Science.gov

Sample records for adjacent onshore areas

  1. 40 CFR 55.5 - Corresponding onshore area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corresponding onshore area designation. 55.5 Section 55.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.5 Corresponding onshore area designation. (a) Proposed exploratory sources. The NOA...

  2. 40 CFR 55.5 - Corresponding onshore area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corresponding onshore area designation. 55.5 Section 55.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.5 Corresponding onshore area designation....

  3. Frontiers, mature areas share onshore spotlight in lower 48

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1991-04-08

    Onshore exploration in the lower 48 east of California is busy in frontier as well as mature areas. And the action isn't confined to high-visibility horizontal and coalbed methane drilling, important as they have become to activity levels and reserves additions. This paper presents some highlights. The first regional seismic line, complete with geological interpretation, of the planned 16,000 line mile Megaregional Project designed to cover the entire contiguous U.S. and adjacent offshore areas has been made available for licensing to the industry at large. South Louisiana's deep sandstone reservoirs, with multiple pay zones, large reserves, and high flow rates, are hosting a large number of exploratory wells even at gas prices well below $2/Mcf at the wellhead. A Pennsylvanian gas play is rambling eastward south of the Choctaw thrust fault in the frontal Ouachita/Arkoma basin area of eastern Oklahoma. A deep test on the Overthrust Belt in Montana, drilling since June 1990 in remote Jefferson County, heads a list of deep tests under way in several key Rocky Mountain areas. Overthrust evidence is mounting in Nevada, where exploratory drilling is under way in several valleys outside the two primary producing areas. In the Four Corners area, a joint venture has completed a large seismic program on the Navajo Indian Reservation in the Four Corners area and plans to drill 30-40 more Pennsylvanian Desert Creek algal reef mounds there this year.

  4. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  5. MINARETS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N. King; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Minarets Wilderness and adjacent areas in the central Sierra Nevada, California was conducted. The results of the survey indicate that the study area has a substantiated resource potential for small deposits of copper, silver, zinc, lead, and iron, and a probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum. No energy-resource potential was identified in the study.

  6. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  7. The lithosphere of Ellesmere Island and adjacent northwestern Greenland (CALE 'A' transect onshore)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, R.; Schiffer, C.; Oakey, G. N.

    2013-12-01

    Ellesmere Island, in Canada's Arctic, comprises a series of ~SW-NE trending tectonic provinces, the crustal structure and geological expression of which represent a combination of interplate, accretionary orogenesis in the Palaeozoic (Caledonian equivalent and Ellesmerian orogenies) and intraplate orogenesis in the Cenozoic (Eurekan Orogeny). The present-day topography of Ellesmere Island is closely related to the crustal architecture of these tectonic provinces, which includes the adjacent polar continental margin. A two-dimensional lithosphere-scale model is presented that crosses Ellesmere Island from northern Baffin Bay to the Arctic Ocean, part of Transect 'A' of the Circum-Arctic Lithosphere Evolution (CALE) project. The model is based on gravity and magnetic data constrained by mapped geological structure as well as a not yet unpublished Receiver Function study, based on teleseismic data acquired between 2010 and 2012 by a passive seismological array on Ellesmere Island called 'ELLITE'. In northern Baffin Bay and on parts of the polar margin of Ellesmere Island (and adjacent northwestern Greenland), published crustal scale seismic refraction velocity models also provide some constraint to the lithosphere model. The most recent tectonic event governing the geological and physiographic character of Ellesmere Island is the Eurekan Orogeny, an intraplate orogeny that developed as a consequence of North Atlantic-Arctic plate reorganisations and the resulting convergence of Greenland against Ellesmere Island in the Palaeogene. The basement of the Eurekan orogen comprises Precambrian-aged lithosphere in its northernmost (Pearya terrane) and southeasternmost (Greenland-Canada craton) parts as well as possibly younger lithosphere accreted during Palaeozoic orogenesis in central Ellesmere Island. Its southern margin, marking the southern terminus of the constructed lithosphere model, comprises the late Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic passive continental margin of

  8. 43 CFR 3186.1 - Model onshore unit agreement for unproven areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT..., royalty, or other oil and gas interests in the unit area subject to this agreement; and WHEREAS, the... gas pool, field, or like area, or any part thereof for the purpose of more properly conserving...

  9. 43 CFR 3186.1 - Model onshore unit agreement for unproven areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT..., royalty, or other oil and gas interests in the unit area subject to this agreement; and WHEREAS, the... gas pool, field, or like area, or any part thereof for the purpose of more properly conserving...

  10. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  11. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  12. 40 CFR 55.15 - Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas. 55.15 Section 55.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.15 Specific designation...

  13. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 40 CFR 55.5 - Corresponding onshore area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sources. (b) Requests for designation. (1) The chief executive officer of the air pollution control agency of an area that believes it has more stringent air pollution control requirements than the NOA for a... with respect to the control and abatement of air pollution than the NOA; (ii) The emissions from...

  15. 40 CFR 55.5 - Corresponding onshore area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sources. (b) Requests for designation. (1) The chief executive officer of the air pollution control agency of an area that believes it has more stringent air pollution control requirements than the NOA for a... with respect to the control and abatement of air pollution than the NOA; (ii) The emissions from...

  16. Onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil Point area, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Stanley, Richard G.; Guy R. Cochrane, Guy R.

    2011-01-01

    Geologic maps that span the shoreline and include both onshore and offshore areas are potentially valuable tools that can lead to a more in depth understanding of coastal environments. Such maps can contribute to the understanding of shoreline change, geologic hazards, both offshore and along-shore sediment and pollutant transport. They are also useful in assessing geologic and biologic resources. Several intermediate-scale (1:100,000) geologic maps that include both onshore and offshore areas (herein called onshore-offshore geologic maps) have been produced of areas along the California coast (see Saucedo and others, 2003; Kennedy and others, 2007; Kennedy and Tan, 2008), but few large-scale (1:24,000) maps have been produced that can address local coastal issues. A cooperative project between Federal and State agencies and universities has produced an onshore-offshore geologic map at 1:24,000 scale of the Coal Oil Point area and part of the Santa Barbara Channel, southern California (fig. 1). As part of the project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) hosted a workshop (May 2nd and 3rd, 2007) for producers and users of coastal map products (see list of participants) to develop a consensus on the content and format of onshore-offshore geologic maps (and accompanying GIS files) so that they have relevance for coastal-zone management. The USGS and CGS are working to develop coastal maps that combine geospatial information from offshore and onshore and serve as an important tool for addressing a broad range of coastal-zone management issues. The workshop was divided into sessions for presentations and discussion of bathymetry and topography, geology, and habitat products and needs of end users. During the workshop, participants reviewed existing maps and discussed their merits and shortcomings. This report addresses a number of items discussed in the workshop and details the onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil

  17. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  19. The Isostatic State of Ethiopia and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2003-04-01

    Over 35000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models and perform geologic correlations over a large section of the Afro-Arabian shield. Ethiopia is an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ca. 5000km Afro-Arabian rift and it includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinsez models. These anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expression of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity over the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. A series of NW-SE and E-W trending features are evident in the different isostatic residual maps. These parallel features include, from north to south, the Najid fault system, Red Sea axial zone, Melka Werer cross structure, the Anza rift and the Aswa shear zone. Additional NW-SE structures are apparent in the southern rift system, although these features are somewhat diffuse. Curvature enhanced maps are also useful for mapping fracture zones, major gravity lineaments and, in some cases, orientation of faults. Important areas from a metallogenesis point of view have been identified for further examination. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and qualitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  20. Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 35,000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models against geologic structures over a part of the Afro-Arabian shield. The area of Ethiopia covers an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ≈5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and the Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinesz (flexural rigidity D = 10 22 Nm) models. The isostatic residual anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expressions of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity in the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. The small mean isostatic residual anomaly (about 8 mGal) and the isostatic analysis show a slight positive bias indicating under compensation. The undercompensation may imply that there are upper crustal features that are not compensated regionally (probably supported by the rigidity of the lithosphere) and isostatic disequilibrium in the region. Therefore, the high topography of Ethiopia and East African plateau is partly compensated by thicker crust (broad negative isostatic regional anomaly) and partly by dynamic forces. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and quantitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  1. Bacterial community structure in the Sulu Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The deep waters of the Sulu Sea are characterized by relatively high and constant water temperatures and low oxygen concentrations. To examine the effect of these characteristics on the bacterial community structure, the culture-independent molecular method was applied to samples from the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas. DNA was extracted from environmental samples, and the analysis was carried out on PCR-amplified 16S rDNA; fragments were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis. Stations in the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas showed much more prominent vertical stratification of bacterial community structures than horizontal variation. As predominant sequences, cyanobacteria and α-proteobacteria at 10 m depth, δ-proteobacteria at 100 m depth, and green nonsulfur bacteria below 1000 m depth were detected in all sampling areas. High temperatures and low oxygen concentrations are thought to be minor factors in controlling community structure; the quantity and quality of organic materials supplied by the sinking particles, and hydrostatic pressure are believed to be important.

  2. Geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dilamarter, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas in Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee is presented as a background for interpreters evaluating the present land surface using remotely sensed imagery. Eight physiographic units were analyzed and are briefly discussed with reference to topography and surface deposits. Great diversity was found to be characteristic of the region, the result of different structural influences and geomorphic processes. The landscape bears the marks of fluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine and karstic environments, so a regional geomorphic history was compiled from the literature as an aid to understanding the land surface. Three smaller zones in Kentucky were analyzed in greater detail regarding topography and geomorphic development because of their potential importance in subsurface exploration.

  3. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  4. The Current Tectonics of the Yukon and Adjacent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.; Leonard, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current tectonics across the Yukon and adjacent areas of western Northwest Territories (NWT) and northern British Columbia appear to be driven primarily by the Yakutat Terrane collision, an "indenter" in the corner of the Gulf of Alaska. GPS data show 1-10 mm/yr northward and eastward, decreasing inland. The rates from earthquake statistics are similar although there are important discrepancies. The eastern Cordillera earthquake mechanisms are mainly thrust in the Mackenzie Mountains of southwestern NWT where the Cordillera upper crust is overthrusting the craton. To the north, the mechanisms are mainly strike-slip in the Richardson Mountains that appear to lie along the edge of the craton. The deformation appears to be limited to the hot and weak Cordillera with the strong craton providing an irregular eastern boundary. For example, there is an eastward bow in the craton edge and the deformation in the Mackenzie Mountains. On the Beaufort Sea margin in the region of the Mackenzie Delta there appears to be a type of "subduction zone" with the continent very slowly overthrusting the oceanic plate, a process that has continued since at least the Cretaceous. A northward moving continental margin block is bounded by left lateral faulting in the west (Canning Displacement Zone of eastern Alaska) and right lateral faulting in the east (Richardson Mountains in eastern Yukon). There is almost no seismicity on this thrust belt but as for some other subduction zones such as Cascadia there is the potential for very infrequent great earthquakes.

  5. 43 CFR 3186.1 - Model onshore unit agreement for unproven areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT... approval of the AO, at such party's sole risk, costs, and expense, drill a well on the unitized land to... agreement. Royalty due the United States shall be computed as provided in 30 CFR Group 200 and paid in...

  6. 43 CFR 3186.1 - Model onshore unit agreement for unproven areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT... approval of the AO, at such party's sole risk, costs, and expense, drill a well on the unitized land to... agreement. Royalty due the United States shall be computed as provided in 30 CFR Group 200 and paid in...

  7. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  8. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  9. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  10. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  11. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  12. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: What is revisited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, A.; Jrbashyan, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagyan, A.; Baghdassaryan, H.; Davtian, V.

    2006-07-01

    The validity of some data in Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62] that are revisited by R. Haroutiunian is considered. A conclusion is made that the revisions suggested by Haroutiunian concern unessential parts of the content of work by Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62]. This article presents new evidence and re-proves the earlier conclusions that are disputed or revised by R. Haroutiunian.

  13. Regional prospectivity of Mesozoic and Tertiary in the eastern Adriatic and adjacent area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Dolan, P.; Lunn, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Post-Hercynian deposits in the eastern Adriatic and the adjacent external zones of the Dinarides and Albanian Hellenides may be subdivided into four facies groups. (1) Permian-Lower Triassic clastics and carbonates with some evaporites, (2) Middle Triassic-lower Tertiary carbonate platform facies with associated continental margin deeper marine sequences, (3) Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary flysch, and (4) middle Tertiary molasse and postorogenic Neogene sediments. The Permian to lower Tertiary section was deposited during the complex Alpine cycle, while the upper Tertiary section is the product of post-Alpine deposition. This depositional history during markedly different tectonic regimes creates two groups of petroleum plays in the eastern Adriatic: (1) Alpine cycle plays in the Permian to lower Tertiary in the thrust-faulted and folded foreland of Adria and (2) post-Alpine plays in upper Tertiary postorogenic or late synorogenic basins. Around the Adriatic, the post-Alpine plays have so far proved the most successful. Major production occurs in the onshore Po basin and its extension beneath the Adriatic. Some of this production is from deep Alpine-cycle reservoirs, but the bulk is from the upper Tertiary-Quaternary. Similar horizons produce onshore and offshore the central-southern Adriatic coast of Italy. Major Tertiary production also occurs to the northeast in the Pannonian basin of Yugoslavia and Hungary from Miocene and younger sequences. Onshore Albania produces significant quantities of hydrocarbons; although data are scarce, much of this production is presumably from upper Tertiary molasse or lower Tertiary flysch.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  15. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  16. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  17. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  18. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  19. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  20. Seismic constraints on Late Mesozoic magmatic plumbing system in the onshore-offshore area of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, S.; Qiu, X.; Wan, K.

    2015-12-01

    We used active source wide-angle seismic data to determine a crustal structure beneath the onshore-offshore area of Hong Kong at the southern end of a broad belt dominated by Late Mesozoic intrusive and extrusive rocks in the coastal region of Southeast China. High-resolution tomographic images provide direct seismic evidence for the magmatic plumbing system of Late Mesozoic calderas. A localized high-velocity anomaly is revealed in the lower crust offshore between Hong Kong and Dangan Island, which may reflect basaltic underplating that induced voluminous silicic eruptions and granitoid plutons in the onshore-offshore area of Hong Kong. Tilted high-velocity zones are revealed in the entire crust beneath Dangan Island and the Late Mesozoic calderas of Hong Kong, which may reflect ascending magma chambers. We propose a paleo-Pacific plate subduction model to interpret our tomographic results and the generation of strong granitic magmatism in the Hong Kong area. Combining the tomographic image beneath the Lianhuashan Fault Zone with the distribution of Late Mesozoic calderas, we infer that the Lianhuashan Fault Zone might be the dominant magmatic conduit for mantle-derived magmas ascending to the upper crust. In addition, intersecting faults with different orientations could control the distribution and geometry of the vents, calderas, dykes and plutons and play an important role in forming magma conduits for individual volcanoes. Keywords: Basaltic underplating; Magmatic plumbing; Southeast China; Calderas; Active-source seismic tomography

  1. Seismotectonic domains of northeastern India and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, D. R.; Dasgupta, Sujit

    Eastern Himalaya, Meghalaya plateau, upper Assam valley, northern part of the Indo-Burmese arc and the Mishmi block constitute major tectonostratigraphic domains in northeastern India. Many lineaments of faults, both parallel and oblique to the Himalayan trend, are already known. Interpretation of satellite images combined with surface geological studies suggest that many such oblique lineaments transgress the boundary of individual tectonic domains and some continue from the Tethyan Himalaya to the foredeep or cut across both Himalayan and Burmese arcs. The entire area is highly seismic; seismicity pattern, focal mechanism solutions, geological set up and fault/lineament fabric when studied together clearly defines several seismotectonic domains. In east Nepal-Sikkim, the northward push of India is accommodated through conjugate shear failure wherein seismic strike-slip movement occurs mostly along NE faults. Further east NW/WNW Kopili-Bomdila faults are associated with many large earthquakes and lateral motion along them allows a bulk southeastward movement of this segment of Himalaya towards the Burmese arc. The Mishmi block, structurally oblique to both the Himalayan and Burmese arcs, also indicates a net southeast tectonic transportation. The upper Assam valley is aseismic and arguably does not represent an area of seismic gap. Seismicity in both Meghalaya plateau and Sylhet plains is unrelated to movements along the Dauki fault.

  2. A seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khattri, K.N.; Rogers, A.M.; Perkins, D.M.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    We have produced a probabilistic seismic hazard map showing peak ground accelerations in rock for India and neighboring areas having a 10% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Seismogenic zones were identified on the basis of historical seismicity, seismotectonics and geology of the region. Procedures for reducing the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs were followed before estimating recurrence parameters. An eastern United States acceleration attenuation relationship was employed after it was found that intensity attenuation for the Indian region and the eastern United States was similar. The largest probabilistic accelerations are obtained in the seismotectonic belts of Kirthar, Hindukush, Himalaya, Arakan-Yoma, and the Shillong massif where values of over 70% g have been calculated. ?? 1984.

  3. Regional tectonics of Myanmar (Burma) and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Staskowski, R.J.; Loyd, S.P.; Tabbutt, V.M. ); Dolan, Stein, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of 38 contiguous Landsat Multispectral Scanner scenes acquired over Myanmar (Burma) reveals numerous large-scale features associated with margins of the Burman plate, previously unidentified northeast-southwest-trending discontinuities, important extensions of previously mapped fault trends, and numerous structural features that appear favorable for petroleum exploration. A mosaic of these scenes at 1:1,000,000 scale shows a large number of tectonic elements and their spatial relationships. Within the area of investigation are portions of the Indian, Burman, Lhasa, and Shan-Thai plates, and perhaps other, smaller plates. The Himalayan front and Indo-Burman Ranges manifest effects of current and recently past plate movement. The complexity of the kinematic history accounts for the diversity of structural features in the area. The last major event in this long and violent saga, which began in middle Miocene (approximately 11 Ma) time and continues to the present, is the recent change from a collisional to a right-lateral strike-slip transform margin between the Indian and Burman plates. The complexity of the structures visible is the product of multiple plate collisions, rotation of the Indian plate and parts of the Asian plate, and long-continued convergence that changed velocity and direction tbrough time. The most obvious evidence of this complexity, which is immediately apparent on geologic maps or the Landsat mosaic of the region, is the almost right-angle relationship of the folds of the Indo-Burman Ranges and the frontal thrusts and suture zones of the Himalaya. These two sets of compressive features imply maximum compressive stress axes that lie at right angles to each other. The implications are either that the orientation of the stress field changes rapidly over a short distance or that the stress field has changed through time. Both occurrences seem to be true.

  4. Hydrology of Lake Placid and adjacent area, Highlands County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, D. Briane; Stoker, Yvonne E.

    1985-01-01

    The study conducted during 1982-83, documents hydrologic conditions in Lake Placid and surrounding areas of Florida. Lake-stage data indicate that the 2- to 50-year flood stage ranges from 93.9 to 96.2 ft. Lake stage is reflected by annual departure of precipitation of the previous year from long-term average. A bathymetric map at 5 ft intervals indicates sinks in the lake bottom. Maximum depth and volume were 54 ft and more than 85,000 acre-feet, respectively. Lake Placid is a surface expression of the water table surficial aquifer with normal flow direction from south to north. Above average amounts of precipitation during winter 1983 created a groundwater mound north of Mirror Lake that caused reversal of the groundwater gradient in the water table aquifer. Lake water is neutral to slightly acidic, with low alkalinity and salinity. Nutrient concentrations are low and remain constant since 1966. Water samples collected since 1966 show trends toward increasing ionic composition and dissolved solids. Organic, inorganic, and phytoplankton analyses show Lake Placid to be relatively clear and clean. (USGS)

  5. Characterization of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures in the offshore Santa Maria Basin, south-central California: Chapter CC of Evolution of sedimentary basins/onshore oil and gas investigations - Santa Maria province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willingham, C. Richard; Rietman, Jan D.; Heck, Ronald G.; Lettis, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone trends subparallel to the south-central California coast for 110 km from north of Point Estero to south of Purisima Point and forms the eastern margin of the present offshore Santa Maria Basin. Knowledge of the attributes of the Hosgri Fault Zone is important for petroleum development, seismic engineering, and environmental planning in the region. Because it lies offshore along its entire reach, our characterizations of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures are primarily based on the analysis of over 10,000 km of common-depth-point marine seismic reflection data collected from a 5,000-km2 area of the central and eastern parts of the offshore Santa Maria Basin. We describe and illustrate the along-strike and downdip geometry of the Hosgri Fault Zone over its entire length and provide examples of interpreted seismic reflection records and a map of the structural trends of the fault zone and adjacent structures in the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. The seismic data are integrated with offshore well and seafloor geologic data to describe the age and seismic appearance of offshore geologic units and marker horizons. We develop a basin-wide seismic velocity model for depth conversions and map three major unconformities along the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. Accompanying plates include maps that are also presented as figures in the report. Appendix A provides microfossil data from selected wells and appendix B includes uninterpreted copies of the annotated seismic record sections illustrated in the chapter. Features of the Hosgri Fault Zone documented in this investigation are suggestive of both lateral and reverse slip. Characteristics indicative of lateral slip include (1) the linear to curvilinear character of the mapped trace of the fault zone, (2) changes in structural trend along and across the fault zone that diminish in magnitude toward the ends of the fault zone, (3) localized compressional and extensional structures

  6. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  11. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  12. Summary geochemical maps, Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area, Mono and Tuolumne counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.; Sutley, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hoover Wilderness and the adjacent Hoover Extension (East), Hoover Extension (West), and Cherry Creek A Roadless Areas (the adjacent study area) encompass approximately 153,900 acres (241 mi2; 623 km2) in the Inyo, Stanislaus, and Toiyabe Naitonal Forests, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, Calif. These two areas lie along and mostly east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, along the north and east sides of Yosemite National Park. Elevations vary from a high of 12,446 ft (3,793 m) on the crest of the Sierra Nevada to a low of about 6,500 ft (1,981 m) near the Bridgeport Ranger Station. Access to the Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area is by U.S. Highway 395, California State Highways 108 (Sonora Pass) and 120 (Tioga Pass), and by other paved and graded roads that lead off of these U.S. and State highways.

  13. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That portion of San Diego Bay southerly of Ballast Point, exclusive of the southwesterly portion of the...

  14. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That portion of San Diego Bay southerly of Ballast Point, exclusive of the southwesterly portion of the...

  15. Language testing during awake "anesthesia" in a bilingual patient with brain lesion adjacent to Wernicke's area.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Federico; Stazi, Elisabetta; Delfini, Roberto; Rosa, Giovanni

    2011-04-01

    Awake "anesthesia" is the preferable anesthetic approach for neurosurgical procedures that require intraoperative localization of eloquent brain areas. We describe intraoperative inducible selective English aphasia in a bilingual (English and Italian) patient undergoing awake anesthesia for excision of a brain lesion adjacent to Wernicke's area with no postoperative neurological sequelae. We discuss the importance of intraoperative brain mapping and intraoperative language testing in bilingual patients to prevent iatrogenic-related morbidity.

  16. SCAPEGOAT WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, BOB MARSHALL AND GREAT BEAR WILDERNESSES, AND ADJACENT STUDY AREAS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earhart, Robert L.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocarbon and non-fuels mineral surveys indicate that parts of the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses and several of the adjacent study areas have probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for hydrocarbon accumulations, especially natural gas; the Scapegoat and Great Bear Wildernesses have a substantiated resource potential for copper and silver. The Bob Marshall Wilderness has a substantiated potential for barite and a probable potential for copper and silver. Lead, zinc, coal, and limestone occur locally within the study areas but such occurrences are small and low grade and no resource potential is identified.

  17. 33 CFR 334.1080 - San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure Island; naval restricted area. 334.1080 Section 334.1080 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1080 San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1080 - San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure Island; naval restricted area. 334.1080 Section 334.1080 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1080 San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure...

