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Sample records for adjacent oceanic crust

  1. Seismic structure of the crust and uppermost mantle of north America and adjacent oceanic basins: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chulick, G.S.; Mooney, W.D.

    2002-01-01

    We present a new set of contour maps of the seismic structure of North America and the surrounding ocean basins. These maps include the crustal thickness, whole-crustal average P-wave and S-wave velocity, and seismic velocity of the uppermost mantle, that is, Pn and Sn. We found the following: (1) The average thickness of the crust under North America is 36.7 km (standard deviation [s.d.] ??8.4 km), which is 2.5 km thinner than the world average of 39.2 km (s.d. ?? 8.5) for continental crust; (2) Histograms of whole-crustal P- and S-wave velocities for the North American crust are bimodal, with the lower peak occurring for crust without a high-velocity (6.9-7.3 km/sec) lower crustal layer; (3) Regions with anomalously high average crustal P-wave velocities correlate with Precambrian and Paleozoic orogens; low average crustal velocities are correlated with modern extensional regimes; (4) The average Pn velocity beneath North America is 8.03 km/sec (s.d. ?? 0.19 km/sec); (5) the well-known thin crust beneath the western United States extends into northwest Canada; (6) the average P-wave velocity of layer 3 of oceanic crust is 6.61 km/ sec (s.d. ?? 0.47 km/sec). However, the average crustal P-wave velocity under the eastern Pacific seafloor is higher than the western Atlantic seafloor due to the thicker sediment layer on the older Atlantic seafloor.

  2. Cretaceous evolution of the Indian Plate and consequences for the formation, deformation and obduction of adjacent oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, C.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Spakman, W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the gradual Gondwana dispersion that started in the Jurassic, the Indian tectonic block was rifted away from the Antarctica-Australian margins, probably in the Early-Mid Cretaceous and started its long journey to the north until it collided with Eurasia in the Tertiary. In this contribution first we will revise geophysical and geological evidences for the formation of oceanic crust between India and Antarctica, India and Madagascar, and India and Somali/Arabian margins. This information and possible oceanic basin age interpretation are placed into regional kinematic models. Three important compressional events NW and W of the Indian plate are the result of the opening of the Enderby Basin from 132 to 124 Ma, the first phase of seafloor spreading in the Mascarene basin approximately from 84 to 80 Ma, and the incipient opening of the Arabian Sea and the Seychelles microplate formation around 65 to 60 Ma. Based on retrodeformation of the Afghan-Pakistan part of the India-Asia collision zone and the eastern Oman margin, the ages of regional ophiolite emplacement and crystallization of its oceanic crust, as well as the plate tectonic setting of these ophiolites inferred from its geochemistry, we evaluate possible scenarios for the formation of intra-oceanic subduction zones and their evolution until ophiolite emplacement time. Our kinematic scenarios are constructed for several regional models and are discussed in the light of global tomographic models that may image some of the subducted Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere.

  3. The Oceanic Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francheteau, Jean

    1983-01-01

    The earth's oceanic crust is created and destroyed in a flow outward from midocean ridges to subduction zones, where it plunges back into the mantle. The nature and dynamics of the crust, instrumentation used in investigations of this earth feature, and research efforts/findings are discussed. (JN)

  4. Ophiolites and oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moores, E.M.; Jackson, E.D.

    1974-01-01

    OPHIOLITES consist of a pseudostratiform sequence, of harzburgite, tectonite, ultramafic and mafic cumulates sometimes including gabbro and quartz diorite (plagiogranite) intrusions, dolerite dyke swarms, pillow lava 1, and deep-sea sediments2-4. This assemblage occurs in all Phanerozoic mountain systems and is interpreted as fossil oceanic crust and uppermost mantle5-10. Outstanding problems include differences between the chemical properties of Ophiolites and rocks thought to represent present-day oceanic crust11,12, the lack in some complexes of recognised dyke swarms or cumulates, and the relative thinness of ophiolite mafic rocks compared with standard oceanic crustal sections5,8,13. ?? 1974 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  6. Tilting and Magnetization of Ocean Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, H.; Denham, C.

    2003-04-01

    The argument of tectonic rotation (tilting) versus secular variation as the cause of variable paleomagnetic inclination in ocean crust drill holes has existed since the beginning of the drilling program. Drill core samples measure inclination without azimuth, which makes it difficult to test the tilting hypothesis. Furthermore, inclinations, even in adjacent holes, do not show a systematic variation with depth and the inclinations indicate tilts that are both toward the spreading axis and away from it. In the seventies, the leading paradigm for tectonic rotation in ocean crust was distributed deformation causing tilting of the lavas toward the axis due to lava loading or lava burial. In the eighties, block rotation along listric normal faults causing tilting away from the axis became the leading paradigm. Neither tilt paradigm, however, has been able to provide a satisfactory explanation for the variable inclination in ocean crust drill holes. The lack of independent information on the azimuth of the tilt of lavas in the holes and of a satisfactory paradigm to explain tilt variation has suggested that either upper ocean crust is too randomly tilted or that secular variation dominates the variable inclination in the holes. In either case the magnetic inclinations in ocean crust drill holes have eluded meaningful interpretation. A new analysis of several deep drill holes in Troodos ophiolite (CY-1, CY-1A) and oceanic crust (504B, 417D) suggests that the longer-wavelength paleomagnetic inclination variation in ocean crust drill holes is caused by tilting. The variable tilt in the ocean crust drill holes can be used to quantify important aspects of the process of seafloor accretion and deformation in spreading centers. Lava accumulation in the neovolcanic zone generates a sequence of overlapping lava flows that are progressively tilted with depth toward the spreading axis/eruption center depending on the vertical cross section of lava flows. This progressive tilting

  7. Drilling to gabbro in intact ocean crust.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Douglas S; Teagle, Damon A H; Alt, Jeffrey C; Banerjee, Neil R; Umino, Susumu; Miyashita, Sumio; Acton, Gary D; Anma, Ryo; Barr, Samantha R; Belghoul, Akram; Carlut, Julie; Christie, David M; Coggon, Rosalind M; Cooper, Kari M; Cordier, Carole; Crispini, Laura; Durand, Sedelia Rodriguez; Einaudi, Florence; Galli, Laura; Gao, Yongjun; Geldmacher, Jörg; Gilbert, Lisa A; Hayman, Nicholas W; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Hirano, Nobuo; Holter, Sara; Ingle, Stephanie; Jiang, Shijun; Kalberkamp, Ulrich; Kerneklian, Marcie; Koepke, Jürgen; Laverne, Christine; Vasquez, Haroldo L Lledo; Maclennan, John; Morgan, Sally; Neo, Natsuki; Nichols, Holly J; Park, Sung-Hyun; Reichow, Marc K; Sakuyama, Tetsuya; Sano, Takashi; Sandwell, Rachel; Scheibner, Birgit; Smith-Duque, Chris E; Swift, Stephen A; Tartarotti, Paola; Tikku, Anahita A; Tominaga, Masako; Veloso, Eugenio A; Yamasaki, Toru; Yamazaki, Shusaku; Ziegler, Christa

    2006-05-19

    Sampling an intact sequence of oceanic crust through lavas, dikes, and gabbros is necessary to advance the understanding of the formation and evolution of crust formed at mid-ocean ridges, but it has been an elusive goal of scientific ocean drilling for decades. Recent drilling in the eastern Pacific Ocean in Hole 1256D reached gabbro within seismic layer 2, 1157 meters into crust formed at a superfast spreading rate. The gabbros are the crystallized melt lenses that formed beneath a mid-ocean ridge. The depth at which gabbro was reached confirms predictions extrapolated from seismic experiments at modern mid-ocean ridges: Melt lenses occur at shallower depths at faster spreading rates. The gabbros intrude metamorphosed sheeted dikes and have compositions similar to the overlying lavas, precluding formation of the cumulate lower oceanic crust from melt lenses so far penetrated by Hole 1256D.

  8. Drilling to gabbro in intact ocean crust.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Douglas S; Teagle, Damon A H; Alt, Jeffrey C; Banerjee, Neil R; Umino, Susumu; Miyashita, Sumio; Acton, Gary D; Anma, Ryo; Barr, Samantha R; Belghoul, Akram; Carlut, Julie; Christie, David M; Coggon, Rosalind M; Cooper, Kari M; Cordier, Carole; Crispini, Laura; Durand, Sedelia Rodriguez; Einaudi, Florence; Galli, Laura; Gao, Yongjun; Geldmacher, Jörg; Gilbert, Lisa A; Hayman, Nicholas W; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Hirano, Nobuo; Holter, Sara; Ingle, Stephanie; Jiang, Shijun; Kalberkamp, Ulrich; Kerneklian, Marcie; Koepke, Jürgen; Laverne, Christine; Vasquez, Haroldo L Lledo; Maclennan, John; Morgan, Sally; Neo, Natsuki; Nichols, Holly J; Park, Sung-Hyun; Reichow, Marc K; Sakuyama, Tetsuya; Sano, Takashi; Sandwell, Rachel; Scheibner, Birgit; Smith-Duque, Chris E; Swift, Stephen A; Tartarotti, Paola; Tikku, Anahita A; Tominaga, Masako; Veloso, Eugenio A; Yamasaki, Toru; Yamazaki, Shusaku; Ziegler, Christa

    2006-05-19

    Sampling an intact sequence of oceanic crust through lavas, dikes, and gabbros is necessary to advance the understanding of the formation and evolution of crust formed at mid-ocean ridges, but it has been an elusive goal of scientific ocean drilling for decades. Recent drilling in the eastern Pacific Ocean in Hole 1256D reached gabbro within seismic layer 2, 1157 meters into crust formed at a superfast spreading rate. The gabbros are the crystallized melt lenses that formed beneath a mid-ocean ridge. The depth at which gabbro was reached confirms predictions extrapolated from seismic experiments at modern mid-ocean ridges: Melt lenses occur at shallower depths at faster spreading rates. The gabbros intrude metamorphosed sheeted dikes and have compositions similar to the overlying lavas, precluding formation of the cumulate lower oceanic crust from melt lenses so far penetrated by Hole 1256D. PMID:16627698

  9. The oceanic crust as a bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, Hubert; Tebo, Bradley; Yayanos, Art; Furnes, Harald; Kelley, Katie; Plank, Terry; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    Various lines of evidence suggest that large portions of hydrothermal systems in the oceanic crust acts like a giant bioreactor that mediates water-rock exchange and buffers the chemical composition of seawater. We review the current literature and present new chemical, biological and petrographic data on microbially mediated alteration of glass in the oceanic crust. Microbial alteration of glass displays characteristic bioalteration features, in particular in the alteration fronts around residual glass in the oceanic crust, suggesting that microbes take on an active role in its dissolution. Such features are found throughout the oceanic crust ranging in age from a few million to 170 Ma and they are found down to crustal depths of 500 m, possibly defining a Deep Oceanic Biosphere (DOB) that covers up to 2/3 of the earth's surface area. Microbial glass alteration substantially increases the active surface area of dissolving glass particles thereby enhancing the reaction rates during microbially aided dissolution. Microbially mediated glass alteration involves the establishment of two types of diffusion barriers including hydration rinds and biofilms that play an important role in mediating glass alteration. In particular biofilms may be very active by creating a localized chemical environment conducive to glass alteration, and by sequestering dissolved chemical inventory from solution. When compared with abiotic alteration of the oceanic crust, bio-alteration causes more rapid deposition of biotic and abiotic reaction products in the oceanic crust that result in a more effective removal of elements from seawater and a more rapid sealing of the oceanic crust. Thus, it is likely that microbial activity increases the fluxes of seawater components into the crust, while reducing the low—temperature flux of basalt components into seawater. However, much about the microbial activity and its relationships to the chemistry of hydrothermal systems still remains to be

  10. Frozen magma lenses below the oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Nedimović, Mladen R; Carbotte, Suzanne M; Harding, Alistair J; Detrick, Robert S; Canales, J Pablo; Diebold, John B; Kent, Graham M; Tischer, Michael; Babcock, Jeffrey M

    2005-08-25

    The Earth's oceanic crust crystallizes from magmatic systems generated at mid-ocean ridges. Whereas a single magma body residing within the mid-crust is thought to be responsible for the generation of the upper oceanic crust, it remains unclear if the lower crust is formed from the same magma body, or if it mainly crystallizes from magma lenses located at the base of the crust. Thermal modelling, tomography, compliance and wide-angle seismic studies, supported by geological evidence, suggest the presence of gabbroic-melt accumulations within the Moho transition zone in the vicinity of fast- to intermediate-spreading centres. Until now, however, no reflection images have been obtained of such a structure within the Moho transition zone. Here we show images of groups of Moho transition zone reflection events that resulted from the analysis of approximately 1,500 km of multichannel seismic data collected across the intermediate-spreading-rate Juan de Fuca ridge. From our observations we suggest that gabbro lenses and melt accumulations embedded within dunite or residual mantle peridotite are the most probable cause for the observed reflectivity, thus providing support for the hypothesis that the crust is generated from multiple magma bodies. PMID:16121179

  11. Frozen magma lenses below the oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Nedimović, Mladen R; Carbotte, Suzanne M; Harding, Alistair J; Detrick, Robert S; Canales, J Pablo; Diebold, John B; Kent, Graham M; Tischer, Michael; Babcock, Jeffrey M

    2005-08-25

    The Earth's oceanic crust crystallizes from magmatic systems generated at mid-ocean ridges. Whereas a single magma body residing within the mid-crust is thought to be responsible for the generation of the upper oceanic crust, it remains unclear if the lower crust is formed from the same magma body, or if it mainly crystallizes from magma lenses located at the base of the crust. Thermal modelling, tomography, compliance and wide-angle seismic studies, supported by geological evidence, suggest the presence of gabbroic-melt accumulations within the Moho transition zone in the vicinity of fast- to intermediate-spreading centres. Until now, however, no reflection images have been obtained of such a structure within the Moho transition zone. Here we show images of groups of Moho transition zone reflection events that resulted from the analysis of approximately 1,500 km of multichannel seismic data collected across the intermediate-spreading-rate Juan de Fuca ridge. From our observations we suggest that gabbro lenses and melt accumulations embedded within dunite or residual mantle peridotite are the most probable cause for the observed reflectivity, thus providing support for the hypothesis that the crust is generated from multiple magma bodies.

  12. Continental crust beneath the Agulhas Plateau, Southwest Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Tucholke, B.E.; Houtz, R.E.; Barrett, D.M.

    1981-05-10

    The Agulhas Plateau lies 500 km off the Cape of Good Hope in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Acoustic basement beneath the northern one third of this large, aseismic structural high has rugged morphology, but basement in the south is anomalously smooth, excepting a 30- to 90-km-wide zone with irregular relief that trends south-southwest through the center of the plateau. Seismic refraction profiles across the southern plateau indicate that the zone of irregular acoustic basement overlies thickened oceanic crust and that continental crust, locally thinned and intruded by basalts, underlies several regions of smooth acoustic basement. Recovery of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses in dredge hauls confirms the presence of continental crust. The smoothness of acoustic basement probably results from erosion (perhaps initially subaerial) of topographic highs with depositions and cementation of debris in ponds to form high-velocity beds. Basalt flows and sills also may contribute locally to form smooth basement. The rugged basement of the northern plateau appears to be of oceanic origin. A plate reconstruction to the time of initial opening of the South Atlantic places the continental part of the southern plateau adjacent to the southern edge of the Falkland Plateau, and both abut the western Mozambique Ridge. Both the Agulhas and Falkland plateaus were displaced westward during initial rifting in the Early Cretaceous. Formation of an RRR triple junction at the northern edge of the Agulhas continental fragment during middle Cretaceous time may explain the origin of the rugged, thickened oceanic crust beneath plateau as well as the apparent extension of the continental crust and intrusion of basaltic magmas beneath the southern plateau.

  13. The geodynamic province of transitional crust adjacent to magma-poor continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, J.; Tucholke, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Two types of 'transitional crust' have been documented along magma-poor rifted margins. One consists of apparently sub-continental mantle that has been exhumed and serpentinized in a regime of brittle deformation during late stages of rifting. A second is highly thinned continental crust, which in some cases is known to have been supported near sea level until very late in the rift history and thus is interpreted to reflect depth-dependent extension. In both cases it is typically assumed that formation of oceanic crust occurs shortly after the breakup of brittle continental crust and thus that the transitional crust has relatively limited width. We here examine two representative cases of transitional crust, one in the Newfoundland-Iberia rift (exhumed mantle) and one off the Angola-Gabon margin (highly thinned continental crust). Considering the geological and geophysical evidence, we propose that depth-dependent extension (riftward flow of weak lower/middle continental crust and/or upper mantle) may be a common phenomenon on magma-poor margins and that this can result in a much broader zone of transitional crust than has hitherto been assumed. Transitional crust in this extended zone may consist of sub-continental mantle, lower to middle continental crust, or some combination thereof, depending on the strength profile of the pre-rift continental lithosphere. Transitional crust ceases to be emplaced (i.e., final 'breakup' occurs) only when emplacement of heat and melt from the rising asthenosphere becomes dominant over lateral flow of the weak lower lithosphere. This model implies a two-stage breakup: first the rupture of the brittle upper crust and second, the eventual emplacement of oceanic crust. Well-defined magnetic anomalies can form in transitional crust consisting of highly serpentinized, exhumed mantle, and they therefore are not diagnostic of oceanic crust. Where present in transitional crust, these anomalies can be helpful in interpreting the rifting

  14. Quantifying glassy and crystalline basalt partitioning in the oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2016-04-01

    The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately basaltic rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy basalts while the potential habitability of crystalline basalts are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline basalts, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing basalt fractionation: a pillow basalt with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow basalt with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.

  15. Inconsistent correlation of seismic layer 2a and lava layer thickness in oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Christeson, Gail L; McIntosh, Kirk D; Karson, Jeffrey A

    2007-01-25

    At mid-ocean ridges with fast to intermediate spreading rates, the upper section of oceanic crust is composed of lavas overlying a sheeted dyke complex. These units are formed by dykes intruding into rocks overlying a magma chamber, with lavas erupting at the ocean floor. Seismic reflection data acquired over young oceanic crust commonly image a reflector known as 'layer 2A', which is typically interpreted as defining the geologic boundary between lavas and dykes. An alternative hypothesis is that the reflector is associated with an alteration boundary within the lava unit. Many studies have used mapped variability in layer 2A thickness to make inferences regarding the geology of the oceanic crust, including volcanic construction, dyke intrusion and faulting. However, there has been no link between the geologic and seismological structure of oceanic crust except at a few deep drill holes. Here we show that, although the layer 2A reflector is imaged near the top of the sheeted dyke complex at fast-spreading crust located adjacent to the Hess Deep rift, it is imaged significantly above the sheeted dykes section at intermediate-spreading crust located near the Blanco transform fault. Although the lavas and underlying transition zone thicknesses differ by about a factor of two, the shallow seismic structure is remarkably similar at the two locations. This implies that seismic layer 2A cannot be used reliably to map the boundary between lavas and dykes in young oceanic crust. Instead we argue that the seismic layer 2A reflector corresponds to an alteration boundary that can be located either within the lava section or near the top of the sheeted dyke complex of oceanic crust.

  16. Gulf of California analogue for origin of Late Paleozoic ocean basins adjacent to western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Murchey, B.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Ocean crust accreted to the western margin of North America following the Late Devonian to earliest Missippian Antler orogeny is not older than Devonian. Therefore, ocean crust all along the margin of western North America may have been very young following the Antler event. This situation can be compared to the present-day margin of North America which lies adjacent to young ocean crust as a result of the subduction of the Farallon plate and arrival of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Syn- and post-Antler rifting that occurred along the North American margin may well be analogous to the formation of the Gulf of California by the propagation of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Black-arc rifting associated with the subduction of very old ocean crust seems a less likely mechanism for the early stages of ocean basin formation along the late Paleozoic margin of western North America because of the apparent absence of old ocean crust to the west of the arc terranes. The eastern Pacific basins were as long-lived as any truly oceanic basins and may have constituted, by the earliest Permian, a single wedge-shaped basin separated from the western Pacific by rifted fragments of North American arc-terranes. In the Permian, the rifted arcs were once again sites of active magmatism and the eastern Pacific basins began to close, from south (Golconda terrane) to north. Final closure of the northernmost eastern Pacific basin (Angayucham in Alaska) did not occur until the Jurassic.

  17. Palaeozoic oceanic crust preserved beneath the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Roi

    2016-09-01

    Subduction of oceanic crust into the mantle results in the relatively young Mesozoic-Cenozoic age of the current oceanic basins, thus, hindering our knowledge of ancient oceanic lithospheres. Believed to be an exception, the eastern Mediterranean Sea (containing the Herodotus and Levant basins) preserves the southern margin of the Neotethyan, or older, ocean. An exceptionally thick sedimentary cover and a lack of accurate magnetic anomaly data have led to contradicting views about its crustal nature and age. Here I analyse total and vector magnetic anomaly data from the Herodotus Basin. I identify a long sequence of lineated magnetic anomalies, which imply that the crust is oceanic. I use the shape, or skewness, of these magnetic anomalies to constrain the timing of crustal formation and find that it formed about 340 million years ago. I suggest that this oceanic crust formed either along the Tethys spreading system, implying the Neotethys Ocean came into being earlier than previously thought, or during the amalgamation of the Pangaea Supercontinent. Finally, the transition from the rather weak and stretched continental crust found in the Levant Basin to the relatively strong oceanic Herodotus crust seems to guide the present-day seismicity pattern as well as the plate kinematic evolution of the region.

  18. Microbial Life of North Pacific Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, G.; Koos, R.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.

    2003-12-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Drilling into 45-Ma oceanic basaltic crust in a deepwater environment during ODP Leg 200 provided a promising opportunity to explore the abundance, diversity and activity of micro-organisms. The combined use of culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses and enrichment culture techniques is an advantageous approach in investigating subsurface microbial ecosystems. Enrichment culture methods allow the evaluation of potential activities and functions. Microbiological investigations revealed few aerobic cultivable, in part hitherto unknown, micro-organisms in deep submarine sediments and basaltic lava flows. 16S rDNA sequencing of isolates from sediment revealed the next relatives to be members of the genera Halomonas, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus. Within the Pseudomonadaceae the closest relative is Acinetobacter sp., which was isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The next phylogenetical relatives within the Halomonadaceae are bacteria typically isolated from Soda lakes, which are considered as model of early life conditions. Interestingly, not only sediment bacteria could be obtained in pure culture. Aerobic strains could also be successfully isolated from the massive tholeiitic basalt layer at a depth of 76.16 mbsf (46 m below the sediment/basement contact). These particular isolates are gram-positive with low G+C content of DNA, phylogenetically affiliated to the phylum Firmicutes. The closest neighbors are e.g. a marine Bacillus isolated from the Gulf of Mexico and a low G+C gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the microbial flora in the deepest sea mud of the Mariana Trench, isolated from a depth of 10,897 m. Based on the similarity values, the isolates represent hitherto undescribed species of the deep

  19. Under the sea: microbial life in volcanic oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katrina J; Wheat, C Geoffrey; Sylvan, Jason B

    2011-10-01

    Exploration of the microbiology in igneous, 'hard rock' oceanic crust represents a major scientific frontier. The igneous crust harbours the largest aquifer system on Earth, most of which is hydrologically active, resulting in a substantial exchange of fluids, chemicals and microorganisms between oceanic basins and crustal reservoirs. Study of the deep-subsurface biosphere in the igneous crust is technically challenging. However, technologies have improved over the past decade, providing exciting new opportunities for the study of deep-seated marine life, including in situ and cross-disciplinary experimentation in microbiology, geochemistry and hydrogeology. In this Progress article, we describe the recent advances, available technology and remaining challenges in the study of the marine intraterrestrial microbial life that is harboured in igneous oceanic crust. PMID:21894169

  20. Oxidation of the ocean crust: When does it happen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Jennifer; Harris, Michelle; Teagle, Damon; Coggon, Rosalind; Alt, Jeff; Smith-Duque, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal circulation on the ridge flanks is responsible for removing over two thirds of the global hydrothermal heat flux and given the large volumes of fluids involved it has the potential to impart significant geochemical signatures into the ocean crust and oceans. Despite this global significance, two of the key parameters that will influence the heat and geochemical fluxes of ridge flank circulation, the distribution and timing, are poorly constrained. Ridge flank circulation is recorded by the ocean crust through the formation of secondary hydrothermal minerals that form in response to seawater/rock interaction. In the upper oceanic crust this alteration is characterised into secondary minerals formed under either oxidising or reducing conditions, where oxidising conditions suggest relatively open circulation and reducing conditions restricted circulation. These prevailing conditions are intimately linked to fluid pathways and their distribution in the crust and result in variations in the oxidation of the crust from primary values. The oxidation state of whole rock samples combined with the secondary minerals present therefore preserve a record of the prevailing conditions of hydrothermal alteration and can be used to investigate ridge flank fluid/rock reaction. In this study we use new and literature whole rock Fe3+/FeTOT ratios from a global sample set of ocean crust sampled by DSDP/ODP/IODP to investigate the timing and distribution of oxidation of the ocean crust. This data set represents the most comprehensive sampling of the ocean crust (0.3 - 170 Ma), and for each site accounts for variation in flow types, alteration type and crustal depth, allowing robust estimates for the overall oxidation state of each crustal site to be made and global trends to be deciphered. The vast majority of the dataset has a range in oxidation state of 18-60% Fe3+/FeTOT, where 18% represents the general pre-alteration value of the crust, indicating that nearly all

  1. Deep-ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts and nodules may provide a future resource for a large variety of metals, including many that are essential for emerging high- and green-technology applications. A brief review of nodules and crusts provides a setting for a discussion on the latest (past 10 years) research related to the geochemistry of sequestration of metals from seawater. Special attention is given to cobalt, nickel, titanium, rare earth elements and yttrium, bismuth, platinum, tungsten, tantalum, hafnium, tellurium, molybdenum, niobium, zirconium, and lithium. Sequestration from seawater by sorption, surface oxidation, substitution, and precipitation of discrete phases is discussed. Mechanisms of metal enrichment reflect modes of formation of the crusts and nodules, such as hydrogenetic (from seawater), diagenetic (from porewaters), and mixed diagenetic–hydrogenetic processes.

  2. Generation of continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Everson, E. D.; Holbrook, W. S.; Vance, E.

    2014-12-01

    The origin of continental crust is still an unsolved mystery in the evolution of our planet. Although the best candidates to produce juvenile continental crust are intra-oceanic arcs these systems are dominated by basaltic lavas, and when silicic magmas are produced, the incompatible-element compositions are generally too depleted to be a good match for continental crust estimates. Others, such as the W. Aleutians, are dominated by andesitic melts with trace element compositions similar to average continental crust. In order to evaluate which intra-oceanic arcs produced modern continental crust, we developed a geochemical continental index (CI) through a statistical analysis that compared all available data from modern intra-oceanic arcs with global estimates of continental crust. Our results suggest that magmas from Costa Rica (<10 Ma) have a CI <50, closer to the CI (~20) computed from available average continental crust estimates. Transitional CI values of 50-100 were found in the Aleutians, the Iwo-Jima segment of Izu-Bonin, the L. Antilles, Panama, Nicaragua, and Vanuatu. The geochemical signature of the Costa Rican lavas is controlled by melts from the subducting Galapagos tracks. Iwo-Jima and Vanuatu are in a similar tectonic scenario with subducting intraplate seamounts. Melts from the subducting oceanic crust are thought to significantly control the geochemical signature in the W. Aleutians and Panama. In the L. Antilles and E. Aleutians the continental signature may reflect recycling of a component derived from subducting continental sediments. Most of Izu-Bonin, Marianas, S. Scotia and Tonga arcs with a CI >100 have the least continent-like geochemical signatures. In these arcs the subducting plate is old (>100 Ma), not overprinted by enriched intraplate volcanism and the geochemistry may be dominated by slab-derived, aqueous fluids. We also found a strong correlation between the CI and average crustal P-wave velocity, validating the geochemical index

  3. Another one bites the rust: Microbes weathering subsurface oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B.

    2014-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere consists of deeply buried sediment and igneous oceanic crust; yet, the existence, extent, and activity of life hosted in igneous oceanic crust is considerably less understood than in the sedimentaty realm. The role of microbial metabolic reactions in altering basaltic crust is not yet clear. This presentation will summarize what is currently known or speculated about rates of microbial activity in crust, focusing on the cycling of iron and oxygen, based on data from a few basalt-dominated sites that have been examined recently, including the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the Dorado Outcrop. Microbial community diversity, activity and genomic data will seek to address the question: how do you think microbes get along without iron when it's gone?

  4. FERROMANGANESE CRUST RESOURCES IN THE PACIFIC AND ATLANTIC OCEANS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, R.F.; Clark, A.; Johnson, Chad; Manheim, F. T.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Lane, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts on raised areas of the ocean floor have joined abyssal manganese nodules and hydrothermal sulfides as potential marine resources. Significant volumes of cobalt-rich (about 1% Co) crusts have been identified to date within the US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the Central Pacific: in the NW Hawaiian Ridge and Seamount region and in the seamounts in the Johnston Island and Palmyra Island regions. Large volumes of lower grade crusts, slabs, and nodules are also present in shallow ( greater than 1000 m) waters on the Blake plateau, off Florida-South Carolina in the Atlantic Ocean. Data on ferromanganese crusts have been increased by recent German and USGS cruises, but are still sparse, and other regions having crust potential are under current investigation. The authors discuss economic potentials for cobalt-rich crusts in the Central Pacific and Western North Atlantic oceans, with special reference to US EEZ areas. Additional research is needed before more quantitative resource estimates can be made.

  5. Primitive layered gabbros from fast-spreading lower oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Kathryn M.; Snow, Jonathan E.; Klaus, Adam; Abe, Natsue; Adrião, Álden B.; Akizawa, Norikatsu; Ceuleneer, Georges; Cheadle, Michael J.; Faak, Kathrin; Falloon, Trevor J.; Friedman, Sarah A.; Godard, Marguerite; Guerin, Gilles; Harigane, Yumiko; Horst, Andrew J.; Hoshide, Takashi; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jean, Marlon M.; John, Barbara E.; Koepke, Juergen; Machi, Sumiaki; Maeda, Jinichiro; Marks, Naomi E.; McCaig, Andrew M.; Meyer, Romain; Morris, Antony; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Saha, Abhishek; Wintsch, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Three-quarters of the oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges is composed of plutonic rocks whose mineral assemblages, textures and compositions record the history of melt transport and crystallization between the mantle and the sea floor. Despite the importance of these rocks, sampling them in situ is extremely challenging owing to the overlying dykes and lavas. This means that models for understanding the formation of the lower crust are based largely on geophysical studies and ancient analogues (ophiolites) that did not form at typical mid-ocean ridges. Here we describe cored intervals of primitive, modally layered gabbroic rocks from the lower plutonic crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge, sampled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program at the Hess Deep rift. Centimetre-scale, modally layered rocks, some of which have a strong layering-parallel foliation, confirm a long-held belief that such rocks are a key constituent of the lower oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Geochemical analysis of these primitive lower plutonic rocks--in combination with previous geochemical data for shallow-level plutonic rocks, sheeted dykes and lavas--provides the most completely constrained estimate of the bulk composition of fast-spreading oceanic crust so far. Simple crystallization models using this bulk crustal composition as the parental melt accurately predict the bulk composition of both the lavas and the plutonic rocks. However, the recovered plutonic rocks show early crystallization of orthopyroxene, which is not predicted by current models of melt extraction from the mantle and mid-ocean-ridge basalt differentiation. The simplest explanation of this observation is that compositionally diverse melts are extracted from the mantle and partly crystallize before mixing to produce the more homogeneous magmas that erupt.

  6. Primitive layered gabbros from fast-spreading lower oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Kathryn M; Snow, Jonathan E; Klaus, Adam; Abe, Natsue; Adrião, Alden B; Akizawa, Norikatsu; Ceuleneer, Georges; Cheadle, Michael J; Faak, Kathrin; Falloon, Trevor J; Friedman, Sarah A; Godard, Marguerite; Guerin, Gilles; Harigane, Yumiko; Horst, Andrew J; Hoshide, Takashi; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jean, Marlon M; John, Barbara E; Koepke, Juergen; Machi, Sumiaki; Maeda, Jinichiro; Marks, Naomi E; McCaig, Andrew M; Meyer, Romain; Morris, Antony; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Saha, Abhishek; Wintsch, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Three-quarters of the oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges is composed of plutonic rocks whose mineral assemblages, textures and compositions record the history of melt transport and crystallization between the mantle and the sea floor. Despite the importance of these rocks, sampling them in situ is extremely challenging owing to the overlying dykes and lavas. This means that models for understanding the formation of the lower crust are based largely on geophysical studies and ancient analogues (ophiolites) that did not form at typical mid-ocean ridges. Here we describe cored intervals of primitive, modally layered gabbroic rocks from the lower plutonic crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge, sampled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program at the Hess Deep rift. Centimetre-scale, modally layered rocks, some of which have a strong layering-parallel foliation, confirm a long-held belief that such rocks are a key constituent of the lower oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Geochemical analysis of these primitive lower plutonic rocks--in combination with previous geochemical data for shallow-level plutonic rocks, sheeted dykes and lavas--provides the most completely constrained estimate of the bulk composition of fast-spreading oceanic crust so far. Simple crystallization models using this bulk crustal composition as the parental melt accurately predict the bulk composition of both the lavas and the plutonic rocks. However, the recovered plutonic rocks show early crystallization of orthopyroxene, which is not predicted by current models of melt extraction from the mantle and mid-ocean-ridge basalt differentiation. The simplest explanation of this observation is that compositionally diverse melts are extracted from the mantle and partly crystallize before mixing to produce the more homogeneous magmas that erupt.

  7. Anorthositic oceanic crust in the Archean Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoutz, E.; Dawson, J. B.; Hoernes, S.; Spettel, B.; Waenke, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrapure minerals separated from eclogite inclusions in kimberlites were analyzed for Sm, Nd, Sr, and oxygen isotopes and for major and trace elements. Clinopyroxene (cpx) and garnet (gnt) are the only primary mineral phases in these rocks, and mineral phases and their alteration products. The WR sub calc. is the reconstructed bulk composition excluding all the contamination influences. Two groups of eclogites: are distinguished: (1) type A Noritic-anorthositic eclogites; and (2) type B Ti-ferrogabbroic eclogites. The oxygen isotopes are primary mantle-derived features of these rocks and are not caused by posteruption processes, as they were measured on unaltered, clean mineral separates and show a correlation with REE pattern and Sr and Nd isotopes. It is suggested that the variation of the oxygen isotopes are caused by crustal-level fluid-rock interaction at relatively low temperature. It is shown that oxygen isotopes variation in MORB basalts caused by the hydrothermal system are in the same range as the observed oxygen isotope variation in eclogites. A model to explain the new set of data is proposed. It is thought that some of these eclogites might be emplaced into the upper lithosphere or lower crust at the time corresponding to their internal isochron age. The calculated WR composition was used to estimate model ages for these rocks.

  8. Lithospheric transition from the Variscan Iberian Massif to the Jurassic oceanic crust of the Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernàndez, M.; Marzán, I.; Torne, M.

    2004-08-01

    A 1000-km-long lithospheric transect running from the Variscan Iberian Massif (VIM) to the oceanic domain of the Northwest African margin is investigated. The main goal of the study is to image the lateral changes in crustal and lithospheric structure from a complete section of an old and stable orogenic belt—the Variscan Iberian Massif—to the adjacent Jurassic passive margin of SW Iberia, and across the transpressive and seismically active Africa-Eurasia plate boundary. The modelling approach incorporates available seismic data and integrates elevation, gravity, geoid and heat flow data under the assumptions of thermal steady state and local isostasy. The results show that the Variscan Iberian crust has a roughly constant thickness of ˜30 km, in opposition to previous works that propose a prominent thickening beneath the South Portuguese Zone (SPZ). The three layers forming the Variscan crust show noticeable thickness variations along the profile. The upper crust thins from central Iberia (about 20 km thick) to the Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ) and the NE region of the South Portuguese Zone where locally the thickness of the upper crust is <8 km. Conversely, there is a clear thickening of the middle crust (up to 17 km thick) under the Ossa Morena Zone, whereas the thickness of the lower crust remains quite constant (˜6 km). Under the margin, the thinning of the continental crust is quite gentle and occurs over distances of ˜200 km, resembling the crustal attitude observed further north along the West Iberian margins. In the oceanic domain, there is a 160-km-wide Ocean Transition Zone located between the thinned continental crust of the continental shelf and slope and the true oceanic crust of the Seine Abyssal Plain. The total lithospheric thickness varies from about 120 km at the ends of the model profile to less than 100 km below the Ossa Morena and the South Portuguese zones. An outstanding result is the mass deficit at deep lithospheric mantle levels required

  9. Magnetization of the oceanic crust: TRM or CRM?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Labrecque, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    A model was proposed in which chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) acquired within the first 20 Ma of crustal evolution may account for 80% of the bulk natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of older basalts. The CRM of the crust is acquired as the original thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) is lost through low temperature alteration. The CRM intensity and direction are controlled by the post-emplacement polarity history. This model explains several independent observations concerning the magnetization of the oceanic crust. The model accounts for amplitude and skewness discrepancies observed in both the intermediate wavelength satellite field and the short wavelength sea surface magnetic anomaly pattern. It also explains the decay of magnetization away from the spreading axis, and the enhanced magnetization of the Cretaceous Quiet Zones while predicting other systematic variations with age in the bulk magnetization of the oceanic crust. The model also explains discrepancies in the anomaly skewness parameter observed for anomalies of Cretaceous age. Further studies indicate varying rates of TRM decay in very young crust which depicts the advance of low temperature alteration through the magnetized layer.

  10. Helium isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basu, S.; Stuart, F.M.; Klemm, V.; Korschinek, G.; Knie, K.; Hein, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Helium isotopes have been measured in samples of two ferromanganese crusts (VA13/2 and CD29-2) from the central Pacific Ocean. With the exception of the deepest part of crust CD29-2 the data can be explained by a mixture of implanted solar- and galactic cosmic ray-produced (GCR) He, in extraterrestrial grains, and radiogenic He in wind-borne continental dust grains. 4He concentrations are invariant and require retention of less than 12% of the in situ He produced since crust formation. Loss has occurred by recoil and diffusion. High 4He in CD29-2 samples older than 42 Ma are correlated with phosphatization and can be explained by retention of up to 12% of the in situ-produced 4He. 3He/4He of VA13/2 samples varies from 18.5 to 1852 Ra due almost entirely to variation in the extraterrestrial He contribution. The highest 3He/4He is comparable to the highest values measured in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and micrometeorites (MMs). Helium concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than in oceanic sediments reflecting the low trapping efficiency for in-falling terrestrial and extraterrestrial grains of Fe-Mn crusts. The extraterrestrial 3He concentration of the crusts rules out whole, undegassed 4–40 μm diameter IDPs as the host. Instead it requires that the extraterrestrial He inventory is carried by numerous particles with significantly lower He concentrations, and occasional high concentration GCR-He-bearing particles.

  11. Hydrous Partial Melting Within the Deep Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, J.; Feig, S. T.; Snow, J.

    2003-12-01

    Our knowledge on the structure, composition, and mineralogy of the in-situ lower oceanic crust (layer 3) and the mechanism how it is formed is poor. Petrological models for its generation, seismic and thermal models require an effective cooling of the deep oceanic crust. The current model implies a conductive mechanism for the cooling, and hydrothermal circulation is regarded to play a small role in transport of heat and masses in the deep oceanic crust (Wilcock, 2003). Here we demonstrate that hydrothermal circulation within the gabbroic layer starts at much higher temperatures (900° - 1000° C) as up to now believed. Water-rich fluids causes hydrous partial melting in a large scale, which is manifested by characteristic microtextures visible within many investigated rocks of all reference locations for oceanic gabbros (sampled by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Legs 147, 153, 176) and from the Oman ophiolite). The observed process has the potential for significant transfer of heat and masses between the upper and lower oceanic crust. The interpretation of the observed microstructures as products of hydrous partial melting is based on experimental work. Water-saturated melting experiments on a variety of natural gabbros between 900 and 1000° C at 200 MPa produced silicic melts similar in composition to oceanic plagiogranites (Koepke et al., 2003 in press). The newly formed minerals form a characteristic paragenesis consisting of plagioclase, orthopyroxene and pargasitic amphibole. In all experiments the An content of the new plagioclases is higher compared to that of the protolith, even at the lowest investigated temperature. It can be observed that olivine and clinopyroxene of the protolith react to orthopyroxene and pargasite. Very similar features can be observed in the natural gabbros. The most striking feature are zones within the plagioclase grains showing a strong enrichment in An component, often with An contents which are 20 to 25 mol% higher than those

  12. Continental Crust Growth as a Result of Continental Collision: Ocean Crust Melting and Melt Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhou, S.; Zhu, D.; Dong, G.; Mo, X.; Xie, G.; Dong, X.

    2010-12-01

    The significance of the continental crust (CC) on which we live is self-evident. However, our knowledge remains limited on its origin, its way and rate of growth, and how it has acquired the “andesitic” composition from mantle derived magmas. Compared to rocks formed from mantle derived magmas in all tectonic settings, volcanic arc rocks associated with oceanic lithosphere subduction share some common features with the CC; both are relatively depleted in “fluid-insoluble” elements (e.g., Nb, Ta and Ti), but enriched in “fluid-soluble” elements (e.g., U, K and Pb). These chemical characteristics are referred to as the “arc-like signature”, and point to a genetic link between subduction-zone magmatism and CC formation, thus leading to the “island-arc” model widely accepted for the origin of the CC over the past 40 years. However, it has been recognized also that this “island-arc” model has several difficulties. These include (1) bulk arc crust (AC) is basaltic, whereas the bulk CC is andesitic [1]; (2) AC has a variably large Sr excess whereas the CC is Sr deficient [2]; and (3) AC production is mass-balanced by subduction-erosion and sediment recycling, thus contributing no new mass to CC growth, at least in the Phanerozoic [3,4]. Our data on magmatic rocks (both volcanic and intrusive) formed during the India-Asia continental collision (~65 - ~45Ma) [5] show a remarkable compositional similarity to the bulk CC with the typical “arc-like signature” [6]. Also, these syncollisional felsic rocks exhibit strong mantle isotopic signatures, implying that they were recently derived from a mantle source. The petrology and geochemistry of these syncollisional felsic rocks is most consistent with an origin via partial melting of upper oceanic crust (i.e., last fragments of underthrusting oceanic crust) under amphibolite facies conditions, adding net mantle-derived materials to form juvenile CC mass. This leads to the logical and testable hypothesis

  13. Primary carbonatite melt from deeply subducted oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Walter, M J; Bulanova, G P; Armstrong, L S; Keshav, S; Blundy, J D; Gudfinnsson, G; Lord, O T; Lennie, A R; Clark, S M; Smith, C B; Gobbo, L

    2008-07-31

    Partial melting in the Earth's mantle plays an important part in generating the geochemical and isotopic diversity observed in volcanic rocks at the surface. Identifying the composition of these primary melts in the mantle is crucial for establishing links between mantle geochemical 'reservoirs' and fundamental geodynamic processes. Mineral inclusions in natural diamonds have provided a unique window into such deep mantle processes. Here we provide experimental and geochemical evidence that silicate mineral inclusions in diamonds from Juina, Brazil, crystallized from primary and evolved carbonatite melts in the mantle transition zone and deep upper mantle. The incompatible trace element abundances calculated for a melt coexisting with a calcium-titanium-silicate perovskite inclusion indicate deep melting of carbonated oceanic crust, probably at transition-zone depths. Further to perovskite, calcic-majorite garnet inclusions record crystallization in the deep upper mantle from an evolved melt that closely resembles estimates of primitive carbonatite on the basis of volcanic rocks. Small-degree melts of subducted crust can be viewed as agents of chemical mass-transfer in the upper mantle and transition zone, leaving a chemical imprint of ocean crust that can possibly endure for billions of years. PMID:18668105

  14. Primary carbonatite melt from deeply subducted oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.J.; Bulanova, G.P.; Armstrong, L.S.; Keshav, S.; Blundy, J.D.; Gudfinnesson, G.; Lord, O.T.; Lennie, A.R.; Clark, S.M.; Smith, C.B.; Gobbo, L.

    2008-07-01

    Partial melting in the Earth's mantle plays an important part in generating the geochemical and isotopic diversity observed in volcanic rocks at the surface. Identifying the composition of these primary melts in the mantle is crucial for establishing links between mantle geochemical 'reservoirs' and fundamental geodynamic processes. Mineral inclusions in natural diamonds have provided a unique window into such deep mantle processes. Here they provide exper8imental and geochemical evidence that silicate mineral inclusions in diamonds from Juina, Brazil, crystallized from primary and evolved carbonatite melts in the mantle transition zone and deep upper mantle. The incompatible trace element abundances calculated for a melt coexisting with a calcium-titanium-silicate perovskite inclusion indicate deep melting of carbonated oceanic crust, probably at transition-zone depths. Further to perovskite, calcic-majorite garnet inclusions record crystallization in the deep upper mantle from an evolved melt that closely resembles estimates of primitive carbonatite on the basis of volcanic rocks. Small-degree melts of subducted crust can be viewed as agents of chemical mass-transfer in the upper mantle and transition zone, leaving a chemical imprint of ocean crust that can possibly endure for billions of years.

  15. Exploring the oceanic crust deep biosphere through subsurface borehole observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, Beth

    2015-04-01

    During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 327 and 336, several new subsurface borehole observatories were installed in oceanic crust, with a primary motivation to access the deep biosphere in these poorly understood environments. These new observatories have enabled unprecedented opportunities to collect high-quality samples for microbiological analysis, including metagenomic and single cell genomic investigations of the unique microbial communities living "on the rocks." This presentation will provide an overview of recent discoveries, focusing on the observatories on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank and highlighting adaptations to life in the subsurface gleaned from genomic approaches. The presentation will also highlight opportunities for continued observatory-based research within the International Ocean Discovery Program.

  16. Magnetism of the oceanic crust: Evidence from ophiolite complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.K.

    1980-07-10

    The magnetic properties of six ophiolite complexes from around the world, ranging in age from Jurassic to Miocene, are presented. An emphasis is placed in our study on the petrologic and isotopic data from these ophiolite complexes in order to determine first whether the rock samples presently available represent the pristine ocean crust or whether they have been altered subaerially since their formation. Five of the ophiolites are found to be acceptable, and the conclusion is overwhelmingly in favor of a marine magnetic source layer that includes not only the pillow lavas but also the underlying dikes and gabbro. At the moment, however, our observations do not suggest that the magnetic contributions of the basaltic dikes should be overlooked in favor of gabbro. A second important conclusion is that nearly pure magnetite could indeed be a magnetic carrier which contributes to marine magnetic anomanies. It only awaits discovery by deeper ocean crustal penetration by future Deep Sea Drilling Project legs.

  17. Stability of hydrous phases in subducting oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, J.; Bohlen, S.R.; Ernst, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments in the basalt-H2O system at 600-950??C and 0.8-3.0 GPa, demonstrate that breakdown of amphibole represents the final dehydration of subducting oceanic tholeiite at T ??? 650??C; the dehydration H2O occurs as a free fluid or in silicate melt co-existing with an anhydrous eclogite assemblage. In contrast, about 0.5 wt% of H2O is stored in lawsonite at 600??C, 3.0 GPa. Our results suggest that slab melting occurs at depths shallower than 60 km for subducting young oceanic crust; along a subduction zone with an average thermal gradient higher than 7??C/km, H2O stored in hydrated low-potassium, metabasaltic layers cannot be subducted to depths greater than 100 km, then released to generate arc magma.

  18. Colonization of subsurface microbial observatories deployed in young ocean crust

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Beth N; Bach, Wolfgang; Becker, Keir; Fisher, Andrew T; Hentscher, Michael; Toner, Brandy M; Wheat, C Geoffrey; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic crust comprises the largest hydrogeologic reservoir on Earth, containing fluids in thermodynamic disequilibrium with the basaltic crust. Little is known about microbial ecosystems that inhabit this vast realm and exploit chemically favorable conditions for metabolic activities. Crustal samples recovered from ocean drilling operations are often compromised for microbiological assays, hampering efforts to resolve the extent and functioning of a subsurface biosphere. We report results from the first in situ experimental observatory systems that have been used to study subseafloor life. Experiments deployed for 4 years in young (3.5 Ma) basaltic crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge record a dynamic, post-drilling response of crustal microbial ecosystems to changing physical and chemical conditions. Twisted stalks exhibiting a biogenic iron oxyhydroxide signature coated the surface of mineral substrates in the observatories; these are biosignatures indicating colonization by iron oxidizing bacteria during an initial phase of cool, oxic, iron-rich conditions following observatory installation. Following thermal and chemical recovery to warmer, reducing conditions, the in situ microbial structure in the observatory shifted, becoming representative of natural conditions in regional crustal fluids. Firmicutes, metabolic potential of which is unknown but may involve N or S cycling, dominated the post-rebound bacterial community. The archaeal community exhibited an extremely low diversity. Our experiment documented in situ conditions within a natural hydrological system that can pervade over millennia, exemplifying the power of observatory experiments for exploring the subsurface basaltic biosphere, the largest but most poorly understood biotope on Earth. PMID:21107442

  19. Paleomagnetic constraints on deformation of superfast-spread oceanic crust exposed at Pito Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, A. J.; Varga, R. J.; Gee, J. S.; Karson, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The uppermost oceanic crust produced at the superfast spreading (˜142 km Ma-1, full-spreading rate) southern East Pacific Rise (EPR) during the Gauss Chron is exposed in a tectonic window along the northeastern wall of the Pito Deep Rift. Paleomagnetic analysis of fully oriented dike (62) and gabbro (5) samples from two adjacent study areas yield bootstrapped mean remanence directions of 38.9° ± 8.1°, -16.7° ± 15.6°, n = 23 (Area A) and 30.4° ± 8.0°, -25.1° ± 12.9°, n = 44 (Area B), both are significantly distinct from the Geocentric Axial Dipole expected direction at 23° S. Regional tectonics and outcrop-scale structural data combined with bootstrapped remanence directions constrain models that involve a sequence of three rotations that result in dikes restored to subvertical orientations related to (1) inward-tilting of crustal blocks during spreading (Area A = 11°, Area B = 22°), (2) clockwise, vertical-axis rotation of the Easter Microplate (A = 46°, B = 44°), and (3) block tilting at Pito Deep Rift (A = 21°, B = 10°). These data support a structural model for accretion at the southern EPR in which outcrop-scale faulting and block rotation accommodates spreading-related subaxial subsidence that is generally less than that observed in crust generated at a fast spreading rate exposed at Hess Deep Rift. These data also support previous estimates for the clockwise rotation of crust adjacent to the Easter Microplate. Dike sample natural remanent magnetization (NRM) has an arithmetic mean of 5.96 A/m ± 3.76, which suggests that they significantly contribute to observed magnetic anomalies from fast- to superfast-spread crust.

  20. Recycling of geochemically heterogenous oceanic crust: Significance for the origin of ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggen, S.; Hoernle, K.; Hauff, F.; Park, S.-H.; Geldmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Explaining the isotopic signature and origin of ocean island basalts (OIBs) is a challenge in Earth sciences. There is general agreement that lithospheric material, recycled into the Earth's mantle, is involved in the mantle sources of OIBs. The relative roles, however, of 1) subducted marine sediments, 2) altered oceanic basaltic crust (AOC), 3) oceanic lithospheric mantle and/or 4) delaminated metasomatised subcontinental lithosphere and continental lower crust, however, are much debated. We present results from geochemical modeling in the Sr-Nd-Pb-isotope space following a new approach that takes into account the trace element and isotope heterogeneity of subducted oceanic crust (sediments + AOC). By means of backward and forward modeling, we examine how a geochemically heterogeneous package of oceanic crust may evolve in terms of Sr-Nd-Pb-isotopic composition through time and compare the results with present day radiogenic isotope ratios of OIBs. Our study suggests that recycling of AOC, modified during the subduction process, and stored in the Earth's mantle for several hundreds of millions of years can explain the Sr-Nd-Pb-isotopic composition of OIBs with relatively high Nd-isotope ratios that form elongated fields along or below the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL) in the Pb-isotopic diagrams (e.g. Canaries, Galapagos, Iceland, Madeira). Explaining the origin of OIBs with relatively low Nd-isotope ratios and Pb-isotopic composition above the NHRL, and thus geochemical affinity to enriched mantle (EM) components (e.g. Pitcairn, Tristan, Samoa), however, seems to also require recycling of other lithospheric material such as subducted sediments, lower continental crust and/or subcontinental lithosphere.

  1. Dating low-temperature alteration of the upper oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, L. A.; Hinton, R. W.; Gillis, K. M.; Dosso, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Off-axis hydrothermal systems lead to extensive chemical exchange between the oceans and upper oceanic crust but it is unclear when this exchange occurs. We address this using a new dating approach and via the re-evaluation of existing data that contain age information. We have developed a method to directly date adularia, a common alkali-rich phase in old oceanic crust, using the 40K to 40Ca radiogenic decay system. In situ analysis, using the Cameca 1270 ion microprobe at the University of Edinburgh, allows small, replacive, secondary mineral grains to be analyzed. In comparison to previous radiogenic dating of low-temperature secondary minerals, using Rb-Sr and K-Ar approaches on mineral separates, this approach has the advantages that: (i) analysis is not limited to large, void filling, grains; (ii) the initial isotopic ratio is well constrained; (iii) contamination and phase heterogeneity are minimized; and (iv) the daughter isotope is relatively immobile. However, the requirement to analyse doubly charged ions, to reduce molecular interferences and suppress the presence of 40K on 40Ca, leads to low count rates [1]; e.g. single spot ages have uncertainties of 10's of millions of years. Combining all analyses for a given sample gives best fitting instantaneous precipitation "ages" of 102 and 70 Myr for DSDP Holes 417A and 543A (versus crustal ages of 120 and 80 Myr). The scatter in the data are consistent with adularia precipitation over >30 Myr. The timing of carbonate precipitation in the upper oceanic crust can be constrained from comparison of their 87Sr/86Sr to the seawater Sr-isotope curve if the proportion of basaltic Sr in the fluid can be constrained. Modeling such data from 12 drill cores shows that they are best fit by a model in which >90% of carbonate precipitation occurs over ≤20 Myr after crustal formation [2]. Evaluation of published Rb-Sr "isochron" data [3,4] shows that these data can be explained in different ways. The "isochron

  2. Evidence for oceanic crust in the Herodotus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Roi

    2016-04-01

    Some of the fundamental tectonic problems of the Eastern Mediterranean remain unresolved due to the extremely thick sedimentary cover (10 to 15 km) and the lack of accurate magnetic anomaly data. I have collected 7,000 km of marine magnetic profiles (2012-2014) across the Herodotus and Levant Basins, Eastern Mediterranean, to study the nature and age of the underlying igneous crust. The towed magnetometer array consisted of two Overhauser sensors recording the total magnetic anomaly field in a longitudinal gradiometer mode, and a fully oriented vector magnetometer. The total field data from the Herodotus Basin reveal a newly detected short sequence of long-wavelength NE-SW lineated anomalies that straddle the entire basin suggesting a deep two-dimensional magnetic source layer. The three components of the magnetic vector data indicate that an abrupt transition from a 2D to 3D magnetic structure occurs east of the Herodotus Basin, along where a prominent NE-SW gravity feature is found. Altogether, these new findings confirm that the Herodotus Basin preserves remnants of oceanic crust that formed along the Neotethyan mid-ocean ridge system. The continuous northward and counterclockwise motion of the African Plate during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic allow predicting the evolution of remanent magnetization directions, which in-turn dictate that shape of the anomalies. The shape of the Herodotus anomalies best fit Late Carboniferous to Early Permian (300±20 Myr old) magnetization directions. Finally, I will discuss the implications of these results on the tectonic architecture of the region as well as on various geodynamic processes.

  3. Crust-ocean interactions during midocean ridge eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, E. T.

    2011-12-01

    Eruptions are the "quantum event" of crustal accretion, occurring daily to monthly (depending on spreading rate) along the global midocean ridge system. The number of eruptions detected and responded to remain very few, however, so our knowledge of the magnitude and rate of crust-ocean interaction at the instant of an eruption is almost entirely circumstantial. The discovery of uniquely different plumes over a 2008 eruption on the NE Lau spreading center greatly broadened the known range of eruption-initiated transfer of heat, chemicals, and perhaps biota from the crust to the ocean. Serendipitous observations and rapid response cruises have now documented that the "event (mega-) plumes" accompanying eruptions range over a factor of 100 in volume (1-150 km3), yet maintain a distinctive and consistent chemical signature (much lower 3He/heat and Mn/heat and higher H2/heat than typical black smokers). Confirmed event plumes have formed at spreading rates from 55-~90 mm/yr, with some incompletely sampled but "event-like" plumes observed at even slower rates (11-30 mm/yr; Gakkel and Carlsberg Ridges). Presently, only four event plumes can be associated with specific eruptions. Large event plumes in the NE Pacific were found over thick (up to ~75 m), voluminous, and slowly extruded pillow mounds. The 2008 eruption on the fast-spreading NE Lau spreading center demonstrated that thin (a few meters), small, and rapidly emplaced sheet flows can generate smaller event plumes. Available evidence suggests that massive fluid discharge occurs virtually simultaneously with an eruption. At Gorda Ridge in 1996, eruption-indicative seismicity began on the same day and location an event plume was found. At Axial Volcano in 1998, moorings 2 km apart both recorded the appearance of a >100-m-thick plume within minutes of the start of a 72-min-long sheet flow eruption. These observations support inferences from plume modeling and chemistry that event plume generation time is hours, not

  4. Ancient oceanic crust in island arc lower crust: Evidence from oxygen isotopes in zircons from the Tanzawa Tonalitic Pluton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazue; Kitajima, Kouki; Sawaki, Yusuke; Hattori, Kentaro; Hirata, Takafumi; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the lithological variability and genesis of island arc crust is important for understanding continental growth. Although the volcanic architecture of island arcs is comparatively well known, the nature of island arc middle- and lower-crust remains uncertain owing to limited exposure. One of the best targets for deciphering the evolution of an island arc system is the Tanzawa Tonalites (4-9 Ma), in the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. These tonalities which occupied a mid-crustal position were generated by partial melting of lower crust. To constrain protoliths of the plutonic rocks in the island arc lower crust, in-situ O-isotopic analysis using an IMS-1280 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer was carried out on 202 zircon grains separated from 4 plutons in the Tanzawa Tonalite. δ18O value of the zircons ranges from 4.1‰ to 5.5‰ and some zircons have δ18O slightly lower than the mantle range. The low zircon δ18O values from the Tanzawa Tonalite suggest that their protoliths involved materials with lower δ18O values than those of the mantle. Hydrothermally altered gabbros in the lower oceanic crust often have lower δ18O values than mantle and can be primary components of arc lower crust. The Tanzawa Tonalite is interpreted to have been formed by partial melting of island arc lower crust. Thus the low δ18O values in zircons from the Tanzawa Tonalites may originate by melting of the hydrothermally altered gabbro. Ancient oceanic crustal material was likely present in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc lower crust, at the time of formation of the Tanzawa Tonalites.

  5. Heterogeneity, anisotropy, and compartmentalization of fluid, heat, and solute transport in the upper ocean crust on ridge flanks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A. T.; Becker, K.; Wheat, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    The volcanic oceanic crust is the largest aquifer on Earth, containing as much water as is stored worldwide in icecaps and glaciers. Much of this fluid is in motion, transporting heat and solutes across vast distances, transforming Earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Experiments completed as part of recent scientific ocean drilling expeditions are helping to quantify the nature of hydrogeologic processes within the upper oceanic crust on ridge flanks, resolving driving forces, and defining the extent and variability of fluid flow pathways. Although the upper oceanic crust is often idealized as having a simple geometry, its complex formation and evolution, through a variety of tectonic and geochemical processes, results in development of an intricate network of hydrogeologic channels and compartments. In some areas, drilling, sampling and measurements demonstrate that fluids travel tens of kilometers along continuous paths between hydrothermal recharge and discharge sites, but samples taken from adjacent locations indicate significant differences in fluid composition, suggesting the lack of a hydrologic connection. Long-term observatory data and samples, and fluids extracted from sediment cores collected from just above basement, also indicate preferred orientations in fluid, heat, and solute transport. Reconciling these disparate observations requires acknowledging the complexity of the ocean crustal hydrothermal reservoir. Controlled perturbation and long-term monitoring experiments help to test the extent of hydrologic connectivity at the spatial and temporal scales of global hydrologic processes.

  6. U Mineral Hosts and Enrichment Processes in Altered Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, L. C.; Plank, T.; Kelley, K.; Alt, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    The U-Pb-Th isotopic system is a primary tool for understanding mantle and continental evolution and for quantifying the flow of mass and heat through the Earth's reservoirs. One of the major sites of U-Pb-Th fractionation is the oceanic crust, which is a sink for seawater U. For example, the upper, oxidized oceanic crust (U ~0.4ppm) may be as much as 4x enriched over pristine igneous values (U ~0.09ppm) with a minor net change in Pb and Th. Little, however, is understood about the mechanisms controlling uranium enrichment, its mineral hosts, or the timing of the process. We have used laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron microprobe data to study the distribution of U in the oldest sampled crust in the Pacific, Jurassic mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from ODP Site 801C (1000 km seaward of the Mariana trench), formed at fast spreading rates. Seventeen thin sections, 8 with the highest whole rock U content (HUC) (0.61-1.7ppm) and 9 with low U content (LUC) (U <0.4ppm) were analyzed in detail. Twelve of the thin sections contain various types of carbonates (veins, vugs, vesicles, and inter-flow material) in a variety of crystal morphologies (radial, inclusion-rich, and sparry). A 50-micron laser beam was rastered across various alteration zones, such as halos, veins, and the surrounding host to provide in-situ multi-element analysis (U, Th, Pb, REE, alkalis, etc). HUC are exclusively associated with low-Mg calcites (< 1wt% Mg), whereas LUC are typically associated with high-Mg calcites (10-20 wt% Mg). U also correlates positively with Sr and negatively with total rare earth element (REE) concentration. High U carbonates inherit the seawater REE pattern with both HREE and LREE enrichment, whereas LUC inherit the LREE depletion of the MORB host. Thus, there appear to be distinct generations of fluids that precipitate carbonate; those with the high Sr and low REE of seawater tend to precipitate U-rich calcites (up to 4.5 ppm U

  7. Evolving morphology of thermochemical piles caused by accumulation of subducted oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic tomography results have shown two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the lowermost mantle beneath Africa and Pacific. The LLSVPs have been hypothesized to be caused by large-scale compositional heterogeneity. Two hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of this compositional heterogeneity: (1) primordial material formed during Earth's early differentiation, and (2) accumulations of subducted oceanic crust on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Previous geodynamical calculations often show that stable thermochemical piles caused by primordial material have sharp boundaries. So, if the accumulation of subducted oceanic crust has different morphology than that of piles caused by primordial material, we may be able to constrain the origin of compositional heterogeneity from high resolution seismic observations of the boundaries of LLSVPs.Here, we performed geodynamic calculations to investigate the morphology of accumulation of subducted oceanic crust on the CMB. We found that the ability of subducted oceanic crust to accumulate on the CMB and the sharpness of the boundaries of the accumulations both strongly depends on the crustal thickness. A thick (e.g., ~30 km) oceanic crust produced from the early hot mantle can form into large-scale accumulations on the CMB, but with fuzzy and diffuse top boundaries. However, as the oceanic crust becomes thinner, it becomes more difficult to accumulate on the CMB, and the top boundaries of the accumulations of subducted oceanic crust also gradually become sharp, more like that of piles caused by primordial material. Thus, a sharp top boundaries of LLSVPs in the present-day Earth does not guarantee that they are caused by piles of primordial material. In addition, as the oceanic crust becomes thinner, more subducted oceanic crust is entrained and recycled to shallow depth, which may have important implications for geochemical observations on Earth's surface.

  8. Post-glacial ocean acidification and the decline of reefal microbial crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riding, R.; Liang, L.; Braga, J.

    2011-12-01

    Data from Pacific, Indian Ocean and Caribbean coral reefs indicate marked Late Pleistocene to Holocene decline in the maximum thickness of microbial carbonate crusts in reef cavities. Using estimated values of pH, temperature, CO2, and ionic composition, we calculated calcite saturation ratio (Ωcalcite) of tropical surface seawater for the past 16 Ka. This shows a declining trend of Ωcalcite, paralleling that of reefal microbial crust thickness. We suggest that thinning of reefal microbial crusts could reflect decrease in seawater carbonate saturation due to ocean acidification in response to deglacial CO2 increase. Previously, decline in reefal microbial crusts, for example at Tahiti in the Pacific Ocean, has mainly been attributed to changes in nutrient supply associated with ocean upwelling and/or terrestrial run-off. Ocean acidification does not preclude such effects on microbial crust development produced by localized changes, but two features in particular are consistent with a global link with carbonate saturation state. Firstly, post-glacial decline in reefal microbial crust thickness affected tropical coral reefs in several oceans. Secondly, seawater carbonate saturation is a major long-term control on microbial carbonate abundance; microbially-induced biocalcification requires elevated seawater saturation for CaCO3 minerals and can be expected to fluctuate with carbonate saturation. In addition to compiling published crust thickness data, we measured thicknesses of microbial carbonate crusts in cavities in Tahiti reefs sampled by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program coring in 2005. This indicates halving of maximum crust thickness, during the same period as steep decline in mean-ocean calcite saturation, near the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Reefal microbial crusts have been common since skeletal reefs became widespread during the Ordovician Period, 475 Ma ago. The habitat for cryptic crusts expanded as scleractinian corals developed cavernous

  9. Partial separation of halogens during the subduction of oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachim, Bastian; Pawley, Alison; Lyon, Ian; Henkel, Torsten; Clay, Patricia L.; Ruzié, Lorraine; Burgess, Ray; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2014-05-01

    Incompatible elements, such as halogens, have the potential to act as key tracers for volatile transport processes in Earth and planetary systems. The determination of halogen abundances and ratios in different mantle reservoirs gives us the ability to better understand volatile input mechanisms into the Earth's mantle through subduction of oceanic crust. Halogen partition coefficients were experimentally determined between forsterite, orthopyroxene and silicate melt at pressures ranging from 1.0 to 2.3 GPa and temperatures ranging from 1500-1600°C, thus representing partial melting conditions of the Earth's mantle. Combining our data with results of recent studies (Beyer et al. 2012; Dalou et al. 2012) shows that halogen partitioning between forsterite and melt increases by factors of about 1000 (fluorine) and 100 (chlorine) between 1300°C and 1600°C and does not show any pressure dependence. Chlorine partitioning between orthopyroxene and melt increases by a factor of about 1500 for a temperature increase of 100°C (anywhere between 1300°C and 1600°C), but decreases by a factor of about 1500 for a pressure increase of 1.0 GPa (anywhere between 1.0 GPa and 2.5 GPa). At similar P-T conditions, a comparable effect is observed for the fluorine partitioning behaviour, which increases by 500-fold for a temperature increase of 100°C and decreases with increasing pressure. Halogen abundances in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB; F=3-15, Cl=0.5-14ppm) and ocean island basalts (OIB; F=35-65, Cl=21-55 ppm) source regions were estimated by combining our experimentally determined partition coefficients with natural halogen concentrations in oceanic basalts (e.g. Ruzié et al. 2012). The estimated chlorine OIB source mantle concentration is in almost perfect agreement with primitive mantle estimates (Palme and O'Neill 2003). If we expect an OIB source mantle slightly depleted in incompatible elements, this suggests that at least small amounts of chlorine are recycled deep

  10. Oceanic crust formation in the Egeria Fracture Zone Complex (Central Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Minor, Marine; Gaina, Carmen; Sigloch, Karin; Minakov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse in detail the oceanic crust fabric and volcanic features (seamounts) formed for the last 10 million years at the Central Indian Ridge between 19 and 21 latitude south. Multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data has been collected in 2013 as part of the French-German expedition RHUM-RUM (Reunion hotspot and upper mantle - Reunion's unterer mantel). Three long profiles perpendicular on the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), south of the Egeria fracture zone, document the formation of oceanic crust since 10 million years, along with changes in plate kinematics and variations in the magmatic input. We have inspected the abyssal hill geometry and orientation along conjugate oceanic flanks and within one fracture zone segment where we could identify J-shaped features that are indicators of changes in plate kinematics. The magnetic anomaly data shows a slight asymmetry in seafloor spreading rates on conjugate flanks: while a steady increase in spreading rate from 10 Ma to the present is shown by the western flank, the eastern part displays a slowing down from 5 Ma onwards. The deflection of the anti J-shaped abyssal hill lineations suggest that the left-stepping Egeria fracture zone complex (including the Egeria, Flinders and an un-named fracture zone to the southeast) was under transpression from 9 to 6 Ma and under transtension since 3 Ma. The transpressional event was triggered by a clockwise mid-ocean ridge reorientation and a decrease of its offset, whereas the transtensional regime was probably due to a counter-clockwise change in the spreading direction and an increase of the ridge offset. The new multibeam data along the three profiles reveal that crust on the eastern side is smoother (as shown by the abyssal hill number and structure) and hosts several seamounts (with age estimations of 7.67, 6.10 and 0.79 Ma), in contrast to the rougher conjugate western flank. Considering that the western flank was closer to the Reunion plume, and therefore

  11. Deformation and rupture of the oceanic crust may control growth of Hawaiian volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Got, Jean-Luc; Monteiller, Vadim; Monteux, Julien; Hassani, Riad; Okubo, Paul

    2008-01-24

    Hawaiian volcanoes are formed by the eruption of large quantities of basaltic magma related to hot-spot activity below the Pacific Plate. Despite the apparent simplicity of the parent process--emission of magma onto the oceanic crust--the resulting edifices display some topographic complexity. Certain features, such as rift zones and large flank slides, are common to all Hawaiian volcanoes, indicating similarities in their genesis; however, the underlying mechanism controlling this process remains unknown. Here we use seismological investigations and finite-element mechanical modelling to show that the load exerted by large Hawaiian volcanoes can be sufficient to rupture the oceanic crust. This intense deformation, combined with the accelerated subsidence of the oceanic crust and the weakness of the volcanic edifice/oceanic crust interface, may control the surface morphology of Hawaiian volcanoes, especially the existence of their giant flank instabilities. Further studies are needed to determine whether such processes occur in other active intraplate volcanoes.

  12. Deformation and rupture of the oceanic crust may control growth of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Got, J.-L.; Monteiller, V.; Monteux, J.; Hassani, R.; Okubo, P.

    2008-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes are formed by the eruption of large quantities of basaltic magma related to hot-spot activity below the Pacific Plate. Despite the apparent simplicity of the parent process - emission of magma onto the oceanic crust - the resulting edifices display some topographic complexity. Certain features, such as rift zones and large flank slides, are common to all Hawaiian volcanoes, indicating similarities in their genesis; however, the underlying mechanism controlling this process remains unknown. Here we use seismological investigations and finite-element mechanical modelling to show that the load exerted by large Hawaiian volcanoes can be sufficient to rupture the oceanic crust. This intense deformation, combined with the accelerated subsidence of the oceanic crust and the weakness of the volcanic edifice/oceanic crust interface, may control the surface morphology of Hawaiian volcanoes, especially the existence of their giant flank instabilities. Further studies are needed to determine whether such processes occur in other active intraplate volcanoes. ??2008 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Inversion of ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) waveforms for oceanic crust structure: a synthetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueyan; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Yongshun John

    2016-08-01

    The waveform inversion method is applied—using synthetic ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) data—to study oceanic crust structure. A niching genetic algorithm (NGA) is used to implement the inversion for the thickness and P-wave velocity of each layer, and to update the model by minimizing the objective function, which consists of the misfit and cross-correlation of observed and synthetic waveforms. The influence of specific NGA method parameters is discussed, and suitable values are presented. The NGA method works well for various observation systems, such as those with irregular and sparse distribution of receivers as well as single receiver systems. A strategy is proposed to accelerate the convergence rate by a factor of five with no increase in computational complexity; this is achieved using a first inversion with several generations to impose a restriction on the preset range of each parameter and then conducting a second inversion with the new range. Despite the successes of this method, its usage is limited. A shallow water layer is not favored because the direct wave in water will suppress the useful reflection signals from the crust. A more precise calculation of the air-gun source signal should be considered in order to better simulate waveforms generated in realistic situations; further studies are required to investigate this issue.

