated by hCG and an increase in TBG, resulting in the elevated total serum T4 in pregnancy. The debate continues as to whether maternal T4 is important in early or late fetal brain development. If so, the physiologic changes in thyroid hormone secretion and transport in early pregnancy would help to ensure that a sufficient amount of thyroid hormone was available. There is new evidence in human subjects that substantial maternal T4 can cross the placenta during pregnancy, and this may be particularly important when fetal thyroid function is compromised as a result of congenital hypothyroidism. Maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes in pregnancy are adversely affected if severe hypothyroidism is undiagnosed or inadequately treated. Thyroid function tests should be obtained during gestation in women taking T4 and appropriate dose adjustments should be made for TSH levels outside a normal range. The TSH-receptor blocking antibodies from the mother are a recognized cause of congenital hypothyroidism in the fetus and neonate that can be permanent or transient. If neonatal hypothyroidism is detected through neonatal screening programs, and prompt and adequate T4 replacement therapy is instituted as soon as

  2. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report

    PubMed Central

    DONG, LI-QUN; SUN, XIAO-MEI; XIANG, CHENG-FA; WU, JIN; YU, PING

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. PMID:27330783

  3. Perchlorate, iodine and the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    In pharmacologic doses, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodine uptake and subsequently decreases thyroid hormone production. Although pharmacologic doses may be used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, recent literature has focussed on the detection of low levels of perchlorate in the environment, groundwater and foodstuffs and their potential adverse effects on human thyroid function. This is of particular concern to the developing foetus and infant, whose normal neurodevelopment depends on adequate iodine intake for the production of thyroid hormones. Further research is needed to clarify the potential health effects of low-level chronic environmental perchlorate exposure. The health impact of environmental perchlorate may be dependent upon adequate iodine intake and should be interpreted in combination with other environmental exposures that are also potential thyroidal endocrine disruptors. PMID:20172477

  4. C-cell hyperplasia accompanying thyroid diseases other than medullary carcinoma: an immunocytochemical study by means of antibodies to calcitonin and somatostatin.

    PubMed

    Scopsi, L; Di Palma, S; Ferrari, C; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Rilke, F

    1991-05-01

    Eighteen normal thyroid glands and unaffected thyroid tissue adjacent to 37 follicular cell-derived benign and malignant tumors and to ten thyroid metastases were studied immunocytochemically with calcitonin (CT) and prosomatostatin/somatostatin (SMS) antibodies. CT- and SMS-immunoreactive cells were found in 100% of cases, though with ample variations in number. Most but not all SMS-immunoreactive cells also contained CT. Diffuse and/or nodular C-cell hyperplasia was seen in 30% of pathological thyroid glands; in concomitance with follicular adenomas, the mean C-cell number more than doubled that found in normal glands. Furthermore the proportion of SMS-immunoreactive C-cells increased from about 1% of CT-immunoreactive cells in normal adult thyroid glands to 2.5% in follicular adenomas, 3% in follicular carcinomas, 4.6% in papillary carcinomas, and 5.7% in metastases. The findings suggest that C-cell hyperplasia may be causally related to pathologic disorders affecting follicular cells. Furthermore, the demonstration that the intrathyroidal SMS cell mass is readily affected by alterations of the follicular structure of the gland suggests a possible regulatory role of SMS in the thyroidal microenvironment.

  5. Thyroid hormone resistance.

    PubMed

    Olateju, Tolulope O; Vanderpump, Mark P J

    2006-11-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited syndrome of reduced end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormone. Patients with RTH have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations and normal or slightly elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Despite a variable clinical presentation, the common characteristic clinical features are goitre but an absence of the usual symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. Patients with RTH can be classified on clinical grounds alone into either generalized resistance (GRTH), pituitary resistance (PRTH) or combined. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene are responsible for RTH and 122 different mutations have now been identified belonging to 300 families. With the exception of one family found to have complete deletion of the TRbeta gene, all others have been demonstrated to have minor alterations at the DNA level. The differential diagnosis includes a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and the presence of endogenous antibodies directed against thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Failure to differentiate RTH from primary thyrotoxicosis has resulted in the inappropriate treatment of nearly one-third of patients. Although occasionally desirable, no specific treatment is available for RTH; however, the diagnosis allows appropriate genetic counselling. PMID:17132274

  6. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. PMID:27347891

  7. Thyroid hormone, brain development, and the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Zoeller, Thomas R; Dowling, Amy L S; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Iannacone, Eric A; Gauger, Kelly J; Bansal, Ruby

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development. Therefore, it is a genuine concern that thyroid function can be altered by a very large number of chemicals routinely found in the environment and in samples of human and wildlife tissues. These chemicals range from natural to manufactured compounds. They can produce thyroid dysfunction when they are absent from the diet, as in the case of iodine, or when they are present in the diet, as in the case of thionamides. Recent clinical evidence strongly suggests that brain development is much more sensitive to thyroid hormone excess or deficit than previously believed. In addition, recent experimental research provides new insight into the developmental processes affected by thyroid hormone. Based on the authors' research focusing on the ability of polychlorinated biphenyls to alter the expression of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in the developing brain, this review provides background information supporting a new way of approaching risk analysis of thyroid disruptors. PMID:12060829

  8. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. Unlike other types ...

  9. Thyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    Total thyroidectomy; Partial thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - thyroidectomy

  10. Nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryota; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Yoshino, Koji; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    Nivolumab (ONO-4538) is an anti-programmed death-1 specific monoclonal antibody, which has become a standard treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma. Nivolumab induces autoimmune adverse events, defined as immune-related adverse events. Herein, we report a case of nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction in the clinical setting. Fourteen patients were treated with nivolumab at our institute, of which three developed thyroid dysfunction, an incidence higher than previously reported in the initial clinical trials. Interestingly, one patient achieved complete remission; suggesting that in some patients, the occurrence of immune-related adverse events, including thyroid dysfunction, might reflect the drug's antitumour efficacy. No patient died or discontinued nivolumab treatment owing to thyroid dysfunction. Although thyroid dysfunction first appeared to be asymptomatic, two of the three patients developed symptoms related to hypothyroidism soon after, requiring hormone replacement therapy. Another patient developed hyperthyroidism that was initially asymptomatic; the patient subsequently developed myalgia with fever >39.5°C after two additional courses of nivolumab. Treatment with nivolumab was therefore discontinued, and treatment with prednisolone was initiated. Symptoms resolved within a few days, and thyroid function normalized. Thyroid dysfunction is sometimes difficult to diagnose because its symptoms similar to those of many other diseases. In addition, thyroid-related immune-related adverse events may present with unique symptoms such as myalgia with high fever, abruptly worsening patients' quality of life. Consequently, thyroid dysfunction should be considered as a possible immune-related adverse event. Thus, it is important to test for thyroid dysfunction at baseline and before the administration of each nivolumab dose if possible. PMID:27012985

  11. EXPERIMENTAL THYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, R. H.

    1898-01-01

    From the results of the various experiments already detailed I feel justified in drawing the following conclusions: (1) Absolutely fresh thyroid gland is not poisonous, in the usual sense of the term, when absorbed through the alimentary canal. (2) The symptoms of induced thyroidism are manifestations of an intoxication resulting from the ingestion of decomposed thyroid material, a conclusion that agrees in part with the previously related observations of Lanz. (3) The so-called experimental thyroidism is not specific for the thyroid only, for the ingestion of many substances derived from animal tissues other than the thyroid gland may produce an intoxication strikingly similar in every respect to that of experimental thyroidism. (4) Most, if not all, animal tissues yield substances which, if injected in large quantities directly into the circulation or beneath the skin, will produce an intoxication often very similar to that produced by injections of various substances derived from the fresh thyroid tissue. (5) The effects resulting from the intravascular or subcutaneous injections of aqueous extracts, decoctions and the concentrated extractives of the thyroid tissue, of the thymus, of muscle, etc., are by no means necessarily indicative of the function and the action of the hypothetical internal secretions of the same tissues during life. (6) The utilization of the fact that ingestion of decomposed thyroid material produces on certain occasions an intoxication with certain symptoms similar to some of those of G-raves' disease is not justifiable for the furtherance of the theory that the symptoms of exophthalmic goitre result from an over-production of the thyroid secretion. (7) Our results lead us to conclude with Drechsel that the fresh thyroid tissue yields at least probably two substances that are capable of palliating the symptoms of the acute cachexia in totally thyroidless dogs. (8) The thymus tissue also yields one and probably two substances that are as

  12. Thyroid inferno.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Amit; Kaur, Manmeet

    2014-01-01

    The key to uncovering the etiology of hyperthyroidism lies in a careful history and physical examination. Autoimmune markers provide additive information, but should not solely be used to make a diagnosis. Concern has been raised that the overzealous use of thyroid ultrasound, following abnormal thyroid function tests, diverts attention from the workup of the biochemical abnormality to the workup of an incidentally found thyroid nodule. If further imaging is needed, the use ofathyroidscanhas been suggestedbythe Endocrine Society and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. However, in certain scenarios, this may be contraindicated. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with hyperthyroidism, as aplatform to discuss an important clinical sign present on Doppler ultrasound of the thyroid. By recognizing the clinical information gained from a Doppler ultrasound, physicians can avoid additional invasive workup and apply the use of ultrasound where most appropriate.

  13. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Laryngoscopy (looking inside the throat using a mirror or flexible tube called a laryngoscope placed through ... It may be performed by: Aiming external beam (x-ray) radiation at the thyroid Taking radioactive iodine by ...

  14. Thyroid development in zebrafish lacking Taz.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Andrea; Porreca, Immacolata; Caputi, Luigi; De Felice, Elena; Schulte-Merker, Stephan; Zannini, Mariastella; Sordino, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Taz is a signal-responsive transcriptional coregulator implicated in several biological functions, from chondrogenesis to regulation of organ size. Less well studied, however, is its role in thyroid formation. Here, we explored the in vivo effects on thyroid development of morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of wwtr1, the gene encoding zebrafish Taz. The wwtr1 gene is expressed in the thyroid primordium and pharyngeal tissue of developing zebrafish. Compared to mammalian cells, in which Taz promotes expression of thyroid transcription factors and thyroid differentiation genes, wwtr1 MO injection in zebrafish had little or no effect on the expression of thyroid transcription factors, and differentially altered the expression of thyroid differentiation genes. Analysis of wwtr1 morphants at later stages of development revealed that the number and the lumen of thyroid follicles, and the number of thyroid follicle cells, were significantly smaller. In addition, Taz-depleted larvae displayed patterning defects in ventral cranial vessels that correlate with lateral displacement of thyroid follicles. These findings indicate that the zebrafish Taz protein is needed for the normal differentiation of the thyroid and are the first to suggest that Taz confers growth advantage to the endocrine gland.

  15. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  16. [Non thyroidal illnesses (NTIS)].

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Goichot, B; Brue, T

    2010-09-01

    Abnormalities in the circulating levels of thyroid hormones, without evidence of coexisting thyroid or pituitary gland disease can be observed in all general diseases. These nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIS) are the result of complex mechanisms that combine the effect of some drugs, cytokines, nutritional and endocrine factors at all levels of the thyrotropic axis, from the hypothalamus to the cellular transporters and nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. The patterns of NTIS depend on the underlying disease and its severity. Thirtyfive years after the initial description, the pathophysiological significance of these anomalies remains controversial. One of the dilemma of NTIS is whether the hormone responses represent an adaptive and normal, physiologic response to conserve energy and protect against hypercatabolism in case of aggression, or whether it is a maladaptive response contributing to a worsening of the disease. This debate is not just a theoretical question, because in the first case the process must be respected, in the other case a vigorous treatment to restore circulating thyroid hormone levels is justified. There have been very few clinical studies designed to address whether the substitution with thyroid hormone is advantageous, and there is at current time no permissive evidence for the use of thyroid hormone replacement in patients with NTIS. But the clinical context, the choice of the molecule or of the dose and the way of administration were not necessarily the most relevant. Theoretically, stimulation of thyreotrope axis used a continuous infusion of TRH seems to provide clinical benefit. With the expectation that randomized clinical trials will provide demonstration of NTIS treatment efficiency, the question might remain unanswered for several more years.

  17. Thyroid hormone-regulated gene expression in juvenile mouse liver: identification of thyroid response elements using microarray profiling and in silico analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disruption of thyroid hormone signalling can alter growth, development and energy metabolism. Thyroid hormones exert their effects through interactions with thyroid receptors that directly bind thyroid response elements and can alter transcriptional activity of target genes. The effects of short-term thyroid hormone perturbation on hepatic mRNA transcription in juvenile mice were evaluated, with the goal of identifying genes containing active thyroid response elements. Thyroid hormone disruption was induced from postnatal day 12 to 15 by adding goitrogens to dams' drinking water (hypothyroid). A subgroup of thyroid hormone-disrupted pups received intraperitoneal injections of replacement thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (replacement). An additional group received only thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (hyperthyroid). Hepatic mRNA was extracted and hybridized to Agilent mouse microarrays. Results Transcriptional profiling enabled the identification of 28 genes that appeared to be under direct thyroid hormone-regulation. The regulatory regions of the genome adjacent to these genes were examined for half-site sequences that resemble known thyroid response elements. A bioinformatics search identified 33 thyroid response elements in the promoter regions of 13 different genes thought to be directly regulated by thyroid hormones. Thyroid response elements found in the promoter regions of Tor1a, 2310003H01Rik, Hect3d and Slc25a45 were further validated by confirming that the thyroid receptor is associated with these sequences in vivo and that it can bind directly to these sequences in vitro. Three different arrangements of thyroid response elements were identified. Some of these thyroid response elements were located far up-stream (> 7 kb) of the transcription start site of the regulated gene. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling of thyroid hormone disrupted animals coupled with a novel bioinformatics search revealed new thyroid

  18. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  19. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  20. Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: A role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)?*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal brain development. Even subclinical hypothyroidism experienced in utero can result in neuropsychological deficits in children despite normal thyroid status at birth. Neurotrophins have been implicated in a host of brain cellular func...

  1. [Regulation of thyroid and pituitary functions by lipopolysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Iaglova, N V; Berezov, T T

    2010-01-01

    Activation of toll-like receptors-4 by bacterial lipopolysaccharide downregulates pituitary and thyroid function. Besides decrease of thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion lipopolysaccharide affects secretion in follicular thyroid cells directly. The endotoxin partially activates and inhibits different phases of follicular thyrocytes' secretion. Lipopolysaccharide enhances thyroglobulin synthesis and exocytosis into follicular lumen and suppresses its resorbtion. It results in sharp drop of blood thyroxine concentration without decrease of deiodinases-mediated thiroxine to triiodothyronine conversion. Stimulation of the lipopolysaccharide-pretreated thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone increases resorbtion of thyroglobulin and thyroid hormone production. Combined stimulation of the thyroid gland increases protein bound thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration unlike only TSH stimulation resulting in increase of free thyroid hormone levels. It also proves that binding capacity of thyroid hormone serum transport proteins during nonthyroidal illness syndrome remains normal. PMID:21341506

  2. Thyroid hormone resistance and its management

    PubMed Central

    Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, also known as syndrome of thyroid hormone resistance, is an inherited condition that occurs in 1 of 40,000 live births characterized by a reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone due to mutations on the thyroid hormone receptor. Patients can present with symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. They usually have elevated thyroid hormones and a normal or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. Due to their nonspecific symptomatic presentation, these patients can be misdiagnosed if the primary care physician is not familiar with the condition. This can result in frustration for the patient and sometimes unnecessary invasive treatment such as radioactive iodine ablation, as in the case presented herein. PMID:27034574

  3. Postpartum thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Argatska, Antoaneta B; Nonchev, Boyan I

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a syndrome of transient or permanent thyroid dysfunction occurring in the first year after delivery or abortion. It is the most common thyroid disease in the postpartum period with incidence between 5 and 9%. In essence, it is an autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid, caused by changes in humoral and cell-mediated immune response. It has a characteristic biphasic course with an episode of transient thyrotoxicosis followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism. Of all predisposing factors positive titers of thyroid peroxidase antibodies have the greatest importance. In some of the affected patients the disease course is marked by expressed hormonal disorders causing significant subjective symptoms. This underlines the need for early identification of risk groups aimed at prophylaxis and adequate treatment of thyroid dysfunction in the postpartum period. The frequency of PPT varies between analyses and studies on risk factors do not establish reliable predictive models for progression of the disease. This is due to the different methodology of research and the involvement of a number of genetic and non-genetic factors in different geographic regions. That is why implementation of mass screening programs is now controversial. The discrepancy in the opinions of researchers makes it necessary to have studies of the problem in performed in every clinical center in which the possible risk specific to the region and the population covered might be defined prognostically. The results of these studies can be used to introduce targeted and cost-effective screening for early detection of risk patients and prevention of morbidity and complications of PPT. PMID:25434070

  4. Postpartum thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Argatska, Antoaneta B; Nonchev, Boyan I

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a syndrome of transient or permanent thyroid dysfunction occurring in the first year after delivery or abortion. It is the most common thyroid disease in the postpartum period with incidence between 5 and 9%. In essence, it is an autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid, caused by changes in humoral and cell-mediated immune response. It has a characteristic biphasic course with an episode of transient thyrotoxicosis followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism. Of all predisposing factors positive titers of thyroid peroxidase antibodies have the greatest importance. In some of the affected patients the disease course is marked by expressed hormonal disorders causing significant subjective symptoms. This underlines the need for early identification of risk groups aimed at prophylaxis and adequate treatment of thyroid dysfunction in the postpartum period. The frequency of PPT varies between analyses and studies on risk factors do not establish reliable predictive models for progression of the disease. This is due to the different methodology of research and the involvement of a number of genetic and non-genetic factors in different geographic regions. That is why implementation of mass screening programs is now controversial. The discrepancy in the opinions of researchers makes it necessary to have studies of the problem in performed in every clinical center in which the possible risk specific to the region and the population covered might be defined prognostically. The results of these studies can be used to introduce targeted and cost-effective screening for early detection of risk patients and prevention of morbidity and complications of PPT. PMID:25507668

  5. Studies on thyroid cell surface antigens using cultured human thyroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fenzi, G F; Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Marcocci, C; Rotella, C M; Zonefrati, R; Toccafondi, R; Pinchera, A

    1982-01-01

    Human thyroid cells in primary culture were used for studies of thyroid cell surface antibodies in patients with thyroid autoimmune disorders. Radioiodinated IgG preparations containing thyroid microsomal antibody (TMAb), thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and/or thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were tested for binding to thyroid cells. Binding was observed with radioiodinated IgG from patients with Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and idiopathic myxoedema containing TMAb, irrespective of the presence of TSAb and TgAb, while negative results were obtained with normal IgG. A dose-dependent inhibition of binding to thyroid cells was produced by the addition of the corresponding unlabelled IgG preparations. Evidence for tissue specificity was provided by the absence of binding to human skin fibroblasts used as controls. Preabsorption with human thyroid microsomes completely abolished the binding to thyroid cells of a radioiodinated TMAb positive IgG preparation, while only incomplete removal of the reactivity to thyroid microsomes was produced by preabsorption with thyroid cells. These data suggest that some but not all microsomal antigenic determinants are expressed on the thyroid cell surface. Binding to thyroid cells was also observed with purified TgAb, indicating that thyroglobulin antigenic determinants are present on the surface of thyroid cells. No evidence of binding was obtained with a TSAb positive Graves' IgG preparation with undetectable TMAb and TgAb. Unlabelled IgG preparations containing TMAb from patients with either Hashimoto's thyroiditis or idiopathic myxoedema were shown to inhibit the binding to thyroid cells of radioiodinated TMAb positive Graves' IgG and vice versa. These data indicate that antibodies present in these thyroid autoimmune disorders share common thyroid cell surface antigens. However, the binding of radioiodinated IgG from a patient with idiopathic myxoedema was only partially inhibited by Graves' or Hashimoto's Ig

  6. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  7. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Niccoli-Sire, P; Conte-Devolx, B

    2007-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is developed from thyroid C cells that secrete calcitonin (CT). MTC represents 5-10% of thyroid cancers with a 1-2% incidence in nodular thyroid diseases. Diagnosis is usually made by a solitary nodule often associated to nodal metastasis and confirmed by a high basal CT level which represents its biological marker. MTC may present as a sporadic form and in about 30% of case as a familial form as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, an hereditary dominant inherited disease related to germline mutation of the proto-oncogene RET. Both biological (CT) and genetic (RET) markers allows the optimal diagnosis and treatment of MTC; the former allows screening and early diagnosis of MTC by routinely CT measurements in nodular thyroid diseases that make the adequate and complete surgery required to be performed. The former leads to diagnose familial MTC and to identify at risk subjects in whom early or prophylactic surgery may be performed. Treatment of MTC is based on the complete surgical resection: total thyroidectomy associated to central and laterocervical nodal dissection. For locally advanced or metastatic MTC, complete cervical surgery is required and needs to be associated to other systemic treatments: as chemotherapy is not very efficient, radioimmunotherapy and RET target gene therapy (mainly tyrosine kinase inhibitors) appears as possible valuable therapeutic options for the future. Prognosis of MTC is mainly related to both the stage of the disease and the extend of the initial surgery. Ten-year survival is about 80% when the patients are not surgically cured and reaches 95% when the biological marker CT is normalized after surgery. PMID:17572372

  8. [Immunohistochemical profile of angiogenesis in the thyroid gland in various thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Rurua, N Z; Gogiashvili, L E; Tsagareli, Z G

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study - to determine the feature of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) expression in the thyroid gland (TG) in various thyroid diseases. Material - thyroid tissue (operative material) with histologically confirmed diagnosis: 10 - follicular adenoma, 17 - multinodular goiter, 8 - thyroiditis Hashimoto, 8 - papillary carcinoma, 10 - intact (normal) thyroid samples (forensic autopsy). The immunohistochemical study of the material showed the following results: the increase of the Hürtle cells population 40 % or more indicates a hyperthyroidism tendency despite TSH+ receptor status. Under the thyroid pathology TSH and VEGF expression appears in thyrocytes and also in microvascular endothelial cells. VEGF expression is below the norm in the Hashimoto thyroiditis. VEGF is involved not only in angiogenesis, but in pathophysiological shifts in thyroid tissue. Microvessel density (MVD) and TSH positive receptor status under the thyroid pathology testify the absence of the endothelial cells transformation, however, this index can not serve as a biopothential prognostic marker of thyroid disease.

  9. Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Galofre, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The maternal physiological changes that occur in normal pregnancy induce complex endocrine and immune responses. During a normal pregnancy, thyroid gland volume may enlarge, and thyroid hormone production increases. Hence, the interpretation of thyroid function during gestation needs to be adjusted according to pregnancy-specific ranges. The elevated prevalence of gestation-related thyroid disorders (10%–15%) and the important repercussions for both mother and fetus reported in multiple studies throughout the world denote, in our opinion, the necessity for routine thyroid function screening both before and during pregnancy. Once thyroid dysfunction is suspected or confirmed, management of the thyroid disorder necessitates regular monitoring in order to ensure a successful outcome. The aim of treating hyperthyroidism in pregnancy with antithyroid drugs is to maintain serum thyroxine (T4) in the upper normal range of the assay used with the lowest possible dose of drug, whereas in hypothyroidism, the goal is to return serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to the range between 0.5 and 2.5 mU/L. PMID:19951221

  10. Thyroid emergencies.

    PubMed

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This review presents current knowledge about the thyroid emergencies known as myxedema coma and thyrotoxic storm. Understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions, appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms, and their prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment are crucial in optimizing survival.

  11. Airway obstruction secondary to large thyroid adenolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Nicholas; Malik, Paras; Hinton-Bayre, Anton; Lewis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland is a rare benign neoplasm composed of normal thyroid and mature adipose tissue. Ordinarily, only a small amount of fat exists in a normal thyroid gland. CT and MRI may differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, and fine-needle aspirate often assists diagnosis. Surgical excision for adenolipoma is considered curative. We report the case of a 67-year-old man presenting with a large neck lump and evidence of airway obstruction. Imaging revealed a 97×70 mm left thyroid mass with retropharyngeal extension and laryngotracheal compression. Hemithyroidectomy was performed with subsequent histology confirming a large thyroid adenolipoma. The patient's symptoms resolved and he remains asymptomatic with no sign of recurrence 2 years postsurgery. PMID:25199190

  12. Thyroid function in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Altemus, M; Hetherington, M; Kennedy, B; Licinio, J; Gold, P W

    1996-04-01

    Basal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels were evaluated in 18 women with bulimia nervosa during a period of active binging and vomiting and again after 7 weeks of abstinence from these behaviors and compared to measures in 27 control women. In 10 of the patients and 11 of the controls, the TSH nocturnal surge was calculated from hourly TSH measurements obtained in the afternoon from 1500 to 1900 h and in the night from 2300 to 0400 h. During the binging phase of the illness patients had lower total triiodothyronine (T3) values than controls (p < .001). After 7 weeks without binge eating or purging, patients had lower T3, total thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (FT4), reverse triiodothyronine and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) values compared to controls (p < .01) and significant reductions in T3, T4, FT4 and TBG compared to themselves in the active phase of the illness (p < .02). The reduction in thyroid hormone levels was not due to a reduction in the nocturnal thyrotropin surge, since surge values did not differ between normals and patients at either phase of the illness. Bulimics in the binging phase of the illness showed a positive correlation between caloric intake and TSH values (p < .01), suggesting that food binging may stimulate thyroid activity. In sum, these results show a substantial reduction in thyroid hormone levels after 7 weeks of abstinence from binging and vomiting behaviors.

  13. [Characterization of thyroglobulin in a patient with functioning and non-functioning benign thyroid tumors].

    PubMed

    Ishikita, T; Iino, Y; Ishida, T; Takei, H; Morishita, Y; Tarutani, O

    1992-08-20

    The chemical and immunological properties of thyroglobulin (Tg) in tissue obtained from a patient co-existed with two types of thyroid tumors, i.e., functioning and non-functioning, and were compared with the properties of Tg that was isolated from adjacent peripheral tissue. In the present observations, the Tg content was markedly increased in the non-functioning thyroid tumor. On the other hand, the Tg content in the functioning tumor was at the normal level. The iodine content of Tg was significantly lower in the non-functioning tumor than in peripheral tissues. Affinity with Lectins differed among Tg preparations, suggesting that the carbohydrate chain in the Tg was different in each nodule in a single individual.

  14. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... may show a tumor growing from the thyroid gland. A thyroid biopsy makes the diagnosis. An examination of the ... be cured by surgery. Complete removal of the thyroid gland does not prolong the lives of people who ...

  15. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Having too much thyroid hormone (a condition called hyperthyroidism ) can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, trouble ... nodules make too much thyroid hormone and cause hyperthyroidism. Nodules that produce increased thyroid hormone are almost ...

  16. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests to determine thyroid function include: Free T4 test Serum TSH T3 Thyroid autoantibodies Imaging studies and fine needle biopsy are generally not needed to diagnose Hashimoto thyroiditis. This disease may ...

  17. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  18. The thyroid during pregnancy: a physiological and pathological stress test.

    PubMed

    Shah, M S; Davies, T F; Stagnaro-Green, A

    2003-09-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum are times of marked and rapid change in the thyroid gland. Normal physiological changes include enhanced thyroid hormone production, modulation of thyroid hormone metabolism by placental deiodinases, and decreasing titers of thyroid antibodies in thyroid antibody positive women. Hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone levels and free T4 elevations. Graves' disease typically becomes quiescent during pregnancy, followed by a postpartum flare. Women with pre-existing hypothyroidism frequently require an increase in their levothryoxine requirement in the 1(st) trimester, and subclinical hypothyroidism early in pregnancy is linked to both miscarriage and impaired neurological development in the unborn child. Postpartum thyroiditis occurs in 7.2% of women, and euthyroid women who are thyroid antibody positive in the 1(st) trimester of pregnancy have a doubling of the miscarriage rate.

  19. Thyroid hormones and growth in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Tarım, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate growth by several mechanisms. In addition to their negative feedback effect on the stimulatory hormones thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormones also regulate their receptors in various physiological and pathological conditions. Up-regulation and down-regulation of the thyroid receptors fine-tune the biological effects exerted by the thyroid hormones. Interestingly, the deiodinase enzyme system is another intrinsic regulator of thyroid physiology that adjusts the availability of thyroid hormones to the tissues, which is essential for normal growth and development. Almost all chronic diseases of childhood impair growth and development. Every disease may have a unique mechanism to halt linear growth, but reduced serum concentration or diminished local availability of thyroid hormones seems to be a common pathway. Therefore, the effects of systemic diseases on thyroid physiology must be taken into consideration in the evaluation of growth retardation in affected children.

  20. Serum levels of sex hormones and expression of their receptors in thyroid tissue in female patients with various types of thyroid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Chen, Guang; Meng, Xian-Ying; Liu, Zhong-Hui; Dong, Su

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in thyroid cancer; however, little is known regarding the levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum and the expression of ER, PR, FSH receptor (FSHR), and LH receptor (LHR) in thyroid tissues of patients with different types of thyroid neoplasms. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH were measured by chemiluminescence, and expression of ER, PR, FSHR, and LHR in thyroid tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry in female patients with thyroid adenoma (n = 70), nodular goiter (n = 73), thyroid papillary cancer (n = 149), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (n = 12), or undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (n = 8) and in normal controls (n = 60). The positive rates of serum estrogen level and ERα expression were significantly greater in patients with various types of thyroid neoplasms than in normal controls. The positive rates of ERβ expression were significantly less in various types of thyroid neoplasms than in normal thyroid tissues, especially in poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. The negative rates of serum progesterone level and positive rates of PR expression in thyroid tissue were significantly greater in patients with thyroid adenoma, nodular goiter, or thyroid papillary cancer than in normal controls. The positive rates of serum FSH and LH levels and FSHR and LHR expression were significantly greater in the thyroid adenoma group than in other groups. Our findings suggest that thyroid neoplasms might be sex hormone-dependent. The positive expression of ERα and PR often indicates thyroid papillary carcinoma, and the ERβ expression status is important for the diagnosis of poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. In addition, thyroid adenoma is often accompanied by an increase in serum FSH and LH levels, as well as

  1. THYROID FUNCTION IN DIFFERENT PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Boral, G. C.; Ghosh, A. B.; Pal, S. K.; Ghosh, K. K.; Nandi, D. N.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Thyroid function viz. estimation of T3, T4 & TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) were studied in cases of depression, mania and schizophrenia, each category numbering thirty one. These values were compared with corresponding values estimated in norm.al control group of individuals of identical age, sex and socio economic status. The depressives and schizophrenics showed subclinical or chemical hypothyroidism while the manic showed slightly higher values for T3, and T4, when compared to normal control subjects. PMID:22058463

  2. Dendritic cells in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A

    1987-01-01

    Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3475920

  3. Dendritic cells in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A

    1987-01-01

    Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Treatment of congenital thyroid dysfunction: Achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Krude, Heiko; Kühnen, Peter; Biebermann, Heike

    2015-06-01

    The active thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T3) is essential for a normal development of children. Especially within the first years of life, thyroid hormone is pivotal in enabling maturation of complex brain function and somatic growth. The most compelling example for a life without thyroid hormone are those historical cases of children who came to birth without a thyroid gland - as shown in autopsy-studies- and who suffered from untreated hypothyroidism, at that time initially called "sporadic congenital hypothyroidism" (CH). In the last decades huge achievements resulted in a normal development of these children based on newborn screening programs that enable an early onset of a high dose LT4-treatment. Further progress will be necessary to further tailor an individualized thyroid hormone substitution approach and to identify those more complex patients with congenital hypothyroidism and associated defects, who will not benefit from an even optimized LT4 therapy. Besides the primary production of thyroid hormone a variety of further mechanisms are necessary to mediate the function of T3 on normal development that are located downstream of thyroid hormone production. Abnormalities of these mechanisms include the MCT8-transport defect, deiodinase-insufficiency and thyroid hormone receptor alpha-and beta defects. These thyroid hormone resistant diseases can not be treated with classical LT4 substitution alone. The development of new treatment options for those rare cases of thyroid hormone resistance is one of the most challenging tasks in the field of congenital thyroid diseases today. PMID:26051299

  5. Noonan's Syndrome and Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesterhus, Per; Aarskog, Dagfinn

    1973-01-01

    Thyroid abnormalities were studies in seven boys and three girls, 4- to 17-years-old, with Noonan's syndrome, characterized by mental retardation, ocular anomalies (wide spaced eyes, drooped eye lids, or strabismus), heart lesions, characteristics of Turner's syndrome, and normal karyotypes (chromosome arrangement). (MC)

  6. Parapharyngeal ectopic thyroid: the possible persistence of the lateral thyroid anlage. Clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Soscia, A; Guerra, G; Cinelli, M-P; Testa, D; Galli, V; Macchi, V; De Caro, R

    2004-08-01

    The accessory midline thyroids are ascribed to an arrest of migration of the median thyroid anlage, while the lateral ectopic thyroids have induced a hypothesis of the presence of lateral thyroid anlage. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with dyspnea and dysphagia of 1 year's duration. The clinical examination and radiological investigations (CT and MRI) showed a solid heterogeneous mass in the right parapharyngeal space. The fine needle aspiration biopsy was inconsistent. The mass (3x2.5x3.5 cm) was excised via a transoral approach. It was capsulated with an elastic consistency and showed a nodular appearance on the cut surface. Histological examination revealed thyroid tissue with the characteristics of colloid goiter. The postoperative (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed the normal thyroid gland located in the usual pretracheal site. The absence of malignancy, at histology and immunohistochemistry, allows a metastatic nature of the mass to be ruled out, and accounts for a supernumerary thyroid. The occurrence of a parapharyngeal thyroid, although extremely rare, is worth bearing in mind as a possible ectopic location. This case also supports the hypothesized role of the lateral thyroid anlage in man deriving from the ultimo-branchial body in the morphogenesis of the lateral lobe of the thyroid gland.

  7. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the parotid salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Mysorekar, V V; Dandekar, C P; Sreevathsa, M R

    2004-09-01

    Benign ectopic thyroid tissue within the parotid salivary gland is very rare. A 32-year-old woman presented with a slowly-growing, painless mass in the parotid region. The mass, which was clinically diagnosed as a parotid tumour, was found at surgery to be cystic in nature. Histological examination showed thyroid tissue with secondary changes in the cyst wall and colloid in the lumen. On iodine isotope scan, the thyroid gland was found in its normal location. The possible origin of the ectopic thyroid tissue in the parotid salivary gland could be due to a common evolution of the thyroid and parotid glands, a heteroplasia or a metaplasia.

  8. Thyroid function during the spontaneous course of subacute thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, V.L.; Romaldini, J.H.; Rodrigues, H.F.; Tanaka, L.M.; Farah, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    A study of changes in serum T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, and Tg as well as of serum TSH response to TRH was done in ten patients with subacute thyroiditis, from the acute phase up to 56 mo. All patients had symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. The mean serum T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, and Tg concentration were significantly higher than in normal subjects. The basal TSH concentrations failed to increase in response to TRH. Mean serum T/sub 3/ and serum Tg levels remained higher than in normal subjects until 4 to 5 mo after the acute phase. Thyroid autoantibodies were absent during the whole period of study. An exaggerated response of TSH to TRH in six out of seven patients was observed from a 2 to 3 mo period until the end of follow-up. All patients with T/sub 3/ to T/sub 4/ ratio above the normal range (7-24 ng/..mu..g) showed also an exaggerated response of TSH to TRH. These data suggest that the spontaneous course of subacute thyroiditis may lead to a low thyroid reserve detectable even 5 yr following the acute phase of the disease.

  9. Thyroid hormones, learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Rivas, M; Naranjo, J R

    2007-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), T3 and T4, have many physiological actions and are essential for normal behavioral, intellectual and neurological development. THs have a broad spectrum of effects on the developing brain and mediate important effects within the CNS throughout life. Insufficient maternal iodine intake during gestation and TH deficiency during human development are associated to pathological alterations such as cretinism and mental retardation. In adulthood, thyroid dysfunction is related to neurological and behavioral abnormalities, including memory impairment. Analysis of different experimental models suggests that most of the effects on cognition as a result of thyroid dysfunction rely on hippocampal modifications. Insufficiency of THs during development thus alters hippocampal synaptic function and impairs behavioral performance of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks that persist in euthyroid adult animals. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge obtained by clinical observations and experimental models that shows the importance of THs in learning and mnemonic processes. PMID:17543038

  10. Snail Family Transcription Factors Are Implicated in Thyroid Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Robert G.; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; González-Herrero, Ines; Anderson, Catriona; Flores, Teresa; Hughes, Sharon; Tselepis, Chris; Ross, James A.; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2007-01-01

    E-Cadherin (CDH1) expression is reduced in thyroid carcinomas by primarily unknown mechanisms. In several tissues, SNAIL (SNAI1) and SLUG (SNAI2) induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition by altering target gene transcription, including CDH1 repression, but these transcription factors have not been studied in thyroid carcinoma. Recently, our group has provided direct evidence that ectopic SNAI1 expression induces epithelial and mesenchymal mouse tumors. SNAI1, SNAI2, and CDH1 expression were analyzed in thyroid-derived cell lines and samples of human follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of SNAI1 expression on CDH1 transcription was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in ori-3 cells. Thyroid carcinoma development was analyzed in CombitTA-Snail mice, in which SNAI1 levels are up-regulated. SNAI1 and SNAI2 were not expressed in cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, or in normal human thyroid samples, but were highly expressed in cell lines derived from thyroid carcinomas, in human thyroid carcinoma samples, and their metastases. SNAI1 expression in ori-3 cells repressed CDH1 transcription. Combi-TA mice developed papillary thyroid carcinomas, the incidence of which was increased by concomitant radiotherapy. In conclusion, SNAI1 and SNAI2 are ectopically expressed in thyroid carcinomas, and aberrant expression in mice is associated with papillary carcinoma development. PMID:17724139

  11. [BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid nodules in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ilera, Verónica; Dourisboure, Ricardo; Colobraro, Antonio; Silva Croome, María Del Carmen; Olstein, Gustavo; Gauna, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study analyzed the frequency of V600E mutation of oncogene BRAF in patients operated for benign thyroid nodules and for papillary thyroid cancer in an Argentine population. In patients with papillary thyroid cancer we compared clinicopathological characteristics between those harboring BRAF mutation and those without it. Twenty five consecutive patients operated for benign nodules and for papillary carcinoma were prospectively included. Fresh tissue samples of thyroid nodules and of adjacent thyroid parenchyma were obtained. DNA was extracted and amplified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Direct sequencing was performed in four samples. Of those patients operated for papillary thyroid cancer, 77% harbored BRAF mutation. All samples from adjacent thyroid parenchyma and from patients operated for benign nodules tested negative for the mutation. Direct sequencing confirmed the results obtained by ARMS PCR. Patients with BRAF mutation were significantly older at the time of diagnosis (BRAF+ 47.7 ± 12.7 years vs. BRAF- 24.7 ± 8.1 years, p < 0.01). Nine out of ten papillary carcinomas with BRAF mutation corresponded to the classic histological subtype, which was not observed in BRAF negative tumors (p < 0.02). In conclusion, we found a high frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in this population of patients operated for papillary thyroid carcinoma in Argentina. These results are consistent with those reported in the literature. PMID:27576281

  12. Nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pianta, Annalisa; Puppin, Cinzia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Fabbro, Dora; Di Loreto, Carla; Bulotta, Stefania; Deganuto, Marta; Paron, Igor; Tell, Gianluca; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe

    2010-07-02

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a protein that contributes to several cell functions. Depending on the context, it can act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor. No data are available on NPM expression in thyroid cells. In this work, we analyzed both NPM mRNA and protein levels in a series of human thyroid tumor tissues and cell lines. By using immunohistochemistry, NPM overexpression was detected in papillary, follicular, undifferentiated thyroid cancer, and also in follicular benign adenomas, indicating it as an early event during thyroid tumorigenesis. In contrast, various levels of NPM mRNA levels as detected by quantitative RT-PCR were observed in tumor tissues, suggesting a dissociation between protein and transcript expression. The same behavior was observed in the normal thyroid FRTL5 cell lines. In these cells, a positive correlation between NPM protein levels, but not mRNA, and proliferation state was detected. By using thyroid tumor cell lines, we demonstrated that such a post-mRNA regulation may depend on NPM binding to p-Akt, whose levels were found to be increased in the tumor cells, in parallel with reduction of PTEN. In conclusion, our present data demonstrate for the first time that nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors, as an early event of thyroid tumorigenesis. It seems as a result of a dysregulation occurring at protein and not transcriptional level related to an increase of p-Akt levels of transformed thyrocytes.