  19. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  1. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  2. Relevance of estuaries adjacent to megalopolis as modifiers of internal shelf areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Angela; Lazzzari, Leticia; Carreira, Renato; Farias, Cassia; Mauad, Cristiane

    2014-05-01

    Guanabara Bay located in the humid tropical region is a eutrophic estuarine system bordered by the second largest metropolitan area of Brazil. Human intervention resulted in water conditions ranging from complete anoxia in the polluted inner bay area to the adjacent, relatively pristine, open coastal area. In the present work the goals were to estimate nutrients and carbon fluxes between the bay and the adjacent coastal waters and to characterize by using stable isotopes, hydrocarbons and sterols the provenance of the exported/imported organic matter. Water samples were collected from three different depths over 25 hours cycles in the wet and dry seasons at a single station strategically positioned in the bay. Measurements included CTD, nutrients, chlorophylls, DOC, POC, PN, δ13C and δ15N, hydrocarbons and sterols in SPM. Most substances showed higher concentrations in ebb tide events and through statistical tools a significant difference between the campaigns was proved. The fluxes estimated on annual basis revealed the expressive exportation to the inner continental shelf of 1.27x104 Kmol DIN yr-1, 9.52x102 Kmol DIP yr-1, 2.65x104 tons DOC yr-1, 1.96x104 tons COP yr-1, 2.96x104 tons NP yr-1.

  3. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  6. [Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community structure in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent areas].

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun-xiang; Yu, Zhi-ming; Song, Xiu-xian; Han, Xiao-tian; Cao, Xi-hua; Yuan, Yong-quan

    2013-09-01

    Three cruises were carried out in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent areas in May, November, June during 2009-2010. The spatial variations of phytoplankton community structure were investigated based on RP-HPLC analysis of pigments and CHEMTAX processing of the pigment data. 21 kinds of pigments were detected, among which chlorophyll a, peridinin, fucoxanthin, 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, chlorophyll b, diadinoxanthin, alloxanthin and zeaxanthin were the major pigments in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent areas. Chlorophyll a was the most abundant in all pigments, followed by fuxoxanthin. Other pigments generally contributed a minor proportion to the total pigments. High concentrations of fucoxanthin and peridinin were observed in May 2009 and June 2010, indicating blooms of diatoms and dinoflagellates. The results showed that the composition and distribution of phytoplankton pigments were influenced by environmental factors. The phytoplankton community, as determined by biomarker pigment concentration using HPLC and CHEMTAX, was composed mainly of diatoms, dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, chlorophytes, cyanobacteria, prymnesiophytes, chrysophytes and prasinophytes. The dominant algal groups were diatoms, dinoflagellates and chlorophytes in May 2009. The phytoplankton community was characterized by high contribution of diatoms in November 2009. Diatoms, dinoflagellates and cryptophytes accounted for 62.5% of chlorophyll a in June 2010, and the relative abundance of cyanobacteria was higher in this cruise. The spatial variations of phytoplankton community structure featured distinct regionality. Diatoms, chlorophytes and cryptophytes were the main groups in the inshore waters, and the abundances of prymnesiophytes, chrysophytes and cyanobacteria were increasing from inshore to the open sea. PMID:24288983

  7. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  8. Hydrogeology of recharge areas and water quality of the principal aquifers along the Wasatch Front and adjacent areas, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, P.B.; Susong, D.D.; Wold, S.R.; Heilweil, V.M.; Baskin, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The principal basin-fill aquifers in Cache Valley, the lower Bear River area, and along the Wasatch Front provide ground water to about 84 percent of the population of Utah. Recharge areas for the principal aquifers were mapped to provide information needed for the implementation of ground-water quality regulations and a State ground-water protection plan. Water samples were collected and analyzed to provide baseline water- quality data for the principal aquifers. The study area includes five subareas: Cache Valley, the 1ower Bear River area, the East Shore area, Salt Lake Valley, and Utah and Goshen Valleys. Basin-fill deposits in each subarea are lithologically heterogeneous. The principal aquifers in most of the subareas are composed of multiple discontinuous unconfined and confined aquifers and confining layers. Primary recharge areas generally are located along adjacent mountain fronts and extend into the valleys at the mouths of major drainages. Secondary recharge areas are located on the benches and uplands of the valleys. Ground-water flow generally is from these recharge areas to the discharge areas in the topographically low parts of the valleys. In general, dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water range from less than 500 mg/L to about 3,000 mg/L. Of 73 water samples, 5 contained inorganic constituents in concentrations that exceeded State of Utah water-quality standards. None of the samples contained concentrations of organic compounds that exceeded State standards.

  9. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resource problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, and adjacent areas in Oklahoma and Missouri. Discontinuities and perforations, which were produced by mining in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact, have created artificial groundwater recharge and discharge areas. Abandoned wells and drill holes present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. There is a potential for downward movement from the shallow to the deep aquifer throughout the study area, with greatest potential in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Principal effects of abandoned mines on groundwater quality are lowered pH and increased concentrations of sulfate and trace metals of water in the mines. No conclusive evidence of lateral migration of contaminated mine water from the mines into the water-supply wells adjacent to the mines was found. Analyses of water from the deep aquifer did not indicate trace-metal contamination. The effects of abandoned mines on streamwater quality are most severe in Short Creek and Tar Creek. Increased concentrations of zinc and manganese were observed in the Spring River below Short Creek Kansas. (USGS)

  10. Landsat-faciliated vegetation classification of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Shasby, M.B.; Bailey, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-based vegetation map was prepared for Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent lands, 2 million and 2.5 million acres respectively. The refuge lies within the middle boreal sub zone of south central Alaska. Seven major classes and sixteen subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed); deciduous scrub (lowland and montane, subalpine); dwarf scrub (dwarf shrub tundra, lichen tundra, dwarf shrub and lichen tundra, dwarf shrub peatland, string bog/wetlands); herbaceous (graminoid meadows and marshes); scarcely vegetated areas ; water (clear, moderately turbid, highly turbid); and glaciers. The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photo interpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved: preprocessing (geometric connection), spectral class labeling of sample areas, derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, preliminary classification of the entree study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification through ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The vegetation map (scale 1:250,000) was a pioneering effort since there were no intermediate-sclae maps of the area. Representative of distinctive regional patterns, the map was suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning and wildlife management.

  11. Depositional and diagenetic history and petroleum geology of the Jurassic Norphlet Formation of the Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kugler, R.L.; Mink, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of deep (>20,000 ft) gas reservoirs in eolian sandstone of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation in Mobile Bay and offshore Alabama in the late 1970s represents one of the most significant hydrocarbon discoveries in the nation during the past several decades. Estimated original proved gas from Norphlet reservoirs in the Alabama coastal waters and adjacent federal waters is 7.462 trillion ft3 (Tcf) (75% recovery factor). Fifteen fields have been established in the offshore Alabama area. Norphlet sediment was deposited in an arid environment in alluvial fans, alluvial plains, and wadis in updip areas. In downdip areas, the Norphlet was deposited in a broad desert plain, with erg development in some areas. Marine transgression, near the end of Norphlet deposition, resulted in reworking of the upper part of the Norphlet Formation. Norphlet reservoir sandstone is arkose and subarkose, consisting of a simple assemblage of three minerals, quartz, albite, and K-feldspar. The present framework grain assemblage of the Norphlet is dominantly diagenetic, owing to albitization and dissolution of feldspar. Despite the simple framework composition, the diagenetic character of the Norphlet is complex. Important authigenic minerals include carbonate phases (calcite, dolomite, Fe-dolomite, and breunnerite), feldspar (albite and K-feldspar), evaporite minerals (anhydrite and halite), clay minerals (illite and chlorite), quartz, and pyrobitumen. The abundance and distribution of these minerals varies significantly between onshore and offshore regions of Norphlet production. The lack of sufficient internal sources of components for authigenic minerals, combined with unusual chemical compositions of chloride (Mg-rich), breunnerite, and some minor authigenic minerals, suggests that Louann-derived fluids influenced Norphlet diagenesis. In offshore Alabama reservoirs, porosity is dominantly modified primary porosity. Preservation of porosity in deep Norphlet reservoirs is due

  12. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. 334.530 Section 334.530 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.530 Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the...

  13. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. 334.530 Section 334.530 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.530 Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the...

  14. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. 334.530 Section 334.530 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.530 Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the...

  15. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. 334.530 Section 334.530 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.530 Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the...

  16. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. 334.530 Section 334.530 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.530 Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the...

  17. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  18. Field guide to geologic excursions in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, William R.; Lund, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This field guide contains road logs for field trips planned in conjunction with the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America held at Southern Utah University in Cedar City, Utah. There are a total of eight field trips, covering various locations and topics in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada. In addition, the field guide contains a road log for a set of Geological Engineering Field Camp Exercises run annually by the University of Missouri at Rolla in and around Cedar City. Two of the field trips address structural aspects of the geology in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona; two trips deal with ground water in the region; and along with the Field Camp Exercises, one trip, to the Grand Staircase, is designed specifically for educators. The remaining trips examine the volcanology and mineral resources of a large area in and around the Tusher Mountains in Utah; marine and brackish water strata in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument; and the Pine Valley Mountains, which are cored by what may be the largest known laccolith in the world. The "Three Corners" area of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada is home to truly world-class geology, and I am confident that all of the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting attendees will find a field trip suited to their interests.

  19. Mine and prospect map of the Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas, Coconino County, Arizona, and Kane County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas are mostly in Coconino County Ariz., but extend into Kane County, Utah. The area studied in this report encompasses about 560 mi2 (1,450 km2). The study area includes the established Paria Canyon Primitive and Vermilion Cliffs Natural Areas between U.S. Highways 89 and 89A.

  20. Ground-water resources of southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater resources in southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas were studied to determine their potential for development as an alternative to the Mississippi River as a water-supply source for Jefferson Parish. Eight major aquifers consisting of thick sand units that underlie the study area are, in descending order: (1) shallow, (2) upper Ponchatoula, (3) lower Ponchatoula, (4) Abita, (5) Covington, (6) Tchefuncta, (7) Hammond, and (8) Amite. A fault zone, referred to as the Baton Rouge fault, crosses southern Tangipahoa Parish. Analyses of geophysical logs indicated that the deep aquifers south of the fault zone had been displaced from 350 to 400 feet, and that the deeper aquifers were not in hydraulic connection with the flow system north of the fault. The groundwater resources of southeastern Louisiana are immense and the quality of groundwater in Tangipahoa Parish is suitable for most uses. The quality of water in these aquifers generally meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standards for public supply. The hydrologic system underlying Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas in 1990 supplied about 19 Mgal/d of water that was suitable for public supply. However, substantial increases in pumping from the aquifer system would result in renewed water-level declines throughout the hydrologic system until a new equilibrium is established. A test we11 in southern Tangipahoa Parish, penetrated all eight aquifers. Total thickness of freshwater sand beds penetrated by the 3003-ft test hole was more than 1900 ft. Resistivity values from an electric log of the test typically averaged 200 ohm-meters, which indicates that the water has low dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations. An analysis of the Abita aquifer at Ruddock in St. John the Baptist Parish, for two of three hypothetical well fields, indicated that for a hypothetical we11 field with a pumping rate of 112 Mgal/d, the freshwater/saltwater interface could arrive at the outer perimeter we11 in

  1. Hydrogeologic data for the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas, Coconino and Yavapai counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2002-01-01

    Data on geology, topography, hydrology, climate, land use, and vegetation were compiled between October 2000 and September 2001 and assembled into a database for use by local and regional waterresource managers and for future water-resource investigations. The hydrologic data include information on wells, springs, streamflow, water chemistry, and water use. Limitations of the data and additional data needs also were prepared. The roughly 5,000-square-mile Coconino Plateau contains a complex regional aquifer that has become increasingly important as a source of water supply for domestic, municipal, and in-stream uses owing to population growth and development. The flow characteristics of the regional aquifer are poorly understood because the aquifer is deeply buried, which limits exploratory drilling and testing, and because the geologic structure, which controls the occurrence and movement of ground water, is complex. The study area is about 10,300 square miles and, besides containing the entire Coconino Plateau, includes parts of adjacent areas where ground water from the Coconino Plateau discharges. Selected data are presented in tabular or graphical form. All data are available in electronic form.

  2. Archaeoseismological Study of Prehistoric Earthquakes in Anhui Province, China and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Shen, X.; Gong, X.; Wu, W.; Hu, Z.; Zheng, H.; Chen, A.; Zhao, P.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Damaging earthquakes on faults typically recur at intervals of centuries to millennia but the seismographs that record them have only been around for about hundred years. Complete records of earthquakes of Ms5 or above for Anhui Province of China and its adjacent areas began in 1336 and most previous records were lost. To reduce the hazard from earthquakes we need a longer record of them than can be provided from such instruments. Archaeoseismological evidence has the potential to determine earthquake activity over millennial time spans, especially when integrated with historical documents and geological evidence. In recent years, taking advantage of large-scale civil excavations, our research team including earthquake and archaeological scientists have cataloged, identified, and analyzed deformation relics of the late-Quaternary period, especially the Neolithic Age. Prehistoric earthquake traces were found in the cultural layers of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period in Southwest Anhui, the late Dawenkou cultural period in North Anhui, and the Eastern Zhou in South Henan. Along the segment of the Tanlu Fault Zone on the border of Jiangsu-Anhui Provinces, several rapid deformation events mainly in the form of oblique translational thrust had occurred since Late Pleistocene, which was confirmed by microscopic studies. The research findings have partly filled the gap of earthquake records in the area and enriched research methodologies in archaeology, prehistoric earthquakes and earthquake prediction. The project was sponsored by China Earthquake Science Special Research Funding Program (#201308012)

  3. Footprint methods to separate N2O emission rates from adjacent paddock areas.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sandipan; McMillan, Andrew M S; Sturman, Andrew P; Harvey, Mike J; Laubach, Johannes

    2015-03-01

    Using micrometeorological techniques to measure greenhouse gas emissions from differently treated adjacent plots is a promising avenue to verify the effect of mitigation strategies at the field scale. In pursuing such an approach, it is crucial to accurately characterize the source area of the fluxes measured at each sampling point. Hence, a comprehensive footprint analysis method is required so that emission rates can be obtained for a specific field within a biochemically heterogeneous area. In this study, a footprint analysis method is developed to estimate the emission for an experiment where the flux of N2O is measured from several control and treated plots. The emission rate of an individual plot is estimated using an inverse footprint fraction approach where the footprint fractions are obtained from an analytical footprint model. A numerical solution for obtaining the background flux for such a multiplot measurement system is also provided. Results of the footprint analysis method are assessed, first, by comparing footprint fractions obtained from both an analytical footprint model and a "forward" simulation of a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) model; and second, by comparing the emission rates of a control plot obtained from the footprint analysis method and from the "backward" simulation of the bLs model. It is found that the analytical footprint fractions compare well with the values obtained from the bLs model (correlation coefficient of 0.58 and 0.66 within p value <0.001). An average of 4.3 % of the measured fluxes is found to be contributed by sources outside the measured area and, excluding this outside area contribution to the measured flux, footprint corrected emission rates within the defined domain are found to increase by 2.1 to 5.8 % of the measured flux. Also, the proposed method of emission rate estimation is found to work well under a wide range of atmospheric stability. PMID:24899395

  4. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Las Vegas Strip and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    As proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of the Las Vegas Strip and adjacent areas on December 29, 2008. This survey was one of the bi-annual surveys carried in support of the city of Las Vegas Police Department (LVPD) before significant events on the Las Vegas Strip: e.g., the annual New Year’s Eve and July Fourth celebrations. The AMS operation and appropriate law enforcement agencies selected this area as an appropriate urban location to exercise AMS capability for mapping environmental radiation and searching for man-made radioactive sources. The surveys covered approximately 11 square miles. Each survey required a 2.5-hour-long flight, performed at an altitude of 300 ft above ground level (AGL) at a line spacing of 600 ft. Water line and test line flights are conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to determine the non-terrestrial background contributed by aircraft, radon, and cosmic activity, and to determine the altitude-dependent air mass correction. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2" x 4" x 16" sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Gamma energy spectral data were collected second-by-second over the survey area. This spectral data allows the system to distinguish between natural terrestrial background contributions and man-made radioisotope contributions. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific man-made radioactive isotopes. Data geo-locations were determined with a Real-Time Differential Global Positioning System (RDGPS).

  5. HCH and DDT in sediments from marine and adjacent riverine areas of North Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Wang, Tieyu; Khim, Jong Seong; Luo, Wei; Jiao, Wentao; Lu, Yonglong; Naile, Jonathan E; Chen, Chunli; Zhang, Xiang; Giesy, John P

    2010-07-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and their environmental risks in surface sediments collected from marine and adjacent riverine/estuarine areas in the northern Bohai Sea, China, were investigated. Concentrations of SigmaHCH and SigmaDDT in sediments ranged from below detection (areas of the world. The source of HCH in sediments could be explained by the large amount of historical use, while DDT seemed to be a combination of erosion of the weathered soils and long-range atmospheric transport. Concentrations of HCH in sediments from the study areas did not exceed sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), with the exception of gamma-HCH. However, risks posed by concentrations of DDT observed in sediments were found to be moderate to high compared with those posed by consensus-based SQGs. Although the mean sedimentary concentrations of HCH and DDT found in the area of the northern Bohai Sea, China were lower than suggested SQGs in general, their concentrations in some locations were close to or above the SQGs for adverse effects in benthic organisms and, thus, remain a cause for concern.

  6. Hydrology and snowmelt simulation of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas, Summit County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.; Susong, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing residential and commercial development is placing increased demands on the ground- and surface-water resources of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas in the southwestern corner of Summit County, Utah. Data collected during 1993-95 were used to assess the quantity and quality of the water resources in the study area. Ground water within the study area is present in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated valley fill. The complex geology makes it difficult to determine the degree of hydraulic connection between different blocks of consolidated rocks. Increased ground-water withdrawal during 1983- 95 generally has not affected ground-water levels. Ground-water withdrawal in some areas, however, caused seasonal fluctuations and a decline in ground-water levels from 1994 to 1995, despite greater-than-normal recharge in the spring of 1995. Ground water generally has a dissolved-solids concentration that ranges from 200 to 600 mg/L. Higher sulfate concentrations in water from wells and springs near Park City and in McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek than in other parts of the study area are the result of mixing with water that discharges from the Spiro Tunnel. The presence of chloride in water from wells and springs near Park City and in streams and wells near Interstate Highway 80 is probably caused by the dissolution of applied road salt. Chlorofluorocarbon analyses indicate that even though water levels rise within a few weeks of snowmelt, the water took 15 to 40 years to move from areas of recharge to areas of discharge. Water budgets for the entire study area and for six subbasins were developed to better understand the hydrologic system. Ground-water recharge from precipitation made up about 80 percent of the ground-water recharge in the study area. Ground-water discharge to streams made up about 40 percent of the surface water in the study area and ground-water discharge to springs and mine tunnels made up about 25 percent. Increasing use of

  7. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, R; Ritter, A; Li, Y C

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO3-, N-NH4+, P-PO4(3-), Total P, F-and Cl-) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO3-, P-PO4(3-)and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F-and Cl- are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying land

  8. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying

  9. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, R; Ritter, A; Li, Y C

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO3-, N-NH4+, P-PO4(3-), Total P, F-and Cl-) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO3-, P-PO4(3-)and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F-and Cl- are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying land

  10. Hydrogeology of the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas, Coconino and Yavapai Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Monroe, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Two large, regional ground-water flow systems occur in the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas: the C aquifer and the Redwall-Muav aquifer. The C aquifer occurs mainly in the eastern and southern parts of the 10,300-square-mile Coconino Plateau study area, and the Redwall-Muav aquifer underlies the entire study area. The C aquifer is a water-table aquifer for most of its occurrence with depths to water that range from a few hundred feet to more than 1,500 feet. In the western part of the Coconino Plateau study area, the C aquifer is dry except for small localized perched water-bearing zones decoupled from the C aquifer to the east. The Redwall-Muav aquifer underlies the C aquifer and ranges from at least 3,000 feet below land surface in the western part of the Coconino Plateau study area to more than 3,200 feet below land surface in the eastern part of the study area. The Redwall-Muav aquifer is a confined aquifer for most of its occurrence with hydraulic heads of several hundred to more than 500 feet above the top of the aquifer in the western part of the study area and more than 2,000 feet above the top of the aquifer in the eastern part of the study area near Flagstaff. In the eastern and northeast parts of the area, the C aquifer and the Redwall-Muav aquifer are in partial hydraulic connection through faults and other fractures. The water discharging from the two aquifers on the Coconino Plateau study area is generally of good quality for most intended uses. Water from sites in the lower Little Colorado River Canyon had high concentrations of most trace elements relative to other springs, rivers, and streams in the study area. Concentrations of barium, arsenic, uranium, and lead, and gross alpha radioactivity were greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water at some sites. Ground water discharging to most springs, streams, and wells on the Coconino Plateau and in adjacent areas is a calcium magnesium

  11. Volcanic hazards of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1994-12-01

    Potential volcanic hazards are assessed, and hazard zone maps are developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent areas. The basis of the hazards assessment and mapping is the past volcanic history of the INEL region, and the apparent similarity of INEL volcanism with equivalent, well-studied phenomena in other regions of active volcanism, particularly Hawaii and Iceland. The most significant hazards to INEL facilities are associated with basaltic volcanism, chiefly lava flows, which move slowly and mainly threaten property by inundation or burning. Related hazards are volcanic gases and tephra, and ground disturbance associated with the ascent of magma under the volcanic zones. Several volcanic zones are identified in the INEL area. These zones contain most of the volcanic vents and fissures of the region and are inferred to be the most probable sites of future INEL volcanism. Volcanic-recurrence estimates are given for each of the volcanic zones based on geochronology of the lavas, together with the results of field and petrographic investigations concerning the cogenetic relationships of INEL volcanic deposits and associated magma intrusion. Annual probabilities of basaltic volcanism within the INEL volcanic zones range from 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year (average 16,000-year interval between eruptions) for the axial volcanic zone near the southern INEL boundary and the Arco volcanic-rift zone near the western INEL boundary, to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year (average 100,000-year interval between eruptions) for the Howe-East Butte volcanic rift zone, a geologically old and poorly defined feature of the central portion of INEL. Three volcanic hazard zone maps are developed for the INEL area: lava flow hazard zones, a tephra (volcanic ash) and gas hazard zone, and a ground-deformation hazard zone. The maps are useful in land-use planning, site selection, and safety analysis.

  12. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  13. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  14. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  15. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  16. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  17. Geochemistry and hydrology of thermal springs in the Idaho Batholith and adjacent areas, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of nature of thermal springs in the Idaho batholith and adjacent areas suggest a relation between structural controls and deeply circulating hot-water systems. Springs issuing from granitic rocks are associated mostly with major regional fault structures. Springs issuing from other rocks probably are related to local faulting. Individual spring flows and water temperatures are variable and range from less than 1 gallon per minute to 2,710 gallons per minute and from 20.5 degrees to 94.0 degrees Celsius. Annual spring discharge is at least 27,000 acre-feet; heat discharges convectively is estimated to be 5.0 x 107 calories per second. Thermal springs discharge relatively dilute water; dissolved solids range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. The chemical quality of the water suggests deep circulation of meteoric water. Estimated reservoir temperatures are generally less than 100 degrees Celsius, but temperatures for several springs exceed 150 degrees Celsius. Stable-isotope data suggest that most of the thermal water is not derived from current precipitation. Carbon-14 values indicate that thermal waters are old; apparent residence times range from 9,000 to more than 40,000 years.

  18. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Linda J; Duursma, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA) is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st) century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  19. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  20. Environmental Factors Controlling Ostracod Distribution on the Tibetan Plateau and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerner, N.; Pröttel, R.; Glodniok, S.; Söndgerath, D.; Naumann, K.; Frenzel, P.; Mischke, S.; Schwalb, A.