  14. Noble gas transport during devolatilization of oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Smye, A.; Shuster, D. L.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Hesse, M. A.; Cooper, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Here we examine the role of slab dehydration in determining the elemental pattern of recycled noble gases. As a first step, we apply newly reported measurements of He-Ne-Ar (light noble gases) solubility and diffusivity in amphibole to parameterize a 1D diffusive-reaction transport model that simulates noble gas behavior during fluid loss from down-going oceanic crust. Recent experiments demonstrate that noble gases are highly soluble in ring-structured minerals, such as amphibole and other common hydrothermal products in slabs [1]. These results suggest that ring-structured minerals have the potential to strongly influence the budget of noble gases input into subduction zones and the elemental fractionations associated with volatile loss from slabs New measurements of He-Ne-Ar solubility in a suite of amphiboles have been completed utilizing the methodology described in [1]. These new measurements confirm that all light noble gases are highly soluble in amphibole, and that noble gas solubility correlates with the availability of unoccupied ring sites. New experimental measurements of He and Ne diffusivity have also been completed using a step-degassing approach at the Berkeley Geochronology Center. These measurements suggest that vacant ring sites in amphibole act to slow noble gas diffusion. We combine the newly acquired He and Ne diffusivity measurements with literature values for Ar diffusivity [2] to parameterize the diffusive-reaction transport model. Application of these data to the diffusive-reaction transport model yields several new insights. The relative mobility of Ne compared to Ar allows for efficient extraction of Ne from "hot" slabs by shallow depths (<50 km), while Ar is effectively retained to deeper depths, potentially past sub-arc conditions. Noble gas partition coefficients sharply increase with depth, following their increasing non-ideality in supercritical fluids, causing noble gases to partition back into minerals from any fluids retained in

  15. Seismic structure of the ~50 Myr fast and intermediate North Pacific oceanic crust off Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becel, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Webb, S. C.; Kuehn, H.

    2015-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles across North Pacific oceanic Plate off Alaska Peninsula reveal the internal structure of a mature oceanic crust (48-56Ma) formed at fast to intermediate spreading rates. MCS data exhibit a prominent shallow subbasement events interpreted as being the base of the layer 2A. This is the first time that those events are imaged on MCS profiles from a >10Myr oceanic crust. This new result suggests that layer 2A might persist over time as a relatively low seismic velocity layer. MCS data across fast-spreading oceanic crust formed during plate reorganization contain abundant bright reflections, mostly confined to the lower crust above a highly reflective Moho transition zone. The lower crustal events dip predominantly toward the paleo-ridge axis at ˜10-30°. Dipping events in the lower crust are absent on profiles acquired across the intermediate-spreading oceanic crust emplaced after plate re-organization, where a Moho reflection is weak or absent. Our preferred interpretation is that the dipping reflections arise from shear zones that form near the spreading center. The reflection amplitude strength of these events can be explained by a combination of solidified melt that was segregated within the shear structures, mylonitization of the shear zones, and crystal alignment. Formation of secondary shear zones with this geometry requires that the upper mantle moves away from the ridge faster than the crust in response to an active asthenospheric upwelling. The other possible interpretation is that dipping events are caused by magmatic layering associated with accretion from an axial magma chamber. Considering that the lower crustal dipping events have only been imaged in regions that have experienced plate re-organizations, we speculate that locally enhanced mantle flow associated with these settings may lead to differential motion between the crust and the uppermost mantle, and therefore to shearing in the ductile lower crust.

  16. The Red Sea analog for the early Gulf of Mexico: Salt basins on oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    New geophysical data from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Mexico support the concept that the early Gulf closely resembled the modern Red Sea. Oceanic crust like that now forming along the axis of the Red Sea basin may underlie much of the continental slope offshore Louisiana and Texas. Original depositional thicknesses greater than 4 km characterize both salt depocenters. The thickest salt overlies oceanic crust, probably for isostatic reasons. Deep crustal detachment faulting in a simple shear model with ductile flow below 15 km and narrow zones (up to 50 km) of severely extended crust on the hanging wall characterizes the early tectonic development. The landward edge of thick (> 2--4 km) salt generally follows the edge of oceanic crust, but the seaward edge is localized by depositional factors, modified by subsequent gravity spreading.

  17. IODP Expedition 345: Structural characteristics of fast spread lower ocean crust, implications for growth and cooling of ocean crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, B. E.; Ceuleneer, G.; Cheadle, M. J.; Harigane, Y.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 345 to the Hess Deep Rift sampled ~1 Ma, fast-spread East Pacific Rise gabbroic crust exposed as a dismembered, lower crustal section. Sixteen holes were drilled at Site U1415, centered on a sub-horizontal, 200-m wide E-W-trending bench between 4675 and 4850 mbsl. The bench was formed as a rotational slide within a 1km high slump along the southern wall of the intra-rift ridge. Primitive olivine gabbro and troctolite (Mg# 76-89) were sampled in four discrete, 30 to ≥ 65 m sized blocks formed by the mass wasting that dominates the southwestern slope of the ridge. Igneous fabric orientations (both layering and foliation) in the blocks vary from sub-vertical to gently dipping, suggesting some of the blocks have rotated at least 90°. Magmatic fabrics including spectacular modal and/or grain size layering are prevalent in >50% of the recovered core. Magmatic foliation in all blocks is defined by plagioclase crystal shape, but may also be defined by olivine and, to a lesser extent, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene when the crystals have suitable habits. In all cases, this foliation is controlled by both the preferred orientation and shape anisotropy of the crystals. Fabric intensity varies from moderate to strong in the block with simple modal layering, weak to absent in the two blocks of troctolite, and largely absent in the block with heterogeneous textures and/or diffuse banding. Intrinsic to the layering and banding is the common development of dendritic and/or skeletal olivine textures (grain size up to 3 cm). The preservation of these delicate olivine grains showing only limited subgrain formation, and no kinking precludes significant low melt fraction (<20%) crystal plastic flow of the cumulates. This observation prohibits ocean crust formation models that require homogeneous deformation/flow at low melt fractions. Down-temperature sub-solidus crystal plastic deformation and/or shear zones are virtually absent from the recovered core. Significant

  18. Age determination of mid-ocean ridge basalts by radiocarbon dating of lithified carbonate crusts

    SciTech Connect

    Kuptsov, V.M.; Bogdanov, Yu.A.; Palkina, A.M.; Lisitsyn, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    The processes that take place in the mid-ocean ridges are the key to their understanding of the evolution of the earth's crust and mantle. Mid-ocean ridge volcanism supplies vast masses of mantle material, forming new oceanic crust. In recent years, comprehensive study has been made of such processes. The problems of geochronology have an important place in these investigations, since only a study of the events in their time sequence will enable them to make a valid estimate of the intensity of these global processes. In 1980, crusts were obtained by the Pikar combined expedition in the Red Sea rift in the 18/sup 0/ study area on the lower tectonic terrace, in the axial zone, and in three deep water basins. Manned deep water submersible, dredges, trawls, bottom samplers, and impact tubes brought up basalts covered with lithified crusts, and also separate lithified crusts, collected from the basalt basement during sampling. The authors have dated the crusts by the radiocarbon method using the benzene technique. Results of the analysis give ages ranging from 2980 to 20,700 years. Results are discussed. The use of lithified carbonate crusts for determining the age of the basalts is effective within the range of the radiocarbon dating method (up to 40,000-45,000 years). This time interval is inaccessible for determinations by other methods of nuclear geochronology, which makes the method especially valuable. 1 reference, 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. Seismic structure of oceanic crust at ODP borehole 504B: Investigating anisotropy and layer 2 characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, E. P. M.; Hobbs, R. W.; Peirce, C.; Wilson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Fracture and fault networks in the upper oceanic crust influence the circulation of hydrothermal fluids and heat transfer between crust and ocean. These fractures form by extensional stresses, with a predominant orientation parallel to the ridge axis, creating porosity- and permeability-derived anisotropy that can be measured in terms of seismic velocity. These properties change as the crust ages and evolves through cooling, alteration and sedimentation. The rate at which these changes occur and their effects on oceanic crustal structure and hydrothermal flow patterns are currently not well constrained. The NERC-funded OSCAR project aims to understand the development of upper oceanic crust, the extent and influence of hydrothermal circulation on the crust, and the behavior of fluids flowing in fractured rock. We show P-wave velocity models centered on DSDP/ODP Hole 504B, located ~200 km south of the Costa Rica Rift, derived from data acquired during a recent integrated geophysics and oceanography survey of the Panama Basin. The data were recorded by 25 four-component OBSs deployed in a grid, that recorded ~10,000 full azimuthal coverage shots fired by a combined high- and low-frequency seismic source. Both reflection and refraction data are integrated to reveal the seismic velocity structure of the crust within the 25 km by 25 km grid. The down-hole geological structure of 6 Ma crust at 504B comprises 571.5 m of extrusive basalts overlying a 209 m transition zone of mixed pillows and dikes containing a clear alteration boundary, which grades to >1050 m of sheeted dikes. Our model results are compared with this lithological structure and other previously published results to better understand the nature of velocity changes within seismic layer 2. The data provide a 3D framework, which together with analysis of the S-wave arrivals and particle motion studies, constrain estimates of the seismic anisotropy and permeability structure of the upper oceanic crust as it

  20. Seawater recharge into oceanic crust: IODP Exp 327 Site U1363 Grizzly Bare outcrop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Hulme, Samuel M.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Orcutt, Beth N.; Becker, Keir

    2013-06-01

    Systematic differences in sediment thermal and pore water chemical profiles from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1363 document mixing and reaction within the basaltic crust adjacent to Grizzly Bare outcrop, a site of hydrothermal recharge into 3.6 My-old basaltic crust. A transect of seven holes was drilled ~50 m to ~750 m away from the base of the outcrop. Temperatures at the sediment-basement interface increase from ~6°C to >30°C with increasing distance from the outcrop, and heat flow is suppressed within several hundred meters from the outcrop. Calculated fluid compositions at the sediment-basement interface are generally explained by mixing between bottom seawater and altered crustal basement fluids, with a composition similar but not identical to fluids from seeps at Baby Bare outcrop, located ~45 km to the northeast. Reactions within upper basement and overlying sediment affect a variety of ions (Mn, Fe, Mo, Si, PO43-, V, and U) and δ13DIC, indicating a diagenetic influence and diffusive exchange with overlying sediment pore waters. The apparent 14C age of basal pore fluids is much older than bottom seawater. Collectively, these results are consistent with seawater recharge at Grizzly Bare outcrop; however, there are strong gradients in fluid composition within 50 m of the outcrop, providing evidence for complex flow paths and vigorous mixing of young, recently recharged seawater with much older, more reacted basement fluid. The proximity of these altered fluids to the edge of the outcrop raises the possibility for fluid seepage from the outcrop in addition to seawater recharge.

  1. The African Plate: A history of oceanic crust accretion and subduction since the Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, C.; Torsvik, T. H.; Labails, C.; van Hinsbergen, D.; Werner, S.; Medvedev, S.

    2012-04-01

    Initially part of Gondwana and Pangea, and now surrounded almost entirely by spreading centres, the African plate moved relatively slowly for the last 200 million years. Yet both Africa's cratons and passive margins were affected by tectonic stresses developed at distant plate boundaries. Moreover, the African plate was partly underlain by hot mantle (at least for the last 300 Ma) - either a series of hotspots or a superswell, or both - that contributed to episodic volcanism, basin-swell topography, and consequent sediment deposition, erosion, and structural deformation. A systematic study of the African plate boundaries since the opening of surrounding oceanic basins is presently lacking. This is mainly because geophysical data are sparse and there are still controversies regarding the ages of oceanic crust. The publication of individual geophysical datasets and more recently, global Digital Map of Magnetic Anomalies (WDMAM, EMAG2) prompted us to systematically reconstruct the ages and extent of oceanic crust around Africa for the last 200 Ma. Location of Continent Ocean Boundary/Continent Ocean Transition and older oceanic crust (Jurassic and Cretaceous) are updates in the light of gravity, magnetic and seismic data and models of passive margin formation. Reconstructed NeoTethys oceanic crust is based on a new model of microcontinent and intr-oceanic subduction zone evolution in this area.The new set of oceanic palaeo-age grid models constitutes the basis for estimating the dynamics of oceanic crust through time and will be used as input for quantifying the paleo-ridge push and slab pull that contributed to the African plate palaeo-stresses and had the potential to influence the formation of sedimentary basins.

  2. Trace element chemistry of zircons from oceanic crust: A method for distinguishing detrital zircon provenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimes, Craig B.; John, Barbara E.; Kelemen, P.B.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wooden, J.L.; Cheadle, Michael J.; Hanghoj, K.; Schwartz, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present newly acquired trace element compositions for more than 300 zircon grains in 36 gabbros formed at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges. Rare earth element patterns for zircon from modern oceanic crust completely overlap with those for zircon crystallized in continental granitoids. However, plots of U versus Yb and U/Yb versus Hf or Y discriminate zircons crystallized in oceanic crust from continental zircon, and provide a relatively robust method for distinguishing zircons from these environments. Approximately 80% of the modern ocean crust zircons are distinct from the field defined by more than 1700 continental zircons from Archean and Phanerozoic samples. These discrimination diagrams provide a new tool for fingerprinting ocean crust zircons derived from reservoirs like that of modern mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) in both modern and ancient detrital zircon populations. Hadean detrital zircons previously reported from the Acasta Gneiss, Canada, and the Narryer Gneiss terrane, Western Australia, plot in the continental granitoid field, supporting hypotheses that at least some Hadean detrital zircons crystallized in continental crust forming magmas and not from a reservoir like modern MORB. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  3. Geochronologic and isotopic study of the La Désirade island basement complex: Jurassic oceanic crust in the Lesser Antilles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattinson, James M.; Fink, L. Kenneth; Hopson, Clifford A.

    1980-01-01

    La Désirade, a small island east of Guadeloupe, is underlain by the only exposed pre-Tertiary basement rocks in the Lesser Antilles. The basement complex comprises spilitic and keratophyric flows and pillow lavas (with interbedded and overlying radiolarian cherts), swarms of mafic to silicic dikes, and subjacent plagiogranite. These features, and the absence of carbonates, terrigenous clastic sediments, or tuffaceous sediments from the complex indicate that it developed in a deep marine environment beyond the reach of terrigenous sedimentation or emergent island arc pyroclastic deposition. Previous workers have suggested that the Désirade basement complex originated either as oceanic crust or during an early (tholeiitic) stage of island arc growth. The isotopic compositions of Sr and Pb from the complex, and previously reported rare earth data (Johnston and Schilling, 1974) do not provide a clear distinction between these two possibilities. Nor does the presence of siliceous keratophyre in the complex rule out an oceanic crustal origin-such rocks are common in well studied ophiolites that originated as oceanic crust. Hence we turn to the age relationships of the complex, the surrounding ocean floor, and adjacent island arcs in an attempt to resolve this problem. The age of the complex strongly supports an oceanic crustal (ophiolitic) origin. The ages of zircons and a previously reported K-Ar age indicate that the complex is 145±5 m.y. old. The complex predates the next oldest volcanic rocks of the Lesser Antilles arc by ca. 110 m.y., and the oldest known rocks of the Aves Ridge, a possible Mesozoic precursor of the Lesser Antilles arc, by 50 60 m.y. This makes it unlikely that the Désirade complex is related to an early phase of either of these arcs. Instead, the age of the complex falls in the range of ages expected for oceanic crust in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles prior to the development of any subduction zone and resulting arc. Thus we interpret the

  4. Controls on ferromanganese crust composition and reconnaissance resource potential, Ninetyeast Ridge, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, James R.; Conrad, Tracey; Mizell, Kira; Banakar, Virupaxa K.; Frey, Frederick A.; Sager, William W.

    2016-04-01

    A reconnaissance survey of Fe-Mn crusts from the 5000 km long (~31°S to 10°N) Ninetyeast Ridge (NER) in the Indian Ocean shows their widespread occurrence along the ridge as well as with water depth on the ridge flanks. The crusts are hydrogenetic based in growth rates and discrimination plots. Twenty samples from 12 crusts from 9 locations along the ridge were analyzed for chemical and mineralogical compositions, growth rates, and statistical relationships (Q-mode factor analysis, correlation coefficients) were calculated. The crusts collected are relatively thin (maximum 40 mm), and those analyzed varied from 4 mm to 32 mm. However, crusts as thick as 80 mm can be expected to occur based on the age of rocks that comprise the NER and the growth rates calculated here. Growth rates of the crusts increase to the north along the NER and with water depth. The increase to the north resulted from an increased supply of Mn from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to depths below the OMZ combined with an increased supply of Fe at depth from the dissolution of biogenic carbonate and from deep-sourced hydrothermal Fe. These increased supplies of Fe increased growth rates of the deeper-water crusts along the entire NER. Because of the huge terrigenous (rivers, eolian, pyroclastic) and hydrothermal (three spreading centers) inputs to the Indian Ocean, and the history of primary productivity, Fe-Mn crust compositions vary from those analyzed from open-ocean locations in the Pacific. The sources of detrital material in the crusts change along the NER and reflect, from north to south, the decreasing influence of the Ganga River system and volcanic arcs located to the east, with increasing influence of sediment derived from Australia to the south. In addition, weathering of NER basalt likely contributed to the aluminosilicate fraction of the crusts. The southernmost sample has a relatively large detrital component compared to other southern NER crust samples, which was probably

  5. Silicon isotopes reveal recycled altered oceanic crust in the mantle sources of Ocean Island Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S.; Jackson, Matthew G.; Moreira, Manuel; Day, James M. D.

    2016-09-01

    The study of silicon (Si) isotopes in Ocean Island Basalts (OIB) has the potential to discern between different models for the origins of geochemical heterogeneities in the mantle. Relatively large (∼several per mil per atomic mass unit) Si isotope fractionation occurs in low-temperature environments during biochemical and geochemical precipitation of dissolved Si, where the precipitate is preferentially enriched in the lighter isotopes relative to the dissolved Si. In contrast, only a limited range (∼tenths of a per mil) of Si isotope fractionation has been observed from high-temperature igneous processes. Therefore, Si isotopes may be useful as tracers for the presence of crustal material within OIB mantle source regions that experienced relatively low-temperature surface processes in a manner similar to other stable isotope systems, such as oxygen. Characterizing the isotopic composition of the mantle is also of central importance to the use of the Si isotope system as a basis for comparisons with other planetary bodies (e.g., Moon, Mars, asteroids). Here we present the first comprehensive suite of high-precision Si isotope data obtained by MC-ICP-MS for a diverse suite of OIB. Samples originate from ocean islands in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean basins and include representative end-members for the EM-1, EM-2, and HIMU mantle components. On average, δ30Si values for OIB (-0.32 ± 0.09‰, 2 sd) are in general agreement with previous estimates for the δ30Si value of Bulk Silicate Earth (-0.29 ± 0.07‰, 2 sd; Savage et al., 2014). Nonetheless, some small systematic variations are present; specifically, most HIMU-type (Mangaia; Cape Verde; La Palma, Canary Islands) and Iceland OIB are enriched in the lighter isotopes of Si (δ30Si values lower than MORB), consistent with recycled altered oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle in their mantle sources.

  6. Millennial-scale ocean acidification and late Quaternary decline of cryptic bacterial crusts in tropical reefs.

    PubMed

    Riding, R; Liang, L; Braga, J C

    2014-09-01

    Ocean acidification by atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased almost continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM), 21,000 years ago. It is expected to impair tropical reef development, but effects on reefs at the present day and in the recent past have proved difficult to evaluate. We present evidence that acidification has already significantly reduced the formation of calcified bacterial crusts in tropical reefs. Unlike major reef builders such as coralline algae and corals that more closely control their calcification, bacterial calcification is very sensitive to ambient changes in carbonate chemistry. Bacterial crusts in reef cavities have declined in thickness over the past 14,000 years with largest reduction occurring 12,000-10,000 years ago. We interpret this as an early effect of deglacial ocean acidification on reef calcification and infer that similar crusts were likely to have been thicker when seawater carbonate saturation was increased during earlier glacial intervals, and thinner during interglacials. These changes in crust thickness could have substantially affected reef development over glacial cycles, as rigid crusts significantly strengthen framework and their reduction would have increased the susceptibility of reefs to biological and physical erosion. Bacterial crust decline reveals previously unrecognized millennial-scale acidification effects on tropical reefs. This directs attention to the role of crusts in reef formation and the ability of bioinduced calcification to reflect changes in seawater chemistry. It also provides a long-term context for assessing anticipated anthropogenic effects. PMID:25040070

  7. Millennial-scale ocean acidification and late Quaternary decline of cryptic bacterial crusts in tropical reefs.

    PubMed

    Riding, R; Liang, L; Braga, J C

    2014-09-01

    Ocean acidification by atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased almost continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM), 21,000 years ago. It is expected to impair tropical reef development, but effects on reefs at the present day and in the recent past have proved difficult to evaluate. We present evidence that acidification has already significantly reduced the formation of calcified bacterial crusts in tropical reefs. Unlike major reef builders such as coralline algae and corals that more closely control their calcification, bacterial calcification is very sensitive to ambient changes in carbonate chemistry. Bacterial crusts in reef cavities have declined in thickness over the past 14,000 years with largest reduction occurring 12,000-10,000 years ago. We interpret this as an early effect of deglacial ocean acidification on reef calcification and infer that similar crusts were likely to have been thicker when seawater carbonate saturation was increased during earlier glacial intervals, and thinner during interglacials. These changes in crust thickness could have substantially affected reef development over glacial cycles, as rigid crusts significantly strengthen framework and their reduction would have increased the susceptibility of reefs to biological and physical erosion. Bacterial crust decline reveals previously unrecognized millennial-scale acidification effects on tropical reefs. This directs attention to the role of crusts in reef formation and the ability of bioinduced calcification to reflect changes in seawater chemistry. It also provides a long-term context for assessing anticipated anthropogenic effects.

  8. Distribution of oceanic versus transitional crust in deep Gulf of Mexico Basin - implications for early history

    SciTech Connect

    Buffler, R.T.; Sawyer, D.S.

    1985-02-01

    Regional studies of seismic reflection and refraction data in the deep Gulf of Mexico basin outline in considerable detail the distribution of oceanic vs. transitional crust. Oceanic crust forms a narrow east-west belt up to 300 km wide across the deep Gulf. Most current models for early Gulf evolution suggest the belt was emplaced in the Late Jurassic following widespread deposition of salt on rifted and attenuated continental crust (transitional crust). The southern boundary is defined by a zone of prominent salt structures along the northern margin of the Sigsbee salt basin. The northern boundary is obscured below the Texas-Louisiana slope, but is inferred from the distribution of large vertical salt structures. The eastern boundary is clearly marked by onlap and pinch-out of thick Jurassic sedimentary sequences. This distribution is corroborated by regional magnetic and gravity data and total tectonic subsidence analysis, and provides constraints for early Gulf basin reconstructions. An appropriate reconstruction must account for plate motion accommodated by ocean crust formation and extension of continental crust. The data seem most consistent with a model in which the Yucatan block moved generally south and rotated somewhat counterclockwise. This reconstruction implies very little lateral displacement along transform faults between Yucatan and Florida during early basin history. This is supported by seismic stratigraphic studies and DSDP drilling in the southeastern Gulf.

  9. Contraction or expansion of the Moon's crust during magma ocean freezing?

    PubMed

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T; Bercovici, David

    2014-09-13

    The lack of contraction features on the Moon has been used to argue that the Moon underwent limited secular cooling, and thus had a relatively cool initial state. A cool early state in turn limits the depth of the lunar magma ocean. Recent GRAIL gravity measurements, however, suggest that dikes were emplaced in the lower crust, requiring global lunar expansion. Starting from the magma ocean state, we show that solidification of the lunar magma ocean would most likely result in expansion of the young lunar crust, and that viscous relaxation of the crust would prevent early tectonic features of contraction or expansion from being recorded permanently. The most likely process for creating the expansion recorded by the dikes is melting during cumulate overturn of the newly solidified lunar mantle.

  10. Contraction or expansion of the Moon's crust during magma ocean freezing?

    PubMed

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T; Bercovici, David

    2014-09-13

    The lack of contraction features on the Moon has been used to argue that the Moon underwent limited secular cooling, and thus had a relatively cool initial state. A cool early state in turn limits the depth of the lunar magma ocean. Recent GRAIL gravity measurements, however, suggest that dikes were emplaced in the lower crust, requiring global lunar expansion. Starting from the magma ocean state, we show that solidification of the lunar magma ocean would most likely result in expansion of the young lunar crust, and that viscous relaxation of the crust would prevent early tectonic features of contraction or expansion from being recorded permanently. The most likely process for creating the expansion recorded by the dikes is melting during cumulate overturn of the newly solidified lunar mantle. PMID:25114310

  11. Contraction or expansion of the Moon's crust during magma ocean freezing?

    PubMed Central

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Bercovici, David

    2014-01-01

    The lack of contraction features on the Moon has been used to argue that the Moon underwent limited secular cooling, and thus had a relatively cool initial state. A cool early state in turn limits the depth of the lunar magma ocean. Recent GRAIL gravity measurements, however, suggest that dikes were emplaced in the lower crust, requiring global lunar expansion. Starting from the magma ocean state, we show that solidification of the lunar magma ocean would most likely result in expansion of the young lunar crust, and that viscous relaxation of the crust would prevent early tectonic features of contraction or expansion from being recorded permanently. The most likely process for creating the expansion recorded by the dikes is melting during cumulate overturn of the newly solidified lunar mantle. PMID:25114310

  12. Hydrothermal Fluxes in Europan Ocean: The Effect of Seawater and Oceanic Crust Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, D.; Seyfried, W.

    2005-12-01

    The recent discovery of electrolyte-enriched liquid water layer in Jupiter icy satellite, Europa, has triggered numerous investigations to assess the chemical composition and physicochemical processes occurring within Europan ocean. Europa appears to be strongly differentiated composed by a metallic core and a hydrated silicate mantle. Thus, heat fluxes could be generated in the planetary core through radioactive decay stimulating volcanic events and serving as the driving force for subseafloor hydrothermal activity. Beyond doubt, the chemical composition of the seawater and the oceanic substrate on Europa plays a key role in regulating pH and redox reactions during presumed hydrothermal alteration processes. Hydrothermal alteration of basalt and peridotite, for example, will likely yield different pH conditions, with the ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system resulting in higher pH, significantly affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized sulfur and the metal fluxes. Incipient alteration of basalt and peridotite will also generate reducing conditions, although the H2/H2S ratio of the coexisting fluid will be higher in the ultramafic systems. An important chemical control on Europan ocean evolution is the redox state of the sulfur originated from the oceanic crust and the SO4-enriched neutral-alkaline seawater. In general, relatively alkaline and oxidizing conditions favor the formation of SO4, while more acidic and reducing conditions yield H2S(aq) stable. Thus, hydrothermal alteration of basalt and peridotite facilitates sulfate reduction, while constraints imposed by a more oxidizing mineral assemblage (e.g. hematite-magnetite-pyrite) would render low H2(aq) conditions inhibiting formation of reduced sulfate species. Extensive hydrothermal alteration of fresh basalt, however, forming epidote and anhydrite, would preclude phase equilibria involving hematite. Consequently, initial neutral pH would be shifted towards more acidic conditions, limiting by this way any

  13. Downscaling ocean conditions with application to the Gulf of Maine, Scotian Shelf and adjacent deep ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katavouta, Anna; Thompson, Keith R.

    2016-08-01

    The overall goal is to downscale ocean conditions predicted by an existing global prediction system and evaluate the results using observations from the Gulf of Maine, Scotian Shelf and adjacent deep ocean. The first step is to develop a one-way nested regional model and evaluate its predictions using observations from multiple sources including satellite-borne sensors of surface temperature and sea level, CTDs, Argo floats and moored current meters. It is shown that the regional model predicts more realistic fields than the global system on the shelf because it has higher resolution and includes tides that are absent from the global system. However, in deep water the regional model misplaces deep ocean eddies and meanders associated with the Gulf Stream. This is not because the regional model's dynamics are flawed but rather is the result of internally generated variability in deep water that leads to decoupling of the regional model from the global system. To overcome this problem, the next step is to spectrally nudge the regional model to the large scales (length scales > 90 km) of the global system. It is shown this leads to more realistic predictions off the shelf. Wavenumber spectra show that even though spectral nudging constrains the large scales, it does not suppress the variability on small scales; on the contrary, it favours the formation of eddies with length scales below the cutoff wavelength of the spectral nudging.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  15. Misho mafic complex - A part of paleotethyan oceanic crust or a magmatism in continental rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Zohreh; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Saccani, Emilio; Dilek, Yildirim

    2013-04-01

    Misho Mafic Complex (NW Iran) represents a significant component of the West Cimmerian domain in Paleo-Tethys. The Misho Mafic Complex (MMC) consists of gabbro (mainly) and norıte,olivine gabbro, anorthosite and diorite with the east- west sereight. MMC has ıntrussıved ın Kahar sedımrtery Infta- Cambrıan rocks, crosscut by abundant basaltic dykes and the overlying basaltic sheeted dyke complex. Kahar sedimentary rocks are representing the northern margin of Gondwana. Misho mafic complex are covered by Permian sedimentary rocks. The gabbros and basaltic dykes have MORB affinities. MMC formed as a product of interactions between a depleted MORB-type asthenosphere and plume-type material. Mafic rocks represent an early Carboniferous magmatic event developed during the continental break-up of the northern edge of Gondwanaland that led to the opening of Paleotethys. Alternatively, these magmas may have been emplaced into the continental crust at the continental margin soon after the oceanic crust was formed (that is the oceanic crust was still narrow). There is no data for discriminating between these two hypotheses. In first hypothesis MMC is a part of ophiolites related to paleotethyan oceanic crust and the rocks that were above this crustal level should have necessarily been eroded. In another hypothesis Misho complex represents an aborted rift in a triple junction. Above a mantle plume, the continental crust breaks along three directions at 120 degrees. But, soon after, the extension proceeds along two of these three direction. Between them is formed the oceanic crust. The continental extension along the third direction is aborted. Here no oceanic crust if formed and there is only rifted, thinned continental crust. But, also in the aborted branch MORB magmatism can occur for short time. In this hypothesis, the Misho complex was never associated with oceanic crust, but was anyway associated with the opening of the Paleotethys. This magmatism was originally

  16. Tectonic slicing of subducted oceanic crust along plate interfaces: numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruh, Jonas B.; Burov, Evgenii; Gerya, Taras; Agard, Philippe; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia

    2015-04-01

    Remains of high-pressure low-temperature metamorphic oceanic crust are observed within orogenic belts and along recent subduction zones all around the globe. Such blueshist and eclogite "slivers" can strongly vary in extend and experienced P-T-t evolution. To reveal the surficial occurrence of oceanic rocks that occasionally have been at depths down to ~ 80 km within subduction zones, two main processes have to be investigated individually: (i) Detachment of oceanic slivers from the down going plate preventing rocks to be consumed by the mantle, and (ii) exhumation of detached oceanic material to the surface. It has often been stated that the process of slicing and exhumation of oceanic blueshists and eclogites is closely related to continental subduction. Nevertheless, several examples worldwide show exhumation (and therefore latest possible detachment from slab) occurring early or intermediate of the subduction process. We present new insight into the mechanical processes of detachment of oceanic slivers and their exhumation independent of continental collision by using numerical modelling tools. Large-scale thermo-mechanical models (600 * 200 km) based on finite difference, marker-in-cell technique, are applied to test how serpentinised upper slab mantle (mantle serpentinisation at oceanic ridges or/and along to outer-rise normal faults) influences shallow and deep crustal detachment. Preliminary results show that a through-going serpentinite layer below the oceanic crust, if serpentinisation exceeds 50%, triggers slicing at wedge depths. Even if mechanical coupling mainly occurs at intermediate depths along the subduction interface, stresses within the oceanic crust are dispersed upward due to the weak, decoupling serpentinite layer. Unconnected patches of serpentinised upper slab mantle eventually lead to deep slicing, depending on upper plate serpentinisation due to slab dewatering. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of pressure-dependent fluid migration

  17. Imaging heterogeneity of the crust adjacent to the Dead Sea fault using ambient seismic noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Vladimir; Meirova, Tatiana; Levshin, Anatoli; Hofstetter, Abraham; Kraeva, Nadezda; Barmin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    For the purpose of studying the Earth's crust by means of tomography, we investigated cross-correlation functions emerging from long-term observations of propagating ambient seismic noise at pairs of broadband stations in Israel and Jordan. The data was provided by the eight permanent broadband stations of the Israel Seismic Network evenly distributed over Israel and the 30 stations of the DESERT2000 experiment distributed across the Arava Fault (South of the Dead Sea basin). To eliminate the influence of earthquakes and explosions, we have applied the methodology of Bensen et al. (Geophys J Int 169:1239-1260, 2007), including bandpass filtering and amplitude normalization in time and frequency domain. The cross-correlation functions estimated from continuous recordings of a few months were used to extract Rayleigh waves group velocity dispersion curves using automatic version of the frequency-time analysis procedure. Subsequently, these curves have been converted into the Rayleigh wave group velocity maps in the period range 5-20 s and S waves velocity maps in the depth range 5-15 km. In these maps, four velocity anomalies are prominent. Two of them are outlined by the previous reflection-refraction profiles and body wave tomography studies, i.e. a low velocity anomaly corresponds to the area of the extremely deep (down to 14 km) sedimentary infill in the Southern Dead Sea Basin and a high velocity anomaly in the Southern Jordan corresponds to the area of the Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Nubian Shield on the flanks of the Red Sea. The two other anomalies have not been reported before - the high velocity zone close to the Beersheba city and the low velocity anomaly in the region of Samaria-Carmel mountains - Southern Galilee. They have relatively low resolution and hence need further investigations for approving and contouring. The highest contrast between the average Rayleigh wave group velocity (2.7 km/s) and the anomalies is 10-13 %, comparable, however

  18. Tectonic slicing of subducting oceanic crust along plate interfaces: Numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruh, J. B.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Agard, Ph.; Burov, E.; Gerya, T.

    2015-10-01

    Multikilometer-sized slivers of high-pressure low-temperature metamorphic oceanic crust and mantle are observed in many mountain belts. These blueschist and eclogite units were detached from the descending plate during subduction. Large-scale thermo-mechanical numerical models based on finite difference marker-in-cell staggered grid technique are implemented to investigate slicing processes that lead to the detachment of oceanic slivers and their exhumation before the onset of the continental collision phase. In particular, we investigate the role of the serpentinized subcrustal slab mantle in the mechanisms of shallow and deep crustal slicing. Results show that spatially homogeneous serpentinization of the sub-Moho slab mantle leads to complete accretion of oceanic crust within the accretionary wedge. Spatially discontinuous serpentinization of the slab mantle in form of unconnected patches can lead to shallow slicing of the oceanic crust below the accretionary wedge and to its deep slicing at mantle depths depending on the patch length, slab angle, convergence velocity and continental geothermal gradient. P-T paths obtained in this study are compared to natural examples of shallow slicing of the Crescent Terrane below Vancouver Island and deeply sliced crust of the Lago Superiore and Saas-Zermatt units in the Western Alps.

  19. Europa's Crust and Ocean: Origin, Composition, and the Prospects for Life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kargel, J.S.; Kaye, J.Z.; Head, J. W.; Marion, G.M.; Sassen, R.; Crowley, J.K.; Ballesteros, O.P.; Grant, S.A.; Hogenboom, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    We have considered a wide array of scenarios for Europa's chemical evolution in an attempt to explain the presence of ice and hydrated materials on its surface and to understand the physical and chemical nature of any ocean that may lie below. We postulate that, following formation of the jovian system, the europan evolutionary sequence has as its major links: (a) initial carbonaceous chondrite rock, (b) global primordial aqueous differentiation and formation of an impure primordial hydrous crust, (c) brine evolution and intracrustal differentiation, (d) degassing of Europa's mantle and gas venting, (e) hydrothermal processes, and (f) chemical surface alteration. Our models were developed in the context of constraints provided by Galileo imaging, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, and gravity and magnetometer data. Low-temperature aqueous differentiation from a carbonaceous CI or CM chondrite precursor, without further chemical processing, would result in a crust/ocean enriched in magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate, consistent with Galileo spectroscopy. Within the bounds of this simple model, a wide range of possible layered structures may result; the final state depends on the details of intracrustal differentiation. Devolatilization of the rocky mantle and hydrothermal brine reactions could have produced very different ocean/crust compositions, e.g., an ocean/crust of sodium carbonate or sulfuric acid, or a crust containing abundant clathrate hydrates. Realistic chemical-physical evolution scenarios differ greatly in detailed predictions, but they generally call for a highly impure and chemically layered crust. Some of these models could lead also to lateral chemical heterogeneities by diapiric upwellings and/or cryovolcanism. We describe some plausible geological consequences of the physical-chemical structures predicted from these scenarios. These predicted consequences and observed aspects of Europa's geology may serve as a basis for further analys is

  20. Geodynamic evolution of crust accretion at the axis of the Reykjanes Ridge, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkur'ev, S. A.; Demets, C.; Gurevich, N. I.

    2009-05-01

    The results of analysis of the anomalous magnetic field of the Reykjanes Ridge and the adjacent basins are presented, including a new series of detailed reconstructions for magnetic anomalies 1-6 in combination with a summary of the previous geological and geophysical investigations. We furnish evidence for three stages of evolution of the Reykjanes Ridge, each characterized by a special regime of crustal accretion related to the effect of the Iceland hotspot. The time interval of each stage and the causes of the variation in the accretion regime are considered. During the first, Eocene stage (54-40 Ma) and the third, Miocene-Holocene stage (24 Ma-present time at the northern Reykjanes Ridge north of 59° N and 17-11 Ma-present time at the southern Reykjanes Ridge south of 59° N), the spreading axis of the Reykjanes Ridge resembled the present-day configuration, without segmentation, with oblique orientation relative to the direction of ocean floor opening (at the third stage), and directed toward the hotspot. These attributes are consistent with a model that assumes asthenospheric flow from the hotspot toward the ridge axis. Decompression beneath the spreading axis facilitates this flow. Thus, the crustal accretion during the first and the third stages was markedly affected by interaction of the spreading axis with the hotspot. During the second, late Eocene-Oligocene to early Miocene stage (40-24 Ma at the northern Reykjanes Ridge and 40 to 17-11 Ma at the southern Reykjanes Ridge), the ridge axis was broken by numerous transform fracture zones and nontransform offsets into segments 30-80 km long, which were oriented orthogonal to the direction of ocean floor opening, as is typical of many slow-spreading ridges. The plate-tectonic reconstructions of the oceanic floor accommodating magnetic anomalies of the second stage testify to recurrent rearrangements of the ridge axis geometry related to changing kinematics of the adjacent plates. The obvious contrast in the

  1. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Crowley, John W; Katz, Richard F; Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H; Park, Sung-Hyun

    2015-03-13

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between oceans and continents, causing pressure changes in the upper mantle, with consequences for the melting of Earth's interior. Using Plio-Pleistocene sea-level variations as a forcing function, theoretical models of mid-ocean ridge dynamics that include melt transport predict temporal variations in crustal thickness of hundreds of meters. New bathymetry from the Australian-Antarctic ridge shows statistically significant spectral energy near the Milankovitch periods of 23, 41, and 100 thousand years, which is consistent with model predictions. These results suggest that abyssal hills, one of the most common bathymetric features on Earth, record the magmatic response to changes in sea level. The models and data support a link between glacial cycles at the surface and mantle melting at depth, recorded in the bathymetric fabric of the sea floor. PMID:25766231

  2. Microbial community on oceanic ferro-manganese crusts from Takuyo-Daigo Seamount and Ryusei Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitahara, S.; Kato, S.; Yamagishi, A.

    2012-12-01

    and Discussion We estimated the numbers of bacterial and archaeal cell on Mn crusts from Takuyo-Daigo seamount by QPCR. Bacterial cell number on Mn crust was estimated to be approximately 10^7 cells/g. Those of archaea were estimated to be between 10^6 and 10^7 cells/g. Archaea dominated in three of four Mn crust samples (50~83 % of total cell numbers). Microbial community of Mn crusts was different from those of sediment and seawater. This suggests that unique microbial community present on Mn crusts. Many phylotypes related to uncultured group were detected. Phylotypes closely related to Marine Group I (MGI) were detected from six Mn crust samples, collected from Takuyo-Daigo and Ryusei seamounts. MGI includes Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and is ubiquitously distributed in ocean (Karner et al., 2001). Phylotypes closely related to Nitrosospira, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), were detected from four Mn crusts collected from Takuyo-Daigo seamount. Presence of these ammonia oxidizers was supported by detection of bacterial and archaeal amoA genes. The copy numbers of bacterial and archaeal amoA genes were estimated to be approximately 10^5 -10^6 copy/g by QPCR. These facts suggest that ammonia oxidizers are present abundantly on Mn crusts. MGI and Nitrosospira include autotrophic ammonia oxidizers. These groups may play a role as primary producers in Mn crust ecosystems.

  3. Mass-dependent U isotopic variations in altered oceanic crust and volcanic arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymuth, H.; Andersen, M. B.; Elliott, T.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the effect of alteration of the oceanic crust and subduction zone processing on the 238U/235U ratio (typically expressed as δ238U or parts per thousand difference from the CRM 145 standard). This allows us to evaluate the potential of mass-dependent U isotope measurements to trace subduction components in arc magmas and the use of U isotopes as a tracer for deep crustal recycling. It has long been known that U is added to the oceanic crust during both low and high temperature alteration of the oceanic crust, whilst some of the subducted inventory of U is returned to the surface in arc lavas. We have measured the U isotopic compositions of samples from the altered, mafic, oceanic crust (AOC) at ODP site 801 as well as lavas erupted at the volcanic front of the Mariana arc. The former represents a reference site for studying the time-integrated influence of seafloor alteration and the latter constitute a well characterised sample set for which the role of slab-derived ';fluid' and sediment components can be separately recognised. The altered oceanic crust in ODP site 801 is compositionally variable and δ238U in different sections is correlated with indices of alteration such as Rb/Ba. It is similar to seawater in the top ˜100 m and isotopically heavier in deeper parts. These differences are likely to be caused by oxidizing conditions in the top part of the AOC and reducing conditions in deeper parts of the AOC and isotopic fractionation occurring during the alteration of the oceanic crust. The Mariana arc lavas span a range of ˜100 ppm in δ238U and vary systematically between seawater-like compositions in samples that have been previously identified as ';fluid-rich' and heavier values similar to fresh mantle-derived basalts in the more sediment-rich samples. These systematics indicate that either the light U in the upper mafic crust is preferentially lost to the arc lavas or that during slab dehydration of the AOC, U is fractionated to generate an

  4. Phylogenetic Diversity of Young Ocean Crust at the East Pacific Rise 9° N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santelli, C. M.; Bach, W.; Rogers, D. R.; Edwards, K. J.

    2004-12-01

    Numerous studies show increasing evidence for a significant biosphere in oceanic lithosphere. Geochemical modeling suggests that most biological activity at or below the seafloor occurs in young crust (<10 Ma) on mid-ocean ridge flanks where low-temperature fluid circulation is substantial. In this environment, oxygenated seawater reacts with basalt and releases chemical energy that could support the growth of microorganisms. Fluid fluxes rapidly decrease further off-axis in older, more altered crust likely leading to a sharp decline in biological activity. To date, most evidence in support of a deep biosphere relies on anomalous textural features and geochemical signatures in aged basalt glass. In order to unambiguously attribute these alteration features to microbial activity, molecular microbiological data is required to corroborate these morphological and chemical observations. The application of molecular techniques to old ocean crust, however, can be difficult because of issues such as low cell density, contamination, and sluggish activity. Hence, studies on young ocean crust may provide insight and constraints on processes that could also apply to older crust. In this study, we have investigated the initial colonization of very young mid-ocean ridge basalt by endolithic microorganisms, and the changes in microbial diversity as a result of increasing rock alteration. Seafloor basalt samples were collected during RV Atlantis cruise AT11-7 in February 2004, from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) between 9° 28'N and 9° 50'N. Samples representing various flow morphologies, glass contents, and ages (up to ˜20 kyrs) were collected by DSV Alvin and brought to the surface in bioboxes. All basalts contain glass that ranges from very fresh to slightly altered with Fe-oxidation rims and/or Mn-oxide crusts. Total community DNA was successfully extracted from glass samples representative of a variety of alteration states. Clone libraries were constructed from PCR products of

  5. Recycled oceanic crust observed in 'ghost plagioclase' within the source of Mauna Loa lavas

    PubMed

    Sobolev; Hofmann; Nikogosian

    2000-04-27

    The hypothesis that mantle plumes contain recycled oceanic crust is now widely accepted. Some specific source components of the Hawaiian plume have been inferred to represent recycled oceanic basalts, pelagic sediments or oceanic gabbros. Bulk lava compositions, however, retain the specific trace-element fingerprint of the original crustal component in only a highly attenuated form. Here we report the discovery of exotic, strontium-enriched melt inclusions in Mauna Loa olivines. Their complete trace-element patterns strongly resemble those of layered gabbros found in ophiolites, which are characterized by cumulus plagioclase with very high strontium abundances. The major-element compositions of these melts indicate that their composition cannot be the result of the assimilation of present-day oceanic crust through which the melts have travelled. Instead, the gabbro has been transformed into a (high-pressure) eclogite by subduction and recycling, and this eclogite has then been incorporated into the Hawaiian mantle plume. The trace-element signature of the original plagioclase is present only as a 'ghost' signature, which permits specific identification of the recycled rock type. The 'ghost plagioclase' trace-element signature demonstrates that the former gabbro can retain much of its original chemical identity through the convective cycle without completely mixing with other portions of the former oceanic crust.

  6. Recycled oceanic crust observed in 'ghost plagioclase' within the source of Mauna Loa lavas

    PubMed

    Sobolev; Hofmann; Nikogosian

    2000-04-27

    The hypothesis that mantle plumes contain recycled oceanic crust is now widely accepted. Some specific source components of the Hawaiian plume have been inferred to represent recycled oceanic basalts, pelagic sediments or oceanic gabbros. Bulk lava compositions, however, retain the specific trace-element fingerprint of the original crustal component in only a highly attenuated form. Here we report the discovery of exotic, strontium-enriched melt inclusions in Mauna Loa olivines. Their complete trace-element patterns strongly resemble those of layered gabbros found in ophiolites, which are characterized by cumulus plagioclase with very high strontium abundances. The major-element compositions of these melts indicate that their composition cannot be the result of the assimilation of present-day oceanic crust through which the melts have travelled. Instead, the gabbro has been transformed into a (high-pressure) eclogite by subduction and recycling, and this eclogite has then been incorporated into the Hawaiian mantle plume. The trace-element signature of the original plagioclase is present only as a 'ghost' signature, which permits specific identification of the recycled rock type. The 'ghost plagioclase' trace-element signature demonstrates that the former gabbro can retain much of its original chemical identity through the convective cycle without completely mixing with other portions of the former oceanic crust. PMID:10801125

  7. Deep mantle cycling of oceanic crust: evidence from diamonds and their mineral inclusions.

    PubMed

    Walter, M J; Kohn, S C; Araujo, D; Bulanova, G P; Smith, C B; Gaillou, E; Wang, J; Steele, A; Shirey, S B

    2011-10-01

    A primary consequence of plate tectonics is that basaltic oceanic crust subducts with lithospheric slabs into the mantle. Seismological studies extend this process to the lower mantle, and geochemical observations indicate return of oceanic crust to the upper mantle in plumes. There has been no direct petrologic evidence, however, of the return of subducted oceanic crustal components from the lower mantle. We analyzed superdeep diamonds from Juina-5 kimberlite, Brazil, which host inclusions with compositions comprising the entire phase assemblage expected to crystallize from basalt under lower-mantle conditions. The inclusion mineralogies require exhumation from the lower to upper mantle. Because the diamond hosts have carbon isotope signatures consistent with surface-derived carbon, we conclude that the deep carbon cycle extends into the lower mantle.

  8. Deep mantle cycling of oceanic crust: evidence from diamonds and their mineral inclusions.

    PubMed

    Walter, M J; Kohn, S C; Araujo, D; Bulanova, G P; Smith, C B; Gaillou, E; Wang, J; Steele, A; Shirey, S B

    2011-10-01

    A primary consequence of plate tectonics is that basaltic oceanic crust subducts with lithospheric slabs into the mantle. Seismological studies extend this process to the lower mantle, and geochemical observations indicate return of oceanic crust to the upper mantle in plumes. There has been no direct petrologic evidence, however, of the return of subducted oceanic crustal components from the lower mantle. We analyzed superdeep diamonds from Juina-5 kimberlite, Brazil, which host inclusions with compositions comprising the entire phase assemblage expected to crystallize from basalt under lower-mantle conditions. The inclusion mineralogies require exhumation from the lower to upper mantle. Because the diamond hosts have carbon isotope signatures consistent with surface-derived carbon, we conclude that the deep carbon cycle extends into the lower mantle. PMID:21921159

  9. Microbial Inventory of Deeply Buried Oceanic Crust from a Young Ridge Flank.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Steffen L; Zhao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The deep marine biosphere has over the past decades been exposed as an immense habitat for microorganisms with wide-reaching implications for our understanding of life on Earth. Recent advances in knowledge concerning this biosphere have been achieved mainly through extensive microbial and geochemical studies of deep marine sediments. However, the oceanic crust buried beneath the sediments, is still largely unexplored with respect to even the most fundamental questions related to microbial life. Here, we present quantitative and qualitative data related to the microbial inventory from 33 deeply buried basaltic rocks collected at two different locations, penetrating 300 vertical meters into the upper oceanic crust on the west flank of the Mid-Atlantic spreading ridge. We use quantitative PCR and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to estimate cell abundances and to profile the community structure. Our data suggest that the number of cells is relatively stable at ~10(4) per gram of rock irrespectively of sampling site and depth. Further, we show that Proteobacteria, especially Gammaproteobacteria dominate the microbial assemblage across all investigated samples, with Archaea, in general, represented by < 1% of the community. In addition, we show that the communities within the crust are distinct from the overlying sediment. However, many of their respective microbial inhabitants are shared between the two biomes, but with markedly different relative distributions. Our study provides fundamental information with respect to abundance, distribution, and identity of microorganisms in the upper oceanic crust. PMID:27303398

  10. Microbial Inventory of Deeply Buried Oceanic Crust from a Young Ridge Flank.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Steffen L; Zhao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The deep marine biosphere has over the past decades been exposed as an immense habitat for microorganisms with wide-reaching implications for our understanding of life on Earth. Recent advances in knowledge concerning this biosphere have been achieved mainly through extensive microbial and geochemical studies of deep marine sediments. However, the oceanic crust buried beneath the sediments, is still largely unexplored with respect to even the most fundamental questions related to microbial life. Here, we present quantitative and qualitative data related to the microbial inventory from 33 deeply buried basaltic rocks collected at two different locations, penetrating 300 vertical meters into the upper oceanic crust on the west flank of the Mid-Atlantic spreading ridge. We use quantitative PCR and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to estimate cell abundances and to profile the community structure. Our data suggest that the number of cells is relatively stable at ~10(4) per gram of rock irrespectively of sampling site and depth. Further, we show that Proteobacteria, especially Gammaproteobacteria dominate the microbial assemblage across all investigated samples, with Archaea, in general, represented by < 1% of the community. In addition, we show that the communities within the crust are distinct from the overlying sediment. However, many of their respective microbial inhabitants are shared between the two biomes, but with markedly different relative distributions. Our study provides fundamental information with respect to abundance, distribution, and identity of microorganisms in the upper oceanic crust.

  11. Microbial Inventory of Deeply Buried Oceanic Crust from a Young Ridge Flank

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Steffen L.; Zhao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The deep marine biosphere has over the past decades been exposed as an immense habitat for microorganisms with wide-reaching implications for our understanding of life on Earth. Recent advances in knowledge concerning this biosphere have been achieved mainly through extensive microbial and geochemical studies of deep marine sediments. However, the oceanic crust buried beneath the sediments, is still largely unexplored with respect to even the most fundamental questions related to microbial life. Here, we present quantitative and qualitative data related to the microbial inventory from 33 deeply buried basaltic rocks collected at two different locations, penetrating 300 vertical meters into the upper oceanic crust on the west flank of the Mid-Atlantic spreading ridge. We use quantitative PCR and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to estimate cell abundances and to profile the community structure. Our data suggest that the number of cells is relatively stable at ~104 per gram of rock irrespectively of sampling site and depth. Further, we show that Proteobacteria, especially Gammaproteobacteria dominate the microbial assemblage across all investigated samples, with Archaea, in general, represented by < 1% of the community. In addition, we show that the communities within the crust are distinct from the overlying sediment. However, many of their respective microbial inhabitants are shared between the two biomes, but with markedly different relative distributions. Our study provides fundamental information with respect to abundance, distribution, and identity of microorganisms in the upper oceanic crust. PMID:27303398

  12. Dating the growth of oceanic crust at a slow-spreading ridge.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joshua J; John, Barbara E; Cheadle, Michael J; Miranda, Elena A; Grimes, Craig B; Wooden, Joseph L; Dick, Henry J B

    2005-10-28

    Nineteen uranium-lead zircon ages of lower crustal gabbros from Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge, constrain the growth and construction of oceanic crust at this slow-spreading midocean ridge. Approximately 75% of the gabbros accreted within error of the predicted seafloor magnetic age, whereas approximately 25% are significantly older. These anomalously old samples suggest either spatially varying stochastic intrusion at the ridge axis or, more likely, crystallization of older gabbros at depths of approximately 5 to 18 kilometers below the base of crust in the cold, axial lithosphere, which were uplifted and intruded by shallow-level magmas during the creation of Atlantis Bank.

  13. Dating the growth of oceanic crust at a slow-spreading ridge.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joshua J; John, Barbara E; Cheadle, Michael J; Miranda, Elena A; Grimes, Craig B; Wooden, Joseph L; Dick, Henry J B

    2005-10-28

    Nineteen uranium-lead zircon ages of lower crustal gabbros from Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge, constrain the growth and construction of oceanic crust at this slow-spreading midocean ridge. Approximately 75% of the gabbros accreted within error of the predicted seafloor magnetic age, whereas approximately 25% are significantly older. These anomalously old samples suggest either spatially varying stochastic intrusion at the ridge axis or, more likely, crystallization of older gabbros at depths of approximately 5 to 18 kilometers below the base of crust in the cold, axial lithosphere, which were uplifted and intruded by shallow-level magmas during the creation of Atlantis Bank. PMID:16254183

  14. Dating the growth of oceanic crust at a slow-spreading ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, J.J.; John, Barbara E.; Cheadle, Michael J.; Miranda, E.A.; Grimes, Craig B.; Wooden, J.L.; Dick, H.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen uranium-lead zircon ages of lower crustal gabbros from Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge, constrain the growth and construction of oceanic crust at this slow-spreading midocean ridge. Approximately 75% of the gabbros accreted within error of the predicted seafloor magnetic age, whereas ???25% are significantly older. These anomalously old samples suggest either spatially varying stochastic intrusion at the ridge axis or, more likely, crystallization of older gabbros at depths of ???5 to 18 kilometers below the base of crust in the cold, axial lithosphere, which were uplifted and intruded by shallow-level magmas during the creation of Atlantis Bank.

  15. Tectonic evolution and continental crust growth of Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China: Remnant ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin-Qin; Ji, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Lei; Gong, Jun-Feng; Zhou, Jing; He, Guo-Qi; Zhong, Da-Lai; Wang, Jin-Duo; Griffiths, Lee

    2013-11-01

    The Northern Xinjiang region is located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, also known as the Altaid Tectonic Collage). Despite extensive research aimed at understanding the crustal growth of the CAOB and the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, the tectonic evolution mechanism of continental crust growth in Northern Xinjiang remains controversial. The geology of Northern Xinjiang is characterized by widespread ophiolites, granitoids, intermediate-basic dikes. Most of the ophiolites were generated in the early Paleozoic. The ophiolites are widely spread around the Junggar Basin, but their distribution does not indicate a well-defined band. Their outcrops are generally related to various faults. The basic rocks widespread in Northern Xinjiang are grouped into two categories: (i) gabbros, diabases basalts of the ophiolites and (ii) basic dikes that intrude into the Paleozoic strata granite plutons. The basic rocks associated with the early Paleozoic ophiolites were reworked by later geothermal events with a peak 40Ar/39Ar age of 310-290 Ma. The basic dikes intruded into Paleozoic strata and granite plutons during the Carboniferous-Jurassic, displaying three peaks of emplacement at 260-250 Ma, 220 Ma, and 200-190 Ma. These two types of basic rocks and the documented Variscan magmatic rocks were derived from the same source. Their isotope geochemical characteristics and widespread distribution suggest that since the Paleozoic, a large geochemical province has existed in Northern Xinjiang with an affinity to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB), which is related to a long-lived remnant ocean and the underlying early Paleozoic oceanic crust. The existence of remnant oceanic crust in Northern Xinjiang was confirmed by seismic, gravity and aeromagnetic data. Therefore, we propose the following remnant ocean model for the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of Northern Xinjiang. It consists of three stages: 1) oceanic crust

  16. A comparison of the seismic structure of oceanic island arc crust and continental accreted arc terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Amalgamation of island arcs and their accretion to pre-existing continents is considered to have been one of the primary mechanisms of continental growth over the last 3 Ga, with arc terranes identified within Late Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic continental crust. Crustal-scale seismic refraction surveys can provide P wave velocity models that can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, and although they indicate some velocity variation in accreted arcs, these terranes have significantly lower velocities, and are hence significantly more felsic, than modern island arcs. Modern oceanic arcs exhibit significant variations in crustal thickness, from as little as 10 km in the Bonin arc to 35 km in the Aleutian and northern Izu arcs. Although globally island arcs appear to have a mafic composition, intermediate composition crust is inferred in central America and parts of the Izu arc. The absence of a sharp velocity contrast at the Moho appears to be a first order characteristic of island arc crust, and indicates the existence of a broad crust-mantle transition zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys complement refraction surveys by revealing structures associated with variations in density and seismic velocity at the scale of a few hundred meters or less to depths of 60 km or more. Surveys from the Mariana and Aleutian arcs show that modern middle and lower arc crust is mostly non-reflective, but reflections are observed from depths 5-25 km below the refraction Moho suggesting the localized presence of arc roots that may comprise gabbro, garnet gabbro, and pyroxenite within a broad transition from mafic lower crust to ultramafic mantle. Such reflective, high velocity roots are likely separated from the overlying arc crust prior to, or during arc-continent collision, and seismic reflections within accreted arc crust document the collisional process and final crustal architecture.

  17. Large scale isotopic Sr, Nd and O isotopic anatomy of altered oceanic crust: DSDP/ODP sites 417/418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, Hubert; Davies, G. R.; Hart, Stanley R.; Marchant, K. M.; Smith, Brian. M.

    1995-02-01

    Large-scale compositional domains at DSDP/ODP drill sites 417A, 417D and 418A were analyzed for O, Sr and Nd isotope ratios, and REE, U, K, Rb and Sr abundances, to constrain the bulk chemical composition of the oceanic crust that is recycled at subduction zones. The combination of the three sites gives the composition of the upper oceanic crust in this region over a distance of about 8 km. The δ 18O SMOW and 87Sr/ 86Sr meas of compositional domains 10-100 m in size correlate well, with a range of 7.7-19.2 and 0.70364-0.70744, and mean of 9.96 and 0.70475, respectively. The Rb inventory of the upper crust increases by about an order of magnitude, while Sr contents remain constant. U abundances increase moderately under oxidizing alteration conditions and nearly triple in the commonly reducing alteration environments of the upper oceanic crust. REEs are influenced by alteration only to a small extent, and recycled oceanic crust is similar to MORB with respect to 143Nd/ 144Nd. Even though the average composition of the upper oceanic crust is well defined, the large scale composition varies widely. Highly altered compositional domains may not have a large impact on the average composition of the oceanic crust, but they may preferentially contribute to fluids or partial melts derived from the crust by prograde metamorphic reactions.

  18. Forearc oceanic crust in the Izu-Bonin arc - new insights from active-source seismic survey -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, S.; Noguchi, N.; Takahashi, N.; Ishizuka, O.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Petrological studies have suggested that oceanic crust is formed in forearc areas during the initial stage of subduction. However, there is little geophysical evidence for the formation of oceanic crust in those regions. In order to examine crustal formation process associated with a subduction initiation process, we conducted an active-source seismic survey at a forearc region in the Izu-Bonin intra-oceanic arc. The resultant seismic image shows a remarkably thin crust (less than 10 km) at the northern half of the Bonin ridge (at the north of the Chichi-jima) and abrupt thickening the crust (~ 20 km thick) toward the south (at the Haha-jima). Comparison of velocity-depth profiles of the thin forearc crust of the Bonin ridge with those of typical oceanic crusts showed them to be seismologically identical. The observed structural variation also well corresponds to magmatic activities along the forearc. Boninitic magmatism is evident in the area of thin crust and tholeiitic-calcalkaline andesitic volcanism in the area of thick crust. Based on high precision dating studies of those volcanic rocks, we interpreted that the oceanic-type thin crust associated with boninitic volcanism has been created soon after the initiation of subduction (45-48 Ma) and and that the nonoceanic thick crust was created by tholeiitic-calcalkaline andesitic magmatism after the boninitic magmatism was ceased. The above seismological evidences strongly support the idea of forearc oceanic crust (or phiolite) created by forearc spreading in the initial stage of subduction along the intra-oceanic arc.

  19. Dismembered Archaean ophiolite in the southeastern Wind River Mountains, Wyoming: Remains of Archaean oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    Archean mafic and ultramafic rocks occur in the southeastern Wind River Mountains near Atlantic City, Wyoming and are interpreted to represent a dismembered ophiolite suite. The ophiolitic rocks occur in a thin belt intruded by the 2.6 Ga Louis Lake Batholith on the northwest. On the southeast they are in fault contact with the Miners Delight Formation comprised primarily of metagraywackes with minor calc-alkaline volcanics. The ophiolitic and associated metasedimentry rocks (Goldman Meadows Formation) have been multiply deformed and metamorphosed. The most prominant structures are a pronounced steeply plunging stretching lineation and steeply dipping foliation. These structural data indicate that the ophiolitic and associated metasedimentary rocks have been deformed by simple shear. The ophiolitic rocks are interpreted as the remains of Archean oceanic crust, probably formed at either a mid-ocean ridge or back-arc basin. All the units of a complete ophiolite are present except for upper mantle periodotities. The absence of upper mantle rocks may be the result of detactment within the crust, rather than within the upper mantle, during emplacement. This could have been the result of a steeper geothermal gradient in the Archean oceanic lithosphere, or may have resulted from a thicker oceanic crust in the Archean.

  20. Thin and layered subcontinental crust of the great Basin western north America inherited from Paleozoic marginal ocean basins?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, M.; McKee, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    The seismic profile of the crust of the northern part of the Basin and Range province by its thinness and layering is intermediate between typical continental and oceanic crust and resembles that of marginal ocean basins, especially those with thick sedimentary fill. The geologic history of the Great Basin indicates that it was the site of a succession of marginal ocean basins opening and closing behind volcanic arcs during much of Paleozoic time. A long process of sedimentation and deformation followed throughout the Mesozoic modifying, but possibly not completely transforming the originally oceanic crust to continental crust. In the Cenozoic, after at least 40 m.y. of quiescence and stable conditions, substantial crustal and upper-mantle changes are recorded by elevation of the entire region in isostatic equilibrium, crustal extension resulting in Basin and Range faulting, extensive volcanism, high heat flow and a low-velocity mantle. These phenomena, apparently the result of plate tectonics, are superimposed on the inherited subcontinental crust that developed from an oceanic origin in Paleozoic time and possibly retained some of its thin and layered characteristics. The present anomalous crust in the Great Basin represents an accretion of oceanic geosynclinal material to a Precambrian continental nucleus apparently as an intermediate step in the process of conversion of oceanic crust into a stable continental landmass or craton. ?? 1974.

  1. Tracing the subducted oceanic crust beneath the central California continental margin: Results from ocean bottom seismometers deployed during the 1986 Pacific Gas and Electric EDGE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Trehu, A. )

    1991-04-10

    Large aperture seismic data were collected on several ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed along a deep crustal seismic profile that was shot across the central California continental margin. The line of shots extends from the oceanic crust seaward of the Santa Lucia Escarpment to the California coast near Morro Bay and crosses the Santa Lucia Basin, Santa Lucia Bank, Santa Maria Basin, and Hosgri fault zone. The OBS data permits one to trace the subducted oceanic crust from seaward of the Santa Lucia Escarpment to beneath the central part of the Santa Maria Basin. Just seaward of the Santa Lucia Escarpment, the oceanic crust is subhorizontal and covered by a thin layer of low-velocity sediment. The velocity (4.5 km/s) and gradient (1.20-1.25 km/s/km) of the upper oceanic crust in this region are well determined and agree with earlier determinations of the crustal structure of the eastern Pacific. Beneath the Santa Lucia Escarpment and Santa Lucia Basin, the oceanic crust dips approximately 16{degrees} to the east. It is overlain by material with a velocity that increases from 4.8 to 6.4 km/s at a depth of 1.7-5.5 km below the seafloor beneath the Santa Lucia Basin. A low-velocity zone may be sandwiched between the subducted crust and this shallow high-velocity material, which the authors interpret to represent obducted oceanic crustal material. Beneath the eastern edge of Santa Lucia Basin, the dip of the subducted oceanic crust decreases to less that 2{degrees}. The configuration of the subducted crust in this region is consistent with imbrication of the subducted crust. Beneath the central Santa Maria Basin, the top of the subducted oceanic crust is at a depth of about 14-16 km and the Moho is at 19-21 km.

  2. Magnetic power spectrum of the ocean crust on large scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Michael S.; Parker, Robert L.; Constable, Catherine G.

    1999-12-01

    The geomagnetic power spectrum Rl is the squared magnetic field in each spherical harmonic degree averaged over a spherical surface. Satellite measurements have given reliable estimates of the spectrum for the part that originates in the core, but above l = 15, where the geomagnetic field arises primarily from crustal magnetization, there is considerable disagreement between various estimates derived from observation. Furthermore, several theoretical models for the spectrum disagree with each other and the data. We have examined observations from a different source, 5000-km-long Project Magnet aeromagnetic survey lines; we make new estimates of the spectrum which overlap with the wavelength interval accessible to the satellites. The usual way the spectrum is derived from observation is to construct a large spherical harmonic decomposition first, then square, weight, and add the Gauss coefficients in each degree, but this method cannot be applied to isolated flight lines. Instead, we apply a statistical technique based on an idea of McLeod and Coleman which relates the geomagnetic spectrum to the power and cross spectra of magnetic field components measured on the survey lines. Power spectra from the 17 aeromagnetic surveys, all of which were conducted over the oceans, are averaged together to improve geographic coverage and reduce variance, and the average spectra are then inverted for the geomagnetic spectrum Rl. Like most of the theoretical models, our spectrum exhibits a maximum, but at a wavelength of 100 km, about a factor of 2 smaller than the closest theoretical prediction. Our spectrum agrees quite well with the most recent estimates based on satellite observations in the range 20≤l≤50, but above l = 50, our values increase slowly, while all the satellite data suggest a sharply rising curve. In this wavelength range we believe our measurements are more trustworthy. Further work is planned to confirm the accuracy of our spectrum when continental survey

  3. Anaerobic Fungi: A Potential Source of Biological H2 in the Oceanic Crust.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Schnürer, Anna; Bengtson, Stefan; Neubeck, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The recent recognition of fungi in the oceanic igneous crust challenges the understanding of this environment as being exclusively prokaryotic and forces reconsiderations of the ecology of the deep biosphere. Anoxic provinces in the igneous crust are abundant and increase with age and depth of the crust. The presence of anaerobic fungi in deep-sea sediments and on the seafloor introduces a type of organism with attributes of geobiological significance not previously accounted for. Anaerobic fungi are best known from the rumen of herbivores where they produce molecular hydrogen, which in turn stimulates the growth of methanogens. The symbiotic cooperation between anaerobic fungi and methanogens in the rumen enhance the metabolic rate and growth of both. Methanogens and other hydrogen-consuming anaerobic archaea are known from subseafloor basalt; however, the abiotic production of hydrogen is questioned to be sufficient to support such communities. Alternatively, biologically produced hydrogen could serve as a continuous source. Here, we propose anaerobic fungi as a source of bioavailable hydrogen in the oceanic crust, and a close interplay between anaerobic fungi and hydrogen-driven prokaryotes. PMID:27433154

  4. Anaerobic Fungi: A Potential Source of Biological H2 in the Oceanic Crust

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Schnürer, Anna; Bengtson, Stefan; Neubeck, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The recent recognition of fungi in the oceanic igneous crust challenges the understanding of this environment as being exclusively prokaryotic and forces reconsiderations of the ecology of the deep biosphere. Anoxic provinces in the igneous crust are abundant and increase with age and depth of the crust. The presence of anaerobic fungi in deep-sea sediments and on the seafloor introduces a type of organism with attributes of geobiological significance not previously accounted for. Anaerobic fungi are best known from the rumen of herbivores where they produce molecular hydrogen, which in turn stimulates the growth of methanogens. The symbiotic cooperation between anaerobic fungi and methanogens in the rumen enhance the metabolic rate and growth of both. Methanogens and other hydrogen-consuming anaerobic archaea are known from subseafloor basalt; however, the abiotic production of hydrogen is questioned to be sufficient to support such communities. Alternatively, biologically produced hydrogen could serve as a continuous source. Here, we propose anaerobic fungi as a source of bioavailable hydrogen in the oceanic crust, and a close interplay between anaerobic fungi and hydrogen-driven prokaryotes. PMID:27433154

  5. Anaerobic Fungi: A Potential Source of Biological H2 in the Oceanic Crust.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Schnürer, Anna; Bengtson, Stefan; Neubeck, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The recent recognition of fungi in the oceanic igneous crust challenges the understanding of this environment as being exclusively prokaryotic and forces reconsiderations of the ecology of the deep biosphere. Anoxic provinces in the igneous crust are abundant and increase with age and depth of the crust. The presence of anaerobic fungi in deep-sea sediments and on the seafloor introduces a type of organism with attributes of geobiological significance not previously accounted for. Anaerobic fungi are best known from the rumen of herbivores where they produce molecular hydrogen, which in turn stimulates the growth of methanogens. The symbiotic cooperation between anaerobic fungi and methanogens in the rumen enhance the metabolic rate and growth of both. Methanogens and other hydrogen-consuming anaerobic archaea are known from subseafloor basalt; however, the abiotic production of hydrogen is questioned to be sufficient to support such communities. Alternatively, biologically produced hydrogen could serve as a continuous source. Here, we propose anaerobic fungi as a source of bioavailable hydrogen in the oceanic crust, and a close interplay between anaerobic fungi and hydrogen-driven prokaryotes.

  6. The role of black smokers in the Cu mass balance of the oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannington, Mark D.