  13. Cervical distribution of iodine 131 following total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fratkin, M.J.; Newsome, H.H. Jr.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.; Tatum, J.L.

    1983-07-01

    The use of postoperative radioiodine thyroid scanning has questioned whether total thyroidectomy is surgically possible. Similar to earlier studies, we have found functioning iodine 131 (/sup 131/I)-avid thyroid tissue in our patients following total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. Preoperative and postoperative thyroid scans were compared in 24 patients to study the cervical location of postthyroidectomy residual thyroid tissue. Thyroid scanning detected 44 distinct sites of uptake. Thirty-eight of these foci were located either at the extremes of the upper poles of the thyroid gland (24) or along the embryonic thyroid descent tract (14). We conclude that these foci of /sup 131/I uptake represent incomplete resection of normal thyroid tissue, and that surgical attention to these areas should result more frequently in extirpation of the entire thyroid gland.

  14. Thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases.

  15. Radionuclide thyroid imaging in the newborn with suspected hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Yoosufani, Z.; Karimeddini, M.K.; Spencer, R.P.; Ratzan, S.K.

    1985-05-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with thyroid imaging in newborns with suspected congenital hypothyroidism. The infants were selected through a hypothyroidism screening program. There were 19 infants (14 females, 5 males) from 2 to 8 weeks of age with a blood T4 <6 ..mu..g/dl. Thyroid imaging was performed with either IV or IM injection of 0.5 to 1 mCi of Tc 99m pertechnetate using a gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. Salivary glands and stomach were also imaged for assessing the presence of the transport system. In 6 infants (32%) no thyroid tissue was visualized (thyroid hypoplasia). Four infants (21%) showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual or sublingual area. Two infants (10%) had evidence of goiter. The remaining 7 infants (37%) had normal appearing glands in size and position. TSH values were markedly elevated (> 100 ..mu mu../ml) in all 10 patients with hypoplastic or ectopic thyroid. Two patients were subsequently found to have normal thyroid function (one with TBG deficiency and one with transient hypothyroidism). Thyroidal as well as salivary gland trapping of the radiotracer in these two infants was clearly less than that of adults suggesting immaturity of the transport/trapping mechanism. All 4 patients with ectopic thyroid had markedly increased uptake of the radiotracer. All other patients with elevated TSH levels had increased uptake of the radiotracer as compared to the normals. They conclude that thyroid scanning is an important tool in delineating the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism.

  16. Evolution of thyroid /sup 127/I stores measured by X-ray fluorescence in subacute thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Fragu, P.; Rougier, P.; Schlumberger, M.; Tubiana, M.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluation of the thyroid iodine content by x-ray fluorescence was performed in 13 patients throughout the course of subacute thyroiditis. In the initial hyperthyroid phase of the disease, the iodine stores of the thyroid were not completely depleted. The iodine content (6.5 +/- 3 mg) was about 2.5 times lower than normal values when thyroiditis had developed in a normal thyroid (10 patients); in 3 patients with goiter; it was elevated (29.6 +/- 6.7 mg) but was still within the normal range of euthyroid goitrous patients. After clinical remission, the iodine content of the gland increased only in two patients (+105% and +43% over the initial value, respectively). For the other patients, the iodine content decreased (from -5% to -100% of the initial value). Restoration of iodine stores occurred subsequently and appeared to be a slow and progressive phenomenon; in six patients the iodine content was still below normal values 12 months after clinical remission (6.6 +/- 1.6 mg). These data suggest that the course of subactue thyroiditis might be longer than would appear from the clinical data, the hormonal assays, or the radioactive thyroid uptake data.

  17. Fetal thyroid function: diagnosis and management of fetal thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D A

    1997-03-01

    The fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis develops independently of the maternal axis, but it is dependent on the maternal-placental system for adequate supply of iodide substrate. This iodide is supplied by direct transfer of maternal plasma iodide and by placental deiodination of T4. In addition, although placental transport of iodothyronines is limited, significant maternal-fetal transfer of T4 occurs, accounting for approximately 30% of the average 10 ug/dL serum-T4 concentration in fetal-cord blood at term. Current information suggests that this maternal contribution to the fetal-T4 levels is important for normal fetal maturation, particularly of the central nervous system. Combined maternal-fetal hypothyroxinemia can lead to irreversible fetal central nervous system damage. The timing of this fetal T4 dependency is not clear. It may be important in the first half of gestation, before the fetal thyroid gland is capable of T4 production, as well as the latter half of gestation when thyroid hormone effects on multiple organ systems are developing. Management of fetal thyroid dysfunction requires normalization of maternal serum T4 concentrations, avoidance or careful monitoring of potentially goitrogenic drug effects in the fetus, and in some instances, direct or indirect fetal therapy. In most cases fetal hypothyroidism is sporadic and undetected, and prognosis for normal growth and development is excellent if the mother is euthyroid and the hypothyroid state is detected and adequately treated at birth. Fetal treatment by intraamniotic thyroxine injection has been provided in cases of inadvertent maternal radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease between 10 and 20 weeks gestation and for fetal goiter detected by ultrasound. Effective treatment of fetal hyperthyroidism in pregnant women with high titers of thyroid stimulating autoantibody is possible by judicious administration of antithyroid drugs to the mother. Management of the hyperthyroid state in the

  18. Diffuse sclerosing variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma: diagnostic challenges occur with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chin; Chen, Wen-Chung; Peng, Shu-Ling; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Diffuse sclerosing papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSPTC) is a relatively rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with distinct histological features, radiological characteristics, and biological aggressiveness. Compared with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, DSPTC is characterized by scattered microscopic tumor islands, diffuse fibrosis, calcification, and abundant lymphocytic aggregation. A preoperative diagnosis is challenging in the absence of nodules and scanty fine needle aspiration cytology samples. We describe a unique DSPTC patient, an 18-year-old woman who presented with a neck mass that grew slowly for 2 years. The palpable neck mass was nontender, well defined, firm, and unmovable. Laboratory studies showed normal thyroid function and positive autoimmune markers: antithyroglobulin antibody = 1:1600 and antimicrosomal antibody = 1:1600. A neck ultrasound showed diffusely prominent microcalcifications with one small vague nodule. Hashimoto's thyroiditis with an accompanying malignancy was suspected. Based on the result of intraoperative pathology reports, the patient was given a total thyroidectomy. Lymph node dissection and histological analysis revealed bilateral DSPTC in addition to lymphocytic thyroiditis in nonmalignant areas of the thyroid. Clinical and histological diagnostic challenges usually occur when DSPTC presents with a diffuse thyroid enlargement, dispersed microscopic tumor islands (frequently without mass formation), extensive fibrosis, and abundant lymphocytic infiltration mimicking thyroiditis.

  19. Black thyroid: clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.; Herrera, G.A.; Jaffe, K.; Yu, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of three black thyroid glands showed lysosomal accumulations of lipofuscin-like pigment and granular electron-dense material in association with 1) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with normal thyroid function; 2) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with a significant inflammatory component, fibrosis, and primary hypothyroidism; and 3) a black thyroid gland with no exposure to minocycline. The deposition of the pigments in the three cases resulted in macroscopically recognizable black thyroid glands. It is speculated that an imbalance in lysosomal function accounts for this abnormality. The glandular hypofunction documented in case 2 is unique and confirms the need to monitor function carefully in patients who are receiving minocycline. In one case electrondense deposits were identified in the thyroid gland interstitium.

  20. Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers.

  1. Thyroid iodine content and serum thyroglobulin: cues to the natural history of destruction-induced thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Smallridge, R.C.; De Keyser, F.M.; Van Herle, A.J.; Butkus, N.E.; Wartofsky, L.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-eight patients with destructive thyroiditis were followed to study the natural history of healing of thyroid gland injury. All had sequential measurements of thyroidal iodine (/sup 127/I) content by fluorescent scanning (normal mean, 10.1 mg), 17 had serial serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements (normal, less than 21 ng/ml), and 13 had perchlorate discharge studies during the recovery phase. Seventeen patients had painful subacute thyroiditis (SAT), 9 had painless thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PTT), and 2 had postpartum thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PPT). Thyroidal iodine content decreased from a mean of 9.8 to a nadir of 3.8 mg in patients with SAT and from 8.5 to a nadir of 3.5 mg in patients with PTT. Mean serum Tg concentrations were highest (approximately 165 ng/ml) in both groups 1-3 months after the onset of symptoms. Abnormalities in both /sup 127/I content and Tg levels persisted for 2 or more yr in some individuals. No patient had detectable Tg antibodies by hemagglutination, but low titers were detected intermittently by sensitive RIA in 5 PTT patients. Microsomal antibodies were positive in only 1 of 16 SAT patients, but in 4 of 7 PTT patients and in both PPT patients. Three patients had positive perchlorate discharge tests (2 of 8 with SAT, 0 of 4 with PTT, and 1 of 1 with PPT). Permanent hypothyroidism occurred in 3 patients (2 with PTT; 1 with SAT and positive antibodies), but did not correlate with perchlorate results. HLA typing and serum immunoglobulin measurements were not useful for predicting the clinical course. These data indicate that several years may be necessary for complete resolution of destructive thyroiditis; many patients have evidence of thyroid injury persisting long after serum thyroid hormone and TSH levels become normal.

  2. Neonatal thyroid function: prematurity, prenatal steroids, and respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R C; Purdie, G L; O'Grady, C M

    1986-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 97 preterm infants at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Triiodothyronine uptake, free thyroxine index, thyroxine, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, and thyroxine binding globulin values at birth correlated with gestational age, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone values did not. Treatment with steroids prenatally had no apparent effect on thyroid function at birth or postnatally. Infants developing respiratory distress syndrome had normal values for all indices at birth. These infants had significantly lower thyroxine, free thyroxine index, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine values at 5 days of age, while thyroid stimulating hormone values remained normal. This alteration in thyroid function was interpreted as being secondary to respiratory distress syndrome. Gestational maturity and respiratory distress syndrome, if present, must be taken into account when evaluating thyroxine variables in preterm infants, whereas measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone as the screen for congenital hypothyroidism circumvents these considerations. PMID:3729529

  3. The thyroid and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Lichiardopol, Corina; Moţa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves' disease, postpartum thyroiditis, atrophic thyroiditis and drug induced thyroiditis) are prevalent disorders worldwide, especially in women (related to the millieu of sex steroids and X chromosome effects on the thyroid and the immune system). Disruption of thyroid self tolerance, usually induced by an infection, generates abnormal thyroid--immune interactions, implicating an array of cytokines and their receptors. Thyrocytes achieve antigen presenting cell properties which stimulate effector immune cells (Th1, Th2, Th17), in the context of defective immunomodulatory T regulatory cells, resulting in thyroid lymphocytic infiltration and activation of B cells, with production of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroid destruction or stimulation, depending on the Th1-Th2 balance. During pregnancy there is a Th2 predominance sustained by the increased glucocorticoid, estrogen and progesteron levels, which allows tolerance versus the histoincompatible fetoplacental unit. In the postpartum period, the return shift Th2 to Th1 favors the occurrence of postpartum thyroiditis. Altered thyroid hormone levels can influence the immune system, and, on the other side, some immune cells secrete TSH, which exerts endocrine and paracrine, cytokine-like effects. Understanding the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disorders is crucial for prevention and management.

  4. Iodine-induced thyroid blockade: role of selenium and iodine in the thyroid and pituitary glands.

    PubMed

    Basalaeva, Nadezdha L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the content of iodine and selenium in the thyroid and pituitary glands of rats under iodine-induced blockade of the thyroid gland. Electron probe microanalysis, wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, and point analysis were used in this investigation. We also determined the expression of sodium iodide symporter and caspase 32 in the thyroid and pituitary glands and the expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the pituitary. The samples for iodine analysis must be thoroughly dehydrated, and for this purpose, we developed a method that produced samples of constant mass with minimal loss of substrate (human thyroid gland was used for the investigation). Normal levels of iodine and selenium were found in the thyroid, pituitary, ovaries, testes hypothalamus, and pancreas of healthy rats. The levels of iodine and selenium in I- or Se-positive points and the percentage of positive points in most of these organs were similar to those of controls (basal level), except for the level of iodine in the thyroid gland and testes. Blockade of the thyroid gland changed the iodine level in iodine-positive points of the thyroid and the pituitary glands. On the sixth day of blockage, the iodine level in iodine-positive points of the thyroid gradually decreased to the basal level followed by an abrupt increase on the seventh day, implying a rebound effect. The opposite was found in the pituitary, in which the level of iodine in iodine-positive points increased during the first 6 days and then abruptly decreased on the seventh day. Expression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone in the pituitary decreased during the first 5 days but sharply increased on the sixth day, with a minimum level of iodine in the thyroid and maximum in the pituitary, before normalization of the iodine level in both glands preceding the rebound effect. The expression of sodium iodide symporter increased during the first 4 days of blockage and then decreased in both

  5. Expression of YY1 in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Jéssica; Castellví, Josep; Marcos, Ricard; Zafón, Carles; Velázquez, Antonia

    2015-05-01

    The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) has an important regulatory role in tumorigenesis, but its implication in thyroid cancer has not been yet investigated. In the present study, we have analyzed the expression of YY1 in differentiated thyroid cancer and assessed the association of YY1 expression with clinical features. Expression of YY1 was evaluated in human thyroid cancer cell lines, a series of matched normal/tumor thyroid tissues and in a thyroid cancer tissue microarray, using real-time PCR, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. YY1 was overexpressed in thyroid cancer cells, at transcription and protein levels. A significant increase of YY1 mRNA was also observed in tumor thyroid tissues. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of the thyroid cancer tissue microarray revealed that both papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) present increased YY1 protein levels (48 and 19%, respectively). After stratification by the level of YY1 protein, positive YY1 expression identifies 88% of patients with PTC. The association of YY1 expression with clinicopathological features in PTC and FTC showed that YY1 expression was related with age at diagnosis. Our data indicates for the first time overexpression of YY1 in differentiated thyroid cancer, with YY1 being more frequently overexpressed in the PTC subtype.

  6. Thyroid function after thermal trauma.

    PubMed

    Smeds, S; Kågedal, B; Liedén, G; Liljedahl, S O

    1981-01-01

    The thyroid function was analyzed for 4-6 weeks in a prospective study of 12 thermally injured patients. The burn size range was 15-90%. Serum concentrations of 3,5,3'-triidothyronine (T3) was suppressed and 3,3',5'-triidothyronine (rT3) was increased. The ratio T3/rT3 was subnormal on the third day after the trauma and normalized after 3 weeks. Thyroxine and the free T4-index were within the normal range. The free T3-index were within the normal range. The TSH concentration was initially low but slowly increasing during the period of study. The concentration of the thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) varied within the normal range. The T3 resin uptake test varied inversely with the TBG concentration. The concentration of thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA) was subnormal. A control experiment excluded possible interference on the hormone concentrations of administered donor blood and plasma. It is concluded that the thyroid hormones are not responsible for the posttraumatic hypermetabolism in burn injury. The present findings further indicate a depletion of metabolically active thyroid hormones at the cellular level after burn injury. PMID:6803354

  7. Psychiatric Symptoms due to Thyroid Disease in a Female Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms due to Thyroid Disease in a Female Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:25436160

  9. Is there still a role for thyroid scintigraphy in the workup of a thyroid nodule in the era of fine needle aspiration cytology and molecular testing?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Kyrilli, Aglaia; Lytrivi, Maria; Bourmorck, Carole; Chami, Rayan; Corvilain, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is now rarely used in the work-up of a thyroid nodule except in the presence of a low TSH value. Therefore, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) with a normal TSH value are diagnosed only in the rare medical centers that continue to use thyroid scan systematically in the presence of a thyroid nodule. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of AFTN with a normal TSH level and the possible consequences of performing fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in an undiagnosed AFTN. We also discuss the risk of malignant AFTN which may be higher than previously stated. PMID:27158470

  10. Thyroid autoantibodies are rare in nonhuman great apes and hypothyroidism cannot be attributed to thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Aliesky, Holly; Courtney, Cynthia L; Rapoport, Basil; McLachlan, Sandra M

    2013-12-01

    The great apes include, in addition to Homo, the genera Pongo (orangutans), Gorilla (gorillas), and Pan, the latter comprising two species, P. troglodytes (chimpanzees) and P. paniscus (bonobos). Adult-onset hypothyroidism was previously reported in 4 individual nonhuman great apes. However, there is scarce information on normal serum thyroid hormone levels and virtually no data for thyroid autoantibodies in these animals. Therefore, we examined thyroid hormone levels and TSH in all nonhuman great ape genera including adults, adolescents, and infants. Because hypothyroidism in humans is commonly the end result of thyroid autoimmunity, we also tested healthy and hypothyroid nonhuman great apes for antibodies to thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the TSH receptor (TSHR). We established a thyroid hormone and TSH database in orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos (447 individuals). The most striking differences are the greatly reduced free-T4 and free-T3 levels in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, and conversely, elevated TSH levels in gorillas vs Pan species. Antibodies to Tg and TPO were detected in only 2.6% of adult animals vs approximately 10% in humans. No animals with Tg, TPO, or TSHR antibodies exhibited thyroid dysfunction. Conversely, hypothyroid nonhuman great apes lacked thyroid autoantibodies. Moreover, thyroid histology in necropsy tissues was similar in euthyroid and hypothyroid individuals, and lymphocytic infiltration was absent in 2 hypothyroid animals. In conclusion, free T4 and free T3 are lower in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, the closest living human relatives. Moreover, thyroid autoantibodies are rare and hypothyroidism is unrelated to thyroid autoimmunity in nonhuman great apes.

  11. Thyroid Autoantibodies Are Rare in Nonhuman Great Apes and Hypothyroidism Cannot Be Attributed to Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Aliesky, Holly; Courtney, Cynthia L.; Rapoport, Basil

    2013-01-01

    The great apes include, in addition to Homo, the genera Pongo (orangutans), Gorilla (gorillas), and Pan, the latter comprising two species, P. troglodytes (chimpanzees) and P. paniscus (bonobos). Adult-onset hypothyroidism was previously reported in 4 individual nonhuman great apes. However, there is scarce information on normal serum thyroid hormone levels and virtually no data for thyroid autoantibodies in these animals. Therefore, we examined thyroid hormone levels and TSH in all nonhuman great ape genera including adults, adolescents, and infants. Because hypothyroidism in humans is commonly the end result of thyroid autoimmunity, we also tested healthy and hypothyroid nonhuman great apes for antibodies to thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the TSH receptor (TSHR). We established a thyroid hormone and TSH database in orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos (447 individuals). The most striking differences are the greatly reduced free-T4 and free-T3 levels in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, and conversely, elevated TSH levels in gorillas vs Pan species. Antibodies to Tg and TPO were detected in only 2.6% of adult animals vs approximately 10% in humans. No animals with Tg, TPO, or TSHR antibodies exhibited thyroid dysfunction. Conversely, hypothyroid nonhuman great apes lacked thyroid autoantibodies. Moreover, thyroid histology in necropsy tissues was similar in euthyroid and hypothyroid individuals, and lymphocytic infiltration was absent in 2 hypothyroid animals. In conclusion, free T4 and free T3 are lower in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, the closest living human relatives. Moreover, thyroid autoantibodies are rare and hypothyroidism is unrelated to thyroid autoimmunity in nonhuman great apes. PMID:24092641

  12. Unusual Thyroid Constellation in Down Syndrome: Congenital Hypothyroidism, Graves’ Disease, and Hemiagenesis in the Same Child

    PubMed Central

    Nebesio, Todd D.; Eugster, Erica A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a girl with Down syndrome who was diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism in the newborn period due to left thyroid hemiagenesis. Unexpectedly, her hypothyroidism resolved at the age of 3 years. After being off thyroid hormone replacement for 7 years and having normal thyroid function, she developed Graves’ disease. Although Graves’ disease in association with thyroid hemiagenesis has previously been reported, this represents the youngest patient in whom this scenario has been described. Issues pertaining to thyroid hemiagenesis, autoimmune hyperthyroidism, and thyroid disease in children with Down’s syndrome are discussed. PMID:19492583

  13. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC IODINE SPECIES ANALYTICS: DETERMINING THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT DANIO RERIO AND DEVELOPING XENOPUS LAEVIS USING LC/ICP-MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of normal thyroid function by xenobiotic chemicals is an important ecological issue. Theoretically, normal thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and action can be disrupted at several sites in the synthetic and elimination pathways. Indeed, xenobiotic chemicals, which are k...

  14. Thoracic intrathymic thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, R J; Moore, K L; Gottfried, M R; Lowe, J E; Sabiston, D C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors introduce thoracic intrathymic thyroid as a clinical entity. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although accessory aberrant thyroid has not been found in other tissues in the mediastinum, a thoracic intrathymic location has not been described previously. It is believed that mediastinal thyroid tissue represents accessory ectopic tissue from the median thyroid anlage. Moreover, the close association of the thymus and thyroid supports the theory that mediastinal ectopic thyroid tissue develops from abnormal descent of these structures during embryogenesis. METHODS: Benign thoracic intrathymic thyroid lesions are described in patients with mediastinal masses. CONCLUSION: Thoracic intrathymic thyroid is a distinct entity. Its occurrence is supported both clinically and embryologically. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8024364

  15. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount of hormones produced by the thyroid. Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a thyroid disorder that occurs when the ... irregularities Depression Dry skin and hair Sluggishness Constipation Hypothyroidism is often caused by Hashimoto's disease, an autoimmune ...

  16. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroid disorder or thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism (say: hi-per-THYE-roy-diz-em) happens when the ... Kids with the opposite problem have hypothyroidism (say: hi-po-THYE-roy-diz-em). In this case, ...

  17. Thyroid preparation overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person takes too much of the medicine: Levothyroxine Liothyronine Liotrix Other thyroid medicine Other thyroid preparations ... found in these medicines with these brand names: Levothyroxine ... Liothyronine (Cytomel) Liotrix (Thyrolar, Euthyroid) Other ...

  18. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and adolescents (especially in girls) than in infants. Most thyroid ...

  19. Induction of adrenomedullin 2/intermedin expression by thyroid stimulating hormone in thyroid.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Shuji; Fukui, Motoko; Asano, Satoko; Ono, Katsuhiko; Miki, Yasuhiro; Araki, Sei-ichi; Isobe, Mitsui; Nakashima, Noriaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Sasano, Hironobu; Sato, Jun

    2014-09-01

    TSH is the important regulator of thyroid function but detailed molecular mechanisms have not been clarified. We first generated the iodine deficient (ID) rat in which goiter is induced by accelerated endogenous TSH secretion. The result of microarray analysis demonstrated markedly increased levels of adrenomedullin 2/intermedin (AM2/IMD) expression in the ID rat thyroid. AM2/IMD is a potent vasodilator. AM2/IMD mRNA expression was induced by TSH in a rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL-5. Immunohistochemical analysis in human normal and Graves' disease thyroid revealed that AM2/IMD immunoreactivity was detected in follicular cells and more pronounced in Graves' disease. These results indicated that TSH induced AM2/IMD expression in the rat thyroid gland and it could locally work as a potent vasodilator, resulting in the expansion of thyroid inter-follicular capillaries. AM2/IMD could also contribute to facilitate thyroid hormone synthesis possibly via vasodilation effects and/or cAMP stimulating effects in the human thyroid gland.

  20. Imatinib-induced thyroiditis in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surjit; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present a case of chronic myeloid leukemia for which imatinib therapy was initated. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone was normal, and thyroid microsomal autoantibodies (TMA) were positive and patient was diagnosed as thyroiditis treated with corticosteroids for 1½ months which lead to resolution. PMID:27756963

  1. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  2. Understanding the Healthy Thyroid State in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Führer, Dagmar; Brix, Klaudia; Biebermann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are of crucial importance for the physiological function of almost all organs. In cases of abnormal TH signaling, pathophysiological consequences may arise. The routine assessment of a healthy or diseased thyroid function state is currently based on the determination of serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and the TH T3 and T4. However, the definition of a ‘normal’ TSH range and similarly ‘normal’ T3 and T4 concentrations remains the subject of debate in different countries worldwide and has important implications on patient treatment in clinics. Not surprisingly, a significant number of patients whose thyroid function tests are biochemically determined to be within the normal range complain of impaired well-being. The reasons for this are so far not fully understood, but it has been recognized that thyroid function status needs to be ‘individualized’ and extended beyond simple TSH measurement. Thus, more precise and reliable parameters are required in order to optimally define the healthy thyroid status of an individual, and as a perspective to employ these in clinical routine. With the recent identification of new key players in TH action, a more accurate assessment of a patient's thyroid status may in the future become possible. Recently described distinct TH derivatives and metabolites, TH transporters, nongenomic TH effects (either through membrane-bound or cytosolic signaling), and classical nuclear TH action allow for insights into molecular and cellular preconditions of a healthy thyroid state. This will be a prerequisite to improve management of thyroid dysfunction, and additionally to prevent and target TH-related nonthyroid disease. PMID:26601068

  3. Thyroid function in fragile-X syndrome males.

    PubMed Central

    Bregman, J. D.; Leckman, J. F.; Ort, S. I.

    1990-01-01

    Twelve males with fragile-X syndrome between the ages of three and 28 years underwent assessment of thyroid function. All 12 subjects demonstrated normal baseline values for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine, thyroid binding globulin (TBG), and estimated free thyroxine (EFT). Relative to a control group reported in the literature, however, the fragile-X subjects exhibited a blunted TSH response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). This finding suggests the presence of subtle dysfunction within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Elevated baseline prolactin levels were also observed among the fragile-X subjects. These results support previous reports of hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities among fragile-X syndrome males. PMID:2125773

  4. HLA-D subregion expression by thyroid epithelium in autoimmune thyroid diseases and induced in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, I; Pujol-Borrell, R; Abdul-Karim, B A; Hammond, L J; Feldmann, M; Bottazzo, G F

    1987-01-01

    Human thyroid epithelial cells (thyrocytes) express HLA Class II molecules in autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). Normal thyrocytes do not express Class II, but can be induced to do so by culture with interferon-gamma (gamma-IFN). We have examined HLA-D subregion expression in sections and monolayers of thyroid by indirect immunofluorescence using appropriate monoclonal antibodies. The results indicate that, in ATD, the incidence and intensity of Class II subregion expression by thyrocytes varies between patients, and follows the pattern DR greater than DP greater than DQ. The same hierarchy is observed in cultured normal thyrocytes treated with gamma-IFN: strong induction of Class II, and of DP and DQ in particular, requires relatively high concentrations of gamma-IFN or additional factors such as thyroid stimulating hormone. These findings suggest that HLA-D subregion expression by thyrocytes in on-going ATD is determined by the levels of disease related factors in the affected tissue. PMID:3117460

  5. THYROID STATUS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE SITES ON LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been shown to alter normal thyroid function in various wildlife species, including the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Abnormalities in circulating levels of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) have been reported in juven...

  6. Diagnostic Utility of Galectin-3 in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Connie G.; Strugnell, Scott S.; Griffith, Obi L.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Gown, Allen M.; Walker, Blair; Nabi, Ivan R.; Wiseman, Sam M.

    2010-01-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), which has received significant recent attention for its utility as a diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer, represents the most well-studied molecular candidate for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Gal-3 is a protein that binds to β-galactosidase residues on cell surface glycoproteins and has also been identified in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartment. This marker has been implicated in regulation of normal cellular proliferation and apoptosis, as well as malignant transformation and the metastasis of cancer cells. We here present a mechanistic review of Gal-3 and its role in cancer development and progression. Gal-3 expression studies in thyroid tissue and cytologic tumor specimens and their methodological considerations are also discussed in this article. Despite great variance in their methodology, the majority of immunohistochemical studies found that Gal-3 was differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma compared with benign and normal thyroid specimens, suggesting that Gal-3 is a good diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer. Recent studies have also demonstrated improved methodological reliability. On the other hand, Gal-3 genomic expression studies have shown inconsistent results for diagnostic utility and are not recommended. Overall, the development of Gal-3 as a diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer represents a promising avenue for future study, and its clinical application could significantly reduce the number of diagnostic thyroid operations performed for cases of indeterminant fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology, and thus positively impact the current management of thyroid nodular disease. PMID:20363921

  7. Evaluation of thyroid tissue by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, C. S. B.; Bitar, R. A.; Santos, A. B. O.; Kulcsar, M. A. V.; Friguglietti, C. U. M.; Martinho, H. S.; da Costa, R. B.; Martin, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    Thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. Thyroid's main function is to produce the hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. Thyroid disorders can disturb the production of these hormones, which will affect numerous processes within the body such as: regulating metabolism and increasing utilization of cholesterol, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The gland itself can also be injured; for example, neoplasias, which have been considered the most important, causing damage of to the gland and are difficult to diagnose. There are several types of thyroid cancer: Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, and Anaplastic. The occurrence rate, in general is between 4 and 7%; which is on the increase (30%), probably due to new technology that is able to find small thyroid cancers that may not have been found previously. The most common method used for thyroid diagnoses are: anamnesis, ultrasonography, and laboratory exams (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy- FNAB). However, the sensitivity of those test are rather poor, with a high rate of false-negative results, therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostic techniques. Raman spectroscopy has been presented as a valuable tool for cancer diagnosis in many different tissues. In this work, 27 fragments of the thyroid were collected from 18 patients, comprising the following histologic groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular tissue, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma. Spectral collection was done with a commercial FTRaman Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100/S) using a 1064 nm laser excitation and Ge detector. Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. Comparing the goitre adjacent tissue with the goitre nodular region, an index of 58.3% of correct classification was obtained. Between goitre (nodular region and

  8. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Timothy; Kim, Yohanan; Simental, Alfred; Inman, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid. PMID:27119036

  9. Morphological, diagnostic and surgical features of ectopic thyroid gland: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Germano; Cinelli, Mariapia; Mesolella, Massimo; Tafuri, Domenico; Rocca, Aldo; Amato, Bruno; Rengo, Sandro; Testa, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue remains a rare developmental abnormality involving defective or aberrant embryogenesis of the thyroid gland during its passage from the floor of the primitive foregut to its usual final position in pre-tracheal region of the neck. Its specific prevalence accounts about 1 case per 100.000-300.000 persons and one in 4.000-8.000 patients with thyroid disease show this condition. The cause of this defect is not fully known. Despite genetic factors have been associated with thyroid gland morphogenesis and differentiation, just recently some mutation has been associated with human thyroid ectopy. Lingual region in the most common site of thyroid ectopy but ectopic thyroid tissue were found in other head and neck locations. Nevertheless, aberrant ectopic thyroid tissue has been found in other places distant from the neck region. Ectopic tissue is affected by different pathological changes that occur in the normal eutopic thyroid. Patients may present insidiously or as an emergency. Diagnostic management of thyroid ectopy is performed by radionuclide thyroid imaging, ultrasonography, CT scan, MRI, biopsy and thyroid function tests. Asymptomatic euthyroid patients with ectopic thyroid do not usually require therapy but are kept under observation. For those with symptoms, treatment depends on size of the gland, nature of symptoms, thyroid function status and histological findings. Surgical excision is often required as treatment for this condition.

  10. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. PMID:26748264

  11. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish.

  12. A Comprehensive Characterization of Mitochondrial Genome in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xingyun; Wang, Weibin; Ruan, Guodong; Liang, Min; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ye; Wu, Huiling; Fahey, Thomas J.; Guan, Minxin; Teng, Lisong

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear genetic alterations have been widely investigated in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), however, the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome remain uncertain. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of 66 PTCs, 16 normal thyroid tissues and 376 blood samples of healthy individuals. There were 2508 variations (543 sites) detected in PTCs, among which 33 variations were novel. Nearly half of the PTCs (31/66) had heteroplasmic variations. Among the 31 PTCs, 28 specimens harbored a total of 52 somatic mutations distributed in 44 sites. Thirty-three variations including seven nonsense, 11 frameshift and 15 non-synonymous variations selected by bioinformatic software were regarded as pathogenic. These 33 pathogenic mutations were associated with older age (p = 0.0176) and advanced tumor stage (p = 0.0218). In addition, they tended to be novel (p = 0.0003), heteroplasmic (p = 0.0343) and somatic (p = 0.0018). The mtDNA copy number increased in more than two-third (46/66) of PTCs, and the average content in tumors was nearly four times higher than that in adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.0001). Three sub-haplogroups of N (A4, B4a and B4g) and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) (A16164G, C16266T, G5460A, T6680C, G9123A, A14587G, T16362C, and G709A) were associated with the occurrence of PTC. Here we report a comprehensive characterization of the mitochondrial genome and demonstrate its significance in pathogenesis and progression of PTC. This can help to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying PTC and offer potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for future clinical practice. PMID:27735863

  13. Expression of nk2.1a during early development of the thyroid gland in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rohr, K B; Concha, M L

    2000-07-01

    We show here that a zebrafish orthologue of the Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 (TTF-1), nk2.1a, is expressed in the developing thyroid gland. Using a fate mapping approach we found that an early nk2.1a expression domain in the endoderm adjacent to the heart follows morphogenetic movements of the lower jaw, ending up in the region in which the mature thyroid gland is located. We therefore suggest that nk2.1a labels the thyroid precursor cells from somitogenesis stages onwards.

  14. Thyroid function in hemidecorticate rats.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, C O; Tosello, D O; Fernandez, G A; Merzel, J

    1988-01-01

    1. Thyroid function was evaluated in hemidecorticate (HD) and control (C) rats by determining serum T3 and T4 levels and the development of incisors and mandibles and through analysis of various histological features of the thyroid such as follicle size, colloid droplet content and [3H]-glycine uptake by follicular cells. 2. HD animals presented normal levels of circulating T3 but significantly lower T4 levels. 3. There was slight atrophy of the gland in HD animals and fewer colloid droplets were present in the cytoplasm of the follicular cells in this group, indicating a reduction in the breakdown of thyroglobulin. [3H]-glycine uptake by HD indicated that the rate of thyroglobulin biosynthesis was not altered in the experimental animals. 4. The growth of mandibles (weight) and incisors (weight and length) was reduced in HD compared to the control animals. 5. These results suggest that hemidecortication causes mild hypothyroidism (trophoprivic type) probably by affecting hypothalamic function.

  15. Thyroid function in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Fliers, Eric; Bianco, Antonio C; Langouche, Lies; Boelen, Anita

    2015-10-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) typically present with decreased concentrations of plasma tri-iodothyronine, low thyroxine, and normal range or slightly decreased concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone. This ensemble of changes is collectively known as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The extent of NTIS is associated with prognosis, but no proof exists for causality of this association. Initially, NTIS is a consequence of the acute phase response to systemic illness and macronutrient restriction, which might be beneficial. Pathogenesis of NTIS in long-term critical illness is more complex and includes suppression of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, accounting for persistently reduced secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone despite low plasma thyroid hormone. In some cases distinguishing between NTIS and severe hypothyroidism, which is a rare primary cause for admission to the ICU, can be difficult. Infusion of hypothalamic-releasing factors can reactivate the thyroid axis in patients with NTIS, inducing an anabolic response. Whether this approach has a clinical benefit in terms of outcome is unknown. In this Series paper, we discuss diagnostic aspects, pathogenesis, and implications of NTIS as well as its distinction from severe, primary thyroid disorders in patients in the ICU.

  16. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  18. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  19. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  20. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  1. A review on thyroid cancer during pregnancy: Multitasking is required.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Hussein; Al Lahloubi, Nasr; Rashad, Noha

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy after breast cancer. The goal of management is to control malignancy and prevent maternal and fetal complications as a result of maternal hypothyroidism. The role of female sex hormones as an etiologic factor was investigated, with no clear association. Pregnancy can cause an increase in size of a previously existed thyroid nodule through the structural similarity between TSH and BHCG, and the normally expressed estrogen receptors on thyroid gland cells. Effect of pregnancy on development and prognosis of differentiated thyroid malignancies (papillary and follicular) has also been studied. The prognosis of thyroid cancer is not worse in patients diagnosed during pregnancy or those who got pregnant after curative treatment. Termination of pregnancy is not indicated at all, surgery can be delayed till after delivery except in rapidly growing aggressive tumors. While radioactive iodine ablation is absolutely contra-indicated, the new systemic therapies are not well studied during pregnancy. However, almost all these new agents are classified as FDA category C or D and are better to be avoided. The effect of pregnancy on other types of thyroid cancer (medullary and anaplastic thyroid tumors) is not well studied because of very low incidence with pregnancy. The endocrinological management of thyroid cancer during pregnancy is of utmost importance. The hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy can cause fetal hypothyroidism. Therefore, the management of thyroid cancer related to pregnancy needs a multidisciplinary team.

  2. [De Quervain thyroiditis. Corner points of the diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Oláh, Roland; Hajós, Péter; Soós, Zsuzsanna; Winkler, Gábor

    2014-04-27

    Inflammatory disorders of the thyroid gland are divided into three groups according to their duration (acute, subacute and chronic). De Quervain's thyroiditis (also termed giant cell or granulomatous thyroiditis) is a subacute inflammation of the thyroid, which accounts for 5% of thyroid disorders. The etiology is unknown, it usually appears two weeks after an upper viral respiratory infection. The clinical feature includes neck pain, which is aggravated during swallowing, and radiates to the ear. On palpation, the thyroid is exquisitely tender. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is markedly elevated, the leukocyte count, C-reactive protein are normal or slightly elevated. The natural history of granulomatous thyroiditis involves four phases: the destructive inflammation results temporarily in hyperthyroidism followed by euthyroidism. After a transient hypothyroidism the disease becomes inactive and the thyroid function is normalised. Ultrasonographic findings are diffuse hypoechogenic structures, but nodules may also occur. The disease often remains unrecognised, or the first phase of the disease is diagnosed and treated as hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis can be confirmed by the presence of the thyroid autoantibodies, radioiodine uptake and fine needle aspiration cytology. There is no special treatment, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs or steroid should be given to relieve the pain. The aim of the authors is to shed light the key points of diagnosis and differential diagnosis by the presentation of four slightly different cases. PMID:24755450

  3. A review on thyroid cancer during pregnancy: Multitasking is required.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Hussein; Al Lahloubi, Nasr; Rashad, Noha

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy after breast cancer. The goal of management is to control malignancy and prevent maternal and fetal complications as a result of maternal hypothyroidism. The role of female sex hormones as an etiologic factor was investigated, with no clear association. Pregnancy can cause an increase in size of a previously existed thyroid nodule through the structural similarity between TSH and BHCG, and the normally expressed estrogen receptors on thyroid gland cells. Effect of pregnancy on development and prognosis of differentiated thyroid malignancies (papillary and follicular) has also been studied. The prognosis of thyroid cancer is not worse in patients diagnosed during pregnancy or those who got pregnant after curative treatment. Termination of pregnancy is not indicated at all, surgery can be delayed till after delivery except in rapidly growing aggressive tumors. While radioactive iodine ablation is absolutely contra-indicated, the new systemic therapies are not well studied during pregnancy. However, almost all these new agents are classified as FDA category C or D and are better to be avoided. The effect of pregnancy on other types of thyroid cancer (medullary and anaplastic thyroid tumors) is not well studied because of very low incidence with pregnancy. The endocrinological management of thyroid cancer during pregnancy is of utmost importance. The hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy can cause fetal hypothyroidism. Therefore, the management of thyroid cancer related to pregnancy needs a multidisciplinary team. PMID:27408758

  4. Effects of thyroid status on renal calcium and magnesium handling.

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, C; Quamme, G A

    1984-01-01

    Renal calcium and magnesium handling was studied in rats with chronic thyroid hormone deficiency or excess, hyperthyroidism. Mean kidney weight of the thyroid deficient rats was 42% of age matched, euthyroid and hyperthyroid animals and glomerular filtration rate was 71% of normal. Fractional sodium excretion was consistently elevated in thyroid deficient rats (0.26%) as compared to euthyroid (0.07%) and hyperthyroid animals (0.07%). Urinary calcium excretion (0.39%) was also elevated and parallel to sodium excretion in thyroid deficiency. Despite this renal leak of sodium and calcium, thyroid deficient animals conserved magnesium much more efficiently than either euthyroid or hyperthyroid rats (5.7% vs 17.4% respectively). Plasma magnesium concentration was elevated by acute MgCl2 infusions to determine the reabsorptive capacity of magnesium. Thyroid deficient rats reabsorbed 15-30% more of the filtered magnesium at any given plasma concentration. Although these effects on electrolyte reabsorption are modest compared to the hemodynamic alterations, the data suggest that thyroid hormone has a direct effect on the tubule which if chronically absent results in subtle sodium and calcium wasting and renal retention of magnesium. Administration of thyroid hormone to euthyroid or thyroid deficient rats twenty-four hours prior to experimentation had no effect on calcium and magnesium handling. PMID:6713257

  5. The transcriptional repressor DREAM is involved in thyroid gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Barbara; Di Palma, Tina; Mascia, Anna; Motti, Maria Letizia; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Nitsch, Lucio; Zannini, Mariastella . E-mail: stella@szn.it

    2005-04-15

    Downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator (DREAM) was originally identified in neuroendocrine cells as a calcium-binding protein that specifically binds to downstream regulatory elements (DRE) on DNA, and represses transcription of its target genes. To explore the possibility that DREAM may regulate the endocrine activity of the thyroid gland, we analyzed its mRNA expression in undifferentiated and differentiated thyroid cells. We demonstrated that DREAM is expressed in the normal thyroid tissue as well as in differentiated thyroid cells in culture while it is absent in FRT poorly differentiated cells. In the present work, we also show that DREAM specifically binds to DRE sites identified in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the thyroid-specific transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2/FoxE1 in a calcium-dependent manner. By gel retardation assays we demonstrated that thapsigargin treatment increases the binding of DREAM to the DRE sequences present in Pax8 and TTF-2/Foxe1 5' UTRs, and this correlates with a significant reduction of the expression of these genes. Interestingly, in poorly differentiated thyroid cells overexpression of exogenous DREAM strongly inhibits Pax8 expression. Moreover, we provide evidence that a mutated form of DREAM unable to bind Ca{sup 2+} interferes with thyroid cell proliferation. Therefore, we propose that in thyroid cells DREAM is a mediator of the calcium-signaling pathway and it is involved in the regulation of thyroid cell function.