    2014-12-01

    Non-marine ostracods represent a reliable tool to reconstruct past climate conditions. The investigation of environmental tolerances of modern ostracod species is therefore vital to estimate past climate conditions based on fossil assemblages. To determine the climate range of individual ostracod species their modern geographical distribution is combined with climate data sets. The overlap of modern ecological tolerances of ostracod species found in a fossil assemblage yield information about past air temperatures [1]. In our study we establish ecological tolerances of species from the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas and indicate which environmental parameter is most important for species distribution. Therefore the point biserial correlation coefficient is applied on the species distribution of 34 taxa from 364 locations based on the presence/absence of species. We use a 0.93 km gridded climate database that pairs climate parameters with modern collection sites. In total we investigated the influence of 20 different environmental parameters, such as annual temperature amplitude, July and January temperatures, precipitation, salinity and altitude. The yearly temperature range is the most important factor defining the distribution for Candona candida and Fabaeformiscandona gyirongensis. The distribution of Eucypris mareotica is also influenced by the yearly temperature range, but in addition is restricted by low salinities. Species showing no correlation to temperature variations in their distribution were also identified. The distribution of Limnocythere inopinata and Heterocypris salina is restricted by the amount of precipitation, especially during winter months, and low salinities. On the other hand, Candona neglectaseems to be unaffected by any of the studied parameters and probably only is limited by extremely high salinities. The calculated mutual climate ranges of the investigated ostracod species will be applied to ostracod assemblage data from a long

  1. Water resources of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and adjacent areas, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.; White, Robert R.; Orr, Brennon R.; Roybal, R. Gary

    1981-01-01

    valleys in the adjacent upland areas. Ground water moves southeastward beneath the West Mesa area, converging with ground-water flow in the southern end of the Mesilla Valley. Good hydraulic connection exists between sediments of the West Mesa and Mesilla Valley areas. Ground water in the southern end of the Jornada del Muerto moves generally to the northwest, converges with south-flowing ground water near Point of Rocks, and moves westward into Rincon Valley sediments near Rincon. A small amount of ground water flows westward from the southern end of the Jornada del Muerto across a subsurface igneous body into the Mesilla Valley. Ground-water discharge occurs throughout the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys as drain flow to the river and evapotranspiration. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the water in the flood-plain alluvium of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys are generally greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. A freshwater zone, with dissolved-solids concentrations less than 1,000 milligrams per liter, underlies this thin, slightly saline zone beneath much of the Mesilla Valley. This freshwater zone, occurring in the Santa Fe Group, is surrounded by saline water. Within the study area, major dissolved ions in ground water include sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and sulfate. The Rio Grande is a gainlng stream in the northern parts of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and a losing stream in the southern part of the Mesilla Valley. Gains and losses result from a close interconnection with ground-water flow systems. Large surface-water irrigation allotments increase ground-water recharge. Increased recharge raises ground-water levels and improves shallow ground-water quality adjacent to these recharge areas. Shallow ground-water discharges to drains, which flow into the Rio Grande. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the Rio Grande increase by as much as 60 percent between Caballo Reservoir and the southern end of the study area.

  2. Induced seismicity caused by hydraulic fracturing in deep geothermal wells in Germany and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenefisch, Thomas; Brückner, Lisa; Ceranna, Lars; Gestermann, Nicolai; Houben, Georg; Tischner, Torsten; Wegler, Ulrich; Wellbrink, Matthias; Bönnemann, Christian; Bertram, Andreas; Kirschbaum, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the BGR has worked out a study on the potential environmental impact caused by hydraulic fracturing or chemical stimulations in deep geothermal reservoirs in Germany and adjacent areas. The investigations and analyses are based on existing studies and information provided by operators. The two environmental impacts being essentially considered in the report are induced seismicity and possible contamination of the groundwater reservoirs which serve for drinking water supply. Altogether, in this study, information on 30 hydraulic frac operations and 26 chemical stimulations including information from neighboring countries were compiled and analyzed. Out of the hydraulic stimulations two thirds were carried out as waterfracs and one third as fracturing with proppants. Parameters used in the study to characterize the induced seismicity are maximum magnitude, number of seismic events, size of the seismically active volume, and the relation of this volume to fault zones and the cap rock, as well as, finally, the impacts at the Earth's surface. The response of the subsurface to hydraulic fracturing is variable: There are some activities, which cause perceptible seismic events, others, where no perceptible but instrumentally detected events occurred, and moreover activities without even any instrumentally detected events. A classification of seismic hazard with respect to tectonic region, geology, or depth of the layer is still difficult, since the number of hydraulic fracturing measures in deep geothermal wells is small making a statistically sound analysis impossible. However, there are some indications, that hydraulic fracturing in granite in tectonically active regions like the Upper Rhine Graben results in comparatively stronger, perceptible seismicity compared to hydraulic fracturing in the sedimentary rocks of the North German basin. The maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes caused by hydraulic fracturing of deep geothermal wells in Germany are

  3. 33 CFR 334.85 - New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island, New York; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island, New York; restricted area. 334.85 Section 334.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE...

  4. Anatomy of the Visual Word form Area: Adjacent Cortical Circuits and Long-Range White Matter Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion…

  5. Conodont and Radiolarian Data from the De Long Mountains Quadrangle and Adjacent Areas, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Blome, Charles D.; Young, Lorne E.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report presents biostratigraphic data from 289 collections at 189 localities in the De Long Mountains, Misheguk Mountain, and Noatak quadrangles (fig. 1); most of these data have never been previously published. The collections were made during studies of the Red Dog massive sulfide deposit in 1998?2004 and in support of regional mapping projects in 1979, 1981, 1983, and 1997?98. The collections?mostly conodonts and some radiolarians?tightly constrain the age of many stratigraphic units of Devonian through Triassic age exposed within the study area, and provide additional data on the depositional environments and thermal history of these rocks. The data are presented in a series of tables, organized by fossil type, stratigraphic unit, and location. Tables 1?12 contain conodont data, mostly from the De Long Mountains quadrangle. All of these collections were initially examined, or were reevaluated, from 1997 through 2004, and complete faunal lists are given for all samples. Table 13 lists ages and conodont color alteration indices (CAIs) of 27 collections from 24 localities in the Noatak quadrangle; updated faunal lists were not prepared for these samples. Radiolarian data?all from the De Long Mountains quadrangle?are given in table 14; these collections were analyzed between 1998 and 2003. Collection localities are shown in four maps (sheets 1, 2). Map 1 (sheet 1) shows all outcrop samples from the De Long Mountains and western Misheguk Mountain quadrangle (locs. 1-121). Maps 2?4 (sheets 1, 2) show all drill hole sample localities; samples come from the Su-Lik deposit and in and around the Anarraaq deposit (map 2, locs. 122?135), in and adjacent to the Red Dog deposits (Paalaaq, Aqqaluk, Main, and Qanaiyaq) (map 3, locs. 136?158), and from drill holes along the Port Road in the Noatak quadrangle (map 4, locs. 159?160). Map 4 (sheet 2) also shows all outcrop samples from the Noatak quadrangle (locs. 161?189). The text summarizes the lithofacies

  6. Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All these

  7. Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All

  8. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, Timothy B.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resources problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas in Missouri and Oklahoma. Past mining activities have caused changes in the hydrogeology of the area. Lead and zinc mining has caused discontinuities and perforations in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the western area), which have created artificial ground-water recharge and discharge areas. Recharge to the shallow aquifer (rocks of Mississippian age) through collapses, shafts, and drill holes in the shale has caused the formation of a ground-water 'mound' in the vicinity of the Picher Field in Kansas and Oklahoma. Discharge of mine-contaminated ground water to Tar Creek occurs in Oklahoma from drill holes and shafts where the potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is above the land surface. Mining of ore in the shallow aquifer has resulted in extensive fracturing and removal of material, which has created highly transmissive zones and voids and increased ground-water storage properties of the aquifer. In the area east of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the eastern area), fractured rock and tailings on the land surface increased the amount of water available for infiltration to the shallow aquifer; in the western area, tailings on the impermeable shale created artificial, perched aquifer systems that slowly drain to surface streams. Pumping of the deep aquifer (rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age) by towns and industries, which developed as a result of the mining industry, has resulted in a potential for downward movement of water from the shallow aquifer. The potential is greatest in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Because of the large volume of water that may be transported from the shallow to the deep aquifer, open drill holes or casings present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. Mining

  9. Records of selected wells and lithologic logs of test holes, Hendry County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, John E.; Causaras, Carmen R.; O'Donnell, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    To provide water-resource information for Hendry County, Florida , geologic test holes were drilled in the surficial aquifer, and an extensive inventory was compiled of wells in the surficial aquifer and deep artesian aquifers. This report provides: (1) records for 788 selected wells and test holes including location , construction, water use, water level, chloride concentration, specific conductance, temperature, yield, hydrogen sulfide, and iron-staining problems; and (2) lithologic logs for 26 test holes ranging in depth from 90 to 650 feet. A few inventoried wells and two test holes are in adjacent parts of Collier or Glades Counties. (USGS)

  10. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous rocks, which are widespread throughout the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) and adjacent areas north of the Brooks Range, make up the major part of the thick sedimentary fill of the Colville basin. Much seismic and well information obtained since 1974 has aided considerably in understanding these rocks. These data include about 20,000 km of seismic lines, covering much of the NPRA with a grid spacing of 10-20 km, and 28 exploratory wells that bring the total to more than 50 wells in and adjacent to the NPRA. The purpose of this chapter is to interpret the depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the NPRA and adjacent areas on the basis of the latest seismic and well data and well data and on information from outcrops in the southern part of the Colville basin. The basin geometry and depositional history described in earlier reports are repeated here in the context of the overall Lower Cretaceous depositional history. Well data (including paleontology) and seismic data are used almost exclusively to interpret relations in the northern foothills and coastal plain areas. Surface data and some well data are used in the southern parts of the northern foothills, and surface data are used exclusively to interpret the depositional history in the southern foothills and Brooks Range. The quality of seismic data is fair to good in most of the coastal plain, where the structure is simple. In the northern foothills, tracing seismic reflections is more difficult, especially in the shallower part of the section because of structural complications in the thrust-faulted anticlines. The quality of seismic data across the structurally complex southern foothills area is inadequate to correlate stratigraphic units of the outcrop area of the southern foothills with subsurface units to the north.

  11. Shallow seismogenic zone detected from an offshore-onshore temporary seismic network in the Esmeraldas area (northern Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontoise, B.; Monfret, T.

    2004-02-01

    For a given site, many factors control the seismic risk. Earthquake magnitude, hypocentral distance, rupture mechanism, site effects and site vulnerability are among the most important. This article deals with one of these factors: the depth of the seismogenic zone, in the northern Ecuadorian subduction system, beneath a highly vulnerable site, the city of Esmeraldas and its industrial complex, the Ecuadorian oil refinery and shipping terminal. To address this problem, we analyzed data from a three weeks passive seismological experiment, conducted in the spring of 1998, using 13 Ocean Bottom Seismometers and 10 portable land-stations. A preliminary interpretation of wide-angle data obtained in the fall of 2000, in the Manta area, 100 km South of the study area, unambiguously indicates the presence of a velocity inversion in the Ecuadorian margin velocity structure. This velocity inversion is characterized by a shadow-zone of ˜1 s on the record-sections, and is interpreted as the result of a velocity contrast between the upper plate structure and the sedimentary and basaltic layer II of the subducted oceanic Nazca plate. One-dimensional velocity models are deduced from these wide-angle data and are used for earthquake location in the Esmeraldas area. This highly improved the hypocentral parameter determinations. The updip limit of the seismogenic zone is found at a depth of ˜12 km, 35 km eastward of the trench, and the depth of the seismogenic zone below the Esmeraldas city is found at ˜20 km. This shallow depth of the seismogenic zone dramatically increases the seismic hazard of the area.

  12. Cetacean biomass densities near submarine canyons compared to adjacent shelf/slope areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Robert D.; Winn, Howard E.

    1987-02-01

    Estimated cetacean biomass densities in areas of the northeastern U.S. continental shelf edge encompassing major submarine canyons were compared to those in neighboring shelf/slope areas. It was hypothesized that biomass-densities would prove to be higher in the canyon areas: however, the analysis demonstrated significantly lower total cetacean biomass in the canyon areas. When species were analyzed individually, only spotted dolphins ( Stenella spp.) showed a significant difference, with higher densities near the canyons. The canyons are apparently not more important as a cetacean habitat than the shelf break region generally.

  13. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  14. Occurrence and toxicity of sediment-associated contaminants in Guangzhou College City and its adjacent areas: the relationship to urbanization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Quan; Wang, Fei; Li, Hui-Zhen; You, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Guangzhou College City in the southeast of Guangzhou, China, became a home to 10 universities in 2003 after a largely agricultural past. The city has since experienced rapid urbanization with limited development of adjacent areas. Twenty-one sediment samples were collected in the city and its adjacent areas to evaluate the influence of urbanization in different functional zones on sediment quality in local waterways. Sediment toxicity was assessed by 10-day toxicity tests using two benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca. In addition, various organic contaminants-including current-use pesticides (pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-were analyzed, and a toxic unit (TU) approach was applied to identify possible toxicity contributors. In general, 38 and 4.8% of the sediments exhibited acute toxicity to C. dilutus and H. azteca, respectively, with 9.5% of the samples resulting in 100% mortality to C. dilutus. Distribution analysis showed that the rural industrial area, which is south of the city, had the greatest contaminant concentrations and greatest toxicity to both organisms compared with the other areas. Pyrethroids, especially cypermethrin, appeared to contribute the most to the observed toxicity, yet the lack of relationship between the toxicity and TU of pyrethroids may reflect toxicity associated with other contaminants.

  15. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-07-07

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems.

  16. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems. PMID:26149418

  17. Trophic coupling between two adjacent benthic food webs within a man-made intertidal area: A stable isotopes evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed at establishing the effects of human-made physical modifications on the trophic structure and functioning of an intertidal benthic food web in Arcachon Bay (France). The main food sources and the most representative consumers were sampled on an artificial rocky dyke and its adjacent seagrass meadow. The food sources of consumers were inferred through the use of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The contributions of the different food sources to the diets of the consumers were established using the Isosource mixing model. In order to reduce the range of feasible contributions, additional non-isotopic constraints were added when necessary to the outputs of this model. We observed a more complex food web than previously shown for artificial habitats. Moreover, it appears that several consumers inhabiting the artificial environment base most of their diet on allochtonous eelgrass-derived detritus. In turn, several consumers inhabiting the eelgrass meadow consumed significantly macroalgae-derived material originating from the adjacent artificial rocky area. These results point out that the food webs associated to adjacent habitats can influence each other through the utilisation of exported organic matter.

  18. Aeromagnetic map of the Glacier Peak Wilderness and adjacent areas, Chelan, Skagit, and Snohomish counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanigan, V.J.; Sherrard, Mark

    1985-01-01

    The Glacier Peak Wilderness encompasses 464,741 acres, including 483 acres of patented mining and millsite claims. Also included in the present study are nine areas adjoining the wilderness (see fig. 1), totaling 90,034 acres of recommended wilderness additions. All these lands are here collectively called the “study area.” Access to the study area is provided by generally well maintained trails from gravel or dirt roads along major valleys above Darrington, Marblemount, Stehekin, Holden, Trinity, and Lake Wnatchee. Other than the main access trails across a few passes (Cloudy Pass, Buck Creek Pass, White Pass, and Indian Pass), trails are rough, infrequently maintained, or nonexistent.

  19. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  20. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part I. Gravity survey

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.A.; Cook, K.L.

    1983-04-01

    During 1980 and 1981 a total of 569 new gravity stations were taken in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. The new stations were combined with 530 other gravity stations taken in previous surveys which resulted in a compilation of 1099 stations which were used in this study. The additional surveys were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the area for the possible development of geothermal resources by providing an interpreted structural framework by delineating faults, structural trends, intrusions, thickness of valley fill, and increased density of host rock. The gravity data are presented as (1) a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map with a 2 mgal contour interval on a scale of 1:100,000 and (2) five generally east-trending gravity profiles. A geologic interpretation of the study area was made from the gravity map and from the interpretive geologic cross sections which were modeled along the gravity profiles.

  1. Fjord-valley fill stratigraphy from onshore high-resolution shear-wave seismics, Trondheim harbour area, central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, L.; Polom, U.; L'Heureux, J.; Sauvin, G.; Lecomte, I.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Longva, O.

    2009-12-01

    To obtain information on the stratigraphic variability within the underlying fjord-valley fill, a shallow, shear-wave reflection seismic survey was successfully carried out on land in the Trondheim harbor area, central Norway. Since the last deglaciation, the region has been subjected to a fall of relative sea level of totally 175 m due to glacioisostatic rebound. The relative sea-level fall was accompanied by river erosion of emerging (glacio) marine deposits, several, large landslides, and delta progradation into the fjord. The infilled harbour area is located on the submerged part of a delta plain, and land reclamation is still going on. Historic and older submarine landslides are known to have taken place along the shoreline and an improved understanding of the ground conditions is therefore valuable for engineering purposes. In addition, the unique, S-wave seismic record gives insight into the overall architecture and long-term development of a fjord-valley filling influenced by relative sea level fall accompanied by occasional major mass-wasting events. Shear-wave reflection seismics was applied using a land streamer of 120 channels combined with a newly developed shear-wave vibrator from LIAG. Overall, 4.2 profile-km were acquired in a 2.5-D grid along paved roads and parking lots during night to minimize environmental noise. The investigations achieved a highly resolved image of the fjord-valley fill and clear bedrock detection. Vertical resolution is within a few meters over the entire profile whereas horizontal resolution decreases with depth. The entire fjord-valley fill is up to 160 m thick and five main stratigraphic units have been identified including bedrock. The fjord-valley fill is interpreted as consisting of glaciomarine deposits overlain by marine fjord sediments grading upwards into deltaic deposits. The change from continuous to more discontinuous or irregular reflection patterns reflects a progressive influence of delta-derived processes and

  2. Major structural features of the northern North Sea and adjacent areas of the continent according to lithosphere-scale 3D density and thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Y. P.; Olesen, O.; Ebbing, J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to analyse the regional configuration of the crystalline crust within the northern North Sea and adjacent areas of the continent, a lithosphere-scale 3D structural model has been constructed in the frame of the Crustal Onshore-Offshore Project (COOP project). Construction of the 3D model has been done by use of recently published/released structural data. For upper part of the model, all available data were merged into the following layers: sea water, the Cenozoic, the Upper Cretaceous, the Lower Cretaceous, the Jurassic, the Triassic, the Upper Permian (Zechstein) salt, Upper Permian clastics/carbonates and, finally, the Lower Permian-pre-Permian sedimentary rocks. Configuration of the crystalline crust and the Moho topography have been constrained by the published interpretations of deep seismic lines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary has been compiled from previously published data. To evaluate the deep structure of the crystalline crust, a 3D density modelling has been carried out by use of the software IGMAS+ (the Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Application System). According to the 3D density modeling, the crystalline crust of the study area consists of several layers. Within the upper crystalline crust, gabbro to anorthositic rocks have been included into the 3D model along the western coast of Norway. In addition, a low-density (2627 kg/m3) upper crustal layer is modelled beneath the Horda Platform. The next upper crustal layer is characterized by regional distribution and has a density of 2670 kg/m3. The modelled middle crust of the study area contains four layers with similar densities around 2700 kg/m3. The lower crust consists of three layers. The deepest crustal layer is the high-density lower crustal layer (3060 kg/m3) which corresponds to the high-velocity layer. This layer thickens strongly beneath the Norwegian-Danish Basin and the eastern part of the East-Shetland platform. In addition to this high-density lower crustal layer, the

  3. Deep structure of the northern North Sea and adjacent areas according to regional-scale 3D density and thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy P.; Olesen, Odleiv; Ebbing, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    To analyse the regional configuration of the crystalline crust within the northern North Sea and adjacent areas of the continent, a lithosphere-scale 3D structural model has been constructed in the frame of the Crustal Onshore-Offshore Project (COOP project). Construction of the 3D model has been carried out using recently published/released data. For upper part of the model, all available data were merged into the following layers: sea water, the Cenozoic, the Upper Cretaceous, the Lower Cretaceous, the Jurassic, the Triassic, the Upper Permian (Zechstein) salt, Upper Permian clastics/carbonates and, finally, the Lower Permian-pre-Permian sedimentary rocks. Configuration of the crystalline crust and the Moho topography have been constrained by the published interpretations of deep seismic lines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary has been compiled from previously published data. To evaluate the internal structure of the crystalline crust, a 3D density modelling has been carried out by use of the software IGMAS+ (the Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Application System). According to the 3D density modeling, the crystalline crust of the study area consists of several layers. Within the upper crystalline crust, gabbro to anorthositic rocks have been included into the 3D model along the western coast of Norway. In addition, a low-density (2627 kg/m3) upper crustal layer is modelled beneath the Horda Platform. The next upper crustal layer is characterized by regional distribution and has a density of 2670 kg/m3. The modelled middle crust of the study area contains four layers with similar densities around 2700 kg/m3. The lower crust consists of three layers. The deepest crustal layer is the high-density lower crustal layer (3060 kg/m3) which corresponds to the high-velocity layer. This layer thickens strongly beneath the Norwegian-Danish Basin and the eastern part of the East-Shetland platform. The obtained Moho is strongly uplifted beneath the Central and Viking

  4. Bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soils cannot be predicted by a single model in two adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Fen; Wei, Chaoyang; Liang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a single model could be used to predict the bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soils in two adjacent areas and to determine the feasibility of using existing data sets of total metal concentrations and soil property parameters (e.g., pH, total organic carbon, and soil texture) when predicting heavy metal bioaccessibility. A total of 103 topsoil samples were collected from two adjacent areas (Baotou and Bayan Obo). A total of 76 samples were collected from Baotou, and 27 were collected from Bayan Obo. The total and bioaccessible concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were measured following complete composite acid digestion and a simple bioaccessibility extraction test. The average total concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 8.95, 27.53, 28.40, and 79.50 mg/kg, respectively, in Baotou and 18.12, 30.75, 38.09, and 87.62 mg/kg in Bayan Obo. Except for As, these values were similar in both areas. The average bioaccessible heavy metal concentrations (Bio-HMs) for each target HM were also similar. In Baotou, the average Bio-HM values for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 1.16, 3.76, 16.31, and 16.10 mg/kg, respectively, and 1.26, 2.51, 14.31, and 8.68 mg/kg in Bayan Obo. However, the relative bioaccessibilities for each HM in Baotou were greater than those in Bayan Obo, with mean values for Pb, Zn, Cu, and As of 57, 20, 17, and 12 %, respectively, in Baotou and 40, 11, 9, and 8 % in Bayan Obo. In both areas, prediction models were successfully created using heavy metal concentrations and soil physicochemical parameters; however, models of the same target element differed between the areas, which indicated that a common model for both sites does not exist. Bio-HMs were highly affected by soil properties, which were found to differ between the adjacent areas. In addition, soil properties with large variations played major roles in the predictive models. This study highlights the importance

  5. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A September 1978 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual high water-level period of the Floridan aquifer in the Southwest Florida Management District. Potentiometric levels increased 10 to 25 feet between May 1978 and September 1978, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk and Manatee Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest fluctuations in water-levels between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 10 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, P.D.; Mills, L.R.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels increased 15 to 30 feet between May 1977 and September 1977 in the citrus and farming sections of southeastern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, and southwestern Polk Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumpage for irrigation and have the greatest range in water-level fluctuations between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 15 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area....

  9. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  10. A regional ionospheric TEC mapping technique over China and adjacent areas on the basis of data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aa, Ercha; Huang, Wengeng; Yu, Shimei; Liu, Siqing; Shi, Liqin; Gong, Jiancun; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a regional total electron content (TEC) mapping technique over China and adjacent areas (70°E-140°E and 15°N-55°N) is developed on the basis of a Kalman filter data assimilation scheme driven by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and International GNSS Service. The regional TEC maps can be generated accordingly with the spatial and temporal resolution being 1°×1° and 5 min, respectively. The accuracy and quality of the TEC mapping technique have been validated through the comparison with GNSS observations, the International Reference Ionosphere model values, the global ionosphere maps from Center for Orbit Determination of Europe, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Automated Processing of GPS TEC data from Madrigal database. The verification results indicate that great systematic improvements can be obtained when data are assimilated into the background model, which demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique in providing accurate regional specification of the ionospheric TEC over China and adjacent areas.

  11. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  12. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J., III

    1952-01-01

    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  13. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of sedimentary bodies in Jiaozhou Bay and Adjacent Sea Areas, Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Heping; Li, Guangxue; Li, Shuanglin; Li, Shaoquan; Li, Chun

    2011-06-01

    The distributions of thickness of unconsolidated Quaternary sedimentary layers in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao offshore area were studied by using 1079-km high-resolution shallow seismic profiles and drilling core data, and the factors controlling the Quaternary evolution were discussed. The results show that such thickness distributions resulted from the coactions of geologic structures and marine hydrodynamic conditions since the Holocene. The geologic structures controlled the slope deposit, proluvial and fluvial fillings since the late Pleistocene. Holocene marine hydrodynamics eroded away sediments at the bay mouth, and tides carried these eroded materials to the sides of the bay mouth and released them there, forming channel-ridge-alternating geomorphic features. During transgressive processes, the sea level rose rapidly, and insufficient sediment supply and tidal actions yielded the relict sediments in the east of Qingdao offshore area.