    2013-07-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems play an important role in the metal budgets of the oceans via hydrothermal plumes, accumulation of seafloor massive sulfide deposits, and alteration of the oceanic crust. These processes have resulted in large-scale metal anomalies on the Pacific plate, most notably at the Nazca-Pacific plate boundary. This plate-scale variability in metal deposition has important implications for the fluxes of metals to subduction zones and possibly the metal endowment of arc-related mineral deposits. However, the relative contributions to the metal budget from black smokers, deep-sea sediments, Mn nodules and altered crust remain unclear. The Cu contents of more than 10,000 samples of seafloor massive sulfide deposits, subseafloor stockwork mineralization, nodules and sediments reveal that most of the Cu metal originally mobilized by high-temperature hydrothermal convection at the ridges is retained in the crust as subseafloor alteration and mineralization, never reaching the seafloor. This metal accounts for at least 80% of the labile Cu that may be released to subduction fluids driven off a down-going slab. Copper deposited in deep-sea sediments, which account for 17% of the total budget, is derived in part from plume fallout associated with ridge-crest hydrothermal activity but also from pelagic deposition of marine organic matter enriched in Cu metal. Massive sulfide deposits, nodules and manganiferous crusts account for only ˜3% of the Cu metal of the subducting slab.

  7. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust.

    PubMed

    Salas, Everett C; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F; Reid, Ray D; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 10(5) cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities. PMID:26617595

  8. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust.

    PubMed

    Salas, Everett C; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F; Reid, Ray D; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 10(5) cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  9. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Everett C.; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 105 cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities. PMID:26617595

  10. Bacterial Diversity of Young Seafloor Basalts: A Potential Role for Microorganisms in Ocean Crust Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santelli, C. M.; Edgcomb, V.; Bach, W.; Edwards, K.

    2005-12-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that microbial communities exist within the oceanic crust on mid-ocean ridge flanks. Young ocean crust that is exposed at the seafloor or in the shallow subseafloor interacts directly with low-temperature, oxygenated fluids and undergoes alteration. The free energy associated with oxidation of reduced species in the basalt could potentially be used by microbial communities for growth. Basaltic rock habitats at and below the seafloor, however, remain poorly studied with respect to the physiological and phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities that may be supported by oxidative weathering reactions. In this study, we have investigated the diversity of microorganisms living on or within basaltic crust at the seafloor, and the changes in these microbial communities with increasing oxidative rock alteration. Seafloor lavas representing various flow morphologies, alteration states, and ages (up to 20 kyrs) were collected from the East Pacific Rise between 9°28'N and 9°50'N. Total community DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA was amplified by PCR. Clone libraries were constructed and sequenced for phylogenetic analyses. To assess the overall extent of basalt alteration and quantify cell abundance in relation to surfacial weathering products, a combination of confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was used on natural, unprocessed samples. Phylogenetic and microscopic analyses indicate that diverse, yet distinct populations of bacteria inhabit different lavas, and these microbial communities shift with changes in basalt alteration state. A general trend from metal and sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic communities towards metal- and sulfur-reducing populations correlates with apparent increasing accumulation of weathering products (oxides, clays, etc.). These results provide insight into phylogenetic population trends among bacterial communities harbored in basalt during ocean crust weathering.

  11. Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean: a review and comprehensive database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Lane-Bostwick, Candice M.

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive database of chemical and mineralogical properties for ferromanganese crusts collected throughout the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and has been assembled from published and unpublished sources which provide collection and analytical information for these samples. These crusts, their chemical compositions and natural distribution, have been a topic of interest to scientific research, as well as to industrial and military applications. Unlike abyssal ferromanganese nodules, which form in areas of low disturbance and high sediment accumulation, crusts have been found to contain three to five times more cobalt than these nodules, and can be found on harder, steeper substrates which can be too steep for permanent sediment accumulation. They have also been documented on seamounts and plateaus within the U.S. exclusive economic zone in both Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and these are therefore of strategic importance to the United States Government, as well as to civilian mining and metallurgical industries. The data tables provided in this report have been digitized and previously uploaded to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Geophysical Data Center in 1991 for online distribution, and were provided in plain text format. The 2014 update to the original U.S. Geological Survey open-file report published in 1989 provides these data tables in a slightly reformatted version to make them easier to ingest into geographic information system software, converted to shapefiles, and have completed metadata written and associated with them.

  12. Melt flow and hypersolidus deformation in the lower ocean crust: Preliminary observations from IODP Leg 345

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. E.; Koepke, J.; Falloon, T.; Abe, N.; Hoshide, T.; Akizawa, N.; Maeda, J.; Jean, M. M.; Cheadle, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Models for the construction of the fast-spreading lower ocean crust include the gabbro glacier model (GGM), in which most crystallization occurs within a shallow melt lens and the resulting crystal mush subsides downwards and outwards by crystal sliding. Second, the Sheeted Sill Model (SSM) predicts magmatic injection at many levels in the crust, and requires rapid cooling of the lithosphere. A second set of models seeks to reconcile the relatively unevolved nature of most MORB with the existence of an extensive lower crust with both layering (in the lower crust) and highly evolved gabbros (in the upper plutonic sequence). The mechanisms involved here are melt aggregation during vertical porous flow in the lower crust as opposed to lateral sill injection and in-situ crystallization. Here we report new observations from IODP Expedition 345 to the Hess Deep Rift, where propagation of the Cocos Nazca Ridge (CNR) into young, fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) crust exposes a dismembered lower crustal section. Drilling in ~4850 m water depth produced 3 holes of 35 to 100 mbsf with ~30% recovery of primitive (Mg# 79-87) plutonic lithologies including troctolite, olivine gabbro, and olivine gabbronorite, showing cumulate textures found in layered mafic intrusions and some ophiolite complexes including: 1. Spectacular modal layering 2. Orthopyroxene very early on the liquidus compared to canonical MORB. 3. Delicate large (2-5 cm) skeletal and hopper structures in olivine. 4. Oikocrystic clinopyroxene enclosing chadacrysts different from the host assemblage. These complex relationships are only hinted at in the existing observations from the ocean floor, and will require significant lab study, however some preliminary inferences can be drawn from the petrographic observations. First, the textures observed in olivine throughout the cores are consistent with rapid crystallization, possibly due to steep thermal gradients in the lower crust. They occur early in the

  13. Strontium isotope constraints on fluid flow in the upper oceanic crust at the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Kathryn M.; Coogan, Laurence A.; Pedersen, Rolf

    2005-03-01

    Strontium isotopes are useful tracers of fluid-rock interaction in marine hydrothermal systems and provide a potential way to quantify the amount of seawater that passes through these systems. We have determined the whole-rock Sr-isotopic compositions of a section of upper oceanic crust that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise, now exposed at Hess Deep. This dataset provides the first detailed comparison for the much-studied Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drill core from Site 504B. Whole-rock and mineral Sr concentrations indicate that Sr-exchange between hydrothermal fluids and the oceanic crust is complex, being dependent on the mineralogical reactions occurring; in particular, epidote formation takes up Sr from the fluid increasing the 87Sr/ 86Sr of the bulk-rock. Calculating the fluid-flux required to shift the Sr-isotopic composition of the Hess Deep sheeted-dike complex, using the approach of Bickle and Teagle [1] [M.J. Bickle, D.A.H. Teagle, Strontium alteration in the Troodos ophiolite: implications for fluid fluxes and geochemical transport in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 113 (1992) 219-237] gives a fluid-flux similar to that determined for ODP Hole 504B. This suggests that the level of isotopic exchange observed in these two regions is probably typical for modern oceanic crust. Unfortunately, uncertainties in the modeling approach do not allow us to determine a fluid-flux that is directly comparable to fluxes calculated by other methods.

  14. Oceanic crust of the Grenada Basin in the Southern Lesser Antilles Arc Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speed, R. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1991-03-01

    Seismic refraction data permit the southern Lesser Antilles arc and surrounding regions to be divided by the velocity of their basement. We propose that high-velocity basement of the arc platform beneath the Grenadine islands and below a part of the Tobago Trough forearc basin is oceanic and continuous and was originally connected with oceanic crust of the Grenada Basin. Low-velocity basements of the Tobago terrane and the arc platform from St. Vincent north lie south and north, respectively, of the high-velocity basement of the arc platform. An oceanic origin of this high-velocity crust in the Grenadines is argued to be more plausible than an origin as unroofed lower arc crust. The segment of probable oceanic crust in the arc platform was greatly uplifted during development of the present island arc, mainly in late Neogene time, relative to the Grenada Basin and Tobago Trough. Accepting the proposition of shallow oceanic crust in the Grenadines, early middle Eocene and possibly older pillow basalts of Mayreau, the oldest rock unit of the southern Lesser Antilles arc platform, may be an exposure of such basement. Major and minor element compositions of Mayreau Basalt are indicative of a spreading rather than arc origin. The stratigraphy of the pillow basalts indicates extrusion in an open marine environment, distant or shielded from sources of arc or continental sediment, followed by a period of pelagic sedimentation above the carbonate compensation depth. The Eocene basalt and pelagic cover formed a relatively deep floor of a marine basin in which arc-derived turbidites and pelagic sediments accumulated over the succeeding 25-30 ma. Such basalts thus indicate a probable spreading origin of the Grenada Basin and an age of cessation of spreading in the region of Mayreau in Eocene time. The configuration of the Eocene basin and the direction of spreading, however, are unknowns. Regional structural relationships imply the spreading was probably backarc, an origin also

  15. Comparison of Lunar Basalts and Gabbros with those of the Terrestrial Ocean Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natland, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Initial studies of lunar samples returned from the Apollo and Luna missions took place before rocks of the Earth's lower ocean crust, chiefly varieties of gabbro cumulates, were widely known or understood. Continuing exploration of the ocean crust invites some new comparisons. When volcanic rocks and glass from Apollo 11 and 17 were discovered to have very high TiO2 contents (8-14%), nothing comparable was known from Earth. The high-TiO2 lunar samples were soon described as primary melts derived from considerable depths in the lunar mantle. Other lunar samples have only very low TiO2 contents (~0.2%) and very low concentrations of highly incompatible elements such as Zr and Sr. Today, dredging and drilling results indicate that oxide gabbros rich in magmatic oxides and sulfides and with up to 12% TiO2 comprise a significant percentage of the gabbroic portion of the ocean crust especially at slowly spreading ridges. These are very late stage differentiates, and are commonly juxtaposed by high-temperature deformation processes with more primitive olivine gabbros and troctolites having only ~0.2% TiO2 and low concentrations of Zr and other incompatible elements. The rocks are mainly adcumulates, with very low concentrations of incompatible elements set by proportions of cumulus minerals, and with little contribution from the liquids that produced them. In addition, some lunar gabbros with highly calcic plagioclase (~An93-98) are similar to gabbros and troctolites found in island arcs. All of these similarities suggest that very few lunar basaltic rocks are pristine; instead they all could be nearly complete shock fusion products produced by meteorite impact into a diverse assemblage of lunar gabbros that included both low- and high-TiO2 gabbroic facies. On this hypothesis, no lunar basalt is a primary melt derived from the Moon's mantle. Although magmatic environments on the ancient Moon and in the modern ocean crust were different in important ways, the general

  16. IODP Expedition 345: Primitive Layered Gabbros From Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ildefonse, Benoit; Gillis, Kathryn M.; Snow, Jonathan E.; Klaus, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Three-quarters of the ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges is composed of plutonic rocks whose mineral assemblages, textures and compositions record the history of melt transport and crystallization between the mantle and the seafloor. However, owing to the nearly continuous overlying extrusive upper crust, sampling in situ the lower crust is challenging. Hence, models for understanding the formation of the lower crust are based essentially on geophysical studies and ophiolites. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 recovered the first significant sections of primitive, modally layered gabbroic rocks from the lowermost plutonic crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge, and exposed at the Hess Deep Rift (Gillis et al., Nature, 2014, doi:10.1038/nature12778). Drilling Site U1415 is located along the southern slope of the intrarift ridge. The primary science results were obtained from coring of two ~110 m deep reentry holes and one 35-m-deep single-bit hole, all co-located within an ~100-m-wide area. Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant plutonic rock types recovered, with minor gabbro, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing gabbroic rocks, and gabbronorite. All rock types are primitive to moderately evolved, with Mg# 89-76, and exhibit cumulate textures similar to ones found in layered mafic intrusions and some ophiolites. Spectacular modal and grain size layering, prevalent in >50% of the recovered core, confirm a long held paradigm that such rocks are a key constituent of the lowermost ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Magmatic foliation is largely defined by the shape-preferred orientation of plagioclase. It is moderate to strong in intervals with simple modal layering but weak to absent in troctolitic intervals and typically absent in intervals with heterogeneous textures and/or diffuse banding. Geochemical analysis of these primitive lower plutonics, in combination with previous geochemical data for shallow-level plutonics

  17. Investigating Compositional Links Between Arc Magmas And The Subducted Altered Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Arc magmatism is causally related to the recycling of materials from the subducting plate. Numerous studies showed that the recycled material flux is dominated by recycled continental crust (oceanic sediment, eroded crust) and altered oceanic igneous crust (AOC). The crustal component is highly enriched, and thus its signal in arc magmas can readily be distinguished from mantle wedge contributions. In contrast, the impact of the AOC flux is much more difficult to detect, since the AOC isotopically resembles the mantle. Mass balance studies of arc input and output suggest that the recycled flux from the thick (6000 meter on average) AOC may buffer the flux of the recycled continental crust to the point of concealment in arc settings where the latter is volumetrically minor. In particular, highly fluid- mobile elements Sr and Pb in arc magmas are strongly influenced by the AOC, implying that the arc chemistry may allow for inferring the Sr and Pb isotopic composition of the subducted AOC. This hypothesis is being tested by a compilation of published data of high-quality trace element and isotope compositions from global arcs. In agreement with previous studies, our results confirm that the Sr-rich fluids released from the AOC control the arc Sr isotopes, whereby the slightly elevated 87Sr/86Sr (up to 0.705) of many arcs may principally reflect the similarly elevated Sr isotope ratios of the AOC rather than a recycled crustal component. In contrast, the arc Pb isotope ratios are influenced by both the AOC and the recycled crustal component which create the typical binary mixing arrays. These arrays should then point to the Pb isotope composition of the AOC and the recycled crust, respectively. However, as the proportions of these end members may strongly vary in arc magmas, the exact 206Pb/204Pb of the subducted AOC in a given setting is challenging. Remarkably, the Pb isotope systematics from well-constrained western Aleutian (minimal sediment subduction) and central

  18. Osmium isotope variations in the oceans recorded by Fe-Mn crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, K.W.; Bourdon, B.; Birck, J.-L.; Allegre, C.J.; Hein, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This study presents osmium (Os) isotope data for recent growth surfaces of hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In general, these data indicate a relatively uniform Os isotopic composition for modern seawater, but suggest that North Atlantic seawater is slightly more radiogenic than that of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The systematic difference in the Os isotopic composition between the major oceans probably reflects a greater input of old continental material with a high Re/Os ratio in the North Atlantic Ocean, consistent with the distribution of Nd and Pb isotopes. This spatial variation in the Os isotope composition in seawater is consistent with a residence time for Os of between 2 and 60 kyr. Indian Ocean samples show no evidence of a local source of radiogenic Os, which suggests that the present-day riverine input from the Himalaya-Tibet region is not a major source for Os. Recently formed Fe-Mn crusts from the TAG hydrothermal field in the North Atlantic yield an Os isotopic composition close to that of modern seawater, which indicates that, in this area, the input of unradiogenic Os from the hydrothermal alteration of oceanic crust is small. However, some samples from the deep Pacific (???4 km) possess a remarkably unradiogenic Os isotope composition (187Os/186Os ratios as low as 4.3). The compositional control of Os incorporation into the crusts and mixing relationships suggest that this unradiogenic composition is most likely due to the direct incorporation of micrometeoritic or abyssal peridotite particles, rather than indicating the presence of an unradiogenic deep-water mass. Moreover, this unradiogenic signal appears to be temporary, and local, and has had little apparent effect on the overall evolution of seawater. These results confirm that input of continental material through erosion is the dominant source of Os in seawater, but it is not clear whether global Os variations are due to the input

  19. Metastable garnet in oceanic crust at the top of the lower mantle.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tomoaki; Ohtani, Eiji; Kondo, Tadashi; Kato, Takumi; Toma, Motomasa; Hosoya, Tomofumi; Sano, Asami; Kikegawa, Takumi; Nagase, Toshiro

    As oceanic tectonic plates descend into the Earth's lower mantle, garnet (in the basaltic crust) and silicate spinel (in the underlying peridotite layer) each decompose to form silicate perovskite-the 'post-garnet' and 'post-spinel' transformations, respectively. Recent phase equilibrium studies have shown that the post-garnet transformation occurs in the shallow lower mantle in a cold slab, rather than at approximately 800 km depth as earlier studies indicated, with the implication that the subducted basaltic crust is unlikely to become buoyant enough to delaminate as it enters the lower mantle. But here we report results of a kinetic study of the post-garnet transformation, obtained from in situ X-ray observations using sintered diamond anvils, which show that the kinetics of the post-garnet transformation are significantly slower than for the post-spinel transformation. Although metastable spinel quickly breaks down at a temperature of 1,000 K, we estimate that metastable garnet should survive of the order of 10 Myr even at 1,600 K. Accordingly, the expectation of where the subducted oceanic crust would be buoyant spans a much wider depth range at the top of the lower mantle, when transformation kinetics are taken into account. PMID:12490946

  20. Metastable garnet in oceanic crust at the top of the lower mantle.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tomoaki; Ohtani, Eiji; Kondo, Tadashi; Kato, Takumi; Toma, Motomasa; Hosoya, Tomofumi; Sano, Asami; Kikegawa, Takumi; Nagase, Toshiro

    As oceanic tectonic plates descend into the Earth's lower mantle, garnet (in the basaltic crust) and silicate spinel (in the underlying peridotite layer) each decompose to form silicate perovskite-the 'post-garnet' and 'post-spinel' transformations, respectively. Recent phase equilibrium studies have shown that the post-garnet transformation occurs in the shallow lower mantle in a cold slab, rather than at approximately 800 km depth as earlier studies indicated, with the implication that the subducted basaltic crust is unlikely to become buoyant enough to delaminate as it enters the lower mantle. But here we report results of a kinetic study of the post-garnet transformation, obtained from in situ X-ray observations using sintered diamond anvils, which show that the kinetics of the post-garnet transformation are significantly slower than for the post-spinel transformation. Although metastable spinel quickly breaks down at a temperature of 1,000 K, we estimate that metastable garnet should survive of the order of 10 Myr even at 1,600 K. Accordingly, the expectation of where the subducted oceanic crust would be buoyant spans a much wider depth range at the top of the lower mantle, when transformation kinetics are taken into account.

  1. Seismic structure of the crust and uppermost mantle of South America and surrounding oceanic basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chulick, Gary S.; Detweiler, Shane; Mooney, Walter D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new set of contour maps of the seismic structure of South America and the surrounding ocean basins. These maps include new data, helping to constrain crustal thickness, whole-crustal average P-wave and S-wave velocity, and the seismic velocity of the uppermost mantle (Pn and Sn). We find that: (1) The weighted average thickness of the crust under South America is 38.17 km (standard deviation, s.d. ±8.7 km), which is ∼1 km thinner than the global average of 39.2 km (s.d. ±8.5 km) for continental crust. (2) Histograms of whole-crustal P-wave velocities for the South American crust are bi-modal, with the lower peak occurring for crust that appears to be missing a high-velocity (6.9–7.3 km/s) lower crustal layer. (3) The average P-wave velocity of the crystalline crust (Pcc) is 6.47 km/s (s.d. ±0.25 km/s). This is essentially identical to the global average of 6.45 km/s. (4) The average Pn velocity beneath South America is 8.00 km/s (s.d. ±0.23 km/s), slightly lower than the global average of 8.07 km/s. (5) A region across northern Chile and northeast Argentina has anomalously low P- and S-wave velocities in the crust. Geographically, this corresponds to the shallowly-subducted portion of the Nazca plate (the Pampean flat slab first described by Isacks et al., 1968), which is also a region of crustal extension. (6) The thick crust of the Brazilian craton appears to extend into Venezuela and Colombia. (7) The crust in the Amazon basin and along the western edge of the Brazilian craton may be thinned by extension. (8) The average crustal P-wave velocity under the eastern Pacific seafloor is higher than under the western Atlantic seafloor, most likely due to the thicker sediment layer on the older Atlantic seafloor.

  2. Growth response of a deep-water ferromanganese crust to evolution of the Neogene Indian Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    A deep-water ferromanganese crust from a Central Indian Ocean seamount dated previously by 10Be and 230Th(excess) was studied for compositional and textural variations that occurred throughout its growth history. The 10Be/9Be dated interval (upper 32 mm) yields an uniform growth rate of 2.8 ?? 0.1 mm/Ma [Frank, M., O'Nions, R.K., 1998. Sources of Pb for Indian Ocean ferromanganese crusts: a record of Himalayan erosion. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 158, pp. 121-130.] which gives an extrapolated age of ~ 26 Ma for the base of the crust at 72 mm and is comparable to the maximum age derived from the Co-model based growth rate estimates. This study shows that Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide precipitation did not occur from the time of emplacement of the seamount during the Eocene (~ 53 Ma) until the late Oligocene (~ 26 Ma). This paucity probably was the result of a nearly overlapping palaeo-CCD and palaeo-depth of crust formation, increased early Eocene productivity, instability and reworking of the surface rocks on the flanks of the seamount, and lack of oxic deep-water in the nascent Indian Ocean. Crust accretion began (older zone) with the formation of isolated cusps of Fe-Mn oxide during a time of high detritus influx, probably due to the early-Miocene intense erosion associated with maximum exhumation of the Himalayas (op. cit.). This cuspate textured zone extends from 72 mm to 42 mm representing the early-Miocene period. Intense polar cooling and increased mixing of deep and intermediate waters at the close of the Oligocene might have led to the increased oxygenation of the bottom-water in the basin. A considerable expansion in the vertical distance between the seafloor depth and the CCD during the early Miocene in addition to the influx of oxygenated bottom-water likely initiated Fe-Mn crust formation. Pillar structure characterises the younger zone, which extends from 40 mm to the surface of the crust, i.e., ~ 15 Ma to Present. This zone is characterised by > 25% higher

  3. Hydrothermal and tectonic processes recorded in fault rocks from the upper oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, C. M.; Hayman, N. W.

    2011-12-01

    Faulting and fracturing along mid-ocean ridges play a crucial role in hydrothermal systems and the mechanical behavior of the oceanic crust. Fault and fracture systems resulting from explosive hydrothermal events may differ in permeability and mechanical strength from those that accommodate axial extension. To explore the potential differences, images and samples have been investigated from a range of spreading environments, including the Hess and Pito Deep rifts in East Pacific Rise-spread crust, the SMARK area (22°N) on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, the Troodos Ophiolite, and the Icelandic rift system. These exposures of lavas and dikes contain fault-zone units with contrasting lithologic and mechanical properties and geochemical compositions. To further understand the deformation mechanisms of ocean crustal faulting, image analysis of the fault-zone units from micro- to meso-scales provides a quantitative assessment of grain size, orientation, and fracture density. A key measure is the Particle Size Distribution (PSD), found in continental fault rocks to be a power-law probability function distribution reflecting incremental grain fracture. However, the PSDs of ocean crustal fault rocks are not power law, suggesting a departure from continental fault-zone deformation patterns. Controls on PSD in ocean crustal fault rocks include the initial fracture development in otherwise massive basalts, importance of fluid-rock interaction, and distinctive tectonic strain and stress conditions for seafloor spreading. Here it is further suggested that structures resulting from intense hydrothermal activity may result from different brittle deformation mechanisms (and thereby have different PSDs and SPOs) than those resulting from dominantly tectonic strain. Identifying these different mechanisms of ocean crustal fault-zone deformation establishes length scales, grain-scale deformation mechanisms, the geologic record of fluid-rock interaction, and could lead to in situ constraints

  4. IODP Exp 345: Primitive Layered Gabbros From Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, K. M.; Snow, J. E.; Klaus, A.

    2013-12-01

    Plutonic rocks from the lower ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges provide a record of the history of melt transport and crystallization between the mantle and the seafloor. Despite the significance of these rocks, sampling them in situ has proven extremely challenging. This means our models for understanding the formation of the lower crust are based largely on geophysical studies and ophiolites that did not form at typical mid-ocean ridges. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 recovered the first significant recovery of primitive modally layered gabbroic rocks from the lowermost plutonic crust from a fast-spreading ridge exposed at the Hess Deep Rift. Drilling was focused at Site U1415, located along the southern slope of the intrarift ridge. The primary science results were obtained from coring of two ~110 m deep reentry holes and one 35-m-deep single-bit hole, all co-located within an ~100-m-wide area. Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant plutonic rock types recovered, with minor gabbro, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing gabbroic lithologies, and gabbronorite. All rock types are primitive (Mg# 76-89) and exhibit cumulate textures similar to ones found in layered mafic intrusions and some ophiolite complexes. Spectacular modal and grain size layering, prevalent in >50% of the recovered core, confirm a long held paradigm that such rocks are a key constituent of the lowermost ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Magmatic foliation is largely defined by the shape-preferred orientation of plagioclase. It is moderate to strong in intervals with simple modal layering but weak to absent in troctolitic intervals and typically absent in intervals with heterogeneous textures and/or diffuse banding. Geochemical analysis of these primitive lower plutonics, in combination with previous geochemical data for shallow-level plutonics, sheeted dikes and lavas, provides the first robust estimate of the bulk composition of crust formed at a

  5. Pliocene granodioritic knoll with continental crust affinities discovered in the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc: Syntectonic granitic crust formation during back-arc rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kenichiro; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Chang, Qing; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Shukuno, Hiroshi; Hirahara, Yuka; Ishizuka, Osamu; Arima, Makoto; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2015-08-01

    A widely held hypothesis is that modern continental crust of an intermediate (i.e. andesitic) bulk composition forms at intra-oceanic arcs through subduction zone magmatism. However, there is a critical paradox in this hypothesis: to date, the dominant granitic rocks discovered in these arcs are tonalite, rocks that are significantly depleted in incompatible (i.e. magma-preferred) elements and do not geochemically and petrographically represent those of the continents. Here we describe the discovery of a submarine knoll, the Daisan-West Sumisu Knoll, situated in the rear-arc region of the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. Remotely-operated vehicle surveys reveal that this knoll is made up entirely of a 2.6 million year old porphyritic to equigranular granodiorite intrusion with a geochemical signature typical of continental crust. We present a model of granodiorite magma formation that involves partial remelting of enriched mafic rear-arc crust during the initial phase of back-arc rifting, which is supported by the preservation of relic cores inherited from initial rear-arc source rocks within magmatic zircon crystals. The strong extensional tectonic regime at the time of intrusion may have allowed the granodioritic magma to be emplaced at an extremely shallow level, with later erosion of sediment and volcanic covers exposing the internal plutonic body. These findings suggest that rear-arc regions could be the potential sites of continental crust formation in intra-oceanic convergent margins.

  6. Petrogenesis and structure of oceanic crust in the Lau back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Deborah E.; Dunn, Robert A.

    2015-11-01

    Oceanic crust formed along spreading centers in the Lau back-arc basin exhibits a dramatic change in structure and composition with proximity to the nearby Tofua Arc. Results from recent seismic studies in the basin indicate that crust formed near the Tofua Arc is abnormally thick (8-9 km) and compositionally stratified, with a thick low-velocity (3.4-4.5 km/s) upper crust and an abnormally high-velocity (7.2-7.4+ km/s) lower crust (Arai and Dunn, 2014). Lava samples from this area show arc-like compositional enrichments and tend to be more vesicular and differentiated than typical mid-ocean ridge basalts, with an average MgO of ∼3.8 wt.%. We propose that slab-derived water entrained in the near-arc ridge system not only enhances mantle melting, as commonly proposed to explain high crustal production in back-arc environments, but also affects magmatic differentiation and crustal accretion processes. We present a petrologic model of Lau back-arc crustal formation that successfully predicts the unusual crustal stratification imaged in the near-arc regions of the Lau basin, as well as the highly fractionated basaltic andesites and andesites that erupt there. Results from phase equilibria modeling using MELTS indicate that the high water contents found in near-arc parental melts can lead to crystallization of an unusually mafic, high velocity cumulate layer. Best-fit model runs contain initial water contents of ∼0.5-1.0 wt.% H2O in the parental melts, and successfully reproduce geochemical trends of the erupted lavas while crystallizing a cumulate assemblage with calculated seismic velocities consistent with those observed in the near-arc lower crust. Modeled residual melts are also lower density than their dry equivalents, which aids in melt segregation from the cumulate layer. Low-density, water-rich residual melts can lead to the eruption of vesicular lavas that are unusually evolved for an oceanic spreading center.

  7. Nickel isotopic compositions of ferromanganese crusts and the constancy of deep ocean inputs and continental weathering effects over the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, L.; Williams, H. M.; Siebert, C.; Halliday, A. N.; Herrington, R. J.; Hein, J. R.

    2013-08-01

    The global variability in nickel (Ni) isotope compositions in ferromanganese crusts is investigated by analysing surface samples of 24 crusts from various ocean basins by MC-ICPMS, using a double-spike for mass bias correction. Ferromanganese crusts have δ60Ni isotopic compositions that are significantly heavier than any other samples thus far reported (-0.1‰ to 0.3 ‰), with surface scrapings ranging between 0.9 ‰ and 2.5 ‰ (relative to NIST SRM986). There is no well resolved difference between ocean basins, although the data indicate somewhat lighter values in the Atlantic than in the Pacific, nor is there any evidence that the variations are related to biological fractionation, presence of different water masses, or bottom water redox conditions. Preliminary data for laterite samples demonstrate that weathering is accompanied by isotopic fractionation of Ni, which should lead to rivers and seawater being isotopically heavy. This is consistent with the slightly heavier than average isotopic compositions recorded in crusts that are sampled close to continental regions. Furthermore, the isotopic compositions of crusts growing close to a hydrothermal source are clustered around ∼ 1.5 ‰, suggesting that hydrothermal fluids entering the ocean may have a Ni isotopic composition similar to this value. Based on these data, the heavy Ni isotopic compositions of ferromanganese crusts are likely due to input of isotopically heavy Ni to the ocean from continental weathering and possibly also from hydrothermal fluids. A depth profile through one crust, CD29-2, from the north central Pacific Ocean displays large variations in Ni isotope composition (1.1 - 2.3 ‰) through the last 76 Myr. Although there may have been some redistribution of Ni associated with phosphatisation, there is no systematic difference in Ni isotopic composition between deeper, older parts and shallower, younger parts of the crust, which may suggest that oceanic sources and sinks of Ni have

  8. Thermal diffusion of the lunar magma ocean and the formation of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Wang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The magma ocean hypothesis is consistent with several lines of evidence including planet formation, core-mantle differentiation and geochemical observations, and it is proved as an inevitable stage in the early evolution of planets. The magma ocean is assumed to be homogeneous in previous models during solidification or crystallization[1]. Based on the recent advance and our new data in experimental igneous petrology[2], we question this assumption and propose that an gabbrotic melt, from which the anorthositic lunar crust crystallized, can be produced by thermal diffusion, rather than by magma fractionation. This novel model can provide explanations for the absence of the advection in lunar magma ocean[3] and the old age of the anorthositic lunar crust[4-5]. 1. Solomatov, V., Magma Oceans and Primordial Mantle Differentiation, in Treatise on Geophysics, S. Gerald, Editor. 2007, Elsevier: Amsterdam. p. 91-119. 2. Huang, F., et al., Chemical and isotopic fractionation of wet andesite in a temperature gradient: Experiments and models suggesting a new mechanism of magma differentiation. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 2009. 73(3): p. 729-749. 3. Turcotte, D.L. and L.H. Kellogg, Implications of isotope data for the origin of the Moon, in Origin of the Moon, W.K. Hartmann, R.J. Phillips, and G.J. Taylor, Editors. 1986, Lunar and Planet. Inst.: Houston, TX. p. 311-329. 4. Alibert, C., M.D. Norman, and M.T. McCulloch, An ancient Sm-Nd age for a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67016. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 1994. 58(13): p. 2921-2926. 5. Touboul, M., et al., Tungsten isotopes in ferroan anorthosites: Implications for the age of the Moon and lifetime of its magma ocean. Icarus, 2009. 199(2): p. 245-249.

  9. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  10. Thorium isotope evidence for melting of the mafic oceanic crust beneath the Izu arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymuth, Heye; Ivko, Ben; Gill, James B.; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Elliott, Tim

    2016-08-01

    We address the question of whether melting of the mafic oceanic crust occurs beneath ordinary volcanic arcs using constraints from U-Series (238U/232Th, 230Th/232Th and 226Ra/230Th) measurements. Alteration of the top few hundred meters of the mafic crust leads to strong U enrichment. Via decay of 238U to 230Th, this results in elevated (230Th/232Th) (where brackets indicate activity ratios) over time-scales of ∼350 ka. This process leads to the high (230Th/232Th), between 2.6 and 11.0 in the mafic altered oceanic crust (AOC) sampled at ODP Sites 801 and 1149 near the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. Th activity ratios in the Izu arc lavas range from (230Th/232Th) = 1.2-2.0. These values are substantially higher than those in bulk sediment subducting at the Izu trench and also extend to higher values than in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the Mariana arc. We show that the range in Th isotope ratios in the Izu arc lavas is consistent with the presence of a slab melt from a mixed source consisting of AOC and subducted sediments with an AOC mass fraction of up to approximately 80 wt.% in the component added to the arc lava source. The oceanic plate subducting at the Izu arc is comparatively cold which therefore indicates that temperatures high enough for fluid-saturated melting of the AOC are commonly achieved beneath volcanic arcs. The high ratio of AOC/sediments of the slab melt component suggested for the Izu arc lavas requires preferential melting of the AOC. This can be achieved when fluid-saturated melting of the slab is triggered by fluids derived from underlying subducted serpentinites. Dehydration of serpentinites and migration of the fluid into the overlying crust causes melting to start within the AOC. The absence of a significant sediment melt component suggests there was insufficient water to flux both AOC and overlying sediments.

  11. Early evolution of the continental crust, the oxygenated atmosphere and oceans, and the heterogeneous mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    The current paradigm for the evolution of early Earth is that, only since ~2.5 Ga ago, the Earth began to: (a) form a large granitic continental crust; (b) form an oxygenated atmosphere; (c) operate oxidative weathering of rocks on land; (d) form Fe-poor, but S-, U- and Mo-rich, oceans; (e) operate large-scale transfers of elements between oceans and oceanic crust at MORs; (f) subduct the altered oceanic crust; (g) create the mantle heterogeneity, especially in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of Fe(III), Fe(II), U, Pb, alkali elements, C, S, REEs, and many other elements; (h) create chemical and isotopic variations among OIB-, OPB-, and MORB magmas, and between I- and S-type granitoid magmas; and (i) create variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions of volcanic gas. Submarine hydrothermal fluids have typically developed from seawater-rock interactions during deep (>2 km) circulation of seawater through underlying hot volcanic rocks. When the heated hydrothermal fluids ascend toward the seafloor, they mix with local bottom seawater to precipitate a variety of minerals on and beneath the seafloor. Thus, the mineralogy and geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal deposits and associated volcanic rocks can be used to decipher the chemistry of the contemporaneous seawater, which in turn indicate the chemistry of the atmosphere and the compositions and size of the continental crust. The results of mineralogical and geochemical investigations by our and other research groups on submarine hydrothermal deposits (VMS and BIF) and hydrothermally-altered submarine volcanic rocks in Australia, South Africa, and Canada, ~3.5-2.5 Ga in ages, suggest that the above processes (a)-(i) had began by ~3.5 Ga ago. Supportive evidence includes, but not restricted to, the similarities between Archean submarine rocks and modern ones in: (1) the abundance of ferric oxides; (2) the Fe(III)/Fe(I) ratios; (3) the abundance of barite; (4) the increased Li contents; (5) the

  12. The 18O/16O Ratio of 2-Billion-Year-Old Seawater Inferred from Ancient Oceanic Crust.

    PubMed

    Holmden, C; Muehlenbachs, K

    1993-03-19

    An oxygen isotope profile of the 2-billion-year-old Purtuniq ophiolite overlaps with similar profiles of younger ophiolites and the modern oceanic crust. This overlap implies (i) that there was a similar style of seawater-ocean crust interaction during the past 2 billion years; (ii) that the oxygen isotope composition of early Proterozoic seawater was similar to the modern value; (iii) that early Proterozoic sea-floor spreading rates were similar to, or greater than, average modern rates; and (iv) that early Proterozoic carbonate rocks and cherts with low (18)O/(16)O ratios do not reflect global-scale (18)O depletion of early Proterozoic oceans. PMID:17816892

  13. 238U-234U-230Th disequilibrium in hydrogenous oceanic Fe-Mn crusts: Palaeoceanographic record or diagenetic alteration?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chabaux, F.; O'Nions, R. K.; Cohen, A.S.; Hein, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed TIMS study of (234Uexc/238U), (230Th/232Th), and Th/U ratios have been performed on the outermost margin of ten hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts from the equatorial Pacific Ocean and west-central Indian Ocean. Th/U concentration ratios generally decrease from the crust's surface down to 0.5-1 mm depth and growth rates estimated by uranium and thorium isotope ratios are significantly different in Fe-Mn crusts from the Peru Basin and the west-central Indian Ocean. Fe-Mn crusts from the same geographical area define a single trend in plots of Ln (234Uexc/238U) vs. Ln(230Th/232Th) and Th/U ratios vs. age of the analysed fractions. Results suggest that (1) hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts remain closed-systems after formation, and consequently (2) the discrepancy observed between the 230Th and 234U chronometers in Fe-Mn crusts, and the variations of the Th/U ratios through the margin of Fe-Mn crusts, are not due to redistribution of uranium and thorium isotopes after oxyhydroxide precipitation, but rather to temporal variations of both Th/U and initial thorium activity ratios recorded by the Fe-Mn layers. Implications of these observations for determination of Fe-Mn crust growth-rates are discussed. Variations of both Th/U and initial Th activity ratios in Fe-Mn crusts might be related to changes in particle input to seawater and/or changes in ocean circulation during the last 150 ka. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Seismic wave velocity of rocks in the Oman ophiolite: constraints for petrological structure of oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Shibata, S.; Akizuki, R.; Arima, M.; Tatsumi, Y.; Arai, S.

    2010-12-01

    Evaluation of rock velocities and comparison with velocity profiles defined by seismic refraction experiments are a crucial approach for understanding the petrological structure of the crust. In this study, we calculated the seismic wave velocities of various types of rocks from the Oman ophiolite in order to constrain a petrological structure of the oceanic crust. Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) have reported experimental elastic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite under oceanic crust-mantle conditions (6-430 MPa). However, in their relatively low-pressure experiments, internal pore-spaces might affect the velocity and resulted in lower values than the intrinsic velocity of sample. In this study we calculated the velocities of samples based on their modal proportions and chemical compositions of mineral constituents. Our calculated velocities represent the ‘pore-space-free’ intrinsic velocities of the sample. We calculated seismic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite including pillow lavas, dolerites, plagiogranites, gabbros and peridotites at high-pressure-temperature conditions with an Excel macro (Hacker & Avers 2004, G-cubed). The minerals used for calculations for pillow lavas, dolerites and plagiogranites were Qtz, Pl, Prh, Pmp, Chl, Ep, Act, Hbl, Cpx and Mag. Pl, Hbl, Cpx, Opx and Ol were used for the calculations for gabbros and peridotites. Assuming thermal gradient of 20° C/km and pressure gradient of 25 MPa/km, the velocities were calculated in the ranges from the atmospheric pressure (0° C) to 200 MPa (160° C). The calculation yielded P-wave velocities (Vp) of 6.5-6.7 km/s for the pillow lavas, 6.6-6.8 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6.9-7.5 km/s for the gabbros and 8.1-8.2 km/s for the peridotites. On the other hand, experimental results reported by Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) were 4.5-5.9 km/s for the pillow lavas, 5.5-6.3 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6

  15. Changes in erosion and ocean circulation recorded in the Hf isotopic compositions of North Atlantic and Indian Ocean ferromanganese crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, John N.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.; Hein, James R.; Günther, Detlef

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution Hf isotopic records are presented for hydrogenetic Fe–Mn crusts from the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans. BM1969 from the western North Atlantic has previously been shown to record systematically decreasing Nd isotopic compositions from about 60 to ∼4 Ma, at which time both show a rapid decrease to unradiogenic Nd composition, thought to be related to the increasing influence of NADW or glaciation in the northern hemisphere. During the Oligocene, North Atlantic Hf became progressively less radiogenic until in the mid-Miocene (∼15 Ma) it reached +1. It then shifted gradually back to an ϵHf value of +3 at 4 Ma, since when it has decreased rapidly to about −1 at the present day. The observed shifts in the Hf isotopic composition were probably caused by variation in intensity of erosion as glaciation progressed in the northern hemisphere. Ferromanganese crusts SS663 and 109D are from about 5500 m depth in the Indian Ocean and are now separated by ∼2300 km across the Mid-Indian Ridge. They display similar trends in Hf isotopic composition from 20 to 5 Ma, with the more northern crust having a composition that is consistently more radiogenic (by ∼2 ϵHf units). Paradoxically, during the last 20 Ma the Hf isotopic compositions of the two crusts have converged despite increased separation and subsidence relative to the ridge. A correlatable negative excursion at ∼5 Ma in the two records may reflect a short-term increase in erosion caused by the activation of the Himalayan main central thrust. Changes to unradiogenic Hf in the central Indian Ocean after 5 Ma may alternatively have been caused by the expanding influence of NADW into the Mid-Indian Basin via circum-Antarctic deep water or a reduction of Pacific flow through the Indonesian gateway. In either case, these results illustrate the utility of the Hf isotope system as a tracer of paleoceanographic changes, capable of responding to subtle changes in erosional regime not readily resolved

  16. High-Albedo Salt Crusts on the Tropical Ocean of Snowball Earth: Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carns, R.; Light, B.; Warren, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    During a Snowball Earth event, almost all of the ocean surface first freezes as sea ice. As in modern sea ice, trapped inclusions of liquid brine permeate the ice cover. As the ice grows and cools, salt crystals precipitate within the inclusions. At -23C, the most abundant salt in seawater, sodium chloride, begins to precipitate as the dihydrate mineral hydrohalite (NaCl·2H2O). Crystals of hydrohalite within the sea ice scatter light. Measurements of cold, natural sea ice show a broadband albedo increase of 10-20% when salt precipitates. Such snow-free natural sea ice with a surface temperature below -23C is rare on modern Earth, but would have been common in tropical regions of a Snowball Earth where evaporation exceeded precipitation. The persistent cold and lack of summer melt on the Snowball ocean surface, combined with net evaporation, is hypothesized to yield lag deposits of hydrohalite crystals on the ice surface. To investigate this process, we prepared laboratory-grown sea ice in a 1000 liter tank in a walk-in freezer laboratory. The ice was cooled below -23 C and the surface sprayed with a 23% NaCl solution to create a layer of hydrohalite-enriched ice, a proxy for lag deposits that would have formed over long periods of surface sublimation. We have developed a novel technique for measuring the spectral albedo of ice surfaces in the laboratory; this technique was used to monitor the evolution of the surface albedo of our salt crust as the ice matrix sublimated away leaving a layer of fine-grained hydrohalite crystals. Measurements of this hydrohalite surface crust show a very high albedo, comparable to fresh snow at visible wavelengths and significantly larger than fresh snow at near infrared wavelengths. Broadband albedos are 0.55 for bare artificial sea ice at -30C, 0.75 for ice containing 25% hydrohalite by volume, 0.84 after five days of desiccation and 0.93 after 47 days of desiccation. Using our laboratory measurements, along with estimates of

  17. Information on stress conditions in the oceanic crust from oval fractures in a deep borehole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Oval images etched into the wall of a deep borehole were detected in DSDP Hole 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, from analysis of an acoustic televiewer log. A systematic inspection of these ovals has identified intriguing consistencies in appearance that cannot be explained satisfactorily by a random, coincidental distribution of pillow lavas. As an alternative hypothesis, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to account for the generation and orientation of similarly curved, stress-induced fractures. Consequently, these oval features can be interpreted as fractures and related directly to stress conditions in the oceanic crust at this site. The azimuth of the oval center corresponds to the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress (SH), and the oval width, which spans approximately 180?? of the borehole, is aligned with the azimuth of minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh). The oval height is controlled by the fracture angle and thus is a function of the coefficient of internal friction of the rock. -from Author

  18. Do Two Deep Drill Holes Into the Upper Ocean Crust Quantify the Hydrothermal Contribution to Global Geochemical Cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teagle, D. A. H.; Alt, J.; Coggon, R. M.; Harris, M.; Smith-Duque, C. E.; Rehkamper, M.

    2014-12-01

    Vigorous circulation of seawater at the ocean ridges is required to cool and crystallize magma to form new ocean crust. Axial and ridge flank hydrothermal fluid circulation is accompanied by seawater-basalt exchanges over a spectrum of temperatures that buffer the chemistry of seawater, provide unique microbial niches, alter the chemistry and mineralogy of the ocean crust, and through subduction return surface-derived geochemical tracers to the interior of our planet. In many models of axial and ridge flank hydrothermal circulation, most fluid-rock interaction occurs in the upper oceanic crust. Hence inventories of seawater exchange should be captured by relatively shallow (<2 km) boreholes. However, after 45+ years of ocean drilling we have just two deep drill holes that sample the lava and dike layers of intact upper oceanic crust. DSDP Hole 504B on 6.9 Ma ocean crust produced at the intermediate spreading rate Costa Rica Rift penetrates 1836 m into basement through a complete sequence of lavas to near the base of the sheeted dike complex. In isolation, Hole 504B became the 'reference section' for upper oceanic crust from which hydrothermal contributions to global geochemical cycles were determined. The recent drilling of Hole 1256D in 15 Ma superfast spreading rate Pacific crust penetrated through the complete volcanic and sheeted dike layers into the underlying gabbroic rocks in intact ocean crust for the first time. These boreholes are complemented by observations from seafloor tectonic windows, fracture zones, and ophiolites, but these are imperfect analogs. Although Holes 504B and 1256D formed at different spreading rates, crust from both sites is expected to conform to textbook Penrose-type layering, albeit with different thicknesses of lavas and dikes. However, what was not anticipated was the contrasting distribution and nature of elemental and isotopic hydrothermal exchanges. Differences reflect the influence of local crustal structure, such as lava

  19. Concept of biogenic ferromanganese crust formation: coccoliths as bio-seeds in crusts from Central Atlantic Ocean (Senghor Seamount/Cape Verde).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Peine, Florian; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Heinz C; Wiens, Matthias; Schlossmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2011-05-01

    At depths of 2,000 to 3,000 m, seamounts from the Cape Verde archipelago (Central Atlantic Ocean) are largely covered with ferromanganese crusts. Here we studied 60 to 150 mm thick crusts from the Senghor Seamount (depth: 2257.4 m). The crusts have a non lamellated texture and are covered with spherical nodules. The chemical composition shows a dominance of MnO2 (26.1%) and Fe2O3 (38.8%) with considerable amounts of Co (0.74%) and TiO2 (2.1%). Analysis by scanning electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) revealed a well defined compositional zonation of micro-layers; the distribution pattern of Mn does not match that of Fe. Analysis by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that coccospheres/coccoliths exist in the crust material as microfossils; most of the coccospheres/coccoliths are not intact. The almost circular coccoliths belong to the type of heterococcoliths and are taxonomically related to species of the family Calcidiscaceae. By energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis an accumulation of the coccoliths in the Mn- and Fe rich micronodules was detected. Focused ion beam assisted SEM mapping highlighted that the coccoliths in the crust are Mn rich, suggesting that the calcareous material of the algal skeleton has been replaced by Mn-minerals. We conclude that a biologically induced mechanism has been involved in the formation of the crusts, collected from the Cape Verde archipelago from depths of 2,000 to 3,000 m in the mixing region between the oxygen-minimum surface zone and the oxygen-rich deep waters; the deposition process might have been triggered by chemical reactions during the dissolution of the Ca-carbonate skeletons of the coccoliths allowing Mn(II) to oxidize to Mn(IV) and in turn to deposit this element in the crust material. PMID:21615032

  20. Concept of biogenic ferromanganese crust formation: coccoliths as bio-seeds in crusts from Central Atlantic Ocean (Senghor Seamount/Cape Verde).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Peine, Florian; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Heinz C; Wiens, Matthias; Schlossmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2011-05-01

    At depths of 2,000 to 3,000 m, seamounts from the Cape Verde archipelago (Central Atlantic Ocean) are largely covered with ferromanganese crusts. Here we studied 60 to 150 mm thick crusts from the Senghor Seamount (depth: 2257.4 m). The crusts have a non lamellated texture and are covered with spherical nodules. The chemical composition shows a dominance of MnO2 (26.1%) and Fe2O3 (38.8%) with considerable amounts of Co (0.74%) and TiO2 (2.1%). Analysis by scanning electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) revealed a well defined compositional zonation of micro-layers; the distribution pattern of Mn does not match that of Fe. Analysis by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that coccospheres/coccoliths exist in the crust material as microfossils; most of the coccospheres/coccoliths are not intact. The almost circular coccoliths belong to the type of heterococcoliths and are taxonomically related to species of the family Calcidiscaceae. By energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis an accumulation of the coccoliths in the Mn- and Fe rich micronodules was detected. Focused ion beam assisted SEM mapping highlighted that the coccoliths in the crust are Mn rich, suggesting that the calcareous material of the algal skeleton has been replaced by Mn-minerals. We conclude that a biologically induced mechanism has been involved in the formation of the crusts, collected from the Cape Verde archipelago from depths of 2,000 to 3,000 m in the mixing region between the oxygen-minimum surface zone and the oxygen-rich deep waters; the deposition process might have been triggered by chemical reactions during the dissolution of the Ca-carbonate skeletons of the coccoliths allowing Mn(II) to oxidize to Mn(IV) and in turn to deposit this element in the crust material.

  1. First investigation of the microbiology of the deepest layer of ocean crust.

    PubMed

    Mason, Olivia U; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Rosner, Martin; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Maruyama, Akihiko; Fisk, Martin R; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2010-11-05

    The gabbroic layer comprises the majority of ocean crust. Opportunities to sample this expansive crustal environment are rare because of the technological demands of deep ocean drilling; thus, gabbroic microbial communities have not yet been studied. During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 304 and 305, igneous rock samples were collected from 0.45-1391.01 meters below seafloor at Hole 1309D, located on the Atlantis Massif (30 °N, 42 °W). Microbial diversity in the rocks was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing (Expedition 304), and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing, and functional gene microarray analysis (Expedition 305). The gabbroic microbial community was relatively depauperate, consisting of a low diversity of proteobacterial lineages closely related to Bacteria from hydrocarbon-dominated environments and to known hydrocarbon degraders, and there was little evidence of Archaea. Functional gene diversity in the gabbroic samples was analyzed with a microarray for metabolic genes ("GeoChip"), producing further evidence of genomic potential for hydrocarbon degradation--genes for aerobic methane and toluene oxidation. Genes coding for anaerobic respirations, such as nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and metal reduction, as well as genes for carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, and ammonium-oxidation, were also present. Our results suggest that the gabbroic layer hosts a microbial community that can degrade hydrocarbons and fix carbon and nitrogen, and has the potential to employ a diversity of non-oxygen electron acceptors. This rare glimpse of the gabbroic ecosystem provides further support for the recent finding of hydrocarbons in deep ocean gabbro from Hole 1309D. It has been hypothesized that these hydrocarbons might originate abiotically from serpentinization reactions that are occurring deep in the Earth's crust, raising the possibility that the lithic microbial

  2. First Investigation of the Microbiology of the Deepest Layer of Ocean Crust

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Olivia U.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Rosner, Martin; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Maruyama, Akihiko; Fisk, Martin R.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    The gabbroic layer comprises the majority of ocean crust. Opportunities to sample this expansive crustal environment are rare because of the technological demands of deep ocean drilling; thus, gabbroic microbial communities have not yet been studied. During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 304 and 305, igneous rock samples were collected from 0.45-1391.01 meters below seafloor at Hole 1309D, located on the Atlantis Massif (30 °N, 42 °W). Microbial diversity in the rocks was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing (Expedition 304), and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing, and functional gene microarray analysis (Expedition 305). The gabbroic microbial community was relatively depauperate, consisting of a low diversity of proteobacterial lineages closely related to Bacteria from hydrocarbon-dominated environments and to known hydrocarbon degraders, and there was little evidence of Archaea. Functional gene diversity in the gabbroic samples was analyzed with a microarray for metabolic genes (“GeoChip”), producing further evidence of genomic potential for hydrocarbon degradation - genes for aerobic methane and toluene oxidation. Genes coding for anaerobic respirations, such as nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and metal reduction, as well as genes for carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, and ammonium-oxidation, were also present. Our results suggest that the gabbroic layer hosts a microbial community that can degrade hydrocarbons and fix carbon and nitrogen, and has the potential to employ a diversity of non-oxygen electron acceptors. This rare glimpse of the gabbroic ecosystem provides further support for the recent finding of hydrocarbons in deep ocean gabbro from Hole 1309D. It has been hypothesized that these hydrocarbons might originate abiotically from serpentinization reactions that are occurring deep in the Earth's crust, raising the possibility that the lithic microbial

  3. First investigation of the microbiology of the deepest layer of ocean crust.

    PubMed

    Mason, Olivia U; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Rosner, Martin; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Maruyama, Akihiko; Fisk, Martin R; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    The gabbroic layer comprises the majority of ocean crust. Opportunities to sample this expansive crustal environment are rare because of the technological demands of deep ocean drilling; thus, gabbroic microbial communities have not yet been studied. During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 304 and 305, igneous rock samples were collected from 0.45-1391.01 meters below seafloor at Hole 1309D, located on the Atlantis Massif (30 °N, 42 °W). Microbial diversity in the rocks was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing (Expedition 304), and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing, and functional gene microarray analysis (Expedition 305). The gabbroic microbial community was relatively depauperate, consisting of a low diversity of proteobacterial lineages closely related to Bacteria from hydrocarbon-dominated environments and to known hydrocarbon degraders, and there was little evidence of Archaea. Functional gene diversity in the gabbroic samples was analyzed with a microarray for metabolic genes ("GeoChip"), producing further evidence of genomic potential for hydrocarbon degradation--genes for aerobic methane and toluene oxidation. Genes coding for anaerobic respirations, such as nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and metal reduction, as well as genes for carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, and ammonium-oxidation, were also present. Our results suggest that the gabbroic layer hosts a microbial community that can degrade hydrocarbons and fix carbon and nitrogen, and has the potential to employ a diversity of non-oxygen electron acceptors. This rare glimpse of the gabbroic ecosystem provides further support for the recent finding of hydrocarbons in deep ocean gabbro from Hole 1309D. It has been hypothesized that these hydrocarbons might originate abiotically from serpentinization reactions that are occurring deep in the Earth's crust, raising the possibility that the lithic microbial

  4. Faulting induced by precipitation of water at grain boundaries in hot subducting oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Green, Harry W; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Jin, Zhenmin

    2004-04-01

    Dehydration embrittlement has been proposed to explain both intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes in subduction zones. Because such earthquakes primarily occur at shallow depths or within the core of the subducting plate, dehydration at relatively low temperatures has been emphasized. However, recent careful relocation of subduction-zone earthquakes shows that at depths of 100-250 km, earthquakes continue in the uppermost part of the slab (probably the former oceanic crust that has been converted to eclogite) where temperatures are higher. Here we show that at such pressures and temperatures, eclogite lacking hydrous phases but with significant hydroxyl incorporated as defects in pyroxene and garnet develops a faulting instability associated with precipitation of water at grain boundaries and the production of very small amounts of melt. This new faulting mechanism satisfactorily explains high-temperature earthquakes in subducting oceanic crust and could potentially be involved in much deeper earthquakes in connection with similar precipitation of water in the mantle transition zone (400-700 km depth). Of potential importance for all proposed high-pressure earthquake mechanisms is the very small amount of fluid required to trigger this instability.

  5. Seismic evidence for overpressured subducted oceanic crust and megathrust fault sealing.

    PubMed

    Audet, Pascal; Bostock, Michael G; Christensen, Nikolas I; Peacock, Simon M

    2009-01-01

    Water and hydrous minerals play a key part in geodynamic processes at subduction zones by weakening the plate boundary, aiding slip and permitting subduction-and indeed plate tectonics-to occur. The seismological signature of water within the forearc mantle wedge is evident in anomalies with low seismic shear velocity marking serpentinization. However, seismological observations bearing on the presence of water within the subducting plate itself are less well documented. Here we use converted teleseismic waves to obtain observations of anomalously high Poisson's ratios within the subducted oceanic crust from the Cascadia continental margin to its intersection with forearc mantle. On the basis of pressure, temperature and compositional considerations, the elevated Poisson's ratios indicate that water is pervasively present in fluid form at pore pressures near lithostatic values. Combined with observations of a strong negative velocity contrast at the top of the oceanic crust, our results imply that the megathrust is a low-permeability boundary. The transition from a low- to high-permeability plate interface downdip into the mantle wedge is explained by hydrofracturing of the seal by volume changes across the interface caused by the onset of crustal eclogitization and mantle serpentinization. These results may have important implications for our understanding of seismogenesis, subduction zone structure and the mechanism of episodic tremor and slip.

  6. High resolution dating of young magmatic oceanic crust using near-seafloor magnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Kitazawa, M.; Hemond, C.; Guillou, H.; Chauvin, A.; Ravilly, M.; Honsho, C.

    2015-12-01

    We compare two independent dating methods on a section of oceanic crust created within the last million year on the Central Indian Ridge axis at 19°10'S, an area affected by the Reunion hotspot. First, near-seafloor magnetic anomalies display characteristic sequences of magnetic intensity variations that we confidently identified by comparison with published paleointensity curves for the Brunhes period and used as a dating tool. This approach is further confirmed by the linear trend relating the NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetization) and paleointensity measured on rock samples along the same section. Second, valid K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages are determined on enriched basalt samples collected by deep-sea submersible. They show an excellent coincidence with the magnetic ages and support the use of high-resolution, near-seafloor marine magnetic anomalies as an efficient tool to date the young magmatic oceanic crust, where radiometric methods are generally unpractical, with unprecedented resolution. The ages obtained on the CIR reveal a 150-200 kyr cyclicity in the magmatic and tectonic processes of seafloor formation, two ridge jumps of 2.5 km and 1.2 km, respectively, and a systematic spreading asymmetry in favor to the Indian flank which may result from the interaction of the CIR with the Reunion hotspot.

  7. Intraterrestrial life in igneous ocean crust: advances, technologies, and the future (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, K. J.; Wheat, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    The “next frontier” of scientific investigation in the deep sub-seafloor microbial biosphere lies in a realm that has been a completely unexplored until just the past decade: the igneous oceanic crust. Problems that have hampered exploration of the “hard rock” marine deep biosphere have revolved around sample access (hard rock drilling is technologically complex), contamination (a major hurdle), momentum (why take on this challenge when the relatively “easier” marine muds also have been a frontier) and suspicion that microbes in more readily accessed using (simpler) non-drilling technologies - like vents - are truly are endemic of subsurface clades/activities. Since the late 1990’s, however, technologies and resultant studies on microbes in the igneous ocean crust deep biosphere have risen sharply, and offer a new and distinct view on this biome. Moreover, microbiologists are now taking leading roles in technological developments that are critically required to address this biosphere - interfacing and collaborating closely with engineers, genomic biologists, geologists, seismologists, and geochemists to accomplish logistically complex and long-term studies that bring observatory research to this deep realm. The future of this field for the least decade is rich - opportunities abound for microbiologists to play new roles in how we study microbiology in the deep subsurface in an oceanographic and Earth system science perspective.

  8. Possible Factors affecting the Thermal Contrast between Middle-Latitude Asian Continent and Adjacent Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaqiong; Wu, Tongwen; Dong, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    A middle-latitude Land-Sea thermal contrast Index was used in this study which has close connection to the East Asian summer precipitation. The index has two parts which are land thermal index defined as JJA 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies at a land area (75°-90° E, 40° -55°N ) and ocean thermal index defined as that at an oceanic area (140° -150°E, 35° -42.5°N). The impact of the surface heat flux and atmospheric diabatic heating over the land and the ocean on the index was studied. The results show that the surface heat flux over Eurasian inner land has little influence to the land thermal index, while the variation of the surface latent heat flux and long-wave radiation over the Pacific adjacent to Japan has highly correlation with the ocean thermal index. The changes with height of the atmospheric diabatic heating rates over the Eurasian inner land and the Pacific adjacent to Japan have different features. The variations of the middle troposphere atmospheric long-wave and short-wave radiation heating have significantly influences on land thermal index, and that of the low troposphere atmospheric long-wave radiation, short-wave radiation and deep convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the land thermal index. For the ocean thermal index, the variations of the surface layer atmospheric vertical diffuse heating, large-scale latent heating and long-wave radiation heating are more important, low and middle troposphere atmospheric large-scale latent heating and shallow convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the ocean thermal index. And then the ocean thermal index has closely connection with the low troposphere atmospheric temperature, while the land thermal index has closely connection with the middle troposphere atmospheric temperature. The Effect of the preceding global SST anomalies on the index also was analyzed. The relations of land thermal index and ocean thermal index and the global SST anomalies

  9. Geophysical and geochemical nature of relaminated arc-derived lower crust underneath oceanic domain in southern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Alexandra; Schulmann, Karel; Janoušek, Vojtech; Štípská, Pavla; Armstrong, Robin; Belousova, Elena; Dolgopolova, Alla; Seltmann, Reimar; Lexa, Ondrej; Jiang, Yingde; Hanžl, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in southern Mongolia consists of E-W trending Neoproterozoic cratons and Silurian-Devonian oceanic tectonic zones. Previous study revealed that the Early Paleozoic accretionary wedge and the oceanic tectonic zone are underlain by a layer giving a homogeneous gravity signal. Forward gravity modelling suggests that this layer is not formed of high-density material typical of lower oceanic crust but is composed of low- to intermediate-density rocks resembling continental crust. The nature of this lower crust is constrained by the whole-rock geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopic signature of abundant Late Carboniferous high-K calc-alkaline and Early Permian A-type granitoids intruding the two Early Paleozoic domains. It is possible to explain the genesis of these granitoids by anatexis of juvenile, metaigneous (tonalitic-gabbroic) rocks of Late Cambrian age, the source of which is presumed to lie in the "Khantaishir" arc (520-495Ma) further north. In order to test this hypothesis, the likely modal composition and density of Khantaishir arc-like protoliths are thermodynamically modelled at granulite- and higher amphibolite-facies conditions. It is shown that the current average density of the lower crust inferred by gravity modelling (2730 ±20kg/m3) matches best metamorphosed leucotonalite to diorite. Based on these results, it is now proposed that Mongolian CAOB has an architecture in which the accretionary wedge and oceanic upper crust is underlain by allochthonous lower crust that originated in a Cambrian arc. A tectonic model explaining relamination of allochthonous felsic to intermediate lower crust beneath mafic upper crust is proposed.

  10. Geophysical and geochemical nature of relaminated arc-derived lower crust underneath oceanic domain in southern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Alexandra; Schulmann, Karel; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Å típská, Pavla; Armstrong, Robin; Belousova, Elena; Dolgopolova, Alla; Seltmann, Reimar; Lexa, Ondrej; Jiang, Yingde; Hanžl, Pavel

    2015-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in southern Mongolia consists of E-W trending Neoproterozoic cratons and Silurian-Devonian oceanic tectonic zones. Previous study revealed that the Early Paleozoic accretionary wedge and the oceanic tectonic zone are underlain by a layer giving a homogeneous gravity signal. Forward gravity modelling suggests that this layer is not formed of high-density material typical of lower oceanic crust but is composed of low- to intermediate-density rocks resembling continental crust. The nature of this lower crust is constrained by the whole-rock geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopic signature of abundant Late Carboniferous high-K calc-alkaline and Early Permian A-type granitoids intruding the two Early Paleozoic domains. It is possible to explain the genesis of these granitoids by anatexis of juvenile, metaigneous (tonalitic-gabbroic) rocks of Late Cambrian age, the source of which is presumed to lie in the "Khantaishir" arc (520-495 Ma) further north. In order to test this hypothesis, the likely modal composition and density of Khantaishir arc-like protoliths are thermodynamically modelled at granulite- and higher amphibolite-facies conditions. It is shown that the current average density of the lower crust inferred by gravity modelling (2730 ± 20 kg/m3) matches best metamorphosed leucotonalite to diorite. Based on these results, it is now proposed that Mongolian CAOB has an architecture in which the accretionary wedge and oceanic upper crust is underlain by allochthonous lower crust that originated in a Cambrian arc. A tectonic model explaining relamination of allochthonous felsic to intermediate lower crust beneath mafic upper crust is proposed.

  11. The contribution of hydrothermally altered ocean crust to the mantle halogen and noble gas cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavrit, Déborah; Burgess, Ray; Sumino, Hirochika; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Droop, Giles; Shimizu, Aya; Ballentine, Chris J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that seawater-derived noble gases and halogens are recycled into the deep mantle by the subduction of oceanic crust. To understand the processes controlling the availability of halogens and noble gases for subduction, we determined the noble gas elemental and isotopic ratios and halogen (Cl, Br, I) concentrations in 28 igneous samples from the altered oceanic crust (AOC) from 5 ODP sites in the Eastern and Western Pacific Ocean. Crushing followed by heating experiments enabled determination of noble gases and halogens in fluid inclusions and mineral phases respectively. Except for He and Ar, Ne, Kr and Xe isotopic ratios were all air-like suggesting that primary MORB signatures have been completely overprinted by air and/or seawater interaction. In contrast, 3He/4He ratios obtained by crushing indicate that a mantle helium component is still preserved, and 40Ar/36Ar values are affected by radiogenic decay in the mineral phases. The 130Xe/36Ar and 84Kr/36Ar ratios are respectively up to 15 times and 5 times higher than those of seawater and the highest ratios are found in samples affected by low temperature alteration (shallower than 800-900 m sub-basement). We consider three possible processes: (i) adsorption onto the clays present in the samples; (ii) fluid inclusions with a marine pore fluid composition; and (iii) fractionation of seawater through phase separation caused by boiling. Ninety percent of the Cl, Br and I were released during the heating experiments, showing that halogens are dominantly held in mineral phases prior to subduction. I/Cl ratios vary by 4 orders of magnitude, from 3 × 10-6 to 2 × 10-2. The mean Br/Cl ratio is 30% lower than in MORB and seawater. I/Cl ratios lower than MORB values are attributed to Cl-rich amphibole formation caused by hydrothermal alteration at depths greater than 800-900 m sub-basement together with different extents of I loss during low and high temperature alteration. At shallower depths, I

  12. Isotopic variations within upper oceanic crust at IODP Site 1256: Implications for crustal recycling and the formation of ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggen, S.; Hoernle, K.; Geldmacher, J.; Hauff, F.

    2007-12-01

    The origin of ocean island basalts (OIBs) is a fundamental question facing Earth scientists. It is commonly agreed that lithospheric material recycled in the mantle is involved in the magma source of OIBs. The relative importance of 1) subducted altered oceanic basaltic crust (AOC), 2) subducted marine sediments and/or 3) delaminated metasomatised subcontinental lithosphere and continental lower crust remains to be resolved. We examine the geochemical composition of a complete in situ section of oceanic crust drilled at Site 1256 during IODP Expeditions 309 and 312. It includes the extrusive layer, sheeted dikes and gabbros of ca. 15 Ma old oceanic crust of the Cocos Plate formed during a period of superfast spreading at the East Pacific Rise. Modeling in the Sr-Nd-Pb-isotope space and comparison with present day radiogenic isotope ratios of OIBs provides constraints on the significance of recycled oceanic crust in the OIB mantle source(s). Our study shows that the generation of sulphides during low- and high-temperature alteration of oceanic crust has a strong influence on U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios and whether an AOC domain evolves relatively low or high Pb-isotope ratios over geological timescales. The model suggests that AOC as the sole precursor material, modified during the subduction process, and after relatively low to moderate recycling ages of ca. 300-800 Ma, is sufficient to explain the Sr-Nd-Pb-isotopic composition of OIBs with Pb-isotopic compositions along or below the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL) and relatively high Nd-isotope ratios (e.g. Canaries, Galapagos, Iceland, Madeira). This indicates that additional EM-components, potentially associated with recycled lithospheric material such as subducted sediments, lower continental crust or subcontinental lithosphere, are not required for an array of OIBs, but are only necessary to explain OIBs with Pb-isotope ratios above the NHRL and relatively low Nd- isotope ratios (e.g. Pitcairn, Tristan

  13. Seismic properties of the Nazca oceanic crust in southern Peruvian subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Clayton, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    The horizontal Nazca slab, extending over a distance of ~800 km along the trench is one of enigmatic features in Peruvian subduction zone. Increased buoyancy of the oceanic lithosphere alone due to the subduction of Nazca Ridge is insufficient to fully explain such a lengthy segment. We use data from the recent seismic experiment in southern Peru to find that the subduction-related hydration plays a major role in controlling shear wave velocities within the upper part of the oceanic crust and overlying materials. We observe substantial velocity reductions of ~20-40% near the top plate interface along- and perpendicular-to the trench from ~40-120 km depths. In particular, significant shear wave velocity reductions and subsequently higher P-to-S velocity ratio (exceeding 2.0) at the flat slab region suggest that the seismically probed layer is fluid-rich and mechanically weak. The dominant source of fluid comes from metasediments and subducted crust (Nazca Ridge). Long-term supply of fluid from the southward migrating Nazca Ridge provides additional buoyancy of the subducting oceanic lithosphere and also lowers the viscosity of the overlying mantle wedge to drive and sustain the flat plate segment of ~800 km along the trench. Also, by comparing calculated seismic velocities with experimentally derived mineral physics data, we additionally provide mechanical constraints on the possible changes in frictional behavior across the subduction zone plate interface. Observed low seismic velocities in the seismogenic zone suggest a presence of low strength materials that may be explained by overpressured pore fluids (i.e., accreted sediment included in the subduction channel).

  14. Seismic properties of the Nazca oceanic crust in southern Peruvian subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, YoungHee; Clayton, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    The horizontal Nazca slab, extending over a distance of ∼800 km along the trench is one of enigmatic features in Peruvian subduction zone. Increased buoyancy of the oceanic lithosphere alone due to the subduction of Nazca Ridge is insufficient to fully explain such a lengthy segment. We use data from the recent seismic experiment in southern Peru to find that the subduction-related hydration plays a major role in controlling shear wave velocities within the upper part of the oceanic crust and overlying materials. We observe substantial velocity reductions of ∼20-40% near the top plate interface along- and perpendicular-to the trench from ∼40-120 km depths. In particular, significant shear wave velocity reductions and subsequently higher P-to-S velocity ratio (exceeding 2.0) at the flat slab region suggest that the seismically probed layer is fluid-rich and mechanically weak. The dominant source of fluid comes from metasediments and subducted crust (Nazca Ridge). Long-term supply of fluid from the southward migrating Nazca Ridge provides additional buoyancy of the subducting oceanic lithosphere and also lowers the viscosity of the overlying mantle wedge to drive and sustain the flat plate segment of ∼800 km along the trench. Also, by comparing calculated seismic velocities with experimentally derived mineral physics data, we additionally provide mechanical constraints on the possible changes in frictional behavior across the subduction zone plate interface. Observed low seismic velocities in the seismogenic zone suggest a presence of low strength materials that may be explained by overpressured pore fluids (i.e., accreted sediment included in the subduction channel).