  6. Thyroid function after radiotherapy and laryngectomy for carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.V.; Gaggar, N.; Shaw, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total levels of thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in 37 patients who had previously had carcinoma of the larynx treated by radiotherapy and total laryngectomy with thyroid lobectomy. Ten percent of the patients had clinical features of hypothyroidism and 30% had total T4 levels below the lower limit of normal. A further 40% had results in the low normal range. Forty-four percent of patients had raised TSH levels, 90% of these having low or low normal T4 levels. The histology of the thyroid gland was normal in all 37 patients. Attention should be given to preserving intact the vasculature of the contralateral thyroid lobe whenever it is necessary to remove the ipsilateral thyroid lobe during a laryngectomy. Proper postoperative assessment of thyroid gland function is desirable in all these patients to identify those at risk of hypothyroidism and to avoid unnecessary morbidity.

  7. [Thyroid scintigraphy and body scanning with 67 Ga in a case of primary thyroid lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Hervás Benito, I; Vera Espallardo, F; Saura Quiles, A; González Cabezas, P; Bello Arques, P; Rivas Sánchez, A; Alonso Monfort, J; Pérez Velasco, R; Mateo Navarro, A

    2001-10-01

    The case of a 60-year old woman first presented a rapidly growing left cervical mass is presented. The fine needle aspiration-puncture (FNAP) lead to a diagnosis of thyroiditis. Due to the persistence of the symptoms, the FNAP was repeated again but was not conclusive, so that a surgical biopsy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was diffuse large cell primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL). The PTL is a rare entity that accounts for less than 1% of all the Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The thyroid scintigraphy showed the existence of a cold nodule in the left thyroid lobule and the 67Ga scan revealed a large abnormal lesion in the mediastinum that extended to the right latero-cervical region. After two chemotherapy courses, the 67Ga scan was normal.

  8. Hypercalcitoninemia is not Pathognomonic of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Sergio PA; Lourenço, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; de Menezes Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (> 2–4 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (~90%–100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, < 5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma. In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and

  9. Exhaled breath volatile biomarker analysis for thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Changsong; Chi, Chunjie; Wang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Ke, Chaofu; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2015-08-01

    Compared with other types of cancer, thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased rapidly worldwide in the past few decades. In recent years, potential thyroid cancer biomarkers have been studied, but these biomarkers have neither specificity nor good positive predictive value. Exhaled breath analysis is a recently developed convenient and noninvasive method for screening and diagnosing the disease. In this study, potential thyroid cancer biomarkers in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected. Exhaled breath was collected from 64 patients with histologically confirmed cases of thyroid disease (including 39 individuals with papillary thyroid carcinoma and 25 individuals with nodular goiters) and 32 healthy volunteers. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The statistical methods of principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis were performed to process the final data. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between nodular goiter patients and normal controls, papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and normal controls, and papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and nodular goiter patients; 7, 7, and 3 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. Breath analysis may provide a new, noninvasive, and directly qualitative method for the clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease. PMID:25666355

  10. Thyroid calcifications: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Lacout, Alexis; Chevenet, Carole; Thariat, Juliette; Marcy, Pierre Yves

    2016-05-01

    Incidental diagnosis of thyroid nodules is very common on adult neck ultrasonography examination. Thyroid calcifications are encountered in benign thyroid nodules and goiters as well as in thyroid malignancy. Depiction and characterization of such calcifications within a thyroid nodule may be a key element in the thyroid nodule diagnosis algorithm. The goal of this paper is to display typical radio-pathological correlations of various thyroid pathologies of benign and malignant conditions in which the calcification type diagnosis can play a key role in the final diagnosis of the thyroid nodule. PMID:26891122

  11. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis.

  12. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Beral, V.

    1997-03-01

    The author`s presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences.

  13. Cytomorphologic spectrum of lymphocytic thyroiditis and correlation between cytological grading and biochemical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Anila, KR; Nayak, Nileena; Jayasree, K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis [Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT)] is a common thyroid lesion diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Apart from FNAC, various other parameters, such as clinical features, ultrasonographic findings, antithyroid antibody levels, hormone profiles, and radionuclide thyroid scan, are also taken into consideration in making a diagnosis of HT. Aims: To grade lymphocytic thyroiditis based on the cytomorphology and to correlate the cytological grades with the levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibody (ATPO), antithyroglobulin antibody (ATG), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Materials and Methods: During a period of one and half years, 1,667 cases underwent FNAC of thyroid at our tertiary care center. Of these, 128 cases had cytological evidence of lymphocytic thyroiditis. Out of these, in 60 cases the levels of ATPO, ATG, and TSH were known. The cytological grades of lymphocytic thyroiditis in these cases were correlated with these parameters. Results: Out of the 60 cases, 55 were females. Age ranged from 5 years to 70 years, with majority of patients in third decade. Diffuse enlargement of thyroid was the commonest presentation. However, 14 cases presented with nodular disease. Majority of the patients had grade 1 thyroiditis (27 cases), followed by grade 2 thyroiditis (22 cases). Cytomorphology was diagnostic of thyroiditis in all 60 cases. ATPO was elevated in 57 cases and ATG was elevated in 40 cases. Elevated level of TSH was seen in only 18 cases. In 39 cases, TSH value was normal. There was no correlation between the cytological grades of thyroiditis and the levels of antithyroid antibodies and TSH. Conclusion: Lymphocytic infiltration of thyroid follicles is pathognomonic of lymphocytic thyroiditis. Positivity for antithyroid antibodies is strongly associated with HT but no correlation was observed between the grades of thyroiditis and the levels of ATPO, ATG, and TSH.

  14. Unusual pediatric co-morbility: autoimmune thyroiditis and cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome in a 6-month-old Italian patient.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Flavia; Acquafredda, Angelo; Aceto, Gabriella; Penza, Rosa; Cavallo, Luciano

    2012-10-23

    We report on a case of autoimmune thyroiditis in a 6-month-old patient with cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Normal serum levels of thyroid hormons and thyroid-stimulating hormone were detected with high titers of circulant antithyroid antibodies and a dysomogeneous ultrasound appearance of the gland, typical of autoimmune thyroiditis. The research of maternal thyroid antibodies was negative. This is the first case of autoimmune thyroiditis found in such a young patient with pre-existing nephrotic syndrome ever described in literature. This association is random because nephrotic syndrome does not have an autoimmune pathogenesis and the genes involved in autoimmune thyroiditis are not related to those of nephrotic syndrome.

  15. Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun; Brent, Gregory A

    2014-04-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5'-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets.

  16. Thyroid Growth and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term ‘cancer’ to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID

  17. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  18. Transgenic zebrafish illuminate the dynamics of thyroid morphogenesis and its relationship to cardiovascular development.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Robert; Maquet, Emilie; Huisken, Jan; Antonica, Francesco; Trubiroha, Achim; Pottier, Gaëlle; Janssens, Véronique; Costagliola, Sabine

    2012-12-15

    Among the various organs derived from foregut endoderm, the thyroid gland is unique in that major morphogenic events such as budding from foregut endoderm, descent into subpharyngeal mesenchyme and growth expansion occur in close proximity to cardiovascular tissues. To date, research on thyroid organogenesis was missing one vital tool-a transgenic model that allows to track the dynamic changes in thyroid size, shape and location relative to adjacent cardiovascular tissues in live embryos. In this study, we generated a novel transgenic zebrafish line, tg(tg:mCherry), in which robust and thyroid-specific expression of a membrane version of mCherry enables live imaging of thyroid development in embryos from budding stage throughout formation of functional thyroid follicles. By using various double transgenic models in which EGFP expression additionally labels cardiovascular structures, a high coordination was revealed between thyroid organogenesis and cardiovascular development. Early thyroid development was found to proceed in intimate contact with the distal ventricular myocardium and live imaging confirmed that thyroid budding from the pharyngeal floor is tightly coordinated with the descent of the heart. Four-dimensional imaging of live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy and 3D-reconstruction of confocal images of stained embryos yielded novel insights into the role of specific pharyngeal vessels, such as the hypobranchial artery (HA), in guiding late thyroid expansion along the pharyngeal midline. An important role of the HA was corroborated by the detailed examination of thyroid development in various zebrafish models showing defective cardiovascular development. In combination, our results from live imaging as well es from 3D-reconstruction of thyroid development in tg(tg:mCherry) embryos provided a first dynamic view of late thyroid organogenesis in zebrafish-a critical resource for the design of future studies addressing the molecular

  19. Tumorigenesis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Is Not BRAF-Dependent in Patients with Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho; Cho, Jin Seong; Yoon, Jee Hee; Kim, Soo Jeong; Kang, Ho-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have reported a high frequency of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in patients with acromegaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly and to investigate the frequency of the BRAFV600E mutation in PTC patients with and without acromegaly. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients with acromegaly. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine needle aspiration were performed on nodules with sonographic features of malignancy. We selected 16 patients with non-acromegalic PTC as a control group. The BRAFV600E mutation was analyzed in paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of PTC by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and tumor specimens from patients with PTC were stained immunohistochemically with an antibody against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor β (IGF-1Rβ). Results Thyroid cancer was found in 15 (25.0%) patients. No differences in age, sex, initial growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 percentage of the upper limit of normal values or treatment modalities were observed between patients with and without PTC. Acromegaly was active in 12 of 15 patients at the time of PTC diagnosis; uncontrolled acromegaly had a significantly higher frequency in the PTC group (60%) than in the non-PTC group (28.9%) (p = 0.030). The BRAFV600E mutation was present in only 9.1% (1/11) of PTC patients with acromegaly, although 62.5% (10/16) of control patients with PTC had the mutation (p = 0.007). IGF-1Rβ immunostaining showed moderate-to-strong staining in all malignant PTC cells in patients with and without acromegaly. Significantly less staining for IGF-1Rβ was observed in normal adjacent thyroid tissues of PTC patients with acromegaly compared with those without (p = 0.014). Conclusion The prevalence of PTC in acromegalic patients was high (25%). An uncontrolled hyperactive GH-IGF-1 axis may play a dominant role in the development of PTC

  20. Thyroid hormone metabolism and environmental chemical exposure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated dioxins and –furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that have been proven to influence thyroid metabolism both in animal studies and in human beings. In recent years polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) also have been found to have a negative influence on thyroid hormone metabolism. The lower brominated flame retardants are now banned in the EU, however higher brominated decabromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE) and the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are not yet banned. They too can negatively influence thyroid hormone metabolism. An additional brominated flame retardant that is still in use is tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), which has also been shown to influence thyroid hormone metabolism. Influences of brominated flame retardants, PCDD/F’s and dioxin like-PCBs (dl-PCB’s) on thyroid hormone metabolism in adolescence in the Netherlands will be presented in this study and determined if there are reasons for concern to human health for these toxins. In the period 1987-1991, a cohort of mother-baby pairs was formed in order to detect abnormalities in relation to dioxin levels in the perinatal period. The study demonstrated that PCDD/Fs were found around the time of birth, suggesting a modulation of the setpoint of thyroid hormone metabolism with a higher 3,3’, 5,5’tetrathyroxine (T4) levels and an increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). While the same serum thyroid hormone tests (- TSH and T4) were again normal by 2 years of age and were still normal at 8-12 years, adolescence is a period with extra stress on thyroid hormone metabolism. Therefore we measured serum levels of TSH, T4, 3,3’,5- triiodothyronine (T3), free T4 (FT4), antibodies and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in our adolescent cohort. Methods Vena puncture was performed to obtain samples for the measurement of thyroid hormone metabolism related parameters and the current serum dioxin (PCDD/Fs), PCB

  1. Teaching normal birth, normally.

    PubMed

    Hotelling, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    Teaching normal-birth Lamaze classes normally involves considering the qualities that make birth normal and structuring classes to embrace those qualities. In this column, teaching strategies are suggested for classes that unfold naturally, free from unnecessary interventions. PMID:19436595

  2. [Psychotic episode due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Nazou, M; Parlapani, E; Nazlidou, E-I; Athanasis, P; Bozikas, V P

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial in adult brain metabolic activity. As a result, abnormal thyroid gland function and in particular hypofunction, might cause principally depression and neurocognitive dysfunction. Psychosis, presented mainly with thought disorders and perceptual disturbances, is a much rarer manifestation of hypothyreoidism. A correlation between hypothyreoidism and psychosis has been described since 1888, especially in cases of advanced hypothyreoidism. A few years later (1949), Asher first added the terminology "myxedema madness" to the literature. Psychotic symptoms typically appear after the onset of physical symptoms, usually with a delay of months or years. The case of a female patient who presented a psychotic episode as a first manifestation of hypothyroidism will be described. NE, a 48 yearold female patient, was admitted for the first time to an inpatient mental health care unit due to delusions of persecution and reference, as well as auditory hallucinations that appeared a few weeks ago. After the patient admission, routine laboratory examination was conducted. In order to relieve the patient from her sense of discomfort and while awaiting laboratory results, olanzapine, 5 mg/day, was administered. Neurological examination and cranial computed tomography scan were unremarkable. Hormonal laboratory tests though revealed severe low thyroid hormone levels. Thyroid antibody testing certified Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Olanzapine was discontinued and the patient received thyroid hormone substitution, levothyroxine 75 μg/day, instead. The patient was discharged showing a significant improvement of psychotic symptoms after a 12-day hospitalization. A month later the patient was reevaluated. She had fully recovered from the psychotic episode. A year later, the patient continues to remain free from psychiatric symptoms, while thyroid hormone levels have been restored within normal range. The patient continues receiving only thyroid hormone substitution

  3. Faster assessment of patients receiving unnecessary thyroid treatment: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffer, S.S.; Szpunar, W.E.; Meier, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    Forty-five consecutive patients on thyroid hormone treatment without obvious indication were evaluated. Twenty-five of these cases were found to have no evidence of thyroid disease. Biochemical testing was not helpful in making the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the majority of thyroid-treated hypothyroid patients. Normal technetium images were obtained in 25 patients, 22 of which had no thyroid disease. In contrast, abnormal technetium images were obtained in 20 patients, 16 of whom were thought to be hypothyroid, and one of whom developed a goiter within 2 mo after discontinuing levothyroxine. The use of technetium imaging seems useful for the rapid (20 min) evaluation of those patients likely to benefit from discontinuing thyroid medication.

  4. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  5. Thyroid imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, H.H.; LaFrance, N.D.; Chen, J.J.S.

    1987-06-01

    This is the second in a series of Continuing Education articles related to functional/quantitative imaging techniques. After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1) discuss the clinical applications of thyroid imaging; 2) understand the relationship of related thyroid tests; and 3) recognize the pitfalls and problems associated with this procedure.

  6. Levels of histone acetylation in thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Frasca, Francesco; Vella, Veronica; Vigneri, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe

    2011-08-12

    Histone acetylation is a major mechanism to regulate gene transcription. This post-translational modification is modified in cancer cells. In various tumor types the levels of acetylation at several histone residues are associated to clinical aggressiveness. By using immunohistochemistry we show that acetylated levels of lysines at positions 9-14 of H3 histone (H3K9-K14ac) are significantly higher in follicular adenomas (FA), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and undifferentiated carcinomas (UC) than in normal tissues (NT). Similar data have been obtained when acetylated levels of lysine 18 of H3 histone (H3K18ac) were evaluated. In this case, however, no difference was observed between NT and UC. When acetylated levels of lysine 12 of H4 histone (H4K12ac) were evaluated, only FA showed significantly higher levels in comparison with NT. These data indicate that modification histone acetylation is an early event along thyroid tumor progression and that H3K18 acetylation is switched off in the transition between differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. By using rat thyroid cell lines that are stably transfected with doxycyclin-inducible oncogenes, we show that the oncoproteins RET-PTC, RAS and BRAF increase levels of H3K9-K14ac and H3K18ac. In the non-tumorigenic rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, TSH increases levels of H3K18ac. However, this hormone decreases levels of H3K9-K14ac and H4K12ac. In conclusion, our data indicate that neoplastic transformation and hormonal stimulation can modify levels of histone acetylation in thyroid cells. PMID:21763277

  7. Post Partum Depression and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarzi, Farahnaz; Yazdchi, Katayoun; Rahimi, Mehrali; Rezaei, Mansour; Davarinejad, Omran; Abdoli, Nasrin; Jalili, Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Objective Risk of depression is particularly high for women during the prenatal period. Various investigators have attempted to establish a link between thyroid function and post partum depression. This study aimed to investigate whether thyroid function differs in women with postpartum depression compared to a control group. Methods In this case-control study, subjects were selected from Obstetrics & Gynecology and Psychiatric clinics of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Forty eight patients suffering from postpartum depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition totally revised (DSM-IV-TR), and 65 normal controls underwent diagnostic evaluation by one trained psychiatrist using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Then, the demographic questionnaire and the Persian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were completed by the participants. Finally, their thyroid functions were assessed. Data analyses were done using the SPSS program 13. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between thyroid function tests and postpartum depression. According to multiple regression analysis with stepwise method, subjects with lower serum TSH, T3RU, T3 levels, younger age and longer period after delivery tended to have higher EPDS scores (P-value=0.008). Conclusion The present study reports that those women with postpartum depression had a no greater prevalence of thyroid dysfunction than the control subjects. It seems that thyroid dysfunction should be considered in women with postpartum depression individually, but the role of thyroid as an important cause of this condition is not yet established. This suggests that future studies should concentrate on this concept in postpartum depression. PMID:22952534

  8. Thyroid antibody-negative euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ishrat; Taylor, Peter; Das, Gautam; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E

    2016-01-01

    Summary TSH receptor antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathological hallmark of Graves’ disease, present in nearly all patients with the disease. Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy (EGO) is a well-recognized clinical entity, but its occurrence in patients with negative TRAbs is a potential source of diagnostic confusion. A 66-year-old female presented to our endocrinology clinic with right eye pain and diplopia in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. TRAbs were negative, as measured with a highly sensitive third-generation thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) ELISA assay. CT and MRI scans of the orbit showed asymmetrical thickening of the inferior rectus muscles but no other inflammatory or malignant orbital pathology. Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical and radiological features, and she underwent surgical recession of the inferior rectus muscle with complete resolution of the diplopia and orbital pain. She remained euthyroid over the course of follow-up but ultimately developed overt clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism, 24 months after the initial presentation. By this time, she had developed positive TRAb as well as thyroid peroxidase antibodies. She responded to treatment with thionamides and remains euthyroid. This case highlights the potential for negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies in the presentation of EGO and underscores the variable temporal relationship between the clinical expression of thyroid dysfunction and orbital disease in the natural evolution of Graves’ disease. Learning points Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy can present initially with negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies. Patients with suggestive symptoms of ophthalmopathy should be carefully evaluated for GO with imaging studies even when thyroid function and autoantibodies are normal. Patients with EGO can develop thyroid dysfunction within 4 years of follow-up underpinning the need for long-term follow-up and continued

  9. Reversible renal impairment caused by thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Chakera, Aron; Paul, Hans-Joerg; O'Callaghan, Chris A

    2010-04-01

    Renal impairment is a common finding in clinical practice and is increasingly recognized with the routine reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rates. Clinical assessment is essential to determine which of the many possible investigations are appropriate. Thyroid hormones regulate many cellular functions, and abnormalities of the active thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T(4)) and tri-iodothyronine (T(3)), can influence serum creatinine levels. Evaluation of thyroid function is easily overlooked, but important in this context, as hypothyroidism is common and can cause renal impairment, which is typically reversible. Renal dysfunction may also be more frequent in hyperthyroidism than is recognized. This report describe how a dramatic elevation in serum creatinine paralleled the development of hyperthyroidism, with a return of the creatinine to normal following treatment of the hyperthyroid state. PMID:20199343

  10. Thyroid and Pregnancy in Tehran, Iran: Objectives and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common endocrine disease in females of reproductive age. There are controversial data on the adverse effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunctions on adverse feto-maternal outcomes. Objectives The current study aimed to identify the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and to assess the effectiveness of treatment with levothyroxine on pregnancy outcomes of females with thyroid autoimmunity with or without subclinical thyroid dysfunction in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods The study encompassed two phases: 1) a population based cross sectional study using a cluster sampling method that screened first trimester pregnant females for thyroid disorders, 2) a double-blind randomized clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of levothyroxine on adverse pregnancy outcomes in females with thyroid autoimmunity with or without subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Pregnant females were assessed at their first prenatal visit for serum TSH, T4, T-uptake, TPOAb and urinary iodine following which they were classified as: 1) normal, 2) subclinical TPOAb negative and 3) subclinical/euthyroid TPOAb positive. Females in groups two and three were randomly divided into two groups: group A was treated with levothyroxine (LT4), and group B did not receive any treatment. There was a follow-up program for participants and rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the treated and untreated groups were measured. Results Results of the study provided reliable information regarding the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among females in Tehran using universal thyroid screening, along with identification of the iodine status of their community. The study aimed to determine whether LT4 treatment exerts beneficial effects in females without overt thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27279833

  11. Thyroid Disorders and Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Mirella; Zantout, Mira S.; Azar, Sami T.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have found that diabetes and thyroid disorders tend to coexist in patients. Both conditions involve a dysfunction of the endocrine system. Thyroid disorders can have a major impact on glucose control, and untreated thyroid disorders affect the management of diabetes in patients. Consequently, a systematic approach to thyroid testing in patients with diabetes is recommended. PMID:21785689

  12. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-03-15

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  13. Autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Corrado, Alda; Di Domenicantonio, Andrea; Fallahi, Poupak

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) result from a dysregulation of the immune system leading to an immune attack on the thyroid. AITD are T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders. The prevalence of AITD is estimated to be 5%; however, the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies may be even higher. The AITD comprise two main clinical presentations: Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), both characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma. The clinical hallmarks of GD and HT are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. The mechanisms that trigger the autoimmune attack to the thyroid are still under investigation. Epidemiological data suggest an interaction among genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers as the key factor leading to the breakdown of tolerance and the development of disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of AT and GD. In thyroid tissue, recruited T helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and TNF-α production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 (the prototype of the IFN-γ-inducible Th1 chemokines) secretion from the thyroid cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, initiating and perpetuating the autoimmune process. Associations exist between AITD and other organ specific (polyglandular autoimmune syndromes), or systemic autoimmune disorders (Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, cryoglobulinemia, sarcoidosis, psoriatic arthritis). Moreover, several studies have shown an association of AITD and papillary thyroid cancer. These data suggest that AITD patients should be accurately monitored for thyroid dysfunctions, the appearance of thyroid nodules, and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:25461470

  14. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy Callıoglu, Elif; Bozdemir, Kazım; Ulusoy, Bulent; Oguzhan, Tolga; Korkmaz, M. Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented. PMID:26064746

  15. An accessory thyroid gland that presented tumor-like images.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Nobuyuki; Koyanagi, Ai; Koike, Junko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented with right breast pain and itching. Incidentally, a firm, non-tender, movable mass (3 cm in diameter) located in the lower right part of the neck was identified by palpation. Ultrasonography revealed a clearly demarcated dumbbell-shaped mass with homogenous hypo- (cranial side) and hyper-echogenicity (caudal side) compared with the thyroid gland. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging presented images that were different from thyroid gland substance. The right thyroid lobe was strongly compressed by the mass. Hyperparathyroidism was ruled out by laboratory testing. The patient solicited resection of the mass despite recommendations for core needle biopsy, and it was removed surgically. The mass was surrounded by a thin capsule and was not connected with the thyroid gland. Pathological examinations revealed normal thyroid gland tissue. The final diagnosis was an accessory thyroid gland. Accessory thyroid glands should be considered as a possible diagnosis when nodules around the main thyroid gland are encountered.

  16. Thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy in children with Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Constine, L.S.; Donaldson, S.S.; McDougall, I.R.; Cox, R.S.; Link, M.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1984-02-15

    Thyroid function was measured in 119 children, 16 years of age or less, after radiotherapy (XRT) for Hodgkin's disease. Thyroid abnormalities developed in 4 of 24 children (17%) who received 2600 rad or less, and in 74 of 95 children (78%) who received greater than 2600 rad to the cervical area, including the thyroid. The abnormality in all but three (one with hyperthyroidism and two with thyroid nodules) included the development of elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Age, sex, and administration of chemotherapy were not significant factors in the development of thyroid dysfunction. All children had lymphangiograms (LAG) and no time relationship was noted between thyroid dysfunction and LAG-XRT interval. The mean interval from radiotherapy to documented thyroid dysfunction was 18 months in the low-dose group and 31 months in the high-dose group, with most patients becoming abnormal within 3 to 5 years. Of interest was a spontaneous return of TSH to within normal limits in 20 children and substantial improvement in another 7. This study confirms the occurrence of dose-related occult hypothyroidism in children following external irradiation of the neck.

  17. Errors and mistakes in ultrasound diagnostics of the thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Jędrzejowski, Maciej; Jakubowski, Wiesław; Trzebińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland permits to evaluate its size, echogenicity, margins, and stroma. An abnormal ultrasound image of the thyroid, accompanied by other diagnostic investigations, facilitates therapeutic decision-making. The ultrasound image of a normal thyroid gland does not change substantially with patient's age. Nevertheless, erroneous impressions in thyroid imaging reports are sometimes encountered. These are due to diagnostic pitfalls which cannot be prevented by either the continuing development of the imaging equipment, or the growing experience and skill of the practitioners. Our article discusses the most common mistakes encountered in US diagnostics of the thyroid, the elimination of which should improve the quality of both the ultrasound examination itself and its interpretation. We have outlined errors resulting from a faulty examination technique, the similarity of the neighboring anatomical structures, and anomalies present in the proximity of the thyroid gland. We have also pointed out the reasons for inaccurate assessment of a thyroid lesion image, such as having no access to clinical data or not taking them into account, as well as faulty qualification for a fine needle aspiration biopsy. We have presented guidelines aimed at limiting the number of misdiagnoses in thyroid diseases, and provided sonograms exemplifying diagnostic mistakes. PMID:26672970

  18. Defective thyroid ontogenesis in fetal hypothyroid (hyt/hyt) mice

    SciTech Connect

    Beamer, W.G.; Cresswell, L.A.

    1982-03-01

    Thyroid glands of fetal hypothyroid (hyt/hyt) mice were studied to determine the effects of the mutant gene during embryogenesis. Comparisons of mutant and normal thyroids were made with respect to morphology, iodine-concentrating ability, and glandular thyroxine (T4) content at day 18 of gestation. Fetal hyt/hyt thyroid tissue was properly located, but incompletely differentiated. The mutant thyroid was characterized microscopically by small, poorly developed follicles with colloid diminished in PAS-staining properties. The mutant glands' ability to concentrate iodine was found to be only 5--16% of that exhibited by normal glands. When litters contained both mutant and normal off-spring, the differential iodine-concentrating ability allowed fetuses to be separated into two distinct, nonoverlapping populations. The distribution of fetal mice into high or low iodine-concentrating groups agreed closely with predicted frequencies for normal and mutant phenotypes. Thyroid content of T4 in mutant mice was found to be approximately equal to that found in age-matched normal controls. The poorly developed morphology and deficient iodine-concentrating ability of fetal thyroids from day 18 hyt/hyt mice indicated that the mutant gene acts during the ontogeny of this gland. Although such data are not available on human fetuses affected by thyroid dysgenesis, postnatal hyt/hyt mice display characteristics similar to those of infants born with this form of congenital primary hypothyroidism. Thus, elucidation of the site of mutant gene action in the mouse should contribute to our knowledge of disturbed fetal thyroid development and its implications in the adult mammal.

  19. Thyroid diseases in elderly.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Del Prete, M; Marciello, F; Marotta, V; Ramundo, V; Colao, A

    2011-09-01

    Thyroid diseases are the commonest endocrine disorders in the general population. In most of the cases, they are consistent with benign conditions which may be asymptomatic or affect people at a variable extent. Since they often represent chronic conditions their prevalence increases by age and reaches in elderly the highest rates. Thyroid nodules are a common clinical finding. Most subjects with thyroid nodules have few or no symptoms. Thyroid nodules are more commonly non-functioning. However, in elderly, toxic multinodular goiter is the most frequent cause of spontaneous hyperthyroidism and often, it emerges insidiously from nontoxic multinodular goiter. Although autoimmune thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in elderly subjects, other causes, such as drugs, neck radiotherapy, thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy, are frequently observed among these subjects. A small subset of medications including dopamine agonists, glucocorticoids and somatostatin analogs affect thyroid function through suppression of TSH. Other medications that may affect TSH levels are metformin, antiepileptic medications, lithium carbonate and iodine-containing medications. Other drugs can alter T4 absorption, T4 and T3 transport in serum and metabolism of T4 and T3, such as proton-pump inhibitors and antacids, estrogens, mitotane and fluorouracil, phenobarbital and rifampin. Amiodarone administration is associated with thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. Thyroid cancer has similar characteristics in elderly as in general population, however the rate of aggressive forms such as the anaplastic histotype, is higher in older than younger subjects. Diagnosis of thyroid diseases includes a comprehensive medical history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests. A correct diagnosis of thyroid diseases in the elderly is crucial for proper treatment, which consists in the removal of medications that may alter thyroid function, in the use of levo-thyroxine in case of

  20. Impact of Fibrotic Tissue on Shear Wave Velocity in Thyroid: An Ex Vivo Study with Fresh Thyroid Specimens.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Matsuda, Eriko; Endo, Yukari; Donishi, Ryohei; Izawa, Shoichiro; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the correlation between shear wave velocity (SWV) and fibrosis in thyroid by precisely assessing pathological structures inside 5 × 5 mm(2) regions of interest (ROIs) of resected specimens, under conditions that excluded physical artifacts. The materials were unselected thyroid and lymph node specimens resected during thyroid surgery. Immediately after surgery, fresh unfixed thyroid and metastatic lymph node specimens were suspended in gel phantoms, and SWV was measured. Upon pathological examination of each specimen, the extent of fibrosis was graded as none, moderate, or severe. A total of 109 specimens were evaluated: 15 normal thyroid, 16 autoimmune thyroiditis, 40 malignant nodules, 19 benign thyroid nodules, and 19 metastatic lymph nodes. When all specimens were classified according to the degree of fibrosis determined by pathological imaging, the mean SWV was 1.49 ± 0.39 m/s for no fibrosis, 2.13 ± 0.66 m/s for moderate fibrosis, and 2.68 ± 0.82 m/s for severe fibrosis. The SWVs of samples with moderate and severe fibrosis were significantly higher than those of samples without fibrosis. The results of this study demonstrate that fibrosis plays an important role in determining stiffness, as measured by SWV in thyroid. PMID:26881199

  1. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-31

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  2. Regeneration of Thyroid Function by Transplantation of Differentiated Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kurmann, Anita A; Serra, Maria; Hawkins, Finn; Rankin, Scott A; Mori, Munemasa; Astapova, Inna; Ullas, Soumya; Lin, Sui; Bilodeau, Melanie; Rossant, Janet; Jean, Jyh C; Ikonomou, Laertis; Deterding, Robin R; Shannon, John M; Zorn, Aaron M; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Kotton, Darrell N

    2015-11-01

    Differentiation of functional thyroid epithelia from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) holds the potential for application in regenerative medicine. However, progress toward this goal is hampered by incomplete understanding of the signaling pathways needed for directed differentiation without forced overexpression of exogenous transgenes. Here we use mouse PSCs to identify key conserved roles for BMP and FGF signaling in regulating thyroid lineage specification from foregut endoderm in mouse and Xenopus. Thyroid progenitors derived from mouse PSCs can be matured into thyroid follicular organoids that provide functional secretion of thyroid hormones in vivo and rescue hypothyroid mice after transplantation. Moreover, by stimulating the same pathways, we were also able to derive human thyroid progenitors from normal and disease-specific iPSCs generated from patients with hypothyroidism resulting from NKX2-1 haploinsufficiency. Our studies have therefore uncovered the regulatory mechanisms that underlie early thyroid organogenesis and provide a significant step toward cell-based regenerative therapy for hypothyroidism. PMID:26593959

  3. Treatment with thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses.

  4. INTERFERON INDUCED THYROIDITIS

    PubMed Central

    Tomer, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases that develop as a result of interactions between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic and environmental triggers contributing to AITD. The major environmental triggers of AITD include iodine, smoking, medications, pregnancy, and possibly stress. In this review we will focus on two well-documented environmental triggers of AITD, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and interferon alpha (IFNa) therapy. Chronic HCV infection has been shown to be associated with increased incidence of clinical and subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (i.e. the presence of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid subjects). Moreover, IFNa therapy of chronic HCV infection is associated with subclinical or clinical thyroiditis in up to 40% of cases which can be autoimmune, or non-autoimmune thyroiditis. In some cases interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) in chronic HCV patients may result in severe symptomatology necessitating discontinuation of therapy. While the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HCV and interferon induced thyroiditis have been well characterized, the mechanisms causing these conditions are still poorly understood. PMID:20022216

  5. Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iddah, M. A.; Macharia, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review. Studies have been published in the field of autoimmune thyroid diseases since January 2005. The review is organized into areas of etiology, autoimmune features, autoantibodies, mechanism of thyroid cell injury, B-cell responses, and T-cell responses. Also it reviews the diagnosis and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disorders. Recent Findings. Autoimmune thyroid diseases have been reported in people living in different parts of the world including North America, Europe, Baalkans, Asia, Middle East, South America, and Africa though the reported figures do not fully reflect the number of people infected per year. Cases are unrecognized due to inaccurate diagnosis and hence are treated as other diseases. However, the most recent studies have shown that the human autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) affect up to 5% of the general population and are seen mostly in women between 30 and 50 years. Summary. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Overall, this review has expanded our understanding of the mechanism involved in pathogenesis of AITD and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disease. It has opened new lines of investigations that will ultimately result in a better clinical practice. PMID:23878745

  6. Acoustic Structure Quantification Analysis of the Thyroid in Patients with Diffuse Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Shahin; Bernt, Reinhard; Zwerina, Jochen; Haller, Joerg; Knoll, Peter; Seyeddain, Orang; Mirzaei, Siroos

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether acoustic structure quantification (ASQ) can differentiate normal from pathological thyroid parenchyma in patients with diffuse autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). We evaluated 83 subjects (72 [87%] women and 11 [13%] men) aged 19 to 94 years with a mean age of 53 years. We performed a prospective study (from March 2011 to November 2014) that included 43 (52%) patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT), 22 (26%) patients with Graves' disease (GD), and 18 (22%) healthy volunteers. The ASQ values were significantly lower in normal subjects than in subjects with CAT and GD (p < 0.001). In contrast, the differences between the GD and the CAT patients (p = 0.23) were not statistically significant. The optimal cutoff ASQ value for which the sum of sensitivity and specificity was the highest for the prediction of diffuse thyroid pathology was 103 (95% confidence interval = [0.79, 0.95]). At this cutoff value, the sensitivity was 83% and the specificity was 89%. Our findings suggest that ASQ is a useful method for the assessment of the thyroid in patients with AITD.

  7. [Thyroid and the environment].

    PubMed

    Brucker-Davis, Françoise; Hiéronimus, Sylvie; Fénichel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the thyroid depends upon the environment for regular iodine supply, avoiding iodine deficiency or excess. Thyroid function may be altered by natural compounds present in water or foodstuff (such as iodine or phyto-goitrogens), or by synthetic compounds, either administered knowingly (in case of medicine), or as an untoward event in case of exposure to industrial products and pesticides, massively produced and polluting the environment. Compounds with an impact on thyroid homeostasis are called thyroid disruptors (TD). TD may disrupt the thyroid economy at any level of regulation: thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism, or transport; cellular level including thyroid hormone signaling; tumorigenesis or more indirectly via the triggering of an autoimmune process. Compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may act at multiple levels. PT effects on human health depend on parameters linked to the individual person (age at exposure, iodine status, diet, professional exposure, place of living, family history of thyroid disease, detoxification enzyme genetic variants) and on parameters linked to the compounds themselves (chemical structure, lipo- or hydro-solubility, modes of exposure, metabolites activity, "cocktail effect"). The toxic effects of TD do not necessarily follow the rules of classical toxicology (low-dose effects, non-monotonic curves). The main clinical risks are the deleterious impact on neurocognition and behavior for the fetus and the young child, and possibly the elderly, while in adults the main concerns are tumori/goitrogenesis and autoimmune thyroid disease. The potential socioeconomic impact for society warrants an active and major involvement in research to find solutions in a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26603908

  8. [Thyroid and the environment].

    PubMed

    Brucker-Davis, Françoise; Hiéronimus, Sylvie; Fénichel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the thyroid depends upon the environment for regular iodine supply, avoiding iodine deficiency or excess. Thyroid function may be altered by natural compounds present in water or foodstuff (such as iodine or phyto-goitrogens), or by synthetic compounds, either administered knowingly (in case of medicine), or as an untoward event in case of exposure to industrial products and pesticides, massively produced and polluting the environment. Compounds with an impact on thyroid homeostasis are called thyroid disruptors (TD). TD may disrupt the thyroid economy at any level of regulation: thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism, or transport; cellular level including thyroid hormone signaling; tumorigenesis or more indirectly via the triggering of an autoimmune process. Compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may act at multiple levels. PT effects on human health depend on parameters linked to the individual person (age at exposure, iodine status, diet, professional exposure, place of living, family history of thyroid disease, detoxification enzyme genetic variants) and on parameters linked to the compounds themselves (chemical structure, lipo- or hydro-solubility, modes of exposure, metabolites activity, "cocktail effect"). The toxic effects of TD do not necessarily follow the rules of classical toxicology (low-dose effects, non-monotonic curves). The main clinical risks are the deleterious impact on neurocognition and behavior for the fetus and the young child, and possibly the elderly, while in adults the main concerns are tumori/goitrogenesis and autoimmune thyroid disease. The potential socioeconomic impact for society warrants an active and major involvement in research to find solutions in a multidisciplinary approach.

  9. Partial Target Organ Resistance to Thyroid Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Hans Henning; Danon, Marco; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Maloof, Farahe; Crawford, John D.