  14. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, May 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1979-01-01

    A May 1979 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual low water-level period. Potentiometric levels declined 4 to 21 feet between September 1978 and May 1979, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level declines ranged from 0 to 6 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Generally potentiometric levels were higher than previous May levels due to heavy rains in April and May. In parts of Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Counties, May 1979 potentiometric levels were 18 feet higher than those of September 1978. (USGS)

  15. Variability of community interaction networks in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Regional and small-scale local oceanographic conditions can lead to high variability in community structure even among similar habitats. Communities with identical species composition can depict distinct networks due to different levels of disturbance as well as physical and biological processes. In this study we reconstruct community networks in four different areas off the Oregon Coast by matching simulated communities with observed dynamics. We compared reserves with harvested areas. Simulations suggested that different community networks, but with the same species composition, can represent each study site. Differences were found in predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory interactions between community members. In addition, each site can be represented as a set of models, creating alternative stages among sites. The set of alternative models that characterize each study area depicts a sequence of functional responses where each specific model or interaction structure creates different species composition patterns. Different management practices, either in the past or of the present, may lead to alternative communities. Our findings suggest that management strategies should be analyzed at a community level that considers the possible consequences of shifting from one community scenario to another. This analysis provides a novel conceptual framework to assess the consequences of different management options for ecological communities. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A reconnaissance of hydrogeologic conditions in Lehigh Acres and adjacent areas of Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward Hoye; Missimer, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lehigh Acres, a residential community with a population of about 13,500 and comprising an area of about 94 square miles (243 square kilometres) in the eastern part of Lee County, has been under development since 1954. Prior to development the area was poorly drained. By 1974, more than 150 miles (241 kilometres) of drainageways had been constructed to drain the area. The water-bearing formations underlying Lehigh Acres include the water-table, sandstone, lower Hawthorn, and Suwannee aquifers. The water-table aquifer is usually not more than 30 feet (9 metres) thick; it contains water of relatively good quality, except for iron and color. Water levels in this aquifer probably have been affected by construction of drainage canals. The sandstone aquifer, used extensively throughout the area as a source of water supply usually contains water of good quality although the water is hard and in places may contain concentrations of dissolved solids and iron which exceed the recommended limits of the U.S. Public Health Service and the State of Florida for drinking water. The lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers, usually encountered at depths between 440 and 850 feet (135 and 262 metres), contains water with relatively high concentrations of sodium, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Three streams, the Orange River, Hickey Creek, and Bedman Creek and the canals connected to them, provide drainage of the area. Except for the Orange River, where the water is of good chemical quality, little is known of the water quality. Similarly, little information is available on stream discharge except for the Orange River where the average annual discharge was 41.1 cubic feet per second (11.6 cubic metres per second) between 1935-46. Most lakes and ponds in Lehigh Acres are hydraulically connected to the water-table aquifer such that factors which affect one also affect the other. Theoretical drawdown curves indicate that the drainage canals may affect ground-water levels to a

  17. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  18. Spatio-temporal distributions of chlorofluorocarbons and methyl iodide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Da; Yang, Gui-Peng; He, Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs), such as dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113), and methyl iodide (CH3I), in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area were measured during two cruises from 21 February to 10 March 2014 and from 10 to 21 July 2014. VHOC concentrations showed seasonal variation with higher values during winter. VHOC distributions evidently decreased along the freshwater plume from the river mouth to the open sea and from inshore to offshore regions. VHOC distributions were obviously influenced by the Changjiang runoff, anthropogenic inputs, and biological release of phytoplankton. The study area was a net sink for CFC-12 and CFC-11, but a net source for atmospheric CH3I during the study periods. PMID:26707981

  19. Spatio-temporal distributions of chlorofluorocarbons and methyl iodide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Da; Yang, Gui-Peng; He, Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs), such as dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113), and methyl iodide (CH3I), in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area were measured during two cruises from 21 February to 10 March 2014 and from 10 to 21 July 2014. VHOC concentrations showed seasonal variation with higher values during winter. VHOC distributions evidently decreased along the freshwater plume from the river mouth to the open sea and from inshore to offshore regions. VHOC distributions were obviously influenced by the Changjiang runoff, anthropogenic inputs, and biological release of phytoplankton. The study area was a net sink for CFC-12 and CFC-11, but a net source for atmospheric CH3I during the study periods.

  20. Geology of the Stroudsburg quadrangle and Adjacent areas, Pennsylvania--New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack Burton

    1971-01-01

    The Stroudsburg area is within the Valley and Ridge and Great Valley physiographic provinces, Northampton and Monroe Counties, Pennsylvania, and Warren County, New Jersey. The northeast-trending subparallel valleys and ridges resulted from erosion of folded heterogeneous sedimentary rocks. These are Middle Ordovician to Middle Devonian in age and are more than 17,000 feet thick. Deposition of a thick flysch sequence (Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age) accompanied onset of Taconic orogenesis. It was followed by deposition of a thick molasse sequence of Silurian and Early Devonian age (continental and marginal-marine clastics--Shawangunk Formation and Bloomsburg Red Beds--overlain by predominantly marginal-marine and subtidal limestone, dolomite, shale, and sandstone--Poxono Island Formation through Oriskany Group). Basin deepening and gradual shallowing occurred during Esopus through Mahantango deposition, heralding the Acadian clastic wedge exposed north of the Stroudsburg area. Interpretation of sedimentary structures and regional stratigraphic relations suggest that the Silurian and Devonian rocks were deposited in the following environments: A1luviated coastal plain (meandering and braided streams), tidal flats (supratidal and intertidal), barrier zone, and neritic zone (upper and lower). The rock stratigraphic units have been grouped into four lithotectonic units, each having a different style of deformation. Folds produced in these rocks are disharmonic, and it is believed that each rock sequence is set off from units above and below by decollements, or zones of detachment. Movement was northwest into the Appalachian basin, primarily by gravitational sliding. The contact between the Shawangunk Formation of Silurian age and Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age, is one zone of detachment as well as an angular unconformity. Deformational effects of the Middle to Late Ordovician Taconic orogeny are elusive, but it appears that the folds and most minor

  1. Hydrogeology of Valley-Fill Aquifers and Adjacent Areas in Eastern Chemung County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-10-19

    Water-resource potential is greatest within saturated sand and gravel in the Chemung River valley (nearly 1 mile wide), especially where induced infiltration of additional water from the Chemung River is possible. The second most favorable area is the Newtown Creek valley at the confluence of Newtown Creek with North Branch Newtown Creek east of Horseheads, N.Y. Extensive sand and gravel deposits within the Breesport, N.Y., area are largely unsaturated but may have greater saturation along the east side of Jackson Creek immediately north of Breesport. Till deposits confine sand and gravel along Newtown Creek at Erin, N.Y., and along much of the upper reach of North Branch Newtown Creek; this confining unit may limit recharge and potential well yield. The north-south oriented valleys of Baldwin and Wynkoop Creeks end at notched divides that imply input of glacial meltwater and limited sediment from outside of the present watersheds. These two valleys are relatively narrow but contain variably sorted sand and gravel, which, in places, may be capable of supplying modest-size community water systems.

  2. Emergency ground-water supplies in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.

    1972-01-01

    Urban areas that are supplied from surface-water sources are especially vulnerable to major disruption of their water supplies. Such disruption could result from natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, or landslides or from such other causes as dam failures fallout of radioactive material or other toxic substance from the atmosphere or other toxic substances from the atmosphere or direct introduction (either accidental or deliberate) of any substance that would render the water unfit for use. Prolonged disruption of public water supplies not only causes personal hardships but also endangers health and safety unless suitable alternative emergency supplies can be provided. The degree of hardship and danger generally increases in direct relation to the population density. Ground water because it occurs beneath protective soil and rock materials is less subject to sudden major contamination than are surface-water bodies. For this reason and also because of its widespread availability in the Puget Sound region ground water is especially desireable as a sources of emergency supplies for drinking or other uses requiring water of good quality. In much of the area existing wells would be suitable as safe sources of emergency supplies.

  3. Flood hazards in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Nassar, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Floods are natural hazards that have complicated man's land-use planning for as long as we have had a history. Although flood hzards are a continuing danger, the year-to-year threat cannot be accurately predicted. Also, on any one stream, the time since the last destructive flood might be so long that most people now living near the stream have not experienced such a flood. Because of the unpredictability and common infrequency of disastrous flooding, or out of ignorance about the danger, or perhaps because of an urge to gamble, man tends to focus his attention on only the advantages of the flood-prone areas, rather than the risk due to the occasional major flood. The purposes of this report are to: (1) briefly describe flood hazards in this region, including some that may be unique to the Puget Sound basin, (2) indicate the parts of the area for which flood-hazard data are available, and (3) list the main sources of hydrologic information that is useful for flood-hazard analysis in conjuction with long-range planning. This map-type report is one of a series being prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey to present basic environmental information and interpretations to assist land-use planning in the Puget Sound region.

  4. Isostatic gravity map of the Point Sur 30 x 60 quadrangle and adjacent areas, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.T.; Morin, R.L.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of a regional effort to investigate the tectonics and water resources of the central Coast Range. This map serves as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults in the area. Local spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field (after removing variations caused by instrument drift, earth-tides, latitude, elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure), as expressed by the isostatic anomaly, reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust, which in turn can be related to rock type. Steep gradients in the isostatic gravity field often indicate lithologic or structural boundaries. Gravity highs reflect the Mesozoic granitic and Franciscan Complex basement rocks that comprise both the northwest-trending Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges, whereas gravity lows in Salinas Valley and the offshore basins reflect the thick accumulations of low-density alluvial and marine sediment. Gravity lows also occur where there are thick deposits of low-density Monterey Formation in the hills southeast of Arroyo Seco (>2 km, Marion, 1986). Within the map area, isostatic residual gravity values range from approximately -60 mGal offshore in the northern part of the Sur basin to approximately 22 mGal in the Santa Lucia Range.

  5. Gravity and Magnetic Investigations of the Mojave National Preserve and Adjacent Areas, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Biehler, S.; Negrini, R.; Mickus, K.; Miller, D.M.; Miller, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data provide the underpinnings of a hydrogeologic framework for the Mojave National Preserve by estimating the thickness of Cenozoic deposits and locating inferred structural features that influence groundwater flow. An inversion of gravity data indicates that thin (<1 km) basin deposits cover much of the Preserve, except for Ivanpah Valley and the Woods Mountains volcanic center. Localized areas of Cenozoic deposits thicker than 500 m are predicted beneath parts of Lanfair Valley, Fenner Valley, near Kelso, Soda Lake, and southeast of Baker. Along the southern margin of the Mojave National Preserve, basins greater than 1 km deep are located between the Clipper and Marble Mountains, between the Marble and Bristol Mountains, and south of the Bristol Mountains near Amboy. Both density and magnetization boundaries defined by horizontal-gradient analyses coincide locally with Cenozoic faults and can be used to extend these faults beneath cover. Magnetization boundaries also highlight the structural grain within the crystalline rocks and may serve as a proxy for fracturing, an important source of permeability within the generally impermeable basement rocks, thus mapping potential groundwater pathways through and along the mountain ranges in the study area.

  6. Reclamation by tubewell drainage in Rechna Doab and adjacent areas, Punjab region, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1975-01-01

    Around the turn of the century, a network of more than 40,000 miles of canals was constructed to divert water from the Indus River and its tributaries to about 23 million acres of largely unused desert in the Punjab region of Pakistan. The favorable climate and the perennial supply of irrigation water made available through the canals instituted the beginning of intensive farming. However, because of generally poor drainage and the high rate of canal leakage, the water table began to rise. As the population increased and agriculture expanded, the demand for irrigation water soon exceeded the available supply. Spreading of the canal supply to meet the expanded needs locally created shortages that prevented adequate leaching. Increased evaporation from the rising water table further contributed to the progressive accumulation of soluble salts in the soil. By the late 1930's the combined effect of waterlogging and salinity had reduced the agricultural productivity of the region to one of the lowest in the world. In 1954, after several unsuccessful projects were undertaken to reclaim affected areas and to stop the progressive encroachment of waterlogging and salinization, the Government of Pakistan in cooperation with the U.S. International Cooperation Administration undertook a study of the geology and hydrology of the Indus Plain that ultimately resulted in the formulation of a ground-water reclamation program. The principal feature of the program is the utilization of a network of deep wells spaced about a mile apart for the dual purpose of lowering the water table and for providing supplemental irrigation water. Through financial assistance and technical and engineering support principally from the United States, construction began in 1960 on the first of 18 proposed reclamation projects that eventually will include 21 million acres and more than 28,000 wells having an installed capacity of more than 100,000 cubic feet per second. An area of about 1.3 million acres

  7. A catalog of borehole geophysics for the 100 Areas and adjacent 600 Area, Hanford Site, 1962 to May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R E; Pearson, A W

    1992-09-01

    This report catalogs geophysical borehole logs acquired between 1962, when logging began, and May 15, 1992 in the 100 Areas and the surrounding 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Separate tables were prepared for each respective set of wells. Each table lists all wells known to have been drilled, all borehole geophysical logs measured, and the location of these logs. No information is provided for logs acquired by the Westinghouse Hanford Company spectral gamma logging system. Maps are provided for identification of the specific wells in the 1200 Areas. A cross reference between the well numbering scheme employed by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project and that based on the Hanford grid name is provided for the appropriate wells in the 600 area.

  8. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas in the Great Basin of Nevada and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkham, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Great Basin is a region of about 210,000 square miles having no surface drainage to the ocean; it includes most of Nevada and parts of Utah, California, Oregon, Idaho, and Wyoming. The area is characterized by many parallel mountain ranges and valleys trending north-south. Stream channels usually are well defined and steep within the mountains, but on reaching the alluvial fan at the canyon mouth, they may diverge into numerous distributary channels, be discontinuous near the apex of the fan, or be deeply entrenched in the alluvial deposits. Larger rivers normally have well-defined channels to or across the valley floors, but all terminate at lakes or playas. Major floods occur in most parts of the Great Basin and result from snowmelt, frontal-storm rainfall, and localized convective rainfall. Snowmelt floods typically occur during April-June. Floods resulting from frontal rain and frontal rain on snow generally occur during November-March. Floods resulting from convective-type rainfall during localized thunderstorms occur most commonly during the summer months. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas are grouped into five general categories: Detailed, historical, analytical, physiographic, and reconnaissance. The detailed and historical methods are comprehensive methods; the analytical and physiographic are intermediate; and the reconnaissance method is only approximate. Other than the reconnaissance method, each method requires determination of a T-year discharge (the peak rate of flow during a flood with long-term average recurrence interval of T years) and T-year profile and the development of a flood-boundary map. The procedure is different, however, for each method. Appraisal of the applicability of each method included consideration of its technical soundness, limitations and uncertainties, ease of use, and costs in time and money. Of the five methods, the detailed method is probably the most accurate, though most expensive. It is applicable to

  9. Water resources of the Tulalip Indian Reservation and adjacent area, Snohomish County, Washington, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna M.; Kresch, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to improve the understanding of water resources of the Tulalip Plateau area, with a primary emphasis on the Tulalip Indian Reservation, in order to address concerns of the Tulalip Tribes about the effects of current and future development, both on and off the Reservation, on their water resources. The drinking-water supply for the Reservation comes almost entirely from ground water, so increasing population will continue to put more pressure on this resource. The study evaluated the current state of ground- and surface-water resources and comparing results with those of studies in the 1970s and 1980s. The study included updating descriptions of the hydrologic framework and ground-water system, determining if discharge and base flow in streams and lake stage have changed significantly since the 1970s, and preparing new estimates of the water budget. The hydrogeologic framework was described using data collected from 255 wells, including their location and lithology. Data collected for the Reservation water budget included continuous and periodic streamflow measurements, micrometeorological data including daily precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation, water-use data, and atmospheric chloride deposition collected under both wet- and dry-deposition conditions to estimate ground-water recharge. The Tulalip Plateau is composed of unconsolidated sediments of Quaternary age that are mostly of glacial origin. There are three aquifers and two confining units as well as two smaller units that are only localized in extent. The Vashon recessional outwash (Qvr) is the smallest of the three aquifers and lies in the Marysville Trough on the eastern part of the study area. The primary aquifer in terms of use is the Vashon advance outwash (Qva). The Vashon till (Qvt) and the transitional beds (Qtb) act as confining units. The Vashon till overlies Qva and the transitional beds underlie Qva and separate it from the undifferentiated sediments (Qu

  10. [Distribution patterns of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Yangtze estuary and its adjacent areas and environmental quality assessment].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ju-jiang; Fan, De-jiang; Yang, Dong-fang; Qi, Hong-yan; Xu, Lin

    2008-09-01

    The concentrations of six heavy metals were determined in the fine fraction ( < 63 microm) of surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent areas by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The average contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn are 10.47, 0.19, 37.68, 36.86, 97.80 and 98.65 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The contents of As, Cd and Cu appear gradually degressive from west to east, while the contents of Pb, Cr and Zn appear no apparent difference. In generally, the concentrations of heavy metals are higher in the south sea areas than those in the north sea areas. Environmental assessment with single factor method suggests that As, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn are moderately contaminated, while Cd is not polluted. The values of As,Cu and Cr are between effect range-low (ERL) and effect range-median (ERM), which indicate they occasionally bring adverse biological effect at most stations, and the values of Cd,Pb and Zn are below ERL mean they rarely bring adverse biological effect by sediment quality guidelines assessment. From the results of factor analysis and cluster analysis, we conclude that the outer sea areas of the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay have lower sediment environmental quality, therefore much attention should be paid to these areas.

  11. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

  12. Paleoenvironments and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation of southwestern Alabama and adjacent coastal water area

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-09-01

    Upper Jurassic Norphlet sediments in southwestern Alabama and the adjacent coastal water area accumulated under arid climatic conditions. The Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States extended into southwestern Alabama, providing a barrier for air and water circulation during Norphlet deposition. Norphlet paleogeography was dominated by a broad desert plain rimmed to the north and east by the Appalachians and to the south by a developing shallow sea. Initiation of Norphlet sedimentation was a result of erosion of the southern Appalachians. Norphlet conglomerates were deposited in coalescing alluvial fans in proximity to an Appalachian source. The conglomeratic sandstones grade downdip into red-bed lithofacies that accumulated in distal portions of alluvial fan and wadi systems. Quartzose sandstones (Denkman Member) were deposited as dune and interdune sediments on a broad desert plain. The source of the sand was the updip and adjacent alluvial fan, plain, and wadi deposits. A marine transgression was initiated late in Denkman deposition, resulting in the reworking of previously deposited Norphlet sediments. Norphlet hydrocarbon potential in southwestern and offshore Alabama is excellent with four oil and gas fields already established. Petroleum traps discovered to date are primarily structural traps involving salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, and extensional fault traps associated with salt movement. Reservoir rocks consist of quartzose sandstones, which are principally eolian in origin. Smackover algal carbonate mudstones were probably the source for the Norphlet hydrocarbons.

  13. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as to be of negligible impact on the farm's agricultural production. Negligible impact of the... the alluvial valley floor area to the farm's total agricultural production over the life of the mine... sufficiently detailed geologic, hydrologic, land use, soils, and vegetation data and analysis to...

  14. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as to be of negligible impact on the farm's agricultural production. Negligible impact of the... the alluvial valley floor area to the farm's total agricultural production over the life of the mine... sufficiently detailed geologic, hydrologic, land use, soils, and vegetation data and analysis to...

  15. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H. ); Garten, C.T. Jr. . Environmental Sciences Div.)

    1992-03-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage areas (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from tree leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during he dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. This paper discovers seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation which will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests.

  16. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Hikaru ); Garten, C.T. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage area (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from trees leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during the dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. Seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Results of a multidisciplinary study in the Marmara Supersite, on-shore area: Büyükçekmece landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccia, Stella; Bigarré, Pascal; Ergintav, Semih; Ozel, Oguz; Yalcinkaya, Esref; Ozalabey, Serdar; Bourdeau, Céline; Martino, Salvatore; Lenti, Luca; Zucca, Francesco; Moro, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The MARsite project (Nov 2012-Avril 2016), one of the three SUPERSITE concept FP7 projects, deals with the definition of new directions in seismic hazard assessment through focused earth observation in the Marmara Supersite. This project gathers different research groups in a comprehensive monitoring activity developed in the Sea of Marmara Region. This region is one of the most densely populated parts of Europe and rated at high seismic risk level since the 1999 Izmit and Duzce devastating earthquakes. The 6th Work Package of MARsite project offered a very valuable frame to undertake simultaneous and complementary scientific investigations and studies to get deeper insight in the seismic and rainfall landslide topic, ranging from methodology to hazard assessment tool. This package focused on two sub-regional areas of high interest. First, the Avcilar-Beylikdüzü peninsula, located westwards of Istanbul, is a highly urbanized concentrated landslide prone area, showing high susceptibility to both rainfalls while affected by very significant seismic site effects. Second, the off-shore entrance of the Izmit Gulf, close to the termination of the surface rupture of the 1999 earthquake, that shows an important slump mass facing the Istanbul coastline. For the on-shore area, after refining the landslide inventory of the peninsula, one of the nine inventoried rototranslational landslides was chosen as pilot site, the Büyükçekmece landslide. This landslide has a continuous activity and a composite mechanism (including several secondary sliding surfaces); it moves at low velocity and involves sandy and clayey deposits of a local Cenozoic Succession damaging several infrastructures, such as buildings and roads. Various geophysical campaigns were carried out and then a field temporary multi-parameter monitoring was set up, composed of GPS-RTK, two seismic probes, thermometer, rain-gauge, moisture, etc.. Hyperspectral and Dinsar imagery technologies were also deployed to

  18. Uranium deposits at Shinarump Mesa and some adjacent areas in the Temple Mountain district, Emery County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.

    1953-01-01

    Deposits of uraniferous hydrocarbons are associated with carnotite in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age at Shinarump Mesa and adjacent areas of the Temple Mountain district in the San Rafael Swell of Emery County, Utah. The irregular ore bodies of carnotite-bearing sandstone are genetically related to lenticular uraniferous ore bodies containing disseminated asphaltitic and humic hydrocarbon in permeable sandstones and were localized indirectly by sedimentary controls. Nearly non-uraniferous bitumen commonly permeates the sandstones in the Shinarump conglomerate and the underlying Moekopi formation in the area. The ore deposits at Temple Mountain have been altered locally by hydrothermal solutions, and in other deposits throughout the area carnotite has been transported by ground and surface water. Uraniferous asphaltite is thought to be the non-volatile residue of an original weakly uraniferous crude oil that migrated into the San Rafael anticline; the ore metals concentrated in the asphaltite as the oil was devolatilized and polymerized. Carnotite is thought to have formed from the asphaltite by ground water leaching. It is concluded that additional study of the genesis of the asphaltitic uranium ores in the San Rafael Swell, of the processes by which the hydrocarbons interact and are modified (such as heat, polymerization, and hydrogenation under the influence of alpha-ray bombardment), of petroleum source beds, and of volcanic intrusive rocks of Tertiary age are of fundamental importance in the continuing study of the uranium deposits on the Colorado Plateau.