  15. Chlorine Stable Isotope Composition of Altered Oceanic Crust: Empirical and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J.; Gardner, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Chlorine is an excellent geochemical tracer of fluid-rock interactions because it strongly partitions into the aqueous fluid phase. Chlorine can be used to study the migration of fluids in the crustal environment, volatiles in subduction zones, and the interaction between oceanic lithosphere and seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids. Cl is only a useful tracer, however, if 1) the δ37Cl values of potential chlorine reservoirs and 2) the relevant equilibrium chlorine isotope fractionation factors are both well constrained. Poor constraints on both 1 and 2 for altered oceanic crust (AOC) severely limit our understanding of the global Cl cycle. Here we present δ37Cl values of AOC sampled by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Samples from the Southwest Indian Ridge (ODP Hole 735B) have δ37Cl values ranging from -0.2 to +0.2‰ (error < ± 0.3‰) vs. SMOC (Standard Mean Ocean Chloride, defined as 0‰). Samples from the Western Pacific (ODP Hole 801C) have δ37Cl values ranging from -0.4 to +0.8‰. ODP Site 735 samples a 11 Ma lower section of slow spreading (0.6-1.0 cm/yr) oceanic crust. In contrast, ODP Site 801 is located in ~170 Ma fast-spreading crust (16 cm/yr). Despite those differences in age and tectonic setting, the δ37Cl values of AOC are remarkably similar, implying similar sources and mechanisms of hydration. The only previously reported AOC δ37Cl values are from the Costa Rica Rift (ODP Hole 504B). Site 504 was drilled into 5.9 Ma crust from an intermediate spreading center (~3 cm/yr). δ37Cl values range from -1.6 to -0.9‰ (Bonifacie et al., 2007). Our study expands the range of δ37Cl values reported for AOC, and can be used to reevaluate mass balance calculations improving our understanding of subduction recycling. Experimental and theoretical constraints on chlorine isotope fractionation in inorganic systems are limited to only a handful of studies. Theoretical calculations estimate that at 25°C substances in which Cl bonds with 2+ cations will

  16. A Cross-Hole, Multi-Year Tracer Injection Experiment in the Volcanic Ocean Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A. T.; Neira, N. M.; Wheat, C. G.; Clark, J. F.; Becker, K.; Hsieh, C. C.; Rappe, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    We present preliminary results from the first cross-hole tracer injection experiment in the volcanic ocean crust. The test site is on 3.5 to 3.6 M.y. old seafloor on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Six borehole subseafloor observatories (CORKs) were installed during three scientific ocean drilling expeditions, five arrayed along a 1 km profile aligned with the strike of underlying abyssal hills (Holes 1026B, 1301A/B, and 1362A/B), and one offset 2.4 km to the east (1027C). Before installing the sixth CORK in Hole 1362B, in 2010, we injected a mixture of tracers (dissolved gas, metal salts, particles) during 24 hours into the upper ocean crust. Seafloor samplers connected CORKs, sampling from different locations in the crust, were recovered during servicing expeditions in 2011 and 2013; downhole samplers that contain records from the full four years following tracer injection will be recovered in Summer 2014. Analyses of dissolved gas tracers collected with wellhead samplers through 2013 suggest that the dominant flow direction in upper basement is south to north, as inferred from regional thermal data and the chemistry of geochemical (pore fluid and borehole) samples. The apparent tracer flow rate in upper basement is on the order of meters/day, but calculations are complicated by an incomplete CORK seal in Hole 1301A, which resulted in discharge from this system that also "pulled" water and tracer to the south. Samples were collected from the tracer injection borehole, Hole 1362B, and a sampling site 200 m to the north, Hole 1362A, beginning one year after tracer injection, after opening a large-diameter ball valve on the wellhead of Hole 1362B to initiate a long-term free flow experiment. Analyses of these samples suggest that much of the tracer injected in 2010 remained close to Hole 1362B rather than being advected and dispersed into the formation. It also appears that much of the tracer transport to Hole 1362A occurred within one or more

  17. The deep subsurface biosphere in igneous ocean crust: frontier habitats for microbiological exploration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katrina J; Fisher, Andrew T; Wheat, C Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    We discuss ridge flank environments in the ocean crust as habitats for subseafloor microbial life. Oceanic ridge flanks, areas far from the magmatic and tectonic influence of seafloor spreading, comprise one of the largest and least explored microbial habitats on the planet. We describe the nature of selected ridge flank crustal environments, and present a framework for delineating a continuum of conditions and processes that are likely to be important for defining subseafloor microbial "provinces." The basis for this framework is three governing conditions that help to determine the nature of subseafloor biomes: crustal age, extent of fluid flow, and thermal state. We present a brief overview of subseafloor conditions, within the context of these three characteristics, for five field sites where microbial studies have been done, are underway, or have been proposed. Technical challenges remain and likely will limit progress in studies of microbial ridge flank ecosystems, which is why it is vital to select and design future studies so as to leverage as much general understanding as possible from work focused at a small number of sites. A characterization framework such that as presented in this paper, perhaps including alternative or additional physical or chemical characteristics, is essential for achieving the greatest benefit from multidisciplinary microbial investigations of oceanic ridge flanks.

  18. Formation of Oceanic Crust Geostructurs and Relation Between Submarine landslides and Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, Albert V.

    2010-05-01

    Numerous geological and geophysical data proved the presence of oceanic crust relicts of Tethys in the territory of Lesser Caucasus. To discover the deep structure, composition and evolution of the modern Earth crust, the elastic and density properties of basites, ultrabasites and serpentinites of lesser Caucasus at high pressures and temperatures were investigated. On the basis of this data, and numerous geological-geophysical factual data concerning Mid ridges, Transform faults, Subdaction zones, Island arcs and Marginal seas are presented as a possible mechanism of their formations and relation between submarine landslides and tsunamis. The numerous volcanic and seismic centers, serpentinized protrusions and also hydrothermal sources are dated in the rang of Mid ridges and Transform faults. The formation of serpentinized ultrabasites 3-rd layer affects an infiltration of oceanic waters on ultrabasites of the upper mantle. At the same time, on an axial part of the ridge, the horizontally cramping forces, on the 5-6км depth, are established, which step-by-step pass on expanding in the top of the ridge. Analyzing the data about composition and properties of oceanic crust, we suspect that during the formation of Mid ridges, the main role belongs to serpentinized rocks of the 3-rd oceanic layer. Owing to high plasticity and low density, the serpentinized masses, by tectonic faults, in the central zone of Mid ridges, from both parties, float up and by means of protrusions implanted in the oceanic crust, then the serpentinized masses are grasp by basalts lavas. Accumulation in the axial zone of Mid ridges large masses of basalts and serpentinits, under influence of gravitation forces make slides to downwards on the serpentinized layer to the foot of ridge and low-powered sedimentary layers between these masses are saved. In the proposed model we attempted to interpret the above mentioned phenomena in the following sense. 1. Because of serpentinization of ultrabasits

  19. The deep subsurface biosphere in igneous ocean crust: frontier habitats for microbiological exploration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katrina J; Fisher, Andrew T; Wheat, C Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    We discuss ridge flank environments in the ocean crust as habitats for subseafloor microbial life. Oceanic ridge flanks, areas far from the magmatic and tectonic influence of seafloor spreading, comprise one of the largest and least explored microbial habitats on the planet. We describe the nature of selected ridge flank crustal environments, and present a framework for delineating a continuum of conditions and processes that are likely to be important for defining subseafloor microbial "provinces." The basis for this framework is three governing conditions that help to determine the nature of subseafloor biomes: crustal age, extent of fluid flow, and thermal state. We present a brief overview of subseafloor conditions, within the context of these three characteristics, for five field sites where microbial studies have been done, are underway, or have been proposed. Technical challenges remain and likely will limit progress in studies of microbial ridge flank ecosystems, which is why it is vital to select and design future studies so as to leverage as much general understanding as possible from work focused at a small number of sites. A characterization framework such that as presented in this paper, perhaps including alternative or additional physical or chemical characteristics, is essential for achieving the greatest benefit from multidisciplinary microbial investigations of oceanic ridge flanks. PMID:22347212

  20. The Deep Subsurface Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust: Frontier Habitats for Microbiological Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Katrina J.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Wheat, C. Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    We discuss ridge flank environments in the ocean crust as habitats for subseafloor microbial life. Oceanic ridge flanks, areas far from the magmatic and tectonic influence of seafloor spreading, comprise one of the largest and least explored microbial habitats on the planet. We describe the nature of selected ridge flank crustal environments, and present a framework for delineating a continuum of conditions and processes that are likely to be important for defining subseafloor microbial "provinces." The basis for this framework is three governing conditions that help to determine the nature of subseafloor biomes: crustal age, extent of fluid flow, and thermal state. We present a brief overview of subseafloor conditions, within the context of these three characteristics, for five field sites where microbial studies have been done, are underway, or have been proposed. Technical challenges remain and likely will limit progress in studies of microbial ridge flank ecosystems, which is why it is vital to select and design future studies so as to leverage as much general understanding as possible from work focused at a small number of sites. A characterization framework such that as presented in this paper, perhaps including alternative or additional physical or chemical characteristics, is essential for achieving the greatest benefit from multidisciplinary microbial investigations of oceanic ridge flanks. PMID:22347212

  1. Geochemical relationship between PREMA, FOZO and HIMU: link to chemical heterogeneity of MORB and layered structure of oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, G.; Kogiso, T.

    2013-12-01

    One of important concepts of the geochemistry is a mantle reservoir model, in which isotopic composition of the ocean island basalts (OIBs) are explained by mixing of distinct and isolated reservoirs, those are, depleted MORB mantle (DMM), HIMU (high-μ) and EMs (Enriched Mantles). In addition to these reservoirs, importance of reservoirs whose isotopic compositions are intermediate has been pointed out, these are, FOZO (Focal Zone), C (Common component) and PREMA (Prevalent Mantle). Although the existences of these 'intermediate reservoirs' are still in debated, the isotopic compositions of these reservoirs have been used to describe the isotopic distribution of OIBs. Therefore, clarifying the origin of these reservoirs should be significant for the better understanding of cause of mantle heterogeneity. For the evaluation of origin and genetic linkage between these reservoirs, geochemical modeling has been conducted from the perspective of chemical fractionation at mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones. For the modeling, MORB compositions from Mid-Atlantic ridge are compiled for seven trace elements (Rb, Sr, Nd, Sm, Pb, Th and U) and used as representative oceanic crust compositions. Effect of chemical fractionation at a mid-ocean ridge is estimated based on magnesium number and frequency distribution. The results suggest that the chemical fractionation can produce small isotopic variation with moderately depleted isotopic signature that is suitable for PREMA if the age of recycled MORBs is 1.5 Ga. A mixing of dehydrated and dry MORBs can produce isotopic variation from PREMA to FOZO during 1.5 Ga recycling. For the production of typical HIMU (206Pb/204Pb > 21), Pb depletion due to removal of sulfur during subduction and/or U and Th enrichment owing to crystal fractionation at mid-ocean ridge is required. A mixing of dehydrated and dry MORBs can be explained by vertical difference in water content of oceanic crust that might correspond to surface hydrated and deep

  2. Mapping tectonic deformation in the crust and upper mantle beneath Europe and the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hejun; Tromp, Jeroen

    2013-08-23

    We constructed a three-dimensional azimuthally anisotropic model of Europe and the North Atlantic Ocean based on adjoint seismic tomography. Several features are well correlated with historical tectonic events in this region, such as extension along the North Atlantic Ridge, trench retreat in the Mediterranean, and counterclockwise rotation of the Anatolian Plate. Beneath northeastern Europe, the direction of the fast anisotropic axis follows trends of ancient rift systems older than 350 million years, suggesting "frozen-in" anisotropy related to the formation of the craton. Local anisotropic strength profiles identify the brittle-ductile transitions in lithospheric strength. In continental regions, these profiles also identify the lower crust, characterized by ductile flow. The observed anisotropic fabric is generally consistent with the current surface strain rate measured by geodetic surveys. PMID:23929947

  3. Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex: Stable isotope evidence for shallow emplacement into Archean ocean crust

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, W.H.; Valley, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios indicate that unusual rocks at the upper contact of the Archean Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex at Fiskenaesset Harbor (southwest Greenland) are the products of hydrothermal alteration by seawater at the time of anorthosite intrusion. Subsequent granulite-facies metamorphism of these Ca-poor and Al- and Mg-rich rocks produced sapphirine- and kornerupine-bearing assemblages. Because large amounts of surface waters cannot penetrate to depths of 30 km during granulite-facies metamorphism, the isotopic signature of the contact rocks must have been obtained prior to regional metamorphism. The stable isotope and geochemical characteristics of the contact rocks support a model of shallow emplacement into Archean ocean crust for the Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex. 45 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fractal analysis on Enceladus: a global ocean underneath the icy crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Simioni, Emanuele; Massironi, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Plumes of water have been observed erupting from Enceladus' south polar terrain providing direct evidence of a reservoir of liquid below the surface, that could be considered global or just a small body of water concentrated at its south pole. Gravity data collected during the spacecraft's several close flyby over the south polar region determined that the icy shell above the liquid ocean must be 30-40 km thick extending from the south pole up to 50°S (Iess et al. 2014). The hypothesis of a global ocean beneath the icy crust has been raised even in a recent paper of Thomas et al. (2015) thanks to the measurements of the very slight wobble that Enceladus displays as it orbits Saturn. In this work we support the hypothesis of the presence of an ocean layer using the fractal percolation theory. This method allowed us to estimate the icy shell thickness values in different regions of Enceladus from the south polar terrain up to the north pole. The spatial distribution of fractures on Enceladus has been analyzed in terms of their self-similar clustering and a two-point correlation method was used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractures population (Mazzarini, 2004, 2010). A self-similar clustering of fractures is characterized by a correlation coefficient with a size range defined by a lower and upper cut-off, that represent a mechanical discontinuity and the thickness of the fractured icy crust, thus connected to the liquid reservoir. We mapped the fractures on Enceladus surface based on April 2010 global mosaic from Cassini mission and applied the fractal method firstly to the south polar terrain finding indeed a fractal correlation of fractures and providing an ice shell thickness of ~40 km. Then, we analyzed fractures of four different regions around the equator and around the north pole inferring an overall ice shell thickness ranging from 35 to 45 km. Our results are in agreement with the gravity observations (Iess et al., 2014) and the mechanical models

  5. Subduction Processing of Altered Oceanic Crust and its Consequences for Mantle Composition and Evolution (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    The oceanic crust experiences hydrothermal alteration during its lifetime near the earth’s surface, which fundamentally changes the element distribution and the bulk composition of the crust through time. The subduction of altered oceanic crust (AOC) has been linked to specific geochemical signatures apparent in arc magmas and to certain isotopic heterogeneities in the earth’s mantle (i.e., HIMU). Several recent estimates of natural AOC compositions, coupled with mass balance models of the effects of subduction on AOC composition, now permit models of AOC as the source of HIMU to be quantitatively tested. Samples from deep basement drill sites into AOC provide end-member constraints on the influence of hydrothermal alteration as a function of crustal age, structure, and spreading rate (e.g., Sites 801, 1149, 417/418, 504, 1256), and also provide constraints on the geochemical fluxes from AOC entering subduction zones. Composite sample analyses and averages of discrete sample data for Sites 801 and 1149, proximal to the Mariana subduction zone, reveal similar patterns of element redistribution and enrichment that are common among all AOC drill sites. Both sites show significant bulk enrichments in U (2-5x) and the alkalis (Li [2x], K [4x], Rb [9-10x], Cs [7-12x]) over pristine glass, but indicate that Pb and Sr are redistributed locally during alteration without a significant net change to the bulk crustal concentration. If added as-is to the mantle, however, raw AOC would evolve through time to Pb and Sr isotopic compositions unobserved in the modern mantle, and additional fractionations of these elements during subduction processing of AOC are required if it is to be a viable parent material for HIMU. Mass balance constraints using Site 801 AOC and arc lava compositions from the Marianas show that subduction processing fractionates Pb, U, Rb and Sr from the subducted plate at different depths, leaving a residual slab at the end of this process that is an

  6. Andesite Magmas are Produced along Oceanic Arcs where the Crust is Thin: Evidence from Nishinoshima Volcano, Ogasawara Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Sato, T.; Nichols, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The incentive for this study is the ongoing explosive eruption of Nishinoshima volcano, located about 1,000 km south of Tokyo along the Ogasawara (Bonin) Arc. The straightforward but unexpected relationship presented here relates crustal thickness and magma type in the Izu-Ogasawara Oceanic Arc. Volcanoes along the Ogasawara segment of the arc, which include Nishinoshima, are underlain by thin crust (16-21 km)—in contrast to those along the Izu segment, where the crust is ~35 km thick. Interestingly, andesite magmas are dominant products from the former volcanoes and mostly basaltic lavas erupt from the latter. Why and how do volcanoes on the thin crust erupt andesite magmas? An introductory petrology textbook might answer this question by suggesting that, under decreasing pressure and hydrous conditions, the liquidus field of forsterite expands relative to that of enstatite, with the result that, at some point, enstatite melts incongruently to produce primary andesite melt. According to the hypothesis presented here, however, rising mantle diapirs stall near the base of the oceanic arc crust at depths controlled by the thickness of the overlying crust. Where the crust is thin, as along the Ogasawara segment of the arc, pressures are relatively low, and magmas produced in the mantle wedge tend to be andesitic. Where the crust is thick, as along the Izu segment, pressures are greater, and only basaltic magmas tend to be produced. To examine this hypothesis, JAMSTEC cruise NT15-E02 on the R/V Natsushima took place from 11 June to 21 June 2015 to Nishinoshima. It's present island has an elevation of only ~150 m, but its submarine flanks extend to ocean depths of 2,000-3,000 m, so the great bulk of the volcano is submarine and yet-to-be explored. We present the new hypothesis and its evidence from Nishinoshima based on the primitive lavas collected from the submarine parts of the volcano.

  7. Alteration and mineralization of an oceanic forearc and the ophiolite-ocean crust analogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alt, J.C.; Teagle, D.A.H.; Brewer, T.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Halliday, A.

    1998-01-01

    Mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic (O, C, S, and Sr) analyses were performed on minerals and bulk rocks from a forearc basement section to understand alteration processes and compare with mid-ocean ridges (MOR) and ophiolites. Ocean Drilling Program Hole 786B in the Izu-Bonin forearc penetrates 103 m of sediment and 725 m into volcanic flows, breccias, and basal dikes. The rocks comprise boninites and andesites to rhyolites. Most of the section was affected by low-temperature (<100??C) seawater alteration, with temperatures increasing downward. The rocks are partly (5-25%) altered to smectite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, calcite, and phillipsite, and exhibit gains of K, Rb, and P, loss of Ca, variable changes in Si, Na, Mg, Fe, Sr, and Y, and elevated ??18O and 87Sr/86Sr. Higher temperatures (???150??C) in the basal dikes below 750 m led to more intense alteration and formation of chlorite-smectite, corrensite, albite, K-feldspar, and quartz (??chlorite). A 5 m thick hydrothermally altered and pyritized zone at 815 m in the basal dikes reacted with mixtures of seawater and hydrothermal fluids to Mg-chlorite, albite, and pyrite, and gained Mg and S and lost Si and Ca. Focused flow of hydrothermal fluids produced sericitization halos (Na-K sericite, quartz, pyrophyllite, K-feldspar, and pyrite) along quartz veins at temperatures of 200??-250??C. High 87Sr/86Sr ratios of chloritized (???0.7055) and sericitized (???0.7065) rocks indicate involvement of seawater via mixing with hydrothermal fluids. Low ??34S of sulfide (???2 to -5.5???) and sulfate (12.5???) are consistent with input of magmatic SO2 into hydrothermal fluids and disproportionation to sulfide and sulfate. Alteration processes were generally similar to those at MORs, but the arc section is more intensively altered, in part because of the presence of abundant glassy rocks and mafic phases. The increase in alteration grade below 750 m and the mineralization in the basal dikes are analogous to changes that occur near

  8. Controls on thallium uptake during hydrothermal alteration of the upper ocean crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggon, Rosalind M.; Rehkämper, Mark; Atteck, Charlotte; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Cooper, Matthew J.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal circulation is a fundamental component of global biogeochemical cycles. However, the magnitude of the high temperature axial hydrothermal fluid flux remains disputed, and the lower temperature ridge flank fluid flux is difficult to quantify. Thallium (Tl) isotopes behave differently in axial compared to ridge flank systems, with Tl near-quantitatively stripped from the intrusive crust by high temperature hydrothermal reactions, but added to the lavas during low temperature reaction with seawater. This contrasting behavior provides a unique approach to determine the fluid fluxes associated with axial and ridge flank environments. Unfortunately, our understanding of the Tl isotopic mass balance is hindered by poor knowledge of the mineralogical, physical and chemical controls on Tl-uptake by the ocean crust. Here we use analyses of basaltic volcanic upper crust from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole U1301B on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, combined with published analyses of dredged seafloor basalts and upper crustal basalts from Holes 504B and 896A, to investigate the controls on Tl-uptake by mid-ocean ridge basalts and evaluate when in the evolution of the ridge flank hydrothermal system Tl-uptake occurs. Seafloor basalts indicate an association between basaltic uptake of Tl from cold seawater and uptake of Cs and Rb, which are known to partition into K-rich phases. Although there is no clear relationship between Tl and K contents of seafloor basalts, the data do not rule out the incorporation of at least some Tl into the same minerals as the alkali elements. In contrast, we find no relationship between the Tl content and either the abundance of secondary phyllosilicate minerals, or the K, Cs or Rb contents in upper crustal basalts. We conclude that the uptake of Tl and alkali elements during hydrothermal alteration of the upper crust involves different processes and/or mineral phases compared to those that govern seafloor weathering. Furthermore

  9. The Continental Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchfiel, B. Clark

    1983-01-01

    Continental crust underlies the continents, their margins, and also small shallow regions in oceans. The nature of the crust (much older than oceanic crust) and its dynamics are discussed. Research related to and effects of tectonics, volcanism, erosion, and sedimentation on the crust are considered. (JN)

  10. Reactive overprint of the Central Indian Ridge mantle and formation of hybrid troctolites: reassessing the significance of bulk oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfilippo, A.; Morishita, T.; Kumagai, H.; Nakamura, K.; Okino, K.; Tamura, A.; Arai, S.

    2014-12-01

    The idea that hybridized mantle rocks can contribute to the oceanic crust composition has recently emerged thanks to studies on primitive (olivine-rich) troctolites [e.g. 1]. These rocks are considered to be formed by melt-rock interaction, but the exact reaction process by which they originate is still debated and their role on the bulk oceanic crust composition has been never defined. Olivine-rich troctolites have been mostly found at slow spreading ridges [2] or at their fossil analogues [3]. Similar rocks have been recently collected in the 25ºS area of the intermediate spreading Central Indian Ridge (CIR), and rarely characterize the crust mantle boundary at fast spreading ridges [4]. We show that textural and chemical inheritances of the pre-existing mantle are preserved in the CIR troctolites. In particular, the local occurrence of granular, mantle-derived orthopyroxenes and the composition of the associated clinopyroxene indicate that these crustal rocks formed through a direct (one-stage) conversion of a mantle peridotite. We use chemical evidence to infer the same origin of the olivine-rich troctolites worldwide, concluding that the reactive overprint of the oceanic mantle is a process diffused over the entire spreading rate spectrum. Bulk oceanic crust estimates of the Hess Deep (Pacific) and Atlantis Massif (Atlantic) crustal sections are used to quantify and compare the effect of these rocks on the bulk crust composition at fast and slow spreading ridges. Our inferences suggest that the significance of the bulk oceanic crust should be reassessed. When hybrid troctolites are included at crustal levels, the oceanic crust cannot be considered equal to the composition of the melt extracted from the mantle, but it results more primitive and importantly thicker. References: [1] Suhr G., Hellebrand E., Johnson K., Brunelli D., 2008, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 9, doi:10.1029/2008GC002012; [2] Drouin M., Godard M., Ildefonse B., Bruguier O., Garrido C

  11. Predicting the Isotopic Composition of Subduction-Filtered Subducted Oceanic Crust and Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. M.

    2010-12-01

    The chemical and isotopic character of mantle plumes, which produce oceanic island volcanoes, are widely thought to reflect the presence of recycled oceanic crust and sediment. Isotopic systematics suggest the “cycle time” for this process is 1 Ga or longer, but it should be possible to use a simple mass balance approach to discern how the presently operating subduction zone filter affects the ratios of radioactive parent to radiogenic daughter isotopes. Simple uniformitarian assumptions can then be used to predict the present isotopic composition of anciently subducted lithosphere. Our underlying assumption in deciphering the subduction zone filter is that the flux of an element into the deep mantle is simply equal to the flux of element into the subduction zone less the flux of that element into subduction zone magmas. The former is readily calculated from published data. The latter can be calculated by estimating parental magma compositions, arc accretion rates, and the assumption that arc magma compositions differ from MORB only because of material derived from subducting crust and sediment. Using this approach for 8 intra-oceanic subduction zones, we find 73% of Th and Pb, 79% of U, 80% of Rb and Sr, 93% of Nd and 98% of Sm survive the subduction zone filter. The subduction zone filter systematically increases Sm/Nd ratios in all subduction zones, but the effect is small, with a weighted mean increase of 1.5%. The effect of subduction is to decrease the Sm/Nd of the mantle, but only slightly. The effect of subduction is to increase the Rb/Sr of the mantle, but the subduction zone filter does not have a systematic effect on Rb/Sr ratios: it significantly increases in Rb/Sr in 3 subduction zones and significantly decreases it in one; the weighted mean shows no significant change. The effect of the subduction zone filter on U/Pb is also not systematic. U/Pb ratios in the mantle fluxes are bimodal, with values equal to or lower than the bulk Earth value in 4

  12. Evaluation of the Variation in Cooling Rate with Depth in the Lower Oceanic Crust at Fast-Spreading Ridges Using a Newly Developed Mg in Plagioclase Geospeedometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faak, K.; Chakraborty, S.; Coogan, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    The crystallization and cooling of new oceanic crust is regenerating two thirds of the Earth's surface continuously but the processes that occur during the cooling and crystallization of the magma are still poorly understood. Two end-member models have been proposed for lower crustal accretion at intermediate- to fast-spreading ridges (the "gabbro glacier" and "sheeted sill" models). These require different depth distributions of hydrothermal circulation and are likely to result in different variations of cooling rates with depth. Mapping cooling rates of samples of the lower oceanic crust as a function of depth can, therefore, allow us to distinguish between the models and constrain the thermal evolution during the generation of oceanic crust. We have developed a new geospeedometer, based on the exchange of Mg between plagioclase and clinopyroxene, to address this problem. New experiments demonstrate that the partitioning of Mg between clinopyroxene and plagioclase is strongly temperature dependent, changing by a factor of 4 between 1200°C and 900°C, such that during cooling Mg diffuses out of plagioclase into adjacent clinopyroxene grains. A finite difference diffusion model of Mg redistribution during cooling is applied to natural samples from the north wall of the Hess Deep Rift at the East Pacific Rise. 90 concentration profiles (rim - rim) from 45 crystals in 14 samples (from a depth range 0-520m below the sheeted dikes) were measured using an electron microprobe. For obtaining reliable cooling rates, Mg concentration profiles were measured along two crystallographic directions in a grain, and profiles from several crystals in one thin section are modeled. Cooling rate determinations are considered reliable only when results from all of these calculations are consistent. Fresh plagioclase crystals in coarse grained gabbros (mean grain size ~ 1mm) were chosen for the measurement of Mg contents. The shapes of these measured concentration profiles are very

  13. Seasonal dynamics of circulation in Hooghly Estuary and its adjacent coastal oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Shashank Kr.; Nayak, Gourav; Nayak, R. K.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    Hooghly is one of the major estuaries in Ganges, the largest and longest river in the Indian subcontinent. The Hooghly estuary is a coastal plain estuary lying approximately between 21°-23° N and 87°-89° E. We used a terrain following ocean model to study tide driven residual circulations, seasonal mean flow patterns and its energetics in the Hooghly estuary and adjacent coastal oceans on the north eastern continental shelf of India. The model is driven by tidal levels at open ocean end and winds at the air-sea interface. The sources of forcing fields for tides were from FES2012, winds from ECMWF. Harmonic analysis is carried out to compute the tidal and non-tidal components of currents and sea level from the model solutions. The de-tidal components were averaged for the entire period of simulation to describe residual and mean-seasonal circulations in the regions. We used tide-gauge, SARAL-ALTIKA along track sea level measurements to evaluate model solutions. Satellite measure Chla were used along with simulated currents to describe important features of the circulations in the region.

  14. A glimpse of Earth's primordial crust: The Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt as a vestige of mafic Hadean oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, J.; Carlson, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Investigation of Earth’s primitive crust is biased towards felsic rocks because they contain zircons that provide robust geochronological constraints. Felsic rocks, however, cannot be derived directly from the mantle thus the first crust had to be mafic in composition. Obtaining precise ages on old mafic rocks is however difficult due to their lack of zircon and the metamorphic overprinting they have suffered. 143Nd and 142Nd analyses on the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt suggests that its mafic components formed more than 4 billion years ago and that the dominant lithology of the belt, known as the “faux-amphibolite”, represents the only relict of Hadean crust formed at ~4.3 Ga. Its protolith is interpreted to be mafic volcanic rocks and volcanic pyroclastic deposits. The faux-amphibolite can be divided into three distinct geochemical group stratigraphically superimposed. The faux-amphibolite at the base of the sequence is tholeiitic with a composition indicating derivation of primary melts from an undepleted mantle and fractionation under dry conditions. Towards the top of the volcanic sequence, the faux-amphibolites are characterized by higher Al/Ti ratios. They appear to have fractionated under elevated water pressure and are geochemically similar to modern boninite and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. A new series of faux-amphibolite was analysed for 142Nd isotopic composition. 21 samples have deficits in 142Nd ranging from -7 to -18 ppm compared to the terrestrial standard. These deficits have now been confirmed by measurements of the same samples at ETH (Roth et al., GCA, A886, 2010). A 146Sm-142Nd isochron constructed for all faux-amphibolite yields an age of 4368 +72-142 Ma (n=30). A line fit only to the faux-amphibolite compositional group that shows the widest range in LREE enrichment, including corresponding co-genetic ultramafic sills gives a 146Sm-142Nd age of 4381 +67-123 Ma (n=21). The Hadean age for the faux-amphibolite is supported by a 4079

  15. Mantle-crust differentiation of chalcophile elements in the oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciążela, J.; Dick, H. J.; Koepke, J.; Kuhn, T.; Muszynski, A.; Kubiak, M.

    2014-12-01

    The chalcophile elements, as associated with sulfides, are believed mainly from the study of ophiolites to be generally enriched in the upper mantle, but depleted by magmatic processes in the lower and upper ocean crust. However, studies of some orogenic lherzolites suggest a copper depletion of peridotites in relation to the primitive mantle, suggesting that a portion of the sulfides is melted during decompression and incorporated into the ascending magmas. The rarity of abyssal peridotites and the high degree of their alteration have not allowed these results to be verified in situ in the oceans.Here, we present the first complete study of chalcophile elements based on a suite of rocks from an oceanic core complex (OCC), the Kane Megamullion at 22°30'N at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. OCCs provide large exposures of mantle and lower crustal rocks on the seafloor on detachment fault footwalls at slow and ultraslow spreading ridges. The Kane Megamullion is one of the best sampled OCCs in the world, with 1342 rocks from 28 dredge sites and 14 dives. We have made XRF, TD-MS and INAA analyses of 129 representative peridotites, gabbroic rocks, diabases and basalts. Our results suggest a depletion of some peridotites in relation to the primitive mantle (28 ppm Cu). Dunites, troctolites and olivine gabbros are relatively enriched in chalcophile elements. The amount of sulfides decreases gradually with progressive differentiation, reaching a minimum in gabbronorites and diabases. The highest bulk abundance of chalcophile elements in our sample suite was observed in dunites (up to ~ 300 ppm Cu in several samples) and a contact zone between residual peridotite and a mafic vein (294 ppm Cu). Plagioclase-bearing harzburgites, generally formed by late-stage melt impregnation in the mantle, are typically more enriched in Cu than unimpregnated residual peridotites. For these reasons, our initial results indicate sulfide melting during mantle melting, and their local precipitation in

  16. Static and fault-related alteration in the lower ocean crust, IODP Expedition 345, Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, Andrew; Faak, Kathrin; Marks, Naomi; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Wintsch, Robert; Harigane, Yumiko; Titarenko, Sofya

    2014-05-01

    in the range 0.7037 - 0.7048, indicating alteration by seawater at moderate integrated fluxes. The highest values were in cataclasites overprinted by prehnite. δ18O values range from +1 to + 6 per mil, indicating alteration at temperatures generally >200 °C. Preliminary modelling using Comsol Multiphysics suggests that the temperatures of the overprinting alteration could be achieved in a permeable fault slot cutting through crust 0.5 to 1 m.y. old. Our study reveals a low temperature alteration assemblage dominated by prehnite and chlorite that is not normally associated with the lower oceanic crust. Yet it is likely to be common in any location where faults intersect the Moho off-axis, including transform faults, near axis normal faults at slow spreading ridges, and bending faults at subduction zones, and would be accompanied by serpentinites in upper mantle rocks, as seen at ODP site 895 in Hess Deep. This prehnite + chlorite assemblage may therefore be significant in the release of volatiles in subduction zones. Gillis, K.M., Snow J. E. and Shipboard Science Party (2014) Primitive layered gabbros from fast-spreading lower oceanic crust. Nature, 505,204-207, doi: 10.1038/nature12778

  17. Composition of the lunar magma ocean constrained by the conditions for the crust formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, R.; Nagahara, H.; Ozawa, K.; Tachibana, S.

    2014-02-01

    The present study aims to constrain the composition of the initial lunar magma ocean (LMO) with fluid dynamic and thermodynamic consideration. A plausible range of the initial LMO composition is investigated by developing an incremental polybaric fractional crystallization model with variable fractionation efficiency to satisfy three conditions for the anorthosite crust formation: (1) the amount of anorthite crystallized from the LMO is abundant enough to form the crust with the observed thickness, (2) the Mg# (=Mg/(Mg + Fe)) of orthopyroxene crystallized with anorthite in the cooling LMO is consistent with that observed in the lunar highland rocks, ferroan anorthosite, and (3) crystallized anorthite separated to float in the turbulent LMO. A plausible range of FeO and Al2O3 contents of the bulk LMO is successfully constrained as a crescent region tight for FeO and loose for Al2O3. The FeO content must be higher than 1.3 times the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) and lower than 1.8 ×BSE unless the Al2O3 content of the Moon is extremely higher than the Earth. These upper and lower limits for FeO are positively correlated with the initial Al2O3 content and fractionation efficiency. The FeO-rich LMO composition may suggest that the circum-Earth disk just after the giant impact of the Earth-Moon system formation was more oxidizing or the impactor was richer in FeO than the Earth’s mantle.

  18. Transient Hydrothermal Alteration in Fault Zones Cutting the Lower Oceanic Crust, Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, Andrew; Titarenko, Sofya; Cliff, Robert; Ivan, Savov; Adrian, Boyce

    2015-04-01

    -axis alteration, common in any location where faults intersect the Moho, including transform faults, near axis normal faults at slow spreading ridges, and perhaps bending faults at subduction zones. [1] Gillis, K.M., Snow J. E. and Shipboard Science Party (2014) Primitive layered gabbros from fast-spreading lower oceanic crust. Nature, 505, 204-207.

  19. Transient Hydrothermal Alteration In Fault Zones Cutting The Lower Oceanic Crust, Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, A. M.; Titarenko, S.; Cliff, R. A.; Savov, I. P.; Boyce, A.; Dutt, R.

    2014-12-01

    location where faults intersect the Moho, including transform faults, near axis normal faults at slow spreading ridges, and perhaps bending faults at subduction zones. [1] Gillis, K.M., Snow J. E. and Shipboard Science Party (2014) Primitive layered gabbros from fast-spreading lower oceanic crust. Nature, 505, 204-207.

  20. Subduction of hydrated basalt of the oceanic crust: Implications for recycling of water into the upper mantle and continental growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, R. P.

    1994-01-01

    Subduction zones are presently the dominant sites on Earth for recycling and mass transfer between the crust and mantle; they feed hydrated basaltic oceanic crust into the upper mantle, where dehydration reactions release aqueous fluids and/or hydrous melts. The loci for fluid and/or melt generation will be determined by the intersection of dehydration reaction boundaries of primary hydrous minerals within the subducted lithosphere with slab geotherms. For metabasalt of the oceanic crust, amphibole is the dominant hydrous mineral. The dehydration melting solidus, vapor-absent melting phase relationships; and amphibole-out phase boundary for a number of natural metabasalts have been determined experimentally, and the pressure-temperature conditions of each of these appear to be dependent on bulk composition. Whether or not the dehydration of amphibole is a fluid-generating or partial melting reaction depends on a number of factors specific to a given subduction zone, such as age and thickness of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, the rate of convergence, and the maturity of the subduction zone. In general, subduction of young, hot oceanic lithosphere will result in partial melting of metabasalt of the oceanic crust within the garnet stability field; these melts are characteristically high-Al2O3 trondhjemites, tonalites and dacites. The presence of residual garnet during partial melting imparts a distinctive trace element signature (e.g., high La/Yb, high Sr/Y and Cr/Y combined with low Cr and Y contents relative to demonstrably mantle-derived arc magmas). Water in eclogitized, subducted basalt of the oceanic crust is therefore strongly partitioned into melts generated below about 3.5 GPa in 'hot' subduction zones. Although phase equilibria experiments relevant to 'cold' subduction of hydrated natural basalts are underway in a number of high-pressure laboratories, little is known with respect to the stability of more exotic hydrous minerals (e.g., ellenbergite) and

  1. Petrology and geochemistry of primitive lower oceanic crust from Pito Deep: Implications for the accretion of the lower crust at the Southern East Pacific Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perk, N.W.; Coogan, L.A.; Karson, J.A.; Klein, E.M.; Hanna, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    A suite of samples collected from the uppermost part of the plutonic section of the oceanic crust formed at the southern East Pacific Rise and exposed at the Pito Deep has been examined. These rocks were sampled in situ by ROV and lie beneath a complete upper crustal section providing geological context. This is only the second area (after the Hess Deep) in which a substantial depth into the plutonic complex formed at the East Pacific Rise has been sampled in situ and reveals significant spatial heterogeneity in the plutonic complex. In contrast to the uppermost plutonic rocks at Hess Deep, the rocks studied here are generally primitive with olivine forsterite contents mainly between 85 and 88 and including many troctolites. The melt that the majority of the samples crystallized from was aggregated normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). Despite this high Mg# clinopyroxene is common despite model predictions that clinopyroxene should not reach the liquidus early during low-pressure crystallization of MORB. Stochastic modeling of melt crystallisation at various levels in the crust suggests that it is unlikely that a significant melt mass crystallized in the deeper crust (for example in sills) because this would lead to more evolved shallow level plutonic rocks. Similar to the upper plutonic section at Hess Deep, and in the Oman ophiolite, many samples show a steeply dipping, axis-parallel, magmatic fabric. This suggests that vertical magmatic flow is an important process in the upper part of the seismic low velocity zone beneath fast-spreading ridges. We suggest that both temporal and spatial (along-axis) variability in the magmatic and hydrothermal systems can explain the differences observed between the Hess Deep and Pito Deep plutonics. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  2. High Temperature Logging and Monitoring Instruments to Explore and Drill Deep into Hot Oceanic Crust.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Ragnar, A.; Jean-Luc, D.; Jan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling an entire section of the oceanic crust and through the Moho has been a goal of the scientific community for more than half of a century. On the basis of ODP and IODP experience and data, this will require instruments and strategies working at temperature far above 200°C (reached, for example, at the bottom of DSDP/ODP Hole 504B), and possibly beyond 300°C. Concerning logging and monitoring instruments, progress were made over the past ten years in the context of the HiTI ("High Temperature Instruments") project funded by the european community for deep drilling in hot Icelandic geothermal holes where supercritical conditions and a highly corrosive environment are expected at depth (with temperatures above 374 °C and pressures exceeding 22 MPa). For example, a slickline tool (memory tool) tolerating up to 400°C and wireline tools up to 300°C were developed and tested in Icelandic high-temperature geothermal fields. The temperature limitation of logging tools was defined to comply with the present limitation in wireline cables (320°C). As part of this new set of downhole tools, temperature, pressure, fluid flow and casing collar location might be measured up to 400°C from a single multisensor tool. Natural gamma radiation spectrum, borehole wall ultrasonic images signal, and fiber optic cables (using distributed temperature sensing methods) were also developed for wireline deployment up to 300°C and tested in the field. A wireline, dual laterolog electrical resistivity tool was also developed but could not be field tested as part of HiTI. This new set of tools constitutes a basis for the deep exploration of the oceanic crust in the future. In addition, new strategies including the real-time integration of drilling parameters with modeling of the thermo-mechanical status of the borehole could be developed, using time-lapse logging of temperature (for heat flow determination) and borehole wall images (for hole stability and in-situ stress determination

  3. Separate zones of sulfate and sulfide release from subducted mafic oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkins, Andrew G.; Evans, Katy A.

    2015-10-01

    Liberation of fluids during subduction of oceanic crust is thought to transfer sulfur into the overlying sub-arc mantle. However, despite the importance of sulfur cycling through magmatic arcs to climate change, magma oxidation and ore formation, there has been little investigation of the metamorphic reactions responsible for sulfur release from subducting slabs. Here, we investigate the relative stability of anhydrite (CaSO4) and pyrite (FeS2) in subducted basaltic oceanic crust, the largest contributor to the subducted sulfur budget, to place constraints on the processes controlling sulfur release. Our analysis of anhydrite stability at high pressures suggests that this mineral should dominantly dissolve into metamorphic fluids released across the transition from blueschist to eclogite facies (∼450-650 °C), disappearing at lower temperatures on colder geothermal trajectories. In contrast, we suggest that sulfur release via conversion of pyrite to pyrrhotite occurs at temperatures above 750 °C. This higher temperature stability is indicated by the preservation of pyrite-bornite inclusions in coesite-bearing eclogites from the Sulu Belt in China, which reached temperatures of at least 750 °C. Thus, sulfur may be released from subducting slabs in two separate pulses; (1) varying proportions of SO2, HSO4- and H2S are released via anhydrite breakdown at the blueschist-eclogite transition, promoting oxidation of remaining silicates in some domains, and (2) H2S is released via pyrite breakdown well into the eclogite facies, which may in some circumstances coincide with slab melting or supercritical liquid generation driven by influx of serpentinite-derived fluids. These results imply that the metallogenic potential in the sub-arc mantle above the subducting slab varies as a function of subduction depth, having the greatest potential above the blueschist-eclogite transition given the association between oxidised magmas and porphyry Cu(-Au-Mo) deposits. We speculate

  4. Assimilation of sediments embedded in the oceanic arc crust: myth or reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezard, Rachel; Davidson, Jon P.; Turner, Simon; Macpherson, Colin G.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2014-06-01

    Arc magmas are commonly assumed to form by melting of sub-arc mantle that has been variably enriched by a component from the subducted slab. Although most magmas that reach the surface are not primitive, the impact of assimilation of the arc crust is often ignored with the consequence that trace element and isotopic compositions are commonly attributed only to varying contributions from different components present in the mantle. This jeopardises the integrity of mass balance recycling calculations. Here we use Sr and O isotope data in minerals from a suite of volcanic rocks from St Lucia, Lesser Antilles arc, to show that assimilation of oceanic arc basement can be significant. Analysis of 87Sr/86Sr in single plagioclase phenocrysts from four Soufrière Volcanic Complex (SVC; St Lucia) hand samples with similar composition (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089-0.7091) reveals crystal isotopic heterogeneity among hand samples ranging from 0.7083 to 0.7094 with up to 0.0008 difference within a single hand sample. δO18 measurements in the SVC crystals show extreme variation beyond the mantle range with +7.5 to +11.1‰ for plagioclase (n=19), +10.6 to +11.8‰ for quartz (n=10), +9.4 to +9.8‰ for amphibole (n=2) and +9 to +9.5‰ for pyroxene (n=3) while older lavas (Pre-Soufriere Volcanic Complex), with less radiogenic whole rock Sr composition (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7041-0.7062) display values closer to mantle range: +6.4 to +7.9‰ for plagioclase (n=4) and +6 to +6.8‰ for pyroxene (n=5). We argue that the 87Sr/86Sr isotope disequilibrium and extreme δO18 values provide compelling evidence for assimilation of material located within the arc crust. Positive correlations between mineral δO18 and whole rock 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and 206,207,208Pb/204Pb shows that assimilation seems to be responsible not only for the isotopic heterogeneity observed in St Lucia but also in the whole Lesser Antilles since St Lucia encompasses almost the whole-arc range of isotopic compositions. This

  5. Extent and impact of Cretaceous magmatism on the formation and evolution of Jurassic oceanic crust in the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, H.; Lizarralde, D.; Tominaga, M.; Hart, L.; Tivey, M.; Swift, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-channel seismic (MCS) images and wide-angle sonobuoy data acquired during a 2011 cruise on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson (TN272) show widespread emplacement of igneous sills and broadly thickened oceanic Layer 2 through hundreds of kilometers of oceanic crust in one of the oldest ocean basins in the western Pacific, a region known as the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). Oceanic crust from the JQZ has grown through at least two main magmatic phases: It was formed by mid-ocean ridge processes in the Jurassic (at ~170 Ma), and then it was added to by a substantial Cretaceous magmatic event (at ~75-125 Ma). The scale of Cretaceous magmatism is exemplified by massive seafloor features such as the Ontong Java Plateau, Mid-Pacific Mountains, Marshall-Gilbert Islands, Marcus-Wake Seamount Chain, and numerous guyots, seamounts, and volcaniclastic flows observed throughout the region. We use seismic data to image heavily intruded and modified oceanic crust along an 800-km-long transect through the JQZ in order to examine how processes of secondary crustal growth - including magmatic emplacement, transport, and distribution - are expressed in the structure of modified oceanic crust. We also model gravity anomalies to constrain crustal thickness and depth to the Moho. Our observations suggest that western Pacific crust was modified via the following modes of emplacement: (a) extrusive seafloor flows that may or may not have grown into seamounts, (b) seamounts formed through intrusive diking that pushed older sediments aside during their formation, and (c) igneous sills that intruded sediments at varying depths. Emplacement modes (a) and (b) tend to imply a focused, pipe-like mechanism for melt transport through the lithosphere. Such a mechanism does not explain the observed broadly distributed intrusive emplacement of mode (c) however, which may entail successive sill emplacement between igneous basement and sediments thickening oceanic Layer 2 along ~400 km of our seismic line

  6. Optical characterization of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon River Plume and the adjacent deep ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, F.; Medeiros, P. M.; Miller, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Amazon River is the largest river in the world and a major source of terrestrially-derived organic matter to the Atlantic Ocean, accounting for ~ 20% of the global freshwater discharge. To document the quantity and quality of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Amazon River Plume (ARP), the optical properties (absorption and fluorescence intensity) of the CDOM were investigated in water samples collected during two cruises conducted at periods of low (Sep/2011) and high (Jul/2012) river discharge. Excitation emission matrix fluoresces combined with parallel factor analysis (EEMS-PARAFAC) was used to determine the composition of the CDOM, and four components were identified: two terrestrial humic-like components (C1 and C4), one marine humic-like component (C3), and one autochthonous tryptophan-like component (C2). This agrees with results of mass spectrometry analysis that showed a distinction among DOM composition found in river, plume, and open ocean water. Correlation analysis between the fluorescence components and salinity in the ARP suggests that humic-like fluorescent components can be used to trace DOM mixing behavior in the ARP and adjacent waters.

  7. Diversity of microbial communities in ocean crust below ancient hotspot seamounts along the Louisville Seamount Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvan, J. B.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 330, Louisville Seamount Trail, was to understand the motion of the Louisville hotspot during 50-80 Ma. As such, >1 km of volcanic basement was collected from five sites on four seamounts, providing an excellent chance to study how microbial populations are effected by different lithologies, different seamounts and age of basement rock along the Louisville Seamount Chain (LSC). Analysis of bacteria growing in enrichment incubations that targeted oligotrophs (with 1% or 10% Marine Broth 2216 diluted with 3% NaCl) and sulfur oxidizers reveals the presence of a diverse array of bacteria, including ɛ-proteobacteria closely related to Sulfurimonas autotrophica, β-proteobacterial methylotrophs, ζ-proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes most closely related to organisms cultured from sediments. Many of these sequences are <97% similar to the closest cultured relatives, indicating the subsurface LSC may be home to unique new species. One isolate recently obtained in pure culture from the original enrichments is 99% similar to Halomonas sulfidaeris str. Esulfude1, a bacterium originally isolated from a hydrothermal sulfide chimney. A second isolate may be a new species of Bacillus. Initial molecular analysis of bacterial communities by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene as part of the Census of Deep Life (CoDL) supports the data from the culturing work; in one sample collected 174 meters below seafloor, the most abundant bacteria detected include species from the genera Pseudomonas, Sulfurimonas, Methyloversatilis and Desulfocapsa. More CoDL samples will be analyzed in the near future. We will describe results to date on subsurface microbial diversity along the Louisville Seamount Chain from the culturing work and CoDL project and draw comparisons to data derived from younger crustal sites to try to understand how the LSC ecosystem fits into our global picture of life in ocean crust.

  8. Silicon Isotope Geochemistry of Ocean Island Basalts: Search for Deep Mantle Heterogeneities and Evidence for Recycled Altered Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, E. A.; Savage, P. S.; Jackson, M. G.; Moreira, M. A.; Day, J. M.; Moynier, F.

    2014-12-01

    recycled altered oceanic crust in the plume source. However, the sampling of a primitive reservoir enriched in the light isotopes of Si, as suggested by [4], cannot be ruled out as a potential source of Si isotope variations in OIBs. References: [1] Ziegler et al., GCA 2005 [2] Savage et al., GCA 2011 [3] Savage et al., EPSL 2010 [4] Huang et al., GCA 2014

  9. Observations of oceanic crust and mantle structures at a deep ocean seismic array in the Eastern Mid Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannemann, Katrin; Krüger, Frank; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, twelve ocean bottom stations (OBS) were installed approximately 100 km North of the Gloria Fault during the DOCTAR project (Deep OCean Test ARray). This fault marks the plate boundary between the Eurasian and African plate in the North Eastern Mid Atlantic. The experiment took place in water depth of 4-6 km, 800 km West of the Portuguese coast. The stations were equipped with broad band seismometers which recorded for ten months. We employ P and S receiver functions (RF) to have a closer look at the structure of crust and mantle. The ocean is a quite noisy environment, therefore the number of usable events is low (around 20) compared to RF studies on land. We use several quality criteria (e.g. signal to noise ratio, relative spike position) to select proper processing parameters for the calculation of the RF and carefully reviewed all later on used RF. Despite the low number of events, the usage of an array of OBS with an aperture of 75 km allows us to investigate deeper discontinuities (e.g. in 410 and 660 km depth) compared to single station approaches which are usually employed for OBS. Furthermore, we increase the number of usable events by applying array methods. We use move out corrected and stacked RF to have a closer look at the mantle transition zone, and estimate average depth values for the Moho, the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and the base of the asthenosphere. The Moho lies at depth of 7 km, the LAB at approximately 50 km and the asthenosphere has an approximated thickness of 110 km. We observe a slight increase in the time difference of the mantle discontinuity conversion times compared to PREM. RF give just information regarding the impedance contrast at a discontinuity instead of velocities. We additionally use P wave polarization of teleseismic events to estimate absolute S velocities beneath the single stations. All in all, we use the information gained by the RF analysis, and the analysis of the P wave polarization to

  10. Silicon Isotope Geochemistry of Ocean Island Basalts: Mantle Heterogeneities and Contribution of Recycled Oceanic Crust and Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, E. A.; Moynier, F.; Savage, P. S.; Jackson, M. G.; Moreira, M. A.; Day, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    altered oceanic crust and lithosphere in the plume source. References: [1] Ziegler et al., GCA 2005 [2] Savage et al., GCA 2011 [3] Savage et al., EPSL 2010 [4] Day et al., Geology 2009 [5] Huang et al., GCA 2014

  11. Dehydration of lawsonite could directly trigger earthquakes in subducting oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Keishi; Hirth, Greg

    2016-02-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes in cold subduction zones are observed within the subducting oceanic crust, as well as the mantle. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes in hot subduction zones predominantly occur just below the Mohorovičić discontinuity. These observations have stimulated interest in relationships between blueschist-facies metamorphism and seismicity, particularly through dehydration reactions involving the mineral lawsonite. Here we conducted deformation experiments on lawsonite, while monitoring acoustic emissions, in a Griggs-type deformation apparatus. The temperature was increased above the thermal stability of lawsonite, while the sample was deforming, to test whether the lawsonite dehydration reaction induces unstable fault slip. In contrast to similar tests on antigorite, unstable fault slip (that is, stick-slip) occurred during dehydration reactions in the lawsonite and acoustic emission signals were continuously observed. Microstructural observations indicate that strain is highly localized along the fault (R1 and B shears), and that the fault surface develops slickensides (very smooth fault surfaces polished by frictional sliding). The unloading slope during the unstable slip follows the stiffness of the apparatus at all experimental conditions, regardless of the strain rate and temperature ramping rate. A thermomechanical scaling factor for the experiments is within the range estimated for natural subduction zones, indicating the potential for unstable frictional sliding within natural lawsonite layers. PMID:26842057

  12. Dehydration of lawsonite could directly trigger earthquakes in subducting oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Keishi; Hirth, Greg

    2016-02-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes in cold subduction zones are observed within the subducting oceanic crust, as well as the mantle. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes in hot subduction zones predominantly occur just below the Mohorovičić discontinuity. These observations have stimulated interest in relationships between blueschist-facies metamorphism and seismicity, particularly through dehydration reactions involving the mineral lawsonite. Here we conducted deformation experiments on lawsonite, while monitoring acoustic emissions, in a Griggs-type deformation apparatus. The temperature was increased above the thermal stability of lawsonite, while the sample was deforming, to test whether the lawsonite dehydration reaction induces unstable fault slip. In contrast to similar tests on antigorite, unstable fault slip (that is, stick-slip) occurred during dehydration reactions in the lawsonite and acoustic emission signals were continuously observed. Microstructural observations indicate that strain is highly localized along the fault (R1 and B shears), and that the fault surface develops slickensides (very smooth fault surfaces polished by frictional sliding). The unloading slope during the unstable slip follows the stiffness of the apparatus at all experimental conditions, regardless of the strain rate and temperature ramping rate. A thermomechanical scaling factor for the experiments is within the range estimated for natural subduction zones, indicating the potential for unstable frictional sliding within natural lawsonite layers.

  13. Geochemical investigation of Gabbroic Xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano: Implications for lower oceanic crust accretion and Hualalai Volcano magma storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ruohan; Lassiter, John C.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Clague, David A.; Bohrson, Wendy A.

    2016-05-01

    The patterns of axial hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges both affect and are influenced by the styles of magma plumbing. Therefore, the intensity and distribution of hydrothermal alteration in the lower oceanic crust (LOC) can provide constraints on LOC accretion models (e.g., "gabbro glacier" vs. "multiple sills"). Gabbroic xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii include rare fragments of in situ Pacific lower oceanic crust. Oxygen and strontium isotope compositions of 16 LOC-derived Hualalai gabbros are primarily within the range of fresh MORB, indicating minimal hydrothermal alteration of the in situ Pacific LOC, in contrast to pervasive alteration recorded in LOC xenoliths from the Canary Islands. This difference may reflect less hydrothermal alteration of LOC formed at fast ridges than at slow ridges. Mid-ocean ridge magmas from slow ridges also pond on average at greater and more variable depths and undergo less homogenization than those from fast ridges. These features are consistent with LOC accretion resembling the "multiple sills" model at slow ridges. In contrast, shallow magma ponding and limited hydrothermal alteration in LOC at fast ridges are consistent with the presence of a long-lived shallow magma lens, which limits the penetration of hydrothermal circulation into the LOC. Most Hualalai gabbros have geochemical and petrologic characteristics indicating derivation from Hualalai shield-stage and post-shield-stage cumulates. These xenoliths provide information on the evolution of Hawaiian magmas and magma storage systems. MELTS modeling and equilibration temperatures constrain the crystallization pressures of 7 Hualalai shield-stage-related gabbros to be ∼2.5-5 kbar, generally consistent with inferred local LOC depth. Therefore a deep magma reservoir existed within or at the base of the LOC during the shield stage of Hualalai Volcano. Melt-crust interaction between Hawaiian melts and in situ Pacific crust during magma storage partially

  14. Microbial diversity in deep-sea sediment from the cobalt-rich crust deposit region in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Liao, Li; Xu, Xue-Wei; Jiang, Xia-Wei; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Ni, Jian-Yu; Wu, Min

    2011-12-01

    Cobalt-rich crusts are important metallic mineral resources with great economic potential, usually distributed on seamounts located in the Pacific Ocean. Microorganisms are believed to play a role in the formation of crusts as well as in metal cycling. To explore the microbial diversity related to cobalt-rich crusts, 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries were constructed from three consecutive sediment layers. In total, 417 bacterial clones were obtained from three bacterial clone libraries, representing 17 distinct phylogenetic groups. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities, followed by Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. Compared with high bacterial diversity, archaea showed a remarkably low diversity, with all 137 clones belonging to marine archaeal group I except one novel euryarchaeotal clone. The microbial communities were potentially involved in sulfur, nitrogen and metal cycling in the area of cobalt-rich crusts. Sulfur oxidation and metal oxidation were potentially major sources of energy for this ecosystem. This is the first reported investigation of microbial diversity in sediments associated with cobalt-rich crusts, and it casts fresh light on the microbial ecology of these important ecosystems. PMID:22067077

  15. Microbial diversity in deep-sea sediment from the cobalt-rich crust deposit region in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Liao, Li; Xu, Xue-Wei; Jiang, Xia-Wei; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Ni, Jian-Yu; Wu, Min

    2011-12-01

    Cobalt-rich crusts are important metallic mineral resources with great economic potential, usually distributed on seamounts located in the Pacific Ocean. Microorganisms are believed to play a role in the formation of crusts as well as in metal cycling. To explore the microbial diversity related to cobalt-rich crusts, 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries were constructed from three consecutive sediment layers. In total, 417 bacterial clones were obtained from three bacterial clone libraries, representing 17 distinct phylogenetic groups. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities, followed by Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. Compared with high bacterial diversity, archaea showed a remarkably low diversity, with all 137 clones belonging to marine archaeal group I except one novel euryarchaeotal clone. The microbial communities were potentially involved in sulfur, nitrogen and metal cycling in the area of cobalt-rich crusts. Sulfur oxidation and metal oxidation were potentially major sources of energy for this ecosystem. This is the first reported investigation of microbial diversity in sediments associated with cobalt-rich crusts, and it casts fresh light on the microbial ecology of these important ecosystems.

  16. Lithium and Li-isotopes in young altered upper oceanic crust from the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brant, C.; Coogan, L. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Seyfried, W. E.; Pester, N. J.; Spence, J.

    2012-11-01

    Lithium contents and Li-isotope ratios have been measured in a section of young oceanic upper crust formed at the East Pacific Rise and exposed in the Hess Deep rift. The Li contents of both lavas and sheeted dikes are lower than in the fresh protolith (by 43% and 74%, respectively) suggesting that axial hydrothermal systems leach Li from the entire upper crust. The Li-isotopic composition of the lavas (4.1 ± 1.7‰) is similar to the protolith (3.4 ± 1.4‰) whereas the dikes extend to both higher and lower isotopic compositions (δ7Li from -11 to 14‰). Loss of Li from all lava samples was unexpected due to the petrographically fresh appearance of these rocks and the relatively cool fluids generally thought to exist within the lava pile. This Li loss is interpreted as indicating that warm (50-100 °C) fluids pervade the lava pile, at least episodically, leaching Li from the lavas without recrystallization of the primary igneous minerals. This hypothesis has been tested experimentally. Hydrothermal experiments at 125 °C, using synthetic basalts cooled at different rates to produce different starting material texture (glass to crystalline rock), demonstrate that Li is leached rapidly at this temperature and substantially more rapidly from crystalline rock than from glass. The natural and experimental data are consistent with Li diffusion out of plagioclase into warm hydrothermal fluids acting to leach Li from the lavas without any concomitant mineralogical changes. The wide range of δ7Li in the sheeted dike complex, and the lack of a systematic correlation of δ7Li with the concentration of Li, suggest that more than one process leads to Li depletion. A combination of mineral-fluid reactions that break-down igneous minerals and produce secondary minerals (principally amphibole, chlorite and secondary plagioclase), along with diffusive loss of Li from plagioclase into the fluid, can explain the Li-systematics of the sheeted dike complex at Hess Deep.

  17. Continental hyperextension, mantle exhumation and thin oceanic crust at the continent-ocean transition, West Iberia: new insights from wide-angle seismic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, Richard; Minshull, Tim; Bayrakci, Gaye; Bull, Jon; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Reston, Timothy; Sawyer, Dale; Zelt, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Anomalously thin oceanic crust and expanses of exhumed and serpentinised mantle material at magma-poor rift margins are now a globally observed phenomena that characterizes the seaward limit of the continent-ocean transition. Hyperextension of continental crust at the Deep Galicia rifted margin in the North Atlantic has been accommodated by the rotation of continental fault blocks, which are underlain by the S-reflector, an interpreted detachment fault, along which exhumed and serpentinized mantle peridotite is observed. West of these features, the enigmatic Peridotite Ridge has been suggested to delimit the seaward extent of the continent-ocean transition. An outstanding question at this margin is where oceanic crust begins, with little existing data to constrain this boundary and a lack of clear seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies. Here we present results from a 160-km-long wide-angle seismic profile (WE-1). Forward modelling and travel time tomography models of the crustal compressional velocity structure reveal highly thinned and rotated crustal blocks overlying the S-reflector, which correlates with the 6.0 - 7.0 kms-1 velocity contours, corresponding to peridotite serpentinization of 60 - 30 %, respectively. West of the Peridotite Ridge we observe a basement layer which is 2.8 - 3.5 km thick in which velocities increase smoothly and rapidly from ˜4.6 kms-1 to 7.3 - 7.6 kms-1,with an average velocity gradient of 1.00 s-1. Below this, velocities slowly increase toward typical mantle velocities. Such a downward increase into mantle velocities is interpreted as decreasing serpentinization of mantle material with depth. However, sparse Moho reflections indicate the onset of an anomalously thin oceanic crust, which increases in thickness from ˜0.5 km to ˜1.5 km over a distance of 35 km, seaward.

  18. Structure, porosity and stress regime of the upper oceanic crust: Sonic and ultrasonic logging of DSDP Hole 504B

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newmark, R.L.; Anderson, R.N.; Moos, D.; Zoback, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The layered structure of the oceanic crust is characterized by changes in geophysical gradients rather than by abrupt layer boundaries. Correlation of geophysical logs and cores recovered from DSDP Hole 504B provides some insight into the physical properties which control these gradient changes. Borehole televiewer logging in Hole 504B provides a continuous image of wellbore reflectivity into the oceanic crust, revealing detailed structures not apparent otherwise, due to the low percentage of core recovery. Physical characteristics of the crustal layers 2A, 2B and 2C such as the detailed sonic velocity and lithostratigraphic structure are obtained through analysis of the sonic, borehole televiewer and electrical resistivity logs. A prediction of bulk hydrated mineral content, consistent with comparison to the recovered material, suggests a change in the nature of the alteration with depth. Data from the sonic, borehole televiewer, electrical resistivity and other porosity-sensitive logs are used to calculate the variation of porosity in the crustal layers 2A, 2B and 2C. Several of the well logs which are sensitive to the presence of fractures and open porosity in the formation indicate many zones of intense fracturing. Interpretation of these observations suggests that there may be a fundamental pattern of cooling-induced structure in the oceanic crust. ?? 1985.

  19. Predictions of hydrothermal alteration within near-ridge oceanic crust from coordinated geochemical and fluid flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, L.R.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Shock, E.L.

    2001-01-01

    Coordinated geochemical and hydrological calculations guide our understanding of the composition, fluid flow patterns, and thermal structure of near-ridge oceanic crust. The case study presented here illustrates geochemical and thermal changes taking place as oceanic crust ages from 0.2 to 1.0 Myr. Using a finite element code, we model fluid flow and heat transport through the upper few hundred meters of an abyssal hill created at an intermediate spreading rate. We use a reaction path model with a customized database to calculate equilibrium fluid compositions and mineral assemblages of basalt and seawater at 500 bars and temperatures ranging from 150 to 400??C. In one scenario, reaction path calculations suggest that volume increases on the order of 10% may occur within portions of the basaltic basement. If this change in volume occurred, it would be sufficient to fill all primary porosity in some locations, effectively sealing off portions of the oceanic crust. Thermal profiles resulting from fluid flow simulations indicate that volume changes along this possible reaction path occur primarily within the first 0.4 Myr of crustal aging. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrofracturing of Sediment and Hydrated MORB's during Subduction of Ocean Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, P. I.

    2015-12-01

    Dehydration accompanying metamorphism of sediment and hydrated mafic ocean crust during ocean plate subduction can potentially lead to fracturing and intraplate tremors. As rocks are buried, they lose porosity and permeability and eventually pass into the lithostatic pressure regime where the porosity and permeability are thought to be very small. Pore fluid pressure generation stemming from metamorphic reactions was modeled using the program SUTRAMET (Nabelek et al., 2014), which is a modified version of the program SUTRA (Voss & Provost, 2002). The program allows modeling of metamorphic reactions at high pressures and temperatures and incorporates transient porosity and permeability changes due to overpressure and changing volumes of metamorphic assemblages. Permeabilities (k) of 10-18 and 10-20 m2 within the brittle regime were modeled. The model assumes continuous subduction with fluids generated at horizons where specific P-T conditions for reactions exist. Temperature gradient was assumed to be 10°C/km and the vertical component of subduction velocity to be at 0.85 cm/y. The model reactions in sediment (Campito Formation of western California as a proxy) and average MORB were generated by the program Theriak-Domino (de Capitani and Petrakakis, 2010). The initial sediment mineralogy includes albite, K-feldspar, phengite, chlorite, and lawsonite. The final mineralogy for the 10°C/km gradient is quartz, phengite, garnet, and pyroxene with jadeite and acmite components. The initial mineralogy of MORB includes chlorite, amphibole, pumpelyite, albite and quartz and the final eclogite mineralogy includes garnet, cpx, kyanite and quartz. Calculations show that at k = 10-18 m2, pore fluid pressure can reach 450 MPa. Pore pressure is reduced by negative ∆V of mineral assemblages stemming from reactions; nevertheless, for the garnet-forming reaction, pore pressure is about 110 MPa. Assuming a tensile strength of 15 MPa and fracture aperture given by rock

  1. A database for the monitoring of thermal anomalies over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C.; Mattar, Cristian; Sobrino, José A.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2015-01-01

    Advances in information technologies and accessibility to climate and satellite data in recent years have favored the development of web-based tools with user-friendly interfaces in order to facilitate the dissemination of geo/biophysical products. These products are useful for the analysis of the impact of global warming over different biomes. In particular, the study of the Amazon forest responses to drought have recently received attention by the scientific community due to the occurrence of two extreme droughts and sustained warming over the last decade. Thermal Amazoni@ is a web-based platform for the visualization and download of surface thermal anomalies products over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans using Google Earth as a baseline graphical interface (http://ipl.uv.es/thamazon/web). This platform is currently operational at the servers of the University of Valencia (Spain), and it includes both satellite (MODIS) and climatic (ERA-Interim) datasets. Thermal Amazoni@ is composed of the viewer system and the web and ftp sites with ancillary information and access to product download. PMID:26029379

  2. Global distribution of beryllium isotopes in deep ocean water as derived from Fe-Mn crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Blanckenburg, F.; O'Nions, R. K.; Belshaw, N.S.; Gibb, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The direct measurement of the ratio of cosmogenic 10Be (T1/2 = 1.5 Ma) to stable terrigenously sourced 9Be in deep seawater or marine deposits can be used to trace water mass movements and to quantify the incorporation of trace metals into the deep sea. In this study a SIMS-based technique has been used to determine the 10Be/9Be ratios of the outermost millimetre of hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts from the worlds oceans. 10Be/9Be ratios, time-corrected for radioactive decay of cosmogenic 10Be using 234U/ 238U, are in good agreement with AMS measurements of modern deep seawater. Ratios are relatively low in the North and equatorial Atlantic samples (0.4-0.5 ?? 10-7). In the Southwest Atlantic ratios increase up to 1 ?? 10-7, they vary between 0.7 and 1.0 ?? 10-7 in Indian Ocean samples, and have a near constant value of 1.1 ?? 0.2 ?? 10-7 for all Pacific samples. If the residence time of 10Be (??10Be) in deep water is constant globally, then the observed variations in 10Be/9Be ratios could be caused by accumulation of 10Be in deep water as it flows and ages along the conveyor, following a transient depletion upon its formation in the Northern Atlantic. In this view both 10Be and 9Be reach local steady-state concentration in Pacific deep water and the global ??10Be ??? 600 a. An alternative possibility is that the Be isotope abundances are controlled by local scavenging. For this scenario ??10Be would vary according to local particle concentration and would ??? 600 a in the central Pacific, but ??10Be ??? 230 a in the Atlantic. Mass balance considerations indicate that hydrothermal additions of 9Be to the oceans are negligible and that the dissolved riverine source is also small. Furthermore, aeolian dust input of 9Be appears insufficient to provide the dissolved Be inventory. The dissolution of only a small proportion (2%) of river-derived particulates could in principle supply the observed seawater Be content. If true, ocean margins would be the sites for 9Be

  3. Locating hyperextended passive margins based on plate reconstructions and limits of oceanic crust derived from potential fields data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, I.; Lawver, L.; Gahagan, L.

    2008-12-01

    Recent advances in understanding of passive margins have emphasized that there is a spectrum of margin styles, ranging from volcanic to hyperextended. All extensional margins will eventually develop sea floor spreading if continental separation continues long enough; the differing margin styles reflect local response of the lithosphere and asthenosphere to ongoing extension. Hyperextended margins can be viewed as extensional systems where continental separation has progressed to a point where there is no more continental crust left, but the asthenosphere has not reached the melting conditions necessary for creation of oceanic crust. The result is that the lithosphere starts to delaminate and mantle is exhumed. The trend then is to form hyperextended margins with exhumation where there is a large amount of continental separation before sea floor spreading begins. One documented area is the Iberia-Newfoundland system, where plate reconstructions suggest that separation between Iberia and Newfoundland was more than 500 km before onset of sea floor spreading. In the South Atlantic, seismic data suggests that mantle exhumation did occur in some areas of the salt basins. Plate reconstructions here suggest more than 300 km of movement between South America and Africa before sea floor spreading was able to start. To try and predict other passive margins where exhumed mantle may underlie significant portions of the margins we have compared extension amounts calculated from plate reconstructions to widths of the margins. This requires mapping of the limits of oceanic crust in areas with inadequate seismic or difficult seismic imaging of deep crustal structure. A regional tool for mapping this boundary is the Bouguer gravity anomaly, with the horizontal gradient of the Bouguer anomaly being a refinement of the method. Studies of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Aden and the Australia - Antarctica conjugate margins are presented here. These studies show that it is possible to

  4. Triple seismic source, double research ship, single ambitious goal: integrated imaging of young oceanic crust in the Panama Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dean; Peirce, Christine; Hobbs, Richard; Gregory, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Understanding geothermal heat and mass fluxes through the seafloor is fundamental to the study of the Earth's energy budget. Using geophysical, geological and physical oceanography data we are exploring the interaction between the young oceanic crust and the ocean in the Panama Basin. We acquired a unique geophysical dataset that will allow us to build a comprehensive model of young oceanic crust from the Costa Rica Ridge axis to ODP borehole 504B. Data were collected over two 35 x 35 km2 3D grid areas, one each at the ridge axis and the borehole, and along three 330 km long 2D profiles orientated in the spreading direction, connecting the two grids. In addition to the 4.5 km long multichannel streamer and 75 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBS), we also deployed 12 magnetotelluric (MT) stations and collected underway swath bathymetry, gravity and magnetic data. For the long 2D profiles we used two research vessels operating synchronously. The RRS James Cook towed a high frequency GI-gun array (120 Hz) to image the sediments, and a medium frequency Bolt-gun array (50 Hz) for shallow-to-mid-crustal imaging. The R/V Sonne followed the Cook, 9 km astern and towed a third seismic source; a low frequency, large volume G-gun array (30 Hz) for whole crustal and upper mantle imaging at large offsets. Two bespoke vertical hydrophone arrays recorded real far field signatures that have enabled us to develop inverse source filters and match filters. Here we present the seismic reflection image, forward and inverse velocity-depth models and a density model along the primary 330 km north-south profile, from ridge axis to 6 Ma crust. By incorporating wide-angle streamer data from our two-ship, synthetic aperture acquisition together with traditional wide-angle OBS data we are able to constrain the structure of the upper oceanic crust. The results show a long-wavelength trend of increasing seismic velocity and density with age, and a correlation between velocity structure and basement

  5. Cross-hole tracer experiment reveals rapid fluid flow and low effective porosity in the upper oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, N. M.; Clark, J. F.; Fisher, A. T.; Wheat, C. G.; Haymon, R. M.; Becker, K.