    1973-01-01

    An 8-year old boy with a small goiter, normal basal metabolic rate (BMR), and elevated serum thyroid hormone levels (thyroxine [T4] 19.5 μg per 100 ml, free T4 4 ng per 100 ml, triiodothyronine [T3] 505 ng per 100 ml) was studied. He had measurable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (average 5.5 μU per ml), and the thyroxine-binding proteins, hearing, and epiphyseal structures were normal. There was no parental consanguinity nor were there thyroid abnormalities either in the parents or six siblings. Methimazole, 50 mg daily, depressed thyroxine synthesis (T4 10.5, free T4 2.5) and caused a rise in TSH to 11 μU per ml. After discontinuation of treatment, TSH declined to 4.2 μU per ml and chemical hyperthyroidism returned (T4 21.0 μg per 100 ml, free T4 4.2, and total T3 475 ng per 100 ml, radioactive iodine [RAI] uptake 68%), but studies of BMR and insensible water loss showed the patient to be clinically euthyroid. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 200 μg i.v., caused a brisk rise in TSH to 28 μU per ml, with T4 rising to 28 μg per 100 ml, free T4 to 5.6, and T3 to 730 ng per 100 ml, thus indicating that the pituitary-thyroid system was intact and that the patient's TSH was biologically active. The unusual sensitivity of the pituitary cells to TRH in spite of the markedly elevated serum thyroid hormone levels also suggested that the pituitary was insensitive to suppression by T3 or T4. Serum dilution studies gave immunochemical evidence that this patient's TSH was normal. Neither propranolol, 60 mg, chlorpromazine, 30 mg, nor prednisone, 15 mg daily, influenced thyroid indices. Steroid treatment, however, suppressed the pituitary response to TRH, T3 in doses increased over a period of 12 days to as much as 150 μg daily caused a rise in serum T3 to above 800 ng per 100 ml, a decline of T4 to euthyroid levels (T4 9.5 μg per 100 ml, free T4 1.6 ng per 100 ml), suppression of the RAI uptake from 68% to 35%, and marked blunting of the responses

  10. Dynamical model for thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokni Lamooki, Gholam Reza; Shirazi, Amir H.; Mani, Ali R.

    2015-05-01

    Thyroid's main chemical reactions are employed to develop a mathematical model. The presented model is based on differential equations where their dynamics reflects many aspects of thyroid's behavior. Our main focus here is the well known, but not well understood, phenomenon so called as Wolff-Chaikoff effect. It is shown that the inhibitory effect of intake iodide on the rate of one single enzyme causes a similar effect as Wolff-Chaikoff. Besides this issue, the presented model is capable of revealing other complex phenomena of thyroid hormones homeostasis.

  11. Thyroid: biological actions of 'nonclassical' thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Senese, Rosalba; Cioffi, Federica; de Lange, Pieter; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are produced by the thyroid gland and converted in peripheral organs by deiodinases. THs regulate cell functions through two distinct mechanisms: genomic (nuclear) and nongenomic (non-nuclear). Many TH effects are mediated by the genomic pathway--a mechanism that requires TH activation of nuclear thyroid hormone receptors. The overall nongenomic processes, emerging as important accessory mechanisms in TH actions, have been observed at the plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm and cytoskeleton, and in organelles. Some products of peripheral TH metabolism (besides triiodo-L-thyronine), now termed 'nonclassical THs', were previously considered as inactive breakdown products. However, several reports have recently shown that they may have relevant biological effects. The recent accumulation of knowledge on how classical and nonclassical THs modulate the activity of membrane receptors, components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, kinases and deacetylases, opened the door to the discovery of new pathways through which they act. We reviewed the current state-of-the-art on the actions of the nonclassical THs, discussing the role that these endogenous TH metabolites may have in the modulation of thyroid-related effects in organisms with differing complexity, ranging from nonmammals to humans.

  12. Autoimmune thyroid disease in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, D; Isenberg, D

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To report the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid antibodies in 300 patients with SLE, followed up at our centre between 1978 and 2000, by a retrospective analysis of case notes. Results: The prevalence (5.7%) of hypothyroidism in our cohort was higher than in the normal population (1%), while that of hyperthyroidism (1.7%) was not significantly different. Overall 42/300 (14%) of our cohort had thyroid antibodies, rising to 15/22 (68%) in the subgroup who also had thyroid disease (p<0.001). Both antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies were detected. The antibodies were found in equally high frequency in the hyperthyroid subgroup (80% patients), whereas in the hypothyroid subgroup antimicrosomal antibodies were more frequent than antithyroglobulin antibodies (64% v 41%). There was no significant difference in the frequency with which antimicrosomal or antithyroglobulin antibodies were detected between the hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subgroups (p>0.2). Conclusion: Our patients with SLE had a prevalence of hypothyroidism, but not hyperthyroidism, greater than that of the normal population. The presence of either condition was associated with a higher frequency of both antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies. PMID:11779764

  13. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of SNAI2 and TWIST1 proteins and their phenotypic association in human thyroid cancers has not been extensively studied. We examined the expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemistry in a panel of well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers and by qRT-PCR in thyroid cell lines. Ten normal thyroids, 33 follicular adenomas, 56 papillary thyroid carcinomas including 28 follicular variants, 27 follicular carcinomas and 10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were assembled on a tissue microarray and immunostained for SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1. Most (8/10) anaplastic thyroid carcinomas demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for SNAI2 with associated absence of CDH1 in 6/8 cases (75%). TWIST1 was expressed in 5/10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with absence of CDH1 in 3/5 (60%) cases. These findings were confirmed in whole sections of all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and in a separate validation set of 10 additional anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. All normal thyroids, follicular adenomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were negative for SNAI2 and TWIST1 (P<0.0001) and all showed strong diffuse immunoreactivity for CDH1 (P=0.026). Expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 mRNA varied in a normal thyroid, papillary carcinoma and two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines tested, but the highest levels of CDH1 mRNA were detected in the normal thyroid cell line while the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line demonstrated the highest levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 m

  14. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of a thyroid disorder , including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism . TSH is produced by the pituitary gland , a ... thyroid Monitor thyroid replacement therapy in people with hypothyroidism Monitor anti-thyroid treatment in people with hyperthyroidism ...

  15. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    2015-01-02

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic

  16. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... some noncancerous childhood conditions Radiation exposure from nuclear plant disasters Radiation given through a vein (through an IV) during medical tests and treatments does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer.

  17. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23834978

  18. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... change over just a few months. previous continue Hypothyroidism A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine — in fact, the condition ... all. However, symptoms can become more obvious if hypothyroidism progresses. People with underactive thyroids might feel depressed ...

  19. Thyroid Disease and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... change over just a few months. previous continue Hypothyroidism A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine — in fact, the condition ... all. However, symptoms can become more obvious if hypothyroidism progresses. People with underactive thyroids might feel depressed ...

  20. Thyroid and adrenal relationships

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Victor; Ramsay, Ian

    1968-01-01

    A brief review of the actions of adrenal medullary and thyroid hormones is presented and the ways in which they interact are examined. It is concluded that thyroid hormone produces the necessary intracellular environment without which the steady state and emergency actions of cathecholamines would be vitiated. In hyperthyroidism the increased concentration of thyroid hormones results in a lowering of the threshold for catecholamine action. For this reason it is possible to alleviate many of the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis by means of drugs which block β-adrenergic receptors. Attention is also drawn to the simultaneous occurrence of thyroid and adrenal disease, in the hope that this will encourage the search for further links in this field of endocrinology. PMID:5655216

  1. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... isthmus). The thyroid secretes three main hormones: 1) Thyroxine, that contains iodine, needed for growth and metabolism; ... also contains iodine and similar in function to Thyroxine; and 3) Calcitonin, which decreases the concentration of ...

  2. [Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Führer, D; Mann, K; Feldkamp, J; Krude, H; Spitzweg, C; Kratzsch, J; Schott, M

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid dysfunction may impair fertility, course of pregnancy and fetal development. Physiological alterations of thyroid function parameters, that occur during pregnancy need to be distinguished from pathophysiological states of hypo- and hyperthyroidism. We performed a literature search (PubMed 1990-2013) and review relevant publications as well as consensus and practice guidelines of international thyroid/endocrine societies. Interpretation of thyroid function values in pregnancy must be based on trimester-specific TSH and T4 ranges. Alterations in thyroid function are present in up to 15% of pregnancies (0.4% overt hypothyroidism, 0.1-0.4% hyperthyroidism) and may lead to preventable complications in the pregnant woman and the fetus. Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk for abortion, premature delivery and stillbirth, besides impairment of neurocognitive development. The latter has also been shown in situations of grave iodine deficiency. In addition to new-born screening directed at early recognition of congenital hypothyroidism (incidence 0.03%), universal screening of all pregnant women should be implemented in health care guidelines. Newly diagnosed overt hypothyroidism in a pregnant woman requires immediate levothyroxine substitution at adequate doses. In subclinical hypothyroidism thyroid hormone replacement should be considered. Iodine supplementation is strongly recommended in all pregnant and breast-feeding women. Pregnancy causes a number of, that need to be of thyroid dysfunction. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis may impair the course of pregnancy and may negatively affect the fetus. In particular, maternal hypothyroidism may lead to irreparable and detrimental deficits in the neurocognitive development of the fetus. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common cause of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with impaired fertility and miscarriage, and may first manifest in pregnancy due to the

  3. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-05-31

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process.

  4. Thyroid disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stagnaro-Green, Alex; Pearce, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    The thyroid gland is substantially challenged during pregnancy. Total T(3) and T(4) levels increase by 50% during pregnancy owing to a 50% increase in thyroxine-binding globulin levels. Serum TSH levels decrease in the first trimester and increase in the second and third trimesters; however, not to prepregnancy levels. Hypothyroidism is present in up to 3% of all pregnant women. Subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with an increased rate of miscarriage and preterm delivery, and a decrease in the IQ of the child. Overt hyperthyroidism is present in less than 1% of pregnant women but is linked to increased rates of miscarriage, preterm delivery and maternal congestive heart failure. In women who are euthyroid, thyroid autoantibodies are associated with an increased risk of spontaneous miscarriage and preterm delivery. Postpartum thyroiditis occurs in 5.4% of all women following pregnancy; moreover, 50% of women who are euthyroid in the first trimester of pregnancy but test positive for thyroid autoantibodies will develop postpartum thyroiditis. The need for the essential nutrient iodine increases during pregnancy and in women who are breastfeeding, and the effect of treatment of mild iodine deficiency on maternal and fetal outcomes is consequently being evaluated in a prospective study. The debate regarding the pros and cons of universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy is ongoing. PMID:23007317

  5. [Thyroid diseases in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Medina, José Luís; Neves, Celestino; Magalhães, Angela; Pereira-Monteiro, Lídia; Marques, Luís

    2002-01-01

    The thyroid diseases are more frequent in women, which is probably related to the fact that many thyroid diseases are of the autoimmune type, secondary to the effects of sexual steroids in the immunological system; although it had never been completely cleared up, it seems that estrogens and progestogens may modulate the lymphocyte differentiation as well as the induction of the autoimmune response. After delivery, the thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune type often occurs, even in women without previous history of thyroid disease. Some authors assume that the cytokines, produced by the mother, fetus or placenta, inhibit the autoimmune reaction during pregnancy. The subsequent reduction in the inhibiting cytokines, after delivery, allows the aggravation or the beginning of the autoimmune disease. Although autoimmunity is traditionally considered as a major cause for thyroid disease during pregnancy, recent studies indicate that the most common aetiology of disturbance of thyroid tests during pregnancy is the hyperthyroidism due to the inadequate production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). However, from the clinical point of view, the hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease is the most important cause for maternal and fetal morbidity.

  6. Thyroid hormone receptor can modulate retinoic acid-mediated axis formation in frog embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Banker, D E; Eisenman, R N

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor acts as a hormone-dependent transcriptional transactivator and as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of thyroid hormone. Specifically, thyroid hormone receptor can repress retinoic acid-induced gene expression through interactions with retinoic acid receptor. (Retinoic acid is a potent teratogen in the frog Xenopus laevis, acting at early embryonic stages to interfere with the formation of anterior structures. Endogenous retinoic acid is thought to act in normal anterior-posterior axis formation.) We have previously shown that thyroid hormone receptor RNA (alpha isotype) is expressed and polysome-associated during Xenopus embryogenesis preceding thyroid gland maturation and endogenous thyroid hormone production (D. E. Banker, J. Bigler, and R. N. Eisenman, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:5079-5089, 1991). To determine whether thyroid hormone receptor might influence the effects of retinoic acid in early frog development, we have examined the results of ectopic thyroid hormone receptor expression on retinoic acid teratogenesis. We demonstrate that microinjections of full-length thyroid hormone receptor RNA protect injected embryos from retinoic acid teratogenesis. DNA binding is apparently essential to this protective function, as truncated thyroid hormone receptors, lacking DNA-binding domains but including hormone-binding and dimerization domains, do not protect from retinoic acid. We have shown that microinjections of these dominant-interfering thyroid hormone receptors, as well as anti-thyroid hormone receptor antibodies, increase retinoic acid teratogenesis in injected embryos, presumably by inactivating endogenous thyroid hormone receptor. This finding suggests that endogenous thyroid hormone receptors may act to limit retinoic acid sensitivity. On the other hand, after thyroid hormone treatment, ectopic thyroid hormone receptor mediates teratogenesis that is indistinguishable from the dorsoanterior deficiencies produced in retinoic acid

  7. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiyuan; Zhao, Pengxin; Zang, Leilei; Zhang, Kaili; Liao, Haiying; Hu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays an important role in coordinating diverse cellular processes. It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer type and its functions in tumorigenesis remain controversial. The potential tumour suppressive role of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer development was investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, WRO, FTC133 and BCPAP, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, scratch wound healing and invasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour suppressive properties of HUWE1. Small-interfering RNA mediated knockdown of HUWE1 promoted cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion in thyroid cancer cells. Overexpression of HUWE1 conferred partial sensitivity to chemo drugs interfering with DNA replication in these cells. Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissues compared with matched normal thyroid tissues. In addition, overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that HUWE1 can regulate p53 protein level through its stabilization. HUWE1 functions as a tumour suppressor in thyroid cancer progression, which may represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of thyroid cancer. PMID:27581931

  8. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease (enlargement of the thyroid gland with protrusion of the eyeballs), and cancer of the thyroid....

  9. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease (enlargement of the thyroid gland with protrusion of the eyeballs), and cancer of the thyroid....

  10. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease (enlargement of the thyroid gland with protrusion of the eyeballs), and cancer of the thyroid....

  11. Report of a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Okani, Chukwudi Onyeaghana; Otene, Benjamin; Nyaga, Terhemba; Ngbea, Joseph; Eke, Agaba; Edegbe, Felix; Anyiam, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease, known to be the most common cause of hypothyroidism in nonendemic goitrous areas. It is usually characterized by symmetric, painless, and diffused but sometimes localized swelling of the thyroid gland with features of hypothyroidism. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), on the other hand, is the most common yet less aggressive form of thyroid cancer, especially in iodine-deficient areas. The coexistence of the two diseases is possible but not common. This case study reports a 50-year-old female with a 10-year history of a huge goiter, which was essentially symptom-free until about 3 months prior to presentation when the patient started complaining of neck pain, dysphagia, productive cough, and cold intolerance. Physical examination revealed focal cystic and tender area in the multinodular swelling and associated cervical lymphadenopathy on the left side of the neck. The serum thyroid stimulating hormone was high, sub-normal T3, and the T4 was low. The fine needle aspiration cytology yielded 10 ml of aspirate of pus admixed with altered blood which on microscopy showed a few suspicious follicular epithelial cells with open nuclei admixed with mainly neutrophil polymorphs, siderophages, and foam cells in a hemorrhagic background. The patient had an incision biopsy that showed areas displaying PTC and HT. PMID:26903704

  12. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) ...

  13. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thyroid Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the most common cause of thyroid underactivity (hypothyroidism) in the United States. Related Information What information ... However, some people with thyroid antibodies never develop hypothyroidism or experience any related signs or symptoms. People ...

  15. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

  16. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  17. Multiscale imaging of human thyroid pathologies using integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-02-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. Thirty four thyroid gland specimens were imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology, ranging from normal thyroid to neoplasia and benign disease. The integrated OCT and OCM imaging system allows seamlessly switching between low and high magnifications, in a way similar to traditional microscopy. Good correspondence was observed between optical images and histological sections. The results provide a basis for interpretation of future OCT and OCM images of the thyroid tissues and suggest the possibility of future in vivo evaluation of thyroid pathology.

  18. Sporadic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Clinical Data From A University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie M.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Imazawa, Alice T.; Lourenço, Delmar M.; Ezabella, Marilza C. L.; Tavares, Marcos R.; Toledo, Sergio P. A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma may occur in a sporadic (s-medullary thyroid carcinoma, 75%) or in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 form (MEN2, 25%). These clinical forms differ in many ways, as s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases are RET-negative in the germline and are typically diagnosed later than medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 patients. In this study, a set of cases with s-medullary thyroid carcinoma are documented and explored. PURPOSE: To document the phenotypes observed in s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases from a university group and to attempt to improve earlier diagnosis of s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Some procedures for diagnostics are also recommended. METHOD: Patients (n=26) with apparent s-medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied. Their clinical data were reviewed and peripheral blood was collected and screened for RET germline mutations. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 43.9 years (± 10.82 SD) and did not differ between males and females. Calcitonin levels were increased in all cases. Three patients presented values that were 100-fold greater than the normal upper limit. Most (61.54%) had values that were 20-fold below this limit. Carcinoembryonic antigen levels were high in 70.6% of cases. There was no significant association between age at diagnosis, basal calcitonin levels or time of disease onset with thyroid tumor size (0.6–15 cm). Routine thyroid cytology yielded disappointing diagnostic accuracy (46.7%) in this set of cases. After total thyroidectomy associated with extensive cervical lymph node resection, calcitonin values remained lower than 5 pg/mL for at least 12 months in eight of the cases (30.8%). Immunocyto- and histochemistry for calcitonin were positive in all analyzed cases. None of the 26 cases presented germline mutations in the classical hotspots of the RET proto-oncogene. CONCLUSION: Our cases were identified late. The basal calcitonin measurements and immunostaining for calcitonin were

  19. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul J; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Lin, Hung-Yun; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  20. Hodgkin's disease: thyroid dysfunction following external irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, K.; Shimaoka, K.

    1981-01-01

    The thyroid gland is commonly included in the field of radiation therapy for patients with malignant lymphoma and with head and neck tumors. The radiation dose for malignant diseases varies considerably depending on the purpose of treatment and the institutional policies. A substantial number of these patients are developing subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism. The risk of developing hypothyroidism after a moderate radiation dose of 2000 to 4500 rads has been reported to be 10 to 20 percent. In addition, subclinical hypothyroidism is induced further in one third of the patients. There are also suggestions that external irradiation of the thyroid gland in patients with malignant lymphomas, as well as internal irradiation with radioiodine of the normal and hyperthyroid human thyroid glands, would induce elevations of serum antithyroid autoantibody titers. However, only a few cases of Graves disease following irradiation to the thyroid gland have been reported. We encountered a young woman who received radiation therapy to the mantle field for her Hodgkin's disease and developed hypothyroxinemia without overt signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, followed by appearance of nodular goiter and then full-blown Graves disease.

  1. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M.; Celi, Francesco S.; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B.; Remaley, Alan T.; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. Method and Findings 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. Conclusion In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:26914549

  2. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  3. Thyroid hormones and bone development.

    PubMed

    Combs, C E; Nicholls, J J; Duncan Bassett, J H; Williams, G R

    2011-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical determinants of postnatal skeletal development. Thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in children results in severe abnormalities of linear growth and bone maturation. These clinical observations have been recapitulated in mutant mice and these models have facilitated studies of the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action in the developing skeleton. In this review, we consider in detail the direct and indirect effects of thyroid hormone on bone and the molecular mechanisms involved.

  4. Myxedema madness complicating postoperative follow-up of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Morosán Allo, Yanina J; Rosmarin, Melanie; Urrutia, Agustina; Faingold, Maria Cristina; Musso, Carla; Brenta, Gabriela

    2015-08-01

    Although hypothyroidism is associated with an increased prevalence of psychiatric manifestations, myxedema madness is rarely observed. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with no prior history of psychiatric disorders, who presented to the emergency department with psychomotor agitation 6 weeks after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on admission was 62.9 mIU/L and free T4 was < 0.35 ng/dL, indicating severe hypothyroidism. After ruling out other possible causes, the diagnosis of myxedema madness was considered; hence, antipsychotic drug treatment and intravenous levothyroxine were prescribed. Behavioral symptoms returned to normal within 4 days of presentation, while levels of thyroid hormones attained normal values 1 week after admission. Recombinant TSH (Thyrogen®) was used successfully to prevent new episodes of mania due to thyroid hormone withdrawal in further controls for her thyroid cancer. This case illustrates that myxedema madness can occur in the setting of acute hypothyroidism, completely reverting with levothyroxine and antipsychotic treatment. Recombinant TSH may be a useful tool to prevent myxedema madness or any severe manifestation of levothyroxine withdrawal for the follow-up of thyroid cancer. PMID:26331326

  5. Myxedema madness complicating postoperative follow-up of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Morosán Allo, Yanina J; Rosmarin, Melanie; Urrutia, Agustina; Faingold, Maria Cristina; Musso, Carla; Brenta, Gabriela

    2015-08-01

    Although hypothyroidism is associated with an increased prevalence of psychiatric manifestations, myxedema madness is rarely observed. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with no prior history of psychiatric disorders, who presented to the emergency department with psychomotor agitation 6 weeks after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on admission was 62.9 mIU/L and free T4 was < 0.35 ng/dL, indicating severe hypothyroidism. After ruling out other possible causes, the diagnosis of myxedema madness was considered; hence, antipsychotic drug treatment and intravenous levothyroxine were prescribed. Behavioral symptoms returned to normal within 4 days of presentation, while levels of thyroid hormones attained normal values 1 week after admission. Recombinant TSH (Thyrogen®) was used successfully to prevent new episodes of mania due to thyroid hormone withdrawal in further controls for her thyroid cancer. This case illustrates that myxedema madness can occur in the setting of acute hypothyroidism, completely reverting with levothyroxine and antipsychotic treatment. Recombinant TSH may be a useful tool to prevent myxedema madness or any severe manifestation of levothyroxine withdrawal for the follow-up of thyroid cancer.

  6. Color-flow Doppler sonography in Graves disease: "thyroid inferno".

    PubMed

    Ralls, P W; Mayekawa, D S; Lee, K P; Colletti, P M; Radin, D R; Boswell, W D; Halls, J M

    1988-04-01

    Graves disease is a common diffuse abnormality of the thyroid gland usually characterized by thyrotoxicosis. We performed color-flow Doppler sonography in 16 patients with Graves disease and compared the results with those in 15 normal volunteers and 14 patients with other thyroid diseases (eight with multinodular goiter, four with focal masses, and two with papillary thyroid carcinoma). All 16 Graves disease patients exhibited a pulsatile pattern we call "thyroid inferno." This pattern consists of multiple small areas of intrathyroidal flow seen diffusely throughout the gland in both systole and diastole. In systole, both high-velocity flow (color coded white) and lower velocity flow (color coded red and blue) were noted. In diastole, fewer areas of flow and lower velocity flow were noted. Patients with Graves disease also exhibited color flow around the periphery of the gland. The inferno pattern did not occur in normal subjects or in patients with other thyroid diseases. On occasion, focal areas of intrathyroidal flow were detected in patients with multinodular goiter and focal thyroid masses. High-resolution gray-scale images did not show the small vascular channels from which the flow signal originated. Color-flow Doppler sonography shows promise as a cost-effective, noninvasive technique for diagnosing Graves disease.

  7. QT prolongation in a child with thyroid storm

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Benjamin B; Eckersley, Luke Gerard; Skinner, Jonathan Robert; Jefferies, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 12-year-old girl presented with an acute confusional state and a 2-year history of weight loss, anxiety, agitation and recurrent fever. Thyroid function tests confirmed severe hyperthyroidism, and a diagnosis of thyroid storm was made (Burch and Wartofsky score=75). ECG showed a prolonged QTc interval of 506 ms. Acute treatment for thyroid storm consisted of Lugol's iodine, prednisolone, carbimazole and propranolol. She made a steady recovery and by 3 months her thyroid function had normalised; a repeat ECG showed a QTc within the normal range (430 ms). There was no relevant family history. This is a case of QTc prolongation with hyperthyroidism and normalisation with euthyroidism. It is not commonly recognised that hyperthyroidism in children may be associated with QTc prolongation. QTc measurement should be incorporated into management protocols for hyperthyroidism. PMID:24729112

  8. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åase Krogh; Main, Katharina; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals—endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)—has been shown to cause almost constant exposure of humans with possible harmful influence on health and hormone regulation. EDCs may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis by different mechanisms, and though the effect of each chemical seems scarce, the added effects may cause inappropriate consequences on, for example, foetal neurodevelopment. This paper focuses on thyroid hormone influence on foetal development in relation to the chemicals suspected of thyroid disrupting properties with possible interactions with maternal thyroid homeostasis. Knowledge of the effects is expected to impact the general debate on the use of these chemicals. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the issue, since human studies are scarce. PMID:21918727

  9. Thyroid Function in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the thyroid function of 181 patients (mean age 14 years) with Down's syndrome and found more thyroid dysfunctions than in the general population. Periodic thyroid hormone function tests are recommended for Down's syndrome individuals, especially as they get older. (Author/DB)

  10. Thyroid status in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT).

    PubMed

    Thomas, D R; Hailwood, R; Harris, B; Williams, P A; Scanlon, M F; John, R

    1987-08-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in a group of 21 patients with severe senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) and in a group of 17 age and sex matched normal controls. Free thyroid hormone levels (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured, as were also the thyrotrophin (TSH), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) responses to thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH)). When compared to controls, patients demonstrated a significantly lower free T3 value (but not free T4), a blunted TSH response to TRH, slightly elevated basal PRL and GH values and a small GH response to TRH. However, all differences were small in biological terms and were within the laboratory's normal range. This emphasizes the relative normality of neuroendocrine function, particularly thyroid status, in SDAT.

  11. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. PMID:25433782

  12. Identification of thyroid tumor cell vulnerabilities through a siRNA-based functional screening

    PubMed Central

    Cetti, Elena; Fraietta, Ivan; Todoerti, Katia; Miranda, Claudia; Mazzoni, Mara; Re, Claudia; Colombo, Riccardo; Ukmar, Giorgio; Camisasca, Stefano; Pagliardini, Sonia; Pierotti, Marco A.; Neri, Antonino; Galvani, Arturo; Greco, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is rapidly increasing. Although generally associated with good prognosis, a fraction of thyroid tumors are not cured by standard therapy and progress to aggressive forms for which no effective treatments are currently available. In order to identify novel therapeutic targets for thyroid carcinoma, we focused on the discovery of genes essential for sustaining the oncogenic phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not required to the same degree for the viability of normal cells (non-oncogene addiction paradigm). We screened a siRNA oligonucleotide library targeting the human druggable genome in thyroid cancer BCPAP cell line in comparison with immortalized normal human thyrocytes (Nthy-ori 3–1). We identified a panel of hit genes whose silencing interferes with the growth of tumor cells, while sparing that of normal ones. Further analysis of three selected hit genes, namely Cyclin D1, MASTL and COPZ1, showed that they represent common vulnerabilities for thyroid tumor cells, as their inhibition reduced the viability of several thyroid tumor cell lines, regardless the histotype or oncogenic lesion. This work identified non-oncogenes essential for sustaining the phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not of normal cells, thus suggesting that they might represent promising targets for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26431489

  13. Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

  14. Identification of thyroid tumor cell vulnerabilities through a siRNA-based functional screening.

    PubMed

    Anania, Maria; Gasparri, Fabio; Cetti, Elena; Fraietta, Ivan; Todoerti, Katia; Miranda, Claudia; Mazzoni, Mara; Re, Claudia; Colombo, Riccardo; Ukmar, Giorgio; Camisasca, Stefano; Pagliardini, Sonia; Pierotti, Marco; Neri, Antonino; Galvani, Arturo; Greco, Angela

    2015-10-27

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is rapidly increasing. Although generally associated with good prognosis, a fraction of thyroid tumors are not cured by standard therapy and progress to aggressive forms for which no effective treatments are currently available. In order to identify novel therapeutic targets for thyroid carcinoma, we focused on the discovery of genes essential for sustaining the oncogenic phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not required to the same degree for the viability of normal cells (non-oncogene addiction paradigm). We screened a siRNA oligonucleotide library targeting the human druggable genome in thyroid cancer BCPAP cell line in comparison with immortalized normal human thyrocytes (Nthy-ori 3-1). We identified a panel of hit genes whose silencing interferes with the growth of tumor cells, while sparing that of normal ones. Further analysis of three selected hit genes, namely Cyclin D1, MASTL and COPZ1, showed that they represent common vulnerabilities for thyroid tumor cells, as their inhibition reduced the viability of several thyroid tumor cell lines, regardless the histotype or oncogenic lesion. This work identified non-oncogenes essential for sustaining the phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not of normal cells, thus suggesting that they might represent promising targets for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26431489

  15. Recognition of oxidized albumin and thyroid antigens by psoriasis autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Rasheed, Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the role of reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) induced epitopes on human-serum-albumin (HSA) and thyroid antigens in psoriasis autoimmunity. Methods: This study was performed in the College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia between May 2014 and February 2015. The study was designed to explore the role of ROS-induced epitopes in psoriasis autoimmunity. Singlet-oxygen (or ROS)-induced epitopes on protein (ROS-epitopes-albumin) was characterized by in-vitro and in-vivo. Thyroid antigens were prepared from rabbit thyroid, and thyroglobulin was isolated from thyroid extract. Immunocross-reactions of protein-A purified anti-ROS-epitopes-HSA-immunoglobulin G (IgGs) with thyroid antigen, thyroglobulin, and their oxidized forms were determined. Binding characteristics of autoantibodies in chronic plaque psoriasis patients (n=26) against ROS-epitopes-HSA and also with native and oxidized thyroid antigens were screened, and the results were compared with age-matched controls (n=22). Results: The anti-ROS-epitopes-HSA-IgGs showed cross-reactions with thyroid antigen, thyroglobulin and with their oxidized forms. High degree of specific binding by psoriasis IgGs to ROS-epitopes-HSA, ROS-thyroid antigen and ROS-thyroglobulin was observed. Immunoglobulin G from normal-human-controls showed negligible binding with all tested antigens. Moreover, sera from psoriasis patients had higher levels of carbonyl contents compared with control sera. Conclusion: Structural alterations in albumin, thyroid antigens by ROS, generate unique neo-epitopes that might be one of the factors for the induction of autoantibodies in psoriasis. PMID:26620982

  16. [Thyroid gland and pregnancy - summary of important findings].

    PubMed

    Límanová, Zdeňka

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid hormones play fundamental role in conception and pregnancy and are essential for normal adult health, fetus and childhood development. Many studies have shown an association between maternal thyroid diseases esp. hypothyroidism with obstetric problems and/or psychomotoric impairment in the offspring. The prevalence of undiagnosed lower thyroid function in pregnancy is present in about 4-8 % of pregnant women, and euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity (6-8 %) are further candidates for thyroid disorders in pregnancy. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50 % more thyroxine in pregnancy to maintain an euthyroid state to keep TSH ideally 2.5 mIU/l in the first trimester of pregnancy and TSH 3.0 mIU/l in the second and third trimester. Consequently, there is a need to start the substitution therapy as soon as diagnosis of subclinical and /or overt hypotyroidism is established, and in majority of euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease there is a need to start therapy as well. Most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant. As maternal thyroid disease is a quite prevalent condition and often asymptomatic, but easily diagnosed and for which an effective, safe and cheap treatment is available, endocrinological societies including ČES ČLS JEP worldwide are suggesting the need of thyroid dysfunction screening as a simple prevention attitude. Hormone determination of TSH and TPOab antibodies should be performed early during the first trimester, using trimester-specific reference values. Furthermore, adequate iodine supplementation during pregnancy is critical and if feasible it should be initiated before the woman attempts to conceive. PMID:26486478

  17. [Clinical procedure in amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Różycka-Kosmalska, Monika; Michalak, Renata; Kosmalski, Marcin; Ptaszyński, Paweł; Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof; Zieleniewski, Wojciech; Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug frequently used in everyday clinical practice. Its mechanism of action involves the interaction with many receptors, including those in the cardiac conduction system. Amiodarone usefulness is protect in the treatment of a variety of tachyarrhythmias, both benign and life-threatening. In contrast to other antiarrhythmic drugs, amiodarone is characterized by high therapeutic efficacy, both in patients with normal and impaired left ventricular systolic function. A significant limitation of its is associated with side effects including thyroid gland dysfunction. Disturbances of this organ associated with amiodarone are an important diagnostic and therapeutic problem. They may contribute to the occurrence of both Amiodarone- Induced Thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and Amiodarone-Induced Hypothyroidism (AIH). The risk of such complications should be considered for each patient individually, taking into account thyroid function at the beginning of pharmacotherapy. Appropriate procedure, both before and after treatment allows a rapid diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disturbances. It seems that the best parameter used to assess the hormonal imbalance during amiodarone therapy is the concentration of the free triiodothyronine (fT3). The evaluation of thyroid function should be performed before starting pharmacotherapy, and then repeated every six months. In the case of a thyroid dysfunction, assessment must be performed immediately according to standard diagnostic and therapeutic regimens. Despite abnormal thyroid function, high efficiency of amiodarone and relatively small risk of thyroid damage allows continuation therapy. Amiodarone therapy requires a care from both cardiologist and endocrinologist. The aim of this paper is to present the state of art of evaluation of the thyroid function and procedures implemented in care of thyroid dysfunction before and during treatment with amiodarone. PMID:26891437

  18. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  19. Thyroid metabolism in the recessive sex-linked dwarf female chicken. 1. Age related changes in thyroid hormone synthesis and circulating thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, R R; Brown, R G

    1975-03-01

    Age related changes in the levels of circulating thyroid hormones as well as the type of hormones synthesized in the thyroid glands from normal and sex-linked recessive dwarf, female chickens were studied. The impact of the presence of the dwarf gene on the parameters measured was minimal but significant alterations in the types of hormones produced in the thyroid gland with increasing age were observed. As the birds approached sexual maturity, the synthesis of triiodothyronine increased sharply such that the ratio of triiodothyronine (T3): tetraiodothyronine (T4) was approximately 15:1. This was in contrast to the T3:T4 ratio of younger birds which was approximately 0.7:1.0. This shift in hormone synthesis was reflected in relatively more circulating T3 in laying hens when compared with younger birds. It was also noted that four week old dwarf birds had higher circulating T3 values than those found for the normals.

  20. Detection and characterization of RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin in the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Kluger, Sibylle; Kühne, Christian A; Dunstan, Colin R; Burchert, Andreas; Schoppet, Michael; Zielke, Andreas; Heufelder, Armin E

    2002-01-01

    Receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) play essential roles in bone metabolism and immune responses. RANKL activates RANK, which is expressed by osteoclasts and dendritic cells (DC), whereas OPG acts as its decoy receptor. The role of RANKL and OPG in thyroid physiology is unclear. Northern analysis revealed pronounced OPG mRNA levels in normal human thyroid. By contrast, RANKL mRNA levels were most abundant in lymph node and appendix, and low in the thyroid. In the human thyroid follicular cell line XTC and in primary human thyroid follicular cells, OPG mRNA levels and protein secretion were upregulated by interleukin (IL)-1beta (33-fold), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (eightfold), and thyrotropin (TSH) (threefold). RANKL mRNA was stimulated in XTC by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, but inhibited by TSH. Conditioned medium harvested from IL-1beta-treated XTC (containing high concentrations of OPG) inhibited RANKL-induced CD40 upregulation and cluster formation of DC. OPG mRNA levels were three times more abundant in surgical thyroid specimens of Graves' disease as compared to other thyroid diseases. Our data suggest that RANKL and OPG are produced in the thyroid gland by thyroid follicular cells, are regulated by cytokines and TSH, and are capable of modulating dendritic cell functions. Thus, these cytokines may represent important local immunoregulatory factors involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  1. [Radiotherapy for Thyroid Cancer].

    PubMed

    Jingu, Keiichi; Maruoka, Shin; Umezawa, Rei; Takahashi, Noriyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Radioactive 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer has been used since the 1940s and is an established and effective treatment. In contrast, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was considered to be effective for achieving local control but not for prolonging survival. Although clinicians were hesitant to administer EBRT owing to the potential radiation-induced adverse effects of 2 dimensional (2D)-radiotherapy until 2000, it is expected that adverse effects will be reduced and treatment efficacy improved through the introduction of more advanced techniques for delivering radiation (eg, 3D-radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). The prognosis of undifferentiated thyroid cancer is known to be extremely bad, although in very rare cases, multimodality therapy (total or subtotal resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) has allowed long-term survival. Here, we report the preliminary results of using hypofractionated radiotherapy for undifferentiated thyroid cancer in our institution. PMID:26199238

  2. [Thyroid gland and fertility].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, P

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the thyroid hormones are associated with a number of aspects of the human reproduction. Both states, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, have significant effect on the estrogen and androgen metabolism, the menstrual function and on fertility. The role of thyroid hormones (TH) during infertility has been little exploited. Interesting facts are that TH deficiency is more common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in certain cases with unexplained infertility. There are very few studies on the effect and paracrine regulation of TH and its receptors in the female reproductive tract. This report provides an overview of the most common thyroid disorders and their impact on ovarian function and reproductive performance in women as well as in cases with infertility and the implementation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:25675618

  3. [Therapy of thyroid nodules].

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent in Germany. In about every fourth person thyroid nodules can be detected. Most of them are benign. Signs for malignancy are hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, an unregular margin and increased blood perfusion. There is no strict indication for the treatment of benign nodules. In most cases iodine supplementation is sufficient. A combination therapy with levothyroxine and iodine is more efficient for the treatment of larger nodules. Subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by an adenoma does not necessarily need to be treated, whereas manifest hyperthyroidism needs to treated in most cases with antithyroid drug therapy. Radioiodine therapy is the classical indication for the treatment of unifocal autonomous adenomas. A largely increased thyroid gland with and without uni- / multifocal adenomas are often operated. PMID:25831118

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid: cytopathologic findings and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Parwani, Anil V; Galindo, Rene; Steinberg, David M; Zeiger, Martha A; Westra, William H; Ali, Syed Z

    2003-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that arises primarily from the pleura. Extrapleural occurrences are rare. To our knowledge, there is no published account of this entity in the thyroid in the cytopathology literature. We report the case of a 61-yr-old man who was evaluated at The Johns Hopkins Hospital for a slow-growing thyroid mass that was present for 2 yr despite thyroid hormone suppression. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was within normal limits. The patient underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA), which showed predominantly discohesive slender spindle-shaped cells and fragments of collagenized stromal tissue. After the FNA diagnosis of "thyroid neoplasm" was made, the patient underwent a near-total thyroidectomy, which revealed a SFT. Differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions in thyroid is also presented.