  19. Numerical simulation and preliminary analysis on ocean waves during Typhoon Nesat in South China Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jichao; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang

    2014-05-01

    Using the wave model WAVEWATCH III (WW3), we simulated the generation and propagation of typhoon waves in the South China Sea and adjacent areas during the passage of typhoon Nesat (2011). In the domain 100°-145°E and 0°-35°N, the model was forced by the cross-calibrated multi-platform (CCMP) wind fields of September 15 to October 5, 2011. We then validated the simulation results against wave radar data observed from an oil platform and altimeter data from the Jason-2 satellite. The simulated waves were characterized by five points along track using the Spectrum Integration Method (SIM) and the Spectrum Partitioning Method (SPM), by which wind sea and swell components of the 1D and 2D wave spectra are separated. There was reasonable agreement between the model results and observations, although the WW3 wave model may underestimate swell wave height. Significant wave heights are large along the typhoon track and are noticeably greater on the right of the track than on the left. Swells from the east are largely unable to enter the South China Sea because of the obstruction due to the Philippine Islands. During the initial stage and later period of the typhoon, swells at the five points were generated by the propagation of waves that were created by typhoons Haitang and Nalgae. Of the two methods, the 2D SPM method is more accurate than the 1D SIM which overestimates the separation frequency under low winds, but the SIM method is more convenient because it does not require wind speed and wave direction. When the typhoon left the area, the wind sea fractions decreased rapidly. Under similar wind conditions, the points located in the South China Sea are affected less than those points situated in the open sea because of the influence of the complex internal topography of the South China Sea. The results reveal the characteristic wind sea and swell features of the South China Sea and adjacent areas in response to typhoon Nesat, and provide a reference for swell

  20. Paleostress adjacent to the Alpine Fault of New Zealand - Fault, vein, and styolite data from the Doctors Dome area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, Andrew; Wise, Donald U.

    1992-11-01

    Doctors Dome, 75 km north of Christchurch, New Zealand, is an early Pleistocene to Recent structure being deformed along the southeast edge of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. Paleostress in the area has been determined in basement rocks of the Mesozoic meta-graywacke Torlesse Supergroup which lies unconformably beneath Cretaceous and younger cover rocks. Inversion of basement fault data for the area indicates a general northwest compression with two peaks, one WNW-ESE parallel to the shortening suggested by the older vein system and the other parallel to southeast-northwest stylolite columns in the cover rocks. This direction is approximately parallel to regional indicators of contemporary deformation in and adjacent to the Alpine Fault Zone and suggests that the stress field affecting these rocks has not changed significantly since the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene. Like the San Andreas system, this compression is at a high angle to the strike of the zone as a whole, but is compatible with the direction of plate convergence and motion of the major faults. Between the overlappig ends of the Alpine Fault and the Hikurangi Subduction Zone the Alpine Fault may become subhorizontal at middle-lower crustal levels, partially decoupling the crust from underlying structures, and thus allowing oblique motion to be transferred directly onto the fault from the subduction complex, while aiding the change from subduction to continental collision.

  1. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles.

  2. Comparison of phylogeographic structure and population history of two Phrynocephalus species in the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Xia, Lin; He, Jingbo; Wu, Yonghua; Fu, Jinzhong; Yang, Qisen

    2010-12-01

    An aridification of the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas since middle Pleistocene has produced significant genetic structuring of the local fauna. We examined the phylogeographic patterns, population structure and history of Phrynocephalus axillaris and Phrynocephalus forsythii using a mitochondrial fragment ND4-tRNA(LEU). Phylogenetic hypotheses were constructed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference, and the divergence times of major lineages were estimated by BEAST. Population structure and history were inferred by nested clade analysis, neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, and isolation by distance analysis. The two species might have experienced different evolutionary history throughout their current distribution. For P. forsythii, a vicariant event, as a consequence of geological isolation and desert expansion, might have produced the significant divergence between the Tarim and the Yanqi populations. For P. axillaris, populations of the Yanqi, Turpan and Hami Basins might have been established through dispersal during demographic expansion. Climatic fluctuations caused alternate expansion and shrinkage of rivers and oases several times, which likely led to habitat fragmentation for both species. Interaction between vicariance, dispersal and habitat fragmentation produced the current distribution and genetic diversity. The observed difference between the two species may be due partially to their different reproductive modes (ovoviviparous vs. oviparous). PMID:20955804

  3. Spring land temperature anomalies in northwestern US and the summer drought over Southern Plains and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; Oaida, Catalina M.; Diallo, Ismaila; Neelin, J. David; Li, Suosuo; De Sales, Fernando; Gu, Yu; Robinson, David A.; Vasic, Ratko; Yi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent drought and associated heatwave episodes are important features of the US climate. Many studies have examined the connection between ocean surface temperature changes and conterminous US droughts. However, remote effects of large-scale land surface temperature variability, over shorter but still considerable distances, on US regional droughts have been largely ignored. The present study combines two types of evidence to address these effects: climate observations and model simulations. Our analysis of observational data shows that springtime land temperature in northwest US is significantly correlated with summer rainfall and surface temperature changes in the US Southern Plains and its adjacent areas. Our model simulations of the 2011 Southern Plains drought using a general circulation model and a regional climate model confirm the observed relationship between land temperature anomaly and drought, and suggest that the long-distance effect of land temperature changes in the northwest US on Southern Plains droughts is probably as large as the more familiar effects of ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric internal variability. We conclude that the cool 2011 springtime climate conditions in the northwest US increased the probability of summer drought and abnormal heat in the Southern Plains. The present study suggests a strong potential for more skillful intra-seasonal predictions of US Southern Plains droughts when such facts as ones presented here are considered.

  4. Comparison of phylogeographic structure and population history of two Phrynocephalus species in the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Xia, Lin; He, Jingbo; Wu, Yonghua; Fu, Jinzhong; Yang, Qisen

    2010-12-01

    An aridification of the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas since middle Pleistocene has produced significant genetic structuring of the local fauna. We examined the phylogeographic patterns, population structure and history of Phrynocephalus axillaris and Phrynocephalus forsythii using a mitochondrial fragment ND4-tRNA(LEU). Phylogenetic hypotheses were constructed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference, and the divergence times of major lineages were estimated by BEAST. Population structure and history were inferred by nested clade analysis, neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, and isolation by distance analysis. The two species might have experienced different evolutionary history throughout their current distribution. For P. forsythii, a vicariant event, as a consequence of geological isolation and desert expansion, might have produced the significant divergence between the Tarim and the Yanqi populations. For P. axillaris, populations of the Yanqi, Turpan and Hami Basins might have been established through dispersal during demographic expansion. Climatic fluctuations caused alternate expansion and shrinkage of rivers and oases several times, which likely led to habitat fragmentation for both species. Interaction between vicariance, dispersal and habitat fragmentation produced the current distribution and genetic diversity. The observed difference between the two species may be due partially to their different reproductive modes (ovoviviparous vs. oviparous).

  5. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria community in surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; He, Hui; Yu, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which obtain energy from dissimilatory sulfate reduction, play a vital role in the carbon and sulfur cycles. The dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), catalyzing the last step in the sulfate reduction pathway, has been found in all known SRB that have been tested so far. In this study, the diversity of SRB was investigated in the surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit gene ( dsrB). Based on dsrB clone libraries constructed in this study, diversified SRB were found, represented by 173 unique OTUs. Certain cloned sequences were associated with Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and a large fraction (60%) of novel sequences that have deeply branched groups in the dsrB tree, indicating that novel SRB inhabit the surface sediments. In addition, correlations of the SRB assemblages with environmental factors were analyzed by the linear model-based redundancy analysis (RDA). The result revealed that temperature, salinity and the content of TOC were most closely correlated with the SRB communities. More information on SRB community was obtained by applying the utility of UniFrac to published dsrB gene sequences from this study and other 9 different kinds of marine environments. The results demonstrated that there were highly similar SRB genotypes in the marine and estuarine sediments, and that geographic positions and environmental factors influenced the SRB community distribution.

  6. Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

  7. Atmospheric inputs and nitrogen saturation status in and adjacent to Class I wilderness areas of the northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Templer, Pamela H; Weathers, Kathleen C; Lindsey, Amanda; Lenoir, Katherine; Scott, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric inputs of N and S in bulk deposition (open collectors) and throughfall (beneath canopy collectors) were measured in and adjacent to two Class 1 wilderness areas of the northeastern US. In general, atmospheric S inputs followed our expectations with throughfall S fluxes increasing with elevation in the White Mountains, New Hampshire and throughfall S fluxes being greater in coniferous than deciduous stands in both sites. In contrast, throughfall N fluxes decreased significantly with elevation. Throughfall NO3 (-) fluxes were greater in coniferous than deciduous stands of Lye Brook, Vermont, but were greater in deciduous than coniferous stands of the White Mountains. We found overlap in the range of values for atmospheric N inputs between our measurements and monitoring data [National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET)] for wet and total (wet + dry) deposition at Lye Brook. However, our measurements of total S deposition in the White Mountains and bulk (wet) deposition at both Lye Brook and the White Mountains were significantly lower than NADP plus CASTNET, and NADP data, respectively. Natural abundance (18)O in throughfall and bulk deposition were not significantly different, suggesting that there was no significant biological production of [Formula: see text] via nitrification in the canopy. NO3 (-) concentrations in streams were low and had natural abundance (18)O values consistent with microbial production, demonstrating that atmospheric N is being biologically transformed while moving through these watersheds and that these forested watersheds are unlikely to be N saturated.

  8. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon. PMID:25437521

  9. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon.

  10. Integrated geophysical data processing and interpretation of crustal structure in Ethiopia with emphasis on the Ogaden Basin and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Ketsela

    The combined effects of magmatism and stretching due to asthenosphere upwelling modifies the crustal structure of the Earth as seen in the Ethiopian rift and adjacent areas. The Ethiopian rift provides unique opportunities to understand the nature of rifted crust and the intensity of its modification by magmatic processes. I used geological and geophysical data to conduct an integrated study in and around the Ethiopian rift including the northern Kenyan rift and the northern part of the Kenyan dome. New gravity, controlled source seismic, and teleseismic data from the EAGLE (Ethiopia-Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment) were used as additional constraints in my analysis of the crustal structure of Ethiopian rift and adjacent plateaus. Application of a residual gravity anomaly filtering technique using upward continuation revealed various crustal features within the Ethiopian rift and the flanking plateau regions. Short wavelength high amplitude positive anomalies coincide with the local volcanic complexes and calderas. In addition low gravity anomalies are associated with areas of thicker sediments within the rift valley. Axial and cross rift gravity profiles were modeled in 2.5 dimensions constrained with seismic refraction and geologic data. The axial model connects the Kenyan dome through Turkana rift and Main Ethiopian rift (MER) up to the Afar triple junction and provides a new integrated picture of lithospheric structure along the rift for over 1000 km. This model indicates a thin crust (26 km) underlying the Afar region. The crust gradually thickens towards the MER where it is about 35-40 km thick. Towards the south the crust thins and is only 22 km thick when it reaches the Turkana area. The southern section of the axial model indicates that the crust is about 35 km thick beneath the central Kenyan rift. All these thickness values are in agreement with the EAGLE and Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP) and earlier refraction results and

  11. Spring Database for the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavelko, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    A database containing nearly 3,400 springs was developed for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The spring database provides a foundation for field verification of springs in the study area. Attributes in the database include location, geographic and general geologic settings, and available discharge and temperature data for each spring.

  12. Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about

  13. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  14. Overview of mine drainage geochemistry at historical mines, Humboldt River basin and adjacent mining areas, Nevada. Chapter E.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    Reconnaissance hydrogeochemical studies of the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas of northern Nevada have identified local sources of acidic waters generated by historical mine workings and mine waste. The mine-related acidic waters are rare and generally flow less than a kilometer before being neutralized by natural processes. Where waters have a pH of less than about 3, particularly in the presence of sulfide minerals, the waters take on high to extremely high concentrations of many potentially toxic metals. The processes that create these acidic, metal-rich waters in Nevada are the same as for other parts of the world, but the scale of transport and the fate of metals are much more localized because of the ubiquitous presence of caliche soils. Acid mine drainage is rare in historical mining districts of northern Nevada, and the volume of drainage rarely exceeds about 20 gpm. My findings are in close agreement with those of Price and others (1995) who estimated that less than 0.05 percent of inactive and abandoned mines in Nevada are likely to be a concern for acid mine drainage. Most historical mining districts have no draining mines. Only in two districts (Hilltop and National) does water affected by mining flow into streams of significant size and length (more than 8 km). Water quality in even the worst cases is naturally attenuated to meet water-quality standards within about 1 km of the source. Only a few historical mines release acidic water with elevated metal concentrations to small streams that reach the Humboldt River, and these contaminants and are not detectable in the Humboldt. These reconnaissance studies offer encouraging evidence that abandoned mines in Nevada create only minimal and local water-quality problems. Natural attenuation processes are sufficient to compensate for these relatively small sources of contamination. These results may provide useful analogs for future mining in the Humboldt River basin, but attention must be given to

  15. Radioecology of Vertebrate Animals in the Area Adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Site in 1986-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, E. B.; Gashchak, S. P.; Makliuk, Y. A.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    A widespread environmental contamination of the areas adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) site attracted a great deal of publicity to the biological consequences of the ChNPP catastrophe. However, only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of the local wild fauna and most of them were published in Eastern European languages, making them poorly accessible for Western scientists. In addition, evaluation of this information appears difficult due to significant differences in raw data acquisition and analysis methodologies and final data presentation formats. Using an integrated approach to assessment of all available information, the International Radioecology Laboratory scientists showed that the ChNPP accident had increased the average values of the animals 137Cs and 90Sr contamination by a factor of thousands, followed by its decrease by a factor of tens, primarily resulting from a decrease in the biological accessibility of the radionuclides. However, this trend depended on many factors. Plant and bottom feeding fish species were the first to reach the maximum contamination levels. No data are available on other vertebrates, but it can be assumed that the same trend was true for all plant feeding animals and animals searching for food on the soil surface. The most significant decrease of the average values occurred during the first 3-5 years after the accident and it was the most pronounced for elks and plant and plankton feeding fish. Their diet included elements “alienated” from the major radionuclide inventory; for example, upper soil layers and bottom deposits where the fallout that had originally precipitated on plants, water and soils gradually migrated. Further radionuclide penetration into deeper layers of soils and its bonding with their mineral components intensified decontamination of the fauna. It took a while for the contamination of predatory fish and mammals (wolves) to reach the maximum

  16. Assessment of the fresh-and brackish-water resources underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas on northern Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Swenson, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The city of Dunedin is enhancing their potable ground-water resources through desalination of brackish ground water. An assessment of the fresh- and brackish-water resources in the Upper Floridan aquifer was needed to estimate the changes that may result from brackish-water development. The complex hydrogeologic framework underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas of northern Pinellas County is conceptualized as a multilayered sequence of permeable zones and confining and semiconfining units. The permeable zones contain vertically spaced, discrete, water-producing zones with differing water quality. Water levels, water-level responses, and water quality are highly variable among the different permeable zones. The Upper Floridan aquifer is best characterized as a local flow system in most of northern Pinellas County. Pumping from the Dunedin well field is probably not influencing water levels in the aquifer outside Dunedin, but has resulted in localized depressions in the potentiometric surface surrounding production-well clusters. The complex geologic layering combined with the effects of production-well distribution probably contribute to the spatial and temporal variability in chloride concentrations in the Dunedin well field. Chloride concentrations in ground water underlying the Dunedin well field vary both vertically and laterally. In general, water-quality rapidly changes below depths of 400 feet below sea level. Additionally, randomly distributed water-producing zones with higher chloride concentrations may occur at shallow, discrete intervals above 400 feet. A relation between chloride concentration and distance from St. Joseph Sound is not apparent; however, a possible relation exists between chloride concentration and production-well density. Chloride-concentration data from production wells show a consistently increasing pattern that has accelerated since the late 1980's. Chloride-concentration data from 15 observation wells show increasing trends for 6 wells

  17. Gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in urban forests than adjacent open areas during summer but not in winter--Exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Tervo, Peatta; Setälä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    While the potential of plants to uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence of the effects of this process on local atmospheric PAH concentrations and human health is tenuous. We measured gaseous PAH concentrations using passive samplers in urban tree-covered areas and adjacent open, treeless areas in a near-road environment in Finland to gain information on the ability of urban vegetation to improve air quality. The ability of urban, mostly deciduous, vegetation to affect PAHs was season dependent: during summer, concentrations were significantly higher in tree-covered areas, while in the fall, concentrations in open areas exceeded those in tree-covered areas. During winter, concentrations in tree-covered areas were either lower or did not differ from those in open areas. Results of this study imply that the commonly believed notion that trees unequivocally improve air quality does not apply to PAHs studied here.

  18. Gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in urban forests than adjacent open areas during summer but not in winter--Exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Tervo, Peatta; Setälä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    While the potential of plants to uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence of the effects of this process on local atmospheric PAH concentrations and human health is tenuous. We measured gaseous PAH concentrations using passive samplers in urban tree-covered areas and adjacent open, treeless areas in a near-road environment in Finland to gain information on the ability of urban vegetation to improve air quality. The ability of urban, mostly deciduous, vegetation to affect PAHs was season dependent: during summer, concentrations were significantly higher in tree-covered areas, while in the fall, concentrations in open areas exceeded those in tree-covered areas. During winter, concentrations in tree-covered areas were either lower or did not differ from those in open areas. Results of this study imply that the commonly believed notion that trees unequivocally improve air quality does not apply to PAHs studied here. PMID:26412199

  19. Approximate altitude of water levels in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas,January-February 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.

    1993-01-01

    This report was prepared in cooperation with the Fort Bend Subsidence District, and presents maps of the approximate altitude of water levels in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers (figs. -2) during January-February 1991 in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas.  These approximate altitudes of water levels give an approximate depth to potable ground water within Fort Bend County and can be used to estimate depth for installing well pumps.

  20. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  1. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  2. 1995 national oil and gas assessment and onshore federal lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, Gordon L.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes estimated volumes of oil and gas in undiscovered conventional and continuous-type accumulations that occur on onshore Federal Lands. The basis of these estimates is the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of oil and gas resources (Gautier and others, 1996). Onshore Federal Lands account for about 29 percent of US land area but only 5.1 percent of 1995 US oil production and 8.8 percent of 1995 US gas production. Estimates are as of January 1994. The Minerals Management Service has released a parallel study for Federal offshore areas (1996).

  3. Food web structure of the coastal area adjacent to the Tagus estuary revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of energy sources, pathways and trophic linkages among organisms is crucial for the understanding of food web dynamics. Stable isotopes were used to identify the trophic level of food web components and track the incorporation of organic matter of different origins in the coastal ecosystem adjacent to the Tagus estuary. It was shown that the river Tagus is a major source of organic carbon to this system. Also, the wide difference in δ 13C among the primary consumers allowed the identification of the pelagic and the benthic energy pathways. The maximum trophic level observed was 2.4 for Sepia officinalis. This value is indicative of a short food web. It was concluded that the diet of the upper trophic level species relies directly on the lower food web levels to a considerable extent, instead of relying mostly on intermediate trophic level species. Moreover, the δ 15N values of primary consumers were very close to that of particulate organic matter, probably due to poorly known processes occurring at the basis of the food web. This lowers the trophic length of the whole food web. Reliance on benthic affinity prey was high for all upper trophic level secondary consumers.

  4. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  5. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  6. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  7. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  8. Preliminary digital model of ground-water flow in the Madison Group, Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    A digital simulation model was used to analyze regional ground-water flow in the Madison Group aquifer in the Powder River Basin in Montana and Wyoming and adjacent areas. Most recharge to the aquifer originates in or near the outcrop areas of the Madison in the Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills, and most discharge occurs through springs and wells. Flow through the aquifer in the modeled areas was approximately 200 cubic feet per second. The aquifer can probably sustain increased ground-water withdrawals of up to several tens of cubic feet per second, but these withdrawals probably would significantly lower the potentiometric surface in the Madison aquifer in a large part of the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Hydrology of the LC Holding coal-lease tract and adjacent areas, southwestern Utah, and potential effects of coal mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, G.E.; Seiler, R.L.; Stolp, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management recognized a need for baseline hydrologic data and an understanding of the hydrologic system in the L.C. Holding coal-lease tract in order to determine the potential effects of mining on the water resources of the area. The potential impacts of mining on the hydrology of the area are of concern because Zion National Park is less than 3 miles from the westernmost part of the lease tract. Much of the water that passes through the Park either originates in the lease tract or traverses it. Runoff from melting snowpacks and summer thundershowers contributes most of the flow to perennial streams in the area. Base flow is sustained by spring discharge and diffuse seepage. Regional groundwater movement is southward. Most of the geologic formations in the study area contain aquifers. The water table of the regional aquifer is about 870 ft deep in the Navajo Sandstone. Groundwater issuing from the Navajo Sandstone on the east side of Zion Canyon has specific conductance values several times larger than groundwater from the west side, indicating recharge to the Navajo from the overlying strata, which contain water of larger specific conductance. Potential effects of mining in the area include: (1) increased dissolved-solids concen- trations and decreased pH values in both surface and groundwater; (2) dewatering of aquifers, causing a decrease or cessation of flow to some springs; and (3) land subsidence and associated subsidence fractures.

  10. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... displayed from at least three feet above the surface of the water. (3) Vessels engaged in fishing, including... precautionary area shall tend nets or other gear placed in the water so as to facilitate the movement of the... 11 knots through the water. (3) Vessels engaged in fishing, including gillnet and purse seine...

  11. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs.

  12. Seismic studies along the western shelf of Spitsbergen and the adjacent area of West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt (Isfjorden).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinova, M.; Mjelde, R.; Faleide, Y. I.

    2009-04-01

    Spitsbergen is the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago that is located in the north-western corner of the Barents Sea. The island has a long history of sedimentation, structural deformation, vertical and horizontal movements. Geological studies of Spitsbergen and surrounding areas play a key role in the understanding of the geotectonic evolution of the Arctic region. The area along the western coast of Spitsbergen is part of the mainly sheared western Barents Sea-Svalbard continental margin. This part of the margin is unique in the sense that the margin tectonics partly can be studied on exposed, virtually vegetation free, terrains located along the westernmost part of Spitsbergen. Interpretation of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired along the western shelf of Spitsbergen allowed identification of the main geological features of the area, including the Hornsund Fault Zone, and the Forlandsundet and Bellsund grabens. The Bellsund Graben represents the southward continuation of the Forlandsundet Graben initiated during the transpressional regime related to the evolution of the West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt. The final phase of graben formation took place during oblique extension from early Oligocene until final breakup and opening of the northern Norwegian-Greenland Sea (and the Fram Strait Gateway linking the NE Atlantic and Arctic) in Miocene time. The grabens are cut by strike-slip faults outside Isfjorden and Van Mijenfjorden, related to transfer faults evolving during breakup and opening of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The presence of flower-structure faults along the western major fault of the Bellsund Graben reflects transpressional and transtensional regimes during graben formation. The lowermost reflector that underlies Bellsund Graben has been interpreted as a detachment surface formed during Late Eocene?-Oligocene extension as reactivation of a thrust plane, which developed during formation of the West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust

  13. Onshore and offshore wind resource evaluation in the northeastern area of the Iberian Peninsula: quality assurance of the surface wind observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, A.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Jiménez, P. A.; Navarro, J.; García-Bustamante, E.; Lucio-Eceiza, E. E.; Montávez, J. P.; García, A. Y.; Prieto, L.