    2016-09-01

    Numerous field, laboratory, and modeling studies have explored the flows of fluid, heat, and solutes during seafloor hydrothermal circulation, but it has been challenging to determine transport rates and flow directions within natural systems. Here we present results from the first cross-hole tracer experiment in the upper oceanic crust, using four subseafloor borehole observatories equipped with autonomous samplers to track the transport of a dissolved tracer (sulfur hexafluoride, SF6) injected into a ridge-flank hydrothermal system. During the first three years after tracer injection, SF6 was transported both north and south through the basaltic aquifer. The observed tracer transport rate of ∼2-3 m/day is orders of magnitude greater than bulk rates of flow inferred from thermal and chemical observations and calculated with coupled fluid-heat flow simulations. Taken together, these results suggest that the effective porosity of the upper volcanic crust through which much tracer was transported is <1%, with fluid flowing rapidly along a few well-connected channels. This is consistent with the heterogeneous (layered, faulted, and/or fractured) nature of the volcanic upper oceanic crust.

  6. Effects of Sediment Layer and Shallow Portion of the Oceanic Crust on Waveforms of Broadband Ocean Bottom Seismometers in Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo and Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology have conducted seismic observation in the northwest Pacific Ocean with broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs), for understanding the structure of the Earth's interior and the mechanism of plate motion (Normal Mantle Project). We have performed receiver function (RF) analyses using the waveform data, for detecting velocity discontinuities in the upper mantle, and have understood that it is essential to reveal shallower structure (especially structure of sediment) for elucidating the upper mantle structure using RFs (Abe et al., 2014, SSJ meeting; 2015, JpGU meeting). Therefore, we attempted to estimate the shallower structure by using power spectrum and auto correlation function (ACF) of ambient noise in addition to RFs. Power spectrum of horizontal seismogram of a BBOBS has several peaks due to resonances of S wave in the sediment. Godin & Chapman (1999, J. Acoust. Soc. Am.) introduced a method to estimate a 1-D velocity distribution in the sediment from the resonance frequencies. From the location of spectral peaks of a station (NM14), we estimated the velocity distribution to be Vs(z) = 0.519z0.473 (Vs: S wave velocity (km/s), z: depth (km)), assuming a sediment layer thickness of 0.3 km. Two way S wave travel time in this sediment corresponds to the arrival time of a prominent negative ACF peak of horizontal seismogram of the station. On the other hand, for P-wave RFs (0.4-2.0 Hz) of the station, the arrival time of the first positive peak is not explained only by the estimated sediment structure, and another discontinuity located a few hundred meters deeper than the bottom of the sediment is necessary to explain it. We attempt to constrain the structure of the sediment and shallow portion of the oceanic crust by analyzing RF waveforms in more detail that also explains power spectrum and ACF of ambient noise.

  7. Constant Molybdenum Isotope Composition of Ocean Water and Fe-Mn crusts for the Last 70 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, C.; Nagler, T. F.; von Blankenburg, F.; Kramers, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    In the relatively new field of heavy stable isotope geochemistry, molybdenum (Mo) is one of the very promising elements. Molybdenum is a redox-sensitive trace metal. Isotope fractionation during terrestrial processes such as low-temperature redox transitions, chemical weathering, changes in the composition of the atmosphere, hydrothermal activity and sedimentary cycling is likely. Molybdenum is also an essential element for biological nitrogen fixation. Therefore, biogeochemical Mo isotope fractionation is also probable. The oceans represent an important terrestrial Mo reservoir. Dissolved concentrations in seawater are relatively high (0.01 ppm). The global ocean residence time is corresponding high with 800 kyr. The aim of this study is to characterise the principle present day oceanic Mo reservoirs and their changes with time. Molybdenum isotopic compositions were determined precisely using a Nu instruments MC-ICP-MS. Instrumental and laboratory mass fractionation is separated from natural mass dependent fractionation by addition of a molybdenum double spike prior to chemical separation (Siebert et al., 2001). The external standard reproducibility is at or below 0.1 per mil for the 98Mo/95Mo ratio (2s.d.). We analysed ocean water samples from the Atlantic (n=3, 0m-2400m depth), the Pacific and the Indian Ocean (deep water). These yield a homogeneous Mo isotopic composition as would be expexted from the long residence time of Mo in the oceans. Ocean water has the heaviest Mo isotopic composition measured to date (+2.3 per mil on the 98Mo/95Mo ratio relative to a Johnson Mattey ICP standard solution, lot 602332B). In view of the homogeneous ocean water ratios, we propose the use of present day ocean water as an reference standard (Mean Ocean Molybdenum: MOMO). Significantly lighter compositions from -2.7 to -3.1 per mil on the 98Mo/95Mo ratio relative to MOMO were determined for six Fe-Mn crust surface layers. Pelagic clay (-2.7 per mil) and clastic sediments (-2

  8. Fragments of the Vendian-Paleozoic oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in foldbelts (Altai-Sayan, Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, I.; Buslov, M.

    2003-04-01

    Four main accretion-collision stages of the evolution of the Paleo-Asian ocean have been recognized in Altai-Sayan: 1) Early-Middle Cambrian, 2) Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician, 3) Devonian-Early Carboniferous and 4) Late Paleozoic. The 1st and 2nd stages characterize evolution of the Kuznetsk-Altai island-arc system, which was accreted to the Siberian continent. The third stage refers to two collisional events during the closing of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: the Gondwana-derived Altai-Mongolian terrane collided with the Siberian continent (D3), and the latter collided with the Kazakhstan continent (C2). Each stage was recorded in folded rock units. Paleooceanic crust fragments occur within accretionary wedges and suture zone. Their geological identification was supported by geochemical data. The better studied areas are Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges, Charysh-Terekta shear zone, and Chara ophiolitic suture zone. Identification of the Vendian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust extended our knowledge about the Paleo-Asian Ocean evolution. The Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges recorded the Vendian-Cambrian stage of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc evolution. The Charysh-Terekta zone resulted from the Late Devonian collision of the Altai-Mongolian terrane and the Siberian continent. The Chara ophiolitic suture was formed after the Late Carboniferous-Permian collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents. The Kurai accretionary wedge is composed of the tectonic sheets of the Baratal paleoisland and Chagan-Uzun ophiolites. The Katun accretionary wedge involves paleo-oceanic island rock units: limestones, dolomites, siliceous shales, and basaltic flows. The Charysh-Terekta zone is composed of several tectonic lenses (e.g. Zasurin Formation) comprising sandstones, cherts, pillow-basalts, volcanoclastics, and gabbro-diabase sills and dikes. The Chara ophiolitic belt consists of several melange zones with high-pressure metamorphic rocks (metabasaltic rocks) metamorphosed

  9. The Fate of Eclogitized Oceanic Crust During Subduction: Implications for Subduction Zone Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiboust, S.; Agard, P.; Langdon, R.; Waters, D.; Raimbourg, H.; Yamato, P.; Chopin, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Monviso ophiolite is composed of two main tectonic slices: the Monviso Unit (MU) to the west, which overlies the Lago Superiore Unit (LSU). Our PT estimates show that the MU has been subducted down to 480°C-23kbar (~70km) during Alpine subduction while the LSU reached slightly deeper conditions (540°C-26kbar, i.e. ~80km). This ophiolite, which comprises large (10-20km long) ophiolite fragments therefore does not correspond to a serpentinite mélange, and may be the southern extension of the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite (Angiboust et al., 2009; 2011). The well-preserved LSU constitutes an almost continuous upper fragment of oceanic lithosphere subducted between 50 and 40 Ma and later exhumed along the subduction interface. It therefore provides a unique opportunity to study strain partitioning and deep mechanical behaviour of the subducting lithosphere. The LSU comprises (i) several hundred meters of eclogitized basaltic crust (+ minor calcschist lenses) overlying a 100-400m thick metagabbroic body and (ii) a serpentinite sole (c. 1km thick). We herein focus on eclogite-facies shear zones, which are found at the boundary between basalts and gabbros, and between gabbros and serpentinites, i.e. between material with marked rheological contrasts. Eclogite facies blocks within the shear zones display intense fracturation, fragment rotation and dispersion in the serpentinite schists which line up the shear zones. We also report the first finding of eclogite-facies breccias, constituted of rotated eclogite mylonitic clasts cemented within an eclogite-facies matrix. Local fracturation of garnet within these breccias is attested by the presence of numerous fracture networks within garnet, generally healed by a Mg-enriched composition. The shear zones also preserve clear evidence of pervasive and channelized fluid flow (of variable duration) leading to alteration of bulk rock composition, weakening of the rock and widespread crystallization of lawsonite. Our results provide

  10. Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: Sources and fractionation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rajani, R.P.; Chodankar, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The major element relationships in ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount (ANS), eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, appear to be atypical. High positive correlations (r = 0.99) between Mn/Co and Fe/Co ratios, and lack of correlation of those ratios with Co, Ce, and Ce/Co, indicate that the ANS Fe-Mn crusts are distinct from Pacific seamount Fe-Mn crusts, and reflect region-specific chemical characteristics. The platinum group elements (PGE: Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au in ANS Fe-Mn crusts are derived from seawater and are mainly of terrestrial origin, with a minor cosmogenic component. The Ru/Rh (0.5-2) and Pt/Ru ratios (7-28) are closely comparable to ratios in continental basalts, whereas Pd/Ir ratios exhibit values ( 0.75) correlations between water depth and Mn/Co, Fe/Co, Ce/Co, Co, and the PGEs. Fractionation of the PGE-Au from seawater during colloidal precipitation of the major-oxide phases is indicated by well-defined linear positive correlations (r > 0.8) of Co and Ce with Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt; Au/Co with Mn/Co; and by weak or no correlations of Pd with water depth, Co-normalized major-element ratios, and with the other PGE (r < 0.5). The strong enrichment of Pt (up to 1 ppm) relative to the other PGE and its positive correlations with Ce and Co demonstrate a common link for the high concentrations of all three elements, which likely involves an oxidation reaction on the Mn-oxide and Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces. The documented fractionation of PGE-Au and their positive association with redox sensitive Co and Ce may have applications in reconstructing past-ocean redox conditions and water masses.

  11. Fe-XANES analyses of Reykjanes Ridge basalts: Implications for oceanic crust's role in the solid Earth oxygen cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorttle, Oliver; Moussallam, Yves; Hartley, Margaret E.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Murton, Bramley J.

    2015-10-01

    The cycling of material from Earth's surface environment into its interior can couple mantle oxidation state to the evolution of the oceans and atmosphere. A major uncertainty in this exchange is whether altered oceanic crust entering subduction zones can carry the oxidised signal it inherits during alteration at the ridge into the deep mantle for long-term storage. Recycled oceanic crust may be entrained into mantle upwellings and melt under ocean islands, creating the potential for basalt chemistry to constrain solid Earth-hydrosphere redox coupling. Numerous independent observations suggest that Iceland contains a significant recycled oceanic crustal component, making it an ideal locality to investigate links between redox proxies and geochemical indices of enrichment. We have interrogated the elemental, isotope and redox geochemistry of basalts from the Reykjanes Ridge, which forms a 700 km transect of the Iceland plume. Over this distance, geophysical and geochemical tracers of plume influence vary dramatically, with the basalts recording both long- and short-wavelength heterogeneity in the Iceland plume. We present new high-precision Fe-XANES measurements of Fe3+ / ∑ Fe on a suite of 64 basalt glasses from the Reykjanes Ridge. These basalts exhibit positive correlations between Fe3+ / ∑ Fe and trace element and isotopic signals of enrichment, and become progressively oxidised towards Iceland: fractionation-corrected Fe3+ / ∑ Fe increases by ∼0.015 and ΔQFM by ∼0.2 log units. We rule out a role for sulfur degassing in creating this trend, and by considering various redox melting processes and metasomatic source enrichment mechanisms, conclude that an intrinsically oxidised component within the Icelandic mantle is required. Given the previous evidence for entrained oceanic crustal material within the Iceland plume, we consider this the most plausible carrier of the oxidised signal. To determine the ferric iron content of the recycled component ([Fe2O

  12. Evidence for biogenic processes during formation of ferromanganese crusts from the Pacific Ocean: implications of biologically induced mineralization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Natalio, Filipe; Schröder, Heinz C; Wolf, Stephan E; Tremel, Wolfgang; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-01-01

    Ferromanganese [Fe/Mn] crusts formed on basaltic seamounts, gain considerable economic importance due to their high content of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pt. The deposits are predominantly found in the Pacific Ocean in depths of over 1000m. They are formed in the mixing layer between the upper oxygen-minimum zone and the lower oxygen-rich bottom zone. At present an almost exclusive abiogenic origin of crust formation is considered. We present evidence that the upper layers of the crusts from the Magellan Seamount cluster are very rich in coccoliths/coccolithophores (calcareous phytoplankton) belonging to different taxa. Rarely intact skeletons of these unicellular algae are found, while most of them are disintegrated into their composing prisms or crystals. Studies on the chemical composition of crust samples by high resolution SEM combined with an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) revealed that they are built of distinct stacked piles of individual compartments. In the center of such piles Mn is the dominant element, while the rims of the piles are rich in Fe (mineralization aspect). The compartments contain coccospheres usually at the basal part. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses showed that those coccospheres contain, as expected, CaCO3 but also Mn-oxide. Detailed analysis displayed on the surface of the coccolithophores a high level of CaCO3 while the concentration of Mn-oxide is relatively small. With increasing distance from the coccolithophores the concentration of Mn-oxide increases on the expense of residual CaCO3. We conclude that coccoliths/coccolithophores are crucial for the seed/nucleation phase of crust formation (biomineralization aspect). Subsequently, after the biologically induced mineralization phase Mn-oxide deposition proceeds "auto"catalytically. PMID:19443230

  13. Evidence for biogenic processes during formation of ferromanganese crusts from the Pacific Ocean: implications of biologically induced mineralization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Natalio, Filipe; Schröder, Heinz C; Wolf, Stephan E; Tremel, Wolfgang; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-01-01

    Ferromanganese [Fe/Mn] crusts formed on basaltic seamounts, gain considerable economic importance due to their high content of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pt. The deposits are predominantly found in the Pacific Ocean in depths of over 1000m. They are formed in the mixing layer between the upper oxygen-minimum zone and the lower oxygen-rich bottom zone. At present an almost exclusive abiogenic origin of crust formation is considered. We present evidence that the upper layers of the crusts from the Magellan Seamount cluster are very rich in coccoliths/coccolithophores (calcareous phytoplankton) belonging to different taxa. Rarely intact skeletons of these unicellular algae are found, while most of them are disintegrated into their composing prisms or crystals. Studies on the chemical composition of crust samples by high resolution SEM combined with an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) revealed that they are built of distinct stacked piles of individual compartments. In the center of such piles Mn is the dominant element, while the rims of the piles are rich in Fe (mineralization aspect). The compartments contain coccospheres usually at the basal part. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses showed that those coccospheres contain, as expected, CaCO3 but also Mn-oxide. Detailed analysis displayed on the surface of the coccolithophores a high level of CaCO3 while the concentration of Mn-oxide is relatively small. With increasing distance from the coccolithophores the concentration of Mn-oxide increases on the expense of residual CaCO3. We conclude that coccoliths/coccolithophores are crucial for the seed/nucleation phase of crust formation (biomineralization aspect). Subsequently, after the biologically induced mineralization phase Mn-oxide deposition proceeds "auto"catalytically.

  14. Chlorine isotope geochemistry of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust: Mineralogical controls and experimental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, M.; Barnes, J.; Jenkins, D. M.; Gardner, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Chlorine stable isotopes (37Cl and 35Cl) can provide an important fingerprint for geochemical recycling of subducted oceanic lithosphere and fluid-rock interaction due to chlorine's high solubility in aqueous phases. To implement Cl isotopes as a tracer of volatile element recycling, we must constrain the δ37Cl value of potential Cl reservoirs and determine fractionation factors between Cl-bearing phases. δ37Cl and Cl concentrations of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust (AOC) samples from seven IODP/ODP/DSDP drill sites have been measured on bulk rock samples (n = 50). For ease of comparing results, samples are categorized into three lithologies: 1) extrusive lavas, 2) sheeted dikes, and 3) gabbros. Extrusive lava Cl concentrations vary from <0.01 wt% to 0.03 wt% (avg = 95 ppm Cl; n= 20) and δ37Cl values range from -1.4 to +1.0‰ (avg = 0.0 ± 0.6‰). Chlorine concentrations of the sheeted dikes range from < 0.01 wt% to 0.05 wt% (avg = 163 ppm Cl; n = 11) and δ37Cl values of dikes range from - 0.4 to + 1.4‰ (avg = 0.1 ± 0.3‰). Bulk chlorine concentrations of the gabbros range from < 0.01 wt% to 0.09 wt% (avg = 244 ppm Cl; n = 19). δ37Cl values of gabbros range from - 0.6 to + 1.8‰ (avg = 0.6 ± 0.6‰). Three general conclusions can be derived from these AOC bulk rock results: 1) δ37Cl values and Cl concentrations increase with increasing total amphibole content. 2) Based on re-calculations of mass balance equations using updated AOC Cl concentrations (~3 times higher than previous estimates, this study), the total amount of Cl recycled into the mantle is higher than previously estimated. 3) [Cl] and δ37Cl values can provide a crude estimate of metamorphic grade in AOC samples. Amphibole-water Cl isotope fractionation experiments are necessary for quantifying the magnitude of Cl fractionation and to aid in interpreting the range of natural Cl isotope variation. Determination of equilibrium fractionation factors between hydrous minerals and co

  15. Oceanic Character of Sub-Salt Crust in the NW Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Using Seismic Refraction and Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, G. D.; Johnson, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant renewed interest in the geological development of the NW GOM is exemplified by the acquisition of academic seismic refraction and oil industry seismic reflection data. There is agreement that the GOM formed by Jurassic separation of North America and Yucatan, but disagreements remain on the distribution and timing of extended continental versus oceanic crust. Van Avendonk et al. (Geology, v43, 2015) interpreted seismic refraction data from the 2010 "GUMBO" expedition as rifted continental crust thinned by large-scale extensional faulting and syn-rift magmatism beneath the NW GOM. However, seismic reflection evidence for this extension is non-existent, and diagnostic fault-controlled syn-rift packages are not resolved. A very different interpretation of basement type and basin evolution is possible by applying geological process linked to hyper-extended margin formation to the same data. We note: 1) Base salt and Moho interfaces are well imaged; top basement is not resolved. We interpret a pre-salt sedimentary sequence 5-10 km thick, with velocities up to 6 km/s; high velocities in this sequence likely relate to greenschist-facies metamorphism associated with early high heat flow and deep burial. 2) Velocities of 6-8 km/s characterize crystalline basement but do not uniquely determine crustal type (i.e., velocity does not equate to rock type). Lateral variations (0-8 km) in crustal thickness are consistent with slow/ultra-slow seafloor spreading. 3) The undeformed base salt reflector and pre-salt sediment sequence imply a post-kinematic setting and a substantial delay between breakup and Callovian salt deposition. 4) Liassic Central Atlantic breakup is kinematically linked to the GOM and related SDR magmatism. Inboard SDRs, observed on both conjugate margins of the GOM, imply outboard oceanic crust. Together, these observations are consistent with regional sub-salt basement of early-mid Jurassic slow/ultra-slow spreading oceanic crust, associated with

  16. Activity and phylogenetic diversity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature subsurface fluids within the upper oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Robador, Alberto; Jungbluth, Sean P; LaRowe, Douglas E; Bowers, Robert M; Rappé, Michael S; Amend, Jan P; Cowen, James P

    2014-01-01

    The basaltic ocean crust is the largest aquifer system on Earth, yet the rates of biological activity in this environment are unknown. Low-temperature (<100°C) fluid samples were investigated from two borehole observatories in the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR) flank, representing a range of upper oceanic basement thermal and geochemical properties. Microbial sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were measured in laboratory incubations with (35)S-sulfate over a range of temperatures and the identity of the corresponding sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) was studied by analyzing the sequence diversity of the functional marker dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrAB) gene. We found that microbial sulfate reduction was limited by the decreasing availability of organic electron donors in higher temperature, more altered fluids. Thermodynamic calculations indicate energetic constraints for metabolism, which together with relatively higher cell-specific SRR reveal increased maintenance requirements, consistent with novel species-level dsrAB phylotypes of thermophilic SRM. Our estimates suggest that microbially-mediated sulfate reduction may account for the removal of organic matter in fluids within the upper oceanic crust and underscore the potential quantitative impact of microbial processes in deep subsurface marine crustal fluids on marine and global biogeochemical carbon cycling.

  17. Atmospheric contamination of the primary Ne and Ar signal in mid-ocean ridge basalts and its implications for ocean crust formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroncik, N. A.; Niedermann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Both, terrestrial and extra-terrestrial applications of noble gases have demonstrated their importance as tracers for source identification, process characterisation and mass and heat flux quantification. However, the interpretation of noble gas isotope data from terrestrial igneous rocks is often complicated by the ubiquitous presence of heavy noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) with an atmospheric origin. Up to now there has been no consensus on how atmospheric noble gases are entrained into igneous rocks. Suggested processes range from contamination during sample preparation to mantle recycling through subduction. Here we present Ne, Ar, Mg, K, and Cl data of fresh glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north and south of the Ascension Fracture Zone which show that incorporation of atmospheric noble gases into igneous rocks is in general a two-step process: (1) magma contamination by assimilation of altered oceanic crust results in the entrainment of noble gases from air-equilibrated seawater; (2) atmospheric noble gases are adsorbed onto grain surfaces during sample preparation. This implies, considering the ubiquitous presence of the contamination signal, that magma contamination by assimilation of a seawater-sourced component is an integral part of mid-ocean ridge basalt evolution. Combining the results obtained from noble gas and Cl/K data with estimates of crystallisation pressures for the sample suite shows that the magma contamination must have taken place at a depth between 9 and 13 km. Taking thickness estimates for the local oceanic crust into account, this implies that seawater penetration in this area reaches lower crustal levels, indicating that hydrothermal circulation might be an effective cooling mechanism even for the deep parts of the oceanic crust.

  18. Sensitivity of elastic surface deformations caused by atmospheric, hydrologic, and oceanic loads to the Earth's crust and mantle properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Robert; Klemann, Volker; Kaban, Mikhail; Dobslaw, Henryk; Thomas, Maik

    2016-04-01

    The elastic deformation of the Earth's surface due to atmospheric surface pressure, terrestrial water storage, and ocean bottom pressure on seasonal or shorter time scales is usually represented by a set of elastic load Love numbers or the corresponding Green's function, determined from a radial Earth structure like PREM. Thereby, the influence of local deviations of the Earth's crustal and mantle properties is assumed to be negligible. However, local Green's functions derived individually for 1° grid cells from the 3D crustal structure model CRUST1 show large variations for in particular smaller distance angles. The loading response due to small-scale surface loads extending over less than 2500km2 significantly depends on the heterogeneous shallow structure of the Earth. In this contribution, we discuss the influence of lateral variations in the crust and mantle structure on atmospheric, hydrologic, and oceanic surface loads with regard to their spatial scales and distribution. Non-tidal atmospheric loading is calculated from an atmospheric surface pressure time series covering four decades (1976 - 2015) based on 3-hourly atmospheric data of ECMWF that has been homogenized by mapping surface pressure to a common reference orography. Hydrological loading is calculated for daily terrestrial water storage from LSDM over the same time period, where the surface water compartment is mapped from the 0.5° model resolution to a 0.125° GIS-based river network. Ocean tidal loading is exemplarily calculated based on the FES2014 ocean tidal model (0.0625°). Especially along the coasts of the oceans; in regions with steep orographic gradients; and in areas with thick crustal layers or sediments we will show the significant influence of the Earth's structure on small-scale deformation features caused by surface loads.

  19. Sulphide mineral evolution and metal mobility during alteration of the oceanic crust: Insights from ODP Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, C. G. C.; Pitcairn, I. K.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.

    2016-11-01

    Fluxes of metals during the hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust have far reaching effects including buffering of the compositions of the ocean and lithosphere, supporting microbial life and the formation of sulphide ore deposits. The mechanisms responsible for metal mobilisation during the evolution of the oceanic crust are complex and are neither fully constrained nor quantified. Investigations into the mineral reactions that release metals, such as sulphide leaching, would generate better understanding of the controls on metal mobility in the oceanic crust. We investigate the sulphide and oxide mineral paragenesis and the extent to which these minerals control the metal budget in samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1256D. The ODP Hole 1256D drill core provides a unique sample suite representative of a complete section of a fast-spreading oceanic crust from the volcanic section down to the plutonic complex. The sulphide population at Hole 1256D is divided into five groups based on mineralogical assemblage, lithological location and texture: the magmatic, metasomatised, high temperature hydrothermal, low temperature and patchy sulphides. The initiation of hydrothermal alteration by downward flow of moderate temperature (250-350 °C) hydrothermal fluids under oxidising conditions leads to metasomatism of the magmatic sulphides in the sheeted dyke and plutonic complexes. Subsequent increase in the degree of hydrothermal alteration at temperatures >350 °C under reducing conditions then leads to the leaching of the metasomatised sulphides by rising hydrothermal fluids. Mass balance calculations show that the mobility of Cu, Se and Au occurs through sulphide leaching during high temperature hydrothermal alteration and that the mobility of Zn, As, Sb and Pb is controlled by silicate rather than sulphide alteration. Sulphide leaching is not complete at Hole 1256D and more advanced alteration would mobilise greater masses of metals. Alteration of oxide

  20. Slab-derived water and the petrogenesis of distinct zones of oceanic crust along spreading centers in the Lau back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Deborah; Dunn, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Back-arc basin crust formed along the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) exhibits dramatic and abrupt changes in magmatic processes and crustal formation with proximity to the nearby Tofua Arc. Systematic variations in seafloor morphology, crustal thickness, seismic properties, and lava composition reflect a decreasing 'subduction influence' with increasing distance from the arc. Results from seismic tomography indicate that the crust that forms near the arc is abnormally thick and compositionally stratified, with a thick low-velocity upper crust and an abnormally high-velocity lower crust. As the ridge moves away from the arc, there is a step-like transition in crustal properties towards crustal velocities and thicknesses more typical of oceanic crust produced at mid-ocean ridges. Likewise, lava compositions exhibit abrupt changes in slab-derived volatiles and trace element enrichments, with silicic, arc-like compositions at the Valu Fa Ridge and southern half of the ELSC, located near the arc, and relatively depleted basalts along the northern ELSC, which is located further from the arc. We attribute the observed changes in the physical and chemical makeup of the crust to excess mantle melting coupled with higher degrees of crustal differentiation near the arc due to higher mantle water contents. We propose a model for the formation of the arc-proximal layered crust whereby water-rich basaltic melts stall and differentiate in the lower crust. High-pressure crystallization concentrates water in the residual melts, decreasing their viscosity and density. Eventually the lighter, more felsic residual melts are extracted from the lower crust, leaving behind a dense, mafic cumulate layer, and go on to produce a silica-rich, porous volcanic layer. We present results of thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibria and develop a petrological model for the formation of this unusual "hydrous" form of oceanic crust.

  1. Distribution and sources of pre-anthropogenic lead isotopes in deep ocean water from Fe-Mn crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Blanckenburg, F.; O'Nions, R. K.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The lead isotope composition of ocean water is not well constrained due to contamination by anthropogenic lead. Here the global distribution of lead isotopes in deep ocean water is presented as derived from dated (ca. 100 ka) surface layers of hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. The results indicate that the radiogenic lead in North Atlantic deep water is probably supplied from the continents by river particulates, and that lead in Pacific deep water is similar to that characteristic of island and continental volcanic arcs. Despite a short residence time in deep water (80-100 a), the isotopes of lead appear to be exceedingly well mixed in the Pacific basin. There is no evidence for the import of North Atlantic deep water-derived lead into the Pacific ocean, nor into the North Indian Ocean. This implies that the short residence time of lead in deep water prohibits advection over such long distances. Consequently, any climate-induced changes in deep-water flow are not expected to result in major changes in the seawater Pb-isotope record of the Pacific Ocean.

  2. Continental growth through time by underplating of subducted oceanic crust: Evidence from kimberlites in South Africa and SW Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Neal, Clive R.

    1988-01-01

    In the dynamic model of plate tectonics, it is evident that crustal components are returned to the mantle by subduction. Chemical signatures of these subducted components were identified in ocean island volcanics and in island arc volcanics. Indeed, an origin involving a subducted protolith was postulated for certain types of xenoliths in kimberlite, including diamonds. Recent studies of eclogite xenoliths in kimberlite from southern Africa and megacrysts form the Malaitan alnoite, Solomon islands, indicate that lithospheric underplating by subducted oceanic crust has occurred in these two contrasting areas. The results of new eclogite studies from the Bellsbank kimberlite, South Africa, and isotopic data from the Malaitan alnoite megacryst suite. This forms the basis for discerning the role of lithospheric underplating in the growth of cratons and in the evolution of mantle-derived magma.

  3. Consequences of Rift Propagation for Spreading in Thick Oceanic Crust in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karson, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Iceland has long been considered a natural laboratory for processes related to seafloor spreading, including propagating rifts, migrating transforms and rotating microplates. The thick, hot, weak crust and subaerial processes of Iceland result in variations on the themes developed along more typical parts of the global MOR system. Compared to most other parts of the MOR, Icelandic rift zones and transform faults are wider and more complex. Rift zones are defined by overlapping arrays of volcanic/tectonic spreading segments as much as 50 km wide. The most active rift zones propagate N and S away from the Iceland hot spot causing migration of transform faults. A trail of crust deformed by bookshelf faulting forms in their wakes. Dead or dying transform strands are truncated along pseudofaults that define propagation rates close to the full spreading rate of ~20 mm/yr. Pseudofaults are blurred by spreading across wide rift zones and laterally extensive subaerial lava flows. Propagation, with decreasing spreading toward the propagator tips causes rotation of crustal blocks on both sides of the active rift zones. The blocks deform internally by the widespread reactivation of spreading-related faults and zones of weakness along dike margins. The sense of slip on these rift-parallel strike-slip faults is inconsistent with transform-fault deformation. These various deformation features as well as subaxial subsidence that accommodate the thickening of the volcanic upper crustal units are probably confined to the brittle, seismogenic, upper 10 km of the crust. At least beneath the active rift zones, the upper crust is probably decoupled from hot, mechanically weak middle and lower gabbroic crust resulting in a broad plate boundary zone between the diverging lithosphere plates. Similar processes may occur at other types of propagating spreading centers and magmatic rifts.

  4. The spectral albedo of sea ice and salt crusts on the tropical ocean of Snowball Earth: 1. Laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Bonnie; Carns, Regina C.; Warren, Stephen G.

    2016-07-01

    The ice-albedo feedback mechanism likely contributed to global glaciation during the Snowball Earth events of the Neoproterozoic era (1 Ga to 544 Ma). This feedback results from the albedo contrast between sea ice and open ocean. Little is known about the optical properties of some of the possible surface types that may have been present, including sea ice that is both snow-free and cold enough for salts to precipitate within brine inclusions. A proxy surface for such ice was grown in a freezer laboratory using the single salt NaCl and kept below the eutectic temperature (-21.2°C) of the NaCl-H2O binary system. The resulting ice cover was composed of ice and precipitated hydrohalite crystals (NaCl · 2H2O). As the cold ice sublimated, a thin lag-deposit of salt formed on the surface. To hasten its growth in the laboratory, the deposit was augmented by addition of a salt-enriched surface crust. Measurements of the spectral albedo of this surface were carried out over 90 days as the hydrohalite crust thickened due to sublimation of ice, and subsequently over several hours as the crust warmed and dissolved, finally resulting in a surface with puddled liquid brine. The all-wave solar albedo of the subeutectic crust is 0.93 (in contrast to 0.83 for fresh snow and 0.67 for melting bare sea ice). Incorporation of these processes into a climate model of Snowball Earth will result in a positive salt-albedo feedback operating between -21°C and -36°C.

  5. Significance of serpentinization of lower crust in deep-sea hydrothermal biosphere -case study of gabbroic rocks from accreted oceanic plateau (Mikabu high P/T rocks, Japan)-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Y.; Ishimori, C.; Fukumura, S.; Okamoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity in the Archean-Ridge system has been considered to play a major role to maintain the oldest biosphere in early Earth. In the present ridge-system, hydrogen production in the serpentinized peridotite layer, is considered as major energy source. However, low temperature hydrothermal zone in the lower crust layer in the ridge has been recognized as hydrogen producing zone. Thickness of oceanic crust is less then 10 km in the present Earth. However, the thickness of Archean oceanic crust has been estimated as 50 km. That is, hydration process of oceanic crust in the Archean-ridge is significantly important. Hydration rate of the peridotite layer in the Archean ridge is less extensive than Phanerozoic because thicker oceanic crust prevents hydration in the peridotite layer. Lower crustal rocks of accreted oceanic plateau is one of the best sample to describe hydration process due to deep-sea-hydrothermal alteration because it is easy to observe huge outcrops and collect samples systematically in whole section. We have collected gabbroic rocks from Mikabu high P/T rocks in Toba area and from Ootoyo area, Japan because there are large scale trench cliffs in the mine. Serpentinization of olivine gabbro and troctolite and hydrogen production rate will be shown in the present poster.

  6. The age and emplacement of obducted oceanic crust in the Urals from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, R. L.; Wassburg, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic characteristics of two mafic-ultramafic bodies, the Kemperai Massif in the South Ural Mountains and the Voykar-syninsky Massif in the Polar Ural mountains are examined. The data are found to be consistent with the hypothesis that these bodies represent fragments of old oceanic crust. Whole rock samples of pillow basalt, troctolite, gabbros, diabase, and a metasediment give Sm-Nd values which lie on this isochron indicating that the rock units are genetically related and formed 397 My ago. Basic and ultrabasic rocks from Kempersai and Voykar-Syninsky have an initial isotopic composition at time T, epsilon Nd(397 My), of +8.4, indicating derivation for an ancient depleted mantle source. The Sr isotopic data and the correlation with epsilon Nd indicate extensive alteration by seawater which is particularly strong on ultrabasic rocks. The results show that the segments of oceanic crust formed at least 80 My before the collision that produced the Urals.

  7. Hydrothermal activity in Tertiary Icelandic crust: Implication for cooling processes along slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pałgan, D.; Devey, C. W.; Yeo, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Known hydrothermal activity along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is mostly high-temperature venting, controlled by volcano-tectonic processes confined to ridge axes and neotectonic zones ~15km wide on each side of the axis (e.g. TAG or Snake Pit). However, extensive exploration and discoveries of new hydrothermal fields in off-axis regions (e.g. Lost City, MAR) show that hydrothermalism may, in some areas, be dominated by off-axis venting. Little is known about nature of such systems, including whether low-temperature "diffuse" venting dominates rather than high-temperature black-smokers. This is particularly interesting since such systems may transport up to 90% of the hydrothermal heat to the oceans. In this study we use Icelandic hot springs as onshore analogues for off-shore hydrothermal activity along the MAR to better understand volcano-tectonic controls on their occurrence, along with processes supporting fluid circulation. Iceland is a unique laboratory to study how new oceanic crust cools and suggests that old crust may not be as inactive as previously thought. Our results show that Tertiary (>3.3 Myr) crust of Iceland (Westfjords) has widespread low-temperature hydrothermal activity. Lack of tectonism (indicated by lack of seismicity), along with field research suggest that faults in Westfjords are no longer active and that once sealed, can no longer support hydrothermal circulation, i.e. none of the hot springs in the area occur along faults. Instead, dyke margins provide open and permeable fluid migration pathways. Furthermore, we suggest that the Reykjanes Ridge (south of Iceland) may be similar to Westfjords with hydrothermalism dominated by off-axis venting. Using bathymetric data we infer dyke positions and suggest potential sites for future exploration located away from neotectonic zone. We also emphasise the importance of biological observations in seeking for low-temperature hydrothermal activity, since chemical or optical methods are not sufficient.

  8. Weekly cycle of lightning and associated patterns of rainfall, cloud, and aerosols over Korea and adjacent oceans during boreal summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, K.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we analyze the weekly cycle of lightning over Korea and adjacent oceans and associated variations of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and atmospheric circulations, using aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the NASA Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), cloud properties from MODIS, precipitation and storm height from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and lightning data from the Korean Lightning Detection Network (KLDN) during 9-year from 2002 to 2010. Lightning data was divided into three approximately equal areas, land area of Korea, and two adjacent oceans, Yellow Sea and South Sea. Preliminary results show that the number of lightning increases during the middle of the week over land area. AOD data also shows moderately significant midweek increase at about the same time as lightning peaks. These results are consistent with the recent studies showing the invigoration of storms with more ice hydrometeors by aerosols, and subsequently wash out of aerosols by rainfall. Frequency of lightning strokes tend to peak at weekend in coastal area and over South Sea, indicating local weekly anomalous circulation between land and adjacent ocean. On the other hand, lightning frequency over Yellow Sea appears to have very strong weekly cycle with midweek peak on around Wednesday. It is speculated that the midweek peak of lightning over Yellow Sea was related with aerosol transport from adjacent land area. AOD data also suggests midweek peak over Yellow Sea, however, the weekly cycle of AOD was not statistically significant. Changes in weekly cycle of lightning from pre-monsoon to monsoon season, as well as associated clouds and circulation patterns are also discussed.

  9. Weekly Cycle of Lightning and Associated Patterns of Rainfall, Cloud, and Aerosols over Korea and Adjacent Oceans during Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Ji-In; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the weekly cycle of lightning over Korea and adjacent oceans and associated variations of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and atmospheric circulations, using aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the NASA Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), cloud properties from MODIS, precipitation and storm height from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and lightning data from the Korean Lightning Detection Network (KLDN) during 9-year from 2002 to 2010. Lightning data was divided into three approximately equal areas, land area of Korea, and two adjacent oceans, Yellow Sea and South Sea. Preliminary results show that the number of lightning increases during the middle of the week over Yellow Sea. AOD data also shows moderately significant midweek increase at about the same time as lightning peaks. These results are consistent with the recent studies showing the invigoration of storms with more ice hydrometeors by aerosols, and subsequently wash out of aerosols by rainfall. Frequency of lightning strokes tend to peak at weekend in land area and over South Sea, indicating local weekly anomalous circulation between land and adjacent ocean. On the other hand, lightning frequency over Yellow Sea appears to have very strong weekly cycle with midweek peak on around Wednesday. It is speculated that the midweek peak of lightning over Yellow Sea was related with aerosol transport from adjacent land area. AOD data also suggests midweek peak over Yellow Sea, however, the weekly cycle of AOD was not statistically significant. Changes in weekly cycle of lightning from pre-monsoon to monsoon season, as well as associated clouds and circulation patterns are also discussed.

  10. Redox processes in subducting oceanic crust recorded by sulfide-bearing high-pressure rocks and veins (SW Tianshan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Lei; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner; John, Timm; Wang, Xin-Shui

    2016-09-01

    The oxidized nature of the sub-arc mantle and hence arc magmas is generally interpreted as a result of the migration of subduction-related oxidizing fluids or melts from the descending slab into the mantle wedge. This is of particular importance seeing that the oxidization state of sub-arc magmas seems to play a key role in the formations of arc-related ore deposits. However, direct constraints on the redox state of subducted oceanic crust are sparse. Here, we provide a detailed petrological investigation on sulfide- and oxide-bearing eclogites, blueschists, micaschists, eclogite-facies and retrograde veins from the Akeyazi high-pressure (HP) terrane (NW China) in order to gain insight into the redox processes recorded in a subducting oceanic slab. Sulfides in these rocks are mainly pyrite and minor pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite, sphalerite and chalcocite, including exsolution textures of bornite-chalcopyrite intergrowth. Magnetite, ilmenite and pyrite occur as inclusions in garnet, whereas sulfides are dominant in the matrix. Large pyrite grains in the matrix contain inclusions of garnet, omphacite and other HP index minerals. However, magnetite replacing pyrite textures are commonly observed in the retrograded samples. The eclogite-facies and retrograde veins display two fluid events, which are characterized by an early sulfide-bearing and a later magnetite-bearing mineral assemblage, respectively. Textural and petrological evidences show that the sulfides were mainly formed during HP metamorphism. Mineral assemblage transitions reveal that the relative oxygen fugacity of subducted oceanic crust decreases slightly with increasing depths. However, according to oxygen mass balance calculations, based on the oxygen molar quantities ( nO2), the redox conditions remain constant during HP metamorphism. At shallow levels (<60 km) in the subduction channel, interaction with oxidized fluid seems to have caused an increase of the oxygen fugacity and the

  11. Downhole images: Electrical scanning reveals the nature of subsurface oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezard, Philippe; Lovell, Mike

    High-resolution electrical images of oceanic sediments exposed by drilling are permitting scientists to make detailed evaluation of the record preserved in the rocks, particularly in intervals where little core was recovered. The images are generated from measurements taken with a slimhole Formation Micro-Scanner (FMS), developed by Schlumberger specifically for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The new measurement technique was used in May 1989 on ODP Leg 126 in two holes drilled in the Izu-Bonin intra-oceanic volcanic arc (Figure 1), which extends south of Honshu to Iwo Jima, Japan.

  12. Controls on ferromanganese crust composition and reconnaissance resource potential, Ninetyeast Ridge, Indian Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James; Conrad, Tracey A.; Mizell, Kira; Banakar, Virupaxa K.; Frey, Frederick A.; Sager, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The southern third of NER has Fe-Mn crusts with the highest Co (0.91%), Ni (0.43%), ΣREY (0.33%), Cu (0.22%), Te (146 ppm), Pt (1.5 ppm), Ru (52 ppb), and Rh (99 ppb) contents. These are among the highest Pt, Ru, and Rh concentrations measured in marine Fe-Mn deposits. Because of these high metal concentrations, exploration is warranted for the southern sector of the NER, especially at shallower-water sites where the platinum group elements (PGE) and Co are likely to be even more enriched.

  13. Insights on the Nature of the Geophysical Crust at a Melt-starved Slow-spreading Mid-oceanic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momoh, E. I.; Cannat, M.; Leroy, S. D.; Watremez, L.; Singh, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Of the 7200 km long very slow-spreading (14 mm/yr) Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR), which forms the plate boundary between Africa and the Antarctic, the easternmost portion represents an endmember of the global mid-ocean ridge system in terms of low melt supply. It is characterized by 30 to 70 km-wide corridors of nearly amagmatic spreading, separating domains of focused volcanic activity. Our study concerns one of these amagmatic corridors. Volcanic features that typically characterize other ridge systems are scarce and the seafloor is mostly made of exhumed mantle-derived sepentinized periodotites. Long-offset detachment faults are proposed to be responsible for exhumation, and provide the context for serpentinization. In this poster presentation, we use seismic constraints to discuss the kilometer-scale characteristics of the geophysical crust formed at the melt-poor divgergent plate boundaries. To supply these constraints, we use seismic data acquired during the recent Sismosmooth cruise (2014; E64o20' to E65o). We show seismic reflection results from three 2D coincident across-axis lines, and two 2D axis-parallel lines processed in a self-similar manner and merged to improve the information content. From these, we show evidence for the expression of the active detachment fault responsible for mantle exhumation. This fault can be followed to ~ 7.7 km at depth. To give an insight to the nature of the subsurface, we examine tomography results from wide-angle seismic refraction data, which suggests a thin geophysical crust. This is similar to models of geophysical crust proposed from gravity studies in the study area.

  14. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; Budahn, J.R.; Murchey, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic, Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks. Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted from obduction faulting, but the lack of fault slabs of gabbro or peridotite suggests that obduction faults did not penetrate below oceanic layer 2, a likely occurrence if layer 2 were anomalously thick, as in the vicinity of an oceanic island. -from Authors

  15. Continental hyperextension, mantle exhumation, and thin oceanic crust at the continent-ocean transition, West Iberia: New insights from wide-angle seismic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, R. G.; Minshull, T. A.; Bayrakci, G.; Bull, J. M.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C.; Reston, T. J.; Sawyer, D. S.; Zelt, C. A.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperextension of continental crust at the Deep Galicia rifted margin in the North Atlantic has been accommodated by the rotation of continental fault blocks, which are underlain by the S reflector, an interpreted detachment fault, along which exhumed and serpentinized mantle peridotite is observed. West of these features, the enigmatic Peridotite Ridge has been inferred to delimit the western extent of the continent-ocean transition. An outstanding question at this margin is where oceanic crust begins, with little existing data to constrain this boundary and a lack of clear seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies. Here we present results from a 160 km long wide-angle seismic profile (Western Extension 1). Travel time tomography models of the crustal compressional velocity structure reveal highly thinned and rotated crustal blocks separated from the underlying mantle by the S reflector. The S reflector correlates with the 6.0-7.0 km s-1 velocity contours, corresponding to peridotite serpentinization of 60-30%, respectively. West of the Peridotite Ridge, shallow and sparse Moho reflections indicate the earliest formation of an anomalously thin oceanic crustal layer, which increases in thickness from ~0.5 km at ~20 km west of the Peridotite Ridge to ~1.5 km, 35 km further west. P wave velocities increase smoothly and rapidly below top basement, to a depth of 2.8-3.5 km, with an average velocity gradient of 1.0 s-1. Below this, velocities slowly increase toward typical mantle velocities. Such a downward increase into mantle velocities is interpreted as decreasing serpentinization of mantle rock with depth.

  16. Reactive transport modeling of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust: effect of anhydrite precipitation on the dynamics of submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrothermal fluid circulation represents an extremely efficient mechanism for the exchange of heat and matter between seawater and oceanic crust. Precipitation and dissolution of minerals associated with hydrothermal flow at ridge axes can alter the crustal porosity and permeability and hence influence the dynamics of hydrothermal systems. In this study, a fully coupled fluid flow, heat transfer and reactive mass transport model was developed using TOUGHREACT to evaluate the role of mineral precipitation and dissolution on the evolution of hydrothermal flow systems, with a particular attention focused on anhydrite precipitation upon heating of seawater in recharge zones and the resultant change in the crustal porosity and permeability. A series of numerical case studies were carried out to assess the effect of temperature and aqueous phase inflow concentrations on the reactive geochemical system. The impact of chemically induced porosity and permeability changes on the dynamics of hydrothermal systems was also addressed.

  17. Freshly brewed continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Caddick, M. J.; Madrigal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's crust is the life-sustaining interface between our planet's deep interior and surface. Basaltic crusts similar to Earth's oceanic crust characterize terrestrial planets in the solar system while the continental masses, areas of buoyant, thick silicic crust, are a unique characteristic of Earth. Therefore, understanding the processes responsible for the formation of continents is fundamental to reconstructing the evolution of our planet. We use geochemical and geophysical data to reconstruct the evolution of the Central American Land Bridge (Costa Rica and Panama) over the last 70 Ma. We also include new preliminary data from a key turning point (~12-6 Ma) from the evolution from an oceanic arc depleted in incompatible elements to a juvenile continental mass in order to evaluate current models of continental crust formation. We also discovered that seismic P-waves (body waves) travel through the crust at velocities closer to the ones observed in continental crust worldwide. Based on global statistical analyses of all magmas produced today in oceanic arcs compared to the global average composition of continental crust we developed a continental index. Our goal was to quantitatively correlate geochemical composition with the average P-wave velocity of arc crust. We suggest that although the formation and evolution of continents may involve many processes, melting enriched oceanic crust within a subduction zone, a process probably more common in the Achaean where most continental landmasses formed, can produce the starting material necessary for juvenile continental crust formation.

  18. Uranium isotopic compositions of the crust and ocean: Age corrections, U budget and global extent of modern anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    The 238U/235U isotopic composition of uranium in seawater can provide important insights into the modern U budget of the oceans. Using the double spike technique and a new data reduction method, we analyzed an array of seawater samples and 41 geostandards covering a broad range of geological settings relevant to low and high temperature geochemistry. Analyses of 18 seawater samples from geographically diverse sites from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, and English Channel, together with literature data (n = 17), yield a δ238U value for modern seawater of -0.392 ± 0.005‰ relative to CRM-112a. Measurements of the uranium isotopic compositions of river water, lake water, evaporites, modern coral, shales, and various igneous rocks (n = 64), together with compilations of literature data (n = 380), allow us to estimate the uranium isotopic compositions of the various reservoirs involved in the modern oceanic uranium budget, as well as the fractionation factors associated with U incorporation into those reservoirs. Because the incorporation of U into anoxic/euxinic sediments is accompanied by large isotopic fractionation (ΔAnoxic/Euxinic-SW = +0.6‰), the size of the anoxic/euxinic sink strongly influences the δ238U value of seawater. Keeping all other fluxes constant, the flux of uranium in the anoxic/euxinic sink is constrained to be 7.0 ± 3.1 Mmol/yr (or 14 ± 3% of the total flux out of the ocean). This translates into an areal extent of anoxia into the modern ocean of 0.21 ± 0.09% of the total seafloor. This agrees with independent estimates and rules out a recent uranium budget estimate by Henderson and Anderson (2003). Using the mass fractions and isotopic compositions of various rock types in Earth's crust, we further calculate an average δ238U isotopic composition for the continental crust of -0.29 ± 0.03‰ corresponding to a 238U/235U isotopic ratio of 137.797 ± 0.005. We discuss the implications of

  19. New constraints on the sources and behavior of neodymium and hafnium in seawater from Pacific Ocean ferromanganese crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van de Flierdt, T.; Frank, M.; Lee, D.-C.; Halliday, A.N.; Reynolds, B.C.; Hein, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of dissolved Hf in the marine environment is not well understood due to the lack of direct seawater measurements of Hf isotopes and the limited number of Hf isotope time-series obtained from ferromanganese crusts. In order to place better constraints on input sources and develop further applications, a combined Nd-Hf isotope time-series study of five Pacific ferromanganese crusts was carried out. The samples cover the past 38 Myr and their locations range from sites at the margin of the ocean to remote areas, sites from previously unstudied North and South Pacific areas, and water depths corresponding to deep and bottom waters. For most of the samples a broad coupling of Nd and Hf isotopes is observed. In the Equatorial Pacific ENd and EHf both decrease with water depth. Similarly, ENd and EHf both increase from the South to the North Pacific. These data indicate that the Hf isotopic composition is, in general terms, a suitable tracer for ocean circulation, since inflow and progressive admixture of bottom water is clearly identifiable. The time-series data indicate that inputs and outputs have been balanced throughout much of the late Cenozoic. A simple box model can constrain the relative importance of potential input sources to the North Pacific. Assuming steady state, the model implies significant contributions of radiogenic Nd and Hf from young circum-Pacific arcs and a subordinate role of dust inputs from the Asian continent for the dissolved Nd and Hf budget of the North Pacific. Some changes in ocean circulation that are clearly recognizable in Nd isotopes do not appear to be reflected by Hf isotopic compositions. At two locations within the Pacific Ocean a decoupling of Nd and Hf isotopes is found, indicating limited potential for Hf isotopes as a stand-alone oceanographic tracer and providing evidence of additional local processes that govern the Hf isotopic composition of deep water masses. In the case of the Southwest Pacific there is

  20. The relationship between the age and depth of the oceanic crust in the central South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi-Jui; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Chiao, Ling-Yun

    2016-04-01

    South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal basin in the western Pacific. The onset of seafloor spreading in the central part of the SCS was suggested at 32 Ma. After a ridge jump around 25 Ma, the southwestern sub-basin started to open. The spreading of the entire basin ended at ~16 Ma, then a phase of post-magmatic seamount formation occurred (eg., Taylor and Hayes, 1983; Briais et al.,1993; Barckhausen et al., 2014). In this study, we want to find the relationship between the age and depth of the oceanic crust in the central SCS. We will also study a fracture zone trending NW-SE near to Manila trench and to understand how did the fracture zone affect the development of the SCS. We have analyzed five reflection seismic profiles collected by R/V Ocean Researcher 1 during the cruise ORI-1115. We have correlated the age of seismic strata in the central SCS by comparing to the seismic phase of profile MCS1115-7 that has crossed the IODP drilling site U1431. To understand the characteristics of the fracture zone, we have also applied the analytic signal and Euler deconvolution methods to the gravity and magnetic anomalies related to the fracture zone. We suggest that the fraction zone was formed in order to accommodate the spreading in the east sub-basin. However, this fracture zone is somewhat curved concave southwestward. According to the collision-extrusion model of Tapponnier et al. (1982), the formation of Indochina is followed with the constitution of Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone. We suppose that the formation of the fracture zone in this study is similar to the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone. The fan-shaped crustal fabric is distinct in the younger portions of the oceanic basin. Both Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone and the fracture zone in northeastern SCS may share the same rotation pole. Furthermore, we have tried to find a relationship between oceanic crust depth and age in this area. The preliminary result shows that the relationship between depth and

  1. Constraints on the accretion of the gabbroic lower oceanic crust from plagioclase lattice preferred orientation in the Samail ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Hirth, G.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    The debate over the processes of igneous accretion of gabbroic lower crust at submarine spreading centers is centered on two end-member hypotheses: Gabbro Glaciers and Sheeted Sills. In order to determine which of these two hypotheses is most applicable to a well-studied lower crustal section, we present newly published data (VanTongeren et al., 2015 EPSL v. 427, p. 249-261) on plagioclase lattice preferred orientations (LPO) in the Wadi Khafifah section of the Samail ophiolite, Oman. Based on our results we provide five critical observations that any model for the accretion of the lower oceanic crust must satisfy: (1) There is a distinctive change in the orientation of the outcrop-scale layering from near-vertical to sub-horizontal that is also reflected in the plagioclase fabrics in the uppermost ~1000-1500 m of the gabbroic crust; (2) The distinction between the upper gabbros and lower gabbros is not a geochemical boundary. Rather, the change in outcrop-scale orientation from near-vertical to sub-horizontal occurs stratigraphically lower in the crust than a change in whole-rock geochemistry; (3) There is no systematic difference in plagioclase fabric strength in any crystallographic axis between the upper gabbros and the lower gabbros; (4) Beneath the abrupt transition from sub-vertical to sub-horizontal fabric, there is no systematic change in the geographic orientation of the plagioclase fabric, or in the development of a dominant lineation direction within the upper gabbros or the lower gabbros; (5) In the lower gabbros, the obliquity between the (010) and the modal layering remains approximately constant and indicates a consistent top to the right sense of shear throughout the stratigraphy. Our observations are most consistent with the Sheeted Sills hypothesis, in which the majority of lower crustal gabbros are crystallized in situ and fabrics are dominated by compaction and localized extension rather than by systematically increasing shear strain with

  2. Characterization of the in situ magnetic architecture of oceanic crust (Hess Deep) using near-source vector magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Masako; Tivey, Maurice A.; MacLeod, Christopher J.; Morris, Antony; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Shillington, Donna J.; Ferrini, Vicki

    2016-06-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies are a powerful tool for detecting geomagnetic polarity reversals, lithological boundaries, topographic contrasts, and alteration fronts in the oceanic lithosphere. Our aim here is to detect lithological contacts in fast-spreading lower crust and shallow mantle by characterizing magnetic anomalies and investigating their origins. We conducted a high-resolution, near-bottom, vector magnetic survey of crust exposed in the Hess Deep "tectonic window" using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Isis during RRS James Cook cruise JC21 in 2008. Hess Deep is located at the western tip of the propagating rift of the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary near the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (2°15'N, 101°30'W). ROV Isis collected high-resolution bathymetry and near-bottom magnetic data as well as seafloor samples to determine the in situ lithostratigraphy and internal structure of a section of EPR lower crust and mantle exposed on the steep (~20°dipping) south facing slope just north of the Hess Deep nadir. Ten magnetic profiles were collected up the slope using a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer mounted on ROV Isis. We develop and extend the vertical magnetic profile (VMP) approach of Tivey (1996) by incorporating, for the first time, a three-dimensional vector analysis, leading to what we here termed as "vector vertical magnetic profiling" approach. We calculate the source magnetization distribution, the deviation from two dimensionality, and the strike of magnetic boundaries using both the total field Fourier-transform inversion approach and a modified differential vector magnetic analysis. Overall, coherent, long-wavelength total field anomalies are present with a strong magnetization contrast between the upper and lower parts of the slope. The total field anomalies indicate a coherently magnetized source at depth. The upper part of the slope is weakly magnetized and magnetic structure follows the underlying slope morphology, including a "bench" and lobe

  3. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Neil F.; Jansson, Krister N.; Duller, Geoffrey A. T.; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface “hosing” to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate. PMID:26869235

  4. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Neil F; Jansson, Krister N; Duller, Geoffrey A T; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface "hosing" to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate. PMID:26869235

  5. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Neil F; Jansson, Krister N; Duller, Geoffrey A T; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-02-12

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface "hosing" to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate.

  6. Venus trough-and-ridge tessera - Analog to earth oceanic crust formed at spreading centers?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.

    1990-01-01

    The similarity between the morphologies of Venus trough-and-ridge tessera and the earth's ocean floor is discussed. The hypothesis that tessera texture might be related to a crustal fabric produced at spreading centers is examined. It is suggested that the proccesses that produce the ocean floor fabric on earth are good candidates for the origin and production of the trough-and-ridge tessera. To support this hypothesis, the characteristics of the trough-and-ridge terrain in Laima Tessera are described and compared to the seafloor at spreading centers.

  7. Venus trough-and-ridge tessera - Analog to earth oceanic crust formed at spreading centers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.

    1990-05-01

    The similarity between the morphologies of Venus trough-and-ridge tessera and the earth's ocean floor is discussed. The hypothesis that tessera texture might be related to a crustal fabric produced at spreading centers is examined. It is suggested that the proccesses that produce the ocean floor fabric on earth are good candidates for the origin and production of the trough-and-ridge tessera. To support this hypothesis, the characteristics of the trough-and-ridge terrain in Laima Tessera are described and compared to the seafloor at spreading centers.

  8. Constraints on Lu-Hf and Nb-Ta systematics in globally subducted oceanic crust from a survey of orogenic eclogites and amphibolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirakparvar, N. Alex

    2016-04-01

    To further understand Lu-Hf and Nb-Ta systematics in globally subducted oceanic crust, this paper evaluates all available Lu-Hf garnet isochron ages and initial ɛHf values in conjunction with present-day bulk-rock Lu-Hf isotope and trace element (K, Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti in addition to Lu-Hf) data from the world's orogenic eclogites and amphibolites (OEAs). Approximately half of OEAs exhibit Lu-Hf and Nb-Ta systematics mimicking those of unsubducted oceanic crust whereas the rest exhibit variability in one or both systems. For the Lu-Hf system, mixing calculations demonstrate that subduction-related phase transformations, in conjunction with open system behavior, can shift subducted oceanic crust toward higher Lu/Hf, or toward lower Lu/Hf that can also be associated with unradiogenic ɛHf values. However, evaluation of potential mechanisms for fractionating Nb from Ta is more complicated because many of the OEAs have Nb-Ta systematics that are decoupled from Lu-Hf and the behavior of K, Zr, and Ti. Nonetheless, the global data set demonstrates that the association between unradiogenic ɛHf and elevated Nb/Ta observed in some kimberlitic eclogite xenoliths can be inherited from processes that occurred during subduction of their oceanic crustal protoliths. This allows for a geologically based estimate of the Nb concentration in a reservoir composed of deeply subducted oceanic crust. However, mass balance calculations confirm that such a reservoir, when considered as a whole, likely has a Nb concentration similar to unsubducted oceanic crust and is therefore not the solution to the problem of the Earth's "missing" Nb.

  9. Detachment and steep normal faulting in Atlantic oceanic crust west of Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reston, T.J.; Ruoff, O.; McBride, J.H.; Ranero, C.R.; White, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Improved images of the internal structure of Early Cretaceous North Atlantic crust reveal both probable detachment faults and more steeply dipping normal faults. The detachment faults occur as subhorizontal structures passing ???1.5 km beneath fault blocks without offset; several steeper block-bounding faults appear to detach onto these structures. However, the detachments are bounded to the west (ridgeward) by presumably younger, more steeply west-dipping normal faults. In one possible interpretation, the detachment and the steep faults belong to the same "rolling-hinge" extension system. An intriguing alternative is that a phase of detachment faulting, perhaps related to increased magmatic activity, was succeeded by localized amagmatic extension along steeper and more deeply penetrating faults.

  10. Tectonic model for the evolution of oceanic crust in the northeastern Indian Ocean from the Late Cretaceous to the Early Tertiary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. S.; Rao, D. Gopala; Ramana, M. V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Sarma, K. V. L. N. S.; Pilipenko, A. I.; Shcherbakov, V. S.; Murthy, I. V. Radhakrishna

    1995-10-01

    Bathymetry and magnetic studies (part of the Trans Indian Ocean Geotraverse investigations) in the northeastern Indian Ocean revealed seafloor topographic features, magnetic lineations (19 through 32B) and abandoned spreading centers. The seafloor topography of the Ninetyeast Ridge is relatively wider and shallower south of 15°S. The magnetic anomalies indicate nine fracture zones. Two of them are newly identified. Some of the fracture zones are reflected in the bathymetry. Abandoned spreading centers between 86°E Fracture Zone (FZ) and 92°E FZ are interpreted as the western extensions of the Wharton Ridge. They ceased spreading along with other spreading centers in the Wharton Basin soon after the formation of magnetic anomaly 19 (around 42 Ma) and merged the Indian and Australian plates as single Indo-Australian plate. The pattern of magnetic lineations between 86°E FZ and 90°E FZ indicate a series of southerly ridge jumps at anomalies 30, 26 (Royer et al., 1991 and other workers) and 19. These ridge jumps transferred portions of the Antarctic plate to the Indian plate. The captured portions and offset along 86°E FZ between India-Antartica Ridge and Wharton Ridge resulted in an anomalous extra oceanic crust between 86°E FZ and Ninetyeast Ridge spanning 11° in latitude.

  11. Crust structure of the Northern Margin of North China Craton and adjacent region from Sinoprobe-02 North China seismic WAR/R experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Gao, R.; Keller, G. R.; Li, Q.; Cox, C. M.; Hou, H.; Guan, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB) or Altaids, situated between the Siberian craton(SC) to the north and north China craton (NCC) with tarim to the south, is one of the world's largest accretionary orogens formed by subduction and accretion of juvenile material from the Neoproterozoic through the Paleozoic. The NCC is the oldest craton in China, which suffered Yanshan intercontinental orogenic process and lithosphere thinning in Mesozoic. In the past 20 years, remarkable studies about this region have been carried out and different tectonic models were proposed, however, some crucial geologic problems remain controversial. In order to obtain better knowledge of deep structure and properties of crust on the northern margin of north China craton, a 450 km long WAR/R section was completed jointly by Institute of Geology, CAGS and University of Oklahoma. Our 450 km long NW-SE WAR/R line extends from west end of the Yanshan orogen, across the Bainaimiao arc, Ondor sum subduction accretion complex to the Solonker suture zone. The recording of seismic waves from 8 explorations was conducted in 4 deployments of 300 reftek-125A records and single-channel 4.5Hz geophones with station spacing of 1km. The shooting procedure was employ 500 or 1500kg explosives in 4-5 or 15-23 boreholes at 40-45m depth. The sampling rate was 100 HZ, and recording time window was 1200s. The P wave field on the sections got high quality data for most part of the profile, but have low signal-to-noise for the south end, where closed to Beijing with a lot of ambient noise from traffic, industry and human activity. Arrivals from of refracted and reflected waves from sediments and basement (Pg), intracrust (Pcp, Plp) and Moho (Pmp) were typically observed, but Pn phase through the upper most mantle was only observed for 2 shots. Identification and correlation of seismic phases was done manually on computer screen Zplot software. Each trace has been bandpass filtered (1-20Hz) and normalized with AGC

  12. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area....

  13. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area....

  14. Magnetotelluric and geomagnetic deep-sounding studies in rifts and adjacent areas: constraints on physical processes in the crust and upper mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Hermance, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Deep electrical studies are reviewed along with other supportive geophysical/geological investigations of five of the major rift zones of the world: the Baikal rift, and Rhine graben, the East African rift, Iceland and the Rio Grande rift. All of these regions exhibit anomalously low values of electrical resistivity, density and seismic velocity, either within the crust itselt or at high levels in the mantle. Deep electrical studies support a model where ascending masses of material from the mantle are intimately coupled to the fractionation of a basalt melt and its accumulation at higher levels within the earth. In Iceland, an interplate rift, the accumulation and chilling of melt at the base of the crust apparently leads to a significant component of crustal underplating whereas in intraplate rifts such as the Rio Grande rift, the emplacement of basaltic magma at high levels may lead to extensive remelting of the crust, triggering eruptive episodes of silicic magmas.

  15. Oceanic crust within the paleozoic Granjeno Schist, northeastern Mexico. Remnants of the Rheic and paleo-Pacific Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Sanchez, Sonia Alejandra; Augustsson, Carita; Rafael Barboza Gudiño, Jose; Jenchen, Uwe; Torres Sanchez, Dario; Aleman Gallardo, Eduardo; Abratis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Late Paleozoic metamorphic rocks in Mexico are related to the Laurentia-Gondwana collision in Carboniferous time, during Pangaea amalgamation. Vestiges of the Mexican Paleozoic continental configuration are present in the Granjeno Schist, the metamorphic basement of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Field work and petrographic analysis reveal that the Granjeno Schist comprises metamorphic rocks with both sedimentary (psammite, pelite, turbidite, conglomerate, black shale) and igneous (tuff, lava flows, pillow lava and ultramafic bodies) protoliths. The chlorite geothermometer and the presence of phengite in the metasedimentary units as well as 40Ar/39Ar ages on metavolcanic and metaultramafic rocks indicate that the Granjeno Schist was metamorphosed under sub-greenschist to greenschist facies with temperatures ranging from 250-345°C with 2.5 kbar during Carboniferous time (330±30 Ma). The presence of metabasalt, metacumulate, serpentinite and talc bodies suggests an oceanic tectonic setting for the evolution of the Granjeno Schist. Serpetinite rocks have mesh, granular and ribbon textures which indicate recrystallization and metasomatic events. The serpentinite rocks are enriched in the very large incompatible elements Cs, U, and Zr and depleted in Ba, Sr, Pb, Zr and Ce. Normalized REE patterns (LaN/YbN = 0.51 - 19.95 and LaN/SmN = 0.72 - 9.08) of the serpentinite and talc/soapstone are characteristic of peridotite from both suprasubduction and mid-ocean ridge zones. Serpentinite from the Granjeno Schist have spinel content which can reveal different stages of evolution in host serpentinite. The composition of chromite indicates that they belong to podiform chromite that may have crystallized from mid-ocean ridge magma. Al-chromite in the serpentinite is characterized by #Cr 0.48 to 0.55, which indicates a depleted mantle source affected by 17 to 18% of partial melting. The ferritchromite has #Cr values of 0.93 to 1.00 which indicates a metamorphic origin. Our study

  16. Diversity and Distribution of Marine Microbial Eukaryotes in the Arctic Ocean and Adjacent Seas†‡

    PubMed Central

    Lovejoy, C.; Massana, R.; Pedrós-Alió, C.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed microbial eukaryote diversity in perennially cold arctic marine waters by using 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Samples were collected during concurrent oceanographic missions to opposite sides of the Arctic Ocean Basin and encompassed five distinct water masses. Two deep water Arctic Ocean sites and the convergence of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas were sampled from 28 August to 2 September 2002. An additional sample was obtained from the Beaufort Sea (Canada) in early October 2002. The ribotypes were diverse, with different communities among sites and between the upper mixed layer and just below the halocline. Eukaryotes from the remote Canada Basin contained new phylotypes belonging to the radiolarian orders Acantharea, Polycystinea, and Taxopodida. A novel group within the photosynthetic stramenopiles was also identified. One sample closest to the interior of the Canada Basin yielded only four major taxa, and all but two of the sequences recovered belonged to the polar diatom Fragilariopsis and a radiolarian. Overall, 42% of the sequences were <98% similar to any sequences in GenBank. Moreover, 15% of these were <95% similar to previously recovered sequences, which is indicative of endemic or undersampled taxa in the North Polar environment. The cold, stable Arctic Ocean is a threatened environment, and climate change could result in significant loss of global microbial biodiversity. PMID:16672445

  17. Aerial transport of pesticides over the Northern Indian ocean and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, Terry F.; Leonard, Ross

    Between 1976 and 1978 airborne organochlorines were measured over the northern Indian Ocean and the North Atlantic. Shipboard measurements in the Indian Ocean were made in the equatorial and northern Arabian Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. In the North Atlantic samples were collected at Barbados, the southern tip of Newfoundland, and from shipboard on a cruise across the trades region. Collections were made by pulling air through a glass fiber filter followed by a column of polyurethane foam. Analyses were done by packed and glass capillary gas chromatography using electron capture detection. The most striking difference in organochlorine patterns between the two oceans is the much higher DDT concentrations over the eastern seas. Average DDT levels in the Arabian Sea-Persian Gulf-Red Sea area were 25-40 times the 3.0 pg m -3 North Atlantic background value. These higher levels most likely result from the continued use of DDT in countries bordering these areas. By contrast, DDT use in the United States, Canada and most northern European countries has ceased. The most prevalent chlorinated pesticides over the North Atlantic were chlordane and polychloroterpenes, both of which are still used in the United States.