  5. A model of the development of the brain as a construct of the thyroid system.

    PubMed Central

    Howdeshell, Kembra L

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate thyroid hormone action on the developing brain or the developmental events selectively affected. Consequently, although a large number of environmental chemicals interfere with the thyroid system, there are few neurodevelopmental end points to recruit for toxicological studies. Therefore, my goal here is to review what is known about the relative timing of normal brain construction and thyroid system development, with special focus on the period of in utero development in humans and the comparable developmental period in laboratory rats. These data are presented as a timeline to aid in the identification of thyroid-sensitive end points in brain development and to highlight important data gaps. I discuss the known influence of certain synthetic chemicals on the thyroid system and include a brief review of the effects of developmental exposure to chemicals on thyroid system function. The relationship between the thyroid hormone and retinoic acid systems, as well as the thyroid hormone sensitivity of the developing cochlea, is also discussed. PMID:12060827

  6. Thyroid function 48h after delivery as a marker for subsequent postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Albacar, Glòria; Sans, Teresa; Martín-Santos, Rocío; García-Esteve, Lluïsa; Guillamat, Roser; Sanjuan, Julio; Cañellas, Francesca; Carot, José Miguel; Gratacòs, Mònica; Bosch, Joan; Gaviria, Ana; Labad, Antonio; Zotes, Alfonso Gutiérrez; Vilella, Elisabet

    2010-06-01

    Physiological changes during gestation and after delivery are associated with postpartum thyroid dysfunction, which is due to thyroid autoimmunity in some cases. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction, in turn, has been associated with postpartum depression (PPD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether thyroid function immediately after delivery can predict postpartum depression at 8 weeks and 32 weeks after delivery. This study examined 1053 postpartum Spanish women without a previous history of depression. We evaluated depressive symptoms at 48h, 8 weeks and 32 weeks postpartum and used a diagnostic interview to confirm major depression for all probable cases. Free thyroxin (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assayed at 48h postpartum. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine independent risk factors for PPD. Although 152 women (14.4%) had high TPOAb (>27IU/mL) and slightly elevated TSH concentrations with normal fT4, we did not find any association between thyroid function and PPD. This thyroid dysfunction was not associated with CRP concentrations that were outside of the normal range (>3mg/L). We conclude that thyroid function at 48h after delivery does not predict PPD susceptibility. PMID:19939574

  7. The role of thyroid dysfunction in the critically ill: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bello, G; Ceaichisciuc, I; Silva, S; Antonelli, M

    2010-11-01

    During critical illness, patients with no known history of thyroid disorders may experience multiple alterations in their serum thyroid hormone levels. Such alterations have been termed sick euthyroid syndrome or, more recently, non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The laboratory parameters of NTIS usually include low serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), normal or low serum levels of thyroxine (T4) and normal or low serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The magnitude of the alteration in thyroid function correlates with the severity of the illness and its outcomes in critically ill patients with NTIS. The pathogenetic mechanisms involved in NTIS include a decreased conversion of T4 to T3 in extrathyroidal tissues and alterations in thyroid hormones' binding to serum proteins. In cases of protracted critical illness, a decrease in the pulsatile frequency of TSH secretion, resulting from reduced thyrotropin-re leasing hormone (TRH) release by the hypothalamus, may also occur. Several medications or clinical conditions that are commonly present in critically ill patients may be responsible for lowering serum concentrations of thyroid hormone. Among those who study the condition, the question of whether NTIS is a protective adaptation of the organism to illness or a maladaptive response to a stressful insult remains unanswered. In either case, thyroid hormone abnormalities are likely to play a role in the critically ill patient.However, there is currently no convincing evidence to suggest that restoring physiological thyroid hormone concentrations in unselected patients with NTIS would be beneficial.

  8. Thyroid Disease and the Heart.

    PubMed

    Klein, Irwin; Danzi, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid hormones have an intimate relationship with cardiac function. Some of the most significant clinical signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are the cardiac manifestations. In both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, the characteristic physiological effects of thyroid hormone can be understood from the actions at the molecular and cellular level. Here we explore topics from the metabolism and cellular effects of thyroid hormone to special considerations related to statin and amiodarone therapy for the alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism that accompany heart disease. PMID:26792255

  9. Global expression profiling reveals gain-of-function onco-genic activity of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor in thyroid carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Mishra, Alok; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are critical in regulating gene expression in normal physiological processes. Decreased expression and/or somatic mutations of TRs have been shown to be associated several types of human cancers including liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which mutated TRs promote carcinogenesis, an animal model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (Thrbpv/pv mice) was used in the present study. The Thrbpv/pv mouse harbors a knockin dominant negative PV mutation, identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone. To understand whether oncogenic actions of PV involve not only the loss of normal TR functions but also gain-of-function activities, we compared the gene expression profiles of thyroid lesions in Thrbpv/pv mice and Thra1-/- Thrb-/- mice that also spontaneously develop FTC, but with less severe malignancy. Analysis of the cDNA microarray data derived from microdissected thyroid tumor cells of these two mice showed contrasting global gene expression profiles. With stringent selection using 2.5-fold change (p<0.01) in cDNA microarray analysis, 241 genes with altered gene expression were identified. Nearly half of the genes (n=103: 42.7% of total) with altered gene expression in thyroid tumor cells of Thrbpv/pv mice were associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis; some of these genes function as oncogenes in human thyroid cancers. The remaining genes were found to function in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cytoskeleton modification. These results indicate that the more aggressive thyroid tumor progression in Thrbpv/pv mice was not due simply to the loss of tumor suppressor functions of TR via mutation but also, importantly, to gain-of-function in the oncogenic activities of PV to drive thyroid carcinogenesis. Thus, the present study identifies a novel mechanism by which a mutated TRβ evolves with an oncogenic advantage to promote

  10. Lingual thyroid in a young female: role of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Mahajan, Shivani; Rana, Prakash Jagdishchandra; Patel, Narottam Ambavibhai

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with dysphagia and a feeling of fullness in the throat. On examination a midline smooth, rubbery and reddish mass was seen at the base of the tongue, which moved with deglutination and protrusion of the tongue. A thyroid function test was within normal limits. On ultrasonography, absences of thyroid gland in its normal position with a smooth-contoured, round-shaped nodular mass at the tongue base with internal vascularity within. The mass was hyperdense and homogeneously enhancing on postcontrast. A clinical diagnosis of ectopic lingual was made based on the ultrasonography and CT scan features. PMID:25336556

  11. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Browne-Martin, K; Emerson, C H

    1997-03-01

    Four disorders of the postpartum period are associated with thyroid dysfunction. The most common is PPT. Although recovery from thyroid dysfunction often occurs in PPT, many patients eventually develop permanent hypothyroidism. Postpartum Graves' Disease is less common than PPT, but it is not unusual. Whereas antithyroid drugs are indicated for postpartum Graves' Disease, they are not useful in PPT. Although they are rare, lymphocytic hypophysitis and postpartum pituitary infarction are important entities because they cause deficiencies of many critical hormones. The autoimmune nature of PPT, postpartum Graves' disease, and lymphocytic hypophysitis highlights the unique effects of pregnancy on the immune system.

  12. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-05-20

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process.

  13. Increased thyroid cancer risk in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Dagdelen, Selcuk; Cinar, Nese; Erbas, Tomris

    2014-08-01

    Acromegaly increases cancer risk. We aimed to determine the prevalence and the predictors of tumors in acromegalic patients treated at our department. We retrospectively evaluated 160 acromegalic patients [79 female (mean age 52.0 ± 10.4 years) and 81 male (mean age 49.1 ± 12.4 years)] between 1990 and 2012, with a mean follow up period of 7.1 ± 5.7 years. The patients were screened with colonoscopy, mammography, thyroid and prostate ultrasonography. Malignancy was found in 34 (21.3%) patients. No significant difference was observed in the distribution of malignancy among sexes (20.3% in F vs. 22.2% in M). Thyroid cancer was the most frequent (n = 17, 10.6%) followed by the breast cancer (n = 4, 2.5%) and colorectal cancer (n = 3, 1.8%). Renal cell cancer in two patients, bladder cancer in two patients, periampullary tumor, rectal carcinoid tumor, malignant melanoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma and malignant mesenchymal tumor in brain in one patient were detected. One patient had both thyroid and renal cell cancer. Age of patients at diagnosis of acromegaly was significantly higher in patients with cancer (45.8 ± 9.9 vs. 40.9 ± 11.3 years, p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in duration of the disease, initial GH levels and IGF-1% upper limit of normal values, the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia and treatment modalities between the patients with/without cancer. In logistic regression analysis, older age at diagnosis was associated with malignancy risk. The risk of cancer in acromegaly especially the thyroid cancer risk seems to be more increased than known in the literature. Therefore, acromegaly patients should be screened routinely for cancer, especially for thyroid cancer due to it being up to four times higher prevalence than breast and colorectal cancer.

  14. Atrophic thyroid follicles and inner ear defects reminiscent of cochlear hypothyroidism in Slc26a4-related deafness.

    PubMed

    Dror, Amiel A; Lenz, Danielle R; Shivatzki, Shaked; Cohen, Keren; Ashur-Fabian, Osnat; Avraham, Karen B

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for inner ear development and is required for auditory system maturation. Human mutations in SLC26A4 lead to a syndromic form of deafness with enlargement of the thyroid gland (Pendred syndrome) and non-syndromic deafness (DFNB4). We describe mice with an Slc26a4 mutation, Slc26a4 (loop/loop) , which are profoundly deaf but show a normal sized thyroid gland, mimicking non-syndromic clinical signs. Histological analysis of the thyroid gland revealed defective morphology, with a majority of atrophic microfollicles, while measurable thyroid hormone in blood serum was within the normal range. Characterization of the inner ear showed a spectrum of morphological and molecular defects consistent with inner ear pathology, as seen in hypothyroidism or disrupted thyroid hormone action. The pathological inner ear hallmarks included thicker tectorial membrane with reduced β-tectorin protein expression, the absence of BK channel expression of inner hair cells, and reduced inner ear bone calcification. Our study demonstrates that deafness in Slc26a4 (loop/loop) mice correlates with thyroid pathology, postulating that sub-clinical thyroid morphological defects may be present in some DFNB4 individuals with a normal sized thyroid gland. We propose that insufficient availability of thyroid hormone during inner ear development plays an important role in the mechanism underlying deafness as a result of SLC26A4 mutations.

  15. Thyroid storm: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Chiha, Maguy; Samarasinghe, Shanika; Kabaker, Adam S

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid storm, an endocrine emergency first described in 1926, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. No laboratory abnormalities are specific to thyroid storm, and the available scoring system is based on the clinical criteria. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of thyroid storm from uncomplicated hyperthyroidism are not well understood. A heightened response to thyroid hormone is often incriminated along with increased or abrupt availability of free hormones. Patients exhibit exaggerated signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and varying degrees of organ decompensation. Treatment should be initiated promptly targeting all steps of thyroid hormone formation, release, and action. Patients who fail medical therapy should be treated with therapeutic plasma exchange or thyroidectomy. The mortality of thyroid storm is currently reported at 10%. Patients who have survived thyroid storm should receive definite therapy for their underlying hyperthyroidism to avoid any recurrence of this potentially fatal condition.

  16. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  17. UbcH10 overexpression may represent a marker of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Pallante, P; Berlingieri, M T; Troncone, G; Kruhoffer, M; Orntoft, T F; Viglietto, G; Caleo, A; Migliaccio, I; Decaussin-Petrucci, M; Santoro, M; Palombini, L; Fusco, A

    2005-01-01

    The hybridisation of an Affymetrix HG_U95Av2 oligonucleotide array with RNAs extracted from six human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and a normal human thyroid primary cell culture led us to the identification of the UbcH10 gene that was upregulated by 150-fold in all of the carcinoma cell lines in comparison to the primary culture cells of human normal thyroid origin. Immunohistochemical studies performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections showed abundant UbcH10 levels in thyroid anaplastic carcinoma samples, whereas no detectable UbcH10 expression was observed in normal thyroid tissues, in adenomas and goiters. Papillary and follicular carcinomas were only weakly positive. These results were further confirmed by RT–PCR and Western blot analyses. The block of UbcH10 protein synthesis induced by RNA interference significantly reduced the growth rate of thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Taken together, these results would indicate that UbcH10 overexpression is involved in thyroid cell proliferation, and may represent a marker of thyroid anaplastic carcinomas. PMID:16106252

  18. ProNGF is a potential diagnostic biomarker for thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Demont, Yohann; Pundavela, Jay; Choquet, Genevieve; Leissner, Philippe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Walker, Marjorie M.; Hondermarck, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    The precursor for nerve growth factor (proNGF) is expressed in some cancers but its clinicopathological significance is unclear. The present study aimed to define the clinicopathological significance of proNGF in thyroid cancer. ProNGF expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry in two cohorts of cancer versus benign tumors (adenoma) and normal thyroid tissues. In the first cohort (40 thyroid cancers, 40 thyroid adenomas and 80 normal thyroid tissues), proNGF was found overexpressed in cancers compared to adenomas and normal samples (p<0.0001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.93, p<0.0001) for cancers versus adenomas, and 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00, p<0.0001) for cancers versus normal tissues. ProNGF overexpression was confirmed in a second cohort (127 cancers of various histological types and 55 normal thyroid tissues) and using a different antibody (p<0.0001). ProNGF staining intensity was highest in papillary carcinomas compared to other histological types (p<0.0001) and there was no significant association with age, gender, tumor size, stage and lymph node status. In conclusion, proNGF is increased in thyroid cancer and should be considered as a new potential diagnostic biomarker. PMID:27074571

  19. Thyroid status affects number and localization of thyroid hormone receptor expressing mast cells in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Siebler, T; Robson, H; Bromley, M; Stevens, D A; Shalet, S M; Williams, G R

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T(3)) plays a key role in endochondral ossification. The process relies on the coordinated synthesis and degradation of cartilage matrix and is disrupted in juvenile hypothyroidism, leading to abnormal skeletal development. Mast cells synthesize and store matrix-degrading enzymes. We examined whether thyroid status influences skeletal mast cell distribution in growing rats to determine whether they might modulate the actions of T(3) in bone. Tibiae were collected for histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence analysis. Mast cells were increased throughout the bone marrow in hypothyroid rats compared with euthyroid, thyrotoxic, and hypothyroid-thyroxine replaced animals. Large numbers were present in metaphyseal marrow adjacent to the growth plate in hypothyroid animals and cells were distributed evenly throughout the marrow. Very few mast cells were present in metaphyseal marrow in other groups, but their numbers increased with increasing distance from the growth plate. T(3) receptor alpha1 (TRalpha1) was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of skeletal mast cells, whereas TRalpha2 and TRbeta1 were restricted to the cytoplasm. Localization of TRs was not affected by altered thyroid status. Thus, disrupted endochondral ossification in hypothyroidism may be mediated in part by skeletal mast cells, which express TR proteins and may function as T(3) target cells.

  20. Overview of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for managing thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Matti, Bashar; Cohen-Hallaleh, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed numerous publications addressing the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this review is to provide a simplified summary of the newly released guidelines by the American Thyroid Association. A systematic approach has been recommended to evaluate a thyroid nodule through clinical assessment, measurement of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, neck ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration where appropriate. This is followed by cytology analysis using the Bethesda scoring system to detect malignancy. Once diagnosed, thyroid cancers need to be staged and risk stratification needs to be applied to develop further treatment plans. Lastly, several recommendations have been presented to assure proper follow-up and support for thyroid cancer patients regardless of the treatment received. PMID:27607088

  1. Cancer of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 64,300 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.8% Estimated Deaths in 2016 1,980 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 637,115 people living with thyroid cancer in ...

  2. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make thyroid hormone, iodine is an important mineral for a mother during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the baby gets iodine from the mother’s diet. Women need more iodine when they are pregnant—about 250 micrograms a day. In the United States, about 7 percent of pregnant women may not ...

  3. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  4. Tubercular thyroid abscess.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Srivastava, Rohit; Khan, Khursheed Alam

    2013-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented with neck swelling, difficulty in swallowing, voice change along with systemic features such as evening rise of temperature, chronic cough and weight loss. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed two cystic swellings. An ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of tubercular abscess. The patient responded well to antigravity aspiration of the swellings and antitubercular treatment.

  5. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not yet known. Certain changes in a person’s DNA can cause thyroid cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we ...

  6. Remote access thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  7. [Differentiated thyroid cancer -- 2009].

    PubMed

    Konrády, András

    2011-01-30

    Three years ago continental guidelines were published referring management and follow-up of low risk thyroid cancer patients. The aim of this paper is to summarize the changes and new directions in this field. High risk patients require another protocol. Neck ultrasound plays important role in differential diagnosis and in detecting recurrences. Some new ultrasound techniques are discussed, too. FDG-PET can help to solve the problem of patients having negative scan and increased thyroglobulin level. In recent years there was an expansion of our knowledge about the pathomechanism of thyroid cancer. It appears that genetic alterations frequently play a key role in carcinogenesis. There are molecular methods that allow the detection of these genetic events in thyroid fine needle aspirations samples providing important information for diagnosis, management and prognosis. Instead of diagnostic whole body scanning the posttherapeutic scan became preferable but in high risk cases the diagnostic whole body scintigrams serve useful data. Primary therapy of thyroid cancer is an adequate surgery: total thyreoidectomy and, if necessary, lymph node dissection or limited surgery in selected cases. Nowadays radioguided surgery can help to improve the results. Radioiodine therapy (e.g. rest ablation) proved to be a safe and effective method to complete surgery. It can prevent relapses and results in longer survival. Thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human thyrotropin stimulation can increase thyrotropin level before radioiodine treatment. These two methods have similar success rate of rest ablation but irradiation burden of blood is lower in the case of exogenous stimulation which avoids hypothyroid state and preserves quality of life. Since tumor cells fail to maintain the ability to perform physiological functions they undergo dedifferentiation. Therefore, an important aim is to reactivate some function of differentiated cells, e.g. iodine uptake, production of

  8. Fuzzy and hard clustering analysis for thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Azar, Ahmad Taher; El-Said, Shaimaa Ahmed; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland help regulation of the body's metabolism. A variety of methods have been proposed in the literature for thyroid disease classification. As far as we know, clustering techniques have not been used in thyroid diseases data set so far. This paper proposes a comparison between hard and fuzzy clustering algorithms for thyroid diseases data set in order to find the optimal number of clusters. Different scalar validity measures are used in comparing the performances of the proposed clustering systems. To demonstrate the performance of each algorithm, the feature values that represent thyroid disease are used as input for the system. Several runs are carried out and recorded with a different number of clusters being specified for each run (between 2 and 11), so as to establish the optimum number of clusters. To find the optimal number of clusters, the so-called elbow criterion is applied. The experimental results revealed that for all algorithms, the elbow was located at c=3. The clustering results for all algorithms are then visualized by the Sammon mapping method to find a low-dimensional (normally 2D or 3D) representation of a set of points distributed in a high dimensional pattern space. At the end of this study, some recommendations are formulated to improve determining the actual number of clusters present in the data set. PMID:23357404

  9. Thyroid dysfunction following a kelp-containing marketed diet

    PubMed Central

    Di Matola, Tiziana; Zeppa, Pio; Gasperi, Maurizio; Vitale, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Complementary medications and herbal medicine for weight loss have become very popular. We report a case of thyroid dysfunction following the ingestion of a kelp-containing marketed diet in a 45-year-old woman with no previous thyroid disease. Signs of hyperthyroidism occurred shortly after a kelp-containing diet. Hyperthyroidism lasted 2 months and was followed by an overt hypothyroidism. The thyroid scintiscan exhibited an extremely low uptake and colour-Doppler ultrasonography revealed multiple small areas of pulsatile flow. After 3 months of levothyroxine substitutive therapy, normal thyroid function was recovered after levothyroxine discontinuation. This clinical history is compatible with a case of iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis followed by prolonged block of the sodium–iodide symporter activity as a consequence of excessive iodine consumption from kelp. Consumers of marketed diets containing kelp or other iodine-rich ingredients should be advised of the risk to develop a thyroid dysfunction also in the absence of underlying thyroid disease. PMID:25355748

  10. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Jason D; Lee, Monica D; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  11. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  12. Chemical contamination and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H

    2015-02-01

    Industrial chemical contaminants have a variable impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, this depending both on their class and on confounding factors. Today, mounting evidence is pointing to the role of environmental factors, and specifically EDCs, in the current distressing upsurge in the incidence of thyroid disease. The unease is warranted. These substances, which are nowadays rife in our environments (including in foodstuffs), have been shown to interfere with thyroid hormone action, biosynthesis, and metabolism, resulting in disruption of tissue homeostasis and/or thyroid function. Importantly, based on the concept of the "nonmonotonic dose-response curve", the relationship between dose and effect has often been found to be nonlinear. Thus, small doses can induce unpredictable, adverse effects, one case being polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), of which congener(s) may centrally inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, or dissociate thyroid receptor and selectively affect thyroid hormone signaling and action. This means that PCBs can act as agonists or antagonists at the receptor level, underlining the complexity of the interaction. This review highlights the multifold activity of chemicals demonstrated to cause thyroid disruption. It also represents a call to action among clinicians to undertake systematic monitoring of thyroid function and registering of the classes of EDs and additionally urges broader scientific collaborations to clarify these chemicals' molecular mechanisms of action, substances whose prevalence in our environments is disrupting not only the thyroid but all life on earth. PMID:25294013

  13. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders.

  14. Etiopathogenesis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Makazlieva, Tanja; Vaskova, Olivija; Majstorov, Venjamin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroid malignomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm consisting of most frequent differentiated encountered carcinomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, then medullary thyroid carcinoma originating from neuroendocrine calcitonin-producing C-cells and rare forms of thyroid lymphomas arising from intrathyroidal lymphatic tissue, thyroid sarcomas and poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. There are increasing numbers of epidemiological studies and publications that have suggested increased incidence rate of thyroid carcinomas. We have read, analysed and compare available reviews and original articles investigating different etiological factors in the development of thyroid carcinomas through Google Scholar and PubMed Database. DISCUSSION: Aetiology involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas is multifactorial and includes external influences, as well as constitutional predispositions and genetic etiological factors. The actual effect of environmental and constitutional factors is on promoting genetic and epigenetic alterations which result in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Until now are identified numerous genetic alterations, assumed to have an important role in oncogenesis, with MAPK and PI3K-AKT as crucial signalling networks regulating growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This new molecular insight could have a crucial impact on diagnosis and also on improving and selecting an appropriate treatment to the patients with thyroid malignancies. PMID:27703585

  15. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long

  16. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, S. Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K.; Hertel, N.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.

    2015-04-15

    specific activities of {sup 131}I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for {sup 131}I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ∼27% of administered {sup 131}I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ∼4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ∼3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with {sup 131}I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered {sup 131}I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. The method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  17. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Hertel, N.; Leggett, R.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.; Eckerman, K.

    2015-03-25

    specific activities of 131I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ~27% of administered 131I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ~4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ~3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. Finally, the method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.« less

  18. Computational Modeling of Thyroid Hormone Regulated Neurodevelopment for Chemical Prioritization (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for normal brain development. Environmental chemicals may disrupt TH homeostasis through a variety of physiological systems including membrane transporters, serum transporters, synthesis and catabolic enzymes, and nuclear receptors. Current comp...

  19. Thyroid disrupting chemicals in plastic additives and thyroid health.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2012-01-01

    The globally escalating thyroid nodule incidence rates may be only partially ascribed to better diagnostics, allowing for the assessment of environmental risk factors on thyroid disease. Endocrine disruptors or thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDC) like bisphenol A, phthalates, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers are widely used as plastic additives in consumer products. This comprehensive review studied the magnitude and uncertainty of TDC exposures and their effects on thyroid hormones for sensitive subpopulation groups like pregnant women, infants, and children. Our findings qualitatively suggest the mixed, significant (α = 0.05) TDC associations with natural thyroid hormones (positive or negative sign). Future studies should undertake systematic meta-analyses to elucidate pooled TDC effect estimates on thyroid health indicators and outcomes. PMID:22690712

  20. Role of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor signaling in development and differentiation of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Postiglione, M P; Parlato, R; Rodriguez-Mallon, A; Rosica, A; Mithbaokar, P; Maresca, M; Marians, R C; Davies, T F; Zannini, M S; De Felice, M; Di Lauro, R

    2002-11-26

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone/thyrotropin (TSH) is the most relevant hormone in the control of thyroid gland physiology in adulthood. TSH effects on the thyroid gland are mediated by the interaction with a specific TSH receptor (TSHR). We studied the role of TSHTSHR signaling on gland morphogenesis and differentiation in the mouse embryo using mouse lines deprived either of TSH (pit(dw)pit(dw)) or of a functional TSHR (tshr(hyt)tshr(hyt) and TSHR-knockout lines). The results reported here show that in the absence of either TSH or a functional TSHR, the thyroid gland develops to a normal size, whereas the expression of thyroperoxidase and the sodium/iodide symporter are reduced greatly. Conversely, no relevant changes are detected in the amounts of thyroglobulin and the thyroid-enriched transcription factors TTF-1, TTF-2, and Pax8. These data suggest that the major role of the TSH/TSHR pathway is in controlling genes involved in iodide metabolism such as sodium/iodide symporter and thyroperoxidase. Furthermore, our data indicate that in embryonic life TSH does not play an equivalent role in controlling gland growth as in the adult thyroid.

  1. Analysis of adjacent segment reoperation after lumbar total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Scott; Blumenthal, Scott L.; Zigler, Jack E.; Guyer, Richard D.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusion has long been used for treating chronic back pain unresponsive to nonoperative care. However, potential development of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation is a concern. Total disc replacement (TDR) has been proposed as a method for addressing back pain and preventing or reducing adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of the study was to determine the reoperation rate at the segment adjacent to a level implanted with a lumbar TDR and to analyze the pre-TDR condition of the adjacent segment. Methods This study was based on a retrospective review of charts and radiographs from a consecutive series of 1000 TDR patients to identify those who underwent reoperation because of adjacent segment degeneration. Some of the patients were part of randomized studies comparing TDR with fusion. Adjacent segment reoperation data were also collected from 67 patients who were randomized to fusion in those studies. The condition of the adjacent segment before the index surgery was compared with its condition before reoperation based on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography. Results Of the 1000 TDR patients, 20 (2.0%) underwent reoperation. The mean length of time from arthroplasty to reoperation was 28.3 months (range, 0.5–85 months). Of the adjacent segments evaluated on preoperative MRI, 38.8% were normal, 38.8% were moderately diseased, and 22.2% were classified as having severe degeneration. None of these levels had a different grading at the time of reoperation compared with the pre-TDR MRI study. Reoperation for adjacent segment degeneration was performed in 4.5% of the fusion patients. Conclusions The 2.0% rate of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation in this study is similar to the 2.0% to 2.8% range in other studies and lower than the published rates of 7% to 18% after lumbar fusion. By carefully assessing the presence of pre-existing degenerative changes before performing arthroplasty

  2. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  4. The Effect of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone on Tumor Size in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ozemir, I A; Gurbuz, B; Bayraktar, B; Aslan, S; Başkent, A; Yalman, H; Yigitbasi, R; Alimoglu, O

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the correlation between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and tumor size and other invasiveness parameters of tumor in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Several clinical studies have reported that TSH may also have a role as a regulator of the development and function of the thyroid gland. It is currently not clear whether TSH is involved in the existence of thyroid cancer or progression of thyroid cancer or both. Patients with DTC who underwent thyroid surgery between 2003 and 2008 were included this study. Preoperative serum T3, T4, and TSH levels were compared with the size and invasiveness of cancer, retrospectively. DTC was observed in 110 patients over the 5-year period. Seventy-seven (70 %) of them were euthyroid and classified as the "normal-TSH group" (NTG), and 33 (30 %) have an overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism, classified as the "low-TSH group" (LTG). The mean tumor diameter in the LTG was found to be 8.91 ± 8.03 mm; however, it was found to be 18.19 ± 16.24 mm in the NTG. There were significantly differences among the groups related to the diameter of tumor (p = 0.001). Microcarcinoma was determined in 36 patients (46.8 %) in the NTG and 23 patients (69.7 %) in the LTG (p = 0.027). Although there were no significant differences, tumor capsule invasion (33.8 vs. 18.2 %, p = 0.099) and lymphovascular invasion (16.9 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.130) rates were higher in the NTG. These findings suggest that TSH has effects on growing and proliferation of not only normal thyroid cells but also cancer cells in DTC. This study revealed that serum TSH level can be explored as an important factor that affects the size and invasiveness of tumor in DTC.

  5. The Effect of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone on Tumor Size in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ozemir, I A; Gurbuz, B; Bayraktar, B; Aslan, S; Başkent, A; Yalman, H; Yigitbasi, R; Alimoglu, O

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the correlation between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and tumor size and other invasiveness parameters of tumor in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Several clinical studies have reported that TSH may also have a role as a regulator of the development and function of the thyroid gland. It is currently not clear whether TSH is involved in the existence of thyroid cancer or progression of thyroid cancer or both. Patients with DTC who underwent thyroid surgery between 2003 and 2008 were included this study. Preoperative serum T3, T4, and TSH levels were compared with the size and invasiveness of cancer, retrospectively. DTC was observed in 110 patients over the 5-year period. Seventy-seven (70 %) of them were euthyroid and classified as the "normal-TSH group" (NTG), and 33 (30 %) have an overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism, classified as the "low-TSH group" (LTG). The mean tumor diameter in the LTG was found to be 8.91 ± 8.03 mm; however, it was found to be 18.19 ± 16.24 mm in the NTG. There were significantly differences among the groups related to the diameter of tumor (p = 0.001). Microcarcinoma was determined in 36 patients (46.8 %) in the NTG and 23 patients (69.7 %) in the LTG (p = 0.027). Although there were no significant differences, tumor capsule invasion (33.8 vs. 18.2 %, p = 0.099) and lymphovascular invasion (16.9 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.130) rates were higher in the NTG. These findings suggest that TSH has effects on growing and proliferation of not only normal thyroid cells but also cancer cells in DTC. This study revealed that serum TSH level can be explored as an important factor that affects the size and invasiveness of tumor in DTC. PMID:27011492

  6. Iodotyrosine deiodinase, a novel target of environmental halogenated chemicals for disruption of the thyroid hormone system in mammals.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals have been identified as environmental contaminants with activity to disrupt normal function of the thyroid hormone system. Thyroid hormones play important roles in growth, development, differentiation, and basal metabolic homeostasis, as well as in brain development in human fetus and children, and thyroid dysfunction can have very serious consequences, including mental retardation. Environmental chemicals may affect thyroid hormone action in multiple ways, including reduced thyroid hormone synthesis owing to direct toxicity at the thyroid gland, interaction with thyroid hormone receptors and transporters such as transthyretin, and disturbance of thyroid hormone metabolism (e.g., glucuronidation, sulfation and deiodination). In addition, iodotyrosine deiodinase, which is involved in iodide salvage by catalyzing deiodination of iodinated by-products of thyroid hormone production, was recently identified as a possible new target for disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis by environmental halogenated chemicals. This topic, after briefly summarizing findings on the thyroid hormone-disrupting action of environmental chemicals in mammals, focuses on the effects of environmental halogenated chemicals on iodotyrosine deiodinase activity. PMID:25177024

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a myoepithelioma presenting as a thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Narick, Christina; Velosa, Claudia; Pollice, Philip; Silverman, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Myoepitheliomas are rare neoplasms that are typically found in the major and minor salivary glands and represent approximately 1.5% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We present a patient with an exophytic anterior midline neck mass, which was initially believed to be a thyroid isthmus nodule that underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. FNA cytologic evaluation reveals numerous plump spindle cells and a myxoid background, thus raising the possibility of rare benign mixed tumor of the thyroid. However, the resected specimen consists of predominately spindle cells with a minor component of chondromyxoid matrix, and no ductal epithelial cells, favoring a diagnosis of myoepithelioma. Although this lesion clinically and radiologically appeared to arise from the thyroid gland, at the time of resection, it was found to be adjacent to the thyroid isthmus and was ultimately diagnosed as a soft tissue myoepithelioma of the midneck.

  8. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Marwaha, Raman K.; Garg, M. K.; Tandon, Nikhil; Kanwar, Ratnesh; Narang, Aparna; Sastry, Archna; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD) in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods: A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results: BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine) were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OH)D and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects. PMID:22837919

  9. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  10. Oncocytic tumours of the salivary gland, kidney, and thyroid: nuclear DNA patterns studied by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, L M; Farrow, G M; Hay, I D; Lieber, M M

    1986-06-01

    Nuclear DNA ploidy studies were performed by flow cytometry on extracted nuclei from 12 oncocytic tumours of the salivary gland, 65 oncocytic tumours of the kidney, and 37 oncocytic tumours of the thyroid gland from the pathology archives of the Mayo Clinic. In order to provide an interesting clinical spectrum, three different classes of well-differentiated oncocytic tumours were selected for examination. Salivary gland oncocytic tumours were chosen for their generally benign behaviour. Oncocytic thyroid cancers exhibiting malignant potential because of local invasion, were thought to represent the opposite extreme of aggressiveness. Renal oncocytic tumours were known to demonstrate an intermediate degree of malignancy. All of the oncocytic salivary gland tumours showed a 'normal' DNA histogram and had a benign clinical course. For the oncocytic tumours of the kidney, 45% of DNA histograms were normal, 40% exhibited a significant increase in the DNA tetraploid/polyploid (4C) peak, and 15% showed a DNA aneuploid peak. Three patients with a DNA tetraploid pattern developed tumour metastasis and two have died from metastatic renal cancer. Among the oncocytic thyroid cancers, 27% were normal, 22% exhibited an increased DNA tetraploid peak, and 51% had a distinct DNA aneuploid peak. None of the thyroid tumour patients with a normal DNA pattern or with an increased DNA tetraploid peak died as a result of thyroid malignancy. In contrast, 58% of patients whose thyroid tumours showed a DNA aneuploid peak subsequently died from thyroid cancer.

  11. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  12. Gender-specific regulation of response to thyroid hormone in aging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for the assessment of thyroid hormone action is TSH level. Although age and gender are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and gender-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. Methods We analyzed the results of 3564 thyroid function tests obtained from patients who received medication at both out- and inpatient clinics of Shinshu University Hospital. Subjects were from among those with thyroid function test results in the normal or mildly abnormal range. Based on a log-linear relationship between the concentrations of FHs and TSH, we established the putative resistance index to assess the relation between serum FH and TSH levels. Results Free thyroid hormone and TSH concentration showed an inverse log-linear relation. In males, there was a negative relationship between the free T3 resistance index and age. In females, although there were no relationships between age and FHs, the indices were positively related to age. Conclusions These findings indicated that there is a gender-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Although the TSH level is a useful marker for the assessment of peripheral thyroid hormone action, the values should be interpreted carefully, especially with regard to age- and gender-related differences. PMID:22280879

  13. Evaluation of a thyroid nodule

    PubMed Central

    Bomeli, Steven R.; LeBeau, Shane O.; Ferris, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid specialist frequently evaluates thyroid nodules because they may represent malignancy. Nodules are typically found on physical exam or incidentally when other imaging studies are performed. Malignant or symptomatic nodules that compress nearby structures warrant surgical excision. Yet, the majority of thyroid nodules are asymptomatic and benign, so the thyroid surgeon must rely on diagnostic studies to determine when surgery is indicated. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for thyroid nodules, and the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the preferred method of tissue sampling. Nodules one centimeter or larger, or nodules with suspicious sonographic appearance warrant cytologic analysis to better quantify the risk of malignancy. Molecular biomarkers are a powerful adjunct to cytology, as detecting malignancy pre-operatively allows total thyroidectomy in a single operation without the need for frozen section or a second operation for completion thyroidectomy if malignancy is found during the initial thyroid lobectomy. PMID:20510711

  14. Pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Olympia; Moran, Carla; Halsall, David; Chatterjee, Krishna; Gurnell, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are amongst the most commonly requested laboratory investigations in both primary and secondary care. Fortunately, most TFTs are straightforward to interpret and confirm the clinical impression of euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. However, in an important subgroup of patients the results of TFTs can seem confusing, either by virtue of being discordant with the clinical picture or because they appear incongruent with each other [e.g. raised thyroid hormones (TH), but with non-suppressed thyrotropin (TSH); raised TSH, but with normal TH]. In such cases, it is important first to revisit the clinical context, and to consider potential confounding factors, including alterations in normal physiology (e.g. pregnancy), intercurrent (non-thyroidal) illness, and medication usage (e.g. thyroxine, amiodarone, heparin). Once these have been excluded, laboratory artefacts in commonly used TSH or TH immunoassays should be screened for, thus avoiding unnecessary further investigation and/or treatment in cases where there is assay interference. In the remainder, consideration should be given to screening for rare genetic and acquired disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis [e.g. resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), thyrotropinoma (TSHoma)]. Here, we discuss the main pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of TFTs, and propose a structured algorithm for the investigation and management of patients with anomalous/discordant TFTs. PMID:24275187

  15. AZD6244 in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  16. A case report of hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid cancer and rare I-131 avid liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kunawudhi, Anchisa; Promteangtrong, Chetsadaporn; Chotipanich, Chanisa

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is usually, relatively hypofunctional; most patients with thyroid cancer are clinically euthyroid. The combination of thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis is not common. We herein, report a case of follicular thyroid cancer with hyperfunctioning metastasis in a 43-year-old woman who presented with thyrotoxicosis, a cold right thyroid nodule, and low I-131 uptake at the thyroid bed. An additional total body scan with I-131 revealed a large radioiodine avid osteolytic bone metastasis with soft tissue masses and liver metastasis. The patient received treatment with total thyroidectomy, methimazole, and I-131 at a cumulative dose of 600 mCi along with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before the first I-131 treatment and palliative radiation. The patient had normal liver function test and experienced a mild degree of bone marrow suppression after I-131. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was still alive with the progression of bone metastases but was doing well with less severe thyrotoxicosis, good ambulation, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Clinicians should be aware of the unusual concurrent presentation of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer, a differential diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis and low or normal radioiodine uptake over the neck and also potential pitfalls during radionuclide treatment. PMID:27385894

  17. A case report of hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid cancer and rare I-131 avid liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kunawudhi, Anchisa; Promteangtrong, Chetsadaporn; Chotipanich, Chanisa

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is usually, relatively hypofunctional; most patients with thyroid cancer are clinically euthyroid. The combination of thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis is not common. We herein, report a case of follicular thyroid cancer with hyperfunctioning metastasis in a 43-year-old woman who presented with thyrotoxicosis, a cold right thyroid nodule, and low I-131 uptake at the thyroid bed. An additional total body scan with I-131 revealed a large radioiodine avid osteolytic bone metastasis with soft tissue masses and liver metastasis. The patient received treatment with total thyroidectomy, methimazole, and I-131 at a cumulative dose of 600 mCi along with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before the first I-131 treatment and palliative radiation. The patient had normal liver function test and experienced a mild degree of bone marrow suppression after I-131. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was still alive with the progression of bone metastases but was doing well with less severe thyrotoxicosis, good ambulation, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Clinicians should be aware of the unusual concurrent presentation of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer, a differential diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis and low or normal radioiodine uptake over the neck and also potential pitfalls during radionuclide treatment. PMID:27385894

  18. An Experimental Comparison of Two Different Technetium Source Activities Which Can Imitate Thyroid Scintigraphy in Case of Thyroid Toxic Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Miftari, Ramë; Fejza, Ferki; Bicaj, Xhavit; Nura, Adem; Topciu, Valdete; Bajrami, Ismet

    2014-01-01

    displayed as only one source with complete suppression of other source with low radioactivity. Also we found that covering of toxic nodules with lead cover (plaque), can allow visualization of activity in suppressed lobe. Conclusion: Our study concluded that total lobe suppression, in cases of patients with thyroid toxic nodule, will happened for sure, if toxic nodule had accumulated seventy times more radioactivity than normal lobe. Also we concluded that covering of the toxic nodule with lead plaque, may permit the presentation of radioactivity in suppressed nodule. PMID:24825932

  19. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment. PMID:19138419

  20. Thyroid peroxidase and the induction of autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, S M; Atherton, M C; Nakajima, Y; Napier, J; Jordan, R K; Clark, F; Rees Smith, B

    1990-01-01

    Animal models of autoimmune thyroid disease are associated with thyroglobulin (Tg) as autoantigen whereas in man the autoimmune response to microsomal antigen/thyroid peroxidase (TPO) appears to play a major role in thyroiditis. Consequently, we have compared the ability of TPO and Tg to induce thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid damage in mice known to be susceptible (CBA/J) or resistant (BALB/c) to thyroiditis induced using murine Tg. Groups of three to five mice were immunized twice using Freund's complete adjuvant with 80-100 micrograms highly purified porcine (p) TPO, pTg, rat (r) Tg, human Tg, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA + 0.2 micrograms pTg (the level of Tg contamination of TPO). Four weeks after immunization with TPO, plasma from CBA/J (but not BALB/c) mice contained IgG class antibodies which bound to TPO-coated tubes in the presence or absence of excess Tg (and could therefore be clearly distinguished from Tg antibodies) but there was no evidence of thyroiditis in either strain of mice. In contrast, in CBA/J mice immunized with rTg and, to a lesser extent in mice that had received pTg, thyroid tissue was infiltrated with lymphoid cells and/or neutrophils and antibodies to pTg (but not pTPO) were present. Our observations demonstrate that induction of TPO antibody alone is insufficient to lead to thyroiditis in CBA/J mice. Further, these studies emphasize the complex interactions between MHC and different thyroid antigens in the processes leading to thyroid destruction. PMID:2311297

  1. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and 99mTcO4 - thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  2. Effect of metformin on thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid volume in patients with prediabetes: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Karimifar, Mozhgan; Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Amini, Masoud; Mirfendereski, Taghi; Iraj, Bijan; Feizi, Awat; Norozi, Atsa

    2014-01-01

    Background: The people with prediabetes have insulin resistance (IR). IR may affect thyroid function, size and nodules. We investigated the effects of metformin on the thyroid gland in prediabetic people. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind placebo-control clinical trial, 89 people with prediabetes, aged 18-65 years were studied for 3 months. They were divided into two, metformin (n = 43) and placebo (n = 46) treated groups. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured and thyroid nodules and volume was studied by ultrasonography. The data were compared between and within groups, before and after the study. Results: Mean of the baseline characteristics in metformin and placebo-treated groups had no statistically significant difference. At the end of the study, serum TSH was not significantly different between the two groups. However, if the TSH range was divided into two low normal (0.3-2.5 μU/ml) and high-normal (2.6-5.5 μU/ml) ranges, significant decrease was observed in metformin-treated group with a high-normal basal serum TSH (P = 0.01). Thyroid volume did not change in metformin-treated group. However, in placebo-treated group, the thyroid was enlarged (P = 0.03). In 53.9% of participants, thyroid nodule was observed. There was just a decrease in the volume of small solid (not mixed) nodules from median of 0.07 ml to 0.04 ml in metformin-treated group (P = 0.01). Conclusion: In prediabetic people, metformin decreases serum TSH, only, in those people with TSH >2.5 μU/ml and reduces the size of small solid thyroid nodules. It also prevents an increase in the thyroid volume. PMID:25657744

  3. Vitamin D receptor expression is linked to potential markers of human thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Izkhakov, Elena; Somjen, Dalia; Sharon, Orli; Knoll, Esther; Aizic, Asaf; Fliss, Dan M; Limor, Rona; Stern, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Genes regulated cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been screened as potential markers of malignant thyroid nodules. The mRNA expression levels of two of them, the ECM protein-1 (ECM1) and the type II transmembrane serine protease-4 (TMPRSS4), were shown to be an independent predictor of an existing thyroid carcinoma. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in epithelial cells of the normal thyroid gland, as well as in malignant dividing cells, which respond to the active metabolite of vitamin D by decreased proliferative activity in vitro. We evaluated the relationship between mRNA gene expressions of TMPRSS4, ECM1 and VDR in 21 papillary thyroid carcinoma samples and compared it to 21 normal thyroid tissues from the same patients. Gene expression was considered as up- or down-regulated if it varied by more or less than 2-fold in the cancer tissue relative to the normal thyroid tissue (Ca/N) from the same patient. We found an overall significant adjusted correlation between the mRNA expression ratio (ExR) of VDR and that of ECM1 in Ca/N thyroid tissue (R=0.648, P<0.001). There was a high ExR of VDR between Ca/N thyroid tissue from the same patient (3.06±2.9), which also exhibited a high Ca/N ExR of ECM1 and/or of TMPRSS4 (>2, P=0.05).The finding that increased VDR expression in human thyroid cancer cells is often linked to increased ECM1 and/or TPMRSS4 expression warrants further investigation into the potential role of vitamin D analogs in thyroid carcinoma.