    2012-04-01

    Offshore wind energy is becoming increasingly important as a reliable source of electricity generation. The areas located in the vicinity of the Cantabrian and Mediterranean coasts are areas of interest in this regard. This study targets an assessment of the wind resource focused on the two coastal regions and the strip of land between them, thereby including most of the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and containing the Ebro basin. The analysis of the wind resource in inland areas is crucial as the wind channeling through the existing mountains has a direct impact on the sea circulations near the coast. The thermal circulations generated by the topography near the coast also influence the offshore wind resource. This work summarizes the results of the first steps of a Quality Assurance (QA) procedure applied to the surface wind database available over the area of interest. The dataset consists of 752 stations compiled from different sources: 14 buoys distributed over the IP coast provided by Puertos del Estado (1990-2010); and 738 land sites over the area of interest provided by 8 different Spanish institutions (1933-2010) and the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR; 1978-2010). It is worth noting that the variety of institutional observational protocols lead to different temporal resolutions and peculiarities that somewhat complicate the QA. The QA applied to the dataset is structured in three steps that involve the detection and suppression of: 1) manipulation errors (i.e. repetitions); 2) unrealistic values and ranges in wind module and direction; 3) abnormally low (e.g. long constant periods) and high variations (e.g. extreme values and inhomogeneities) to ensure the temporal consistency of the time series. A quality controlled observational network of wind variables with such spatial density and temporal length is not frequent and specifically for the IP is not documented in the literature. The final observed dataset will allow for a

  14. Selected hydrogeologic data for the southwest Glendive Preliminary Logical Mining Unit and adjacent areas, Dawson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data were collected from a coal area in Dawson County, Montana, to provide a basis for identifying and characterizing the groundwater resources. Inventory records for 72 domestic, stock, irrigation, unused, and observation wells are tabulated in the report; the data were collected principally from 1977 through 1981. The location of each well is shown on a map. Natural-gamma geophysical logs, and water level measurements are also included for selection wells. Twenty-six analyses of groundwater identify the chemical-constituent concentrations and physical properties of water from sampled wells. (USGS)

  15. Neogene structural evolution of Gold Mountain, Slate Ridge and adjacent areas, Esmeralda and Nye counties, SW Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, D.C.; Weiss, S.I.; Worthington, J.E. . Mackay School of Mines); McKee, E.H. )

    1993-04-01

    The onset of crustal instability in the Gold Mountain-Slate Ridge (GMSR) area took place prior to middle Miocene time, as shown by the irregular topography upon which the 16.8 Ma tuff of Mount Dunfee was deposited. Local wedges of fanglomerate and conglomerate between four overlying ash-flow sheets and complex patterns of thinning and thickening, nondeposition, and erosion show that normal faulting took place more-or-less continuously between 16.8 and 11.5 Ma. More intense listric( ) faulting, tilting, uplift, erosion and deposition of wedges of fanglomerate and conglomerate occurred between emplacement of the 11.5 Ma Timber Mountain Tuff (TMT) and the 7.5 Ma Stonewall Flat Tuff (SFT). The present topography west of long. 117[degree]W developed mostly after 7.5 Ma following deposition of the widespread SFT, which thickens westward with increasing elevation on the east end of Slate Ridge. major uplifted blocks include the GMSR area, Magruder Mountain, and Palmetto Mountain, where erosional remnants of the SFT are found at elevations as high as 8,200 ft. Uplift was accommodated by high-angle faulting with little tilting and by warping. In the GMSR area pre-7.5 Ma tilting was mainly to the south-southeast reflecting movement along N-dipping listric( ) faults, indicating northwest-directed extension. In contrast, southeast of Gold Mountain and in the northeastern part of the Grapevine Mountains post-11.5 Ma tilting resulted from movement on normal faults that dip to the SSE beneath Sarcobatus Flat and toward the WNW-vergent Boundary Canyon-Original Bullfrog detachment fault system further south; this implies SE-directed extensional strain within a general region of NW-directed extension. Slate Ridge also acted as a barrier to the 11.5 Ma TMT. These relations suggest that certain areas within this section of the Walker Lane belt tended to remain high from middle Miocene time until the present, with a major exception being the time of deposition of the SFT.

  16. Present and Reference Concentrations and Yields of Suspended Sediment in Streams in the Great Lakes Region and Adjacent Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    In-stream suspended sediment and siltation and downstream sedimentation are common problems in surface waters throughout the United States. The most effective way to improve surface waters impaired by sediments is to reduce the contributions from human activities rather than try to reduce loadings from natural sources. Total suspended sediment/solids (TSS) concentration data were obtained from 964 streams in the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River Basins from 1951 to 2002. These data were used to estimate median concentrations, loads, yields, and volumetrically (flow) weighted (VW) concentrations where streamflow data were available. SPAtial Regression-Tree Analysis (SPARTA) was applied to land-use-adjusted (residualized) TSS data and environmental-characteristic data to determine the natural factors that best described the distribution of median and VW TSS concentrations and yields and to delineate zones with similar natural factors affecting TSS, enabling reference or natural concentrations and yields to be estimated. Soil properties (clay and organic-matter content, erodibility, and permeability), basin slope, and land use (percentage of agriculture) were the factors most strongly related to the distribution of median and VW TSS concentrations. TSS yields were most strongly related to amount of precipitation and the resulting runoff, and secondarily to the factors related to high TSS concentrations. Reference median TSS concentrations ranged from 5 to 26 milligrams per liter (mg/L), reference median annual VW TSS concentrations ranged from 10 to 168 mg/L, and reference TSS yields ranged from about 980 to 90,000 kilograms per square kilometer per year. Independent streams (streams with no overlapping drainage areas) with TSS data were ranked by how much their water quality exceeded reference concentrations and yields. Most streams exceeding reference conditions were in the central part of the study area, where agricultural activities

  17. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments with regard to the mapping and analysis of MAGSAT data for the investigation of correlations between the magnetic field characteristics of South American and African shields are reported. Significant results in the interpretation of the global total-field anomalies and the anomaly patterns of Africa and South America are discussed. The central position of the Brazilian shield tends to form a negative total-field anomaly, consistent with findings for shields in equatorial Africa. Sedimentary sequences in the Amazon basin and in the Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paolo areas exhibit positive anomalies, also consistent with equatorial Africa. Results for the Caribbean Sea and Guyana regions are also described.

  18. Molecular diversity and distribution pattern of ciliates in sediments from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-10-01

    In comparison with the macrobenthos and prokaryotes, patterns of diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are poorly known. The widely used high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA has revealed a high diversity of microeukaryotes yielded from both living organisms and buried DNA in marine sediments. More recently, cDNA surveys have been utilized to uncover the diversity of active organisms. However, both methods have never been used to evaluate the diversity of ciliates in hydrothermal vents. By using high-throughput DNA and cDNA sequencing of 18S rDNA, we evaluated the molecular diversity of ciliates, a representative group of microbial eukaryotes, from the sediments of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and compared it with that of an adjacent deep-sea area about 15 km away and that of an offshore area of the Yellow Sea about 500 km away. The results of DNA sequencing showed that Spirotrichea and Oligohymenophorea were the most diverse and abundant groups in all the three habitats. The proportion of sequences of Oligohymenophorea was the highest in the hydrothermal vents whereas Spirotrichea was the most diverse group at all three habitats. Plagiopyleans were found only in the hydrothermal vents but with low diversity and abundance. By contrast, the cDNA sequencing showed that Plagiopylea was the most diverse and most abundant group in the hydrothermal vents, followed by Spirotrichea in terms of diversity and Oligohymenophorea in terms of relative abundance. A novel group of ciliates, distinctly separate from the 12 known classes, was detected in the hydrothermal vents, indicating undescribed, possibly highly divergent ciliates may inhabit this environment. Statistical analyses showed that: (i) the three habitats differed significantly from one another in terms of diversity of both the rare and the total ciliate taxa, and; (ii) the adjacent deep sea was more similar to the offshore area than to the

  19. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

  20. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future.

  1. Comparison of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of red foxes from adjacent urban, suburban, and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Dip, R; Stieger, C; Deplazes, P; Hegglin, D; Müller, U; Dafflon, O; Koch, H; Naegeli, H

    2001-05-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a representative of the canid family with wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere and Australia. The increasing utilization of urbanized habitats by red foxes prompted us to test whether this species may be used to monitor the presence of anthropogenic pollutants in cities or suburbs. For that purpose, we compared the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in foxes from urban, suburban, and rural areas within the municipality of Zürich (Switzerland). The kidney and liver of suburban and rural foxes contained the highest Cd concentrations, whereas urban foxes contained the highest Pb levels. In the kidney of suburban foxes, Cd concentrations increased from a median value of 0.73 mg/kg in juvenile animals to 1.82 mg/kg in adults. Similarly, the liver of suburban foxes contained increasing Cd levels from a median of 0.21 mg/kg in juvenile animals to 0.94 mg/kg in adults. An age-dependent storage of Cd was also found in foxes from the rural surroundings, but no such accumulation occurred in urban foxes from the city center, where even adult animals contained very low Cd levels. Conversely, foxes from the urban center were characterized by elevated Pb concentrations during the first 2 years of life, but this transient Pb accumulation was absent in suburban or rural animals. The liver of juvenile foxes contained a median Pb concentration of 0.99 mg/kg in the city compared to only 0.47 and 0.37 mg/kg in the suburban and rural area, respectively. Thus, we found that animals from separate environmental compartments contain different patterns of tissue residues, implying that red foxes may serve as a bioindicator species to detect certain toxic hazards in urbanized habitats. PMID:11525499

  2. Distribution of inorganic phosphorus in profiles and particle-size fractions across an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. S.; Li, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    Riparian buffer can trap sediment and nutrients sourced from upper cropland and minimizing eutrophication risk of water quality. This study aimed to investigate the distributions of soil inorganic phosphorus (Pi) forms among profile and particle-size fractions in an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake, Southwestern China. The Ca-bound fraction (62 %) was the major proportion of the Pi in the riparian soils. Buffer rehabilitation from cropped area had a limited impact on total phosphorus (TP) concentrations after 3 years, but has contributed to a change in Pi forms. At 0-20 cm soil layer, levels of the Olsen-P, nonoccluded, Ca-bound and total Pi were lower in the buffer than the cropped area; however, the Pi distribution between the cropped area and the buffer did not differ significantly as depth increased. The clay fraction corresponded to 57 % of TP and seemed to be both a sink for highly recalcitrant Pi and a source for labile Pi. The lower concentration of Pi forms in the silt and sand particle fraction in the surface soil was observed in the buffer area, which indicating that the Pi distribution in coarse particle fraction has sensitively responded to land-use changes.

  3. Distribution of inorganic phosphorus in profiles and particle fractions of Anthrosols across an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo Sheng; Cha Li, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Riparian buffers can trap sediment and nutrients sourced from upper cropland, minimizing the eutrophication risk of water quality. This study aimed to investigate the distributions of soil inorganic phosphorus (Pi) forms among profile and particle-size fractions in an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake, southwestern China. The Ca-bound fraction (62 %) was the major proportion of the Pi in the riparian soils. After 3 years' restoration, buffer rehabilitation from cropped area had a limited impact on total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, but has contributed to a change in Pi forms. In the 0-20 cm soil layer, levels of the Olsen-P, non-occluded, Ca-bound, and total Pi were lower in the buffer than the cropped area; however, the Pi distribution between the cropped area and the buffer did not differ significantly as depth increased. The clay fraction corresponded to 57 % of TP and seemed to be both a sink for highly recalcitrant Pi and a source for labile Pi. The lower concentration of Pi forms in the silt and sand particle fraction in the surface soil was observed in the buffer area, which indicated that the Pi distribution in coarse particle fraction had sensitively responded to land use changes.

  4. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater-treatment plant discharges during base flow, which elevated specific conductance and nutrient concentrations, combined sewer overflows, and nonpoint sources likely contributed to water-quality impairment and lower aquatic-life status at the Blue River Basin sites. Releases from upstream reservoirs to the Little Blue River likely decreased specific conductance, suspended-sediment, and dissolved constituent concentrations and may have benefitted water quality and aquatic life of main-stem sites. Chloride concentrations in base-flow samples, attributable to winter road salt application, had the highest correlation with the SUII (Spearman’s ρ equals 0.87), were negatively correlated with the SCI (Spearman’s ρ equals -0.53) and several pollution sensitive Ephemeroptera plus Plecoptera plus Trichoptera abundance and percent richness metrics, and were positively correlated with pollution tolerant Oligochaeta abundance and percent richness metrics. Study results show that the easily calculated SUII and the selected modeled multimetric indices are effective for comparing urban basins and for evaluation of water quality in the Kansas City metropolitan area.

  5. Adjacent Band Interference from San Diego Area Transmitters to Goldstone Deep Space Network Receivers Near 2300 Megahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; Bathker, D.; Sue, M.; Peng, T.

    2001-10-01

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has recently granted a commercial company a license to potentially deploy its wireless Internet system in the San Diego area in the 2300- to 2305-MHz frequency range. Each of several base station emitters would transmit a relatively strong effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) (about 50 W). The frequency band is immediately above the band (2290 to 2300 MHz) used by NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving stations at Goldstone, California. A potential interference problem to DSN receivers thus exists through some anomalous propagation modes, such as tropospheric ducting and rain scattering, and interference must be kept under a very small percentage of time (0.001 percent), as required by NASA deep-space missions. In this article, we have estimated the effects of interference from the wireless Internet system to Goldstone receivers. The calculation results show that at 2300 MHz the interference received by the DSN could exceed the DSN protection level up to 0.1 percent of the time for ducting propagation. For rain scattering, this could occur up to 2.3 percent of the time. At 2290 MHz, due to the transmitter spectrum, interference through either mode is below the DSN protection level. Interference through terrain diffraction will suffer very large attenuations at both frequencies. After considering that in the middle of the path there is a tall mountain peak that largely blocks the surface ducting and direct illumination of rain clouds, the interference generated by the wireless system emitters and propagated

  6. Seismic structure beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and adjacent areas based on the tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khrepy, Sami; Koulakov, Ivan; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Petrunin, Alexey G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first 3-D model of seismic P and S velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and surrounding areas based on the results of passive travel time tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed based on travel time data from ˜ 9000 regional earthquakes provided by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), and this was complemented with data from the International Seismological Centre (ISC). The resulting P and S velocity patterns were generally consistent with each other at all depths. Beneath the northern part of the Red Sea, we observed a strong high-velocity anomaly with abrupt limits that coincide with the coastal lines. This finding may indicate the oceanic nature of the crust in the Red Sea, and it does not support the concept of gradual stretching of the continental crust. According to our results, in the middle and lower crust, the seismic anomalies beneath the Gulf of Aqaba seem to delineate a sinistral shift (˜ 100 km) in the opposite flanks of the fault zone, which is consistent with other estimates of the left-lateral displacement in the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform fault. However, no displacement structures were visible in the uppermost lithospheric mantle.

  7. Diversity, abundance, and spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing β-proteobacteria in sediments from Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent area in East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangyang; Zhen, Yu; He, Hui; Lu, Xinglan; Mi, Tiezhu; Yu, Zhigang

    2014-05-01

    Changjiang Estuary, the largest estuary in China, encompasses a wide range of nutrient loading and trophic levels from the rivers to the sea, providing an ideal natural environment to explore relationships between functional diversity, physical/chemical complexity, and ecosystem function. In this study, molecular biological techniques were used to analyze the community structure and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the sediments of Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters in East China Sea. The amoA gene (encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) libraries analysis revealed extensive diversity within the β-Proteobacteria group of AOB, which were grouped into Nitrosospira-like and Nitrosomonas-like lineages. The majority of amoA gene sequences fell within Nitrosospira-like clade, and only a few sequences were clustered with the Nitrosomonas-like clade, indicating that Nitrosospira-like lineage may be more adaptable than Nitrosomonas-like lineage in this area. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the spatial distribution of the sedimentary β-Proteobacterial amoA genotype assemblages correlated significantly with nitrate, nitrite, and salinity. The vertical profile of amoA gene copies in gravity cores showed that intense sediment resuspension led to a deeper mixing layer. The horizontal distribution pattern of amoA gene copies was nearly correlated with the clayey mud belt in Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent area in East China Sea, where higher β-Proteobacteria phylogenetic diversity was observed. Meanwhile, those areas with high amoA copies in the surface sediments nearly matched those with low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and ammonium in the bottom water.

  8. Contrasting Phylogeography of Sandy vs. Rocky Supralittoral Isopods in the Megadiverse and Geologically Dynamic Gulf of California and Adjacent Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Lee, Eun Jung; Mateos, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    patterns. Identification of divergent lineages of Tylos in the study area is important for conservation, as some populations are threatened by human activities. PMID:23844103

  9. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  10. Filtering fens: mechanisms explaining phosphorus-limited hotspots of biodiversity in wetlands adjacent to heavily fertilized areas.

    PubMed

    Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke; Fernandez, Filippo; van Wirdum, Geert; Geurts, Jeroen J M; van Loon, E Emiel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Lamers, Leon P M

    2014-05-15

    vegetation requires larger areas, as long as eutrophication has not been seriously tackled.

  11. Filtering fens: mechanisms explaining phosphorus-limited hotspots of biodiversity in wetlands adjacent to heavily fertilized areas.

    PubMed

    Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke; Fernandez, Filippo; van Wirdum, Geert; Geurts, Jeroen J M; van Loon, E Emiel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Lamers, Leon P M

    2014-05-15

    vegetation requires larger areas, as long as eutrophication has not been seriously tackled. PMID:24594742

  12. Environmental aspects of produced-water salt releases in onshore and coastal petroleum-producing areas of the conterminous U.S. - a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects associated with the production of oil and gas have been reported since the first oil wells were drilled in the Appalachian Basin in Pennsylvania and Kentucky in the early to mid-1800s. The most significant of these effects are the degradation of soils, ground water, surface water, and ecosystems they support by releases of suspended and dissolved hydrocarbons and co-produced saline water. Produced water salts are less likely than hydrocarbons to be adsorbed by mineral phases in the soil and sediment and are not subject to degradation by biologic processes. Sodium is a major dissolved constituent in most produced waters and it causes substantial degradation of soils through altering of clays and soil textures and subsequent erosion. Produced water salts seem to have the most wide-ranging effects on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Trace elements, including boron, lithium, bromine, fluorine, and radium, also occur in elevated concentrations in some produced waters. Many trace elements are phytotoxic and are adsorbed and may remain in soils after the saline water has been flushed away. Radium-bearing scale and sludge found in oilfield equipment and discarded on soils pose additional hazards to human health and ecosystems. This bibliography includes studies from across the oil- and natural-gas-producing areas of the conterminous United States that were published in the last 80 yrs. The studies describe the effects of produced water salts on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Also included are reports that describe (1) the inorganic chemistry of produced waters included in studies of formation waters for various purposes, (2) other sources of salt affecting water quality that may be mistaken for produced water effects, (3) geochemical and geophysical techniques that allow discrimination of salt sources, (4) remediation technologies designed to repair damage caused to soils and ground water by produced water salts, and (5) contamination by

  13. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York. The surficial geology, inferred ice-marginal positions, and distribution of stratified-drift aquifers were mapped from existing data. Ice-marginal positions, which represent pauses in the retreat of glacial ice from the region, favored the accumulation of coarse-grained deposits whereas more steady or rapid ice retreat between these positions favored deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits with limited coarse-grained deposits at depth. Unconfined aquifers with thick saturated coarse-grained deposits are the most favorable settings for water-resource development, and three several-mile-long sections of valley were identified (mostly in Broome County) as potentially favorable: (1) the southernmost valley section, which extends from the New York–Pennsylvania border to about 1 mile north of South Windsor, (2) the valley section that rounds the west side of the umlaufberg (an isolated bedrock hill within a valley) north of Windsor, and (3) the east–west valley section at the Broome County–Chenango County border from Nineveh to East of Bettsburg (including the lower reach of the Cornell Brook valley). Fine-grained lacustrine deposits form extensive confining units between the unconfined areas, and the water-resource potential of confined aquifers is largely untested. Recharge, or replenishment, of these aquifers is dependent not only on infiltration of precipitation directly on unconfined aquifers, but perhaps more so from precipitation that falls in adjacent upland areas. Surface runoff and shallow groundwater from the valley walls flow downslope and recharge valley aquifers. Tributary streams that drain upland areas lose flow as they enter main valleys on permeable alluvial fans. This infiltrating water also recharges valley aquifers. Current (2012) use of

  14. Characterization of surface-water resources in the Great Basin National Park area and their susceptibility to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Beck, David A.; Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Eight drainage basins and one spring within the Great Basin National Park area were monitored continually from October 2002 to September 2004 to quantify stream discharge and assess the natural variability in flow. Mean annual discharge for the stream drainages ranged from 0 cubic feet per second at Decathon Canyon to 9.08 cubic feet per second at Baker Creek. Seasonal variability in streamflow generally was uniform throughout the network. Minimum and maximum mean monthly discharges occurred in February and June, respectively, at all but one of the perennial streamflow sites. Synoptic-discharge, specific-conductance, and water- and air-temperature measurements were collected during the spring, summer, and autumn of 2003 along selected reaches of Strawberry, Shingle, Lehman, Baker, and Snake Creeks, and Big Wash to determine areas where surface-water resources would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys. Comparison of streamflow and water-property data to the geology along each stream indicated areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals. These areas consist of reaches where streams (1) are in contact with permeable rocks or sediments, or (2) receive water from either spring discharge or ground-water inflow.

  15. Defended territories of an aggressive damselfish contain lower juvenile coral density than adjacent non-defended areas on Kenyan lagoon patch reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. A. C.; Cowburn, B.; Sluka, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Jewel damselfish, Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus, aggressively defend small territories on coral reefs in which they cultivate lawns of edible macroalgae. Pairwise frequency counts showed that juvenile coral density was lower inside damselfish territories than that in adjacent non-defended areas on lagoon patch reefs in Kenya. These differences in coral density decreased as coral size increased. Direct farming effects of the damselfish and indirect inhibitory effects from higher algal densities inside territories are both thought to be potentially responsible for the results attained herein. Damselfish territories can occupy a large proportion of a coral reef; territorial behaviour in fish may have greater impacts on reef structure, in particular the resilience and growth rate of juvenile corals, than previously appreciated.

  16. Significant variations in the productivity of green macroalgae in a mesotidal estuary: implications to the nutrient loading of the system and the adjacent coastal area.

    PubMed

    Martins, Irene; Lopes, R J; Lillebø, A I; Neto, J M; Pardal, M A; Ferreira, J G; Marques, J C

    2007-06-01

    A spatially dynamic model for the productivity of spores and adults of green macroalgae (Enteromorpha sp.) was developed for a mesotidal estuary (Mondego estuary, Portugal). Many of the algal processes and parameters included in the model were experimentally obtained. Model predictions were compared to a real time series (1993-1997) of macroalgal biomass variation and the two sets show a good agreement (ANOVA, P<0.001). Results suggest that algal growth is highly sensitive to small changes in depth and exhibits different patterns of variation in different seasons. On a yearly basis, global calculations for the south channel of the estuary (137 ha) suggest that during bloom years, macroalgal biomass may reach about 21,205 ton DW compared to 240 ton DW in regular years. On a seasonal basis, the difference may be even more significant. The consequences of such variations on the nitrogen and phosphorus loading of the system and the adjacent coastal area are discussed. PMID:17395214

  17. A model of onshore-offshore change in faunal diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Onshore-offshore patterns of faunal change occurred at many taxonomic scales during the Paleozoic Era, ranging from replacement of the Cambrian evolutionary fauna by the Paleozoic fauna to the environmental expansion of many orders and classes. A simple mathematical model is constructed to investigate such change. The environmental gradient across the marine shelf-slope is treated as a linear array of discrete habitats, each of which holds a set number of species, as observed in the fossil record. During any interval of time, some portion of the species in each habitat becomes extinct by background processes, with rates of extinction varying among both clades and habitats, as also observed in the record. After extinction, species are replaced from within the habitat and from immediately adjacent habitats, with proportions dependent on surviving species. This model leads to the prediction that extinction-resistant clades will always diversify at the expense of extinction-prone clades. But if extinction intensity is highest in nearshore habitats, extinction-resistant clades will expand preferentially in the onshore direction, build up diversity there, and then diversify outward toward the offshore. Thus, onshore-offshore patterns of diversification may be the expectation for faunal change quite independently of whether or not clades originate onshore. When the model is parameterized for Paleozoic trilobites and brachiopods, numerical solutions exhibit both a pattern of faunal change and a time span for diversification similar to that seen in the fossil record. They also generate structure similar to that seen in global diversification, including logistic patterns of growth, declining origination but constant extinction within clades through time, and declining overall extinction across clades through time.

  18. A GIS-based methodology to quantitatively define an Adjacent Protected Area in a shallow karst cavity: the case of Altamira cave.