  18. Diversity and distribution of marine microbial eukaryotes in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, C; Massana, R; Pedrós-Alió, C

    2006-05-01

    We analyzed microbial eukaryote diversity in perennially cold arctic marine waters by using 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Samples were collected during concurrent oceanographic missions to opposite sides of the Arctic Ocean Basin and encompassed five distinct water masses. Two deep water Arctic Ocean sites and the convergence of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas were sampled from 28 August to 2 September 2002. An additional sample was obtained from the Beaufort Sea (Canada) in early October 2002. The ribotypes were diverse, with different communities among sites and between the upper mixed layer and just below the halocline. Eukaryotes from the remote Canada Basin contained new phylotypes belonging to the radiolarian orders Acantharea, Polycystinea, and Taxopodida. A novel group within the photosynthetic stramenopiles was also identified. One sample closest to the interior of the Canada Basin yielded only four major taxa, and all but two of the sequences recovered belonged to the polar diatom Fragilariopsis and a radiolarian. Overall, 42% of the sequences were <98% similar to any sequences in GenBank. Moreover, 15% of these were <95% similar to previously recovered sequences, which is indicative of endemic or undersampled taxa in the North Polar environment. The cold, stable Arctic Ocean is a threatened environment, and climate change could result in significant loss of global microbial biodiversity. PMID:16672445

  19. Comparative geochemistry of four ferromanganese crusts from the Pacific Ocean and significance for the use of Ni isotopes as paleoceanographic tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, Bleuenn; Rouxel, Olivier; Rouget, Marie-Laure; Bollinger, Claire; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Germain, Yoan; Fouquet, Yves

    2016-09-01

    Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts are potential archive of the Ni isotope composition of seawater through time. In this study we aim at (1) understanding Ni isotope fractionation mechanisms and metal enrichment processes in Fe-Mn deposits, (2) addressing global vs. local control of Ni isotope composition of these deposits. Two Fe-Mn crusts from the North Pacific Ocean (Apuupuu Seamount, Hawaii) and two Fe-Mn crusts from the South Pacific Ocean (near Rurutu Island, Austral archipelago of French Polynesia) were characterized for their elemental geochemistry and Ni isotope composition. Geochemical analyses were performed at millimeter intervals in order to provide time-resolved record of Ni isotopes. Chronology and growth rates were determined using cosmogenic 10Be isotope abundances. The results show that, despite different growth rates, textures and geochemical patterns, Fe-Mn crusts from both North and South Pacific Oceans have fairly homogenous Ni isotope compositions over the last ∼17 Ma, yielding average δ60/58Ni values of 1.79 ± 0.21‰ (2sd, n = 31) and 1.73 ± 0.21‰ (2sd, n = 21) respectively. In one crust sample, however, layers directly in contact with the altered substrate show anomalously light δ60/58Ni values down to 0.25 ± 0.05‰ (2se) together with rejuvenated 10Be/9Be ratios correlating with elevated Ni/Mn ratios. Such patterns are best explained by protracted fluid-rock interactions leading to alteration of Mn-phases after crust formation. Isotopically light Ni would be the result of Ni isotope fractionation during adsorption rather than the contribution of external Ni sources (e.g. hydrothermal sources) having light Ni isotope compositions. The combination of our results with previously published data on Fe-Mn crusts indicates that the average Ni isotope composition in deep waters has not changed through the Cenozoic (∼70 Ma). We propose that Ni isotope variations in Fe-Mn crusts may not only record variations of Ni sources to the oceans, but

  20. Lithium isotope as a proxy for water/rock interaction between hydrothermal fluids and oceanic crust at Milos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, U.-Lat; You, Chen-Feng; Wu, Shein-Fu; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung

    2014-05-01

    Hydrothermal activity at Milos in the Aegean island (Greece) is mainly located at rather shallow depth (about 5 m). It is interesting to compare these chemical compositions and the evolution processes of the hydrothermal fluids at deep sea hydrothermal vents in Mid-ocean Ridge (MOR). Lithium (Li) is a highly mobile element and its isotopic composition varies at different geological settings. Therefore, Li and its isotope could be used as an indicator for many geochemical processes. Since 6Li preferential retained in the mineral phase where 7Li is leached into fluid phase during basalt alteration, the Li isotopic fractionation between the rocks and the fluids reflect sensitively the degree of water-rock interaction. In this study, Bio-Rad AG-50W X8 cation exchange resin was used for purifying the hydrothermal fluids to separate Li from other matrix elements. The Li isotopic composition (δ7Li) was determined by Multi-collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) with precision better than 0.2‰ (2σ, n=20). The Li concentration in the hydrothermal fluids falls between 0.02 to 10.31 mM. The δ7Li values vary from +1.9 to +29.7‰, indicating significant seawater contamination have occurred. These hydrothermal fluids fit well with seawater and brine two end-member binary mixing model. During phase separation, lithium, boron, chlorine, iodine, bromine, sodium and potassium were enriched in the brine phase. On the other hand, aluminum, sulphur and iron were enriched in the vapor phase. There is no significant isotope fractionation between the two phases. The water/rock ratio (W/R) calculated is low (about 1.5 to 1.8) for the Milos fluids, restricted seawater recharge into the oceanic crust. Moreover, the oceanic crust in the region becomes less altered since the W/R is low. The δ7Li value of the hydrothermal fluids can be used as a sensitive tool for studying water-rock interaction.

  1. Comment on "Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust".

    PubMed

    Goff, John A

    2015-09-01

    Crowley et al. (Reports, 13 March 2015, p. 1237) propose that abyssal hill topography can be generated by variations in volcanism at mid-ocean ridges modulated by Milankovitch cycle-driven changes in sea level. Published values for abyssal hill characteristic widths versus spreading rate do not generally support this hypothesis. I argue that abyssal hills are primarily fault-generated rather than volcanically generated features.

  2. Thickness of the oceanic crust and the mantle transition zone in the vicinity of the Tristan da Cunha hot spot estimated from ocean-bottom and ocean-island seismometer receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Wolfram; Jokat, Wilfried; Jegen, Marion; Baba, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    According to classical plume theory, the Tristan da Cunha hotspot is thought to have played a major role in the rifting of the South Atlantic margins and the creation of the aseismic Walvis Ridge by impinging at the base of the continental lithosphere shortly before or during the breakup of the South Atlantic margins. However, Tristan da Cunha is enigmatic as it cannot be clearly identified as a hot spot but may also be classified as a more shallow type of anomaly that may actually have been caused by the opening of the South Atlantic. The equivocal character of Tristan da Cunha is largely due to a lack of geophysical and petrological data in this region. We therefore staged a multi-disciplinary geophysical study of the region by acquiring passive marine electromagnetic and seismic data, and bathymetric data within the framework of the SPP1375 South Atlantic Margin Processes and Links with onshore Evolution (SAMPLE) funded by the German Science foundation. The experiment included two ship expeditions onboard the German R/V MARIA S. MERIAN in 2012 and 2013. In our contribution we will present results on the thickness of the oceanic crust in the vicinity of the Tristan da Cunha archipelago derived from ocean-bottom seismometer data. Using the Ps receiver function method we estimate a thickness of 5 to 7 km for the oceanic crust at 17 ocean-bottom stations surrounding the islands in an area where the ocean floor has an age of approximately 10 to 30 Ma (from west to east). This indicates normal to slightly lowered magmatic activity at the mid-ocean ridge during the crust formation. There seems to be no major contribution of a mantle plume to the melting conditions at the ridge, which should cause the formation of thickened oceanic crust. The magmatic activity at the archipelago and surrounding seamounts seems to have only local effects on the crustal thickness. Furthermore, we imaged the mantle transition zone discontinuities analysing receiver functions at the

  3. Banda-Celebes-Sulu basin - a trapped Cretaceous-Eocene oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.; McCabe, R.

    1985-01-01

    The Banda, Celebes and Sulu Basins are three poorly understood marginal seas that are located at the junction of the Eurasian, Indian-Australian, Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. The incomplete data sets from each of these three marginal basins, the complex geological arrangement of the surrounding islands, and the compound late Cenozoic evolutions involving subduction, rifting, transform faulting and island arc collision have complicated any tectonic interpretations of this region. On the bases of marine geophysical data and on-land geology, the authors propose that the Banda, Celebes and Sulu Basins are the remanents of a once-continuous Cretaceous to Eocene ocean basin. Magnetic anomalies from the Banda, Celebes and Sulu Basins show the similar trends of about N70/sup 0/E, N60/sup 0/E and N55/sup 0/E respectively. Their best fit to the reversal models are as follows: (1) anomalies M1-M11 in the Banda Basin, (2) anomalies 30-33 in the Celebes Basin and (3) anomalies 17-20 in the Sulu Basin. The heat flow data from each of these basins is consistent with the relationship of our assigned magnetic ages. The on-land geology of this region is complicated by numerous land masses which dissect this old oceanic basin into the present configuration of marginal seas. The authors argue that each of these land masses arrived at its present location by either late Tertiary tectonic movements or has been built in place upon this older oceanic basement.

  4. Silica-rich lavas in the oceanic crust: experimental evidence for fractional crystallization under low water activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Martin; Koepke, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally investigated phase relations and phase compositions as well as the influence of water activity ( aH2O) and redox conditions on the equilibrium crystallization path within an oceanic dacitic potassium-depleted system at shallow pressure (200 MPa). Moreover, we measured the partitioning of trace elements between melt and plagioclase via secondary ion mass spectrometry for a highly evolved experiment (SiO2 = 74.6 wt%). As starting material, we used a dacitic glass dredged at the Pacific-Antarctic Rise. Phase assemblages in natural high-silica systems reported from different locations of fast-spreading oceanic crust could be experimentally reproduced only in a relatively small range of temperature and melt-water content ( T ~950 °C; melt H2O < 1.5 wt%) at redox conditions slightly below the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer. The relatively low water content is remarkable, because distinct hydrothermal influence is generally regarded as key for producing silica-rich rocks in an oceanic environment. However, our conclusion is also supported by mineral and melt chemistry of natural evolved rocks; these rocks are only congruent to the composition of those experimental phases that are produced under low aH2O. Low FeO contents under water-saturated conditions and the characteristic enrichment of Al2O3 in high aH2O experiments, in particular, contradict natural observations, while experiments with low aH2O match the natural trend. Moreover, the observation that highly evolved experimental melts remain H2O-poor while they are relatively enriched in chlorine implies a decoupling between these two volatiles during crustal contamination.

  5. How Recycling of Sediments and Oceanic Crust Have Changed the Nd-Hf Isotopic Composition of the Mantle through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcon, M.; Carlson, R.; Shirey, S. B.; Chauvel, C.; Arndt, N. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of modern mantle-derived rocks such as mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB), define a linear trend known as Nd-Hf mantle array. This array is thought to reflect mixing between mantle from which crust has previously been extracted and enriched recycled oceanic crustal components of variable ages - including sediments with radiogenic Hf isotopic compositions (Chauvel et al., Nature Geoscience, 2008). Thus the present-day mantle as sampled by MORB and OIB is pervasively contaminated by recycled material. We here develop a model to quantify how the continuous incorporation of recycled material changed the Nd-Hf isotopic composition of the mantle through time. The Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of Archean sediments were decoupled - high ɛHf for a given ɛNd - due to the contribution of radiogenic Hf from cherts. From these observations, the possible compositions for recycled material currently into the mantle can be estimated. Assuming that modern MORB and OIB contain ~3-5% and ~10-15% recycled material, respectively; we calculate that a mantle reservoir free of recycled material would be significantly more radiogenic than the most extreme MORB and would lie well below the Nd-Hf mantle array. Such a Nd-Hf isotopic composition is not sampled by modern mantle-derived rocks. Crustal rocks formed at ~3.8 Gyr (compilation of granites and TTG), however, have low ɛHf for a given ɛNd, consistent with our estimated composition for the mantle without recycled material. We thus suggest that Eoarchean mantle-derived rocks sampled depleted mantle that was not yet contaminated by recycled material and that the slope of the Nd-Hf mantle array changed through time due to continuous recycling of sedimentary material in subduction zones.

  6. Hess Deep Interactive Lab: Exploring the Structure and Formation of the Oceanic Crust through Hands-On Models and Online Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, N.; Marks, N.; Cooper, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific ocean drilling through the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) has contributed extensively to our knowledge of Earth systems science. However, many of its methods and discoveries can seem abstract and complicated for students. Collaborations between scientists and educators/artists to create accurate yet engaging demonstrations and activities have been crucial to increasing understanding and stimulating interest in fascinating geological topics. One such collaboration, which came out of Expedition 345 to the Hess Deep Rift, resulted in an interactive lab to explore sampling rocks from the usually inacessible lower oceanic crust, offering an insight into the geological processes that form the structure of the Earth's crust. This Hess Deep Interactive Lab aims to explain several significant discoveries made by oceanic drilling utilizing images of actual thin sections and core samples recovered from IODP expeditions. . Participants can interact with a physical model to learn about the coring and drilling processes, and gain an understanding of seafloor structures. The collaboration of this lab developed as a need to explain fundamental notions of the ocean crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. A complementary interactive online lab can be accessed at www.joidesresolution.org for students to engage further with these concepts. This project explores the relationship between physical and on-line models to further understanding, including what we can learn from the pros and cons of each.

  7. Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2013-01-01

    New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Nevertheless, crystallization of a global-scale magma ocean remains the best model to account for known lunar lithologies. Crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO) is modeled to proceed by two end-member processes - fractional crystallization from (mostly) the bottom up, or initial equilibrium crystallization as the magma is vigorously convecting and crystals remain entrained, followed by crystal settling and a final period of fractional crystallization [1]. Physical models of magma viscosity and convection at this scale suggest that both processes are possible. We have been carrying out high-fidelity experimental simulations of LMO crystallization using two bulk compositions that can be regarded as end-members in the likely relevant range: Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [2] and Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [3]. TWM is enriched in refractory elements by 1.5 times relative to Earth, whereas LPUM is similar to the terrestrial primitive upper mantle, with adjustments made for the depletion of volatile alkalis observed on the Moon. Here we extend our earlier equilibrium-crystallization experiments [4] with runs simulating full fractional crystallization

  8. Magmatic processes that generate chemically distinct silicic magmas in NW Costa Rica and the evolution of juvenile continental crust in oceanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, T. A.; Deering, C. D.; Patino, L. C.; Alvarado, G. E.; Szymanski, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Northwestern Costa Rica is built upon an oceanic plateau that has developed chemical and geophysical characteristics of the upper continental crust. A major factor in converting the oceanic plateau to continental crust is the production, evolution and emplacement of silicic magmas. In Costa Rica, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) forms the overriding plate in the subduction of the Cocos Plate - a process that has occurred for at least the last 25 my. Igneous rocks in Costa Rica older than about 10 Ma have chemical compositions typical of oceanic basalts and intra-oceanic arcs. In contrast, younger igneous deposits (<10 Ma) contain abundant silicic rocks with geochemical signatures similar to the average continental crust, which are significantly enriched in SiO2, alkalis and light rare-earth elements. The silicic deposits of NW Costa Rica occur in two major compositional groups: a high-Ti and a low-Ti group with no overlap between the two. The major and trace element characteristics of these groups are consistent with these magmas being derived from liquids that were extracted from crystal mushes. In relative terms, the high-Ti silicic liquids were extracted from a hot, dry crystal mush with low-oxygen fugacity where plagioclase and pyroxene were the dominant phases crystallizing, along with lesser amounts of hornblende. In contrast, the low-Ti silicic liquids were extracted from a cool, wet crystal mush with high oxygen fugacity where plagioclase and amphibole were the dominant phases crystallizing. The hot-dry-reducing magmas dominate the older sequence, but the youngest sequence contains only magmas from the cold-wet-oxidized group. Silicic volcanic deposits from other oceanic arcs (e.g. Izu-Bonin, Marianas) have chemical characteristics distinctly different from continental crust, whereas the NW Costa Rican silicic deposits have chemical characteristics nearly identical to the upper continental crust. The transition in NW Costa Rica from mafic oceanic

  9. Magmatic processes that generate chemically distinct silicic magmas in NW Costa Rica and the evolution of juvenile continental crust in oceanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deering, Chad D.; Vogel, Thomas A.; Patino, Lina C.; Szymanski, David W.; Alvarado, Guillermo E.

    2012-02-01

    Northwestern Costa Rica is built upon an oceanic plateau that has developed chemical and geophysical characteristics of the upper continental crust. A major factor in converting the oceanic plateau to continental crust is the production, evolution, and emplacement of silicic magmas. In Costa Rica, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) forms the overriding plate in the subduction of the Cocos Plate—a process that has occurred for at least the last 25 my. Igneous rocks in Costa Rica older than about 8 Ma have chemical compositions typical of ocean island basalts and intra-oceanic arcs. In contrast, younger igneous deposits contain abundant silicic rocks, which are significantly enriched in SiO2, alkalis, and light rare-earth elements and are geochemically similar to the average upper continental crust. Geophysical evidence (high Vp seismic velocities) also indicates a relatively thick (~40 km), addition of evolved igneous rocks to the CLIP. The silicic deposits of NW Costa Rica occur in two major compositional groups: a high-Ti and a low-Ti group with no overlap between the two. The major and trace element characteristics of these groups are consistent with these magmas being derived from liquids that were extracted from crystal mushes—either produced by crystallization or by partial melting of plutons near their solidi. In relative terms, the high-Ti silicic liquids were extracted from a hot, dry crystal mush with low oxygen fugacity, where plagioclase and pyroxene were the dominant phases crystallizing, along with lesser amounts of hornblende. In contrast, the low-Ti silicic liquids were extracted from a cool, wet crystal mush with high oxygen fugacity, where plagioclase and amphibole were the dominant phases crystallizing. The hot-dry-reducing magmas dominate the older sequence, but the youngest sequence contains only magmas from the cold-wet-oxidized group. Silicic volcanic deposits from other oceanic arcs (e.g., Izu-Bonin, Marianas) have chemical

  10. Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope, northeast Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.

    1989-01-01

    Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope include canyons, primary fan valleys, deep-sea valleys, and remnant valley segments. Long-range sidescan sonographs and associated seismic-reflection profiles indicate that the canyons may originate along a mid-slope escarpment and grow upslope by mass wasting and downslope by valley erosion or aggradation. Most canyons are partly filled with sediment, and Quillayute Canyon is almost completely filled. Under normal growth conditions, the larger canyons connect with primary fan valleys or deep-sea valleys in Cascadia Basin, but development of accretionary ridges blocks or re-routes most canyons, forcing abandonment of the associated valleys in the basin. Astoria Fan has a primary fan valley that connects with Astoria Canyon at the fan apex. The fan valley is bordered by parallel levees on the upper fan but becomes obscure on the lower fan, where a few valley segments appear on the sonographs. Apparently, Nitinat Fan does not presently have a primary fan valley; none of the numerous valleys on the fan connect with a canyon. The Willapa-Cascadia-Vancouver-Juan de Fuca deep-sea valley system bypasses the submarine fans and includes deeply incised valleys to broad shallow swales, as well as within-valley terraces and hanging-valley confluences. ?? 1989.

  11. Alteration of the upper oceanic crust, DSDP site 417: mineralogy and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, Jeffrey C.; Honnorez, Jose

    1984-09-01

    Basalts from DSDP Site 417 (109 Ma) exhibit the effects of several stages of alteration reflecting the evolution of seawater-derived solution compositions and control by the structure and permeability of the crust. Characteristic secondary mineral assemblages occur in often superimposed alteration zones within individual basalt fragments. By combining bulk rock and single phase chemical analyses with detailed mineralogic and petrographic studies, chemical changes have been determined for most of the alteration stages identified in the basalts. 1) Minor amounts of saponite, chlorite, and pyrite formed locally in coarse grained portions of massive units, possibly at high temperatures during initial cooling of the basalts. No chemical changes could be determined for this stage. 2) Possible mixing of cooled hydrothermal fluids with seawater resulted in the formation of celadonite-nontronite and Fe-hydroxide-rich black halos around cracks and pillow rims. Gains of K, Rb, H2O, increase of Fe3+/FeT, and possibly some losses of Ca and Mg occurred during this stage. 3a) Extensive circulation of oxygenated seawater resulted in the formation of various smectites, K-feldspar, and Fe-hydroxides in brown and light grey alteration zones around formerly exposed surfaces. K, Rb, H2O, and occasionally P were added to the rocks, Fe3+/FeT increased, and Ca, Mg, Si and occasionally Al and Na were lost. 3b) Anoxic alteration occurred during reaction of basalt with seawater at low water-rock ratios, or with seawater that had previously reacted with basalt. Saponite-rich dark grey alteration zones formed which exhibit very little chemical change: generally only slight increases in Fe3+/FeT and H2O occurred. 4) Zeolites and calcite formed from seawater-derived fluids modified by previous reactions with basalt. Chemical changes involved increases of Ca, Na, H2O, and CO2 in the rocks. 5) A late stage of anoxic conditions resulted in the formation of minor amounts of Mn-calcites and secondary

  12. Experimental Simulations of Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: The Plot (But Not the Crust) Thickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, D. S.; Rapp, J. F.; Elardo, S. M.; Shearer, C. K., Jr.; Neal, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical models of differentiation of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) have raised as many questions as they have answered. Recent orbital missions and sample studies have provided new context for a large range of lithologies, from the comparatively magnesian "purest anorthosite" reported by to Si-rich domes and spinel-rich clasts with widespread areal distributions. In addition, the GRAIL mission provided strong constraints on lunar crustal density and average thickness. Can this increasingly complex geology be accounted for via the formation and evolution of the LMO? We have in recent years been conducting extensive sets of petrologic experiments designed to fully simulate LMO crystallization, which had not been attempted previously. Here we review the key results from these experiments, which show that LMO differentiation is more complex than initial models suggested. Several important features expected from LMO crystallization models have yet to be reproduced experimentally; combined modelling and experimental work by our group is ongoing.

  13. Uranium isotopic compositions of the crust and ocean: Age corrections, U budget and global extent of modern anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    The 238U/235U isotopic composition of uranium in seawater can provide important insights into the modern U budget of the oceans. Using the double spike technique and a new data reduction method, we analyzed an array of seawater samples and 41 geostandards covering a broad range of geological settings relevant to low and high temperature geochemistry. Analyses of 18 seawater samples from geographically diverse sites from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, and English Channel, together with literature data (n = 17), yield a δ238U value for modern seawater of -0.392 ± 0.005‰ relative to CRM-112a. Measurements of the uranium isotopic compositions of river water, lake water, evaporites, modern coral, shales, and various igneous rocks (n = 64), together with compilations of literature data (n = 380), allow us to estimate the uranium isotopic compositions of the various reservoirs involved in the modern oceanic uranium budget, as well as the fractionation factors associated with U incorporation into those reservoirs. Because the incorporation of U into anoxic/euxinic sediments is accompanied by large isotopic fractionation (ΔAnoxic/Euxinic-SW = +0.6‰), the size of the anoxic/euxinic sink strongly influences the δ238U value of seawater. Keeping all other fluxes constant, the flux of uranium in the anoxic/euxinic sink is constrained to be 7.0 ± 3.1 Mmol/yr (or 14 ± 3% of the total flux out of the ocean). This translates into an areal extent of anoxia into the modern ocean of 0.21 ± 0.09% of the total seafloor. This agrees with independent estimates and rules out a recent uranium budget estimate by Henderson and Anderson (2003). Using the mass fractions and isotopic compositions of various rock types in Earth's crust, we further calculate an average δ238U isotopic composition for the continental crust of -0.29 ± 0.03‰ corresponding to a 238U/235U isotopic ratio of 137.797 ± 0.005. We discuss the implications of

  14. Exsolution kinetics of majoritic garnet from clinopyroxene in subducting oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Masayuki; Kubo, Tomoaki; Kato, Takumi; Tominaga, Aiko; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Higo, Yuji

    2011-11-01

    Mechanisms and kinetics of exsolution of majoritic garnet from Ca-Tschermak-rich clinopyroxene were examined at 14.0-15.6 GPa, 1250-1590 °C, and H 2O-undersaturated conditions (800-1170 wt. ppm H 2O) by time-resolved in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. Textural observations of recovered samples revealed that majoritic garnet had exsolved along the grain boundaries of parent clinopyroxene. Analyses of the kinetic data obtained indicate that exsolved majoritic garnet grew by diffusion-controlled growth, and the growth kinetics can be described by k2 (m 2/s) = 7.4 × 10 -5 exp[-389(kJ mol -1)/ RT]. The exsolution of majoritic garnet from clinopyroxene would be kinetically inhibited at temperatures below ˜800 °C in geological time scales (10 5-10 6 years) when the parent grain size is larger than 1 mm. We constructed possible phase relations of subducting mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) taking the exsolution kinetics into consideration. When the effect of reaction kinetics is considered, the density contrast between the MORB component of a subducting slab and surrounding mantle becomes significantly reduced relative to that calculated for the equilibrium MORB assemblage.

  15. The Dras arc: two successive volcanic events on eroded oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuber, Ingrid

    1989-04-01

    The Dras arc is recognized as a volcanic arc system in the western part of the Indus suture zone and it constitutes the link between the Ladakh batholith and the Kohistan arc. This study is based on detailed mapping of the area between Dras, Kargil and Sanku which revealed the following: (1) The ultramafics of Dras and Thasgam can be followed across the Suru Dras ridge and are not intrusive into the arc volcanics, but instead constitute the most probably oceanic substratum of these volcanics. (2) Successive volcanic events are distinguished: (a) Dras I is a variable volcaniclastic series rich in slates and carbonates, which can probably be assigned to the Albo-Cenomanian, as dated by orbitolines. This series is intruded by gabbro, diorite and granite and is deformed, essentially in the northern part. It is unconformably overlain by (b) the Dras II pyroclastics which grade southward into volcanic breccia and thus enable the location of the centres of volcanic activity during this younger period.

  16. Sulu-Celebes-Banda basins: a trapped piece of Cretaceous to Eocene oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, R.J.; Hilde, T.W.; Cole, J.T.; Sager, W.; Lee, C.S.

    1986-07-01

    The Sulu-Celebes-Banda basin is composed of three poorly understood marginal basins located between northwest Australia and southeast Asia. Recent studies have proposed that these three basins are remnants of once-continuous ocean basin. The on-land geology of this region is complicated. However, numerous stratigraphic and paleomagnetic studies on pre-Oligocene rocks are consistent with the interpretation that older landmasses presently dissecting the basin were translated into their present position during the middle to late Tertiary. Paleomagnetic data from the Philippines suggest that the Philippine arc is a composite of Early Cretaceous to Holocene arcs that were translated clockwise and from the southeast. Paleomagnetic and stratigraphic data from Kalimantan and Sulawesi suggest that these landmasses share a common origin and that Sulawesi was rifted eastward off of Borneo during the late Tertiary. Stratigraphic studies from the Sula microcontinent, Buru, Ceram, and Timor show close correlation to the stratigraphy of northwest Australia or New Guinea. In addition, paleomagnetic studies from Timor suggest that a portion of the island was part of Australia since the early Mesozoic.

  17. Magnetic properties of the Bay of Islands ophiolite suite and implications for the magnetization of oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, B. Ann; Johnson, H. Paul

    1984-01-01

    Rock magnetic properties, opaque mineralogy, and degree of metamorphism were determined for 101 unoriented samples from the North Arm and Blow-Me-Down massifs of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex, Newfoundland. The weathered and metamorphosed extrusive basalt samples have a weak, secondary magnetization arising from oxidation and exsolution of ilmenite of unknown origin. The initial magnetization of the underlying sheeted dike complex appears to have been destroyed by hydrothermal alteration soon after formation. The magnetic intensity of the gabbroic samples increases as the degree of alteration increases, with the highly altered upper metagabbros having an average intensity of 3×10−3 emu/c3. Because magnetization of the metagabbro samples is related to nonpervasive, variable alteration, these crustal units are unlikely to make a significant contribution to lineated magnetic anomalies. A compilation of our results and other studies suggests a model in which oceanic crust magnetization results from an upper extrusive basalt source layer, roughly 600 m thick, with no contribution from a deeper source layer recognizable from these Bay of Islands data.

  18. Reactive flow as dominant evolution process in the lowermost oceanic crust: evidence from olivine of the Pineto ophiolite (Corsica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfilippo, Alessio; Tribuzio, Riccardo; Tiepolo, Massimo; Berno, Davide

    2015-10-01

    The Jurassic Pineto ophiolite from Corsica exposes a ~1-km-thick troctolite-olivine-gabbro sequence, interpreted to represent a lowermost sector of the gabbroic oceanic crust from a (ultra-)slow spreading system. To constrain the petrogenesis of the olivine-gabbros, minor and trace element analyses of olivine (forsterite = 84-82 mol%) were carried out. Olivine from the olivine-gabbros is depleted in incompatible trace elements (Sc, V, Ti, Y, Zr and heavy rare earth elements) with respect to olivines from associated troctolites. Depleted incompatible element compositions are also shown by olivine (forsterite = 86 mol%) from a clinopyroxene-rich troctolite. The incompatible element compositions of olivine argue against a petrogenetic process entirely driven by fractional crystallization. We propose that melts migrating through an olivine-plagioclase crystal mush chemically evolved by reaction with the existing minerals, changing in composition as it flowed upward. The melt residual from these interactions led to partial dissolution of preexisting olivine and to crystallization of clinopyroxene, generating olivine-gabbro bodies within a troctolite matrix. Reactive flow was the major evolution process active in the ~1-km crustal transect exposed at the Pineto ophiolite, producing lithological variations classically attributed to fractional crystallization processes.

  19. Constraints on the magmatic evolution of the oceanic crust from plagiogranite intrusions in the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Karsten M.; Freund, Sarah; Beier, Christoph; Koepke, Jürgen; Erdmann, Martin; Hauff, Folkmar

    2016-05-01

    We present major and trace element as well as Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope data on a suite of 87 plutonic rock samples from 27 felsic crustal intrusions in seven blocks of the Oman ophiolite. The rock compositions of the sample suite including associated more mafic rocks range from 48 to 79 wt% SiO2, i.e. from gabbros to tonalites. The samples are grouped into a Ti-rich and relatively light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched P1 group [(Ce/Yb) N > 0.7] resembling the early V1 lavas, and a Ti-poor and LREE-depleted P2 group [(Ce/Yb) N < 0.7] resembling the late-stage V2 lavas. Based on the geochemical differences and in agreement with previous structural and petrographic models, we define phase 1 (P1) and phase 2 (P2) plutonic rocks. Felsic magmas in both groups formed by extensive fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, apatite, and Ti-magnetite from mafic melts. The incompatible element compositions of P1 rocks overlap with those from mid-ocean ridges but have higher Ba/Nb and Th/Nb trending towards the P2 rock compositions and indicating an influence of a subducting slab. The P2 rocks formed from a more depleted mantle source but show a more pronounced slab signature. These rocks also occur in the southern blocks (with the exception of the Tayin block) of the Oman ophiolite implying that the entire ophiolite formed above a subducting slab. Initial Nd and Hf isotope compositions suggest an Indian-MORB-type mantle source for the Oman ophiolite magmas. Isotope compositions and high Th/Nb in some P2 rocks indicate mixing of a melt from subducted sediment into this mantle.

  20. Subduction-modified oceanic crust in the sources of continental picrite dikes from the Karoo LIP?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, J. S.; Carlson, R. W.; Riley, T. R.; Luttinen, A. V.; Horan, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    . Pyroxenite sources also are consistent with mineral chemical data (e.g., high-Ni olivine) for the picrite dikes. Such peculiar sources were likely not a predominant component in Karoo magmatism in general. Nevertheless, less subduction-modified or more enriched (e.g., additional sediment component) recycled crustal signatures would be difficult to distinguish from the 'lithospheric signatures' of many common CFBs. In addition to depleted mantle or EDR components that have been identified in the high-Mg dikes of the adjacent Vestfjella mountain range, a variety of recycled source components could thus be hiding in the geochemical jungle of the Karoo (and other) CFBs.

  1. New Perspectives from Satellite and Profile Observations on Tropospheric Ozone over Africa and the Adjacent Oceans: An Indian-Atlantic Ocean Link to tbe "Ozone Paradox"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Diab, Roseanne D.; Thouret, Valerie; Sauvage, Bastien; Chatfield, B.; Guan, Hong

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, tropospheric ozone observations of Africa and its adjacent ocenas have been greatly enhanced by high resolution (spatial and temporal) satellite measurements and profile data from aircraft (MOZAIC) and balloon-borne (SHADOZ) soundings. These views have demonstrated for the first time the complexity of chemical-dynamical interactions over the African continent and the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The tropical Atlantic "ozone paradax" refers to the observation that during the season of maximum biomass burning in west Africa north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the highest tropospheric ozone total column occurs south of the ITCZ over the tropical Atlantic. The longitudinal view of tropospheric ozone in the southern tropics from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) soundings shown the persistence of a "zonal-wave one" pattern that reinforces the "ozone paradox". These ozone features interact with dynamics over southern and northern Africa where anthropogenic sources include the industrial regions of the South African Highveld and Mideastern-Mediterranean influences, respectively. Our newest studies with satellites and soundings show that up to half the ozone pollution over the Atlantic in the January-March "paradox" period may originate from south Asian pollution. Individual patches of pollurion over the Indian Ocean are transported upward by convective mixing and are enriched by pyrogenic, biogenic sources and lightning as they cross Africa and descend over the Atlantic. In summary, local sources, intercontinental import and export and unique regional transport patterns put Africa at a crossroads of troposheric ozone influences.

  2. Fluid flow pathways through the oceanic crust: reaction permeability and isotopic tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, Andrew; Castelain, Teddy; Klein, Frieder

    2013-04-01

    It is generally assumed that the dominant means of creating permeability in ocean floor hydrothermal systems is fracturing, induced either by cooling or by tectonic stress. Here we show textural evidence that metamorphic reactions can create a hierarchy of permeable pathways through gabbroic rocks similar to a fracture hierarchy. Isotopic microsampling shows that just as with fractures, most flow occurs through the larger channelways, and that even at the microscale, flow can be extremely heterogeneous with alteration affecting only certain minerals in the framework, leaving others untouched. Reaction permeability is created in three ways; dissolution creating open porosity, microcracking due to volume increase reactions involving olivine, and expansion of water due to rapid heating in dyke margins, particularly when intruded into brecciated rocks. Our data comes from IODP Hole U1309D, which was drilled to 1400 mbsf in the footwall of the Atlantis Massif detachment fault at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N. The core is composed of gabbroic rocks interlayered with olivine rich troctolites, with several basalt/diabase sills in the top 130 m. The dominant alteration occurred in the greenschist facies, at depths at least 1 km below seafloor, and decreases in intensity downhole. Whole rock oxygen isotope values range from +5.5 permil to +1.5 permil, indicating variable degrees of interaction with seawater at temperatures generally > 250 °C. Gabbroic rocks and diabases exhibit a range of Sr isotope ratios from MORB values (0.70261) to intermediate ratios (0.70429). Microsampling shows that amphiboles are often more radiogenic than coexisting plagioclase and can sometimes be isotopically altered in the same rock as completely unaltered primary minerals. Large (10 cm) amphibole-filled vugs show values ranging up to 0.708, close to seawater. In some cases however the secondary minerals are virtually unaltered indicating low fluid fluxes in pervasive alteration. SEM textures in

  3. A modern analog for carbonate source-to-sink sedimentary systems: the Glorieuses archipelago and adjacent basin (SW Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorry, S.; Jouet, G.; Prat, S.; Courgeon, S.; Le Roy, P.; Camoin, G.; Caline, B.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the geomorphological and sedimentological analysis of a modern carbonate source-to-sink system located north of Madagascar (SW Indian Ocean). The sedimentary system is composed of an isolated carbonate platform sited on top of a seamount rising steeply from the seabed located at 3000 m water depth. The slope of the seamount is incised by canyons, and meandering channels occur above lobbed sedimentary bodies at the foot of the slope. The dataset consists of dredges, sediment piston cores, swath bathymetry and seismic (sparker and 2D high-resolution) lines collected from inner platform (less than 5 m deep) to the adjacent deep sedimentary basin. Particle size analysis and composition of carbonate grains are used to characterize the distribution and heterogeneity of sands accumulated on the archipelago. Main results show that composition of carbonate sediments is dominated by segments of Halimeda, large benthic foraminifera, coral debris, molluscs, echinoderms, bryozoans and sponges. According to the shape and the position of sandwaves and intertidal sandbars developed in the back-barrier reef, the present organization of these well-sorted fine-sand accumulations appears to be strongly influenced by flood tidal currents. Seismic lines acquired from semi-enclosed to open lagoon demonstrate that most of the sediment is exported and accumulated along the leeward margin of the platform, which is connected to a canyon network incising the outer slope. Following the concept of highstand shedding of carbonate platforms (Schlager et al., 1994), excess sediment is exported by plumes and gravity flows to the adjacent deep sea where it feeds a carbonate deep-sea fan. Combined observations from platform to basin allow to explain how the Glorieuses carbonate source to sink system has evolved under the influence of climate and of relative sea-level changes since the last interglacial.

  4. Evidence for Thin Oceanic Crust on the Extinct Aegir Ridge, Norwegian Basin, N.E. Atlantic Derived from Satellite Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, E. E.; Kusznir, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    Satellite gravity inversion incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity correction has been used to map crustal thickness and lithosphere thinning factor for the N.E. Atlantic. The inversion of gravity data to determine crustal thickness incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction for both oceanic and continental margin lithosphere. Predicted crustal thicknesses in the Norwegian Basin are between 7 and 4 km on the extinct Aegir oceanic ridge which ceased sea-floor spreading in the Oligocene. Crustal thickness estimates do not include a correction for sediment thickness and are upper bounds. Crustal thicknesses determined by gravity inversion for the Aegir Ridge are consistent with recent estimates derived using refraction seismology by Breivik et al. (2006). Failure to incorporate a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction produces an over-estimate of crustal thickness. Oceanic crustal thicknesses within the Norwegian Basin are predicted by the gravity inversion to increase to 9-10 km eastwards towards the Norwegian (Moere) and westwards towards the Jan Mayen micro-continent, consistent with volcanic margin continental breakup at the end of the Palaeocene. The observation (from gravity inversion and seismic refraction studies) of thin oceanic crust produced by the Aegir ocean ridge in the Oligocene has implications for the temporal evolution of asthenosphere temperature under the N.E. Atlantic during the Tertiary. Thin Oligocene oceanic crust may imply cool (normal) asthenosphere temperatures during the Oligocene in contrast to elevated asthenosphere temperatures in the Palaeocene and Miocene-Recent as indicated by volcanic margin formation and the formation of Iceland respectively. Gravity inversion also predicts a region of thin oceanic crust to the west of the northern part of the Jan Mayen micro-continent and to the east of the thicker oceanic crust currently being formed at the Kolbeinsey Ridge. Thicker crust (c.f. ocean basins) is

  5. First findings of Paleo- and Mesoarchean zircons in the rocks from the Central Arctic province of oceanic rises as an evidence of the ancient continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, S. A.; Presnyakov, S. L.; Antonov, A. V.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Rodionov, N. V.; Shevchenko, S. S.

    2015-07-01

    This report presents the results of local U-Pb zircon dating (SIMS SHRIMP II) for a sample of migmatite gneiss dredged on the western slope of Alpha Ridge in the Arctic Ocean in the course of the "Arktika-2012" Russian polar expedition. The distribution of U-Pb ages of the examined zircon points to the Early Precambrian origin of this gneiss, for the bulk of the zircon was crystallized at least 3450 Ma ago from a magmatic melt under acidic volcanism at the primary crust formation. Zircon of the second generation was crystallized 3300 Ma ago under the remelting of acid volcanics and appearance of migmatite gneisses under the amphibolite facies of metamorphism. Most likely, a partial recrystallization of zircon and formation of microfolded structures and foliation took place 3000 Ma ago at the stage of rocks deformation. The latest zircon was formed 1900 Ma ago from the crust fluid or melt under the low-gradient metamorphism. In view of the possibility of the appearance of the treated clastogenic gneiss fragment under current oceanic erosion, the obtained results allow one to affirm that the occurrence of a fragment of the most ancient sialic continental crust formed at least 3450 Ma ago is possible at the submarine rises of the Arctic Ocean (Alpha Ridge and the Mendeleev Rise).

  6. The curious case of Hermodice carunculata (Annelida: Amphinomidae): evidence for genetic homogeneity throughout the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent basins.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Joseph B; Borda, Elizabeth; Barroso, Rômulo; Paiva, Paulo C; Campbell, Alexandra M; Wolf, Alexander; Nugues, Maggy M; Rouse, Greg W; Schulze, Anja

    2013-04-01

    Over the last few decades, advances in molecular techniques have led to the detection of strong geographic population structure and cryptic speciation in many benthic marine taxa, even those with long-lived pelagic larval stages. Polychaete annelids, in particular, generally show a high degree of population divergence, especially in mitochondrial genes. Rarely have molecular studies confirmed the presence of 'cosmopolitan' species. The amphinomid polychaete Hermodice carunculata was long considered the sole species within its genus, with a reported distribution throughout the Atlantic and adjacent basins. However, recent studies have indicated morphological differences, primarily in the number of branchial filaments, between the East and West Atlantic populations; these differences were invoked to re-instate Hermodice nigrolineata, formerly considered a junior synonym of H. carunculata. We utilized sequence data from two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 16S rDNA) markers and one nuclear (internal transcribed spacer) marker to examine the genetic diversity of Hermodice throughout its distribution range in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of Guinea. Our analyses revealed generally low genetic divergences among collecting localities and between the East and West Atlantic, although phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial data indicate the presence of a private lineage in the Mediterranean Sea. A re-evaluation of the number of branchial filaments confirmed differences between East and West Atlantic populations; however, the differences were not diagnostic and did not reflect the observed genetic population structure. Rather, we suspect that the number of branchial filaments is a function of oxygen saturation in the environment. Our results do not support the distinction between H. carunculata in the West Atlantic and H. nigrolineata in the East Atlantic. Instead, they re-affirm the

  7. The curious case of Hermodice carunculata (Annelida: Amphinomidae): evidence for genetic homogeneity throughout the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent basins.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Joseph B; Borda, Elizabeth; Barroso, Rômulo; Paiva, Paulo C; Campbell, Alexandra M; Wolf, Alexander; Nugues, Maggy M; Rouse, Greg W; Schulze, Anja

    2013-04-01

    Over the last few decades, advances in molecular techniques have led to the detection of strong geographic population structure and cryptic speciation in many benthic marine taxa, even those with long-lived pelagic larval stages. Polychaete annelids, in particular, generally show a high degree of population divergence, especially in mitochondrial genes. Rarely have molecular studies confirmed the presence of 'cosmopolitan' species. The amphinomid polychaete Hermodice carunculata was long considered the sole species within its genus, with a reported distribution throughout the Atlantic and adjacent basins. However, recent studies have indicated morphological differences, primarily in the number of branchial filaments, between the East and West Atlantic populations; these differences were invoked to re-instate Hermodice nigrolineata, formerly considered a junior synonym of H. carunculata. We utilized sequence data from two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 16S rDNA) markers and one nuclear (internal transcribed spacer) marker to examine the genetic diversity of Hermodice throughout its distribution range in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of Guinea. Our analyses revealed generally low genetic divergences among collecting localities and between the East and West Atlantic, although phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial data indicate the presence of a private lineage in the Mediterranean Sea. A re-evaluation of the number of branchial filaments confirmed differences between East and West Atlantic populations; however, the differences were not diagnostic and did not reflect the observed genetic population structure. Rather, we suspect that the number of branchial filaments is a function of oxygen saturation in the environment. Our results do not support the distinction between H. carunculata in the West Atlantic and H. nigrolineata in the East Atlantic. Instead, they re-affirm the

  8. The North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) cart site begins operation: Collaboration with SHEBA and FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, D. B.; Church, H.; Ivey, M.; Yellowhorse, L.; Zirzow, J.; Widener, K. B.; Rhodes, P.; Turney, C.; Koontz, A.; Stamnes, K.; Storvold, R.; Eide, H. A.; Utley, P.; Eagan, R.; Cook, D.; Hart, D.; Wesely, M.

    2000-04-04

    Since the 1997 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has come into being. Much has happened even since the 1998 Science Team Meeting at which this paper was presented. To maximize its usefulness, this paper has been updated to include developments through July 1998.

  9. Unstable fault slip induced by lawsonite dehydration in blueschist: Implication for the seismicity in the subducting oceanic crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, K.; Hirth, G.

    2015-12-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes in cold subduction zones are observed within the subducting oceanic crust, as well as the subducting mantle In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes in hot subduction zones predominantly occur just below the Moho. These observations have stimulated interest in potential relationships between blueschist-facies metamorphism and seismicity, particularly through the dehydration reactions involving lawsonite. The rheology of these high-pressure and low-temperature metamorphic minerals is largely unknown. We conducted experiments on lawsonite accompanied by monitoring of acoustic emission (AE) in a Griggs-type deformation apparatus. Deformation was started at the confining pressure of 1.0 GPa, the temperature of 300 ˚C, and constant displacement rates of 0.16 to 0.016 μm/s, that correspond to equivalent strain rates (ɛ) of 9 × 10-5 to 9 × 10-6 1/s. In these experiments, temperature was increased at the temperature ramp rate of 0.5 to 0.05˚C/s above the thermal stability of lawsonite (600˚C) while the sample was deforming to test whether the dehydration reaction induces unstable fault slip. In contrast to similar tests on antigorite, unstable fault slip (i.e., stick-slip) occurred during dehydration reactions in the lawsonite gouge layer, and AE signals were continuously observed. Microstructural observations indicate that strain is highly localized along the fault (R1 and B shear), and the fault surface shows mirror-like slickensides. The unloading slope (i.e., rate of stress drop as a function of slip) during the unstable slip follows the stiffness of the apparatus at all experimental conditions regardless of the strain rate and temperature ramping rate. A thermal-mechanical scaling factor in the experiments covers the range estimated for natural subduction zones, indicating the potential for unstable frictional sliding within natural lawsonite layers to induce seismicity in cold subduction zones.

  10. Effect of subduction components on production of basalts from Tateshina volcano, central Japan: geochemical calculation of dehydration of subducting oceanic crust and partial melting of overlying sediments, and subsequent fluid-mantle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Masayasu; Shuto, Kenji

    Effect of subduction components on production of basalts from Tateshina volcano, central Japan: geochemical calculation of dehydration of subducting oceanic crust and partial melting of overlying sediments, and subsequent fluid-mantle interaction

  11. Mobility of Au and related elements during the hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust: implications for the sources of metals in VMS deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, Clifford G. C.; Pitcairn, Iain K.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Harris, Michelle

    2016-02-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits are commonly enriched in Cu, Zn and Pb and can also be variably enriched in Au, As, Sb, Se and Te. The behaviour of these elements during hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust is not well known. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1256D penetrates a complete in situ section of the upper oceanic crust, providing a unique sample suite to investigate the behaviour of metals during hydrothermal alteration. A representative suite of samples was analysed for Au, As, Sb, Se and Te using low detection limit methods, and a mass balance of metal mobility has been carried out through comparison with a fresh Mid-Oceanic Ridge Basalt (MORB) glass database. The mass balance shows that Au, As, Se, Sb, S, Cu, Zn and Pb are depleted in the sheeted dyke and plutonic complexes by -46 ± 12, -27 ± 5, -2.5 ± 0.5, -27 ± 6, -8.4 ± 0.7, -9.6 ± 1.6, -7.9 ± 0.5 and -44 ± 6 %, respectively. Arsenic and Sb are enriched in the volcanic section due to seawater-derived fluid circulation. Calculations suggest that large quantities of metal are mobilised from the oceanic crust but only a small proportion is eventually trapped as VMS mineralisation. The quantity of Au mobilised and the ratio of Au to base metals are similar to those of mafic VMS, and ten times enrichment of Au would be needed to form a Au-rich VMS. The Cu-rich affinity of mafic VMS deposits could be explained by base metal fractionation both in the upper sheeted dykes and during VMS deposit formation.

  12. Updated maps of Moho topography and the earth crust thickness in the Deep Arctic Ocean based on results of potential field zoning and 3-D gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebovsky, Yury; Astafurova, Ekaterina; Chernykh, Andrey; Egorova, Alena; Kaminsky, Valeriy; Korneva, Mariya; Redko, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Both initial (Glebovsky et al., 2013) and updated maps and digital models (DM) of Moho topography and earth crust thickness in the deep Arctic Ocean were compiled using the same procedure. It included several steps: analysis of potential fields information compiled under CAMPGM and ArcGP projects and updating by new Russian data; separation of the study area into individual geostructures; calculation of gravitational effects from two main boundaries lying above Moho, presented by IBCAO grid, and by grid of basement relief (Kaminsky et al., 2012); subtraction of these effects from observed gravity anomalies, and converting of residual anomalies to depths to Moho using Parker's (1974) algorithm. Averaged depth to Moho required by Parker's algorithm to estimate its relative variations was determined from available deep refraction seismic data. It varies for different regional geological structures (basins, ridges and rises) which boundaries were contoured based on results of potential fields zoning. Modeling process for each structure was iterative and calibrated by seismic data. Results that best fit with seismic sections were merged to compile the grid of depths to Moho. This grid was specified by estimation of gravitational effects related both with increasing of density of sediments with depth and with uplift of asthenosphere beneath the Gakkel Ridge (GR). Grids of total and consolidated crust thickness were computed by sequential subtracting the IBCAO and sediment thickness grids from the final grid of depths to Moho. Updated versions of maps and DM of Moho topography and earth crust thickness are specified by recent Russian multi-channel and DSS seismic data collected in 2011-2012. It is confirmed the significant differences in crustal structure between the Eurasian (EB) and Amerasian Basins (AB). The thickness of the consolidated crust in the EB shows a fairly clear bilateral symmetry with respect to the GR. In the Nansen and Amundsen basins it varies from 3 to

  13. Investigation of the Oceanic Crust and Mantle in the Eastern Mid Atlantic Next to a Major Transform Fault (Gloria Fault) By Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannemann, K.; Krueger, F.; Dahm, T.

    2014-12-01

    Within the project Deep OCean Test ARray (DOCTAR), we want to test how much we can enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of teleseismic and regional events recorded at the ocean bottom by using broad band array methods. Furthermore, we want to learn more about the structure of the oceanic crust and mantle 100 km North of the Gloria Fault (major transform fault at the plate boundary between Eurasian and African plate in the Atlantic ocean). For the latter, we employ receiver functions and apparent P-wave incidence angles. We deployed 12 ocean bottom stations (OBS) as a mid aperture array (75 km) in the deep Eastern Mid Atlantic (4-6 km) in 2011. Each free fall station consists of a broad band seismometer and a hydrophone. After 10 month of recording, the stations were recovered. We use P phase and Rayleigh phase polarization to estimate the orientation of the stations. Different data quality and site effects at the stations need a careful review of the processing parameters (filter, deconvolution length) used for the calculation of the receiver functions. We defined different criteria as relative spike position within the deconvolution time window, and energy ratios of several time windows of the deconvolved traces to assess an evaluation of the receiver function quality in dependence on the used processing parameters. Additionally, we had a look at the relationship between the apparent incidence angle and the S-velocity and find that it differs for the ocean bottom in comparison to the free surface. Surprisingly, the densities of the oceanic crust and the water column, as well as the P-velocity of the water column have also an influence on the apparent incidence angle. We measured incidence angles for several events and find that the angles show a dependence on the dominant frequency of the event. By comparison with synthetic receiver functions, we find that water multiples have a small or no influence at all on the real data receiver functions. We identify the

  14. Mineralogical and strontium isotopic record of hydrothermal processes in the lower ocean crust at and near the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Timo M.; Gillis, Kathryn M.

    2012-07-01

    Tectonic exposures of upper plutonics (>800 m) that are part of a contiguous section of young East Pacific Rise (EPR) crust at the Hess Deep Rift provide the first regional-scale constraints on hydrothermal processes in the upper plutonic crust formed at a fast-spreading ridge. Submersible-collected samples recovered over a 4-km-wide region show that the sheeted dike complex is largely underlain by a 150- to 200-m-thick gabbro unit, followed by a more primitive gabbronorite unit. Gabbroic samples are variably altered by pervasive fluid flow along fracture networks to amphibole-dominated assemblages. The gabbroic rocks are significantly less altered (average 11% hydrous phases) than the overlying sheeted dike complex (average 24%), and the percentage of hydrous alteration diminishes with depth. Incipient, pervasive fluid flow occurred at amphibolite facies conditions (average 720°C), with slightly higher temperatures in the lower 500 m of the section. The extent of subsequent lower-temperature alteration is generally low and regionally variable. The gabbroic samples are slightly elevated in 87Sr/86Sr relative to fresh rock values (0.7024) and less enriched than the overlying sheeted dike complex. 87Sr/86Sr for the pervasively altered gabbroic samples ranges from 0.70244 to 0.70273 (mean 0.70257), tonalites is 0.7038, and pyroxene hornfels ranges from 0.70259 to 0.70271. 87Sr/86Sr does not vary with depth, and there is a strong positive correlation with the percentage of hydrous phases. Strontium contents of igneous and hydrothermal minerals, combined with bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr, indicate that Sr-isotopic exchange is largely controlled by the uptake of fluid 87Sr/86Sr in hydrous minerals and does not require Sr gain or loss. The minimum, time-integrated fluid-rock ratio for the sheeted dike complex and upper plutonics is 0.55-0.66, and the fluid flux calculated by mass balance is ~2.1 to 2.5 × 106 kg m-2, 30-60% higher than fluid fluxes calculated in the same manner

  15. Insights into magmatic processes and hydrothermal alteration of in situ superfast spreading ocean crust at ODP/IODP site 1256 from a cluster analysis of rock magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekkers, Mark J.; Heslop, David; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Acton, Gary; Krasa, David

    2014-08-01

    analyze magnetic properties from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated ODP (IODP) Hole 1256D (6°44.1' N, 91°56.1' W) on the Cocos Plate in ˜15.2 Ma oceanic crust generated by superfast seafloor spreading, the only drill hole that has sampled all three oceanic crust layers in a tectonically undisturbed setting. Fuzzy c-means cluster analysis and nonlinear mapping are utilized to study down-hole trends in the ratio of the saturation remanent magnetization and the saturation magnetization, the coercive force, the ratio of the remanent coercive force and coercive force, the low-field magnetic susceptibility, and the Curie temperature, to evaluate the effects of magmatic and hydrothermal processes on magnetic properties. A statistically robust five cluster solution separates the data predominantly into three clusters that express increasing hydrothermal alteration of the lavas, which differ from two distinct clusters mainly representing the dikes and gabbros. Extensive alteration can obliterate magnetic property differences between lavas, dikes, and gabbros. The imprint of thermochemical alteration on the iron-titanium oxides is only partially related to the porosity of the rocks. Thus, the analysis complements interpretation based on electrofacies analysis. All clusters display rock magnetic characteristics compatible with an ability to retain a stable natural remanent magnetization suggesting that the entire sampled sequence of ocean crust can contribute to marine magnetic anomalies. Paleointensity determination is difficult because of the propensity of oxyexsolution during laboratory heating and/or the presence of intergrowths. The upper part of the extrusive sequence, the granoblastic dikes, and moderately altered gabbros may contain a comparatively uncontaminated thermoremanent magnetization.

  16. Compositional variations in spinel-hosted pargasite inclusions in the olivine-rich rock from the oceanic crust-mantle boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Akihiro; Morishita, Tomoaki; Ishimaru, Satoko; Hara, Kaori; Sanfilippo, Alessio; Arai, Shoji

    2016-05-01

    The crust-mantle boundary zone of the oceanic lithosphere is composed mainly of olivine-rich rocks represented by dunite and troctolite. However, we still do not fully understand the global variations in the boundary zone, and an effective classification of the boundary rocks, in terms of their petrographical features and origin, is an essential step in achieving such an understanding. In this paper, to highlight variations in olivine-rich rocks from the crust-mantle boundary, we describe the compositional variations in spinel-hosted hydrous silicate mineral inclusions in rock samples from the ocean floor near a mid-ocean ridge and trench. Pargasite is the dominant mineral among the inclusions, and all of them are exceptionally rich in incompatible elements. The host spinel grains are considered to be products of melt-peridotite reactions, because their origin cannot be ascribed to simple fractional crystallization of a melt. Trace-element compositions of pargasite inclusions are characteristically different between olivine-rich rock samples, in terms of the degree of Eu and Zr anomalies in the trace-element pattern. When considering the nature of the reaction that produced the inclusion-hosting spinel, the compositional differences between samples were found to reflect a diversity in the origin of the olivine-rich rocks, as for example in whether or not a reaction was accompanied by the fractional crystallization of plagioclase. The differences also reflect the fact that the melt flow system (porous or focused flow) controlled the melt/rock ratios during reaction. The pargasite inclusions provide useful data for constraining the history and origin of the olivine-rich rocks and therefore assist in our understanding of the crust-mantle boundary of the oceanic lithosphere.

  17. Reconstruction of seawater chemistry from deeply subducted oceanic crust; hydrogen and oxygen isotope of lawsonite eclogites preserving pillow structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamabata, D., VI; Masuyama, Y.; Tomiyasu, F.; Ueno, Y.; Yui, T. F.; Okamoto, K.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand evolution of life, change of seawater chemistry from Hadean, Archean to present is significant. Pillow structure is well-preserved in the Archean greenstone belt (e.g. Komiya et al., 1999). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope of rims in the pillow is useful conventional tool to decipher chemistry of Paleao-seawater from Archean to Present. However, Archean greenstone belt suffered regional metamorphism from greenschist to Amphibolite facies conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to testify the validity of pillow chemistry from recent (Phanerozoic) metamorphosed greenstone. We have systematically collected pillowed greenstone from blueschist and eclogites. Two eclogite exhibiting pillow structures were chosen for oxygen and hydrogen isotope analysis. One is from Corsica (lawsonite eclogite collected with Dr. Alberto Vidale Barbarone) and another is from Cazadero, Franciscan belt (collected by Dr. Tatsuki Tsujimori). The both are ascribed as MORB from major and trace bulk chemistry and Ca is rich in the core and Na is poor in the rims. The former exhibits garnet, omphacite, lawsonite, and glacophane. Phengite is in core of the pillow and chlorite is in the rims. In the latter, besides garnet, omphacite, epdiote and glaucophane, chlorite is recognized with phengite in the core. Glaucophane is richer in the rims from the both samples, therefore istope analysis of glaucophane was done. Mineral separation was carefully done using micro-mill, heavy liquid and isodynamic separator. 20 mg specimens were used for oxygen isotope analysis and 2mg were for hydrogen analysis. δ18O of the all analysis (7.7 to 8.3) is within the range of unaltered igneous oceanic crust and high temperature hydrothermal alteration although rims (8.3 for Franciscan and 8.0 for Corsica) are higher than cores (7.7 for Franciscan and Corsica). δD data is also consistent with hydrothermal alteration. It is relative higher in core from the Corsica and Franciscan (-45 and -56) than of the

  18. Recycling of nitrogen during subduction of oceanic crust: insights from high-pressure and ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halama, R.; Bebout, G.; John, T.; Schenk, V.

    2008-12-01

    During subduction, a significant amount of nitrogen (N) is fixed in the subducting altered oceanic crust (AOC) and, for some margins, the subduction input flux of N in AOC is thought to rival that in sediment. However, the ultimate fate of N during subduction-zone metamorphism remains unclear. N may be released from the AOC and added to arcs, it may be retained in the AOC and incorporated into the mantle, or it may enter fluids along the slab-mantle interface. Moreover, it is not known whether the increase in δ15N accompanying prograde metamorphism of sedimentary rocks also occurs during subduction of mafic igneous rocks and thus what the isotopic contribution of the metabasaltic rocks is when they enter the mantle. In this study, we have analyzed HP/UHP metabasaltic rocks from world-wide localities (Zambia, Italy, Ecuador, China and Spain; range of peak-metamorphic P-T conditions of 14-30 kbar and 500-800°C) for N concentrations and δ15N in an attempt to characterize subduction input flux of N in AOC. Eclogites have variable N concentrations (2 to 20 ppm) and δ15N ranging from -1 to +8. Blueschists contain up to 50 ppm N and overlap in δ15N with the eclogites. In both concentration and δ15N, the HP/UHP metamorphosed mafic rocks are distinct from fresh MORB (N = 1.1 ppm and δ15N = -4 ± 2), but overlap with AOC, consistent with retention of a significant proportion of N during prograde metamorphism. However, trends on diagrams that discriminate between seafloor alteration and metamorphic additions and the concurrent enrichment of N with Ba, Pb, Rb and Cs, together with δ15N values, suggest that some sample sequences (China, Ecuador) were enriched in metasedimentary N by HP/UHP fluid-rock interactions. Others (Italy, Zambia) lack those correlations and appear to more closely reflect the characteristics of the precursor AOC. A sample profile through a prograde blueschist-to-eclogite transformation from the Tianshan (China) reveals that N as well as Rb, Ba and

  19. Characterization of the crust of Maine by seismic reflection and refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.B.; Luetgert, J.H.; Unger, J.D.; Phillips, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Major structural features of the crust of Main and adjacent Quebec appear in both seismic reflection and refraction profiles gathered in 1983 and 1984 through US-Canada cooperative experiments and associated gravity, magnetic, and geologic studies. Excepting gabbroic plutons, the upper crust is sialic throughout Maine with velocity 5.7-6.3 km/sec; below approx.22 km, velocity increases to 6.8-7.2 km/sec. Crustal thinning, from 40 km in the NW to 35 km in the SE, accounts for all the increase in the regional gravity field to the SE. The crust-mantle transition is gradational but yields multiple strong Moho reflections and clear Pn arrivals. Seismic data permit five different kinds of continental crust (terranes) to be characterized. The terranes are separated by boundaries that penetrate most of the crust. No ancient oceanic crust was identified. In northwestern Maine, crust II with the Chain Lakes Massif and superposed ophiolite was obducted in the Taconian orogeny onto sialic (Grenville.) Crust I. Crust II is in steep contact with high grade sialic metamorphic rocks of crust III approx.10 km SE of the NW border of the Merrimack synclinorium. The contact is covered by approx.12 km of Silurian and Devonian metasedimentary rocks. Crust III contacts crust IV along the Norumbega fault zone; high grade Precambrian and lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks thrust southeastward make up the upper part of crust IV. Crust IV contacts crust V along the Turtle Head fault zone in Penobscot Bay. In Crust V approx.12 km of bimodal Lower Paleozoic volcanic rocks cover Precambrian rocks at medium grade. The irregular shapes of granitic plutons were determined to depths of 6-10 km.

  20. Synchronous oceanic spreading and continental rifting in West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, F. J.; Granot, R.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J. M.; Selvans, M.; Ferraccioli, F.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic anomalies associated with new ocean crust formation in the Adare Basin off north-western Ross Sea (43-26 Ma) can be traced directly into the Northern Basin that underlies the adjacent morphological continental shelf, implying a continuity in the emplacement of oceanic crust. Steep gravity gradients along the margins of the Northern Basin, particularly in the east, suggest that little extension and thinning of continental crust occurred before it ruptured and the new oceanic crust formed, unlike most other continental rifts and the Victoria Land Basin further south. A preexisting weak crust and localization of strain by strike-slip faulting are proposed as the factors allowing the rapid rupture of continental crust.

  1. North Atlantic Deep Water export to the Southern Ocean over the past 14 Myr: Evidence from Nd and Pb isotopes in ferromanganese crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, M.; Whiteley, N.; Kasten, S.; Hein, J.R.; O'Nions, K.

    2002-01-01

    The intensity of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production has been one of the most important parameters controlling the global thermohaline ocean circulation system and climate. Here we present a new approach to reconstruct the overall strength of NADW export from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean over the past 14 Myr applying the deep water Nd and Pb isotope composition as recorded by ferromanganese crusts and nodules. We present the first long-term Nd and Pb isotope time series for deep Southern Ocean water masses, which are compared with previously published time series for NADW from the NW Atlantic Ocean. These data suggest a continuous and strong export of NADW, or a precursor of it, into the Southern Ocean between 14 and 3 Ma. An increasing difference in Nd and Pb isotope compositions between the NW Atlantic and the Southern Ocean over the past 3 Myr gives evidence for a progressive overall reduction of NADW export since the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG). The Nd isotope data allow us to assess at least semiquantitatively that the amount of this reduction has been in the range between 14 and 37% depending on location.

  2. Sulfur geochemistry and microbial sulfate reduction during low-temperature alteration of uplifted lower oceanic crust: Insights from ODP Hole 735B

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alford, Susan E.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfide petrography plus whole rock contents and isotope ratios of sulfur were measured in a 1.5 km section of oceanic gabbros in order to understand the geochemistry of sulfur cycling during low-temperature seawater alteration of the lower oceanic crust, and to test whether microbial effects may be present. Most samples have low SO4/ΣS values (≤ 0.15), have retained igneous globules of pyrrhotite ± chalcopyrite ± pentlandite, and host secondary aggregates of pyrrhotite and pyrite laths in smectite ± iron-oxyhydroxide ± magnetite ± calcite pseudomorphs of olivine and clinopyroxene. Compared to fresh gabbro containing 100–1800 ppm sulfur our data indicate an overall addition of sulfide to the lower crust. Selection of samples altered only at temperatures ≤ 110 °C constrains microbial sulfate reduction as the only viable mechanism for the observed sulfide addition, which may have been enabled by the production of H2 from oxidation of associated olivine and pyroxene. The wide range in δ34Ssulfide values (− 1.5 to + 16.3‰) and variable additions of sulfide are explained by variable εsulfate-sulfide under open system pathways, with a possible progression into closed system pathways. Some samples underwent oxidation related to seawater penetration along permeable fault horizons and have lost sulfur, have high SO4/ΣS (≥ 0.46) and variable δ34Ssulfide (0.7 to 16.9‰). Negative δ34Ssulfate–δ34Ssulfide values for the majority of samples indicate kinetic isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfide minerals. Depth trends in sulfide–sulfur contents and sulfide mineral assemblages indicate a late-stage downward penetration of seawater into the lower 1 km of Hole 735B. Our results show that under appropriate temperature conditions, a subsurface biosphere can persist in the lower oceanic crust and alter its geochemistry.

  3. Continental accretion: From oceanic plateaus to allochthonous terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Avraham, Z.; Nur, A.; Jones, D.; Cox, A.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the regions of the anomalously high sea-floor topography in today's oceans may be modern allochthonous terranes moving with their oceanic plates. Fated to collide with and be accreted to adjacent continents, they may create complex volcanism, cut off and trap oceanic crust, and cause orogenic deformation. The accretion of plateaus during subduction of oceanic plates may be responsible for mountain building comparable to that produced by the collision of continents. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  4. Subduction initiation adjacent to a relic island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, W.; Gurnis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Although plate tectonics is well established, how subduction initiates over tectonic history has remained obscure. It has been proposed that passive margins may be a possible place for subduction initiation, but there is no obvious Cenozoic example of such a scenario, including along the passive margins of the Atlantic Ocean. With a computational method that follows the deformation of a visco-elasto-plastic medium, here we show that a favourable locale for subduction initiation is the juxtaposition of an old oceanic plate adjacent to a young, but relic arc. Significant density anomalies leading to subduction initiation arise from two major factors. One is the compositional difference between the relic arc crust and the oceanic lithospheric mantle; the other is the thermal difference due to the age offset between the two plates. With such a setup, we observe spontaneous subduction initiation if the oceanic crust is significantly weakened by pore fluid pressure. If the oceanic crust is relatively strong, a small amount of plate convergence is required to induce subduction. The evidence that Izu-Bonin-Mariana and Tonga-Kermedec subduction zones both initiate adjacent to a relic island arc support our conclusions. The initiation of both subduction zones at 51-52 Ma with commensurate compression on their respective overriding plates support a causal link between both subduction initiation events through a change in Pacific Plate motion. Our results provide an explanation for the rarity of subduction initiation at the passive margins. The continental lithosphere is typically old and cold. Consequently, the thermal effects cancel the compositional buoyancy contrast between the continental crust and the oceanic lithospheric mantle, making subduction initiation difficult at passive margins.

  5. Recycled oceanic crust in the source of 90-40 Ma basalts in North and Northeast China: Evidence, provenance and significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Major, trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of basalts emplaced during 90-40 Ma in the North and Northeast China are compiled in this review, with aims of constraining their petrogenesis, and by inference the evolution of the North China Craton during the late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. Three major components are identified in magma source, including depleted component I and II, and an enriched component. The depleted component I, which is characterized by relatively low 87Sr/86Sr (<0.7030), moderate 206Pb/204Pb (18.2), moderately high εNd (∼4), high Eu/Eu∗ (>1.1) and HIMU-like trace element characteristics, is most likely derived from gabbroic cumulate of the oceanic crust. The depleted component II, which distinguishes itself by its high εNd (∼8) and moderate 87Sr/86Sr (∼0.7038), is probably derived from a sub-lithospheric ambient mantle. The enriched component has low εNd (2-3), high 87Sr/86Sr (>0.7065), low 206Pb/204Pb (17), excess Sr, Rb, Ba and a deficiency of Zr and Hf relative to the REE. This component is likely from the basaltic portion of the oceanic crust, which is variably altered by seawater and contains minor sediments. Comparison with experimental melts and trace element modeling suggest that these recycled oceanic components may be in form of garnet pyroxenite/eclogite. These components are young (<0.5 Ga) and show an Indian-MORB isotopic character. Given the share of this isotopic affinity by the extinct Izanaghi-Pacific plate, currently stagnated within the mantle transition zone, we propose that it ultimately comes from the subducted Pacific slab. Eu/Eu∗ and 87Sr/86Sr of the 90-40 Ma magmas increases and decreases, respectively, with decreasing emplacement age, mirroring a change in magma source from upper to lower parts of subducted oceanic crust. Such secular trends are created by dynamic melting of a heterogeneous mantle containing recycled oceanic crust. Due to different melting temperature of the upper and lower ocean

  6. Diffusive Transfer of Oxygen From Seamount Basaltic Crust Into Overlying Sediments: an Example From the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasten, S.; Mewes, K.; Mogollón, J.; Picard, A.; Rühlemann, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Kuhn, T.; Ziebis, W.

    2015-12-01

    Within the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) located in the equatorial Pacific Ocean numerous seamounts, with diameters ranging from 3 to 30 km and varying heights above the surrounding seafloor of up to 2500 m, occur throughout the deep-sea plain. There is evidence that these may serve as conduits for low-temperature hydrothermal circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust. During RV SONNE cruise SO205 in April/May 2010 and BIONOD cruise with RV ĹATALANTE in spring 2012 we took piston and gravity cores for geochemical analyses, as well as for high-resolution pore-water oxygen and nutrient measurements. Specifically, we took cores along a transect at three sites, located 400, 700 and 1000 m away from the foot of a 240 m high seamount, called 'Teddy Bare'. At all 3 sites oxygen penetrates the entire sediment column of the organic carbon-poor sediment. More importantly, oxygen concentrations initially decrease with sediment depth but increase again at depths of 3 m and 7 m above the basaltic basement, suggesting an upward diffusion of oxygen from seawater circulating within the seamount crust into the overlying basal sediments. This is the first time this has been shown for the deep subsurface in the Pacific Ocean. Mirroring the oxygen concentrations nitrate concentrations accumulate with sediment depth but decrease towards the basement. Transport-reaction modeling revealed that (1) the diffusive flux of oxygen from the basaltic basement exceeds the oxygen consumption through organic matter oxidation and nitrification in the basal sediments and (2) the nutrient exchange between the sediment and the underlying basaltic crust occurs at orders-of-magnitude lower rates than between the sediment surface and the overlying bottom water. We furthermore show that the upward diffusion of oxygen from the basaltic basement affects the preservation of organic compounds within the oxic sediment column at all 3 sites. Our investigations indicate that an upward

  7. Insights into Oceanic Crust Accretion from a Comparison of Rock Magnetic and Silicate Fabrics from Lower Crustal Gabbros from Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, A. J.; Morris, A.; Friedman, S. A.; Cheadle, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms of lower crustal accretion remain a long-standing question for those who study fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges. One of the goals of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 is to test accretionary models by investigating the structure of the lower oceanic crust exposed within the Hess Deep Rift. Located near the tip of the westward-propagating Cocos-Nazca spreading center, Hess Deep Rift exposes crust formed at the East Pacific Rise. During IODP Expedition 345, primitive gabbroic rocks were recovered from a dismembered lower crustal section at ~4850 meters below sealevel. Constraints on physical processes during magmatic accretion are provided by the relative orientation and strength of rock fabrics. We present anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabric data from gabbros recovered from the two deepest holes (U1415J and U1415P). AMS measurements provide petrofabric data that may be used to constrain magma emplacement and subsequent magmatic flow. Bulk susceptibility ranges from 1.15 x 10-4 to 5.73 x 10-2 SI, with a majority of the samples having susceptibility greater than 10-3 SI, suggesting magnetite is the dominant contributor to the AMS signal. Low-temperature demagnetization data show Verwey transitions near 125K indicating the presence of nearly stoichiometric magnetite in most samples. AMS reveals dominantly oblate fabrics with a moderate degree of anisotropy (P') ranging from 1.01 to 1.38 (average P' = 1.13). Fabric strength varies within each of the petrologically-defined units recovered from different crustal blocks. Additional remanence anisotropy fabric analyses of a few specimens reveal nearly identical directions of principal axes compared to AMS, but with larger degrees of anisotropy. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data from one sample shows a moderate plagioclase crystallographic preferred orientation best defined by a b-axis maxima that is coincident with the AMS minimum principal axis. This comparison

  8. Tephrostratigraphic investigations of the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits in the northwestern Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas (Okhotsk and Bering)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkachev, A.; Nikolaeva, N.; Portnyagin, M.; Ponomareva, V.; Gorbarenko, S.; Malakhov, M.; Nuernberg, D.; van den Bogaard, C.; Sakamoto, T.; Lv, H.