  4. Prognosis of Thyroid Nodules in Individuals Living in the Zhitomir Region of Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Naomi; Sekitani, Yui; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kozlovsky, Alexander A.; Gutevych, Oleksandr K.; Saiko, Aleksey S.; Nirova, Nina V.; Petrova, Anjela A.; Rafalskiy, Ruslan M.; Chorny, Sergey A.; Daniliuk, Valery V.; Anami, Masanobu; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Objective After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine. Patients and Methods Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group) and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group) intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Results Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy), was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine. PMID:23209797

  5. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Metastatic, or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-15

    Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  6. THE THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORTER, MCT8, SELECTIVELY RESPONDS TO THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY IN THE DEVELOPMENT RAT BRAIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development. Therefore, it is not surprising that a variety of adaptive mechanisms are activated in response to TH insufficiency. However, not all brain regions respond in the same fashion to TH insufficiency. This observation...

  7. Selenium and its relationship with selenoprotein P and glutathione peroxidase in children and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh; Chahardoli, Behnam; Malekpour-Dehkordi, Zahra; Nourbakhsh, Mona; Hosseini-Fard, Seyed Reza; Doustimotlagh, Amirhossein; Golestani, Abolfazl; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam

    2016-03-01

    The essential trace element selenium (Se) is required for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins contain selenocysteine and are responsible for biological functions of selenium. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is one of the major selenoproteins which protects the thyroid cells from oxidative damage. Selenoprotein P (SePP) is considered as the plasma selenium transporter to tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum Se and SePP levels, and GPx activity in erythrocytes of children and adolescents with treated Hashimoto's thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, and normal subjects. Blood samples were collected from 32 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 20 with hypothyroidism, and 25 matched normal subjects. All the patients were under treatment with levothyroxine and at the time of analysis all of the thyroid function tests were normal. GPx enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometry at 340 nm. Serum selenium levels were measured by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption. SePP, TPOAb (anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody), and TgAb (anti-thyroglobulin antibody) were determined by ELISA kits. T4, T3, T3 uptake and TSH were also measured. Neither GPx activity nor SePP levels were significantly different in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism compared to normal subjects. Although GPx and SePP were both lower in patients with hypothyroidism compared to those with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and normal subjects but the difference was not significant. Serum Se levels also did not differ significantly in patients and normal subjects. We did not find any correlation between GPx or SePP with TPOAb or TgAb but SePP was significantly correlated with Se. Results show that in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism who have been under treatment with levothyroxine and have normal thyroid function tests, the GPx, SePP and Se levels are not significantly different. PMID:26854239

  8. Automated segmentation of thyroid gland on CT images with multi-atlas label fusion and random classification forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Chang, Kevin; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Lu, Le; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    The thyroid gland plays an important role in clinical practice, especially for radiation therapy treatment planning. For patients with head and neck cancer, radiation therapy requires a precise delineation of the thyroid gland to be spared on the pre-treatment planning CT images to avoid thyroid dysfunction. In the current clinical workflow, the thyroid gland is normally manually delineated by radiologists or radiation oncologists, which is time consuming and error prone. Therefore, a system for automated segmentation of the thyroid is desirable. However, automated segmentation of the thyroid is challenging because the thyroid is inhomogeneous and surrounded by structures that have similar intensities. In this work, the thyroid gland segmentation is initially estimated by multi-atlas label fusion algorithm. The segmentation is refined by supervised statistical learning based voxel labeling with a random forest algorithm. Multiatlas label fusion (MALF) transfers expert-labeled thyroids from atlases to a target image using deformable registration. Errors produced by label transfer are reduced by label fusion that combines the results produced by all atlases into a consensus solution. Then, random forest (RF) employs an ensemble of decision trees that are trained on labeled thyroids to recognize features. The trained forest classifier is then applied to the thyroid estimated from the MALF by voxel scanning to assign the class-conditional probability. Voxels from the expert-labeled thyroids in CT volumes are treated as positive classes; background non-thyroid voxels as negatives. We applied this automated thyroid segmentation system to CT scans of 20 patients. The results showed that the MALF achieved an overall 0.75 Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the RF classification further improved the DSC to 0.81.

  9. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  10. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccarelli, C.; Pacini, F.; Lippi, F.; Elisei, R.; Arganini, M.; Miccoli, P.; Pinchera, A.

    1988-12-01

    We report on 49 patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis, of 776 patients with thyroid cancer, seen in our institution in the last 17 years. Female/male ratio was 2.2:1. Histologic type was papillary in 44, follicular in 4, and medullary in 1. Initial treatment was near-total thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection. Surgical complications (vocal cord palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, or both) were found in 25 patients and were usually associated with more advanced primary tumors. At surgery, node metastases were present in 73% of the patients and lung metastases, detected by chest x ray films, in 6%. Patients were treated with thyroid suppressive therapy and, except the one with medullary cancer, with radioiodine (131I) therapy. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 +/- 4.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years), one patient with lung metastases died of respiratory failure. Of 36 patients who have been followed up more than 4 years, 22 (61.1%) are now cured, and 14 have metastases (to lymph nodes, 2; to nodes and lung, 10; and to lung, 2). Since 1977 serum thyroglobulin (Tg) was used routinely as a tumor marker for differentiated thyroid cancer. After operation, Tg was elevated in all patients both not receiving (mean +/- SE, 902 +/- 380 ng/ml) and receiving (44 +/- 15 ng/ml) suppressive therapy; after 131I treatment, serum Tg dropped to 104 +/- 50 and 7.3 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, without and with suppressive therapy, respectively. Of 11 patients with lung metastases treated with 131I, respiratory function, as assessed by means of spirometry, was normal in three, mildly reduced in six, and severely impaired in two (including the one who died). In conclusion, our study indicates that thyroid cancer in young patients is rather advanced at initial examination and usually associated with node and, less frequently, lung metastases.

  11. Development of a Novel Thyroid Function Fluctuated Animal Model for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yunhai; Wang, Yilong; Ding, Luna; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Background The establishment of a suitable and stable animal model is critical for research on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In clinical practice, we found that patients treated with I-131 often exhibit TAO; therefore, we aimed to establish a novel thyroid function fluctuated animal model of TAO by simulating the clinical treatment process. Methods We treated SD rats with I-131 to damage the thyroid and then used sodium levothyroxine (L-T4) to supplement the thyroid hormone (TH) levels every seven days, leading to a fluctuating level of thyroid hormones that simulated the status of clinical TAO patients. Rats administered normal saline were considered as a control. The weight, intraocular pressure, and serum T3, T4, TSH and TRAb levels of the rats were measured, and the pathological changes were analyzed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results The experimental rats (TAO group) exhibited significantly reduced weight and elevated intraocular pressure compared with the control rats. Meanwhile, the serum levels of T3 and T4 were up-regulated in the TAO group, but the TSH level decreased during the 10-week study. Moreover, increased numbers of blood vessels and inflammatory cell infiltrations were observed in the orbital tissues of the TAO rats, while no abnormal changes occurred in the control rats. The orbital myofibrils in the TAO rats appeared fractured and dissolved, with twisted structures. Mitochondrial swelling and vacuoles within the endoplasmic reticulum, swelling nerve fibers, shedding nerve myelin, and macrophages were found in the TAO group. Conclusion Rats treated with I-131 and sodium levothyroxine exhibited characteristics similar to those of TAO patients in the clinic, providing an effective and simple method for the establishment of a stable animal model for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of TAO. PMID:26872324

  12. Radioactive iodine treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma with clinical thyrotoxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Blum, C.; Benua, R.S.; Fawwaz, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    We present a case of well-differentiated follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperfunctioning metastases and clinical thyrotoxicosis. The recommended I-131 treatment dose for patients with widespread bone metastases from thyroid carcinoma is 200 mCi. However, in a patient with hyperfunctioning metastatic tumor and increased radioiodine uptake, the treatment dose should be modified. Radiation dosimetry measurements performed on the patient in this study demonstrated that 132 mCi would be a safe therapeutic I-131 dose which would avoid injury to normal radiosensitive tissues. Consequently, she was given a 130-mCi therapeutic dose.

  13. Pregnancy, postpartum autoimmune thyroiditis, and autoimmune hypophysitis: intimate relationships

    PubMed Central

    Landek-Salgado, Melissa A.; Gutenberg, Angelika; Lupi, Isabella; Kimura, Hiroaki; Mariotti, Stefano; Rose, Noel R.; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases comprise a group of about 85 heterogeneous conditions that can affect virtually any organ and tissue in the body. Many autoimmune diseases change significantly during pregnancy: some ameliorate, some worsen, and others are unaffected. Two autoimmune diseases present prominently in relation to pregnancy: postpartum autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune hypophysitis. This article will review the current state of knowledge of the immunological changes that occur during normal pregnancy, and will explore the striking temporal association with pregnancy observed in thyroiditis and hypophysitis. PMID:19539059

  14. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Malignant Tumor with Increased Antioxidant Defense Capacity.

    PubMed

    Rovcanin, Branislav R; Gopcevic, Kristina R; Kekic, Dusan Lj; Zivaljevic, Vladan R; Diklic, Aleksandar Dj; Paunovic, Ivan R

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the commonest thyroid malignancy worldwide for which the radiation exposure is the most influential risk factor. The levels of oxidative stress in PTC are not well characterized on the tissue level. The objective of this study was to evaluate total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in PTC and benign goiter (BG) tissues and to examine their association with clinicopathological characteristics. Tumor and normal thyroid tissue samples were collected from 59 PTC patients, and goiter tissues were collected from 50 BG patients. TOS and TAS were quantified in the tissue homogenates by spectrophotometric assays. TOS values in tumor tissues did not differ significantly from normal and goiter tissues; however, PTC tissues have significantly higher TAS values than normal and goiter tissues. TOS values correlated with retrosternal growth in BG patients. The significant correlations were found between TOS and TAS values and thyroid function parameters. In 17 PTC patients with multiple tumor foci (multicentric phenotype), TAS values were significantly lower, compared to 42 patients with unicentric PTC. TAS and TOS are the most useful predictors of thyroid capsular invasion by PTC. The age, sex, body mass index, smoking, familial history of thyroid disease and nodule size did not influence TOS and TAS in PTC or BG patients. In conclusion, we show the profiles of TOS and TAS in PTC and BG tissues. Importantly, PTC tissues possess increased antioxidant capacity. The redox status influences the parameters of the thyroid function and tumor's biological behavior. PMID:27615359

  15. Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma). Imaging is performed using an integrated OCT and OCM system, with <4 μm axial resolution (OCT and OCM), and 14 μm (OCT) and <2 μm (OCM) transverse resolution. The system allows seamless switching between low and high magnifications in a way similar to traditional microscopy. Good correspondence is observed between optical images and histological sections. Characteristic features that suggest malignant lesions, such as complex papillary architecture, microfollicules, psammomatous calcifications, or replacement of normal follicular architecture with sheets/nests of tumor cells, can be identified from OCT and OCM images and are clearly differentiable from normal or benign thyroid tissues. With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

  16. Differential Expression of Aquaporins and Its Diagnostic Utility in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Dongfeng; Kondo, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Mochizuki, Kunio; Kato, Yohichiro; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Takata, Kuniaki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Background Aquaporin3 (AQP3) and Aquaporin4 (AQP4) play a major role in transcellular and transepithelial water movement as water channel membrane proteins. Little is known of their expression and significance in human thyroid tissues. Thus, we examined the expression of AQP3 and AQP4 in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroid tissues in conjunction with human thyroid cancer cell lines. Methods and Results Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated AQP3 in the cytoplasmic membrane of normal C cells, but not in follicular cells. In contrast, AQP4 was not found in C cells but was identified in normal follicular cells. AQP4 was positive in 92% of Graves’ disease thyroids and 97% of multinodular goiters, and we failed to demonstrate AQP3 in these hyperplastic tissues. In neoplastic thyroid lesions, we observed AQP3 in 91% of medullary thyroid carcinomas but in no other follicular cell tumors. AQP4 was demonstrated in 100% of follicular adenomas, 90% of follicular carcinomas, and 85% of papillary carcinomas, while it was negative in all medullary carcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed AQP3 mRNA expression only in medullary carcinomas and AQP4 mRNA expression in follicular cell-derived tumors except for undifferentiated carcinomas. In thyroid cancer cell lines, using RT-PCR and western blotting, AQP3 mRNA and protein were only identified in the TT cell line (human medullary carcinoma cell line) and AQP4 in the other cell lines. In addition, AQP3 mRNA expression was up-regulated by FBS and calcium administration in both a dose and time dependent manner in TT cells. Conclusion The differential expressions of AQP3 and AQP4 may reflect the biological nature and/or function of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic thyroid cells and additionally may have value in determining differential diagnoses of thyroid tumors. PMID:22808259

  17. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  18. Eradication of Blastocystis hominis prevents the development of symptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rajič, Borko; Arapović, Jurica; Raguž, Kazimir; Bošković, Mladen; Babić, Senaida Marina; Maslać, Suzana

    2015-07-01

    In this case report we describe a 49 year-old man who presented with chronic urticaria, angioedema and soft stool consistency. During diagnostic examinations Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found even though the patient never had clear symptoms of this disease. Blastocystis hominis was isolated through a stool microbiologic examination, implicating that this parasite can cause the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and chronic urticaria. After two-weeks treatment with metronidazole the Blastocystis hominis was eradicated, then urticaria and angioedema disappeared. During the four years of follow-up, the patient presented without any symptoms, whereas thyroid hormones were normalized and anti-thyroid antibodies declined. For the first time in the literature we show that eradication of Blastocystis hominis can prevent the development of both symptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis and chronic urticaria. PMID:26230132

  19. Parathyroid Adenoma Completely Impacted within the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosaini, Sayed Mahmoud; Fereidani, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic parathyroid adenoma can be seen in various locations. Sometimes ultrasound and even fine needle aspiration studies cannot distinguish this lesion from thyroid lesions. A 29-year-old woman with a prominent nodule of left thyroid lobe was referred to surgical department. Thyroid function test were normal. She had no family history of parathyroid disease, other endocrine disease, and any other malignancies and had received no radiation. Ultrasonography revealed a solid and hypoechoic mass, 25x20 mm in size, with a regular shape and contour without calcification in the inferior of left lobe of the thyroid gland. For definite diagnosis, immunohistochemistry study of the lesion with three markers was done. Finally, PTH marker was positive in cytoplasms of cells so parathyroid adenoma was confirmed. Fine needle aspiration of the nodule was suspicious for follicular neoplasm; however, postoperative histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a parathyroid adenoma. Ultrasonography may be helpful to identify localized thyroid lesions especially in parathyroid adenoma. PMID:27504318

  20. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis as the presenting symptom of silent thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Debmalya; Bhattacharjee, Shakya

    2013-01-01

    Silent thyroiditis is a rare cause of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. The objective was to present a case of silent thyroiditis presenting as periodic paralysis. A 23-year-old man presented with recurrent acute flaccid predominantly proximal weakness of all four limbs. He had a similar episode 3 weeks back. On examination he was found to have hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis. Clinically there were no features of thyrotoxicosis or thyroiditis. He was initially treated with intravenous and later oral potassium supplementation and propranolol. At 8 weeks of follow-up his thyroid profile became normal and his propranolol was stopped. He had no further recurrence of paralysis. He was diagnosed as a case silent thyroiditis presenting as thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. In cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to suspect thyrotoxicosis, even if asymptomatic. Definitive treatment of thyrotoxicosis prevents recurrence. PMID:23956568

  1. Parathyroid Adenoma Completely Impacted within the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mirhosaini, Sayed Mahmoud; Amani, Soroush; Fereidani, Rana

    2016-06-01

    Ectopic parathyroid adenoma can be seen in various locations. Sometimes ultrasound and even fine needle aspiration studies cannot distinguish this lesion from thyroid lesions. A 29-year-old woman with a prominent nodule of left thyroid lobe was referred to surgical department. Thyroid function test were normal. She had no family history of parathyroid disease, other endocrine disease, and any other malignancies and had received no radiation. Ultrasonography revealed a solid and hypoechoic mass, 25x20 mm in size, with a regular shape and contour without calcification in the inferior of left lobe of the thyroid gland. For definite diagnosis, immunohistochemistry study of the lesion with three markers was done. Finally, PTH marker was positive in cytoplasms of cells so parathyroid adenoma was confirmed. Fine needle aspiration of the nodule was suspicious for follicular neoplasm; however, postoperative histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a parathyroid adenoma. Ultrasonography may be helpful to identify localized thyroid lesions especially in parathyroid adenoma. PMID:27504318

  2. [Use of terahertz electromagnetic radiation at nitric oxide frequencies for the correction of thyroid functional state during stress].

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Tsymbal, A A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of terahertz electromagnetic radiation at nitric oxide frequencies (150.176-150.664 Ghz) on the functional activity of rat thyroid gland subjected to acute immobilization stress has been studied. It is shown that terahertz radiation totally normalizes thyroid activity in stressed animals within 30 min after application. PMID:20540354

  3. [Use of terahertz electromagnetic radiation at nitric oxide frequencies for the correction of thyroid functional state during stress].

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Tsymbal, A A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of terahertz electromagnetic radiation at nitric oxide frequencies (150.176-150.664 Ghz) on the functional activity of rat thyroid gland subjected to acute immobilization stress has been studied. It is shown that terahertz radiation totally normalizes thyroid activity in stressed animals within 30 min after application.

  4. Thyroid gland development and defects.

    PubMed

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Pulzer, Ferdinand

    2008-02-01

    During the functional ontogenesis of the thyroid gland an increasing number of transcription factors play fundamental roles in thyroid-cell differentiation, maintenance of the differentiated state, and thyroid-cell proliferation. The early growth and development of the fetal thyroid appears to be generally independent of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH and thyroxine (T4) levels increase from the 12th week of gestation until delivery, whereas triiodothyronine (T3) levels remain relatively low. At birth, a cold-stimulated short-lived TSH surge is observed, followed by a TSH decrease until day 3 or 4 of life by T4 feedback inhibition. Disorders of thyroid gland development and/or function are relatively common, affecting approximately one newborn infant in 2000-4000. The most prevalent disease, congenital hypothyroidism, is frequently caused by genetic defects of transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid or pituitary gland. A major cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is the transplacental passage of stimulating thyrotropin antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Hypothyroxinaemia or hypotriiodthyroninaemia is frequently observed in preterm infants with or without severe non-thyroidal illness. Whereas congenital hypo- and hyperthyroidism may be treated successfully with T4 or thyrostatic drugs, there is still insufficient evidence on whether the use of T4 for treatment of the latter condition results in changes in neonatal morbidity or reductions in neurodevelopmental impairment.

  5. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  6. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect

    PubMed Central

    khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave’s disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. PMID:26221205

  7. Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein expression in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Gou Young; Lim, Sung-Jig; Kim, Youn Wha

    2010-12-01

    Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) has been implicated in several fundamental signal transduction pathways that control cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis and migration. RKIP is reduced in a variety of human carcinomas, but RKIP expression in thyroid carcinomas has not been analyzed at the protein level. In this study, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of RKIP in various subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Immunostaining for RKIP was performed on 104 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma (40 papillary, 29 follicular, 11 medullary, 11 poorly differentiated, and 13 anaplastic carcinomas) and 26 cases of nodal metastatic tumor (17 papillary, 4 medullary, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas). Normal thyroid tissue and all cases of follicular, papillary, and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for RKIP. With the exception of one case, poorly differentiated carcinomas also revealed strong RKIP expression. In contrast, RKIP expression was completely absent in all anaplastic carcinomas. The transition zone from the differentiated carcinoma component (strong RKIP expression) to the anaplastic carcinoma component (no RKIP expression) demonstrated a completely opposite pattern of RKIP immunoreactivity. This reduction of RKIP expression in anaplastic carcinoma was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Additionally, RKIP expression of nodal metastatic tumors corresponded with that of primary tumors: metastatic papillary and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic RKIP immunoreactivity, in contrast, in metastatic anaplastic carcinomas, RKIP expression was completely absent. RKIP expression is significantly reduced in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma as compared to other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism of RKIP action in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  8. Thyroid hormones in fetal growth and prepartum maturation.

    PubMed

    Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L

    2014-06-01

    The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are essential for normal growth and development of the fetus. Their bioavailability in utero depends on development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid gland axis and the abundance of thyroid hormone transporters and deiodinases that influence tissue levels of bioactive hormone. Fetal T4 and T3 concentrations are also affected by gestational age, nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero, and placental permeability to maternal thyroid hormones, which varies among species with placental morphology. Thyroid hormones are required for the general accretion of fetal mass and to trigger discrete developmental events in the fetal brain and somatic tissues from early in gestation. They also promote terminal differentiation of fetal tissues closer to term and are important in mediating the prepartum maturational effects of the glucocorticoids that ensure neonatal viability. Thyroid hormones act directly through anabolic effects on fetal metabolism and the stimulation of fetal oxygen consumption. They also act indirectly by controlling the bioavailability and effectiveness of other hormones and growth factors that influence fetal development such as the catecholamines and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). By regulating tissue accretion and differentiation near term, fetal thyroid hormones ensure activation of physiological processes essential for survival at birth such as pulmonary gas exchange, thermogenesis, hepatic glucogenesis, and cardiac adaptations. This review examines the developmental control of fetal T4 and T3 bioavailability and discusses the role of these hormones in fetal growth and development with particular emphasis on maturation of somatic tissues critical for survival immediately at birth.

  9. New Insights toward the Acute Non-Thyroidal Illness Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2012-01-01

    The non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) refers to changes in serum thyroid hormone levels observed in critically ill patients in the absence of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid primary dysfunction. Affected individuals have low T3, elevated rT3, and inappropriately normal TSH levels. The pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood but the acute and chronic changes in pituitary-thyroid function are probably the consequence of the action of multiple factors. The early phase seems to reflect changes occurring primarily in the peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism, best seen in humans since 80-90% of the circulating T3 are derived from the pro-hormone T4. The conversion of T4 to T3 is catalyzed by type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) deiodinases via outer-ring deiodination. In contrast, type 3 deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inactivation of both T4 and T3. Over the last decades, several studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the changes on circulating thyroid hormones in NTIS. Increased inflammatory cytokines, which occurs in response to virtually any illness, has long been speculated to play a role in derangements of deiodinase expression. On the other hand, oxidative stress due to augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is characteristic of many diseases that are associated with NTIS. Changes in the intracellular redox state may disrupt deiodinase function by independent mechanisms, which might include depletion of the as yet unidentified endogenous thiol cofactor. Here we aim to present an updated picture of the advances in understanding the mechanisms that result in the fall of thyroid hormone levels in the acute phase of NTIS.

  10. Neonatal detection of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.E.; Balzano, S.; Scherberg, N.H.; Refetoff, S. )

    1990-11-07

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH) is an inherited disease that is usually suspected when elevated serum thyroid hormone levels are associated with nonsuppressed thyrotropin. Often these test results are obtained because of short stature, decreased intelligence, and/or hyperactivity with learning disability noted in childhood and adolescence, or because of goiter in adulthood. The authors detected GRTH at birth by analysis of blood obtained during routine neonatal screening. The proposita, born to a mother with GRTH, had a thyrotropin level of 26 mU/L and a corresponding thyroxine concentration of 656 nmol/L. Administration of thyroid hormone in doses eightfold to 10-fold above replacement levels were required to reduce serum thyrotropin to normal levels without induction of hypermetabolism. This case, and the retrospective finding of high thyroxine levels in five newborns subsequently diagnosed as having GRTH, suggest that measurement of thyroxine at birth, in conjunction with thyrotropin, could allow the early detection of GRTH.

  11. Visualisation of thyroid hormone synthesis by ion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audinot, J. N.; Senou, M.; Migeon, H.-N.; Many, M.-C.

    2008-12-01

    The main function of the thyroid gland is to make hormones, T4 and T3, which are essential for the regulation of metabolic processes throughout the body. Caveolae harbour is the key enzymes involved in this iodide organification. The analyses of thyroids from normal mice and caveolin-1 Knockout mice (mice deficient in caveolin) have been performed using the SIMS imaging. In the thyroid of control mice, the epithelium is homogeneous and iodine ( 127I) is observed in the follicle lumen. In Knockout mice, we observe an accumulation of intracellular vesicles and apoptotic nuclei resulting from oxidative stress due to H 2O 2 overproduction also inducing apical lesions of the thyrocytes, at the site of iodine organification and H 2O 2 generation. We also observe in the Knockout mice an accumulation of 127I in the cellular cytoplasm and an absence of the iodine in some follicular lumina, indicating a problem at the level of iodine organification.

  12. Genetic disorders of thyroid metabolism and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Manju A; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Normal thyroid metabolism is essential for human development, including the formation and functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system. Disorders of thyroid metabolism are increasingly recognized within the spectrum of paediatric neurological disorders. Both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid disease states (resulting from genetic and acquired aetiologies) can lead to characteristic neurological syndromes, with cognitive delay, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and neuromuscular manifestations. In this review, the neurological manifestations of genetic disorders of thyroid metabolism are outlined, with particular focus on Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and benign hereditary chorea. We report in detail the clinical features, major neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations, molecular genetic findings, disease mechanisms, and therapeutic strategies for these emerging genetic ‘brain-thyroid’ disorders. PMID:24665922

  13. High Risk of Lateral Nodal Metastasis in Lateral Solitary Solid Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xing-Jian; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Li, Jian-Chu; Zhao, Rui-Na; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wen-Bo; Zhu, Shen-Ling

    2016-01-01

    We explored the relationship between ultrasonic intra-thyroidal location and neck node metastasis pattern in solitary solid papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Data on 186 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The association between several characteristics and neck node metastasis pattern were analyzed. Among the 186 thyroid nodules, age ≥45 y (p = 0.005), mass size ≥2 cm (p = 0.001), presence of calcifications (p < 0.001) and lateral nodal metastasis (p = 0.001) were significantly related to central nodal metastasis in multivariate analysis. Mass size ≥2 cm (p = 0.046) and central nodal metastasis (p = 0.002) were significantly related to lateral nodal metastasis in multivariate analysis. Location of an intra-thyroidal solitary solid PTC located non-adjacent to the trachea (lateral) was significantly related to lateral nodal metastasis (p = 0.043) compared with location of an intra-thyroidal solitary solid PTC adjacent to the trachea (medial or isthmus). Lateral lesions have a high risk of lateral nodal metastasis in solitary solid PTC.

  14. Neonatal thyroid storm accompanied with severe anaemia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lu-Ying; Wei, Hong; Wang, Zheng-Li

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal thyroid storm is rare; the diagnostic criteria and management of neonatal thyroid storm have not been well established. In this paper, we report a preterm infant diagnosed with neonatal hyperthyroidism secondary to maternal Graves' disease who was discharged after therapy. Unfortunately, he was rehospitalised for neonatal thyroid storm. We will discuss the diagnosis and general therapy of neonatal thyroid storm.

  15. Toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol to mice: depression of thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbo, P.R.; Meuten, D.J.; King, M.W.; Tove, S.B.

    1987-10-01

    Mice given propylthiouracil, a thyroid inhibitor, and fed a diet containing a nontoxic level of rac-1(3)-palmitoyl glycerol showed the hypothermia and mortality expected for a toxic dose, but did not show these signs when linoleate or oleate was added to the diet. Loss of radioiodine from the whole animal and thyroid gland was slower when mice were fed the toxic palmitoyl glycerol diet than when fed the same diet containing 4% safflower oil. However, mice fed the two diets did not differ in the extent of the incorporation of radioiodine, and essentially all was bound to protein in each case. Follicular thyroid cells from mice fed the potentially toxic diet that contained unsaturated fat were normal in appearance. Conversely, cells from mice fed the toxic diet were smaller and more densely stained, showing evidence of glycoprotein inside the cell. These findings show that the thyroid gland is affected by the palmitoyl glycerol diet. However, the thyroid is not the only organ affected, because giving either thyroxine or triiodothyronine had no effect on the toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol.

  16. Expression of PAX8 Target Genes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rosignolo, Francesca; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Durante, Cosimo; Puppin, Cinzia; Mio, Catia; Baldan, Federica; Di Loreto, Carla; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    PAX8 is a thyroid-specific transcription factor whose expression is dysregulated in thyroid cancer. A recent study using a conditional knock-out mouse model identified 58 putative PAX8 target genes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of 11 of these genes in normal and tumoral thyroid tissues from patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). ATP1B1, GPC3, KCNIP3, and PRLR transcript levels in tumor tissues were significantly lower in PTCs than in NT, whereas LCN2, LGALS1 and SCD1 expression was upregulated in PTC compared with NT. Principal component analysis of the expression of the most markedly dysregulated PAX8 target genes was able to discriminate between PTC and NT. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess levels of proteins encoded by the two most dyregulated PAX8 target genes, LCN2 and GPC3. Interestingly, GPC3 was detectable in all of the NT samples but none of the PTC samples. Collectively, these findings point to significant PTC-associated dysregulation of several PAX8 target genes, supporting the notion that PAX8-regulated molecular cascades play important roles during thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:27249794

  17. Sonographic Elastography of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Duymus, Mahmut; Avcu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid gland disorders include benign and malignant thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid disorders. The incidence of malignant thyroid nodules is low and the prognosis is good. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer and diffuse parenchymal disorders is generally based on clinical manifestations and histopathological evaluation. Ultrasonography has its place in the diagnostics and follow-up of thyroid disorders. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new, developing method that shows increase in clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to review the data on thyroid ultrasound elastography. PMID:27103947

  18. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma. PMID:25085805

  19. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma.

  20. Thyroid Ultrasound Pitfalls: Esophageal Fibrovascular Polyp Mimicking Thyroid Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Brigante, G.; Madeo, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ultrasound (US) is the most accurate tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules if performed by expert physician. Misdiagnosis due to extrathyroidal lesions mimicking thyroid nodules is reported in literature. We describe the first case of an esophageal fibrovascular polyp misdiagnosed as a thyroid nodule on US examination. Patient Findings. A 54-year-old woman presented to emergency department for headache and underwent carotid Doppler extended to neck ultrasound with incidental finding of a nodule in the posterior side of the left thyroid lobe. A following thyroid US performed by an endocrinologist allowed the characterization of the lesion as an esophageal pathology, considering the extrathyroidal position, the typical peripheral hyperechoic spots and hypoechoic rim, the connection to the esophagus, and the swallowing connected movement. The patient was addressed to further investigations and finally to anterior pharyngotomy with histological diagnosis of esophageal fibrovascular polyp. Summary. Differential diagnosis between thyroid nodules and other neck lesions is important to prevent an unnecessary fine needle aspiration biopsy and to treat the extrathyroidal pathology. In this case, an US performed by an expert endocrinologist allowed detecting an esophageal fibrovascular polyp requiring surgical removal. In conclusion, the possibility of an esophageal pathology, and even fibrovascular polyp, should be considered during US thyroid examination. PMID:27022492

  1. Etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in melasma patients

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Nimet; Kılıç, Arzu; Koparal, Suha; Artüz, Ferda; Çakmak, Atıl; Köse, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melasma is a common chronic, acquired pigmentation disorder with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. Aim To investigate the etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with melasma. Material and methods Forty-five women with melasma and 45 age-matched healthy women were included in the study group. A detailed history was taken from the patients including triggering factors of melasma. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin (AbTG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (Ab-TPO) were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed for each subject. Results In 26.7% of patients, pregnancy, in 17.8%, oral contraceptive use and in 13.3%, intense sunlight exposure were the triggering factors. 17.8% of patients had a family history of melasma. FT4, TSH and AbTG levels were significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusions The results suggest that a combination of factors including pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, sunlight and genetic factors often trigger melasma. Thyroid hormones and thyroid autoimmunity may also play a role in the pathogenesis which needs to be proven by further studies. PMID:26759539

  2. A loss-of-function genetic screening identifies novel mediators of thyroid cancer cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Maria Carmela; Parascandolo, Alessia; Perälä, Merja; Allocca, Chiara; Fey, Vidal; Sahlberg, Niko; Merolla, Francesco; Basolo, Fulvio; Laukkanen, Mikko O; Kallioniemi, Olli Pekka; Santoro, Massimo; Castellone, Maria Domenica

    2016-05-10

    RET, BRAF and other protein kinases have been identified as major molecular players in thyroid cancer. To identify novel kinases required for the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells, we performed a RNA interference screening in the RET/PTC1(CCDC6-RET)-positive papillary thyroid cancer cell line TPC1 using a library of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the human kinome and related proteins. We identified 14 hits whose silencing was able to significantly reduce the viability and the proliferation of TPC1 cells; most of them were active also in BRAF-mutant BCPAP (papillary thyroid cancer) and 8505C (anaplastic thyroid cancer) and in RAS-mutant CAL62 (anaplastic thyroid cancer) cells. These included members of EPH receptor tyrosine kinase family as well as SRC and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) families. Importantly, silencing of the identified hits did not affect significantly the viability of Nthy-ori 3-1 (hereafter referred to as NTHY) cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, suggesting cancer cell specificity. The identified proteins are worth exploring as potential novel druggable thyroid cancer targets. PMID:27058903

  3. A loss-of-function genetic screening identifies novel mediators of thyroid cancer cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Maria Carmela; Parascandolo, Alessia; Perälä, Merja; Allocca, Chiara; Fey, Vidal; Sahlberg, Niko; Merolla, Francesco; Basolo, Fulvio; Laukkanen, Mikko O.; Kallioniemi, Olli Pekka; Santoro, Massimo; Castellone, Maria Domenica

    2016-01-01

    RET, BRAF and other protein kinases have been identified as major molecular players in thyroid cancer. To identify novel kinases required for the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells, we performed a RNA interference screening in the RET/PTC1(CCDC6-RET)-positive papillary thyroid cancer cell line TPC1 using a library of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the human kinome and related proteins. We identified 14 hits whose silencing was able to significantly reduce the viability and the proliferation of TPC1 cells; most of them were active also in BRAF-mutant BCPAP (papillary thyroid cancer) and 8505C (anaplastic thyroid cancer) and in RAS-mutant CAL62 (anaplastic thyroid cancer) cells. These included members of EPH receptor tyrosine kinase family as well as SRC and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) families. Importantly, silencing of the identified hits did not affect significantly the viability of Nthy-ori 3-1 (hereafter referred to as NTHY) cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, suggesting cancer cell specificity. The identified proteins are worth exploring as potential novel druggable thyroid cancer targets. PMID:27058903

  4. Foxp3 expression is associated with aggressiveness in differentiated thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Lucas Leite; Morari, Elaine Cristina; Nonogaki, Suely; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Vassallo, José; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression has been observed in human cancer cells but has not yet been reported in thyroid cells. We investigated the prognostic significance of both FoxP3 expression and intratumoral FoxP3+ lymphocyte infiltration in differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells. METHODS: We constructed a tissue microarray with 385 thyroid tissues, including 266 malignant tissues (from 253 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 13 follicular carcinomas), 114 benign lesions, and 5 normal thyroid tissues. RESULTS: We determined the expression of FoxP3 in both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using immunohistochemical techniques. Cellular expression of FoxP3 was evident in 71% of benign and 91.9% of malignant tissues. The nuclear and cytoplasmic expression patterns were quantified separately. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that cytoplasmic FoxP3 expression is an independent risk factor for thyroid malignancy. Cytoplasmic FoxP3 staining was inversely correlated with patient age. Nuclear FoxP3 staining was more intense in younger patients and in tumors presenting with metastasis at diagnosis. FoxP3+ lymphocytes were more frequent in tumors smaller than 2 cm, those without extrathyroidal invasion, and in patients with concurrent chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated FoxP3 expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells and found evidence that this expression may exert an important influence on several features of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:22666793

  5. Thyroiditis after treatment with interleukin-2 and interferon alpha-2a.

    PubMed Central

    Pichert, G.; Jost, L. M.; Zöbeli, L.; Odermatt, B.; Pedia, G.; Stahel, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    Serial thyroid functions studies were carried out in patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma treated with interleukin-2 (3 MU m-2 by continuous infusion days 1-4) and interferon alpha-2a (6 MU m-2 subcutaneously on days 1 and 4), both given on alternate weeks. The results on eight patients who completed at least three cycles of treatment are described. Four patients developed thyroid dysfunction with a hyperthyroid phase of 2 weeks followed by a hypothyroid phase ranging from 12 to 24 weeks. Two patients became clinically symptomatic and required treatment. Fine-needle aspirates of the thyroid were obtained in three patients with thyroid dysfunction. The cytology revealed a mixed cellular infiltrate with lymphocytes and histiocytes, and immunocytochemical staining showed strong HLA-DR expression of all thyrocytes, both suggestive of an autoimmune thyroiditis. One patient with thyroiditis developed anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, the serology of all other patients was normal. Patients with thyroid dysfunction tended to have higher in vivo stimulated lytic activity of peripheral mononuclear blood cells and had significantly higher levels of CD16 positive blood cells as compared to euthyroid patients. The possibility of autoimmune thyroiditis should be anticipated in future trails combining interleukin-2 and interferon alpha-2a. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2390468

  6. Cancer stem cells as a potential therapeutic target in thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Luisa; Colarossi, Cristina; Giuffrida, Dario; De Maria, Ruggero; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that tumor growth and proliferation is dependent on a small subset of cells, defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have the capability to self-renew, and are involved with cancer propagation, relapse and metastatic dissemination. CSCs have been isolated from numerous tissues, including normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. A regulatory network of signaling pathways and microRNAs (miRNAs) control the properties of CSCs. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is the most common type of endocrine cancer, with an increasing incidence. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most rare type of endocrine cancer; however, it also exhibits the highest mortality rate among thyroid malignancies, with an extremely short survival time. Thyroid CSCs are invasive and highly resistant to conventional therapies, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which results in disease relapse even when the primary lesion has been eradicated. Therefore, targeting thyroid CSCs may represent an effective treatment strategy against aggressive neoplasms, including recurrent and radioresistant tumors. The present review summarizes the current literature regarding thyroid CSCs and discusses therapeutic strategies that target these cells, with a focus on the function of self-renewal pathways and miRNAs. Elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate CSC growth and survival may improve novel therapeutic approaches for treatment-resistant thyroid cancers.