    PubMed

    Elez, J; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Garcia-Anton, E; Benavente, D; Cañaveras, J C; Sanchez-Moral, S

    2013-03-30

    Different types of land use are usually present in the areas adjacent to many shallow karst cavities. Over time, the increasing amount of potentially harmful matter and energy, of mainly anthropic origin or influence, that reaches the interior of a shallow karst cavity can modify the hypogeal ecosystem and increase the risk of damage to the Palaeolithic rock art often preserved within the cavity. This study proposes a new Protected Area status based on the geological processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the Altamira cave karst system. Analysis of the geological characteristics of the shallow karst system shows that direct and lateral infiltration, internal water circulation, ventilation, gas exchange and transmission of vibrations are the processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the cave. This study applies a comprehensive methodological approach based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to establish the area of influence of each transfer process. The stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the interior of the cave were determined using 3D Laser Scanning topography combined with classical field work, data gathering, cartography and a porosity-permeability analysis of host rock samples. As a result, it was possible to determine the hydrogeological behavior of the cave. In addition, by mapping and modeling the surface parameters it was possible to identify the main features restricting hydrological behavior and hence direct and lateral infiltration into the cave. These surface parameters included the shape of the drainage network and a geomorphological and structural characterization via digital terrain models. Geological and geomorphological maps and models integrated into the GIS environment defined the areas involved in gas exchange and ventilation processes. Likewise, areas that could potentially transmit vibrations directly into the cave were identified. This study shows that it is possible to define a

  19. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001--10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Woody vegetation, including ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), has encroached on some areas in central Texas that were historically oak grassland savannah. Encroachment of woody vegetation is generally attributed to overgrazing and fire suppression. Removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice (hereinafter referred to as "brush management") might change the hydrology in the watershed. These hydrologic changes might include changes to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local partners, examined the hydrologic effects of brush management in two adjacent watersheds in Comal County, Tex. Hydrologic data were collected in the watersheds for 3-4 years (pre-treatment) depending on the type of data, after which brush management occurred on one watershed (treatment watershed) and the other was left in its original condition (reference watershed). Hydrologic data were collected in the study area for another 6 years (post-treatment). These hydrologic data included rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but potential groundwater recharge was calculated by using a simplified mass balance approach. This fact sheet summarizes highlights of the study from the USGS Scientific Investigations Report on which it is based.

  20. Subsurface geology and porosity distribution, Madison Limestone and underlying formations, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James A.

    1978-01-01

    To evaluate the Madison Limestone and associated rocks as potential sources for water supplies in the Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, an understanding of the geologic framework of these units, their lithologic facies patterns, the distribution of porosity zones, and the relation between porosity development and stratigraphic facies is necessary. Regionally the Madison is mainly a fossiliferous limestone. However, in broad areas of the eastern Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains, dolomite is a dominant constituent and in places the Madison is almost entirely dolomite. Within these areas maximum porosity development is found and it seems to be related to the coarser crystalline dolomite facies. The porosity development is associated with tabular and fairly continuous crystalline dolomite beds separated by non-porous limestones. The maximum porosity development in the Bighorn Dolomite, as in the Madison, is directly associated with the occurrence of a more coarsely crystalline sucrosic dolomite facies. Well data indicate, however, that where the Bighorn is present in the deeper parts of the Powder River Basin, it may be dominated by a finer crystalline dolomite facies of low porosity. The 'Winnipeg Sandstone' is a clean, generally well-sorted, medium-grained sandstone. It shows good porosity development in parts of the northern Powder River Basin and northwestern South Dakota. Because the sandstone is silica-cemented and quartzitic in areas of deep burial, good porosity is expected only where it is no deeper than a few thousand feet. The Flathead Sandstone is a predominantly quartzose, slightly feldspathic sandstone, commonly cemented with iron oxide. Like the 'Winnipeg Sandstone,' it too is silica-cemented and quartzitic in many places so that its porosity is poor in areas of deep burial. Illustrations in this report show the thickness, percent dolomite, and porosity-feet for the Bighorn Dolomite and the Madison Limestone and its subdivisions. The

  1. Regional patterns in prevalence of principal external diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas 1992-1997.

    PubMed

    Dethlefsen, V; Lang, T; Köves, P

    2000-08-31

    The prevalence and spatial distribution of major diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas were studied in the summers 1992 to 1997. Areas covered were the North Sea, Irish Sea, northern and northeastern British Waters and the English Channel. The diseases studied were lymphocystis, epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma and skin ulceration. To standardise data, results were analysed for females >15 cm (>3 yr old). Data were subjected to median polish, and additive, extended and additive plus multiplicative models were applied to best account for effects of region and year. Annual differences in disease prevalence were low whilst differences between areas were pronounced. For lymphocystis higher prevalence was observed in the northwestern sector of the North Sea, at the northern tip of Scotland and in an area south of Iceland. Prevalence was low in the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the southern North Sea, and intermediate in the German Bight. For epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma, levels were low at Icelandic stations, in the northern Irish Sea, in the southern North Sea and the English Channel, whilst levels were high in the northwestern part of the North Sea and the German Bight. Elevated levels of skin ulceration were found on the Dogger, at 1 station in the Irish Sea (off Sellafield) and at 1 station to the south of Iceland. Lower levels were detected west of Iceland. Prevalence in all other areas was intermediate. It is concluded that a detailed analysis of available data on disease prevalence and putative causative factors is desirable and, given the good availability of data, would be a promising step forward toward elucidating possible cause and effect relationships between diseases and anthropogenic factors. PMID:11023251

  2. Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion for Onshore Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Design comparisons have been performed for a number of different tidal energy systems, including a fully submerged, horizontal-axis electro-turbine system, similar to Verdant Tidal Turbines in New York's East River, a platform-based Marine Current Turbine, now operating in Northern Ireland's Strangford Narrows, and the Rotech Lunar Energy system, to be installed off the South Korean Coast. A fourth type of tidal energy system studied is a novel JPL/Caltech hydraulic energy transfer system that uses submerged turbine blades which are mechanically attached to adjacent high-pressure pumps, instead of to adjacent electrical turbines. The generated highpressure water streams are combined and transferred to an onshore hydroelectric plant by means of a closed-cycle pipeline. The hydraulic energy transfer system was found to be cost competitive, and it allows all electronics to be placed onshore, thus greatly reducing maintenance costs and corrosion problems. It also eliminates the expenses of conditioning and transferring multiple offshore power lines and of building offshore platforms embedded in the sea floor.

  3. Mapping of lithologic and structural units using multispectral imagery. [Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent areas (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronberg, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery covering the Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent regions (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabi) was applied to the mapping of lithologic and structural units of the test area at a scale 1:1,000,000. Results of the geological evaluation of the ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar have proven the usefullness of this type of satellite data for regional geological mapping. Evaluation of the ERTS images also resulted in new aspects of the structural setting and tectonic development of the Afar-Triangle, where three large rift systems, the oceanic rifts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the continental East African rift system, seem to meet each other. Surface structures mapped by ERTS do not indicate that the oceanic rift of the Gulf of Aden (Sheba Ridge) continues into the area of continental crust west of the Gulf of Tadjura. ERTS data show that the Wonji fault belt of the African rift system does not enter or cut through the central Afar. The Aysha-Horst is not a Horst but an autochthonous spur of the Somali Plateau.

  4. Simulation and analysis of soil-water conditions in the Great Plains and adjacent areas, central United States, 1951-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Zelt, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water recharge and consumptive-irrigation requirements in the Great Plains and adjacent areas largely depend upon an environment extrinsic to the ground-water system. This extrinsic environment, which includes climate, soils, and vegetation, determines the water demands of evapotranspiration, the availability of soil water to meet these demands, and the quantity of soil water remaining for potential ground-water recharge after these demands are met. The geographic extent of the Great Plains contributes to large regional differences among all elements composing the extrinsic environment, particularly the climatic factors. A soil-water simulation program, SWASP, which synthesizes selected climatic, soil, and vegetation factors, was used to simulate the regional soil-water conditions during 1951-80. The output from SWASP consists of several soil-water characteristics, including surface runoff, infiltration, consumptive water requirements, actual evapotranspiration, potential recharge or deep percolation under various conditions, consumptive irrigation requirements, and net fluxes from the ground-water system under irrigated conditions. Simulation results indicate that regional patterns of potential recharge, consumptive irrigation requirements, and net fluxes from the ground-water system under irrigated conditions are largely determined by evapotranspiration and precipitation. The local effects of soils and vegetation on potential recharge cause potential recharge to vary by more than 50 percent in some areas having similar climatic conditions.

  5. Geology of the Cape Mendocino, Eureka, Garberville, and Southwestern Part of the Hayfork 30 x 60 Minute Quadrangles and Adjacent Offshore Area, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Ellen, S.D.; Blake, M.C.; Jayko, Angela S.; Irwin, W.P.; Aalto, K.R.; Carver, G.A.; Clarke, S.H.; Barnes, J.B.; Cecil, J.D.; Cyr, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction These geologic maps and accompanying structure sections depict the geology and structure of much of northwestern California and the adjacent continental margin. The map area includes the Mendocino triple junction, which is the juncture of the North American continental plate with two plates of the Pacific ocean basin. The map area also encompasses major geographic and geologic provinces of northwestern California. The maps incorporate much previously unpublished geologic mapping done between 1980 and 1995, as well as published mapping done between about 1950 and 1978. To construct structure sections to mid-crustal depths, we integrate the surface geology with interpretations of crustal structure based on seismicity, gravity and aeromagnetic data, offshore structure, and seismic reflection and refraction data. In addition to describing major geologic and structural features of northwestern California, the geologic maps have the potential to address a number of societally relevant issues, including hazards from earthquakes, landslides, and floods and problems related to timber harvest, wildlife habitat, and changing land use. All of these topics will continue to be of interest in the region, as changing land uses and population density interact with natural conditions. In these interactions, it is critical that the policies and practices affecting man and the environment integrate an adequate understanding of the geology. This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (ceghmf.ps, ceghmf.pdf, ceghmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The

  6. Geology, hydrogeology, and potential of intrinsic bioremediation at the National Park Service Dockside II site and adjacent areas, Charleston, South Carolina, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, B.G.; Petkewich, M.D.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    A long history of industrial and commercial use of the National Park Service property and adjacent properties located in downtown Charleston, South Carolina, has caused extensive contamination of the shallow subsurface soils and water-table aquifer. The National Park Service property is located adjacent to a former manufactured-gas plant site, which is the major source of the contamination. Contamination of this shallow water-table aquifer is of concern because shallow ground water discharges to the Cooper River and contains contaminants, which may affect adjacent wildlife or human populations. The geology of the National Park Service property above the Ashley Formation of the Cooper Group consists of two Quaternary lithostratigraphic marine units, the Wando Formation and Holocene deposits, overlain by artificial fill. The Wando Formation overlies the Ashley Formation, a sandy calcareous clay, and consists of soft, organic clay overlain by gray sand. The Holocene deposits are composed of clayey to silty sand and soft organic-rich clay. The artificial fill, which was placed at the site to create dry land where salt marsh existed previously, is composed of sand, silt, and various scrap materials. The shallow hydrogeology of the National Park Service property overlying the Ashley Formation can be subdivided into two sandy aquifers separated by a leaky, black, organic-rich clay. The unconfined upper surficial aquifer is primarily artificial fill. The lower surficial aquifer consists of the Wando sand unit and is confined by the leaky organic-rich clay. Aquifer tests performed on the wells screened in these aquifers resulted in hydraulic conductivities from 0.1 to 10 feet per day for the upper surficial aquifer, and 16 feet per day for the lower surficial aquifer. Vertical hydraulic gradients at the site are typically low. A downward gradient from the upper surficial aquifer to the lower surficial aquifer occurs throughout most of the year. A brick-lined storm

  7. Creosote compounds in snails obtained from Pensacola Bay, Florida, near an onshore hazardous-waste site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Snails, Thais haemostoma, were collected from two areas offshore in Pensacola Bay, Florida, near an onshore hazardous-waste site. Tissue from the snails was extracted to isolate the lipophilic compounds and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Along with naturally occurring compounds, the snail tissue contained large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds, such as phenanthrene, acridine, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, and benzo[a]pyrene. Many of these compounds were characteristic of creosote contamination associated with the onshore hazardous-waste site.

  8. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s. Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area. Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late

  9. Comparing maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada produced by two different methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, James J.; Hufford, Gary L.; Daly, Christopher; Berg, Jared S.; Fleming, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada, produced by Oregon State University's Spatial Climate Analysis Service (SCAS) and the Alaska Geospatial Data Clearinghouse (AGDC), were analyzed. Because both sets of maps are generally available and in use by the community, there is a need to document differences between the processes and input data sets used by the two groups to produce their respective set of maps and to identify similarities and differences between the two sets of maps and possible reasons for the differences. These differences do not affect the observed large-scale patterns of seasonal and annual variability. Alaska is divided into interior and coastal zones, with consistent but different variability, separated by a transition region. The transition region has high interannual variability but low long-term mean variability. Both data sets support the four major ecosystems and ecosystem transition zone identified in our earlier work. Differences between the two sets of maps do occur, however, on the regional scale; they reflect differences in physiographic domains and in the treatment of these domains by the two groups (AGDC, SCAS). These differences also provide guidance for an improved observational network for Alaska. On the basis of validation with independent in situ data, we conclude that the data set produced by SCAS provides the best spatial coverage of Alaskan long-term mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation currently available. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  10. Turbines and terrestrial vertebrates: variation in tortoise survivorship between a wind energy facility and an adjacent undisturbed wildland area in the desert southwest (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Arundel, Terry; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David F.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18 year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  11. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA).

    PubMed

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Ennen, Joshua R; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R; Murphy, Mason O; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V; Price, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:25894273

  12. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R.; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  13. Consumption of unsafe food in the adjacent area of Hazaribag tannery campus and Buriganga River embankments of Bangladesh: heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Islam, G M Rabiul; Khan, Faysal Elahi; Hoque, Md Mozammel; Jolly, Yeasmin Nahar

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As in water, poultry meat, fish, vegetables, and rice plants obtained from the area adjacent to the Hazaribag tannery campus, Dhaka, Bangladesh, were estimated and compared with permissible levels established by the WHO and FAO and levels reported previously by other authors. The metal contents were in the following order according to the concentration in contaminated irrigation water: Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Mean concentrations of Cr, Pb, Hg, and As in irrigated water were above the permissible levels, whereas the results were below the permissible levels for Cd. The metal concentrations in poultry meat, fish, rice, and vegetables were in the following orders: Pb > Cr > Cd > Hg > As, Pb > Cr > Cd > As > Hg, Pb > As, and Cr > Pb > Cd > As > Hg, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in poultry meat, fish, rice, and vegetables were much higher than the permissible levels. The trends of weekly intake of heavy metals (WIMs) from poultry meat, fish, rice, and vegetables were as follows: Pb > Cr > Cd > Hg > As, Pb > Cr > Cd > As > Hg, Pb > As, and Cr > Pb > Cd > As > Hg, respectively. WIMs for all the metals were lower than the provisional maximum weekly intake recommended by WHO/FAO and USNAS.

  14. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA).

    PubMed

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Ennen, Joshua R; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R; Murphy, Mason O; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V; Price, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  15. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Liping; Lei, Kun; Nan, Bingxu

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination was investigated in concurrently sampled surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment of Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China. The total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 71.12 to 4255.43 ng/L in water, from 1969.95 to 11612.21 ng/L in SPM, and from 374.84 to 11588.85 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediment. Although the 2-3 ring PAHs were main PAH congeners in water and SPM, the 4-6 ring PAHs were also detected and their distribution was site-specific, indicating a very recent PAHs input around the area since they were hydrophobic. The PAHs pollution was identified as mixed combustion and petroleum sources. Based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD), the ecological risk in SPM from 82% stations was found to be higher obviously than that in water. The risk in water was basically ranked as medium, while the risk in SPM was ranked as high. Analysis with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that negative eco-risk occasionally occurred in about 50% stations, while negative eco-risk frequently occurred in about 3% stations only caused by Phenanthrene(Phe) and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene(DBA). Here freshwater acute effects data together with saltwater data were used for SSD model. And this method could quickly give the rational risk information, and achieved our objective that compared the spatial difference of risk levels among three compartments. The results confirmed that the use of freshwater acute effects data from the ECOTOX database together with saltwater effects data is acceptable for risk assessment purposes in estuary. PMID:26855211

  16. 43 CFR 3164.1 - Onshore Oil and Gas Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Onshore Oil and Gas Orders. 3164.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS Special Provisions § 3164.1 Onshore Oil and Gas Orders. (a) The Director is authorized to issue Onshore Oil and...

  17. 43 CFR 3164.1 - Onshore Oil and Gas Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Onshore Oil and Gas Orders. 3164.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS Special Provisions § 3164.1 Onshore Oil and Gas Orders. (a) The Director is authorized to issue Onshore Oil and...

  18. 43 CFR 3164.1 - Onshore Oil and Gas Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Onshore Oil and Gas Orders. 3164.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS Special Provisions § 3164.1 Onshore Oil and Gas Orders. (a) The Director is authorized to issue Onshore Oil and...

  19. Surface water discharges from onshore stripper wells.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-01-16

    Under current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules, small onshore oil producers are allowed to discharge produced water to surface waters with approval from state agencies; but small onshore gas producers, however, are prohibited from discharging produced water to surface waters. The purpose of this report is to identify those states that allow surface water discharges from small onshore oil operations and to summarize the types of permitting controls they use. It is intended that the findings of this report will serve as a rationale to encourage the EPA to revise its rules and to remove the prohibition on surface water discharges from small gas operations.

  20. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Region Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative, the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, the San Antonio River Authority, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, Texas Parks and Wildlife, the Guadalupe Blanco River Authority, and the San Antonio Water System, evaluated the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in and adjacent to the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. By removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice, the hydrology in the watershed might change. Using a simplified mass balance approach of the hydrologic cycle, the incoming rainfall was distributed to surface water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. After hydrologic data were collected in adjacent watersheds for 3 years, brush management occurred on the treatment watershed while the reference watershed was left in its original condition. Hydrologic data were collected for another 6 years. Hydrologic data include rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured but potential groundwater recharge was calculated using a simplified mass balance approach. The resulting hydrologic datasets were examined for differences between the watersheds and between pre- and post-treatment periods to assess the effects of brush management. The streamflow to rainfall relation (expressed as event unit runoff to event rainfall relation) did not change between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods. The daily evapotranspiration rates at the reference watershed and treatment watershed sites exhibited a seasonal cycle during the pre- and post-treatment periods, with intra- and interannual variability. Statistical analyses indicate the mean

  1. Temporal and spatial variations of abundance of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Chai, Chao; Wang, Jifang; Zhang, Ling; Cen, Jingyi; Lu, Songhui

    2016-10-01

    Three surveys were carried out in Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in May, August, and November, 2013, to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of abundance of phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus (PE-rich SYN) and phycocyanin-rich Synechococcus (PC-rich SYN). The effects of environmental factors on the alternation of the different Synechococcus groups were also elucidated. PE-rich SYN was detected in three surveys, whereas PC-rich SYN was detected in May and August, but not in November. The highest abundances of PE-rich SYN and PC-rich SYN were recorded in August and May, with mean values of 74.17×103 and 189.92×103 cells mL-1, respectively. From May to November, the relative abundance of PE-rich SYN increased, whereas that of PC-rich SYN declined. PE-rich and PC-rich SYN presented similar horizontal distributions with high abundance in the southern estuary in May, and in the western estuary in August. The abundances of PE-rich and PC-rich SYN were high at 27-32°C and salinity of 10-20. PC-rich SYN was not detected at < 24°C, and PC:PE-rich SYN decreased in abundance with salinity increase. When less than 20 mg L-1, suspended particulate matter (SPM) was helpful for Synechococcus growth. PE-rich SYN decreased in abundance when the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen increased in May and November, and the concentration of phosphate increased in November. However, PC-rich SYN abundance and nutrients showed no correlation. Principal component analysis and regression analysis indicated that PE-rich SYN significantly correlated with the principal components that were affected by environmental factors.

  2. Dependence of the cyclization of branched tetraethers (CBT) on soil moisture in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the adjacent areas: implications for palaeorainfall reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Liu, W.; Zhang, C. L.

    2014-06-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) have been show promising for continental paleotemperature studies in loess-paleosol sequences (LPSs). Thus far, however, little is known about the effect of soil moisture on their distributions on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). In this study, the relationships between environmental variables and the cyclization of bGDGTs (the so called CBT index) were investigated in a comprehensive set of surface soils in the CLP and its adjacent arid/semi-arid areas. We find that CBT correlates best with soil water content (SWC) or mean annual precipitation (MAP) for the total sample set. Particularly for the CLP soils, there is a significant positive relationship between CBT and MAP (CBT = -0.0021 · MAP + 1.7, n = 37, R2 = 0.87; MAP range: 210-680 mm). This indicates that CBT is mainly controlled by soil moisture in the alkalescent soils (pH > 7) in arid/semi-arid regions, where it is not sensitive to soil pH. Therefore, we suggest that CBT can potentially be used as a palaeorainfall proxy on the CLP. According to the preliminary CBT-MAP relationship for modern CLP soils, palaeorainfall history was reconstructed from three LPSs (Yuanbao, Lantian, and Mangshan) with published bGDGT data spanning the past 70 ka. The CBT-derived MAP records of the three sites consistently show precession-driven variations resembling the speleothem δ18O monsoon record, and are also in general accord with the fluctuations of the respective magnetic susceptibility (MS) record, supporting CBT as a reasonable proxy for palaeorainfall reconstruction in LPS studies. Moreover, the comparison of CBT-derived MAP and bGDGT-derived temperature may enable us to further assess the relative timing and magnitude of hydrological and thermal changes on the CLP, independent of chronology.

  3. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control. PMID:26850034

  4. [Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area, China ].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-wen; Ma, Ying-qun; Zhao, Yan-min; Shi, Yao

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the pollution level of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area. The contents and spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ph and Zn in surface water, suspended solids and surface sediments were analyzed respectively. The integrated pollution index and geoaccumulation index were used to evaluate the contamination degree of heavy metals in surface water and surface sediments respectively. The results indicated that the contents of heavy metals in surface water was in the order of Pb < Cu < Cd < Cr < As < Zn. The heavy metal contents in surface water increased from river to sea. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface water of the typical domestic estuary in China, the overall contents of heavy metals in surface water were at a higher level. The contents of heavy metals in suspended solids was in the order of Cd < Cu < As < Cr

  5. Digital depth horizon compilations of the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent Arctic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Data have been digitized and combined to create four detailed depth horizon grids spanning the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent offshore areas. These map horizon compilations were created to aid in petroleum system modeling and related studies. Topography/bathymetry is extracted from a recent Arctic compilation of global onshore DEM and satellite altimetry and ship soundings offshore. The Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU), the top of the Triassic Shublik Formation, and the pre-Carboniferous acoustic basement horizon grids are created from numerous seismic studies, drill hole information, and interpolation. These horizons were selected because they mark critical times in the geologic evolution of the region as it relates to petroleum. The various horizons clearly show the major tectonic elements of this region including the Brooks Range, Colville Trough, Barrow Arch, Hanna Trough, Chukchi Platform, Nuwuk Basin, Kaktovik Basin, and Canada Basin. The gridded data are available in a variety of data formats for use in regional studies.

  6. Geologic framework of pre-Cretaceous rocks in the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and adjacent areas, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condon, Steven M.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a discussion and summary of Jurassic and older rocks in the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and adjacent areas, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, and is based on analysis of geophysical logs and observations of outcrops. The Reservation, which is located in the northern San Juan Basin, has been the site of deposition of sediments for much of the Phanerozoic. Geologic times represented on the Reservation are the Precambrian, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary. Rocks of Ordovician and Silurian age have not been reported in this region. Thicknesses of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks range from about 750 feet (229 meters) on the Archuleta arch, east of the Reservation, to more than 8,300 feet (2,530 meters) just northwest of the Reservation. About 5,500 feet (1,676 meters) of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks occur in the central part of the Reservation, near Ignacio. At Ignacio the top of the Jurassic lies at a depth of 7,600 feet (2,316 meters) below the surface, which is composed of Tertiary rocks. As much as 2,500 feet (762 meters) of Tertiary rocks occur in the area. More than 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) of Cretaceous and younger rocks, and 15,600 feet (4,755 meters) of all Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks occur in the vicinity of the Reservation. In the early Paleozoic the area that includes the Southern Ute Reservation was on the stable western shelf of the craton. During this time sediments that compose the following shallow-marine clastic and carbonate rocks were deposited: the Upper Cambrian Ignacio Quartzite (0-150 feet; 0-46 meters), Upper Devonian Elbert Formation (50-200 feet; 15-61 meters), Upper Devonian Ouray Limestone (10-75 feet; 3-23 meters), and Mississippian Leadville Limestone (0-250 feet; 0-76 meters). Mixed carbonate and clastic deposition, which was punctuated by a unique episode of deposition of evaporite sediments, continued through

  7. Time-dependent onshore tsunami response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apotsos, Alex; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    While bulk measures of the onshore impact of a tsunami, including the maximum run-up elevation and inundation distance, are important for hazard planning, the temporal evolution of the onshore flow dynamics likely controls the extent of the onshore destruction and the erosion and deposition of sediment that occurs. However, the time-varying dynamics of actual tsunamis are even more difficult to measure in situ than the bulk parameters. Here, a numerical model based on the non-linear shallow water equations is used to examine the effects variations in the wave characteristics, bed slope, and bottom roughness have on the temporal evolution of the onshore flow. Model results indicate that the onshore flow dynamics vary significantly over the parameter space examined. For example, the flow dynamics over steep, smooth morphologies tend to be temporally symmetric, with similar magnitude velocities generated during the run-up and run-down phases of inundation. Conversely, on shallow, rough onshore topographies the flow dynamics tend to be temporally skewed toward the run-down phase of inundation, with the magnitude of the flow velocities during run-up and run-down being significantly different. Furthermore, for near-breaking tsunami waves inundating over steep topography, the flow velocity tends to accelerate almost instantaneously to a maximum and then decrease monotonically. Conversely, when very long waves inundate over shallow topography, the flow accelerates more slowly and can remain steady for a period of time before beginning to decelerate. These results indicate that a single set of assumptions concerning the onshore flow dynamics cannot be applied to all tsunamis, and site specific analyses may be required.