    2012-12-01

    Ash layers (tephra) in both continental and marine deposits bear information about history and nature of volcanic eruptions which could influence climate, processes of sedimentation, and even cause ecological disasters. Tephra layers of Quaternary age have been identified in various marine and continental deposits within the northwestern part of transition zone from the Asian continent to the Pacific Ocean. Tephras from the areas adjacent to the Japanese Islands are better studied while those from the areas farther north including Okhotsk and Bering Seas have received less attention until recently. More than 40 sediment cores were obtained during numerous expeditions performed by Russian, German, Japanese and Chinese scientists during the last fifteen years. We have identified and sampled a total of 74 tephra layers and lenses from these cores including 22 layers in the Okhotsk Sea, 14 layers in the Bering Sea, and 38 layers - in the northwestern Pacific (Kronotsky Bay and Meiji Seamount). Ages of tephra layers have been estimated based on age-depth models for the cores developed in the result of litho- and biostratigraphic studies, paleomagnetic and oxygen-isotope research, and 14C dating. Tephra from all these layers have been characterized based on morphology of glass shards, optical properties (refractive indices), and chemical composition of glass (major and trace elements) and minerals (major elements). About 3500 precise and consistent electron probe and ~200 LA-ICP-MS analyses of volcanic glasses and 1200 electron probe analyses of minerals comprise the core of our new data base. Processing of these data has allowed us to correlate a number of tephra layers between the cores in each of the studied regions. Several tephra layers have been correlated between the Bering Sea and Pacific cores. These results permit direct comparisons of the paleoceanological records over the vast area in the northwestern Pacific domain. Studied tephra layers form the basis of

  9. Recycled oceanic crust in the source of 90-40 Ma basalts in North and Northeast China: Evidence, provenance and significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Major, trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of basalts emplaced during 90-40 Ma in the North and Northeast China are compiled in this review, with aims of constraining their petrogenesis, and by inference the evolution of the North China Craton during the late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. Three major components are identified in magma source, including depleted component I and II, and an enriched component. The depleted component I, which is characterized by relatively low 87Sr/86Sr (<0.7030), moderate 206Pb/204Pb (18.2), moderately high εNd (∼4), high Eu/Eu∗ (>1.1) and HIMU-like trace element characteristics, is most likely derived from gabbroic cumulate of the oceanic crust. The depleted component II, which distinguishes itself by its high εNd (∼8) and moderate 87Sr/86Sr (∼0.7038), is probably derived from a sub-lithospheric ambient mantle. The enriched component has low εNd (2-3), high 87Sr/86Sr (>0.7065), low 206Pb/204Pb (17), excess Sr, Rb, Ba and a deficiency of Zr and Hf relative to the REE. This component is likely from the basaltic portion of the oceanic crust, which is variably altered by seawater and contains minor sediments. Comparison with experimental melts and trace element modeling suggest that these recycled oceanic components may be in form of garnet pyroxenite/eclogite. These components are young (<0.5 Ga) and show an Indian-MORB isotopic character. Given the share of this isotopic affinity by the extinct Izanaghi-Pacific plate, currently stagnated within the mantle transition zone, we propose that it ultimately comes from the subducted Pacific slab. Eu/Eu∗ and 87Sr/86Sr of the 90-40 Ma magmas increases and decreases, respectively, with decreasing emplacement age, mirroring a change in magma source from upper to lower parts of subducted oceanic crust. Such secular trends are created by dynamic melting of a heterogeneous mantle containing recycled oceanic crust. Due to different melting temperature of the upper and lower ocean

  10. Geochemical characteristics of fast-spreading lower oceanic crust: an example of troctolites at the Hess Deep Rift (IODP Expedition 345)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akizawa, N.; Godard, M.; Ildefonse, B.; Arai, S.

    2014-12-01

    Troctolites were recovered during IODP Expedition 345 (Dec 2012 - Feb 2013), which targeted plutonic rocks from fast-spread lower oceanic crust at the Hess Deep Rift. The troctolites are divided into three groups based on textural diversity; "skeletal olivine-bearing", "fine-grained" and "coarse-grained" troctolites. For major- and trace-element compositions of olivine and plagioclase, the skeletal olivine-bearing and fine-grained troctolites are more evolved (olivine Fo and NiO contents, 83 to 86 and 0.08 to 0.2 wt.%, respectively, and plagioclase An content, 77 to 84) than coarse-grained ones (olivine Fo and NiO contents, 87to 89 and 0.2 to 0.3 wt.%, respectively, and plagioclase An content, 85 to 90). Clinopyroxenes show scattered chemical compositions in the skeletal olivine-bearing and fine-grained troctolites, down to the scale of a single thin section. Clinopyroxenes, some of which show no Eu anomaly, are clearly zoned in the coarse-grained troctolites: the rims are chemically more evolved than the cores. The skeletal olivine-bearing and fine-grained troctolites record signs of melt invasion, which caused the chemical heterogeneity of the clinopyroxenes. In contrast, the coarse-grained troctolites show no such sign, and contain the zoned clinopyroxenes, which were co-precipitated with plagioclases. MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt) melts experience multi-stage evolution, including fractional crystallization and melt/troctolite interaction during migration. Such various melt migration processes in the lower oceanic crust possibly cause regional diversity of MORB chemistry.

  11. Intermediate crust (IC); its construction at continent edges, distinctive epeirogenic behaviour and identification as sedimentary basins within continents: new light on pre-oceanic plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    2014-05-01

    Introduction. The plate tectonics paradigm currently posits that the Earth has only two kinds of crust - continental and oceanic - and that the former may be stretched to form sedimentary basins or the latter may be modified by arc or collision until it looks continental. But global analysis of the dynamics of actual plate motions for the past 150 Ma indicates [1 - 3] that continental tectospheres must be immensely thicker and rheologically stiffer than previously thought; almost certainly too thick to be stretched with the forces available. In the extreme case of cratons, these tectospheric keels evidently extend to 600 km or more [2, 3]. This thick-plate behaviour is attributable, not to cooling but to a petrological 'stiffening' effect, associated with a loss of water-weakening of the mineral crystals, which also applies to the hitherto supposedly mobile LVZ below MORs [4, 5]. The corresponding thick-plate version of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) process [6 - 8], replacing the divergent mantle flow model, has a deep, narrow wall-accreting axial crack which not only provides the seismic anisotropy beneath the flanks but also brings two outstanding additional benefits:- (i) why, at medium to fast spreading rates, MOR axes become straight and orthogonally segmented [6], (ii) not being driven by body forces, it can achieve the sudden jumps of axis, spreading-rate and direction widely present in the ocean-floor record. Furthermore, as we will illustrate, the crack walls push themselves apart at depth by a thermodynamic mechanism, so the plates are not being pulled apart. So the presence of this process at a continental edge would not imply the application of extensional force to the margin. Intermediate Crust (IC). In seeking to resolve the paradox that superficially extensional structures are often seen at margins we will first consider how this MOR process would be affected by the heavy concurrent sedimentation to be expected when splitting a mature continent. I reason

  12. Insights on the Formation and Evolution of the Upper Oceanic Crust from Deep Drilling at ODP/IODP Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teagle, D. A. H.

    2009-04-01

    Deep drilling of Hole 1256D on ODP Leg 206 and IODP Expeditions 309/312 provides the first complete section of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Site 1256 is located on ocean crust of the Cocos Plate that formed at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) 15 million years ago during an episode of superfast rate ocean spreading in excess of 200 mm/yr. Past deep drilling of intact ocean crust has been fraught with difficulties due to the highly fractured nature of oceanic lavas. Site 1256 was specifically chosen because the observed relationship between spreading rate and the depth to axial seismic low velocity zones at modern mid-ocean ridges (thought to be magma chambers), suggests that gabbroic rocks should occur at the shallowest levels in ocean crust formed at the highest spreading rates. In line with pre-drilling predictions, gabbroic rocks were first encountered 1157 m into the basement. Hole 1256D penetrates 754 m of lavas, a 57-m thick transition zone and a thin (346 m) sheeted dike complex. The lower ~60 m of the sheeted dikes are contact metamorphosed to granoblastic textures. After encountering gabbros the hole was deepened a further 100 m before the cessation of drilling operations and the plutonic section comprises two gabbroic sills, 52 and 24 m-thick, intruded into a 24 m screen of granoblastic dikes. The gabbro sills have chilled margins and compositions similar to the overlying lavas and dikes, precluding formation of the cumulate lower oceanic crust from the melt lenses so far penetrated by Hole 1256D. A vertical seismic experiment conducted in Hole 1256D indicates that the bottom of the Hole is still within seismic layer 2 despite gabbroic rocks having been recovered. These data together with 1-D and imaging wire-line logs, have been used to construct a continuous volcano-stratigraphy for Site 1256. Comparison of this data with the recovered cores and the styles of eruption occurring at the modern EPR indicate that ~50% of lava sequences were formed

  13. MORB mantle hosts the missing Eu (Sr, Nb, Ta and Ti) in the continental crust: New perspectives on crustal growth, crust-mantle differentiation and chemical structure of oceanic upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yaoling; O'Hara, Michael J.

    2009-09-01

    We have examined the high quality data of 306 mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glass samples from the East Pacific Rise (EPR), near-EPR seamounts, Pacific Antarctic Ridge (PAR), near-PAR seamounts, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), and near-MAR seamounts. The data show a correlated variation between Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr*, and both decrease with decreasing MgO, pointing to the effect of plagioclase crystallization. The observation that samples with MgO > 9.5 wt.% (before plagioclase on the liquidus) show Eu/Eu* > 1 and Sr/Sr* > 1 and that none of the major phases (i.e., olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel and garnet) in the sub-ridge mantle melting region can effectively fractionate Eu and Sr from otherwise similarly incompatible elements indicates that the depleted MORB mantle (DMM) possesses excess Sr and Eu, i.e., [Sr/Sr*]DMM > 1 and [Eu/Eu*]DMM > 1. Furthermore, the well-established observation that DNb ≈ DTh, DTa ≈ DU and DTi ≈ DSm during MORB mantle melting, yet primitive MORB melts all have [Nb/Th]PMMORB > 1, [Ta/U]PMMORB > 1 and [Ti/Sm]PMMORB > 1 (where PM indicates primitive mantle normalized), also points to the presence of excess Nb, Ta and Ti in the DMM, i.e., [Nb/Th]PMDMM > 1, [Ta/U]PMDMM > 1 and [Ti/Sm]PMDMM > 1. The excesses of Eu, Sr, Nb, Ta and Ti in the DMM complement the well-known deficiencies of these elements in the bulk continental crust (BCC). These new observations, which support the notion that the DMM and BCC are complementary in terms of the overall abundances of incompatible elements, offer new insights into the crust-mantle differentiation. These observations are best explained by partial melting of amphibolite of MORB protolith during continental collision, which produces andesitic melts with a remarkable compositional (major and trace element abundances as well as key elemental ratios) similarity to the BCC, as revealed by andesites in southern Tibet produced during the India-Asia continental collision. An average amphibolite of MORB

  14. Nd isotopic composition and REE pattern in the surface waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and its adjacent seas

    SciTech Connect

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Alibo, D.S.; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-05-01

    The Nd isotopic composition and dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) have been measured in the surface waters along the 1996/97 R.V. Hakuho-Maru Expedition route from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean, southwest of Australia, through the Philippine and Indonesian Archipelago, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of {minus}1.3 and {minus}1.4 were found in the Sulu Sea and near the Lombok Strait, indicating the strong influence of surrounding volcanic islands, whereas non-radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of less than {minus}10 were found in the Southern Ocean and the Bay of Bengal suggesting Nd of continental origin. The dissolved Nd concentrations also showed a wide range of variation from 2.8 to 19.6 pmol/kg and the trivalent REE patterns exhibited characteristic features that can be grouped into each different oceanic province. The geographical distribution of dissolved Nd is different from that of atmospherically derived {sup 210}Pb, but generally resembles that of coastally derived {sup 228}Ra. This strongly suggests that fluvial and coastal input predominates over eolian input for dissolved Nd in the surface ocean. However, the riverine dissolved Nd flux appears to be relatively minor, and remobilization of Nd from coastal and shelf sediments may play an important role in the total Nd input to the ocean. By modeling the distributions of the isotopic composition and concentration of Nd together with the activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in the southeastern Indian Ocean, the authors estimate a mean residence time of Nd in the surface mixed layer to be 1.5--2.6 years. The short mean residence time is comparable with, or slightly longer than that of {sup 210}Pb suggesting similar chemical reactivity.

  15. Intermediate crust (IC); its construction at continent edges, distinctive epeirogenic behaviour and identification as sedimentary basins within continents: new light on pre-oceanic plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    2014-05-01

    Introduction. The plate tectonics paradigm currently posits that the Earth has only two kinds of crust - continental and oceanic - and that the former may be stretched to form sedimentary basins or the latter may be modified by arc or collision until it looks continental. But global analysis of the dynamics of actual plate motions for the past 150 Ma indicates [1 - 3] that continental tectospheres must be immensely thicker and rheologically stiffer than previously thought; almost certainly too thick to be stretched with the forces available. In the extreme case of cratons, these tectospheric keels evidently extend to 600 km or more [2, 3]. This thick-plate behaviour is attributable, not to cooling but to a petrological 'stiffening' effect, associated with a loss of water-weakening of the mineral crystals, which also applies to the hitherto supposedly mobile LVZ below MORs [4, 5]. The corresponding thick-plate version of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) process [6 - 8], replacing the divergent mantle flow model, has a deep, narrow wall-accreting axial crack which not only provides the seismic anisotropy beneath the flanks but also brings two outstanding additional benefits:- (i) why, at medium to fast spreading rates, MOR axes become straight and orthogonally segmented [6], (ii) not being driven by body forces, it can achieve the sudden jumps of axis, spreading-rate and direction widely present in the ocean-floor record. Furthermore, as we will illustrate, the crack walls push themselves apart at depth by a thermodynamic mechanism, so the plates are not being pulled apart. So the presence of this process at a continental edge would not imply the application of extensional force to the margin. Intermediate Crust (IC). In seeking to resolve the paradox that superficially extensional structures are often seen at margins we will first consider how this MOR process would be affected by the heavy concurrent sedimentation to be expected when splitting a mature continent. I reason

  16. Preliminary Results from Downhole Osmotic Samplers in a Gas Tracer Injection Experiment in the Upper Oceanic Crust on the Eastern Flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M. T.; Clark, J. F.; Neira, N. M.; Fisher, A. T.; Wheat, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    We present results from a gas tracer injection experiment in the ocean crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an area of hydrothermal circulation. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer was injected in Hole 1362B in 2010, during IODP Expedition 327. Fluid samples were subsequently collected from a borehole observatory (CORK) installed in this hole and similar CORKs in three additional holes (1026B, 1362A, and 1301A), located 300 to 500 m away. This array of holes is located on 3.5 My old seafloor, as an array oriented subparallel to the Endeavor Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Borehole fluid samples were collected in copper coils using osmotic pumps. In addition to pumps at seafloor wellheads, downhole sampling pumps were installed in the perforated casing in the upper ocean crust. These downhole samplers were intended to produce a high-resolution continuous record of tracer concentrations, including records from the first year after tracer injection in Holes 1362A and 1362B. In contrast, wellhead samplers were not installed on these CORKs holes until 2011, and wellhead records from all CORKs have a record gap of up to one year, because of a delayed expedition in 2012. The downhole samples were recovered with the submersible Alvin in August 2014. SF6 concentrations in downhole samples recovered in 2014 are generally consistent with data obtained from wellhead samples. Of particular interest are the results from Hole 1362B, where a seafloor valve was opened and closed during various recovery expeditions. High resolution tracer curves produced from the 1362B downhole samples confirm that these operations produced an SF6 breakthrough curve corresponding to a classic push-pull test used to evaluate contaminant field locations in terrestrial setting. Complete analyses of downhole samples from these CORKs are expected to produce high-resolution breakthrough curves that will allow more precise analysis and modeling of hydrothermal flow in the study area.

  17. Atmospheric iron deposition in the northwestern Pacific Ocean and its adjacent marginal seas: The importance of coal burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Chiu; Chen, Jen-Ping; Ho, Tung-Yuan; Tsai, I.-Chun

    2015-02-01

    This study applied a regional air quality model, incorporated with an emission module, to quantitatively differentiate the atmospheric iron sources originating from lithogenic dusts or coal-burning fly ashes deposited in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. Particular attention was paid to the high iron content of fly ashes emitted from steel and iron plants burning coals. Using the year 2007 as an example, the modeling results exhibit large seasonal variations in iron deposition, with highest deposition fluxes occurred during spring and autumn, which are comparable to the seasonal fluctuation of chlorophyll a concentrations estimated by satellite images in the oceanic regions. Fly ash from coal burning accounted for 7.2% of the total iron deposited over the northwestern Pacific Ocean and 15% of that over the northern South China Sea. After considering the difference of iron solubility in the aerosols, anthropogenic aerosol associated with coal burning would be the major bioavailable iron source in the surface water of the oceanic regions.

  18. Icelandic-type crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Du, Z.; Julian, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous seismic studies, in particular using receiver functions and explosion seismology, have provided a detailed picture of the structure and thickness of the crust beneath the Iceland transverse ridge. We review the results and propose a structural model that is consistent with all the observations. The upper crust is typically 7 ?? 1 km thick, heterogeneous and has high velocity gradients. The lower crust is typically 15-30 ?? 5 km thick and begins where the velocity gradient decreases radically. This generally occurs at the V p ??? 6.5 km s-1 level. A low-velocity zone ??? 10 000 km2 in area and up to ??? 15 km thick occupies the lower crust beneath central Iceland, and may represent a submerged, trapped oceanic microplate. The crust-mantle boundary is a transition zone ???5 ?? 3 km thick throughout which V p increases progressively from ???7.2 to ???8.0 km s-1. It may be gradational or a zone of alternating high- and low-velocity layers. There is no seismic evidence for melt or exceptionally high temperatures in or near this zone. Isostasy indicates that the density contrast between the lower crust and the mantle is only ???90 kg m-3 compared with ???300 kg m-3 for normal oceanic crust, indicating compositional anomalies that are as yet not understood. The seismological crust is ???30 km thick beneath the Greenland-Iceland and Iceland-Faeroe ridges, and eastern Iceland, ???20 km beneath western Iceland, and ???40 km thick beneath central Iceland. This pattern is not what is predicted for an eastward-migrating plume. Low attenuation and normal V p/V s ratios in the lower crust beneath central and southwestern Iceland, and normal uppermost mantle velocities in general, suggest that the crust and uppermost mantle are subsolidus and cooler than at equivalent depths beneath the East Pacific Rise. Seismic data from Iceland have historically been interpreted both in terms of thin-hot and thick-cold crust models, both of which have been cited as supporting the plume

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of particle-attached and free-living bacterial communities in the Columbia river, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Crump, B C; Armbrust, E V; Baross, J A

    1999-07-01

    The Columbia River estuary is a dynamic system in which estuarine turbidity maxima trap and extend the residence time of particles and particle-attached bacteria over those of the water and free-living bacteria. Particle-attached bacteria dominate bacterial activity in the estuary and are an important part of the estuarine food web. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from particle-attached and free-living bacteria in the Columbia River, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean were cloned, and 239 partial sequences were determined. A wide diversity was observed at the species level within at least six different bacterial phyla, including most subphyla of the class Proteobacteria. In the estuary, most particle-attached bacterial clones (75%) were related to members of the genus Cytophaga or of the alpha, gamma, or delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. These same clones, however, were rare in or absent from either the particle-attached or the free-living bacterial communities of the river and the coastal ocean. In contrast, about half (48%) of the free-living estuarine bacterial clones were similar to clones from the river or the coastal ocean. These free-living bacteria were related to groups of cosmopolitan freshwater bacteria (beta-proteobacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and Verrucomicrobium spp.) and groups of marine organisms (gram-positive bacteria and alpha-proteobacteria [SAR11 and Rhodobacter spp.]). These results suggest that rapidly growing particle-attached bacteria develop into a uniquely adapted estuarine community and that free-living estuarine bacteria are similar to members of the river and the coastal ocean microbial communities. The high degree of diversity in the estuary is the result of the mixing of bacterial communities from the river, estuary, and coastal ocean.

  20. Seasonal evolution of the upper-ocean adjacent to the South Orkney Islands, Southern Ocean: Results from a “lazy biological mooring”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Michael P.; Nicholls, Keith W.; Renfrew, Ian A.; Boehme, Lars; Biuw, Martin; Fedak, Mike

    2011-07-01

    A serendipitous >8-month time series of hydrographic properties was obtained from the vicinity of the South Orkney Islands, Southern Ocean, by tagging a southern elephant seal ( Mirounga leonina) on Signy Island with a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth/Satellite-Relay Data Logger (CTD-SRDL) in March 2007. Such a time series (including data from the austral autumn and winter) would have been extremely difficult to obtain via other means, and it illustrates with unprecedented temporal resolution the seasonal progression of upper-ocean water mass properties and stratification at this location. Sea ice production values of around 0.15-0.4 m month -1 for April to July were inferred from the progression of salinity, with significant levels still in September (around 0.2 m month -1). However, these values presume that advective processes have negligible effect on the salinity changes observed locally; this presumption is seen to be inappropriate in this case, and it is argued that the ice production rates inferred are better considered as "smeared averages" for the region of the northwestern Weddell Sea upstream from the South Orkneys. The impact of such advective effects is illustrated by contrasting the observed hydrographic series with the output of a one-dimensional model of the upper-ocean forced with local fluxes. It is found that the difference in magnitude between local (modelled) and regional (inferred) ice production is significant, with estimates differing by around a factor of two. A halo of markedly low sea ice concentration around the South Orkneys during the austral winter offers at least a partial explanation for this, since it enabled stronger atmosphere/ocean fluxes to persist and hence stronger ice production to prevail locally compared with the upstream region. The year of data collection was an El Niño year, and it is well-established that this phenomenon can impact strongly on the surface ocean and ice field in this sector of the Southern Ocean, thus

  1. Modes and implications of mantle and lower-crust denudation at slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Timothy John

    Slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges (<5 cm/yr) have intermittent magma supply, and accommodate spreading by a combination of magmatism and tectonic extension (Smith and Cann, 1993, Cannat, 1993). Extension at mid-ocean ridges is most commonly manifested by slip on high angle (˜60°) normal faults that dip into, and define the rift valley walls (Smith and Cann, 1993). Less commonly, extension occurs by long periods of slip along low-angle normal faults that penetrate to structurally deep levels of oceanic lithosphere and denude gabbro and/or pendotite to the seafloor in domal massifs termed "oceanic core complexes" (Dick et al., 1981; Dick et al., 1991; Tucholke et al., 1998; Mutter and Karson, 1992; Cann et al., 1997; MacLeod et al., 2002). This dissertation addresses processes and implications of tectonic extension at two oceanic core complexes. Atlantis Massif (30°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) is formed dominantly of serpentinized peridotite with lesser gabbro, and Atlantis Bank (57°E, Southwest Indian Ridge) is dominated by gabbro. Localization of brittle strain at Atlantis Massif occurred by reaction-softening processes associated with metasomatic alteration of peridotite and serpentmite to amphibole-, chlorite- and talc-bearing assemblages. Ductile strain at Atlantis Massif and Atlantis Bank is localized into intervals of highly-fractionated, oxide-rich gabbro. Two-oxide geothermometry of gabbro indicates that it was not penetratively deformed below ˜500°C. Denuded peridotite at Atlantis Massif is host to hydrothermal circulation driven in part by exothermic serpentinization reactions. Serpentinization decreases the seismic velocity of peridotite and leads to acquisition of a magnetic signature. Venting of highly-alkaline, methane- and hydrogen-rich serpentinization-derived fluids leads to lithification of seafloor carbonate ooze by precipitation of carbonate cement in a zone of mixing with "normal" seawater. This process may be the primary depositional mechanism of

  2. The Izu Peninsula, Japan: Zircon geochronology reveals a record of intra-oceanic rear-arc magmatism in an accreted block of Izu-Bonin upper crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kenichiro; Fiske, Richard S.; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Oikawa, Teruki; Isobe, Ichiyo; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    The Izu Peninsula, central Japan, is situated in a zone where the active intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin arc has been colliding end-on with the mainland Honshu arc for the past 15 million years. As a result of this arc-arc collision, parts of the submarine Izu-Bonin upper crustal sequences have been accreted and uplifted to form the Izu Peninsula, exposing seafloor volcaniclastic deposits, associated lava flows, and coeval intrusive bodies. Parts of this sequence have been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, and these altered rocks have previously been interpreted as representative of hypothetical widespread Middle Miocene basement that presumably underlay northern Izu-Bonin arc volcanoes. New zircon U-Pb ages presented here, however, show that both fresh and altered volcanic sequences exposed in Izu Peninsula are broadly contemporaneous and were products of the same Late Miocene to Pleistocene magmatism. Geochemical characteristics of these sequences show them to have formed in the Izu-Bonin rear-arc environment, providing an unusual opportunity to investigate in detail the growth and architecture of a rear-arc region in an active intra-oceanic arc. Moreover, zircon ages from altered basal units of Kozushima and Niijima, Quaternary volcanic islands in the northern Izu-Bonin rear-arc, show that these islands rest on units only slightly older (< 1 Ma) than the main body of these subaerial edifices, not, as previously believed, part of a regional older Miocene basement. The near-continuum growth of these arc volcanoes and their underlying successions, plus the absence of a distinctly older basement underlying the Izu Peninsula and northern Izu-Bonin arc, provide new insight into upper crust development in an intra-oceanic, convergent margin environment.

  3. Geochemistry of gabbros and basaltic dykes from the upper/lower oceanic crust boundary: New data from IODP Expedition 335 (ODP Site 1256, Cocos Plate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, M.; Adachi, Y.; Miyashita, S.; Kurz, M. D.; Roy, P.

    2012-12-01

    ODP Hole 1256D (Cocos plate), a borehole in a 15 m.y old oceanic crust formed at a superfast spreading ridge, was deepened down to 1521.6 meters below seafloor (mbsf) during IODP Expedition 335. The lower part of the borehole (>1340 mbsf) crosscuts a series of variably altered lithologies interpreted as marking the transition from upper to lower crust (top to bottom): basaltic sheeted then granoblastic dykes, a ~50 m gabbro screen (Gabbro 1), a ~20 m interval of granoblastic dykes (Dyke Screen 1), a ~20 m gabbro screen (Gabbro 2) then a second interval of granoblastic dykes. We present the results of an XRF and ICPMS study performed on 3 cored granoblastic dikes from this last interval, and on a basalt, 5 granoblastic dikes and two gabbroic rocks retrieved during junk basket runs during Expedition 335. The basalt and granoblastic dikes have MORB type compositions similar to that of the variably altered basalt samples and granoblastic dikes cored during the previous expeditions at Hole 1256D. Expedition 335 granoblastic dikes are characterized by their depletion in lithophile trace elements (Yb~2-3 ppm) similar to those of the granoblastic dikes cored below Gabbro 2, which represent the most depleted end-member of the basaltic dikes previously found at Site 1256 (Yb~2.5-6 ppm). We interpret this signature as evidence that the Expedition 335 granoblastic dikes come from the bottom of Hole 1256D (at Gabbro 2 lower interface and below) rather than from shallower levels. The two gabbros (olivine gabbronorite and olivine gabbro) have high LOI indicating that they were more affected by low temperature hydration processes than the neighboring granoblastic dikes. Their composition is similar to that of the less evolved end-members of the gabbroic rock suite previously sampled at Hole 1256D, which were found in the Gabbro 1 interval. They have relatively high Mg# (70-72) and Ni (200-280 ppm), reflecting their modal olivine content. Although they are slightly depleted

  4. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    SciTech Connect

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project. Results: The model

  5. Numerical simulation and preliminary analysis on ocean waves during Typhoon Nesat in South China Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jichao; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang

    2014-05-01

    Using the wave model WAVEWATCH III (WW3), we simulated the generation and propagation of typhoon waves in the South China Sea and adjacent areas during the passage of typhoon Nesat (2011). In the domain 100°-145°E and 0°-35°N, the model was forced by the cross-calibrated multi-platform (CCMP) wind fields of September 15 to October 5, 2011. We then validated the simulation results against wave radar data observed from an oil platform and altimeter data from the Jason-2 satellite. The simulated waves were characterized by five points along track using the Spectrum Integration Method (SIM) and the Spectrum Partitioning Method (SPM), by which wind sea and swell components of the 1D and 2D wave spectra are separated. There was reasonable agreement between the model results and observations, although the WW3 wave model may underestimate swell wave height. Significant wave heights are large along the typhoon track and are noticeably greater on the right of the track than on the left. Swells from the east are largely unable to enter the South China Sea because of the obstruction due to the Philippine Islands. During the initial stage and later period of the typhoon, swells at the five points were generated by the propagation of waves that were created by typhoons Haitang and Nalgae. Of the two methods, the 2D SPM method is more accurate than the 1D SIM which overestimates the separation frequency under low winds, but the SIM method is more convenient because it does not require wind speed and wave direction. When the typhoon left the area, the wind sea fractions decreased rapidly. Under similar wind conditions, the points located in the South China Sea are affected less than those points situated in the open sea because of the influence of the complex internal topography of the South China Sea. The results reveal the characteristic wind sea and swell features of the South China Sea and adjacent areas in response to typhoon Nesat, and provide a reference for swell

  6. Coupling of Oceanic and Continental Crust During Eocene Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From the Monte Rosa Nappe, Western Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Skora, S.; Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    Subduction of continental crust to HP-UHP metamorphic conditions requires overcoming density contrasts that are unfavorable to deep burial, whereas exhumation of these rocks can be reasonably explained through buoyancy-assisted transport in the subduction channel to more shallow depths. In the western Alps, both continental and oceanic lithosphere has been subducted to eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. The burial and exhumation histories of these sections of lithosphere bear directly on the dynamics of subduction and the stacking of units within the subduction channel. We address the burial history of the continental crust with high precision U-Pb rutile and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the eclogite-facies Monte Rosa nappe (MR), western Alps, Italy. U-Pb rutile ages from quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the MR, Gressoney Valley, Italy, indicate that it was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 +/- 0.6 Ma. The sample area (Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz, 2001) consists of eclogite boudins that are surrounded by micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480-570°C, >1.3-1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. Lu-Hf geochronology of garnet from a chloritoid-talc-garnet-phengite-quartz-calcite-pyrite - chalcopyrite bearing boudin within talc-chloritoid whiteschists of the MR, Val d'Ayas, Italy (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Pawlig, 2001) yields an age of 40.54 +/- 0.36 Ma. The talc-chloritoid whiteschists from the area record pressures and temperatures of 1.6-2.4 GPa and 500-530°C (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Le Bayon et al., 2006) indicating near UHP metamorphic conditions. Based on the age, P-T, and textural

  7. Ocean-Atmosphere Environments of Antarctic-Region Cold-Air Mesocyclones: Evaluation of Reanalyses for Contrasting Adjacent 10-Day Periods ("Macro-Weather") in Winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, A. M.; Auger, J.; Birkel, S. D.; Maasch, K. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Claud, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale cyclones in cold-air outbreaks (mesocyclones) feature in the weather and climate of the Antarctic (e.g., Ross Sea) and sub-antarctic (Drake Passage). They adversely impact field operations, and influence snowfall, the ice-sheet mass balance, and sea-air energy fluxes. Although individual mesocyclones are poorly represented on reanalyses, these datasets robustly depict the upper-ocean and troposphere environments in which multiple mesocyclones typically form. A spatial metric of mesocyclone activity—the Meso-Cyclogenesis Potential (MCP)—used ERA-40 anomaly fields of: sea surface temperature (SST) minus marine air temperature (MAT), near-surface winds, 500 hPa air temperature, and the sea-ice edge location. MCP maps composited by teleconnection phases for 1979-2001, broadly correspond to short-period satellite "climatologies" of mesocyclones. Here, we assess 3 reanalysis datasets (CFSR, ERA-I and MERRA) for their reliably to depict MCP patterns on weekly to sub-monthly periods marked by strong regional shifts in mesocyclone activity (frequencies, track densities) occurring during a La Niña winter: June 21-30, 1999 (SE Indian Ocean) and September 1-10, 1999 (Ross Sea sector). All reanalyses depict the marked variations in upper ocean and atmosphere variables between adjacent 10-day periods. Slight differences may owe to model resolution or internal components (land surface, coupled ocean models), and/or how the observations are assimilated. For June 21-30, positive SST-MAT, southerly winds, proximity to the ice edge, and negative T500, accompany increased meso-cyclogenesis. However, for September 1-10, surface forcing does not explain frequent comma cloud "polar lows" north-east of the Ross Sea. Inclusion of the upper-level diffluence (e.g., from Z300 field) in the MCP metric, better depicts the observed mesocyclone activity. MCP patterns on these "macro-weather" time scales appear relatively insensitive to the choice of reanalysis.

  8. Oceanic transform earthquakes with unusual mechanisms or locations - Relation to fault geometry and state of stress in the adjacent lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Cecily J.; Bergman, Eric A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a search for transform earthquakes departing from the pattern whereby they occur on the principal transform displacement zone (PTDZ) and have strike-slip mechanisms consistent with transform-parallel motion. The search was conducted on the basis of source mechanisms and locations taken from the Harvard centroid moment tensor catalog and the bulletin of the International Seismological Center. The source mechanisms and centroid depths of 10 such earthquakes on the St. Paul's, Marathon, Owen, Heezen, Tharp, Menard, and Rivera transforms are determined from inversions of long-period body waveforms. Much of the anomalous earthquake activity on oceanic transforms is associated with complexities in the geometry of the PTDZ or the presence of large structural features that may influence slip on the fault.

  9. Preliminary Results from a Gas Tracer Injection Experiment in the Upper Oceanic Crust on the Eastern Flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, N. M.; Clark, J. F.; Fisher, A. T.; Wheat, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first results from a gas tracer injection experiment in the ocean crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an area of vigorous hydrothermal circulation. A mixture of tracers was injected in Hole 1362B in 2010, during IODP Expedition 327, as part of a 24-hour pumping experiment. Fluid samples were subsequently collected from this hole and three additional holes (1026B, 1362A, and 1301A), located 300 to 500 m away. The array of holes is located on 3.5 M.y. old seafloor, and oriented N20°E, subparallel to the Endeavor Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge, 100 km to the west. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was injected at a concentration of 0.0192 mol/min, with fluid pumping rate of 6.7 L/s for 20.2 h, resulting in a mean concentration of 47.6 μM and 23.3 mol of SF6 being added to crustal fluids. Borehole fluid samples were collected in copper coils using osmotic pumps attached to the wellheads of several long-term, subseafloor observatories (CORKs). These samples were recovered from the seafloor using a remotely-operated vehicle in 2011 and 2013. Analyses of SF6 concentrations in samples recovered in 2011 indicate the first arrival of SF6 in Hole 1301A, 550 m south of the injection Hole 1362B, ~265 days after injection. This suggests that the most rapid lateral transport of gas (at the leading edge of the plume) occurred at ~2 m/day. Samples recovered in 2013 should provide a more complete breakthrough curve, allowing assessment of the mean lateral transport rate. Additional insights will come from analysis of metal salts and particle tracers injected contemporaneously with the SF6, the cross-hole pressure response to injection and a two-year fluid discharge experiment. Additional wellhead samples will be collected in Summer 2014, as will downhole osmosamplers deployed in perforated casing within the upper ocean crust in Holes 1362A and 1362B.

  10. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    PubMed

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting.

  11. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    PubMed

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

  12. Meiofauna assemblages of the Condor Seamount (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and adjacent deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Cattaneo, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto; Santos, Ricardo Serrão

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are currently considered hotspots of biodiversity and biomass for macro- and megabenthic taxa, but knowledge of meiofauna is still limited. Studies have revealed the existence of highly diverse meiofauna assemblages; however most data are mainly qualitative or focused only on specific groups, thus preventing comparisons among seamounts and with other deep-sea areas. This study, conducted on Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean), describes variation in abundance, biomass, community structure and biodiversity of benthic meiofauna from five sites located on the Condor Seamount: and one site away from the seamount. While the summit of the seamount hosted the highest alpha biodiversity, the flanks and the bases showed a rich meiofauna assemblage in terms of abundance and biomass. The observed marked differences in grain size composition of sediments reflected the oceanographic conditions impacting different sectors of the Condor seamount, and could play an important role in the spatial distribution of different meiofaunal taxa. Trophic conditions (biochemical composition of organic matter) explained 78% of the variability in the meiofauna biomass pattern while sediment grain influenced the vertical distribution of meiofauna and only partially explained meiofaunal taxa composition. This study provides a further advancement in the knowledge of meiofaunal communities of seamounts. Only a deeper understanding of the whole benthic communities (including meiofauna) will allow to elaborate effective management and conservation tools for seamount ecosystems.

  13. Assessment of Aerosol Radiative Impact over Oceanic Regions Adjacent to Indian Subcontinent using Multi-Satellite Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Satheesh, S. K.; Vinoj, V.; Krishnamoorthy, K.

    2010-10-01

    Using data from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments, we have retrieved regional distribution of aerosol column single scattering albedo (parameter indicative of the relative dominance of aerosol absorption and scattering effects), a most important, but least understood aerosol property in assessing its climate impact. Consequently we provide improved assessment of short wave aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) (on both regional and seasonal scales) estimates over this region. Large gradients in north-south ARF were observed as a consequence of gradients in single scattering albedo as well as aerosol optical depth. The highest ARF (-37 W m-2 at the surface) was observed over the northern Arabian Sea during June to August period (JJA). In general, ARF was higher over northern Bay of Bengal (NBoB) during winter and pre-monsoon period, whereas the ARF was higher over northern Arabian Sea (NAS) during the monsoon and post- monsoon period. The largest forcing observed over NAS during JJA is the consequence of large amounts of desert dust transported from the west Asian dust sources. High as well as seasonally invariant aerosol single scattering albedos (~0.98) were observed over the southern Indian Ocean region far from continents. The ARF estimates based on direct measurements made at a remote island location, Minicoy (8.3°N, 73°E) in the southern Arabian Sea are in good agreement with the estimates made following multisatellite analysis.

  14. Methane-generated( ) pockmarks on young, thickly sedimented oceanic crust in the Arctic. Vestnesa ridge, Fram strait

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K. ); Sundvor, E. ); Max, M.D. ); Pfirman, S.L. )

    1994-03-01

    Acoustic backscatter imagery in the Farm strait (between Greenland and Spitzbergen) reveals a 1-3-km-wide, 50-km-long belt of -50 pointlike backscatter objects decorating the -1300-m-deep crest of Vestnesa Ridge, a 1 [minus]> 2 km thick sediment drift possibly underlain by a transform-parallel oceanic basement ridge (crustal ages approximately 3-14 Ma). A 3.5 kHz seismic-reflection profile indicates that at least some objects are pockmarks approximately 100-200 m in diameter and 10-20 m deep. The pockmarks (possibly also mud dipairs) may have been formed by evolution of methane generated by the decomposition of marine organic matter in the Vestnesa ridge sediment drift. The ridge may be underlain by an anticlinical carapace of methane-hydrate calculated to be 200-300 m thick, comparable to the hydrate thickness measured just to the south. The rising methane would collect in the ridge-crest trap, intermittently escaping to the sea floor. This hypothesis is supported by multichannel evidence for bright spots and bottom-simulating reflectors in the area. The pockmark belt may also be located above a transcurrent fault. Sediment slumps on the flanks of Vestnesa ridge and northeast of Molloy ridge may have been triggered by plate-boundary earthquakes and facilitated by methane hydrates. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Microbial borehole observatories deployed within the oceanic crust: Design considerations and initial results from long-term colonization experiments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bach, W.; Becker, K.; Fisher, A. T.; Hulme, S.; Toner, B. M.; Wheat, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    Borehole observatories developed for long-term sampling and monitoring in the subseafloor of the deep ocean must satisfy design and operation requirements that are similar to systems deployed on land. Many of these systems are used to achieve simultaneous hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological goals, requiring innovative design, installation, and operation. There are major logistical challenges for subseafloor observatories, the foremost being having to remotely access sites kilometers underwater using multiple oceanographic platforms (drill ship, surface ship, submersible, remotely-operated vehicle) and reliance on autonomous devices that are serviced only after several years. Contamination of the analytical environment is probable during installation operations, requiring vigilance during analysis for interpretation. Subseafloor observatories also require self-contained and robust instrumentation that can withstand long-term exposure to seawater at high pressures, elevated temperatures, a variety of redox conditions, and little to no access to external power. Although subseafloor borehole observatories have been in development for hydrologic monitoring for two decades, the inclusion of experimentation to examine the deep biosphere in the marine subsurface has only recently been developed. Results from some of the first microbial colonization experiments in young basaltic rocks on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge demonstrate in situ microbial-mineral interactions that can be identified using complementary geochemical and microbiological techniques. Mineral surfaces were first colonized by iron oxidizing bacteria, and as fluid composition changed, the microbial community became dominated by Firmicutes bacteria, some of which are phylogenetically similar to microbial communities observed in the terrestrial deep biosphere.

  16. Changes in nematode communities in different physiographic sites of the condor seamount (north-East atlantic ocean) and adjacent sediments.

    PubMed

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Several seamounts are known as 'oases' of high abundances and biomass and hotspots of biodiversity in contrast to the surrounding deep-sea environments. Recent studies have indicated that each single seamount can exhibit a high intricate habitat turnover. Information on alpha and beta diversity of single seamount is needed in order to fully understand seamounts contribution to regional and global biodiversity. However, while most of the seamount research has been focused on summits, studies considering the whole seamount structure are still rather poor. In the present study we analysed abundance, biomass and diversity of nematodes collected in distinct physiographic sites and surrounding sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean). Our study revealed higher nematode biomass in the seamount bases and values 10 times higher in the Condor sediments than in the far-field site. Although biodiversity indices did not showed significant differences comparing seamount sites and far-field sites, significant differences were observed in term of nematode composition. The Condor summit harboured a completely different nematode community when compared to the other seamount sites, with a high number of exclusive species and important differences in term of nematode trophic diversity. The oceanographic conditions observed around the Condor Seamount and the associated sediment mixing, together with the high quality of food resources available in seamount base could explain the observed patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that seamounts maintain high biodiversity through heightened beta diversity and showed that not only summits but also seamount bases can support rich benthic community in terms of standing stocks and diversity. Furthermore functional diversity of nematodes strongly depends on environmental conditions link to the local setting and seamount structure. This finding should be considered in future studies on seamounts, especially in

  17. Changes in nematode communities in different physiographic sites of the condor seamount (north-East atlantic ocean) and adjacent sediments.

    PubMed

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Several seamounts are known as 'oases' of high abundances and biomass and hotspots of biodiversity in contrast to the surrounding deep-sea environments. Recent studies have indicated that each single seamount can exhibit a high intricate habitat turnover. Information on alpha and beta diversity of single seamount is needed in order to fully understand seamounts contribution to regional and global biodiversity. However, while most of the seamount research has been focused on summits, studies considering the whole seamount structure are still rather poor. In the present study we analysed abundance, biomass and diversity of nematodes collected in distinct physiographic sites and surrounding sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean). Our study revealed higher nematode biomass in the seamount bases and values 10 times higher in the Condor sediments than in the far-field site. Although biodiversity indices did not showed significant differences comparing seamount sites and far-field sites, significant differences were observed in term of nematode composition. The Condor summit harboured a completely different nematode community when compared to the other seamount sites, with a high number of exclusive species and important differences in term of nematode trophic diversity. The oceanographic conditions observed around the Condor Seamount and the associated sediment mixing, together with the high quality of food resources available in seamount base could explain the observed patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that seamounts maintain high biodiversity through heightened beta diversity and showed that not only summits but also seamount bases can support rich benthic community in terms of standing stocks and diversity. Furthermore functional diversity of nematodes strongly depends on environmental conditions link to the local setting and seamount structure. This finding should be considered in future studies on seamounts, especially in

  18. Changes in Nematode Communities in Different Physiographic Sites of the Condor Seamount (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and Adjacent Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Several seamounts are known as ‘oases’ of high abundances and biomass and hotspots of biodiversity in contrast to the surrounding deep-sea environments. Recent studies have indicated that each single seamount can exhibit a high intricate habitat turnover. Information on alpha and beta diversity of single seamount is needed in order to fully understand seamounts contribution to regional and global biodiversity. However, while most of the seamount research has been focused on summits, studies considering the whole seamount structure are still rather poor. In the present study we analysed abundance, biomass and diversity of nematodes collected in distinct physiographic sites and surrounding sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean). Our study revealed higher nematode biomass in the seamount bases and values 10 times higher in the Condor sediments than in the far-field site. Although biodiversity indices did not showed significant differences comparing seamount sites and far-field sites, significant differences were observed in term of nematode composition. The Condor summit harboured a completely different nematode community when compared to the other seamount sites, with a high number of exclusive species and important differences in term of nematode trophic diversity. The oceanographic conditions observed around the Condor Seamount and the associated sediment mixing, together with the high quality of food resources available in seamount base could explain the observed patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that seamounts maintain high biodiversity through heightened beta diversity and showed that not only summits but also seamount bases can support rich benthic community in terms of standing stocks and diversity. Furthermore functional diversity of nematodes strongly depends on environmental conditions link to the local setting and seamount structure. This finding should be considered in future studies on seamounts, especially in

  19. The Relative Effects of Wave Climatology and Tidal Currents on Beach Processes Adjacent to a Major Tidal Inlet, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P. L.; Hanes, D. M.; Ruggiero, P.

    2004-12-01

    Identifying the processes that control the morphological evolution of beaches adjacent to tidal inlets is challenging due to the complex interactions between waves, currents, and bathymetry, each with high spatial and temporal variability. In the shadow of the large ebb tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, CA, the wave refraction patterns at Ocean Beach are complex and the effects of the offshore wave climate on beach and nearshore morphology cannot be assessed simply by analyzing data from an offshore wave buoy. Instead, the United States Geological Survey has employed a multi-faceted approach that links wave data with numerical modeling, periodic three- dimensional topographic beach surveys, cross shore bathymetric surveys using personal watercraft, onshore grain-size analysis using a bed sediment camera, and a multi-beam survey covering the entire mouth of San Francisco Bay. Initial analyses demonstrate that the spatial distribution of wave energy and direction controls short-term (i.e. days to years) beach evolution, including the location of erosional "hot spots." These conclusions are supported by topographic LIDAR surveys that covered the study area in 1997, 1998 and 2002, bracketing the last major El Niño/ Southern Oscillation cycles. In this study, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) modeling is combined with high resolution bathymetry and high resolution beach surveys to quantify short-term morphological change and to provide links to nearshore processes. Initial SWAN results show a focusing of wave energy at the location of an erosional hot-spot on the southern end of Ocean Beach during the prevailing northwest swell. During El Niño winters, swell out of the west and southwest dominates the region, and although the wave energy is focused further to the north on Ocean Beach, the oblique wave approach sets up a strong northerly littoral drift, thereby starving the southern end of sediment, leaving it increasingly vulnerable to wave attack when

  20. Recycling of oceanic crust from a stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone: Evidence from Cenozoic continental basalts in Zhejiang Province, SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Qing; Ma, Chang-Qian; Robinson, Paul T.; Zhou, Qin; Liu, Ming-Liang

    2015-08-01

    Cenozoic continental basalts from Zhejiang Province, southeast China are tholeiitic to weakly alkalic in composition, with moderate MgO contents (6-11 wt.%) and an average Mg# of 62. They display typical OIB-like trace element features, including enrichment in most incompatible elements, both LILE and LREE, and negative K, Pb, Zr, Hf anomalies. In particular, they are characterized by high Fe/Mn (73 ± 5), La/Yb (19 ± 6) and Nb/Ta (18.8 ± 0.4) ratios, which can be attributed to the presence of residual clinopyroxene, garnet and rutile in the mantle source. Based on these minerals, the following hybrid source rocks are hypothesized: garnet pyroxenite/eclogite and peridotite. Clinopyroxene-liquid thermobarometry indicates clinopyroxene crystallization temperatures of > 1257 °C. This is higher than the assumed temperature at the base of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) (~ 1220 °C) beneath Zhejiang, thus the magmas were presumably derived from the asthenosphere. Some typical geochemical features such as negative K, Pb anomalies, positive Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta anomalies and the extremely high Os isotopic signatures, suggest participation of EM-like mantle sources, indicative of ancient subducted oceanic crust. (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7037-0.7046) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512832-0.512990) isotope ratios point to the presence of mixed components in the source region, i.e., DMM, EM1 and EM2. Recent seismic tomographic images of the mantle beneath Zhejiang suggest the presence of a subducted slab of oceanic lithosphere in the transition zone. Based on the combined geophysical and geochemical evidence, we propose that the major source of the Zhejiang basaltic magmas was the ancient subducted oceanic slab in the transition zone with an EM-like signature. The other magma sources include depleted asthenospheric peridotite possessing a DMM-like signature. The dynamics of this upwelling hybrid magma was apparently related to westward subduction of the Pacific plate underneath the

  1. Off-shore to near-shore transects of ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin Tracey A. Conrad1, James R. Hein2, Adina Paytan1 1University of California Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (tconrad@ucsc.edu) 2USGS, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA (jhein@usgs.gov)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, T. A.; Hein, J. R.; Paytan, A.

    2012-12-01

    Marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts growing on seamounts along the California Margin (CM) are influenced by terrestrial and biogenic input. These continental margin crusts have higher concentrations of Si, K, Fe, Na, Ag, Cr, B, and Ba than Fe-Mn crusts from the global open-ocean. Al is also higher but only relative to Pacific open-ocean crusts. These relative enrichments may reflect the high primary productivity near the CM caused by seasonal upwelling and high sediment transport to the region from river/eolian input and cliff erosion. Two transects with samples from five seamounts each are used to compare seaward changes. Transect A includes analyses of 66 bulk samples from Flint, Ben, and Little Joe seamounts, Patton Escarpment, and Northeast Bank. It spans ~400 km of seafloor heading ~58N and coming within ~220 km of the shoreline with samples collected at water depths ranging from 570-2925 m. Transect B includes analyses of 136 bulk samples from Adam, Hoss, San Marcos, San Juan, and Rodriguez seamounts at water depths ranging from 692-3880 m. This transect spans ~240 km heading ~10N and comes within ~75 km of the shoreline near the base of the continental slope. For both transects, mean water depth increases with mean longitude, and latitude is fairly constant varying by approximately 2 degree latitude for transect A and 1degree for B. Both transects show statistically significant trends at the 99% confidence level for element concentrations versus water depth. Concentrations of Fe, Ca, P, Co, and Pb increase as water depth decreases. For transect (A), Mn and Mg also follow this trend, as do Mo and Al for transect (B); Mn also shows this trend for transect (B) but at the 95% confidence level. For both transects, Cu and Zn show the opposite trend, with concentrations increasing in crusts with increasing water depth. For Transect (B), Ni and Al also show this trend. Si and K show no statistically significant trends for either transect. In open-ocean samples

  2. Continental crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pakiser, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The structure of the Earth’s crust (the outer shell of the earth above the M-discontinuity) has been intensively studied in many places by use of geophysical methods. The velocity of seismic compressional waves in the crust and in the upper mantle varies from place to place in the conterminous United States. The average crust is thick in the eastern two-thirds of the United States, in which the crustal and upper-mantle velocities tend to be high. The average crust is thinner in the western one-third of the United States, in which these velocities tend to be low. The concept of eastern and western superprovinces can be used to classify these differences. Crustal and upper-mantle densities probably vary directly with compressional-wave velocity, leading to the conclusion that isostasy is accomplished by the variation in densities of crustal and upper-mantle rocks as well as in crustal thickness, and that there is no single, generally valid isostatic model. The nature of the M-discontinuity is still speculative.

  3. Vertical tectonics at a continental crust-oceanic plateau plate boundary zone: Fission track thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Mora, AndréS.; GuzmáN, Georgina; Ojeda, GermáN.; CortéS, Elizabeth; van der Lelij, Roelant

    2011-08-01

    The topographically prominent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta forms part of a faulted block of continental crust located along the northern boundary of the South American Plate, hosts the highest elevation in the world (˜5.75 km) whose local base is at sea level, and juxtaposes oceanic plateau rocks of the Caribbean Plate. Quantification of the amount and timing of exhumation constrains interpretations of the history of the plate boundary, and the driving forces of rock uplift along the active margin. The Sierra Nevada Province of the southernmost Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta exhumed at elevated rates (≥0.2 Km/My) during 65-58 Ma in response to the collision of the Caribbean Plateau with northwestern South America. A second pulse of exhumation (≥0.32 Km/My) during 50-40 Ma was driven by underthrusting of the Caribbean Plate beneath northern South America. Subsequent exhumation at 40-25 Ma (≥0.15 Km/My) is recorded proximal to the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga Fault. More northerly regions of the Sierra Nevada Province exhumed rapidly during 26-29 Ma (˜0.7 Km/My). Further northward, the Santa Marta Province exhumed at elevated rates during 30-25 Ma and 25-16 Ma. The highest exhumation rates within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta progressed toward the northwest via the propagation of NW verging thrusts. Exhumation is not recorded after ˜16 Ma, which is unexpected given the high elevation and high erosive power of the climate, implying that rock and surface uplift that gave rise to the current topography was very recent (i.e., ≤1 Ma?), and there has been insufficient time to expose the fossil apatite partial annealing zone.

  4. Granitic Perspectives on the Generation and Secular Evolution of the Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, A. I. S.; Hawkesworth, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    Every geologist is acquainted with the principle of "uniformitarianism," which holds that present-day processes are the key to those that operated in the past. But the extent this applies to the processes driving the growth and differentiation of the Earth's continental crust remains a matter of debate. Unlike its dense oceanic counterpart, which is recycled back into the mantle by subduction within 200 Ma (see Chapter 3.13), the continental crust comprises buoyant quartzofeldspathic materials and is difficult to destroy by subduction. The continental crust is, therefore, the principal record of how conditions on the Earth have changed, and how processes of crust generation have evolved through geological time. It preserves evidence of secular variation in crustal compositions, and thus the way in which the crust has formed throughout Earth's history. Exploring the nature and origin of these variations is the focus of this chapter.Continental rocks are highly differentiated, and so the crust is enriched in incompatible components compared to the primeval chondritic composition (see Chapter 3.01). Of these, water is perhaps the most relevant, both for the origin and evolution of life, and also for many models of crust generation and differentiation. Similarly, the mass of continental crust is just 0.57% of the silicate Earth, and yet it contains ˜35% of the potassium (using the crustal composition estimates in Table 1). Continental rocks comprise the buoyant shell that was once thought to float on a basaltic substratum, inferred from the wide distribution of chemically similar continental flood basalts (von Cotta, 1858). The links with the adjacent oceans were perhaps unclear, "the greatest mountains confront the widest oceans" ( Dana, 1873). Yet, it has long been argued that the rock that has the most similar composition to the average continental crust, andesite, may be generated by fractional crystallization of basalt ( Daly (1914) and Bowen (1928); but see the

  5. Crusts: biological

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  6. Devonian Nb-enriched basalts and andesites of north-central Tibet: Evidence for the early subduction of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the North Qiangtang Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongrui; Yang, Tiannan; Hou, Zengqian; Bian, Yeke

    2016-07-01

    The early evolution of the Tethyan Ocean in north-central Tibet is currently poorly constrained. A sequence of volcanic rocks ranging from basic to intermediate in composition has been identified in the Zaduo area of the North Qiangtang Block. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons from a sample of Zaduo andesite suggests an eruption age of Late Devonian (~ 380 Ma). The Zaduo volcanic rocks exhibit geochemical characteristics similar to those of typical Nb-enriched basalts, with relatively high Nb, Ta, and Zr contents, resulting in high Nb/La ratios (0.70-1.08) and Nb/U ratios (10.57-34.37). The relative enrichment in high field strength elements, together with positive εNd(t) values of + 4.6 to + 5.8 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70367-0.70532, indicates the Zaduo volcanic rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source metasomatized by silicate melts of a subducted oceanic slab. The occurrence of Nb-enriched volcanic rocks in the North Qiangtang Block suggests that the subduction of Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust was initiated in the Late Devonian. Available geochronological data from ophiolites surrounding the North Qiangtang Block suggest that the subducted slab is most likely the Longmucuo-Shuanghu Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust.

  7. Nitrogen concentration and δ 15N of altered oceanic crust obtained on ODP Legs 129 and 185: Insights into alteration-related nitrogen enrichment and the nitrogen subduction budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Bebout, Gray E.; Idleman, Bruce D.

    2007-05-01

    Knowledge of the subduction input flux of nitrogen (N) in altered oceanic crust (AOC) is critical in any attempt to mass-balance N across arc-trench systems on a global or individual-margin basis. We have employed sealed-tube, carrier-gas-based methods to examine the N concentrations and isotopic compositions of AOC. Analyses of 53 AOC samples recovered on DSDP/ODP legs from the North and South Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Antarctic oceans (with larger numbers of samples from Site 801 outboard of the Mariana trench and Site 1149 outboard of the Izu trench), and 14 composites for the AOC sections at Site 801, give N concentrations of 1.3 to 18.2 ppm and δ 15N Air of -11.6‰ to +8.3‰, indicating significant N enrichment probably during the early stages of hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic basalts. The N-δ 15N modeling for samples from Sites 801 and 1149 ( n = 39) shows that the secondary N may come from (1) the sedimentary N in the intercalated sediments and possibly overlying sediments via fluid-sediment/rock interaction, and (2) degassed mantle N 2 in seawater via alteration-related abiotic reduction processes. For all Site 801 samples, weak correlation of N and K 2O contents indicates that the siting of N in potassic alteration phases strongly depends on N availability and is possibly influenced by highly heterogeneous temperature and redox conditions during hydrothermal alteration. The upper 470-m AOC recovered by ODP Legs 129 and 185 delivers approximately 8 × 10 5 g/km N annually into the Mariana margin. If the remaining less-altered oceanic crust (assuming 6.5 km, mostly dikes and gabbros) has MORB-like N of 1.5 ppm, the entire oceanic crust transfers 5.1 × 10 6 g/km N annually into that trench. This N input flux is twice as large as the annual N input of 2.5 × 10 6 g/km in seafloor sediments subducting into the same margin, demonstrating that the N input in oceanic crust, and its isotopic consequences, must be considered in any assessment

  8. Large-scale distribution and activity of prokaryotes in deep-sea surface sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Donato; Molari, Massimiliano; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Baldrighi, Elisa; Pala, Claudia; Manini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The deep-sea represents a substantial portion of the biosphere and has a major influence on carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry. Benthic deep-sea prokaryotes have crucial roles in this ecosystem, with their recycling of organic matter from the photic zone. Despite this, little is known about the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes in the surface deep-sea sediments. To assess the influence of environmental and trophic variables on the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes, we investigated the prokaryotic assemblage composition (Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio) and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent North Atlantic Ocean. Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas. The abundance of prokaryotes was positively correlated with the sedimentary concentration of protein, an indicator of the quality and bioavailability of organic matter. Moving eastwards, the Bacteria contribution to the total prokaryotes decreased, which appears to be linked to the more oligotrophic conditions of the Eastern Mediterranean basins. Despite the increased importance of Archaea, the contributions of Crenarchaeota Marine Group I to the total pool was relatively constant across the investigated stations, with the exception of Matapan-Vavilov Deep, in which Euryarchaeota Marine Group II dominated. Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites. Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments. Longitude was also important in explaining the observed variability, which suggests that the overlying water masses might have a

  9. Large-Scale Distribution and Activity of Prokaryotes in Deep-Sea Surface Sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the Adjacent Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, Donato; Molari, Massimiliano; d’Errico, Giuseppe; Baldrighi, Elisa; Pala, Claudia; Manini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The deep-sea represents a substantial portion of the biosphere and has a major influence on carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry. Benthic deep-sea prokaryotes have crucial roles in this ecosystem, with their recycling of organic matter from the photic zone. Despite this, little is known about the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes in the surface deep-sea sediments. To assess the influence of environmental and trophic variables on the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes, we investigated the prokaryotic assemblage composition (Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio) and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent North Atlantic Ocean. Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas. The abundance of prokaryotes was positively correlated with the sedimentary concentration of protein, an indicator of the quality and bioavailability of organic matter. Moving eastwards, the Bacteria contribution to the total prokaryotes decreased, which appears to be linked to the more oligotrophic conditions of the Eastern Mediterranean basins. Despite the increased importance of Archaea, the contributions of Crenarchaeota Marine Group I to the total pool was relatively constant across the investigated stations, with the exception of Matapan-Vavilov Deep, in which Euryarchaeota Marine Group II dominated. Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites. Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments. Longitude was also important in explaining the observed variability, which suggests that the overlying water masses might have a

  10. Shearing within lower crust during progressive retrogression: Structural analysis of gabbroic rocks from the Godzilla Mullion, an oceanic core complex in the Parece Vela backarc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigane, Yumiko; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ohara, Yasuhiko

    2008-10-01

    Microstructural and petrological analyses of gabbroic rocks sampled from the Godzilla Mullion, located along the Parece Vela Basin spreading ridge (Parece Vela Rift), Philippine Sea, reveal the development of a ductile shear zone in the lower crust. The shear zone is interpreted to represent a detachment fault within an oceanic core complex. Microstructures indicative of intense deformation, characterized by porphyroclastic textures consisting dominantly of coarse plagioclase porphyroclasts and lesser clinopyroxene porphyroclasts in a fine-grained matrix, are observed within samples of gabbroic rocks dredged near the breakaway area of the Godzilla Mullion (dredge site D6). Samples are classified into three types based upon the grain-size of fine-grained plagioclase in the matrix: coarse (80-130 µm), medium (25 µm), and fine (˜ 10 µm). Although the chemical composition of plagioclase porphyroclasts is consistently An 40-50 among all sample types, the compositions of fine grains in the matrix vary with decreasing grain-size, being An 40-50 for the coarse-type, An 30-40 for the medium-type, and An 5-30 for the fine-type. This finding implies that the composition of fine-grained plagioclase in the matrix is related to the following retrograde reaction that occurred during deformation: clinopyroxene + plagioclase + Fe-Ti oxide + fluid → hornblende + plagioclase. Plagioclase crystal-preferred orientations also show a gradual change with grain-size, varying from a (010)[100] pattern for the coarse-type, (010)[100] and (001)[100] patterns for the medium-type, and a weak (001)[100] pattern or random orientations for the fine-type. These patterns are interpreted to result from a change in the deformation mechanism of plagioclase from dislocation creep to grain-size-sensitive creep with decreasing temperature, thereby leading to strain softening and localization during cooling. Although secondary amphibole occurs ubiquitously within all samples, the chemical composition

  11. Shearing within lower crust during progressive retrogression: structural analysis of gabbroic rocks from the Godzilla Mullion, an oceanic core complex in the Parece Vela backarc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigane, Y.; Michibayashi, K.; Ohara, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Microstructural and petrological analyses of gabbroic rocks sampled from the Godzilla Mullion, located along the Parece Vela Basin spreading ridge (Parece Vela Rift), Philippine Sea. We reveal the development of a ductile shear zone in the lower crust. The shear zone is interpreted to represent a detachment fault within an oceanic core complex. Microstructures indicative of intense deformation, characterized by porphyroclastic textures consisting dominantly of coarse plagioclase porphyroclasts and lesser clinopyroxene porphyroclasts in a fine-grained matrix, are observed within samples of gabbroic rocks dredged near the breakaway area of the Godzilla Mullion (dredge site D6). Samples are classified into three types based upon the grain size of fine-grained plagioclase in the matrix: coarse (80--130micron), medium (25micron), and fine (~10micron). Although the chemical composition of plagioclase porphyroclasts is consistently An 40--50 among all sample types, the compositions of fine grains in the matrix vary with decreasing grain size, being An 40--50 for the coarse-type, An 30--40 for the medium-type, and An 5--30 for the fine-type. This finding implies that the composition of fine-grained plagioclase in the matrix is related to the following retrograde reaction that occurred during deformation: clinopyroxene + plagioclase + Fe-Ti oxide + fluid - hornblende + plagioclase. Plagioclase crystal-preferred orientations also show a gradual change with grain size and plagioclase composition, varying from a (010)[100] pattern for the coarse-type, (010)[100] and (001)[100] patterns for the medium-type, and a weak (001)[100] pattern or random orientations for the fine-type. These patterns are interpreted to result from a change in the deformation mechanism of plagioclase from dislocation creep to grain-size-sensitive creep with decreasing temperature, thereby leading to strain softening and localization during cooling. Although secondary amphibole occurs ubiquitously within

  12. Crystallographic Preferred Orientations and Seismic Properties of troctolitic rocks from fast-spread lower ocean crust (IODP Expedition 345 at Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ildefonse, B.; Akizawa, N.; Mainprice, D.; Godard, M.; Arai, S.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 345 (Dec 2012 - Feb 2013) recovered the first significant sections of modally layered gabbroic rocks from fast-spread lower ocean crust exposed at the Hess Deep Rift (Gillis et al., 2014, doi:10.1038/nature12778). Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant plutonic rock types recovered, with minor gabbro and gabbronorite. Magmatic foliation is moderate to strong in intervals with simple modal layering but weak to absent in troctolitic intervals, and typically absent in intervals with heterogeneous textures and/or diffuse banding. We present crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) of primary igneous phases (plagioclase, olivine, cpx) in troctolitic samples, measured using the Electron-Backscattered Electron Diffraction (EBSD) technique at Géosciences Montpellier. The samples are divided into 12 coarse-grained troctolites, 3 fine-grained troctolites, 9 clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolites, 1 skeletal olivine-bearing troctolite, and 3 olivine gabbros. Plagioclase CPO are typical magmatic fabrics, dominantly axial-B, or intermediate between axial-B and type P (BA-index ranges from 0.1 to 0.6; Satsukawa et al., 2013, doi:10.5194/se-4-511-2013). BA increases when the [100] point maximum, indicating the mineral lineation, becomes better defined. The coarse-grained troctolite samples, from the troctolite series in Holes U1415 J and P, generally display too large grains for the CPO to be statistically meaningful; fabrics appear poorly defined at the scale of the thin sections. Large olivine grains commonly display subgrains resulting from crystal-plastic deformation. In the other troctolitic samples, the plagioclase fabrics are generally well defined, and vary in intensity (J-index) from 1.8 to 7. The olivine gabbros are from banded intervals in Hole U1415P; they display weak, oblate plagioclase CPO (J = 1.5 to 2, BA < 0.2). CPO are used to model seismic properties of the samples. The fast direction of elastic P-wave propagation in

  13. Behavior of Zn2+, Cd2+, Ba2+ and Pb2+ cations in ferromanganese crusts from the Marcus Wake seamount (Pacific Ocean) in aqueous solutions of metal salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, G. V.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Melnikov, M. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Drozdova, A. N.; Shulga, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of heavy-metal cations in ore minerals of cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts from the Marcus Wake seamount in aqueous solutions of metal salts was studied in experiments. The Zn2+ and Cd2+ cations showed high reactivity and Ba2+ and Pb2+ showed low reactivity. It was found that Zn2+ and Cd2+ cations within the ore mineral composition are mainly absorbed (up to 66%) whereas Pb2+ and Ba2+ are chemically bound (up to 70%). Ore minerals in the crusts are characterized by sorption properties and high ionexchange capacity by these cations (1.94-2.62 mg-equiv/g). The capacity values by heavy-metal cations for ore minerals of the crusts from different areas of the Marcus Wake seamount are close to each other.

  14. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species

    PubMed Central

    Kritsky, Delane C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new) of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae); specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record); Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis cruentata

  15. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new) of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae); specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record); Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis cruentata

  16. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new) of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae); specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record); Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis cruentata

  17. Building the oceanic crust: Insights on volcanic emplacement processes at the hotspot-influenced Galápagos Spreading Center, 92°W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClinton, J. T.; White, S. M.; Colman, A.; Sinton, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) displays a range of axial morphology due to increased magma supply from the adjacent Galápagos mantle plume. Over 30 years of scientific exploration has also documented the associated variations in volcanic terrain, crustal thickness, and geochemistry of erupted basalts, but until recently the fine-scale ("lava flow scale") volcanic features of the GSC had not been investigated. Using the Alvin submersible and aided by near-bottom photographic surveys by TowCam and sub-meter-scale sonar surveys by AUV Sentry, we mapped and sampled 12 individual eruptive units covering ~16km2 of seafloor on the ridge axis of the GSC at 92°W. Variations in AUV Sentry bathymetry and DSL-120A backscatter enabled us to characterize the fine-scale surface morphology within each eruptive unit. Lava flow morphologies within each unit were identified using a neuro-fuzzy classifier which assigns pixels as pillows, lobates, sheets, or fissures by using attributes derived from high-resolution sonar bathymetry and backscatter (McClinton et al., submitted PE&RS). An accuracy assessment indicates approximately 90% agreement between the lava morphology map and an independent set of visual observations. The result of this classification effort is that we are able to quantitatively examine the spatial distribution of lava flow morphology as it relates to the emplacement of lava flows within each eruptive unit at a mid-ocean ridge. Preliminary analyses show that a large, segment-centered volcanic cone which straddles the axial summit graben (the "Empanada") is constructed mostly of pillow lavas, while volcanism in the rifted center of the cone consists of lobate and sheet flows. Conversely, along the rest of the segment, on-axis eruptions consist mainly of pillow lava with most sheet and lobate flows found outside of a small axial summit graben. At least some of these sheet flows are fed by lava channels, suggesting emplacement over distances up to 1km, while

  18. Untangling Magmatic Processes and Hydrothermal Alteration of in situ Superfast Spreading Ocean Crust at ODP/IODP Site 1256 with Fuzzy c-means Cluster Analysis of Rock Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekkers, M. J.; Heslop, D.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Acton, G.; Krasa, D.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated ODP (IODP) Hole 1256D (6.44.1' N, 91.56.1' W) on the Cocos Plate occurs in 15.2 Ma oceanic crust generated by superfast seafloor spreading. Presently, it is the only drill hole that has sampled all three oceanic crust layers in a tectonically undisturbed setting. Here we interpret down-hole trends in several rock-magnetic parameters with fuzzy c-means cluster analysis, a multivariate statistical technique. The parameters include the magnetization ratio, the coercivity ratio, the coercive force, the low-field susceptibility, and the Curie temperature. By their combined, multivariate, analysis the effects of magmatic and hydrothermal processes can be evaluated. The optimal number of clusters - a key point in the analysis because there is no a priori information on this - was determined through a combination of approaches: by calculation of several cluster validity indices, by testing for coherent cluster distributions on non-linear-map plots, and importantly by testing for stability of the cluster solution from all possible starting points. Here, we consider a solution robust if the cluster allocation is independent of the starting configuration. The five-cluster solution appeared to be robust. Three clusters are distinguished in the extrusive segment of the Hole that express increasing hydrothermal alteration of the lavas. The sheeted dike and gabbro portions are characterized by two clusters, both with higher coercivities than in lava samples. Extensive alteration, however, can obliterate magnetic property differences between lavas, dikes, and gabbros. The imprint of thermochemical alteration on the iron-titanium oxides is only partially related to the porosity of the rocks. All clusters display rock magnetic characteristics in line with a stable NRM. This implies that the entire sampled sequence of ocean crust can contribute to marine magnetic anomalies. Determination of the absolute paleointensity with thermal techniques is

  19. Internal time marker (Q1) of the Cretaceous super chron in the Bay of Bengal - a new age constraint for the oceanic crust evolved between India and Elan Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. S.; Ismaiel, M.; Karlapati, S.; Saha, D.; Mishra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of marine magnetic data of the Bay of Bengal (BOB) led to suggest two different tectonic models for the evolution of lithosphere between India and East Antarctica. The first model explains the presence of M-series (M11 to M0) magnetic anomalies in BOB with a small room leaving for accommodating the crust evolved during the long Cretaceous Magnetic Quiet Period. Second model explains in other way that most part of the crust in BOB was evolved during the quite period together with the possible presence of oldest magnetic chron M1/ M0 in close vicinity of ECMI. It is with this perspective we have reinvestigated the existing and recently acquired magnetic data together with regional magnetic model of BOB for identification of new tectonic constraints, thereby to better understand the evolution of lithosphere. Analysis of magnetic data revealed the presence of spreading anomalies C33 and C34 in the vicinity of 8°N, and internal time marker (Q1) corresponding to the age 92 Ma at 12°N in a corridor between 85°E and Ninetyeast ridges. The new time marker and its location, indeed, become a point of reference and benchmark in BOB for estimating the age of oceanic crust towards ECMI. The magnetic model further reveals the presence of network of fracture zones (FZs) with different orientations. Between 85°E and Ninetyeast ridges, two near N-S FZs, approximately followed 87°E and 89.5°E are found to extend into BOB up to 12°N, from there the FZs reorient in N60°W direction and reach to the continental margin region. Along ECMI two sets of FZs are identified with a northern set oriented in N60°W and southern one in N40°W direction. This suggests that both north and south segments of the ECMI were evolved in two different tectonic settings. The bend in FZs marks the timing (92 Ma) of occurrence of first major plate reorganisation of the Indian Ocean and becomes a very critical constraint for understanding the plate tectonic process in early opening of the

  20. Geochemistry of Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust: Results from Drilling at the Hess Deep Rift (ODP Leg 147 and IODP Expedition 345; East Pacific Rise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, M.; Falloon, T.; Gillis, K. M.; Akizawa, N.; de Brito Adriao, A.; Koepke, J.; Marks, N.; Meyer, R.; Saha, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Hess Deep Rift, where the Cocos Nazca Ridge propagates into the young, fast-spread East Pacific Rise crust, exposes a dismembered, but nearly complete, lower crustal section. The extensive exposures of the plutonic crust were drilled at 3 sites during ODP Leg 147 (Nov. 1992-Jan. 1993) and IODP Expedition 345 (Dec. 2012-Feb. 2013). We report preliminary results of a bulk rock geochemical study (major and trace elements) carried out on 109 samples representative of the different drilled lithologies. The shallowest gabbroic rocks were sampled at ODP Site 894. They comprise gabbronorite, gabbro, olivine gabbro and gabbronorite. They have evolved compositions with Mg# 39-55, Yb 4-8 x chondrite and Eu/Eu* 1-1.6. Olivine gabbro and troctolite were dominant at IODP Site U1415, with minor gabbro, gabbronorite and clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolite and gabbro. All U1415 gabbroic rocks have primitive compositions except for one gabbronorite rubble that is similar in composition to the shallow gabbros. Olivine gabbro, gabbro and gabbronorite overlap in composition: they have high Mg# (79-87) and Ni (130-570 ppm), low TiO2 (0.1-0.3 wt.%) and Yb (1.3-2.3 x chondrite) and positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=1.9-2.7). Troctolite has high Mg# (81-89), Ni (260-1500 ppm) and low TiO2 (<0.1 wt.%) and Yb (~0.5xchondrite) and large Eu/Eu* (>4). ODP Site 895 recovered sequences of highly depleted harzburgite, dunite and troctolite (Yb down to <0.1xchondrite) that are interpreted as a mantle-crust transition zone. Basalts were recovered at Sites 894 and U1415: they have low Yb (0.5-0.9xN6MORB) and are depleted in the most incompatible elements (Ce/Yb=0.6-0.9xN-MORB). The main geochemical characteristics of Site U1415 and 894 gabbroic rocks are consistent with formation as a cumulate sequence from a common parental MORB melt; troctolites are the most primitive end-member of this sequence. They overlap in composition with the most primitive of slow and fast spread crust gabbroic rocks.