  7. Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Molloy, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype. PMID:27025787

  8. Cancer stem cells as a potential therapeutic target in thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Luisa; Colarossi, Cristina; Giuffrida, Dario; De Maria, Ruggero; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that tumor growth and proliferation is dependent on a small subset of cells, defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have the capability to self-renew, and are involved with cancer propagation, relapse and metastatic dissemination. CSCs have been isolated from numerous tissues, including normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. A regulatory network of signaling pathways and microRNAs (miRNAs) control the properties of CSCs. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is the most common type of endocrine cancer, with an increasing incidence. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most rare type of endocrine cancer; however, it also exhibits the highest mortality rate among thyroid malignancies, with an extremely short survival time. Thyroid CSCs are invasive and highly resistant to conventional therapies, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which results in disease relapse even when the primary lesion has been eradicated. Therefore, targeting thyroid CSCs may represent an effective treatment strategy against aggressive neoplasms, including recurrent and radioresistant tumors. The present review summarizes the current literature regarding thyroid CSCs and discusses therapeutic strategies that target these cells, with a focus on the function of self-renewal pathways and miRNAs. Elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate CSC growth and survival may improve novel therapeutic approaches for treatment-resistant thyroid cancers. PMID:27698787

  9. Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma in a Fourteen-year-old Girl with Graves’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kojima-Ishii, Kanako; Ihara, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Terumichi; Toda, Naoko; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kono, Shinji; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we present the case of a 14-yr-old girl who developed thyroid follicular carcinoma accompanied by Graves’ disease. She was diagnosed with Graves’ disease at 10 yr of age and soon achieved a euthyroid state after starting treatment. When she was 13 yr of age, her hyperthyroidism and goiter worsened despite medical therapy. Multiple nodules were found in her enlarged thyroid gland by ultrasonography. Her serum Tg level seemed within the normal range. She underwent near-total thyroidectomy for control of thyroid function. Histopathological study demonstrated that multiple oxyphilic follicular neoplasms were surrounded by the thyroid tissue compatible with Graves’ disease. Capsular invasion was identified in one of the nodules, and thus the histological diagnosis was minimally invasive follicular carcinoma. She did not have signs suggesting metastasis, and has had no relapse for 18 mo after the operation. Although some previous studies showed a high prevalence of thyroid cancer with an aggressive nature in adult patients with Graves’ disease, few reports about thyroid cancer accompanied by Graves’ disease are available in children. The present case, however, suggests that careful investigation is needed when we detect thyroid nodules or progressive thyroid enlargement, especially in children with Graves’ disease. PMID:24790388

  10. Conserved Telomere Length in Human Ectopic Thyroids: An Argument Against Premature Differentiation Causing Arrested Migration

    PubMed Central

    Larrivée-Vanier, Stéphanie; Magne, Fabien; Patey, Natalie; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Vuissoz, Jean-Marc; Van Vliet, Guy; Deladoëy, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Background In humans, the cause of arrested migration of the median thyroid anlage resulting in an ectopic sublingual gland is unknown. These ectopic glands have a normal follicular architecture but their thyrotropin-induced growth is insufficient, leading to congenital hypothyroidism in the vast majority of affected subjects. We hypothesized that arrested migration is due to premature differentiation [reflected by decreased telomere length (TL)], as observed in neural tube defects in mice. Methods Absolute TL and telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression was measured in four ectopic and six orthotopic thyroids. TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of genomic DNA, whereas hTERT expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of total RNA. Results The mean ± standard deviation TL (in kilobases per diploid genome) was 140.45 ± 40.07 in ectopic and 97.50 ± 30.48 in orthotopic thyroids (p = 0.12). Expression of hTERT was quiescent in both ectopic and orthotopic thyroids. Conclusions Compared with orthotopic thyroids, TL shortening is not observed in ectopic thyroid tissues and, consequently, no compensatory hTERT expression was measured. This makes premature differentiation an unlikely cause of arrested migration and it suggests, indirectly, that ectopic thyroids are not at higher risk of cancer than orthotopic thyroids. PMID:26131731

  11. Thyrocyte-specific Gq/G11 deficiency impairs thyroid function and prevents goiter development.

    PubMed

    Kero, Jukka; Ahmed, Kashan; Wettschureck, Nina; Tunaru, Sorin; Wintermantel, Tim; Greiner, Erich; Schütz, Günther; Offermanns, Stefan

    2007-09-01

    The function of the adult thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts through a G protein-coupled receptor. Overactivation of the TSH receptor results in hyperthyroidism and goiter. The Gs-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase-dependent cAMP formation has been regarded as the principal intracellular signaling mechanism mediating the action of TSH. Here we show that the Gq/G11-mediated signaling pathway plays an unexpected and essential role in the regulation of thyroid function. Mice lacking the alpha subunits of Gq and G11 specifically in thyroid epithelial cells showed severely reduced iodine organification and thyroid hormone secretion in response to TSH, and many developed hypothyroidism within months after birth. In addition, thyrocyte-specific Galphaq/Galpha11-deficient mice lacked the normal proliferative thyroid response to TSH or goitrogenic diet, indicating an essential role of this pathway in the adaptive growth of the thyroid gland. Our data suggest that Gq/G11 and their downstream effectors are promising targets to interfere with increased thyroid function and growth.

  12. DYRK1A BAC transgenic mouse: a new model of thyroid dysgenesis in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kariyawasam, Dulanjalee; Rachdi, Latif; Carré, Aurore; Martin, Mercè; Houlier, Marine; Janel, Nathalie; Delabar, Jean-Maurice; Scharfmann, Raphaël; Polak, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The most common thyroid abnormality among Down syndrome (DS) children corresponds to a mildly elevated TSH, with T4 decreased or in the normal range and thyroid hypoplasia, from the neonatal period onward, which aggravate their mental impairment. Transgenic Dyrk1A mice, obtained by bacterial artificial chromosome engineering (mBACTgDyrk1A), have 3 copies of the Dyrk1A gene. The objective is to determine whether this transgenic Dyrk1A (Dyrk1A(+/++)) mouse is an adequate murine model for the study of thyroid dysgenesis in DS. Embryonic thyroid development from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) to E17.5 was analyzed in wild-type (WT) and Dyrk1A(+/++) mice by immunofluorescence with anti-Nkx2-1, anti-thyroglobulin, and anti-T4 antibodies, markers of early thyroid development, hormonogenesis, and final differentiation, respectively. The expression of transcription factors Nkx2-1, Pax8, and Foxe1 involved in thyroidogenesis were studied by quantitative RT-PCR at the same embryonic stages. We then compared the adult phenotype at 8 to 12 weeks in Dyrk1A(+/++) and WT mice for T4 and TSH levels, thyroidal weight, and histological analysis. Regarding thyroidal development, at E15.5, Dyrk1A(+/++) thyroid lobes are double the size of WT thyroids (P = .01), but the thyroglobulin stained surface in Dyrk1A(+/++) thyroids is less than a third as large at E17.5 (P = .04) and their differentiated follicular surface half the size (P = .004). We also observed a significant increase in Nkx2-1, Foxe1, and Pax8 RNA levels in E13.5 and E17.5 Dyrk1A(+/++) embryonic thyroids. Dyrk1A(+/++) young adult mice have significantly lower plasma T4 (2.4 ng/mL versus WT, 3.7 ng/mL; P = 0.019) and nonsignificantly higher plasma TSH (114 mUI/L versus WT, 73mUI/L; P = .09). In addition, their thyroids are significantly heavier (P = .04) and exhibit large disorganized regions. Dyrk1A overexpression directly leads to thyroidal embryogenetic, functional and morphological impairment. The young adult thyroid

  13. Risk assessment of thyroid follicular cell tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R N; Crisp, T M; Hurley, P M; Rosenthal, S L; Singh, D V

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid follicular cell tumors arise in rodents from mutations, perturbations of thyroid and pituitary hormone status with increased stimulation of thyroid cell growth by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or a combination of the two. The only known human thyroid carcinogen is ionizing radiation. It is not known for certain whether chemicals that affect thyroid cell growth lead to human thyroid cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency applies the following science policy positions: 1) chemically induced rodent thyroid tumors are presumed to be relevant to humans; 2) when interspecies information is lacking, the default is to assume comparable carcinogenic sensitivity in rodents and humans; 3) adverse rodent noncancer thyroid effects due to chemically induced thyroid-pituitary disruption are presumed to be relevant to humans; 4) linear dose-response considerations are applied to thyroid cancer induced by chemical substances that either do not disrupt thyroid functioning or lack mode of action information; 5) nonlinear thyroid cancer dose-response considerations are applied to chemicals that reduce thyroid hormone levels, increase TSH and thyroid cell division, and are judged to lack mutagenic activity; and 6) nonlinear considerations may be applied in thyroid cancer dose-response assessments on a case-by-case basis for chemicals that disrupt thyroid-pituitary functioning and demonstrate some mutagenic activity. Required data for risk assessment purposes is mode of action information on mutagenicity, increases in follicular cell growth (cell size and number) and thyroid gland weight, thyroid-pituitary hormones, site of action, correlations between doses producing thyroid effects and cancer, and reversibility of effects when dosing ceases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9681971

  14. Retinoic acid modulation of thyroid dual oxidase activity in rats and its impact on thyroid iodine organification.

    PubMed

    Mühlbauer, Mônica; da Silva, Alba Cenélia Matos; Marassi, Michelle Porto; Lourenço, Alexandre Lopes; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2010-06-01

    The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) mediates iodide uptake into the thyrocytes, which is important for the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid disorders. Decreased ability to uptake iodide in thyroid carcinomas reduces the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, and retinoic acid (RA) treatment reinduces iodide uptake. The effectiveness of treatment depends not only on iodide uptake but also on the ability of thyrocytes to organify iodine, which is catalyzed by thyroperoxidase (TPO) in the presence of H(2)O(2). Our goal was to determine the influence of RA on thyroid iodide uptake, iodine organification, and TPO and dual oxidase (DuOx) activities. Normal rats were treated with all-trans-RA or 13-cis-RA (100 or 1500 microg/100 g body weight (b.w.), s.c.) for 14 and 28 days. The 2 h thyroid radioiodine content significantly decreased in rats treated with all-trans-RA (100 microg/100 g b.w.) for 14 days. In this group, NIS function and TPO activity were unchanged, whereas DuOx activity was significantly decreased, which might have contributed to the decrease in iodine organification. Both doses of 13-cis-RA for 28 days increased the 15 min thyroid radioiodine uptake, while the 2 h radioiodide uptake increased only in rats treated with the highest dose of 13-cis-RA. While TPO activity did not change, H(2)O(2) generation was increased in this group, and serum thyroxine levels were normal. Since radioiodine half-life in the thyroid gland is important for treatment efficacy, our results highlight the importance of correctly choosing the RA isomer, the time and the dose of treatment, in order to improve the efficacy of radioiodine therapy.

  15. Radioiodine and thyroid disease: the beginning.

    PubMed

    Becker, D V; Sawin, C T

    1996-07-01

    In 1936, Karl Compton, then president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the thyroid group of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), undertook a joint study that led to the production of small amounts of short-lived radioiodine (iodine 128, half-life, 25 min). The original intent was to use it for diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, but in order to explore the underlying physiology, their first work was performed in rabbits and published in 1938. It clearly showed that the radioiodine was selectively and avidly taken up by the thyroid gland. It was immediately apparent to the MGH-MIT group and another team working at the Berkeley, CA cyclotron that longer-lasting iodine isotopes were needed, and soon both developed procedures for cyclotron-produced 130 (half-life, 12.5 hr) and 131I (half-life, 8 d). In 1939, the Berkeley group, using 131I, was the first to show that the normal human thyroid gland accumulated radioiodine. By 1941, the MGH-MIT team, using mainly 130I, was able to successfully treat a few patients with hyperthyroidism, and so achieved their original goal. The Berkeley group did the same a few months later, using mainly 131I. Both presented results at the same meeting of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in Atlantic City, NJ in the spring of 1942. This was in the midst of World War II and it was not easy to get much 130I or 131I, so experience was limited. Although effective, radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism had not been widely adopted by the end of the war in 1945, partly because radioiodine remained in short supply and partly because another medical therapy for hyperthyroidism, antithyroid drugs, had been invented. However, by 1946, fission-derived radioiodine became readily available as a by-product of the Manhattan project in Oak Ridge, TN; hundreds of patients were treated within a few years, both for hyperthyroidism and for thyroid cancer. A new treatment, based on the physiological application

  16. The Role of Thyroid and Parathyroid Metabolism Disorders in the Etiology of Sudden Onset Dizziness

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Ugur; Hatipoglu, Sinan; Gulacti, Umut; Arpaci, Abdullah; Aktas, Nurettin; Borta, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid and parathyroid functions as a cause of sudden onset dizziness (SOD) in patients who were admitted to the Emergency Department (ED). Material/Methods This study was conducted prospectively in 100 patients with sudden onset dizziness (SOD) admitted to the ED. Neurologic, ear-nose-throat, detailed neck examinations, serum calcium levels, thyroid function tests (TFT), and parathormone and thyroid ultrasounds were performed on all patients in our study. Results Thirty-seven (37%) females and 63 (63%) males were included in this study. Four patients (4%) had elevated serum TSH levels, 6 (6%) had decreased serum fT3 levels, 10 (10%) had decreased serum fT4 levels, 2 (2%) had elevated serum fT4 levels, and 2 (2%) had elevated serum parathormone levels. In 4 (4%) patients, the serum calcium levels were lower than normal, and 2 (50%) of these patients had symptomatic hypocalcemia. Thyroid ultrasound examinations showed multinodular goiter in 28 (28%) patients, 2 (2%) patients had thyroiditis, 12 (12%) had an isolated unilateral nodule, and 58 (58%) had normal thyroid tissues. Conclusions We suggest that detailed neck examination, TFT, and thyroid ultrasound examination should be considered in the diagnostic algorithms of SOD to provide rapid diagnosis and proper treatment for a patient in the ED. PMID:25512242

  17. Mode of action: developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency--neurological abnormalities resulting from exposure to propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Crofton, Kevin M

    2005-01-01

    Because thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development before and after birth, environmental chemicals that interfere with thyroid hormone signaling can adversely affect brain development. Adverse consequences of thyroid hormone insufficiency depend both on severity and developmental timing, indicating that environmental antithyroid factors may produce different effects at different developmental windows of exposure. Mechanistic studies can provide important insight into the potential impact of chemicals on human thyroid function, but relevance to humans must be systematically evaluated. This kind of analysis depends on data sets that include information about animals and humans. The drug 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) is used in animals to experimentally manipulate serum thyroid hormone levels, and in humans to treat patients, including pregnant women, with Graves' disease. A systematic analysis of the mode of action (MOA) of PTU in rats and in humans discloses similar modes of action. While the analysis predicts that PTU doses that produce thyroid hormone insufficiency in humans would adversely affect the developing brain, careful monitoring of PTU administration in pregnant and lactating humans keeps infant serum thyroid hormone levels within the normal range.

  18. Cediranib Maleate With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  19. Thyroid and Aging or the Aging Thyroid? An Evidence-Based Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone production, metabolism, and action change with aging. The reference ranges for serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormones are derived mainly from younger populations. Thus, the prevalence of subclinical thyroid dysfunction is increased greatly in the elderly. However, it is unclear whether mild thyroid dysfunction in the elderly is associated with adverse outcomes. In this review, we discuss current evidence-based literature on thyroid function in the elderly and whether subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the elderly should be treated. PMID:24106641

  20. Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Burek, C. Lynne; Talor, Monica V.

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger or autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2h4 mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  1. Environmental triggers of autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Burek, C Lynne; Talor, Monica V

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger for autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2(h4) mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  2. Susceptibility to thyroid autoimmune disease: molecular analysis of HLA-D region genes identifies new markers for goitrous Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Badenhoop, K; Schwarz, G; Walfish, P G; Drummond, V; Usadel, K H; Bottazzo, G F

    1990-11-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been shown to be associated with the HLA-specificities DR4 and DR5. Since former association studies yielded variable results, we used novel molecular typing methods to assess predisposing immunogenetic factors. Gene analysis of the HLA-DR-DQ and tumor necrosis factor region was performed in a group of Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients and randomly chosen controls using standards and nomenclature of the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop. Genomic DNA of patients and controls was analyzed using a cDNA probe of the DQB1 gene. The resulting restriction fragment patterns allowed the determination of newly defined DQw-types 1-9. We find the strongest relative risk conferred by DQw7 (RR = 4.7), that is observed in 36 of 64 patients (56%) and only 21 of 98 controls (21%) (P corr less than 0.002). Comparison of DNA sequence variation in the DQB1 gene, that is found predominantly in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients, indicates that codons 45 and 57 are critical features in DQw7 which distinguish it from other DQw specificities. The adjacent DQA1 genes also display a significant association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (DQA1*0201/*0301 heterozygotes were found in 37% of patients and 15% controls, P less than 0.03). No significant association could be found with polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor gene. These results provide a new basis for the concept of genetic susceptibility in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and will help to elucidate the underlying autoimmune mechanisms that lead to disease at the functional level. PMID:1977755

  3. Possible activation of auto-immune thyroiditis from continuous subcutaneous infusion of genapol-containing insulin.

    PubMed

    Chantelau, E

    2000-09-01

    A case of a type 1 diabetic woman with auto-immune thyroiditis is reported, in whom repeated exposure to insulin containing Genapol(R) (polyethylen-polypropylenglycol) over 3 years reproducibly parallels with an increase of serum TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) above the normal limit. Previously, adverse effects of Genapol(R) insulin have been related to its intraperitoneal application, and thought to be restricted to anti-insulin-immunity; activating effects on thyroid auto-immunity have been repeatedly disputed. We suggest that Genapol(R) insulin should be replaced by other insulin preparations with a better safety record.

  4. Segmentation of ultrasound images of thyroid nodule for assisting fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Li; Tian, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid nodule is very high and generally increases with the age. Thyroid nodule may presage the emergence of thyroid cancer. Most thyroid nodules are asymptomatic which makes thyroid cancer different from other cancers. The thyroid nodule can be completely cured if detected early. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly classify the thyroid nodule to be benign or malignant. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a recognized early diagnosis method of thyroid nodule. There are still some limitations in the fine needle aspiration cytology, such as the difficulty in location and the insufficient cytology specimen. The accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis of thyroid nodule improves constantly, and it has become the first choice for auxiliary examination of thyroid nodular disease. If we could combine medical imaging technology and fine needle aspiration cytology, the diagnostic rate of thyroid nodule would be improved significantly. The properties of ultrasound, such as echo, shadow, and reflection, will degrade the image quality, which makes it difficult to recognize the edges for physicians. Image segmentation technique based on graph theory has become a research hotspot at present. Normalized cut (Ncut) is a representative one, whose biggest advantage is not prone to small region segmentation but suitable for segmentation of feature parts of medical image. However, how to solve the normalized cut has become a problem, which needs large memory capacity and heavy calculation of weight matrix. It always generates over segmentation or less segmentation which leads to inaccurate in the segmentation. The speckle noise produced in the formation process of B ultrasound image of thyroid tumor makes the quality of the image deteriorate. In the light of this characteristic, we combine the anisotropic diffusion model with the normalized cut in this paper. After the enhancement of anisotropic diffusion model, it removes the noise in the B ultrasound image while

  5. I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    de Keizer, Bart; Arsos, Georgios; Smit, Jan W; Lam, Marnix G; Rinkes, Inne H Borel; Goldschmeding, Roel; van Isselt, Johannes W

    2008-03-01

    Focal I-131 accumulation is generally a reliable indicator of functioning normal thyroid tissue or a differentiated thyroid cancer metastasis. However, physiologic accumulation of activity may also be observed in organs such as the intestinal tract, liver, and salivary glands. Extrathyroidal I-131 accumulation has been reported in various sites, such as ectopic gastric mucosa, gastrointestinal and urinary tract abnormalities, cysts (mammary, liver, kidney, and ovaries), and inflammation and infection foci. We report a case of focal I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer.

  6. Changes in haemostasis and thrombosis associated with thyroid disease: Presentation of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Rodilla Fiz, A M; Garví López, M; Gómez Garrido, M; Girón la Casa, M

    2016-01-01

    There is a relationship between thyroid diseases and primary and secondary changes in haemostasis. The most frequent association between them are hypocoagulability states with clinical hypothyroidism and vascular thrombophilia (hypercoagulability and/or hypofibrinolysis) with hyperparathyroidism. However, there are recent studies that have detected changes in haemostasis -primary and secondary- associated with thyroid diseases with normal hormone levels, suggesting other pathogenic mechanisms not yet known. The cases are presented of 2 patients with thyroid disease that required surgery: one multinodular goitre and one papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, both with normal hormone levels. They were shown to have haemostasis disorders during the preoperative work up. These showed a Factor VII deficiency and a Factor XI deficiency along with a thrombotic disease of unknown origin, respectively. PMID:26626435

  7. Thyroid Echography-induced Thyroid Storm and Exacerbation of Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Naomi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Saito, Hideki; Nomura, Hidekimi; Isomura, Daichi; Okada, Hisayuki; Sugiura, Ryo; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm affect cardiac circulation in some conditions. Several factors including trauma can induce thyroid storms. We herein describe the case of a 57-year-old woman who experienced a thyroid storm and exacerbation of acute heart failure on thyroid echography. She initially demonstrated a good clinical course after medical rate control for atrial fibrillation; however, thyroid echography for evaluating hyperthyroidism led to a thyroid storm and she collapsed. A multidisciplinary approach stabilized her thyroid hormone levels and hemodynamics. Thus, the medical staff should be prepared for a deterioration in the patient's condition during thyroid echography in heart failure patients with hyperthyroidism.

  8. Thyroid Echography-induced Thyroid Storm and Exacerbation of Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Naomi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Saito, Hideki; Nomura, Hidekimi; Isomura, Daichi; Okada, Hisayuki; Sugiura, Ryo; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm affect cardiac circulation in some conditions. Several factors including trauma can induce thyroid storms. We herein describe the case of a 57-year-old woman who experienced a thyroid storm and exacerbation of acute heart failure on thyroid echography. She initially demonstrated a good clinical course after medical rate control for atrial fibrillation; however, thyroid echography for evaluating hyperthyroidism led to a thyroid storm and she collapsed. A multidisciplinary approach stabilized her thyroid hormone levels and hemodynamics. Thus, the medical staff should be prepared for a deterioration in the patient's condition during thyroid echography in heart failure patients with hyperthyroidism. PMID:27522996

  9. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  10. Developmental thyroid hormone disruption: prevalence, environmental contaminants and neurodevelopmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mary E; Rovet, Joanne; Chen, Zupei; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2012-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to neurodevelopment, there is less information regarding the consequences of modest degrees of thyroid. The impact of low level TH disruptions induced by environmental contaminants has not been defined. This paper is a synopsis from four invited speakers who presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association meeting held in Xi'an, China during the summer of 2011. An overview of the role of TH in brain development and a review of human and animal data on the neurological sequelae of disruption of the thyroid axis in the pre- and early post-natal periods were presented by Mary Gilbert and Joanne Rovet. Iodine deficiency, a common cause of TH insufficiency and mental retardation in many countries, including China, was addressed by Zupei Chen. In this presentation the current incidence of iodine deficiency and neurological outcome in China and the efficacy of recently implemented iodinization programs to eliminate this cause of mental retardation were reviewed. Joanne Rovet described the impact of TH disruption during pregnancy and under conditions of congenital hypothyroidism. Children born with normal thyroid function, but who experienced TH insufficiency in the womb, display subtle cognitive impairments and abnormalities in brain imaging. Despite early detection and treatment, deficiencies also exist in children born with thyroid disorders. Different patterns of cognitive effects result from prenatal versus postnatal TH insufficiency. Mary Gilbert reported on the effects of environmental contaminants with thyroid disrupting action on brain development in animals. Results of neurophysiological, behavioral, structural and molecular alterations that accompany modest perturbations of

  11. [The implementation of computer model in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle].

    PubMed

    Abduvaliev, A A; Gil'dieva, M S; Khidirov, B N; Saĭdalieva, M; Khasanov, A A; Musaeva, Sh N; Saatov, T S

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with the results of computational experiments in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle in normal condition and in the case of malignant neoplasm. The model studies demonstrated that the chronic increase of parameter of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle results in abnormal behavior of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle. The stationary state interrupts, the auto-oscillations occur with transition to irregular oscillations with unpredictable cell proliferation and further to the "black hole" effect. It is demonstrated that the present medical biologic experimental data and theory propositions concerning the structural functional organization of thyroid gland on cell level permit to develop mathematical models for quantitative analysis of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle in normal conditions. The technique of modeling of regulative mechanisms of living systems and equations of cell cenosis regulations was used PMID:22768711

  12. [The implementation of computer model in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle].

    PubMed

    Abduvaliev, A A; Gil'dieva, M S; Khidirov, B N; Saĭdalieva, M; Khasanov, A A; Musaeva, Sh N; Saatov, T S

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with the results of computational experiments in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle in normal condition and in the case of malignant neoplasm. The model studies demonstrated that the chronic increase of parameter of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle results in abnormal behavior of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle. The stationary state interrupts, the auto-oscillations occur with transition to irregular oscillations with unpredictable cell proliferation and further to the "black hole" effect. It is demonstrated that the present medical biologic experimental data and theory propositions concerning the structural functional organization of thyroid gland on cell level permit to develop mathematical models for quantitative analysis of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle in normal conditions. The technique of modeling of regulative mechanisms of living systems and equations of cell cenosis regulations was used

  13. [DNA methylation in thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Song, Xianyun; Shang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yutuo

    2015-03-01

    Cancer has become clear that not merely gene variations but also epigenetic modifications may contribute to it. Epigenetic changes refer to stable alterations in gene expression with unrelated to changes in the underlying genetic sequence,resulting in heritable. DNA methylation is one of the common epigenetic changes. It control the gene expression through changing DNA conformation and stability, chromatin structer, DNA-protein interaction. The reversal of dysregulated DNA methylation has emerged as a potential strategy for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. The artical will provide an overview of how DNA methylation contribute to thyroid carcinoma dissemination,invasion and metastasis and we will summarize the latest epigenetic therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

  14. Thyroid Hormone Replacement in Patients Following Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hannoush, Zeina C.; Weiss, Roy E.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients following thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer, although a potentially straightforward clinical problem, can present the clinician and patient with a variety of challenges. Most often the problems are related to the dose and preparation of thyroid hormone (TH) to use. Some patients feel less well following thyroidectomy and/or radioiodine ablation than they did before their diagnosis. We present evidence that levothyroxine (L-T4) is the preparation of choice, and keeping the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between detectable and 0.1 mU/L should be the standard of care in most cases. In unusual circumstances, when the patient remains clinically hypothyroid despite a suppressed TSH, we acknowledge there may be as yet unidentified factors influencing the body’s response to TH, and individualized therapy may be necessary in such patients. PMID:26886951

  15. Riedel's Thyroiditis Mimicking as Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Unusual Presentation.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, Arsheed Hussain; Chandramathyamma, Sreerenjini Kaithaparambil; Hakeem, Imtiyaz Hussain; Wani, Fozia Jeelani; Gomez, Ramesh

    2016-09-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare inflammatory process which not only involves thyroid gland but also the surrounding vital structures. It may also be associated with various forms of systemic fibrotic disorders. The exact etiology is not known, but currently most favored view is that of a localized form of systemic fibrotic process. We report a case of Riedel's thyroiditis in a patient, highlighting a rare presentation mimicking anaplastic carcinoma. Clinical awareness of such presentation of Riedel's thyroiditis would enhance our ability to make this diagnosis promptly. Apart from avoiding or minimizing aggressive surgical intervention, awareness of such clinical entity may avoid complications and hence morbidity. Our case also highlights the difficulty in histological diagnosis which is very important to rule out malignancy and avoiding any major surgical intervention fraught with complications. Good response to high dose steroids as seen in our case is the current accepted treatment of choice. PMID:27651702

  16. Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets) were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (<11 weeks), 3.45 ± 0.54 pg/mL (11-20 weeks), 3.32 ± 0.43 pg/mL (21-30 weeks), 3.21 ± 0.53 pg/mL (31-36 weeks), and 3.23 ± 0.41 pg/mL (>36 weeks); for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (<10 weeks), 1.04 ± 0.14 ng/dL (11-20 weeks), 0.93 ± 0.12 ng/dL (21-30 weeks), 0.90 ± 0.13 ng/dL (31-36 weeks), and 0.80 ± 0.21 ng/dL (>36 weeks); and for TSH, values were (μIU/mL): 1.12 ± 0.69 (<10 weeks), 1.05 ± 0.67 (11-20 weeks), 1.19 ± 0.60 (21-30 weeks), 1.38 ± 0.76 (31-36 weeks), and 1.46 ± 0.72 (>36 weeks). Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain. PMID:19939287

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  18. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Hertel, N.; Leggett, R.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.; Eckerman, K.

    2015-03-25

    after administration for the hotel room cases. Organ specific activities of 131I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ~27% of administered 131I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ~4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ~3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. Finally, the method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  19. Thyroid circadian timing: roles in physiology and thyroid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Jacques; Dibner, Charna

    2015-04-01

    The circadian clock represents an anticipatory mechanism, well preserved in evolution. It has a critical impact on most aspects of the physiology of light-sensitive organisms. These rhythmic processes are governed by environmental cues (fluctuations in light intensity and temperature), an internal circadian timing system, and interactions between this timekeeping system and environmental signals. Endocrine body rhythms, including hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis rhythms, are tightly regulated by the circadian system. Although the circadian profiles of thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) in blood have been well described, relatively few studies have analyzed molecular mechanisms governing the circadian regulation of HPT axis function. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings in the area of complex regulation of thyroid gland function by the circadian oscillator. We will also highlight the molecular makeup of the human thyroid oscillator as well as the potential link between thyroid malignant transformation and alterations in the clockwork. PMID:25411240

  20. Selenium and Iodine in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Licchelli, Brunella; Triggiani, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Selenium and iodine are essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and function. Selenium, in form of selenocysteine, is found either in the catalytic center of enzymes involved in the protection of the thyroid gland from free radicals originating during thyroid hormone synthesis, and in three different iodothyronine deiodinases catalyzing the activation and the inactivation of thyroid hormones. Iodine is an essential constituent of thyroid hormones and its deficiency causes different disorders that include goiter, hypothyroidism, reduced fertility and alteration in growth, physical and neurological development. These two micronutrients could be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases, a spectrum of pathological conditions including Hashimoto's thryoiditis, post-partum thyroiditis, the so-called painless thyroiditis, Graves' disease and Graves' ophtalmopathy. Aim of this paper is to review the role played by selenium and iodine in autoimmune thyroiditis.

  1. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  2. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  3. Feasibility Study of Ultrasonographic Criteria for Microscopic and Macroscopic Extra-Thyroidal Extension Based on Thyroid Capsular Continuity and Tumor Contour in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rim, Jee Hyun; Chong, Semin; Ryu, Han Suk; Chung, Bo Mi; Ahn, Hye Shin

    2016-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasonographic criteria of thyroid capsular continuity and tumor contour to differentiate macroscopic extra-thyroidal extension (ETE) from microscopic ETE, as well as non-ETE from ETE. On ultrasonography, we evaluated thyroid capsular continuity (C0 = continuous, C1 = discontinuous, C2 = invisible), and thyroid tumor contour (P0 = in normal parenchyma, P1 = abutting, P2 = bulging), which were grouped into type 1-9 classifications. Either C1-2 or P1-2 was more prevalent in ETE than non-ETE. C1 and P2 tended to be associated with macroscopic ETE, whereas C0 and P1 were significantly associated with microscopic ETE. Types 6, 8 and 9 were more likely to have ETE than non-ETE; type 6 (C1 P2) and type 9 (C2 P2) were significantly associated with macroscopic ETE, whereas type 8 (C2 P1) was associated more with microscopic ETE. Macroscopic and microscopic ETE, as well as non-ETE and ETE, can be differentiated using these pre-operative ultrasonographic criteria.

  4. Feasibility Study of Ultrasonographic Criteria for Microscopic and Macroscopic Extra-Thyroidal Extension Based on Thyroid Capsular Continuity and Tumor Contour in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rim, Jee Hyun; Chong, Semin; Ryu, Han Suk; Chung, Bo Mi; Ahn, Hye Shin

    2016-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasonographic criteria of thyroid capsular continuity and tumor contour to differentiate macroscopic extra-thyroidal extension (ETE) from microscopic ETE, as well as non-ETE from ETE. On ultrasonography, we evaluated thyroid capsular continuity (C0 = continuous, C1 = discontinuous, C2 = invisible), and thyroid tumor contour (P0 = in normal parenchyma, P1 = abutting, P2 = bulging), which were grouped into type 1-9 classifications. Either C1-2 or P1-2 was more prevalent in ETE than non-ETE. C1 and P2 tended to be associated with macroscopic ETE, whereas C0 and P1 were significantly associated with microscopic ETE. Types 6, 8 and 9 were more likely to have ETE than non-ETE; type 6 (C1 P2) and type 9 (C2 P2) were significantly associated with macroscopic ETE, whereas type 8 (C2 P1) was associated more with microscopic ETE. Macroscopic and microscopic ETE, as well as non-ETE and ETE, can be differentiated using these pre-operative ultrasonographic criteria. PMID:27471119

  5. The expression of translocator protein in human thyroid cancer and its role in the response of thyroid cancer cells to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Jensen, Kirk; Bauer, Andrew; Patel, Aneeta; Costello, John; Burman, Kenneth D; Wartofsky, Leonard; Hardwick, Matthew J; Vasko, Vasyl V

    2012-08-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO), formerly known as a peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, exerts pro-apoptotic function via regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential. We examined TSPO expression in human thyroid tumors (25 follicular adenomas (FA), 15 follicular cancers (FC), and 70 papillary cancers (PC)). The role of TSPO in the regulation of cell growth, migration, and apoptosis was examined in thyroid cancer cell lines after TSPO knockdown with siRNA and after treatment with TSPO antagonist (PK11195). Compared with normal thyroid, the level of TSPO expression was increased in FA, FC, and PC in 24, 26.6, and 55.7% of cases respectively. Thyroid cancer cell lines demonstrated variable levels of TSPO expression, without specific association with thyroid oncogene mutations. Treatment with inhibitors of PI3K/AKT or MEK/ERK signaling was not associated with changes in TSPO expression. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor (valproic acid) increased TSPO expression in TSPO-deficient cell lines (FTC236 cells). TSPO gene silencing or treatment with PK11195 did not affect thyroid cancer cell growth and migration but prevented depolarization of mitochondrial membranes induced by oxidative stress. Induction of TSPO expression by valproic acid was associated with increased sensitivity of FTC236 to oxidative stress-inducible apoptosis. Overall, we showed that TSPO expression is frequently increased in PC. In vitro data suggested the role of epigenetic mechanism(s) in the regulation of TSPO in thyroid cells. Implication of TSPO in the thyroid cancer cell response to oxidative stress suggested its potential role in the regulation of thyroid cancer cell response to treatment with radioiodine and warrants further investigation.

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma: thyroid hormone promotes tumorigenicity through inducing cancer stem-like cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Xia, Lei; Ma, Sicong; Qi, Xingxing; Li, Qigen; Xia, Yun; Tang, Xiaoyin; Cui, Dan; Wang, Zhi; Chi, Jiachang; Li, Ping; Feng, Yu-xiong; Xia, Qiang; Zhai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) play a key role in maintaining the aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the cell-biological regulation of CSCs is unclear. In the study, we report that thyroid hormone (TH) promotes cell self-renewal in HCC cells. TH also increases the percentage of CD90 + HCC cells and promotes drug resistance of HCC cells. By analyzing primary human HCC samples, we found that TRα transcript level is significantly elevated in primary liver cancer and portal vein metastatic tumor, compared to that of adjacent normal liver tissue. Knocking down TRα not only inhibits HCC self-renewal in vitro but also suppresses HCC tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, treatment of TH leads to activation of NF-κB, which is required for the function of TH on inducing HCC cell self-renewal. We also found TRα and p65 cooperatively drive the expression of BMI1 by co-binding to the promoter region of BMI1 gene. In summary, our study uncovers a novel function of TH signaling in regulating the CSCs of HCC, and these findings might be useful for developing novel therapies by targeting TH function in HCC cells. PMID:27174710

  7. Cocaine Intoxication and Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cocaine, a widely used sympathomimetic drug, causes thermoregulatory and cardiac manifestations that can mimic a life-threatening thyroid storm. Case. A man presented to the emergency department requesting only cocaine detoxification. He reported symptoms over the last few years including weight loss and diarrhea, which he attributed to ongoing cocaine use. On presentation he had an elevated temperature of 39.4°C and a heart rate up to 130 beats per minute. Examination revealed the presence of an enlarged, nontender goiter with bilateral continuous bruits. He was found to have thyrotoxicosis by labs and was treated for thyroid storm and cocaine intoxication concurrently. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Graves’ disease and treated with iodine-131 therapy. Conclusion. Cocaine use should be considered a possible trigger for thyroid storm. Recognition of thyroid storm is critical because of the necessity for targeted therapy and the significant mortality associated with the condition if left untreated. PMID:26425625

  8. Celiac Disease and Thyroid Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... whole body to slow down. This is called hypothyroidism. If your thyroid begins to over-produce hormones ... and Grave’s Disease are two common causes of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism (respectively). Both are autoimmune diseases: autoimmune ...

  9. Sorafenib for Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared sorafenib (Nexavar®) and a placebo for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is no longer responding to treatment with radioactive iodine

  10. How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. This leads to low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism) and causes the pituitary gland to release more ... is that it can cause the symptoms of hypothyroidism, including tiredness, depression, weight gain, sleepiness, constipation, muscle ...

  11. Thyroid Hormone and Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism affect the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. The accelerated atherosclerosis in the hypothyroid state has been traditionally ascribed to atherogenic lipid profile, diastolic hypertension, and impaired endothelial function. However, recent studies indicate that thyroid hormone has direct anti-atherosclerotic effects, such as production of nitric oxide and suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. These data suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits atherogenesis through direct effects on the vasculature as well as modification of risk factors for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the basic and clinical studies on the role of thyroid hormone in vascular remodeling. The possible application of thyroid hormone mimetics to the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis is also discussed. PMID:26558400

  12. Brain-thyroid link (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Although the thyroid gland releases the hormones which govern growth and metabolism, the brain (the pituitary and the hypothalamus) manages the release and the balance of the amount of hormones circulated.