  1. Integrating surface and mantle constraints for palaeo-ocean evolution: a tour of the Arctic and adjacent regions (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, Grace E.

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions heavily rely on absolute motions derived from hotspot trails or palaeomagnetic data and ocean-floor magnetic anomaies and fracture-zone geometries to constrain the detailed history of ocean basins. However, as oceanic lithosphere is progressively recycled into the mantle, kinematic data regarding the history of these now extinct-oceans is lost. In order to better understand their evolution, novel workflows, which integrate a wide range of complementary yet independent geological and geophysical datasets from both the surface and deep mantle, must be utilised. In particular, the emergence of time-dependent, semi or self-consistent geodynamic models of ever-increasing temporal and spatial resolution are revealing some critical constraints on the evolution and fate of oceanic slabs. The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic is no exception; since the breakup of Pangea, this enigmatic region has seen major plate reorganizations and the opening and closure of several ocean basins. At the surface, a myriad of potential kinematic scenarios including polarity, timing, geometry and location of subduction have emerged, including for systems along continental margins and intra-oceanic settings. Furthermore, recent work has reignited a debate about the origins of 'anchor' slabs, such as the Farallon and Mongol-Okhotsk slabs, which have been used to refine absolute plate motions. Moving to the mantle, seismic tomography models reveal a region peppered with inferred slabs, however assumptions about their affinities and subduction location, timing, geometry and polarity are often made in isolation. Here, by integrating regional plate reconstructions with insights from seismic tomography, satellite derived gravity gradients, slab sinking rates and geochemistry, I explore some Mesozoic examples from the palaeo-Arctic, northern Panthalassa and western margin of North America, including evidence for a discrete and previously undescribed slab under

  2. Pacific ferromanganese crust geology and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, S.I.; Vanstein, B.G.; Anikeeva, L.I. )

    1990-06-01

    Cobaltiferous ferromanganese crusts form part of a large series of oceanic ferromanganese oxide deposits. The crusts show high cobalt (commonly over 0.4%), low nickel and copper sum (0.4-0.8%), considerably high manganese (18-20%), and iron (14-18%). Less abundant elements in crusts are represented by molybdenum and vanadium; the rare-earth elements cerium, lanthenum, and yttrium; and the noble metals platinum and rhodium. Co-rich crusts form at water depths of 600 to 2,500 m. Crust thicknesses range from millimeters to 15-17 cm, averaging 2-6 cm. The most favorable conditions for 4-10 cm thick crusts to occur is at water depths of 1,200-2,200 m. The crusts formed on basaltic, calcareous, siliceous, and breccia bedrock surfaces provided there were conditions preventing bottom sedimentation at them. If the sedimentation takes place, it may be accompanied by nodules similar in composition to the crusts. The most favorable topography for extensive crust formation is considered to be subdued (up to 20{degree}) slopes and summit platforms of conical seamounts, frequently near faults and their intersection zones. Subhorizontal guyot summits do not usually favor crust growth. Crust geochemistry is primarily defined by mineralogy and manganese hydroxides (vernadite)/iron ratio. The first associated group of compounds includes cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, cerium, and titanium; the other is strontium, yttrium, cerium, and cadmium. The aluminosilicate phase is associated with titanium, iron, chromium, and vanadium; phosphate biogenic phase includes copper, nickel, zinc, lead, and barium. The crucial point in cobaltiferous crust formation is their growth rate on which is dependent the degree of ferromanganese matrix sorption saturation with cobalt. The optimum for cobalt-rich ferromanganese ores is the conditions facilitating long-term and continuous hydrogenic processes.

  3. Growth of the continental crust: A planetary-mantle perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The lack of earth rocks older than about 3.8 Ga is frequently interpreted as evidence that the earth formed little or no subduction-resistant continental crust during the first 700 My of its history. Such models obviously imply that the pre-3.8 Ga earth was covered entirely or almost entirely by smoothly subducting oceanic crust. On the other hand, the thermal regime of the early earth probably tended to cause the oceanic crust at this time to be comparatively thin and comparatively mafic. The present earth is covered by about 50 percent oceanic crust, averaging about 7 km in thickness, and 41 percent continental crust, averaging roughly 40 km in thickness. Thus continentless-early-earth models would seem to imply a total mass of crust less than 1/3 that of the present day earth. Possible explanations are examined.

  4. The structure of 0- to 0. 2-m. y. -old oceanic crust at 9 degree N on the East Pacific Rise from expanded spread profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, E.E.; Mutter, J.C.; Buhl, P. ); Orcutt, J.A.; Harding, A.J.; Kappus, M.E. ); Detrick, R.S. ); Brocher, T.M. )

    1990-09-10

    At the seafloor the authors find very low V{sub P} and V{sub S}/V{sub P} values around 2.2 km/s and {le} 0.43. In the topmost 100-200 m of the crust, V{sub P} remains low then rapidly increases to 5 km/s at {approximately}500 m below the seafloor. High attenuation values (Q{sub P} < 100) are suggested in the topmost {approximately}500 m of the crust. The layer 2-3 transition probably occurs within the dike unit, a few hundred meters above the dike-gabbro transition. This transition may mark the maximum depth of penetration by a cracking front and associated hydrothermal circulation in the axial region above the axial magma chamber (AMC). The top of the AMC lies 1.6 km below the seafloor and consists of molten material where V{sub P} {approx} 3 km/s and V{sub S} = 0. Immediately above the AMC, there is a zone of large negative velocity gradients where, on the average, V{sub P} decreases from {approximately}6.3 to 3 km/s over a depth of approximately 250 m. Associated with the AMC there is a low velocity zone (LVZ) that extends to a distance no greater than 10 km away from the rise axis. At the top of the LVZ, sharp velocity contrasts are confined to within 2 km of the rise axis and are associated with molten material or material with a high percentage of melt which would be concentrated only in a thin zone at the apex of the LVZ, in the axial region where the AMC event is seen in reflection lines. The bottom of the LVZ is probably located near the bottom of the crust and above the Moho. Moho arrivals are observed in the profiles at zero and at 10 km from the rise axis. Rather than a single discontinuity, these arrivals indicate an approximately 1-km-thick Moho transition zone.

  5. Crust and lithosphere structure of the northwestern U.S. with ambient noise tomography: Terrane accretion and Cascade arc development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haiying; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Yao, Huajian; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2011-04-01

    To address the tectonic and magmatic modifications of the Pacific Northwest lithosphere, including transformation of the Farallon oceanic terrane "Siletzia" into continent, we study the crust and uppermost mantle of the Pacific Northwest with fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave ambient noise tomography using periods 6-40 s, resolving isotropic shear-wave velocity structure from the surface to 70 km depth (3 crustal layers and 2 upper mantle layers). We optimize this estimate with the aid of a neighborhood search algorithm, which we also use with receiver functions to estimate Moho depth. Horizontal node spacing is 0.25°. The EarthScope Transportable Array, the Wallowa array, a portion of the High Lava Plains array, and seven permanent stations are joined to achieve high resolution. Very slow western Columbia Basin upper crust above very fast lower crust expresses the large Eocene sedimentary basins above a magmatically underplated crust of extended Siletzia lithosphere. High-velocity lower crust in adjacent areas to the east and south represents Siletzia thrust under the pre-accretion North America forearc. This interpretation is supported by an anomalous absence of post-accretion magmatism in these areas, implying an absence of slab removal. The southeast termination of the fast lower crust is especially strong and sharp about 35 km southeast of the Klamath-Blue Mountains gravity lineament, suggesting the Farallon slab to the southeast was torn away. The Columbia River Flood Basalts erupted at ~ 16 Ma, apparently creating a hole of diameter ~ 150 km in the edge of the underthrust Siletzia lithosphere. The magmatically active Oregon Cascade arc is slow at all depths, and the much less active Washington Cascades tend to have a volcano-centered structure that is slow in the lower crust but fast in the upper crust and upper mantle. This structure suggests that magmatic intrusion has increased upper crustal velocity, but that the higher temperatures beneath the active

  6. Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subduction.

    PubMed

    Foley, Stephen F; Buhre, Stephan; Jacob, Dorrit E

    2003-01-16

    The Archaean oceanic crust was probably thicker than present-day oceanic crust owing to higher heat flow and thus higher degrees of melting at mid-ocean ridges. These conditions would also have led to a different bulk composition of oceanic crust in the early Archaean, that would probably have consisted of magnesium-rich picrite (with variably differentiated portions made up of basalt, gabbro, ultramafic cumulates and picrite). It is unclear whether these differences would have influenced crustal subduction and recycling processes, as experiments that have investigated the metamorphic reactions that take place during subduction have to date considered only modern mid-ocean-ridge basalts. Here we present data from high-pressure experiments that show that metamorphism of ultramafic cumulates and picrites produces pyroxenites, which we infer would have delaminated and melted to produce basaltic rocks, rather than continental crust as has previously been thought. Instead, the formation of continental crust requires subduction and melting of garnet-amphibolite--formed only in the upper regions of oceanic crust--which is thought to have first occurred on a large scale during subduction in the late Archaean. We deduce from this that shallow subduction and recycling of oceanic crust took place in the early Archaean, and that this would have resulted in strong depletion of only a thin layer of the uppermost mantle. The misfit between geochemical depletion models and geophysical models for mantle convection (which include deep subduction) might therefore be explained by continuous deepening of this depleted layer through geological time.

  7. Channelized lava flows at the East Pacific Rise crest 9°-10°N: the importance of off-axis lava transport in developing the architecture of young oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, S.A.; Fornari, D.J.; Perfit, M.R.; Tivey, M.A.; Ridley, W.I.; Schouten, Hans

    2005-01-01

     Submarine lava flows are the building blocks of young oceanic crust. Lava erupted at the ridge axis is transported across the ridge crest in a manner dictated by the rheology of the lava, the characteristics of the eruption, and the topography it encounters. The resulting lava flows can vary dramatically in form and consequently in their impact on the physical characteristics of the seafloor and the architecture of the upper 50–500 m of the oceanic crust. We have mapped and measured numerous submarine channelized lava flows at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) crest 9°–10°N that reflect the high-effusion-rate and high-flow-velocity end-member of lava eruption and transport at mid-ocean ridges. Channel systems composed of identifiable segments 50–1000 m in length extend up to 3 km from the axial summit trough (AST) and have widths of 10–50 m and depths of 2–3 m. Samples collected within the channels are N-MORB with Mg# indicating eruption from the AST. We produce detailed maps of lava surface morphology across the channel surface from mosaics of digital images that show lineated or flat sheets at the channel center bounded by brecciated lava at the channel margins. Modeled velocity profiles across the channel surface allow us to determine flux through the channels from 0.4 to 4.7 × 103m3/s, and modeled shear rates help explain the surface morphology variation. We suggest that channelized lava flows are a primary mechanism by which lava accumulates in the off-axis region (1–3 km) and produces the layer 2A thickening that is observed at fast and superfast spreading ridges. In addition, the rapid, high-volume-flux eruptions necessary to produce channelized flows may act as an indicator of the local magma budget along the EPR. We find that high concentrations of channelized lava flows correlate with local, across-axis ridge morphology indicative of an elevated magma budget. Additionally, in locations where channelized flows are located dominantly to the east

  8. The Arctic Ocean Boundary Current along the Eurasian slope and the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge: Water mass properties, transports and transformations from moored instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodgate, Rebecca A.; Aagaard, Knut; Muench, Robin D.; Gunn, John; Björk, Göran; Rudels, Bert; Roach, A. T.; Schauer, Ursula

    2001-08-01

    Year-long (summer 1995 to 1996) time series of temperature, salinity and current velocity from three slope sites spanning the junction of the Lomonosov Ridge with the Eurasian continent are used to quantify the water properties, transformations and transport of the boundary current of the Arctic Ocean. The mean flow is cyclonic, weak (1 to 5 cm s -1), predominantly aligned along isobaths and has an equivalent barotropic structure in the vertical. We estimate the transport of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin to be 5±1 Sv. About half of this flow is diverted north along the Eurasian Basin side of the Lomonosov Ridge. The warm waters (>1.4°C) of the Atlantic layer are also found on the Canadian Basin side of the ridge south of 86.5°N, but not north of this latitude. This suggests that the Atlantic layer crosses the ridge at various latitudes south of 86.5°N and flows southward along the Canadian Basin side of the ridge. Temperature and salinity records indicate a small (0.02 Sv), episodic flow of Canadian Basin deep water into the Eurasian Basin at ˜1700 m, providing a possible source for an anomalous eddy observed in the Amundsen Basin in 1996. There is also a similar flow of Eurasian Basin deep water into the Canadian Basin. Both flows probably pass through a gap in the Lomonosov Ridge at 80.4°N. A cooling and freshening of the Atlantic layer, observed at all three moorings, is attributed to changes (in temperature and salinity and/or volume) in the outflow from the Barents Sea the previous winter, possibly caused by an observed increased flow of ice from the Arctic Ocean into the Barents Sea. The change in water properties, which advects at ˜5 cm s -1 along the southern edge of the Eurasian Basin, also strengthens the cold halocline layer and increases the stability of the upper ocean. This suggests a feedback in which ice exported from the Arctic Ocean into the Barents Sea promotes ice growth elsewhere in the Arctic Ocean. The strongest currents

  9. High-resolution geology, petrology and age of a tectonically accreted section of Paleoarchean oceanic crust, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, Eugene; Vidal, Olivier; McLoughlin, Nicola; Whitehouse, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The ca. 3.53 to 3.29 Ga Onverwacht Group of the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa records a rare sequence of exceptionally well-preserved volcanic, intrusive and volcani-clastic Paleaoarchean rocks. Numerous conflicting models exist for the geologic evolution and stratigraphy of this early Archean greenstone belt, ranging from plume-type dynamics to modern-style plate tectonics. Although much work has focussed on the komatiites of the ca. 3.48 Ga Komati Formation since their discovery in 1969, far less petrological attention has been given to the younger oceanic rock sequences of the Kromberg type-section in the mid-Onverwacht Group. In this study, we present new field observations from a detailed re-mapping of the Kromberg type-section, and combine this with high-resolution lithological observations from continuous drill core of the Barberton Scientific Drilling Project [1]. The new mapping and field observations are compared to a recent preliminary study of the Kromberg type-section [2]. A U-Pb detrital provenance study was conducted on a reworked, volcani-clastic unit in the upper Kromberg type-section for the first time. This included U-Pb age determination of 110 detrital zircons by secondary ion microprobe analyses (SIMS), providing constraints on maximum depositional age, provenance of the ocean-floor detritus, and timing for the onset of Kromberg ocean basin formation. These new zircon age data are compared to a previous U-Pb detrital zircon study conducted on the structurally underlying sediments of the ca. 3.43 Ga Noisy formation [3]. A multi-pronged petrological approach has been applied to various rock units across the Kromberg, including thermodynamic modelling techniques applied to metabasalts and metapyroxenites for PT-estimates, bulk- and in-situ isotope geochemistry providing constraints on protolith geochemistry and metamorphic history. Consequently, it is shown that this previously poorly studied Kromberg oceanic rock sequence of the

  10. Postcollisional mafic igneous rocks record crust-mantle interaction during continental deep subduction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Findings of coesite and microdiamond in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal protolith led to the recognition of continental subduction to mantle depths. The crust-mantle interaction is expected to take place during subduction of the continental crust beneath the subcontinental lithospheric mantle wedge. This is recorded by postcollisional mafic igneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its adjacent continental margin in the North China Block. These rocks exhibit the geochemical inheritance of whole-rock trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes as well as zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes from felsic melts derived from the subducted continental crust. Reaction of such melts with the overlying wedge peridotite would transfer the crustal signatures to the mantle sources for postcollisional mafic magmatism. Therefore, postcollisonal mafic igneous rocks above continental subduction zones are an analog to arc volcanics above oceanic subduction zones, providing an additional laboratory for the study of crust-mantle interaction at convergent plate margins. PMID:24301173

  11. Postcollisional mafic igneous rocks record crust-mantle interaction during continental deep subduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Findings of coesite and microdiamond in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal protolith led to the recognition of continental subduction to mantle depths. The crust-mantle interaction is expected to take place during subduction of the continental crust beneath the subcontinental lithospheric mantle wedge. This is recorded by postcollisional mafic igneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its adjacent continental margin in the North China Block. These rocks exhibit the geochemical inheritance of whole-rock trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes as well as zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes from felsic melts derived from the subducted continental crust. Reaction of such melts with the overlying wedge peridotite would transfer the crustal signatures to the mantle sources for postcollisional mafic magmatism. Therefore, postcollisonal mafic igneous rocks above continental subduction zones are an analog to arc volcanics above oceanic subduction zones, providing an additional laboratory for the study of crust-mantle interaction at convergent plate margins. PMID:24301173

  12. Postcollisional mafic igneous rocks record crust-mantle interaction during continental deep subduction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2013-12-04

    Findings of coesite and microdiamond in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal protolith led to the recognition of continental subduction to mantle depths. The crust-mantle interaction is expected to take place during subduction of the continental crust beneath the subcontinental lithospheric mantle wedge. This is recorded by postcollisional mafic igneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its adjacent continental margin in the North China Block. These rocks exhibit the geochemical inheritance of whole-rock trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes as well as zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes from felsic melts derived from the subducted continental crust. Reaction of such melts with the overlying wedge peridotite would transfer the crustal signatures to the mantle sources for postcollisional mafic magmatism. Therefore, postcollisonal mafic igneous rocks above continental subduction zones are an analog to arc volcanics above oceanic subduction zones, providing an additional laboratory for the study of crust-mantle interaction at convergent plate margins.

  13. Oceanic basins in prehistory of the evolution of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khain, V. E.; Filatova, N. I.

    2010-06-01

    During geodynamic reconstruction of the Late Mezozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Arctic Ocean, a problem arises: did this ocean originate as a legacy structure of ancient basins, or did it evolve independently? Solution of this problem requires finding indicators of older oceanic basins within the limits of the Arctic Region. The Arctic Region has structural-material complexes of several ancient oceans, namely, Mesoproterozoic, Late Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic (Caledonian and Hercynian), Middle Paleozoic-Late Jurassic, and those of the Arctic Ocean, including the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Canadian, the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Podvodnikov-Makarov, and the Cenozoic Eurasian basins. The appearances of all these oceans were determined by a complex of global geodynamical factors, which were principally changed in time, and, as a result of this, location and configuration of newly opened oceans, as well as ones of adjacent continents, which varied from stage to stage. By the end of the Paleozoic, fragments of the crust corresponding to Precambrian and Caledonian oceans were transported during plate-tectonic motions from southern and near equatorial latitudes to moderately high and arctic ones, and, finally, became parts of the Pangea II supercontinent. The Arctic Ocean that appeared after the Pangea II breakup (being a part of the Atlantic Ocean) has no direct either genetic or spatial relation with more ancient oceans.

  14. Traces of ancient mafic layers in the Tethys oceanic mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Dmitry S.; Dijkstra, Arjan H.; Meisel, Thomas; Brügmann, Gerhard; Sergeev, Sergey A.

    2014-03-01

    Oceanic basalts are formed by melting of a chemically and isotopically heterogeneous mantle source. The oceanic mantle probably resembles a marble cake containing layers of mafic rock - perhaps recycled ocean crust - stored in the mantle for >1 billion years. Many questions about the nature and distribution of these mantle heterogeneities remain. Here we show that lithological and isotopic traces of ancient mafic layers can still be seen in mantle rocks that have melted to form oceanic crust at a spreading centre in the Tethys Ocean. We have found centimetre-scale heterogeneity in initial osmium isotope ratios in mantle rocks from the Pindos Ophiolite. Deformed pyroxenite layers have high 187Os/188Os ratios (0.14-0.20) compared to adjacent host peridotites (187Os/188Os: 0.12-0.13). These layers were formed by a reaction between mantle rock and melt derived from ancient rocks with high Re/Os ratios. We interpret the pyroxenite layers as the wall rocks of billion-year old mafic layers that melted and transformed adjacent mantle peridotite into pyroxenite by melt-rock reaction. The pyroxenite layers are the relics of ancient metre-scale basaltic veins in a kilometre-sized marble cake domain in the oceanic mantle that has withstood homogenization on a billion-year time scale.

  15. Baltican versus Laurentian Crust in the Norwegian Caledonides between Latitudes 67° and 69° N: Implications for Mountains across oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steltenpohl, Mark G.; Yaw Nana Yaw, Nana; Andresen, Arild; Verellen, Devon

    2015-04-01

    Field and geochronological data (U-Pb ID-TIMS, SHRIMP, and LA ICPMS) on granitoids and their metasedimentary hosts are reported for rocks of the Bodø and Ofoten regions of north-central Norway documenting the distribution of Baltican versus Laurentian crust and allowing for tectonostratigraphic correlations across the EW-trending Tysfjord basement culmination. In the Bodø region, large areas previously interpreted as domes cored by Baltic basement (ca. 1.8 Ga; e.g., Heggmovatn and Landegode domes) are in fact Caledonian thrust sheets belonging to the exotic (Laurentian) Uppermost Allochthon. The Bratten orthogneiss, the Landegode augen gneiss, and the batholithic Tårnvika augen gneiss each has a ca. 950 Ma age of crystallization, and are together called the Rørstad complex. Orthogneisses that intrude metasedimentary units of the Heggmo allochthon (formerly the Heggmovatn dome) are dated to ca. 930 Ma, and these are intruded by 430 Ma leucogranites; U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons from metasiliciclastic rocks constrain the age of deposition to between 1100-930 Ma. We lithologically correlate the metasedimentary rocks between the Heggmo and Rørstad complexes. The Rørstad complex was migmatized at ca. 450 Ma and then was intruded by 430 Ma granitoids. Ordovician migmatites have not been documented in the Heggmo unit but such relics might have been masked by intense Scandian magmatic and metamorphic activity. The Rørstad and Heggmo units have straightforward age correlations to Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic rock complexes in southern East Greenland and in other parts of the North Atlantic realm (i.e., Krummedal sequence and Eleonore Bay Supergroup). Laurentian Grenville-continental crust preserved in the Uppermost Allochthon of the Bodø region, therefore, records tectonic events that took place on the northeastern Laurentian continental margin prior to its Scandian continent-continent collision with Baltica. In Ofoten, ~150 km north of Bodø, the basal

  16. Variability of low temperature hydrothermal alteration in upper ocean crust: Juan de Fuca Ridge and North Pond, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, J.; Harris, M.; Coggon, R. M.; Alt, J.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Over 2/3 of the global hydrothermal heat flux occurs at low temperatures (< 150°) on the ridge flanks carried by fluid volumes comparable to riverine discharge. Understanding ridge flank hydrothermal exchange is important to quantify global geochemical cycles. Hydrothermal chemical pathways are complex and the effects of water-rock reactions remain poorly constrained. Factors controlling fluid flow include volcanic structure, sediment thickness, and basement topography. This study compares the effects of low temperature alteration in two locations with contrasting hydrogeological regimes. The intermediate spreading Juan de Fuca ridge flank (JdF) in the northeast Pacific sports a thick sediment blanket. Rare basement outcrops are sites of fluid recharge and discharge. The average alteration extent (~10% secondary minerals), oxidation ratio (Fe3+/FeTOT=34%), and alteration character (orange, green, grey halos) of basement is constant with crustal age and depth along a 0.97-3.6 m.yr transect of ODP basement holes. However, vesicle fills record an increasingly complex history of successive alteration with age. In contrast, North Pond, a ~8 m.yr-old sediment-filled basin at 22N on the slow spreading Mid Atlantic Ridge, hosts rapid, relatively cool SE to NW basinal fluid flow. Average alteration extent (~10%) and oxidation ratio (33%) of Hole 395A basalts are similar to JdF. However, 395A cores are dominated by orange alteration halos, lack celadonite, but have abundant zeolite. Vesicle fill combinations are highly variable, but the most common fill progression is from oxidising to less oxidising secondary assemblages. The comparable extent of alteration between these two sites and the absence of an age relationship on the JdF suggests that the alteration extent of the upper crust is uniform and mostly established by 1 Myr. However, the variable alteration character reflects the influence of regional hydrology on hydrothermal alteration.

  17. Oxygen consumption in subseafloor basaltic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Wheat, C. G.; Hulme, S.; Edwards, K. J.; Bach, W.

    2012-12-01

    Oceanic crust is the largest potential habitat for life on Earth and may contain a significant fraction of Earth's total microbial biomass, yet little is known about the form and function of life in this vast subseafloor realm that covers nearly two-thirds of the Earth's surface. A deep biosphere hosted in subseafloor basalts has been suggested from several lines of evidence; yet, empirical analysis of metabolic reaction rates in basaltic crust is lacking. Here we report the first measure of oxygen consumption in young (~ 8 Ma) and cool (<25 degrees C) basaltic crust, calculated from modeling oxygen and strontium profiles in basal sediments collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 336 to 'North Pond', a sediment 'pond' on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), where vigorous fluid circulation within basaltic crust occurs. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased towards the sediment-basement interface, indicating an upward diffusional supply from oxic fluids circulating within the crust. A parametric reaction-transport model suggests oxygen consumption rates on the order of 0.5-500 nmol per cubic centimeter fluid per day in young and cool basaltic crust, providing sufficient energy to support a subsurface crustal biosphere.

  18. Geochemical evidence for the tectonic setting of the Coast Range ophiolite: A composite island arc oceanic crust terrane in western California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, John W.; Kimbrough, David L.

    1985-01-01

    The Middle to Late Jurassic age Coast Range ophiolite (CRO) of California contains two geochemically distinct volcanic rock associations that formed in different tectonic settings. Volcanic rocks from the southern CRO (Point Sal, Cuesta Ridge, Stanley Mountain, Llanada, Quinto Creek, and Del Puerto) and parts of the northern CRO (Healdsburg, Elder Creek) are similar to low-K tholeiites and calc-alkaline rocks of the island-arc suite. The thin volcanic sections of these ophiolite remnants suggest formation by intra-arc rifting. In contrast, volcanic rocks from Stonyford seamount and Paskenta in the northern CRO are transitional subalkaline metabasalts with geochemical characteristics similar to enriched mid-ocean ridge basalts or ocean-island tholeiites. These rocks are associated with Tithonian radiolarian cherts and may be part of the Franciscan Complex. Alternatively, they may represent a change in tectonic setting within the CRO during the Late Jurassic. Regardless, the CRO as currently conceived cannot be considered a single terrane with one mode of origin.

  19. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu

  20. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu

  1. On the 40Ar/39Ar Dating of Low-Potassium Ocean Crust Basalt from IODP Expedition 349, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppers, A. A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate age dates for the basement rocks in the South China Sea (SCS) basins were lacking before the execution of International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 in early 2014. This left a large margin of error in estimated opening ages for the SCS and rendered various hypotheses regarding its opening mechanism and history untested, hampering our understanding of East Asian tectonic and paleoenvironmental evolution. Therefore, high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age dating lies at the heart of Expedition 349, which in particular aimed to determine the timing of the start and cessation of seafloor spreading in the SCS. In addition, the recovery of a complete seamount apron section at Site U1431 allows 40Ar/39Ar dating of abundantly present plagioclase and biotite crystals to help establish a detailed chronology of the sedimentary and volcaniclastic sequences cored. Here we present the first 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating ages on the low-potassium (~0.1-0.2 wt% K2O) and the least altered (loss on ignition < 1.5%) mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) from the SCS. Plagioclase and groundmass samples were prepared using conventional mineral separation techniques, acid-leaching and hand-picking. Analyses were carried out using a new ARGUS-VI multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer. Ages are expected to have precisions ranging between 0.1-0.3 Ma (2σ), which will allow us to precisely and accurately date the final emplacement of basalts at Sites U1431, U1433 and U1434 in the SCS basin, just prior to the cessation of spreading as all sites were slightly offset from the relict spreading center.

  2. Lunar and terrestrial crusts - A contrast in origin and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1982-09-01

    Planetary crusts, differing in composition from that of the bulk planet, and containing large concentrations of incompatible elements such as K, U and Th, may arise in two distinctly different ways. The first, exemplified by the moon, involves flotation of a feldspathic crust during an initial melting episode in which much of the planetary body was molten. The second, probably more common type of crust is formed as a consequence of partial melting, in response to radioactive heating, in the planetary interior and the eruption of basaltic lavas. Examples include the lunar maria and the oceanic crust of the earth. Subsequent partial melting epsiodes, involving recycling into the mantle, or lower crustal melting epsiodes produce more acidic crusts, of which the terrestrial continental crust forms the type example. The upper crust requires at least three successive partial melting events.

  3. Mass and Composition of the Continental Crust Estimated Using the CRUST2.0 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B. T.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    The mass, age, and chemical composition of the continental crust are fundamental data for understanding Earth differentiation. The inaccessibility of most of the volume of the crust requires that inferences be made about geochemistry using seismic and heat flow data, with additional constraints provided by scarce lower crustal samples (Rudnick and Fountain, Rev. Geophys., 1995; Rudnick and Gao, Treatise on Geochem., 2003). The global crustal seismic database CRUST2.0 (Bassin, et al., EOS, 2000; Mooney, et al., JGR, 1998; hereafter C2) provides a useful template with which the size and composition of the continents can be assessed, and may be a useful vehicle to organize and analyze diverse geochemical data. We have used C2 to evaluate the modern mass and composition of the continental crust and their uncertainties, and explored our results in the context of global mass balances, such as continents versus depleted mantle. The major source of uncertainty comes from the definition of "continent." The ultimate constraint is the total mass of Earth's crust (oceanic + continental), which, from C2, is 2.77 (in units of 1022 kg). Using crustal thickness as a definition of continent, the mass of continental crust (CC) is 2.195 if the minimum thickness is 12-18km, 2.085 for 22.5km, 2.002 for 25km, and 1.860 for 30km. These numbers include all sediment as continental crust. Using C2 definitions to distinguish oceanic and continental crust (and including oceanic plateaus which contain some continental crust), we calculate the CC mass as 2.171. To estimate chemical composition, we use the C2 reservoir masses. For minimum thickness of 22.5km, C2 yields the proportions 0.016 oceanic sediment, 0.038 continental sediment, 0.321 upper crust, 0.326 middle crust, 0.299 lower crust. Upper, middle, and lower crust are assigned compositions from Rudnick and Gao (2003), continental sediments are assigned upper crust composition, and oceanic sediments are assigned GLOSS composition (Plank

  4. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-04-14

    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  5. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-04-14

    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume.

  6. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Griffin, William L.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The magmatic activity (0–16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland—and especially the Öræfajökull volcano—is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr–Nd–Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2–6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  7. Meteorite fusion crust variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaisen, Kevin G.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2009-06-01

    Two assumptions commonly employed in meteorite interpretation are that fusion crust compositions represent the bulk-rock chemistry of the interior meteorite and that the vesicles within the fusion crust result from the release of implanted solar wind volatiles. Electron microprobe analyses of thin sections from lunar meteorite Miller Range (MIL) 05035 and eucrite Bates Nunataks (BTN) 00300 were performed to determine if the chemical compositions of the fusion crust varied and/or represented the published bulk rock composition. It was determined that fusion crust compositions are significantly influenced by the incorporation of fragments from the substrate, and by the composition and grain size of those minerals. Because of compositional heterogeneities throughout the meteorite, one cannot assume that fusion crust composition represents the bulk rock composition. If the compositional variability within the fusion crust and mineralogical differences among thin sections goes unnoticed, then the perceived composition and petrogenetic models of formation will be incorrect. The formation of vesicles within these fusion crusts were also compared to current theories attributing vesicles to a solar wind origin. Previous work from the STONE-5 experiment, where terrestrial rocks were exposed on the exterior of a spacecraft heatshield, produced a vesicular fusion crust without prolonged exposure to solar wind suggesting that the high temperatures experienced by a meteorite during passage through the Earth's atmosphere are sufficient to cause boiling of the melt. Therefore, the assumption that all vesicles found within a fusion crust are due to the release of implanted volatiles of solar wind may not be justified.

  8. The seismic Moho structure of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinchang; Sager, William W.; Korenaga, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Oceanic plateaus are large igneous provinces formed by extraordinary eruptions that create thick oceanic crust, whose structure is poorly known owing to the lack of deep-penetration seismic data. Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection and wide-angle refraction data allow us to show Moho structure beneath a large part of the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Moho reflectors in the two data sets can be connected to trace the interface from the adjacent abyssal plain across much of the interior. The reflectors display varied character in continuity, shape, and amplitude, similar to characteristics reported in other locations. Beneath normal crust, the Moho is observed at ∼13 km depth (∼7 km below the seafloor) in MCS data and disappears at ∼20 km depth (∼17 km below the seafloor) beneath the high plateau. Moho at the distal flanks dips downward towards the center with slopes of ∼0.5°-1°, increasing to 3°-5° at the middle flanks. Seismic Moho topography is consistent with Airy isostasy, confirming this widely-applied assumption. Data from this study show that crustal thickness between the massifs in the interior of the plateau is nearly twice normal crustal thickness, despite the fact that this crust records apparently normal seafloor spreading magnetic lineations. The Moho model allows improved estimates of plateau area (5.33 ×105 km2) and volume (6.90 ×106 km3), the latter assuming that the entire crust was formed by Shatsky Rise volcanism because the massifs formed at spreading ridges. This study is unique in showing Moho depth and structure over an extraordinarily large area beneath an oceanic plateau, giving insight to plateau structure and formation.

  9. The ocean-continent transition of western Iberia

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmarsh, R.B.; Miles, P.R.; Pinheiro, L.M. ); Boillot, G. ); Recq, M. )

    1991-08-01

    The western continental margin of the Iberian peninsular has the characteristic of a rifted non-volcanic continental margin with half-graben and tilted fault blocks seen in several places on multichannel seismic reflection profiles. The ocean-continent transition (OCT) is therefore expected to be where thinned continental crust and oceanic crust are juxtaposed, as elsewhere. The authors located the OCT off western Iberia in order to constrain the pre-lift fit of Iberia to North America. This fit is only marginally constrained by sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies because the Cretaceous constant polarity interval is adjacent to the OCT. Thinned continental crust can be distinguished from oceanic crust by the nature of the lower crustal velocity structure. In 1986-1987, a series of seismic refraction profiles was shot across three parts of the Iberian Abyssal Plain, the OCT can be detected not only from seismic velocities but also by modeling magnetic anomalies. The chosen location of the OCT is consistent with the interpretation of subsequently acquired multichannel profiles. Off Galicia Bank, the OCT, recognized from seismic velocities and multichannel profiles, corresponds to a seabed peridotite ridge, which has been extensively sampled. In the Tagus Abyssal Plain, limited seismic data gives a less clear picture of the OCT.

  10. Early formation of evolved asteroidal crust.

    PubMed

    Day, James M D; Ash, Richard D; Liu, Yang; Bellucci, Jeremy J; Rumble, Douglas; McDonough, William F; Walker, Richard J; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms for the formation of crust on planetary bodies remain poorly understood. It is generally accepted that Earth's andesitic continental crust is the product of plate tectonics, whereas the Moon acquired its feldspar-rich crust by way of plagioclase flotation in a magma ocean. Basaltic meteorites provide evidence that, like the terrestrial planets, some asteroids generated crust and underwent large-scale differentiation processes. Until now, however, no evolved felsic asteroidal crust has been sampled or observed. Here we report age and compositional data for the newly discovered, paired and differentiated meteorites Graves Nunatak (GRA) 06128 and GRA 06129. These meteorites are feldspar-rich, with andesite bulk compositions. Their age of 4.52 +/- 0.06 Gyr demonstrates formation early in Solar System history. The isotopic and elemental compositions, degree of metamorphic re-equilibration and sulphide-rich nature of the meteorites are most consistent with an origin as partial melts from a volatile-rich, oxidized asteroid. GRA 06128 and 06129 are the result of a newly recognized style of evolved crust formation, bearing witness to incomplete differentiation of their parent asteroid and to previously unrecognized diversity of early-formed materials in the Solar System. PMID:19129845

  11. Early formation of evolved asteroidal crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Ash, Richard D.; Liu, Yang; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Rumble, Douglas, III; McDonough, William F.; Walker, Richard J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms for the formation of crust on planetary bodies remain poorly understood. It is generally accepted that Earth's andesitic continental crust is the product of plate tectonics, whereas the Moon acquired its feldspar-rich crust by way of plagioclase flotation in a magma ocean. Basaltic meteorites provide evidence that, like the terrestrial planets, some asteroids generated crust and underwent large-scale differentiation processes. Until now, however, no evolved felsic asteroidal crust has been sampled or observed. Here we report age and compositional data for the newly discovered, paired and differentiated meteorites Graves Nunatak (GRA) 06128 and GRA 06129. These meteorites are feldspar-rich, with andesite bulk compositions. Their age of 4.52+/-0.06Gyr demonstrates formation early in Solar System history. The isotopic and elemental compositions, degree of metamorphic re-equilibration and sulphide-rich nature of the meteorites are most consistent with an origin as partial melts from a volatile-rich, oxidized asteroid. GRA 06128 and 06129 are the result of a newly recognized style of evolved crust formation, bearing witness to incomplete differentiation of their parent asteroid and to previously unrecognized diversity of early-formed materials in the Solar System.

  12. Early formation of evolved asteroidal crust.

    PubMed

    Day, James M D; Ash, Richard D; Liu, Yang; Bellucci, Jeremy J; Rumble, Douglas; McDonough, William F; Walker, Richard J; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms for the formation of crust on planetary bodies remain poorly understood. It is generally accepted that Earth's andesitic continental crust is the product of plate tectonics, whereas the Moon acquired its feldspar-rich crust by way of plagioclase flotation in a magma ocean. Basaltic meteorites provide evidence that, like the terrestrial planets, some asteroids generated crust and underwent large-scale differentiation processes. Until now, however, no evolved felsic asteroidal crust has been sampled or observed. Here we report age and compositional data for the newly discovered, paired and differentiated meteorites Graves Nunatak (GRA) 06128 and GRA 06129. These meteorites are feldspar-rich, with andesite bulk compositions. Their age of 4.52 +/- 0.06 Gyr demonstrates formation early in Solar System history. The isotopic and elemental compositions, degree of metamorphic re-equilibration and sulphide-rich nature of the meteorites are most consistent with an origin as partial melts from a volatile-rich, oxidized asteroid. GRA 06128 and 06129 are the result of a newly recognized style of evolved crust formation, bearing witness to incomplete differentiation of their parent asteroid and to previously unrecognized diversity of early-formed materials in the Solar System.

  13. Crust rheology, slab detachment and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, T.; Gerya, T. V.

    2012-04-01

    The collision between continents following the closure of an ocean can lead to the subduction of continental crust. The introduction of buoyant crust within subduction zones triggers the development of extensional stresses in slabs which eventually result in their detachment. The dynamic consequences of slab detachment affects the development of topography, the exhumation of high-pressure rocks and the geodynamic evolution of collision zones. We employ two-dimensional thermo-mechanical modelling in order to study the importance of crustal rheology on the evolution of spontaneous subduction-collision systems and the occurrence of slab detachment. The modelling results indicate that varying the rheological structure of the crust can results in a broad range of collisional evolutions involving slab detachment, delamination (associated to slab rollback), or the combination of both mechanisms. By enhancing mechanical coupling at the Moho, a strong crust leads to the deep subduction of the crust (180 km). These collisions are subjected to slab detachment and subsequent coherent exhumation of the crust accommodated by eduction (inversion of subduction sense) and thrusting. In these conditions, slab detachment promotes the development of a high (> 4.5 km) and narrow (< 200 km) topographic plateau located in the vicinity of the suture. A contrasting style of collision is obtained by employing a weak crustal rheology. The weak mechanical coupling at the Moho promotes the widespread delamination of the lithosphere, preventing slab detachment to occur. Further shortening leads to buckling and thickening of the crust resulting in the development of topographic bulging on the lower plate. Collisions involving rheologically layered crust are characterised by a decoupling level at mid-crustal depths. These initial condition favours the delamination of the upper crust as well as the deep subduction of the lower crust. These collisions are thus successively affected by delamination

  14. Hafnium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, D.-C.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.; Burton, K.W.; Christensen, J.N.; Gunther, D.

    1999-01-01

    A Cenozoic record of hafnium isotopic compositions of central Pacific deep water has been obtained from two ferromanganese crusts. The crusts are separated by more than 3000 kilometers but display similar secular variations. Significant fluctuations in hafnium isotopic composition occurred in the Eocene and Oligocene, possibly related to direct advection from the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Hafnium isotopic compositions have remained approximately uniform for the past 20 million years, probably reflecting increased isolation of the central Pacific. The mechanisms responsible for the increase in 87Sr/86Sr in seawater through the Cenozoic apparently had no effect on central Pacific deep-water hafnium.

  15. Does subduction zone magmatism produce average continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellam, R. M.; Hawkesworth, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether present day subduction zone magmatism produces material of average continental crust composition, which perhaps most would agree is andesitic, is addressed. It was argued that modern andesitic to dacitic rocks in Andean-type settings are produced by plagioclase fractionation of mantle derived basalts, leaving a complementary residue with low Rb/Sr and a positive Eu anomaly. This residue must be removed, for example by delamination, if the average crust produced in these settings is andesitic. The author argued against this, pointing out the absence of evidence for such a signature in the mantle. Either the average crust is not andesitic, a conclusion the author was not entirely comfortable with, or other crust forming processes must be sought. One possibility is that during the Archean, direct slab melting of basaltic or eclogitic oceanic crust produced felsic melts, which together with about 65 percent mafic material, yielded an average crust of andesitic composition.

  16. Geological Structure and History of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Kashubin, Sergey; Pospelov, Igor; Tolmacheva, Tatiana; Petrov, Eugeny

    2016-04-01

    New data on geological structure of the deep-water part of the Arctic Basin have been integrated in the joint project of Arctic states - the Atlas of maps of the Circumpolar Arctic. Geological (CGS, 2009) and potential field (NGS, 2009) maps were published as part of the Atlas; tectonic (Russia) and mineral resources (Norway) maps are being completed. The Arctic basement map is one of supplements to the tectonic map. It shows the Eurasian basin with oceanic crust and submerged margins of adjacent continents: the Barents-Kara, Amerasian ("Amerasian basin") and the Canada-Greenland. These margins are characterized by strained and thinned crust with the upper crust layer, almost extinct in places (South Barents and Makarov basins). In the Central Arctic elevations, seismic studies and investigation of seabed rock samples resulted in the identification of a craton with the Early Precambrian crust (near-polar part of the Lomonosov Ridge - Alpha-Mendeleev Rise). Its basement presumably consists of gneiss granite (2.6-2.2 Ga), and the cover is composed of Proterozoic quartzite sandstone and dolomite overlain with unconformity and break in sedimentation by Devonian-Triassic limestone with fauna and terrigenous rocks. The old crust is surrounded by accretion belts of Timanides and Grenvillides. Folded belts with the Late Precambrian crust are reworked by Caledonian-Ellesmerian and the Late Mesozoic movements. Structures of the South Anuy - Angayucham ophiolite suture reworked in the Early Cretaceous are separated from Mesozoides proper of the Pacific - Verkhoyansk-Kolyma and Koryak-Kamchatka belts. The complicated modern ensemble of structures of the basement and the continental frame of the Arctic Ocean was formed as a result of the conjugate evolution and interaction of the three major oceans of the Earth: Paleoasian, Paleoatlantic and Paleopacific.

  17. The timescales of magma evolution at mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandl, Philipp A.; Regelous, Marcel; Beier, Christoph; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Nebel, Oliver; Haase, Karsten M.

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic crust is continuously created at mid-ocean ridges by decompression melting of the upper mantle as it upwells due to plate separation. Decades of research on active spreading ridges have led to a growing understanding of the complex magmatic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes linked to the formation of new oceanic igneous crust. However, less is known about the timescales of magmatic processes at mid-ocean ridges, including melting in and melt extraction from the mantle, fractional crystallisation, crustal assimilation and/or magma mixing. In this paper, we review the timescales of magmatic processes by integrating radiometric dating, chemical and petrological observations of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and geophysical models. These different lines of evidence suggest that melt extraction and migration, and crystallisation and mixing processes occur over timescales of 1 to 10,000 a. High-resolution geochemical stratigraphic profiles of the oceanic crust using drill-core samples further show that at fast-spreading ridges, adjacent flow units may differ in age by only a few 100 a. We use existing chemical data and new major- and trace-element analyses of fresh MORB glasses from drill-cores in ancient Atlantic and Pacific crust, together with model stratigraphic ages to investigate how lava chemistry changes over 10 to 100 ka periods, the timescale of crustal accretion at spreading ridges which is recorded in the basalt stratigraphy in drilled sections through the oceanic crust. We show that drilled MORBs have compositions that are similar to those of young MORB glasses dredged from active spreading ridges (lavas that will eventually be preserved in the lowermost part of the extrusive section covered by younger flows), showing that the dredged samples are indeed representative of the bulk oceanic crust. Model stratigraphic ages calculated for individual flows in boreholes, together with the geochemical stratigraphy of the drilled sections, show that at

  18. Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subduction.

    PubMed

    Foley, Stephen F; Buhre, Stephan; Jacob, Dorrit E

    2003-01-16

    The Archaean oceanic crust was probably thicker than present-day oceanic crust owing to higher heat flow and thus higher degrees of melting at mid-ocean ridges. These conditions would also have led to a different bulk composition of oceanic crust in the early Archaean, that would probably have consisted of magnesium-rich picrite (with variably differentiated portions made up of basalt, gabbro, ultramafic cumulates and picrite). It is unclear whether these differences would have influenced crustal subduction and recycling processes, as experiments that have investigated the metamorphic reactions that take place during subduction have to date considered only modern mid-ocean-ridge basalts. Here we present data from high-pressure experiments that show that metamorphism of ultramafic cumulates and picrites produces pyroxenites, which we infer would have delaminated and melted to produce basaltic rocks, rather than continental crust as has previously been thought. Instead, the formation of continental crust requires subduction and melting of garnet-amphibolite--formed only in the upper regions of oceanic crust--which is thought to have first occurred on a large scale during subduction in the late Archaean. We deduce from this that shallow subduction and recycling of oceanic crust took place in the early Archaean, and that this would have resulted in strong depletion of only a thin layer of the uppermost mantle. The misfit between geochemical depletion models and geophysical models for mantle convection (which include deep subduction) might therefore be explained by continuous deepening of this depleted layer through geological time. PMID:12529633

  19. The Continental Crust: A Geophysical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Nikolas I.

    Nearly 80 years ago, Yugoslavian seismologist Andrija Mohorovicic recognized, while studying a Balkan earthquake, that velocities of seismic waves increase abruptly at a few tens of kilometers depth , giving rise to the seismological definition of the crust. Since that discovery, many studies concerned with the nature of both the continental and oceanic crusts have appeared in the geophysical literature.Recently, interest in the continental crust has cascaded. This is largely because of an infusion of new data obtained from major reflection programs such as the Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) and British Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate (BIRPS) and increased resolution of refraction studies. In addition, deep continental drilling programs are n ow in fashion. The Continental Crust: A Geophysical Approach is a summary of present knowledge of the continental crust. Meissner has succeeded in writing a book suited to many different readers, from the interested undergraduate to the professional. The book is well documented , with pertinent figures and a complete and up-to-date reference list.

  20. Corium crust strength measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lomperski, S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-11-01

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  1. Cyclic growth in Atlantic region continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Atlantic region continental crust evolved in successive stages under the influence of regular, approximately 400 Ma-long tectonic cycles. Data point to a variety of operative tectonic processes ranging from widespread ocean floor consumption (Wilson cycle) to entirely ensialic (Ampferer-style subduction or simple crustal attenuation-compression). Different processes may have operated concurrently in some or different belts. Resolving this remains the major challenge.

  2. Weathering crusts on peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Kurt; Stober, Ingrid; Müller-Sigmund, Hiltrud

    2015-05-01

    Chemical weathering of dark-green massive peridotite, including partly serpentinized peridotite, produces a distinct and remarkable brown weathering rind when exposed to the atmosphere long enough. The structure and mineral composition of crusts on rocks from the Ronda peridotite, Spain, have been studied in some detail. The generic overall weathering reaction serpentinized peridotite + rainwater = weathering rind + runoff water describes the crust-forming process. This hydration reaction depends on water supply from the outcrop surface to the reaction front separating green peridotite from the brown crust. The reaction pauses after drying and resumes at the front after wetting. The overall net reaction transforms olivine to serpentine in a volume-conserving replacement reaction. The crust formation can be viewed as secondary serpentinization of peridotite that has been strongly altered by primary hydrothermal serpentinization. The reaction stoichiometry of the crust-related serpentinization is preserved and reflected by the composition of runoff waters in the peridotite massif. The brown color of the rind is caused by amorphous Fe(III) hydroxide, a side product from the oxidation of Fe(II) released by the dissolution of fayalite component in olivine.

  3. Raindrop induced crust formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Judit Alexandra; Jakab, Gergely; Józsa, Sándor; Németh, Tibor; Kovács, Ivett; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall simulators are wildly used to study soil erosion because all parts of the erosion process can be simulated with them. Small-scale laboratory rainfall simulator was used to examine the detachment phase of the erosion and study the redistribution trend of the organic and mineral components of the soil. Splash erosion often creates crust on the soil surface that decreases porosity and infiltration. Crusts have crucial role in physical soil degradation processes, erosion and crop production fall. Intensive rainfall on a recently tilled Regosol and a Cambisol plots detached the aggregates and the occurred runoff scattered the individual particles on the surface. Oriented thin sections from the various morphological types of surface crusts were made similar as a thin section from any rock but during the preparation the samples were saturated often with dilute two-component adhesive to solidify the soil to preserve the crust. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis measurements are in progress in order to identify spatial changes in organic matter and mineralogical composition among the crust layers. Preliminary results suggest the separation of the mineral and organic soil components. The lighter organic matter seems to be enriched in the soil loss while the heavier minerals are deposited and stratified in the deeper micromorphological positions of the surface. The understanding of this selectivity is necessary in soil loss estimation.

  4. Subduction of fore-arc crust beneath an intra-oceanic arc: The high-P Cuaba mafic gneisess and amphibolites of the Rio San Juan Complex, Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Castillo-Carrión, Mercedes

    2016-10-01

    The Rio San Juan metamorphic complex (RSJC) exposes a segment of a high-P accretionary prism, built during Late Cretaceous subduction below the intra-oceanic Caribbean island-arc. In this paper we present new detailed maps, tectonostratigraphy, large-scale structure, mineral chemistry, in situ trace element composition of clinopyroxene (Cpx), and bulk rock geochemical data for representative garnet-free peridotites and mafic metaigneous rocks of the Cuaba and Helechal tectonometamorphic units of the southern RSJC. The Cuaba subcomplex is composed of upper foliated amphibolites and lower garnet amphibolites, retrograded (coronitic) eclogites, and heterogeneous metagabbros metamorphosed to upper amphibolite and eclogite-facies conditions. The lenticular bodies of associated peridotites are Cpx-poor harzburgites. The underlying Helechal subcomplex is composed of Cpx-poor harzburgites, Cpx-rich harzbugites, lherzolites and rare dunites. The presented data allow us to argue that the Cuaba subcomplex: (a) represents tectonically deformed and metamorphosed crust of the Caribbean island-arc, (b) contains fragments of its supra-subduction zone mantle, and (c) includes different geochemical groups of mafic protoliths generated by varying melting degrees of diverse mantle sources. These geochemical groups include mid-Ti tholeiites (N-MORB), normal IAT and calc-alkaline rocks, low-Ti IAT, metacumulates of boninitic affinity, and HREE-depleted IAT, that collectively record a multi-stage magmatic evolution for the Caribbean island-arc, prior to the Late Cretaceous high-P metamorphism. Further, these mafic protoliths present comparable geochemical features to mafic igneous rocks of the Puerca Gorda Schists, Cacheal and Puerto Plata complexes, all of them related to the Caribbean island-arc. These relations suggest that the southern RSJC complex represents part of the subducted fore-arc of the Caribbean island-arc, which experienced initial subduction, underplating below the arc

  5. Physical constraints on dolomite crust formation, Ambergris Cay Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, B.A.; Bischoff, W.D.; Mazzullo, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitic crusts forming on a peritidal flat on Ambergris Cay, Belize, occur beneath surface sediment adjacent to, but not within, small saline (60-90 ppt) ponds. Upper crusts, 2-12 cm thick forming at or slightly below the water table (approximately equivalent to lagoon water level) are areally restricted by (1) ponds where sediment lies below 20-50 cm of water, (2) high and relatively dry areas where sediment accumulation of more than 15 cm above water level supports diverse vegetation, and (3) low areas affected by mangrove encroachment where preexisting crusts are perforated by roots and displaced. The lower crusts occur immediately above the Pleistocene in lows beneath the Holocene sediment and on exposed Pleistocene surfaces. Estimates from x-ray diffraction analysis indicate 80-100% dolomite content within the upper crusts and 50-60% dolomite content in the lower crusts. Unlithified sediment above and below the upper crust contain up to 80% dolomite. Compositions range from Ca{sub 56}, Mg{sub 44} in the upper crusts to Ca{sub 60} Mg{sub 40} in the lower crusts. There is no correlation between stoichiometry and ordering in the dolomites; all are poorly ordered as indicated by very weak (015) and (021) superstructure peaks. Where crusts are not 100% dolomite, the dolomite is evident as euhedral cements within pores, especially within foraminiferal tests, and as micrite along algal laminations and walls of burrows. However, preliminary examinations with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray mapping show that magnesium enrichment is pervasive within these crusts and may represent Mg-enrichment of calcite as an intermediate stage in dolomite formation.

  6. The Current Tectonics of the Yukon and Adjacent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.; Leonard, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current tectonics across the Yukon and adjacent areas of western Northwest Territories (NWT) and northern British Columbia appear to be driven primarily by the Yakutat Terrane collision, an "indenter" in the corner of the Gulf of Alaska. GPS data show 1-10 mm/yr northward and eastward, decreasing inland. The rates from earthquake statistics are similar although there are important discrepancies. The eastern Cordillera earthquake mechanisms are mainly thrust in the Mackenzie Mountains of southwestern NWT where the Cordillera upper crust is overthrusting the craton. To the north, the mechanisms are mainly strike-slip in the Richardson Mountains that appear to lie along the edge of the craton. The deformation appears to be limited to the hot and weak Cordillera with the strong craton providing an irregular eastern boundary. For example, there is an eastward bow in the craton edge and the deformation in the Mackenzie Mountains. On the Beaufort Sea margin in the region of the Mackenzie Delta there appears to be a type of "subduction zone" with the continent very slowly overthrusting the oceanic plate, a process that has continued since at least the Cretaceous. A northward moving continental margin block is bounded by left lateral faulting in the west (Canning Displacement Zone of eastern Alaska) and right lateral faulting in the east (Richardson Mountains in eastern Yukon). There is almost no seismicity on this thrust belt but as for some other subduction zones such as Cascadia there is the potential for very infrequent great earthquakes.

  7. Magmatic intrusions in the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, C.; Thorey, C.

    2015-10-01

    The lunar highlands are very old, with ages covering a timespan between 4.5 to 4.2 Gyr, and probably formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean. The lunar crust provides thus an invaluable evidence of the geological and magmatic processes occurring in the first times of the terrestrial planets history. According to the last estimates from the GRAIL mission, the lunar primary crust is particularly light and relatively thick [1] This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the dense primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basin: at least part of the crust must have been removed for the magma to reach the surface. However, the trajectory of the magma from the mantle to the surface is unknown. Using a model of magma emplacement below an elastic overlying layer with a flexural wavelength Λ, we characterize the surface deformations induced by the presence of shallow magmatic intrusions. We demonstrate that, depending on its size, the intrusion can show two different shapes: a bell shape when its radius is smaller than 4 times Λ or a flat top with small bended edges if its radius is larger than 4 times Λ[2]. These characteristic shapes for the intrusion result in characteristic deformations at the surface that also depend on the topography of the layer overlying the intrusion [3].Using this model we provide evidence of the presence of intrusions within the crust of the Moon as surface deformations in the form of low-slope lunar domes and floor-fractured craters. All these geological features have morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. Further more,at floor-fractured craters, the deformation is contained within the crater interior, suggesting that the overpressure at the origin of magma ascent and intrusion was less than the pressure due to the weight of the crust removed by

  8. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  9. Stored mafic/ultramafic crust and early Archean mantle depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Clement G.; Patchett, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Both early and late Archean rocks from greenstone belts and felsic gneiss complexes exhibit positive epsilon(Nd) values of +1 to +5 by 3.5 Ga, demonstrating that a depleted mantle reservoir existed very early. The amount of preserved pre-3.0 Ga continental crust cannot explain such high epsilon values in the depleted residue unless the volume of residual mantle was very small: a layer less than 70 km thick by 3.0 Ga. Repeated and exclusive sampling of such a thin layer, especially in forming the felsic gneiss complexes, is implausible. Extraction of enough continental crust to deplete the early mantle and its destructive recycling before 3.0 Ga ago requires another implausibility, that the sites of crustal generation of recycling were substantially distinct. In contrast, formation of mafic or ultramafic crust analogous to present-day oceanic crust was continuous from very early times. Recycled subducted oceanic lithosphere is a likely contributor to present-day hotspot magmas, and forms a reservoir at least comparable in volume to continental crust. Subduction of an early mafic/ultramafic oceanic crust and temporary storage rather than immediate mixing back into undifferentiated mantle may be responsible for the depletion and high epsilon(Nd) values of the Archean upper mantle.

  10. Earthquakes in Stable Continental Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Arch C.; Kanter, Lisa R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are some of the reasons for earthquakes which occur in stable crust away from familiar zones at the ends of tectonic plates. Crust stability and the reactivation of old faults are described using examples from India and Australia. (CW)

  11. Deep structure of the central Lesser Antilles Island Arc: Relevance for the formation of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, H.; Weinzierl, W.; Becel, A.; Charvis, P.; Evain, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Gailler, A.; Galve, A.; Hirn, A.; Kandilarov, A.; Klaeschen, D.; Laigle, M.; Papenberg, C.; Planert, L.; Roux, E.

    2011-04-01

    Oceanic island arcs are sites of high magma production and contribute to the formation of continental crust. Geophysical studies may provide information on the configuration and composition of island arc crust, however, to date only few seismic profiles exist across active island arcs, limiting our knowledge on the deep structure and processes related to the production of arc crust. We acquired active-source wide-angle seismic data crossing the central Lesser Antilles island arc north of Dominica where the oceanic Tiburon Ridge subducts obliquely beneath the forearc. A combined analysis of wide-angle seismics and pre-stack depth migrated reflection data images the complex structure of the backstop and its segmentation into two individual ridges, suggesting an intricate relation between subducted basement relief and forearc deformation. Tomographic imaging reveals three distinct layers composing the island arc crust. A three kilometer thick upper crust of volcanogenic sedimentary rocks and volcaniclastics is underlain by intermediate to felsic middle crust and plutonic lower crust. The island arc crust may comprise inherited elements of oceanic plateau material contributing to the observed crustal thickness. A high density ultramafic cumulates layer is not detected, which is an important observation for models of continental crust formation. The upper plate Moho is found at a depth of 24 km below the sea floor. Upper mantle velocities are close to the global average. Our study provides important information on the composition of the island arc crust and its deep structure, ranging from intermediate to felsic and mafic conditions.

  12. Neutron star crusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, C. P.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate properties of neutron star matter at subnuclear densities using an improved nuclear Hamiltonian. Nuclei disappear and the matter becomes uniform at a density of about 0.6n(s), where n(s) of about 0.16/cu fm is the saturation density of nuclear matter. As a consequence, the mass of matter in the crusts of neutron stars is only about half as large as previously estimated. In about half of that crustal mass, nuclear matter occurs in shapes very different from the roughly spherical nuclei familiar at lower densities. The thinner crust and the unusual nuclear shape have important consequences for theories of the rotational and thermal evolution of neutron stars, especialy theories of glitches.

  13. Psoriasis or crusted scabies.

    PubMed

    Goyal, N N; Wong, G A

    2008-03-01

    We describe a case of a 67-year-old woman with a 1-year history of nail thickening and a non-itchy erythematous scaly eruption on the fingertips. She was diagnosed with psoriasis and started on methotrexate after having had no response to topical calcipotriol. The diagnosis was reviewed after it was revealed by another consultant that the patient's husband had been attending dermatology clinics for several years with chronic pruritus, which had been repeatedly thought to be due to scabies. Our patient was found to have crusted scabies after a positive skin scraping showed numerous mites. She was treated with topical permethrin, keratolytics and oral ivermectin. We also review the literature on crusted scabies and its management, with recommendations.

  14. Temperature distribution in the crust and mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanloz, R.; Morris, S.

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the temperature distribution in the earth, experimental constraints on the geotherm in the crust and mantle are considered. The basic form of the geotherm is interpreted on the basis of two dominant mechanisms by which heat is transported in the earth: (1) conduction through the rock, and (2) advection by thermal flow. Data reveal that: (1) the temperature distributions through continental lithosphere and through oceanic lithosphere more than 60 million years old are practically indistinguishable, (2) crustal uplift is instrumental in modifying continental geotherms, and (3) the average temperature through the Archean crust and mantle was similar to that at present. It is noted that current limitations in understanding the constitution of the lower mantle can lead to significant uncertainties in the thermal response time of the planetary interior.

  15. Crustal thickness anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean basin from gravity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Lin, Jian; Tucholke, Brian; Chen, Yongshun John

    2011-03-01

    Gravity-derived crustal thickness models were calculated for the North Atlantic Ocean between 76°N and the Chain Fracture Zone and calibrated using seismically determined crustal thickness. About 7% of the ocean crust is <4 km thick (designated as thin crust), and 58% is 4-7 km thick (normal crust); the remaining 35% is >7 km thick and is interpreted to have been affected by excess magmatism. Thin crust probably reflects reduced melt production from relatively cold or refractory mantle at scales of up to hundreds of kilometers along the spreading axis. By far the most prominent thick crust anomaly is associated with Iceland and adjacent areas, which accounts for 57% of total crustal volume in excess of 7 km. Much smaller anomalies include the Azores (8%), Cape Verde Islands (6%), Canary Islands (5%), Madeira (<4%), and New England-Great Meteor Seamount chain (2%), all of which appear to be associated with hot spots. Hot spot-related crustal thickening is largely intermittent, suggesting that melt production is episodic on time scales of tens of millions of years. Thickened crust shows both symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns about the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) axis, reflecting whether melt anomalies were or were not centered on the MAR axis, respectively. Thickened crust at the Bermuda and Cape Verde rises appears to have been formed by isolated melt anomalies over periods of only ˜20-25 Myr. Crustal thickness anomalies on the African plate generally are larger than those on the North American plate; this most likely results from slower absolute plate speed of the African plate over relatively fixed hot spots.

  16. Crustal redistribution, crust-mantle recycling and Phanerozoic evolution of the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter D.; Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason Phipps

    2009-12-01

    We here attempt a global scale mass balance of the continental crust during the Phanerozoic and especially the Cenozoic (65 Ma). Continental crust is mostly recycled back into the mantle as a result of the subduction of sediment in trenches (1.65 km 3/a), by the subduction of eroded forearc basement (1.3 km 3/a) and by the delamination of lower crustal material from orogenic plateaus (ca. 1.1 km 3/a). Subduction of rifted crust in continent-continent collision zones (0.4 km 3/a), and dissolved materials fixed into the oceanic crust (ca. 0.4 km 3/a) are less important crustal sinks. At these rates the entire continental crust could be reworked in around 1.8 Ga. Nd isotope data indicate that ca. 80% of the subducted continental crust is not recycled by melting at shallow levels back into arcs, but is subducted to depth into the upper mantle. Continent-continent collision zones do not generally form new crust, but rather cause crustal loss by subduction and as a result of their physical erosion, which exports crust from the orogen to ocean basins where it may be subducted. Regional sedimentation rates suggest that most orogens have their topography eliminated within 100-200 million years. We estimate that during the Cenozoic the global rivers exported an average of 1.8 km 3/a to the oceans, approximately balancing the subducted loss. Accretion of sediment to active continental margins is a small contribution to crustal construction (ca. 0.3 km 3/a). Similarly, continental large igneous provinces (flood basalts) represent construction of only around 0.12 km 3/a, even after accounting for their intrusive roots. If oceanic plateaus are accreted to continental margins then they would average construction rates of 1.1 km 3/a, meaning that to keep constant crustal volumes, arc magmatism would have to maintain production of around 3.8 km 3/a (or 94 km 3/Ma/km of trench). This slightly exceeds the rates derived from sparse seismic experiments in oceanic arc systems. Although

  17. The Taitao Granites: I-type granites formed by subduction of the Chile Ridge and its implication in growth of continental crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anma, Ryo

    2016-04-01

    Late Miocene to Early Pliocene granite plutons are exposed at the tip of the Taitao peninsula, the westernmost promontory of the Chilean coast, together with a contemporaneous ophiolite with a Penrose-type stratigraphy. Namely, the Taitao granites and the Taitao ohiolite, respectively, are located at ~30 km southeast of the Chile triple junction, where a spreading center of the Chile ridge system is subducting underneath the South America plate. This unique tectonic setting provides an excellent opportunity to study the generation processes of granitic magmas at a ridge subduction environment, and the complex magmatic interactions between the subducting ridge, overlying crust and sediments, and mantle. This paper reviews previous studies on the Taitao ophiolite/granite complex and use geochemical data and U-Pb age distributions of zircons separated from igneous and sedimentary rocks from the area to discuss the mechanism that formed juvenile magma of calc-alkaline I-type granites during ridge subduction. Our model implies that the magmas of the Taitao granites formed mainly due to partial melting of hot oceanic crust adjacent to the subducting mid-oceanic ridge that has been under influence of deep crustal contamination and/or metasomatized sub-arc mantle through slab window. The partial melting took place under garnet-free-amphibolite conditions. The juvenile magmas then incorporated a different amount of subducted sediments to form the I-type granites with various compositions. The Taitao granites provide an ideal case study field that shows the processes to develop continental crusts out of oceanic crusts through ridge subduction.

  18. Crustal-Scale Images of the Continent-Ocean Transition Across the Eastern Canadian Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louden, K.; Gerlings, J.

    2009-05-01

    be linked to previously documented pulses of continental extension in adjacent regions. Future improvements in characterizing the nature of the transition zone and its boundaries will require new detailed seismic profiles in which reflection and refraction data are analyzed simultaneously, including use of full waveform techniques. This will necessitate use of longer towed MCS arrays (10-15 km) and a greater number of ocean bottom receivers (50) spaced at smaller intervals (2-5 km). These requirements are well within our present capacity, but will require new international initiatives with significant new funding. Since the nature of the transitional crust has important implications for both resources and political boundaries, it is hoped that such potential can be realized within the next 5-10 years.

  19. Subducted upper and lower continental crust contributes to magmatism in the collision sector of the Sunda-Banda arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elburg, M. A.; van Bergen, M. J.; Foden, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Pb isotopes in igneous rocks from the Banda-Sunda arc show extreme along-arc variations, which correspond to major lithologic changes in crustal components entering the subduction system. An increase in 206Pb/204Pb ratios toward the zone of collision with the Australian continent reflects input of subducted upper-crustal material; maximum values coincide with anomalously radiogenic 3He/4He ratios that have been earlier attributed to the involvement of the continental margin. The collision zone is further characterized by 208Pb/204Pb ratios that are higher for a given 207Pb/204Pb value than observed in the noncollisional sectors, and in the central part of the collision zone, the 206Pb/204Pb ratios are lower than the most radiogenic values in the adjacent areas. We propose that these Pb isotope signatures reflect input of subducted lower crust, mobilized as a result of slab-window formation during arc-continent collision. Variations in Pb isotopes in the collision zone are solely determined by variations in the nature and proportions of different subducted components. The Pb isotope arrays in the noncollision area may be dominated by slab components as well and could reflect mixing between subducted oceanic crust and entrained sediments, rather than between subarc mantle and subducted sediments. Our new interpretation of the Indonesian Pb isot