  13. Associations between Repeated Measures of Maternal Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Thyroid Hormone Parameters during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Lauren E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Meeker, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maintaining thyroid homeostasis during pregnancy is essential for normal fetal growth and development. Growing evidence suggests that phthalates interfere with normal thyroid function. Few human studies have investigated the degree to which phthalates may affect thyroid hormone levels in particularly susceptible populations such as pregnant women. Objectives: We examined the associations between repeated measures of urinary phthalate metabolites and plasma thyroid hormone levels in samples collected at up to four time points per subject in pregnancy. Additionally, we investigated the potential windows of susceptibility to thyroid hormone disturbances related to study visit of sample collection. Methods: Data were obtained from pregnant women (n = 439) participating in a nested case–control study of preterm birth with 116 cases and 323 controls. We measured 9 phthalate metabolite concentrations in urine samples collected at up to four study visits per subject during pregnancy (median = 10, 18, 26, and 35 weeks of gestation, respectively). We also measured a panel of thyroid function markers in plasma collected at the same four time points per subject during pregnancy. Results: Although our results were generally null, in repeated measures analyses we observed that phthalate metabolites were largely inversely associated with thyrotropin and positively associated with free and total thyroid hormones. Cross-sectional analyses by study visit revealed that the magnitude and/or direction of these relationships varied by timing of exposure during gestation. Conclusions: These results support previous reports showing the potential for environmental phthalate exposure to alter circulating levels of thyroid hormones in pregnant women. Citation: Johns LE, Ferguson KK, McElrath TF, Mukherjee B, Meeker JD. 2016. Associations between repeated measures of maternal urinary phthalate metabolites and thyroid hormone parameters during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect

  14. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-12-31

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells.

  15. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells.

  16. Multiple genetic factors in the heterogeneity of thyroid hormone resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.E.; Refetoff, S. ); Marcocci, C.; Bruno-Bossio, G. )

    1993-01-01

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH), a syndrome of inherited tissue hyposensitivity to thyroid hormone, is linked to thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mutations. A typical feature of GRTH is variable severity of organ involvement among families that, surprisingly, does not correlate with the degree of T[sub 3]-binding impairment of the corresponding in vitro synthesized mutant TRs. Furthermore, variations in the clinical severity among family members harboring identical TR[beta] mutations have been reported. The authors compared serum levels of thyroid hormones that maintained a normal TSH in members of a large family with GRTH divided in three groups: Group A, 8 affected subjects with a mutation replacing arginine-320 with a histidine in the T[sub 3]-binding domain of TR[beta]; Group B, 11 first degree relatives (sibs and children of affected subjects) with no TR[beta] mutation; Group C, 16 controls related by marriage. TSH values were not different among the three groups. As expected, total and free T[sub 4] and T[sub 3], and rT[sub 3] levels were significantly higher in Group A vs Groups B and C. However, with the exception of T[sub 3], the same tests were also significantly higher in Group B vs Group C. The latter differences are not due to thyroid hormone transport in serum since TBG concentrations were not different. It is postulated that genetic variability of factors that contribute to the action of thyroid hormone modulate the phenotype of GRTH associated with TR[beta] mutations. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Assessment of thyroid and gonadal function in liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, Sandeep; Garg, M. K.; Puri, Pankaj; Brar, Karninder S.; Pandit, Aditi; Srivastava, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Liver is involved with the synthesis of carrier proteins and metabolism of various hormones and liver diseases may, therefore, be associated with various endocrine disturbances. This study was conducted to assess thyroid and gonadal function in subjects with acute hepatitis (AH), chronic liver disease (CLD), and those who had undergone liver transplantation (LT). Materials and Methods: Patients with AH, CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1) and Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2), and LT seen at our tertiary level hospital were assessed clinically, biochemically, and for thyroid and gonadal functions besides 25 healthy controls. Results: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism were present in 14 (16%) and 24 (28%) patients with liver diseases respectively. Among thyroid dysfunction, the commonest was sick euthyroid syndrome six (7%), followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in three patients (3.5%), subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in two patients each (2.3%) and overt hypothyroidism in one patient. Among patients with LT and AH groups, the only abnormality was significantly lower total T3 compared with healthy controls. The CLD2 group had significantly lower levels of all thyroid hormones compared with controls and CLD1 group. Hypogonadism was commonest in patients with CLD-2 (14; 50%) followed by LT (3; 33%), CLD-1 (4; 20%), and AH (3; 14%). Hypogonadism was predicted by older age, lower levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and higher levels of plasma glucose, serum bilirubin, aspartate transaminases, and international normalized ratio. Gonadal functions showed recovery following LT. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism form an important part of the spectrum of acute and CLD, and patients with LT. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of hypogonadism. PMID:25593833

  18. Thyroid-specific transcription factors control Hex promoter activity

    PubMed Central

    Puppin, Cinzia; D'Elia, Angela V.; Pellizzari, Lucia; Russo, Diego; Arturi, Franco; Presta, Ivan; Filetti, Sebastiano; Bogue, Clifford W.; Denson, Lee A.; Damante, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The homeobox-containing gene Hex is expressed in several cell types, including thyroid follicular cells, in which it regulates the transcription of tissue- specific genes. In this study the regulation of Hex promoter activity was investigated. Using co- transfection experiments, we demonstrated that the transcriptional activity of the Hex gene promoter in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells is ∼10-fold greater than that observed in HeLa and NIH 3T3 cell lines (which do not normally express the Hex gene). To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, we evaluated the effect of the thyroid- specific transcription factor TTF-1 on the Hex promoter activity. TTF-1 produced 3–4-fold increases in the Hex promoter activity. Gel- retardation assays and mutagenesis experiments revealed the presence of functionally relevant TTF-1 binding sites in the Hex promoter region. These in vitro data may also have functional relevance in vivo, since a positive correlation between TTF-1 and Hex mRNAs was demonstrated in human thyroid tissues by means of RT–PCR analysis. The TTF-1 effect, however, is not sufficient to explain the difference in Hex promoter activity between FRTL-5 and cells that do not express the Hex gene. For this reason, we tested whether Hex protein is able to activate the Hex promoter. Indeed, co-transfection experiments indicate that Hex protein is able to increase the activity of its own promoter in HeLa cells ∼4-fold. TTF-1 and Hex effects are additive: when transfected together in HeLa cells, the Hex promoter activity is increased 6–7-fold. Thus, the contemporary presence of both TTF-1 and Hex could be sufficient to explain the higher transcriptional activity of the Hex promoter in thyroid cells with respect to cell lines that do not express the Hex gene. These findings demonstrate the existence of direct cross-regulation between thyroid-specific transcription factors. PMID:12655000

  19. Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  20. Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  1. Thermogenesis and thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Freake, H C; Oppenheimer, J H

    1995-01-01

    The past 10 years have seen tremendous progress in the definition of the nuclear mechanism of action of thyroid hormones. Although the way in which these nuclear mechanisms underlie the 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)-dependent stimulation of metabolic rate remains to be clarified, evidence favoring non-nuclear pathways is limited. Clearly, T3 stimulates both the production and consumption of energy within cells. It also exerts a number of parallel effects that result in increased oxygen consumption, e.g. on mitochondrial structure and composition; on the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, and on cardiac function. Additionally, T3 may increase the proton permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which implies that it may decrease the efficiency of energy production. These metabolic effects of T3 appear to be restricted to homeothermic-animals, representing a coordinated response to the challenge of maintaining body temperature. PMID:8527221

  2. Coexistence of resistance to thyroid hormone and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Igata, Motoyuki; Tsuruzoe, Kaku; Kawashima, Junji; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kondo, Tatsuya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Shimoda, Seiya; Furukawa, Noboru; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Miyamura, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome of reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones. RTH is majorly caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. Here, we report a rare case of RTH with a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a thyroid tumor and hormonal abnormality. She had elevated serum thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels. Genetic analysis of THRB identified a missense mutation, P452L, leading to a diagnosis of RTH. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor and lymph nodes enabled the cytological diagnosis of PTC with lymph node metastases. Total thyroidectomy and neck lymph nodes dissection were performed. Following surgery, thyroxine replacement (≥500 μg) was necessary to avoid the symptoms of hypothyroidism and to maintain her TSH levels within the same range as before the operation. During the follow-up, basal thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were around 6 ng/ml and TSH-stimulated Tg levels were between 12 and 20 ng/ml. Up to present, the patient has had no recurrence of PTC. This indicates that these Tg values are consistent with a biochemical incomplete response or an indeterminate response. There is no consensus regarding the management of thyroid carcinoma in patients with RTH, but aggressive treatments such as total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine (RAI) and TSH suppression therapy are recommended. Learning points There are only a few cases reporting the coexistence of RTH and thyroid carcinoma. Moreover, our case would be the first case presenting one with lymph node metastases. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. When total thyroidectomy is performed in

  3. Thyroid carcinoma, version 2.2014.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, R Michael; Haddad, Robert I; Ball, Douglas W; Byrd, David; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M; Lydiatt, William M; McCaffrey, Judith; Moley, Jeffrey F; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D; Ridge, John A; Ringel, Matthew D; Scheri, Randall P; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Steven I; Sturgeon, Cord; Waguespack, Steven G; Wang, Thomas N; Wirth, Lori J; Hoffmann, Karin G; Hughes, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on some of the major updates to the 2014 NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma. Kinase inhibitor therapy may be used to treat thyroid carcinoma that is symptomatic and/or progressive and not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Sorafenib may be considered for select patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, whereas vandetanib or cabozantinib may be recommended for select patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Other kinase inhibitors may be considered for select patients with either type of thyroid carcinoma. A new section on "Principles of Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Cancer" was added to the NCCN Guidelines to assist with using these novel targeted agents.

  4. Thromboembolic complications of thyroid storm

    PubMed Central

    Min, T; Benjamin, S; Cozma, L

    2014-01-01

    Summary Thyroid storm is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism. Early recognition and prompt treatment are essential. Atrial fibrillation can occur in up to 40% of patients with thyroid storm. Studies have shown that hyperthyroidism increases the risk of thromboembolic events. There is no consensus with regard to the initiation of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in severe thyrotoxicosis. Anticoagulation is not routinely initiated if the risk is low on a CHADS2 score; however, this should be considered in patients with thyroid storm or severe thyrotoxicosis with impending storm irrespective of the CHADS2 risk, as it appears to increase the risk of thromboembolic episodes. Herein, we describe a case of thyroid storm complicated by massive pulmonary embolism. Learning points Diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical findings. Early recognition and prompt treatment could lead to a favourable outcome.Hypercoagulable state is a recognised complication of thyrotoxicosis.Atrial fibrillation is strongly associated with hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm.Anticoagulation should be considered for patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and atrial fibrillation irrespective of the CHADS2 score.Patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and clinical evidence of thrombosis should be immediately anticoagulated until hyperthyroidism is under control. PMID:24683480

  5. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  6. The role of the resistive index in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a Sonographic pilot study in children

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, Basar; Demirbilek, Huseyin; Akata, Deniz; Kandemir, Nurgun

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The role of Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of diffuse thyroid diseases is not well established. In particular, Doppler ultrasonography findings in children with Hashimoto's thyroiditis are very limited. We examined gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound findings in Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children in an attempt to understand the feasibility of future prospective controlled studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one children with newly diagnosed Hashimoto's thyroiditis were recruited in the study. The patients were euthyroid or had subclinical hypothyroidism at the time of the ultrasonography examination. According to the color Doppler scale developed by Schulz et al., thyroid glands were classified into four patterns based on visual scoring and the mean resistive index (RI), which was calculated via measurements from both lobes, and these results were compared with gray-scale findings. RESULTS: The mean RI value, calculated as the mean of the RI values of both lobes obtained from each patient, was found to be 0.57±0.05 (range 0.48-0.67) cm/sn. The distribution of thyroid classifications was as follows: Pattern 0, n = 7; Pattern I, n = 6; Pattern II, n = 4; and Pattern III (“thyroid inferno”), n = 4. The mean RI values in patients with normal or near-normal gray-scale findings (n = 10) and patients with more substantial gray-scale changes (n = 11) were not significantly different and were lower than the values in normal children previously presented in the literature. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the RI may be more sensitive than other ultrasound parameters for the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:23184199

  7. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  8. Gene expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma reveals highly consistent profiles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Prasad, Manju; Lemon, William J.; Hampel, Heather; Wright, Fred A.; Kornacker, Karl; LiVolsi, Virginia; Frankel, Wendy; Kloos, Richard T.; Eng, Charis; Pellegata, Natalia S.; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2001-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is clinically heterogeneous. Apart from an association with ionizing radiation, the etiology and molecular biology of PTC is poorly understood. We used oligo-based DNA arrays to study the expression profiles of eight matched pairs of normal thyroid and PTC tissues. Additional PTC tumors and other tissues were studied by reverse transcriptase–PCR and immunohistochemistry. The PTCs showed concordant expression of many genes and distinct clustered profiles. Genes with increased expression in PTC included many encoding adhesion and extracellular matrix proteins. Expression was increased in 8/8 tumors for 24 genes and in 7/8 tumors for 22 genes. Among these genes were several previously known to be overexpressed in PTC, such as MET, LGALS3, KRT19, DPP4, MDK, TIMP1, and FN1. The numerous additional genes include CITED1, CHI3L1, ODZ1, N33, SFTPB, and SCEL. Reverse transcriptase–PCR showed high expression of CITED1, CHI3L1, ODZ1, and SCEL in 6/6 additional PTCs. Immunohistochemical analysis detected CITED1 and SFTPB in 49/52 and 39/52 PTCs, respectively, but not in follicular thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue. Genes underexpressed in PTC included tumor suppressors, thyroid function-related proteins, and fatty acid binding proteins. Expression was decreased in 7/8 tumors for eight genes and decreased in 6/8 tumors for 19 genes. We conclude that, despite its clinical heterogeneity, PTC is characterized by consistent and specific molecular changes. These findings reveal clues to the molecular pathways involved in PTC and may provide biomarkers for clinical use. PMID:11752453

  9. Thyroid diseases during pregnancy: a number of important issues.

    PubMed

    Krassas, Gerasimos; Karras, Spyridon N; Pontikides, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The most common thyroid diseases during pregnancy are hyper- and hypothyroidism and their variants including isolated hypothyroxinemia (hypo-T4), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and different types of goiter. AITD represents the main cause of hypothyroidism during pregnancy ranging in prevalence between 5 and 20% with an average of 7.8%. The incidence of isolated hypo-T4 is about 150 times higher compared to congenital hypothyroidism. Prevalence of Graves' disease (GD) ranges between 0.1% and 1% and the Transient Gestational Hyperthyroidism Syndrome between 1 and 3%. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a sensitive marker of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Normal values have been modified recently with a downward shift. Thus, the upper normal range is now considered to be 2.5 mUI/mL in the first trimester and 3.0 mUI/mL for the remainder of pregnancy. Most studies have shown that children born to women with hypothyroidism during gestation had significantly lower scores in neuropsychological tests related to intelligence, attention, language, reading ability, school performance and visual motor performance. However, some studies have not confirmed these findings. On the other hand, multiple retrospective studies have shown that the risks of maternal and fetal/neonatal complications are directly related to the duration and inadequate control of maternal thyrotoxicosis. The latter is associated with a risk of spontaneous abortion, congestive heart failure, thyrotoxic storm, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, low birth weight and stillbirth. Despite the lack of consensus among professional organizations, recent studies, which are based on sophisticated analyses, support universal screening in all pregnant women in the first trimester for thyroid diseases. PMID:25885104

  10. BRAF-activated long non-coding RNA contributes to cell proliferation and activates autophagy in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YONG; GUO, QINHAO; ZHAO, YAN; CHEN, JIEJING; WANG, SHUWEI; HU, JUN; SUN, YUEMING

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are novel regulators in cancer biology. BRAF-activated lncRNA (BANCR) is overexpressed in melanoma and has a potential functional role in melanoma cell migration. However, little is known about the role of BANCR in the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In the present study, BANCR expression was examined in six pairs of PTC and matched adjacent normal tissues. The results revealed that BANCR levels were significantly higher in the PTC tissues and PTC IHH-4 cells compared with the normal controls. Knockdown of BANCR in the IHH-4 cells inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis of the cells in vitro. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that BANCR markedly activated autophagy. Overexpression of BANCR inhibited apoptosis in the IHH-4 cells, whereas inhibition of autophagy stimulated apoptosis in the BANCR-overexpressed cells. BANCR overexpression also increased cell proliferation and the inhibition of autophagy abrogated BANCR overexpression-induced cell proliferation. In addition, the overexpression of BANCR resulted in an increase in the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker for autophagy, while the knockdown of BANCR decreased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I. These results revealed that BANCR expression levels are upregulated in PTC. Additionally, BANCR increases PTC cell proliferation, which could activate autophagy. PMID:25289082

  11. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and acute chest syndrome revealing sickle cell anemia in a 32 years female patient.

    PubMed

    Igala, Marielle; Nsame, Daniela; Ova, Jennie Dorothée Guelongo Okouango; Cherkaoui, Siham; Oukkach, Bouchra; Quessar, Asmae

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia results from a single amino acid substitution in the gene encoding the β-globin subunit. Polymerization of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin leads to decreased deformability of red blood cells. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common thyroid disease now recognized as an auto-immune thyroid disorder, it is usually thought to be haemolytic autoimmune anemia. We report the case of a 32 years old women admitted for chest pain and haemolysis anemia in which Hashimoto's thyroiditis and sickle cell anemia were found. In our observation the patient is a young woman whose examination did not show signs of goitre but the analysis of thyroid function tests performed before an auto-immune hemolytic anemia (confirmed by a high level of unconjugated bilirubin and a Coombs test positive for IgG) has found thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and positive thyroid antibody at rates in excess of 4.5 times their normal value. In the same period, as the hemolytic anemia, and before the atypical chest pain and anguish they generated in the patient, the search for hemoglobinopathies was made despite the absence of a family history of haematological disease or painful attacks in childhood. Patient electrophoresis's led to research similar cases in the family. The mother was the first to be analyzed with ultimately diagnosed with sickle cell trait have previously been ignored. This case would be a form with few symptoms because the patient does not describe painful crises in childhood or adolescence. PMID:26327979

  12. Inhibition of HMGI-C protein synthesis suppresses retrovirally induced neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Berlingieri, M T; Manfioletti, G; Santoro, M; Bandiera, A; Visconti, R; Giancotti, V; Fusco, A

    1995-01-01

    Elevated expression of the three high-mobility group I (HMGI) proteins (HMGI, HMGY, and HMGI-C) has previously been correlated with the presence of a highly malignant phenotype in epithelial and fibroblastic rat thyroid cells and in experimental thyroid, lung, mammary, and skin carcinomas. Northern (RNA) blot and run-on analyses demonstrated that the induction of HMGI genes in transformed thyroid cells occurs at the transcriptional level. An antisense methodology to block HMGI-C protein synthesis was then used to analyze the role of this protein in the process of thyroid cell transformation. Transfection of an antisense construct for the HMGI-C cDNA into normal thyroid cells, followed by infection with transforming myeloproliferative sarcoma virus or Kirsten murine sarcoma virus, generated cell lines that expressed significant levels of the retroviral transforming oncogenes v-mos or v-ras-Ki and removed the dependency on thyroid-stimulating hormones. However, in contrast with untransfected cells or cells transfected with the sense construct, those containing the antisense construct did not demonstrate the appearance of any malignant phenotypic markers (growth in soft agar and tumorigenicity in athymic mice). A great reduction of the HMGI-C protein levels and the absence of the HMGI(Y) proteins was observed in the HMGI-C antisense-transfected, virally infected cells. Therefore, the HMGI-C protein seems to play a key role in the transformation of these thyroid cells. PMID:7862147

  13. Simultaneous occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis, thyroid storm, and multiple cerebral infarctions due to Moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Noh, Byoungho H; Cho, Sang-Won; Ahn, Sung Yeon

    2016-02-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the precipitating factors that can evoke a thyroid storm. Thyroid storm may cause cerebral ischemia in Moyamoya disease, which can coexist in patients with Graves' disease. A 16-year-old girl complaining of dizziness and palpitations visited the emergency department and was diagnosed with DKA combined with hyperthyroidism. A thyroid storm occurred 6 h after the start of DKA management. Her Burch and Wartofsky score was 65 points. Right hemiplegia developed during the thyroid storm, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted images revealed multiple acute infarcts in both hemispheres. MR angiography showed stenosis of both distal internal carotid arteries and both M1 portions of the middle cerebral arteries, consistent with Moyamoya disease. After acute management for the thyroid storm with methimazole, Lugol solution and hydrocortisone, the patient's neurological symptoms completely resolved within 1 month, and free T4 level normalized within 2 months. Thyroid storm may trigger cerebral ischemia in Moyamoya disease and lead to rapid progression of cerebrovascular occlusive disease. As a simultaneous occurrence of DKA, thyroid storm and cerebrovascular accident in Moyamoya disease highly elevates morbidity and mortality, prompt recognition and management are critical to save the patient's life.

  14. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid in Treating Patients With Metastatic and/or Locally Advanced or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-23

    Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  15. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-04

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  16. Diagnosis of thyroid disease on bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Peterdy, A.E.

    1985-03-01

    Three cases are reported in which visualization of the thyroid occurred during Tc-99m pyrophosphate bone scans. All were found to be hyperthyroid with elevated serum thyroid hormone and two patients also had elevated 4-hour radioactive iodine uptakes.

  17. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Cancer.gov

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  18. IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

  19. Triple ectopic thyroid: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Nilegaonkar, Sujit; Naik, Chetna; Sonar, Sameer; Hirawe, Deepti

    2011-10-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue is an uncommon congenital aberration. It is extremely rare to have three ectopic foci at three different sites. The thyroid scan has been used successfully to diagnose ectopic thyroid tissue. We report a case of ectopic thyroid tissue at base of tongue, another at the level of hyoid and third one as aberrant tissue at suprahyoid location in a 16 year old female who presented with swelling in front of neck. This patient was clinically diagnosed as thyroglossal cyst and was being planned for surgery. Preoperative thyroid scan helped in establishing diagnosis of ectopic thyroid which was the only functioning thyroid tissue. Thus, it prevented unnecessary surgery. Therefore it is suggested that thyroid scan and USG/CT scan must be done as routine work up in neck swellings pre operatively to avoid unnecessary surgeries.

  20. Clinical Concepts on Thyroid Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Giampaolo; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland which are so severe that require admission to intensive care units (ICU) frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including therapeutic strategy flow-charts. Furthermore, a special chapter is dedicated to the approach to massive goiter, which represents a surgical thyroid emergency. Data Source: We searched the electronic MEDLINE database on September 2013. Data Selection and Data Extraction: Reviews, original articles, and case reports on “myxedematous coma,” “HC,” “thyroid storm,” “TS,” “massive goiter,” “huge goiter,” “prevalence,” “etiology,” “diagnosis,” “therapy,” and “prognosis” were selected. Data Synthesis and Conclusion: Severe excess or defect of thyroid hormone is rare conditions, which jeopardize the life of patients in most cases. Both HC and TS are triggered by precipitating factors, which occur in patients with severe hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, respectively. The pillars of HC therapy are high-dose l-thyroxine and/or tri-iodothyroinine; i.v. glucocorticoids; treatment of hydro-electrolyte imbalance (mainly, hyponatraemia); treatment of hypothermia; often, endotracheal intubation and assisted mechanic ventilation are needed. Therapy of TS is based on beta-blockers, thyrostatics, and i.v. glucocorticoids; eventually, high-dose of iodide compounds or lithium carbonate may be of benefit. Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques – e.g., percutaneous laser ablation – are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation. PMID:25071718

  1. Implication from thyroid function decreasing during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: chemosensitization role of triiodothyronine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have been shown to regulate breast cancer cells growth, the absence or reduction of thyroid hormones in cells could provoke a proliferation arrest in G0-G1 or weak mitochondrial activity, which makes cells insensitive to therapies for cancers through transforming into low metabolism status. This biological phenomenon may help explain why treatment efficacy and prognosis vary among breast cancer patients having hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and normal function. Nevertheless, the abnormal thyroid function in breast cancer patients has been considered being mainly caused by thyroid diseases, few studied influence of chemotherapy on thyroid function and whether its alteration during chemotherapy can influence the respose to chemotherapy is still unclear. So, we aimed to find the alterations of thyroid function and non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) prevalence druing chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, and investigate the influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy. Methods Thyroid hormones and NTIS prevalence at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy were analyzed in 685 breast diseases patients (369 breast cancer, 316 breast benign lesions). The influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy was evaluated by chemosensitization test, to compare chemotherapeutic efficacy between breast cancer cells with chemotherapeutics plus triiodothyronine (T3) and chemotherapeutics only. Results In breast cancer, NTIS prevalence at the initial diagnosis was higher and increased during chemotherapy, but declined before the next chemotherapeutic course. Thyroid hormones decreased signigicantly during chemotherapy. T3 can enhance the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 to 5-Fu and taxol, with progression from G0-G1 phase to S phase. The similar chemosensitization role of T3 were found in MDA-MB-231. We compared chemotherapeutic efficacy among groups with different usage modes of T3, finding pretreatment with lower dose of T3, using

  2. Utility of Shear Wave Elastography for Diagnosing Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Matsuda, Eriko; Izawa, Shoichiro; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the utility of shear wave elastography (SWE) using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) for diagnosing chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) and to verify the effect of fibrotic thyroid tissue on shear wave velocity (SWV). The subjects were 229 patients with 253 normal thyroid lobes (controls) and 150 CAT lobes. The SWV for CAT (2.47 ± 0.57 m/s) was significantly higher than that for controls (1.59 ± 0.41 m/s) (P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for CAT was 0.899, and the SWV cut-off value was 1.96 m/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 87.4%, 78.7%, and 85.1%, respectively. Levels of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies and thyroid isthmus thickness were correlated with tissue stiffness in CAT. However, there was no correlation between levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and tissue stiffness. Quantitative SWE is useful for diagnosing CAT, and it is possible that SWE can be used to evaluate the degree of fibrosis in patients with CAT. PMID:26257979

  3. [Polymyositis with rimmed vacuoles in a case of chronic thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, A; Niwa, A; Nakayama, S; Hamaguchi, Y; Kuzuhara, S

    1995-04-01

    We report a 37-year-old woman who developed chronic thyroiditis, and polymyositis with rimmed vacuoles (RVs). She developed paresthesia of glove and stocking type, muscle weakness of the lower extremities, and slowness in motion. On examination, her lower legs were atrophic and weak, more prominent on the right, while proximal muscles in the upper and lower extremities were slightly affected. Deep tendon reflexes of the upper and lower extremities were normal except for the absent Achilles tendon reflexes. Serum CK was high (1,809 IU/l), and laboratory data indicated chronic thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. Muscle CT showed severe fatty changes in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, more marked on the right, and slight atrophy of the thigh muscles. Electromyography and nerve conduction velocity study revealed peripheral neuropathy. Muscle biopsy revealed numerous myofibers with RVs, together with myofiber necrosis, phagocytosis and lymphocyte infiltration, consistent with myositis. Nerve biopsy was indicative of slight axonal degeneration. A diagnosis of polymyositis with RVs in combination with chronic thyroiditis was made. Prednisolone combined with levothyroxine markedly improved muscle weakness though atrophy and weakness of the lower legs were barely improved. Distal-dominant asymmetric affection of the leg muscles and many myofibers with RV on the biopsied muscle are atypical and rare findings of polymyositis. Associated chronic thyroiditis and neuropathy may be related to the formation of marked rimmed-vacuolar degeneration of myofibers in the present case.

  4. Computed Tomography Features of Incidentally Detected Diffuse Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Myung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the CT features of incidentally detected DTD in the patients who underwent thyroidectomy and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CT diagnosis. Methods. We enrolled 209 consecutive patients who received preoperative neck CT and subsequent thyroid surgery. Neck CT in each case was retrospectively investigated by a single radiologist. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of individual CT features and the cut-off CT criteria for detecting DTD by comparing the CT features with histopathological results. Results. Histopathological examination of the 209 cases revealed normal thyroid (n = 157), Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 17), non-Hashimoto lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 34), and diffuse hyperplasia (n = 1). The CT features suggestive of DTD included low attenuation, inhomogeneous attenuation, increased glandular size, lobulated margin, and inhomogeneous enhancement. ROC curve analysis revealed that CT diagnosis of DTD based on the CT classification of “3 or more” abnormal CT features was superior. When the “3 or more” CT classification was selected, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of CT diagnosis for DTD were 55.8%, 95.5%, 80.6%, 86.7%, and 85.6%, respectively. Conclusion. Neck CT may be helpful for the detection of incidental DTD. PMID:25548565

  5. Managing thyroid dysfunction in selected special situations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Managing thyroid dysfunction is simple at first glance, the idea is to bring hormone levels in the euthyroid range, treat with antithyroid drugs, radio-iodine or surgery if toxic and replace with thyroxine or T3 if hypothyroid. Complexities arise when there are coexisting conditions that affect the thyroid or are affected by thyroid dysfunction and this review will deal with the special situations that need care when correcting thyroid hormone levels. PMID:23379325

  6. Dual ectopic thyroid gland: sonography and scintigraphy of lingual and sublingual thyroid.

    PubMed

    Marković, Vinko; Glavina, Gordana; Eterović, Davor; Punda, Ante; Brdar, Dubravka

    2014-06-01

    Dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid gland is an extraordinarily rare condition. We present 1 patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The clinical examination revealed that the thyroid gland was not palpable in its usual cervical location, whereas ultrasonography confirmed an empty thyroid bed without any ectopic thyroid tissue in the rest of the neck. The final diagnosis of dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid was established by ultrasound examination through the mouth floor and confirmed by scintigraphy and CT thereafter.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  8. Recessive resistance to thyroid hormone in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor beta: evidence for tissue-specific modulation of receptor function.

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, D; Hanebuth, E; Smeyne, R J; Everds, N; Stewart, C L; Wehner, J M; Curran, T

    1996-01-01

    The diverse functions of thyroid hormone (T3) are presumed to be mediated by two genes encoding the related receptors, TRalpha and TRbeta. However, the in vivo functions of TRalpha and TRbeta are undefined. Here, we report that targeted inactivation of the mouse TRbeta gene results in goitre and elevated levels of thyroid hormone. Also, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released by pituitary thyrotropes and which is normally suppressed by increased levels of thyroid hormone, was present at elevated levels in homozygous mutant (Thrb-/-) mice. These findings suggest a unique role for TRbeta that cannot be substituted by TRalpha in the T3-dependent feedback regulation of TSH transcription. Thrb-/- mice provide a recessive model for the human syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) that exhibits a similar endocrine disorder but which is typically caused by dominant TRbeta mutants that are transcriptional inhibitors. It is unknown whether TRalpha, TRbeta or other receptors are targets for inhibition in dominant RTH; however, the analysis of Thrb-/- mice suggests that antagonism of TRbeta-mediated pathways underlies the disorder of the pituitary-thyroid axis. Interestingly, in the brain, the absence of TRbeta may not mimic the defects often associated with dominant RTH, since no overt behavioural or neuroanatomical abnormalities were detected in Thrb-/- mice. These data define in vivo functions for TRbeta and indicate that specificity in T3 signalling is conferred by distinct receptor genes. Images PMID:8670802

  9. Rapid and transient reduction in circulating thyroid hormones following systemic antigen priming: implications for functional collaboration between dendritic cells and thyroid.

    PubMed

    Bagriacik, E U; Zhou, Q; Wang, H C; Klein, J R

    2001-09-15

    The thyroid hormones T(3) (tri-iodothyronine) and T(4) (thyroxine) are disseminated throughout the body via the circulation and are maintained across a range of physiological concentrations under the control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). T(3) (and T(4) after conversion to T(3)) influences many biological activities, including gene expression and protein synthesis, though little is known about the nature of pituitary-thyroid immune interactions. In the present study we show that serum T(3) and T(4) levels are sharply but transiently reduced during the first 24 h of systemic antigen exposure and that this is followed by suppressed levels of free T(4), after which there is rapid recovery to normal levels. Splenic dendritic cells, depending upon the stage of maturation/activation, were found to be a rich source of TSH, and CD11c(+) cells with dendritic cell morphology were present in the thyroid 1-3 days after antigen exposure. Moreover, antigen priming of hypophysectomized mice that are unable to make pituitary-derived TSH resulted in significant increases in circulating T(4), implying that compensation in the drop in thyroid hormones can be regulated from extrapituitary sources. These findings thus identify a novel set of immune-endocrine interactions that transpire during the early phase of antigen exposure, and they suggest that under appropriate conditions the immune system directly participates in the process of maintaining physiological homeostasis by contributing to the regulatory control of thyroid hormone activity.

  10. TRα receptor mutations extend the spectrum of syndromes of reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie; Espiard, Stéphanie; Flamant, Frédéric; Wémeau, Jean-Louis

    2015-11-01

    Since 2012, eight different abnormalities have been described in the THRA gene (encoding the TRα1 thyroid hormone receptor) of 14 patients from 9 families. These mutations induce a clinical phenotype (resistance to thyroid hormone type α) associating symptoms of untreated mild congenital hypothyroidism and a near-normal range of free and total thyroid hormones and TSH (the T4/T3 ratio is nevertheless usually low). The phenotype can diversely include short stature (due to growth retardation), dysmorphic syndrome (face and limb extremities), psychoneuromotor disorders, constipation and bradycardia. The identified genetic abnormalities are located within the ligand-binding domain and result in defective T3 binding, an abnormally strong interaction with corepressors and a dominant negative activity against still functional receptors. The identification of patients with consistent phenotypes and the underlying mutations are warranted to better delineate the spectrum of the syndromes of reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone. PMID:26585273

  11. An immunohistochemical study of Na+/I- symporter in human thyroid tissues and salivary gland tissues.

    PubMed

    Jhiang, S M; Cho, J Y; Ryu, K Y; DeYoung, B R; Smanik, P A; McGaughy, V R; Fischer, A H; Mazzaferri, E L

    1998-10-01

    The human Na+/I- symporter (hNIS) is the plasma membrane protein that mediates active iodide uptake into several tissues, such as the thyroid and salivary glands. To study the distribution and cellular localization of the hNIS protein, we have generated a polyclonal antibody that could detect the hNIS protein by immunohistochemical staining on tissue sections. In normal thyroids, hNIS expression is heterogeneous, and it is only detected in sporadic thyrocytes of a given follicle. The hNIS protein was not detected in thyroid carcinomas, yet it was detected in the majority of thyrocytes in Graves' thyroids. In salivary glands, hNIS protein was not detected in acinar cells, but it was detected in ductal cells. The hNIS proteins are clustered in the basal and lateral membranes in cells stained positive for hNIS.

  12. Thyroid Cancer: Role of RET and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Carlomagno, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Specific thyroid cancer histotypes, such as papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma, display genetic rearrangements or point mutations of the RET gene, resulting in its oncogenic conversion. The molecular mechanisms mediating RET rearrangement with other genes and the role of partner genes in tumorigenesis have been described. In addition, the RET protein has become a molecular target for medullary thyroid carcinoma treatment. PMID:24782993

  13. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it helps other cells do their job. hypothyroidism (hi-poh-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ... thyroid hormone (“hypo” means ‘under’ or ‘below’). hyperthyroidism (hi-purr-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ...

  14. Thyroid disorders during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2015-07-01

    An awareness of the gestational changes to thyroid physiology and the impact of uncontrolled thyroid disease on pregnancy and infant outcome is essential for the successful management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. This review summarizes strategies for the management of thyroid disease in pregnancy and post partum, and it highlights areas where there is still a lack of consensus. PMID:26028555

  15. Thyroid disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, K L; Wang, F

    1986-01-01

    Of 319 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), nine had thyrotoxicosis, three had hypothyroidism, and two had thyroiditis. This prevalence seems greater than that of similar thyroid disorders seen in the general population. It is suggested that patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders may develop SLE or vice versa. This association requires confirmation by prospective study. PMID:3740982

  16. THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

  17. Cigarette smoking and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, J B; Hegedüs, L

    1994-01-01

    Relevant English language articles published from 1970 through 1993 regarding the possible influence of cigarette smoking on the thyroid were identified through a MEDLINE search and manual searches of identified articles. Thiocyanate in tobacco smoke influences the thyroid by a competitive inhibition of iodine uptake and organification in the gland. Also the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system by cigarette smoke and benzpyrene, another constituent of tobacco, is thought to influence thyroid gland function. The thyroid hormones and TSH receptor autoantibodies are not affected by smoking, but serum TSH levels have been found to be slightly reduced. Smokers have a higher frequency of goiter and increased serum thyroglobulin levels, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Graves' ophthalmopathy is strongly associated with cigarette smoking; the more severe the eye disease the stronger the association. Graves' disease without ophthalmopathy is also associated with smoking, though this association is weaker. Thiocyanate level in cord blood equilibrates completely with the level in the mother, and a reverse correlation has been demonstrated between birth weight and thiocyanate level in cord blood. Cigarette smoking induces similar changes in thyroid function in the adult and the fetus. No separate study has elucidated the effects of cessation of smoking, but there seems to be longstanding effects induced by smoking, some probably irreversible.

  18. Severe TSH Elevation and Pituitary Enlargement After Changing Thyroid Replacement to Compounded T4/T3 Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pappy, Adlai L; Oyesiku, Nelson; Ioachimescu, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case of iatrogenic hypothyroidism as a result of compounded thyroid hormone (T4/T3) therapy. The thyroid replacement was changed from 175 µg levothyroxine (LT4) to 57/13.5 µg compounded T4/T3 daily in order to improve the T3 level, despite normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This resulted in clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism and high TSH level (150 µIU/mL). Six months later, the patient was referred to our clinic for abnormal pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. On reinitiating a physiologic dose of LT4, clinical and biochemical abnormalities resolved and the pituitary gland size decreased. Our case emphasizes the importance of using TSH level to gauge dose adjustments in primary hypothyroidism. Also, it underscores the current American Thyroid Association recommendation against routine use of compounded thyroid hormone therapy. PMID:27540557

  19. Severe TSH Elevation and Pituitary Enlargement After Changing Thyroid Replacement to Compounded T4/T3 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pappy, Adlai L.; Oyesiku, Nelson; Ioachimescu, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case of iatrogenic hypothyroidism as a result of compounded thyroid hormone (T4/T3) therapy. The thyroid replacement was changed from 175 µg levothyroxine (LT4) to 57/13.5 µg compounded T4/T3 daily in order to improve the T3 level, despite normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This resulted in clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism and high TSH level (150 µIU/mL). Six months later, the patient was referred to our clinic for abnormal pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. On reinitiating a physiologic dose of LT4, clinical and biochemical abnormalities resolved and the pituitary gland size decreased. Our case emphasizes the importance of using TSH level to gauge dose adjustments in primary hypothyroidism. Also, it underscores the current American Thyroid Association recommendation against routine use of compounded thyroid hormone therapy. PMID:27540557

  20. Calculated Parameters of Thyroid Homeostasis: Emerging Tools for Differential Diagnosis and Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Johannes W; Landgrafe-Mende, Gabi; Wiora, Evelin; Chatzitomaris, Apostolos; Klein, Harald H; Midgley, John E M; Hoermann, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Although technical problems of thyroid testing have largely been resolved by modern assay technology, biological variation remains a challenge. This applies to subclinical thyroid disease, non-thyroidal illness syndrome, and those 10% of hypothyroid patients, who report impaired quality of life, despite normal thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations under levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement. Among multiple explanations for this condition, inadequate treatment dosage and monotherapy with L-T4 in subjects with impaired deiodination have received major attention. Translation to clinical practice is difficult, however, since univariate reference ranges for TSH and thyroid hormones fail to deliver robust decision algorithms for therapeutic interventions in patients with more subtle thyroid dysfunctions. Advances in mathematical and simulative modeling of pituitary-thyroid feedback control have improved our understanding of physiological mechanisms governing the homeostatic behavior. From multiple cybernetic models developed since 1956, four examples have also been translated to applications in medical decision-making and clinical trials. Structure parameters representing fundamental properties of the processing structure include the calculated secretory capacity of the thyroid gland (SPINA-GT), sum activity of peripheral deiodinases (SPINA-GD) and Jostel's TSH index for assessment of thyrotropic pituitary function, supplemented by a recently published algorithm for reconstructing the personal set point of thyroid homeostasis. In addition, a family of integrated models (University of California-Los Angeles platform) provides advanced methods for bioequivalence studies. This perspective article delivers an overview of current clinical research on the basis of mathematical thyroid models. In addition to a summary of large clinical trials, it provides previously unpublished results of validation studies based on simulation and clinical samples. PMID:27375554