  8. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s. Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area. Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late

  9. Revised hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in the northern coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.; Gill, Harold E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework for the Floridan aquifer system has been revised for eight northern coastal counties in Georgia and five coastal counties in South Carolina by incorporating new borehole geophysical and flowmeter log data collected during previous investigations. Selected well logs were compiled and analyzed to determine the vertical and horizontal continuity of permeable zones that make up the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and to define more precisely the thickness of confining beds that separate these aquifers. The updated framework generally conforms to the original framework established by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1980s except for adjustments made to the internal boundaries of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and the individual permeable zones that compose these aquifers. The revised boundaries of the Floridan aquifer system were mapped by taking into account results from local studies and regional correlations of geologic and hydrogeologic units. Because the revised framework does not match the previous regional framework along all edges, additional work will be needed to expand the framework into adjacent areas. The Floridan aquifer system in the northern coastal region of Georgia and parts of South Carolina can be divided into the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, which are separated by a middle confining unit of relatively lower permeability. The Upper Floridan aquifer includes permeable and hydraulically connected carbonate rocks of Oligocene and upper Eocene age that represent the most transmissive part of the aquifer system. The middle confining unit consists of low permeability carbonate rocks that lie within the lower part of the upper Eocene in Beaufort and Jasper Counties, South Carolina, and within the upper to middle parts of the middle Eocene elsewhere. Locally, the middle confining unit contains thin zones that have moderate to high permeability and can produce water to wells that tap them. The Lower Floridan aquifer

  10. A fluid flow in the pipe junction with 6,25 cross-section area ratio. the influence of the adjacent branch angle on the pipe junction characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štigler, J.; Šperka, O.; Klas, R.

    2012-11-01

    This article deals with a fluid flow in the pipe junction. The comparison of the pipe junction characteristics obtained from the experiment with the pipe junction characteristics obtained from the numerical modelling using the CFD software will be discussed in this article. All measurements are done for the case of 50 mm diameter of the straight pipe and 20 mm diameter of the adjacent branch with five different angles. There are six possible flow configurations for this pipe junction. Three of them are cases of the flow combination and three of them are cases of the flow division. Only results for the flow combination are presented in this paper.

  11. 43 CFR 3164.1 - Onshore Oil and Gas Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Onshore Oil and Gas Orders. 3164.1 Section 3164.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS Special Provisions § 3164.1 Onshore Oil and Gas Orders....

  12. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part II. Water temperature and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.; Davis, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Geothermal reconnaissance techniques have identified five areas in Utah County warranting further investigation for low-temperature geothermal resources. One area in northern Utah Valley is along Utah Lake fault zone and includes Saratoga Hot Springs. Water temperatures within this area range from 21 to 43/sup 0/C. Common ion analyses as well as B and Li concentrations indicate waters sampled in this area are anomalous when compared to other samples from the same aquifer. Two other areas in southern Utah Valley also coincide with the Utah Lake fault zone. Common ion analyses, trace element concentrations, and C1/HCO/sub 3/ ratios distinguish these areas from all other waters in this valley. Temperatures within these southern areas range from 21 to 32/sup 0/C. All three thermal areas are possibly the result of deep circulation of meteoric water being warmed and subsequently migrating upward within the Utah Lake fault zone. The Castilla Hot Springs area has been expanded by this study to include a spring located 3 mi further up Spanish Fork Canyon near the Thistle earthflow. A temperature of 50/sup 0/C was recorded for this spring and chemistry is similar to Castilla. In Goshen Valley, the fifth geothermal area identified, measured temperatures range from 20 to 27/sup 0/C for some wells and springs. Chemical analyses, however, do not discern the location of low-temperature geothermal reservoirs. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Valley-fill aquifers are modest resources within the area, as indicated by the common practice of completing supply wells in the underlying bedrock rather than the overlying glacial deposits. Groundwater turbidity problems curtail use of the resource. However, additional groundwater resources have been identified by test drilling, and there are remaining untested areas. New groundwater supplies that stress localized aquifer areas will alter the groundwater flow system. Considerations include potential water-quality degradation from nearby land use(s) and, where withdrawals induce infiltration of surface-water, balancing withdrawals with flow requirements for downstream users or for maintenance of stream ecological health.

  14. K-Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar ages of dikes emplaced in the onshore basement of the Santos Basin, Resende area, SE Brazil: implications for the south Atlantic opening and Tertiary reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Eliane; Heilbron, Monica; Vasconcelos, Paulo M.; de Morisson Valeriano, Cláudio; César Horta de Almeida, Júlio; Teixeira, Wilson; Thomaz Filho, Antonio

    2005-03-01

    New K-Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar data of tholeiitic and alkaline dike swarms from the onshore basement of the Santos Basin (SE Brazil) reveal Mesozoic and Tertiary magmatic pulses. The tholeiitic rocks (basalt, dolerite, and microgabbro) display high TiO 2 contents (average 3.65 wt%) and comprise two magmatic groups. The NW-oriented samples of Group A have (La/Yb) N ratios between 15 and 32.3 and range in age from 192.9±2.2 to 160.9±1.9 Ma. The NNW-NNE Group B samples, with (La/Yb) N ratios between 7 and 16, range from 148.3±3 to 133.9±0.5 Ma. The alkaline rocks (syenite, trachyte, phonolite, alkaline basalts, and lamprophyre) display intermediate-K contents and comprise dikes, plugs, and stocks. Ages of approximately 82 Ma were obtained for the lamprophyre dikes, 70 Ma for the syenite plutons, and 64-59 Ma for felsic dikes. Because Jurassic-Early Cretaceous basic dikes have not been reported in SE Brazil, we might speculate that, during the emplacement of Group A dikes, extensional stresses were active in the region before the opening of the south Atlantic Ocean and coeval with the Karoo magmatism described in South Africa. Group B dikes yield ages compatible with those obtained for Serra Geral and Ponta Grossa magmatism in the Paraná Basin and are directly related to the breakup of western Gondwana. Alkaline magmatism is associated with several tectonic episodes that postdate the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and related to the upwelling of the Trindade plume and the generation of Tertiary basins southeast of Brazil. In the studied region, alkaline magmatism can be subdivided in two episodes: the first one represented by lamprophyre dykes of approximately 82 Ma and the second comprised of felsic alkaline stocks of approximately 70 Ma and associated dikes ranging from 64 to 59 Ma.

  15. Notes on the geology of Tibet and adjacent areas; report of the American plate tectonics delegation to the People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bally, A.W.; Allen, C.R.; Geyer, R.B.; Hamilton, W.B.; Hopson, C.A.; Molnar, P.H.; Oliver, J.E.; Opdyke, N.D.; Plafker, George; Wu, F.T.

    1980-01-01

    Mean water levels in wells across Georgia were from 3.03 feet higher to 11.67 feet lower in 1979 than in 1978, and in some areas were the lowest on record. Water levels in the principal artesian aquifer underwent a long-term decline during the period 1970-79. In some areas water levels dropped more than 10 feet. Wells tapping the Clayton Limestone in the Albany area showed a long-term decline during the period 1970-79, and in some wells water levels dropped more than 20 feet. Water levels in the Cretaceous aquifer system showed little fluctuation during 1979. In the Piedmont area mean water levels remained the same to 4 feet higher in 1979 than in 1978 and showed no long-term trend. (USGS)

  16. Multiple representations of body movements in mesial area 6 and the adjacent cingulate cortex: an intracortical microstimulation study in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Luppino, G; Matelli, M; Camarda, R M; Gallese, V; Rizzolatti, G

    1991-09-22

    The mesial agranular frontal cortex that lies rostral to area 4 (F1) is formed by two distinct cytoarchitectonic areas: F3, located caudally, and F6, located rostrally. In the present experiments we investigated the organization of F3 and F6 by observing the motor responses evoked by their intracortical electrical microstimulation. Our main purpose was to find out whether the cytoarchitectonic subdivision of the mesial agranular frontal cortex into two areas has a physiological counterpart. The result showed that F3 (the caudal area) contains a complete motor representation with hindlimb movements located caudally, forelimb movements located centrally, and orofacial movements located rostrally. The great majority of limb movements involved proximal joints. With respect to F1, F3 showed the following functional characteristics: (1) lack of segregation between proximal and distal movements, (2) larger percentage of complex movements, and (3) higher excitability threshold. Movements were more difficult to elicit from F6 (the rostral area) than from F3. However, by using a longer stimulus train duration (100 ms) 39.3% of tested sites produced body movements. This percentage increased (50.5%) when the electrical stimulation was applied during monkey natural movements instead of when the monkey was still in its chair. Most of the evoked movements concerned the forelimb. More rarely, neck and upper face movements were observed. Unlike F1 and F3 where most movements were fast, slow movements were frequently observed with stimulation of F6. Many of them mimicked natural movements of the animal. Eye movements were evoked from F7 (superior area 6) but not from F6. An additional motor representation was found in the dorsocaudal part of area 24 (24d). This area is topographically organized with a forelimb representation located caudally and ventrally and a hindlimb representation located rostrally and dorsally. The excitability threshold of area 24d is higher than that of F1

  17. Water information bulletin No. 30: geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 11. Geological, hydrological, geochemical and geophysical investigations of the Nampa-Caldwell and adjacent areas, southwestern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.C.

    1981-12-01

    The area under study included approximately 925 sq km (357 sq mi) of the Nampa-Caldwell portion of Canyon County, an area within the central portion of the western Snake River Plain immediately west of Boise, Idaho. Geologic mapping, hydrologic, geochemical, geophysical, including detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, were run to acquire needed data. In addition, existing magnetotelluric and reflection seismic data were purchased and reinterpreted in light of newly acquired data.

  18. Patterns of Distribution of Macro-fauna in Different Types of Estuarine, Soft Sediment Habitats Adjacent to Urban and Non-urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegarth, M.; Hoskin, M.

    2001-02-01

    Urban development typically creates a large number of potentially interacting disturbances that may cause impacts on assemblages of animals and plans in estuarine habitats. We tested predictions from the general model that intertidal areas exposed to different types of disturbances have different types of assemblages of benthic macrofauna. Different parts of the Port Hacking Estuary (New South Wales, Australia) are exposed to varying degrees of disturbance by human activities. We predicted that the average structure of assemblages of intertidal animals, and patterns of variability would differ between urban and non-urban areas of Port Hacking. Consistent with previous observations from the literature, there were differences in average structure between urban and non-urban sandy areas. Qualitative differences between abundances of individual taxa in urban and non-urban areas were generally not consistent with previous observations. Differences between assemblages in urban and non-urban areas were not observed in muddy sediments, nor in sediments among mangroves and seagrass. No significant differences in variability was observed between urban and non-urban areas. Two general models may be proposed to explain the observed differences in response to urbanization in different habitats: (1) animals are exposed to different levels or combinations of disturbances in different habitats; or (2) assemblages of animals differ in sensitivity to disturbances among habitats.

  19. Onshore seismic amplifications due to bathymetric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.; Carbajal-Romero, M.; Flores-Guzmán, N.; Olivera-Villaseñor, E.; Kryvko, A.

    2016-08-01

    We perform numerical calculations for onshore seismic amplifications, taking into consideration the effect of bathymetric features on the propagation of seismic movements. To this end, the boundary element method is applied. Boundary elements are employed to irradiate waves and, consequently, force densities can be obtained for each boundary element. From this assumption, Huygens’ principle is applied, and since the diffracted waves are built at the boundary from which they are radiated, this idea is equivalent to Somigliana’s representation theorem. The application of boundary conditions leads to a linear system being obtained (Fredholm integral equations). Several numerical models are analyzed, with the first one being used to verify the proposed formulation, and the others being used to estimate onshore seismic amplifications due to the presence of bathymetric features. The results obtained show that compressional waves (P-waves) generate onshore seismic amplifications that can vary from 1.2 to 5.2 times the amplitude of the incident wave. On the other hand, the shear waves (S-waves) can cause seismic amplifications of up to 4.0 times the incident wave. Furthermore, an important result is that in most cases the highest seismic amplifications from an offshore earthquake are located on the shoreline and not offshore, despite the seafloor configuration. Moreover, the influence of the incident angle of seismic waves on the seismic amplifications is highlighted.

  20. Reflectivity patterns in the Variscan mountain belts and adjacent areas: an attempt for a pattern recognition and correlation to tectonic units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, R.; Wever, Th.; Sadowiak, P.; Dekorp Research Group

    1990-02-01

    The Seismic reflection profiles of DEKORP (DEutsches KOntinentales ReflexionsSeismisches Programm) in the Federal Republic of Germany to date have been limited to areas of the Variscan orogeny. Nevertheless, the character of their reflections differs considerably and may be correlated to certain Variscan and post-Variscan developments. Lower crust lamellae develop in areas of high heat flow, mostly associated with post-Variscan extensional processes; "crocodile" and nappe tectonics are best preserved in the cores and at the flanks of older massifs which were incorporated into the Variscan orogeny. So far poor reflectivity has been observed only in the area of the London-Brabant Massif which was not involved in any of the Phanerozoic orogenies.

  1. Seismic reflection characteristics of glacial and glacimarine sediment in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent fjords

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glaciation together with tectonism have been dominant factors affecting sedimentation in the Gulf of Alaska area from at least the late Miocene throughout the Quaternary. The effects of tectonism are apparent in high mountains that border the gulf, raised terraces of Middleton Island and the eastern gulf coastal zone, and numerous active faults and related earthquakes. Glacial evidence includes magnificent glaciers and their onshore deposits, spectacular fjords, large sea valleys incised in the continental shelf, submarine morainal ridges at mouths of bays and sea valleys, and thick glacimarine sedimentary sequences (diamicts) that are exposed onshore and at the sea floor along the outer shelf. Seismic-reflection profiling and sampling of the uppermost marine sedimentary sequences in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent fjords and bays have allowed identification of three discrete glacially related stratigraphic units. These units were delineated on the basis of seismic signature, geometry, physiographic location, stratigraphic position, and sedimentologic characteristics. The oldest unit, a Quaternary diamict, is portrayed on seismic profiles by irregular, discontinuous reflections. This unit probably includes till, outwash and glacimarine sediment. A geographically restricted unit, one incorporating Holocene end moraines at bay mouths and associated with some sea valleys, consists of jumbled masses of discontinuous reflections and very irregular surface morphology. The youngest unit, a blanket of Holocene sand to clayey silt prograding as a sediment wedge across the shelf, contains nearly horizontal, parallel reflections except where disrupted by mass movement. Although seismic-reflection data alone cannot provide definitive proof of the presence of glacial sediment, when combined with sea-floor sampling, seismic profiling is a powerful tool for determining the continuity of marine sedimentary units and relationships to past and modern glaciers. ?? 1989.

  2. Digital geologic map data for the Ozark National Scenic Riverways and adjacent areas along the Current River and Jacks Fork, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Harrison, Richard W.; Weems, Robert E.

    2016-09-23

    The geology of the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) in southern Missouri has been mapped at 1:24,000 scale. This endeavor was achieved through the combined efforts of U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri Geological Survey individual quadrangle mapping and additional fieldwork by the authors of this report. Geologic data covering the area of the ONSR and a 1-mile (1.6-kilometer) buffer zone surrounding the park, as well as geologic data from a few key adjoining areas, have been compiled into a single, seamless geographic information system database. The intent is to provide base geologic information for natural science research and land management in the park and surrounding areas. The data are served online at ScienceBase (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/), where they are provided in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) file geodatabase format, and are accompanied by metadata files. These data can be accessed at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7CJ8BKB. Additional detailed geologic information about the ONSR and surrounding areas is available in the separate 1:24,000-scale quadrangle maps and in a 1:100,000-scale map and report on the regional geology.

  3. Mapping Evapotranspiration Units in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Laczniak, Randell J.; Moreo, Michael T.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area. One common method used throughout the southwestern United States is to estimate ground-water discharge from evapotranspiration (ET). ET is a process by which water from the Earth's surface is transferred to the atmosphere. The volume of water lost to the atmosphere by ET can be computed as the product of the ET rate and the acreage of vegetation, open water, and moist soil through which ET occurs. The procedure used in the study groups areas of similar vegetation, water, and soil conditions into different ET units, assigns an average annual ET rate to each unit, and computes annual ET from each ET unit within the outer extent of potential areas of ground-water discharge. Data sets and the procedures used to delineate the ET-unit map used to estimate ground-water discharge from the study area and a qualitative assessment of the accuracy of the map are described in this report.

  4. Geologic map of the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone in the vicinity of Lake Pillsbury and adjacent areas of Mendocino, Lake, and Glenn Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlin, Henry N.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.; Sawyer, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    The Lake Pillsbury area lies in the eastern part of the northern California Coast Ranges, along the east side of the transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates (fig. 1). The Bartlett Springs Fault Zone is a northwest-trending zone of faulting associated with this eastern part of the transform boundary. It is presently active, based on surface creep (Svarc and others, 2008), geomorphic expression, offset of Holocene units (Lienkaemper and Brown, 2009), and microseismicity (Bolt and Oakeshott, 1982; Dehlinger and Bolt, 1984; DePolo and Ohlin, 1984). Faults associated with the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone at Lake Pillsbury are steeply dipping and offset older low to steeply dipping faults separating folded and imbricated Mesozoic terranes of the Franciscan Complex and interleaved rocks of the Coast Range Ophiolite and Great Valley Sequence. Parts of this area were mapped in the late 1970s and 1980s by several investigators who were focused on structural relations in the Franciscan Complex (Lehman, 1978; Jordan, 1975; Layman, 1977; Etter, 1979). In the 1980s the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped a large part of the area as part of a mineral resource appraisal of two U.S. Forest Service Roadless areas. For evaluating mineral resource potential, the USGS mapping was published at a scale of 1:62,500 as a generalized geologic summary map without a topographic base (Ohlin and others, 1983; Ohlin and Spear, 1984). The previously unpublished mapping with topographic base is presented here at a scale of 1:30,000, compiled with other mapping in the vicinity of Lake Pillsbury. The mapping provides a geologic framework for ongoing investigations to evaluate potential earthquake hazards and structure of the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone. This geologic map includes part of Mendocino National Forest (the Elk Creek Roadless Area) in Mendocino, Glenn, and Lake Counties and is traversed by several U.S. Forest Service Routes, including M1 and M6 (fig. 2). The study

  5. Estimation of groundwater use for a groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin and adjacent areas, 1864-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Luukkonen, Carol L.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, at the request of Congress, is assessing the availability and use of the Nation's water resources to help characterize how much water is available now, how water availability is changing, and how much water can be expected to be available in the future. The Great Lakes Basin Pilot project of the U.S. Geological Survey national assessment of water availability and use focused on the Great Lakes Basin and included detailed studies of the processes governing water availability in the Great Lakes Basin. One of these studies included the development of a groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin. This report describes the compilation and estimation of the groundwater withdrawals in those areas in Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois that were needed for the Lake Michigan Basin study groundwater-flow model. These data were aggregated for 12 model time intervals spanning 1864 to 2005 and were summarized by model area, model subregion, category of water use, aquifer system, aquifer type, and hydrogeologic unit model layer. The types and availability of information on groundwater withdrawals vary considerably among states because water-use programs often differ in the types of data collected and in the methods and frequency of data collection. As a consequence, the methods used to estimate and verify the data also vary. Additionally, because of the different sources of data and different terminologies applied for the purposes of this report, the water-use data published in this report may differ from water-use data presented in other reports. These data represent only a partial estimate of groundwater use in each state because estimates were compiled only for areas in Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois within the Lake Michigan Basin model area. Groundwater-withdrawal data were compiled for both nearfield and farfield model areas in Wisconsin and Illinois, whereas these data were compiled primarily for the nearfield model

  6. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of groundwater resources in Deep Creek Valley and adjacent areas, Juab and Tooele Counties, Utah, and Elko and White Pine Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.

    2015-09-18

    Water-level altitude contours and groundwater ages indicate the potential for a long flow path from southwest to northeast between northern Spring and Deep Creek Valleys through Tippett Valley. Although information gathered during this study is insufficient to conclude whether or not groundwater travels along this interbasin flow path, dissolved sulfate and chloride data indicate that a small fraction of the lower altitude, northern Deep Creek Valley discharge may be sourced from these areas. Despite the uncertainty due to limited data collection points, a hydraulic connection between northern Spring Valley, Tippett Valley, and Deep Creek Valley appears likely, and potential regional effects resulting from future groundwater withdrawals in northern Spring Valley warrant ongoing monitoring of groundwater levels across this area.

  7. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Chlorophyll-a in the Adjacent Sea Area of the Yangtze River Estuary Influenced by Yangtze River Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Hong; Jin, Jiaxin; Zhang, Xiuying; Lu, Xuehe; Wang, Yueqi

    2015-01-01

    Carrying abundant nutrition, terrigenous freshwater has a great impact on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal waters. The present study analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under the influence of discharge from the Yangtze River, based on remotely sensed Chl-a concentrations. The study area was initially zoned to quantitatively investigate the spatial variation patterns of Chl-a. Then, the temporal variation of Chl-a in each zone was simulated by a sinusoidal curve model. The results showed that in the inshore waters, the terrigenous discharge was the predominant driving force determining the pattern of Chl-a, which brings the risk of red tide disasters; while in the open sea areas, Chl-a was mainly affected by meteorological factors. Furthermore, a diversity of spatial and temporal variations of Chl-a existed based on the degree of influences from discharge. The diluted water extended from inshore to the east of Jeju Island. This process affected the Chl-a concentration flowing through the area, and had a potential impact on the marine environment. The Chl-a from September to November showed an obvious response to the discharge from July to September with a lag of 1 to 2 months. PMID:26006121

  8. Irrigated Acreage Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welborn, Toby L.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate delineations of irrigated acreage are needed for the development of water-use estimates and in determining water-budget calculations for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study. Irrigated acreage is estimated routinely for only a few basins in the study area. Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper platforms were used to delineate irrigated acreage on a field-by-field basis for the entire study area. Six hundred and forty-three fields were delineated. The water source, irrigation system, crop type, and field activity for 2005 were identified and verified through field reconnaissance. These data were integrated in a geodatabase and analyzed to develop estimates of irrigated acreage for the 2000, 2002, and 2005 growing seasons by hydrographic area and subbasin. Estimated average annual potential evapotranspiration and average annual precipitation also were estimated for each field.The geodatabase was analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of field locations, the total amount of irrigated acreage by potential irrigation water source, by irrigation system, and by crop type. Irrigated acreage in 2005 totaled nearly 32,000 acres ranging from less than 200 acres in Butte, Cave, Jakes, Long, and Tippett Valleys to 9,300 acres in Snake Valley. Irrigated acreage increased about 20 percent between 2000 and 2005 and increased the most in Snake and White River Valleys. Ground-water supplies as much as 80 percent of irrigation water during dry years. Almost 90 percent of the irrigated acreage was planted with alfalfa.

  9. 3D crustal seismic velocity model for the Gulf of Cadiz and adjacent areas (SW Iberia margin) based on seismic reflection and refraction profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Lucía; Cantavella, Juan Vicente; Barco, Jaime; Carranza, Marta; Burforn, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic margin of the SW Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco has been subject of study during the last 30 years. Many seismic reflection and refraction profiles have been carried out offshore, providing detailed information about the crustal structure of the main seafloor tectonic domains in the region, from the South Portuguese Zone and the Gulf of Cadiz to the Abyssal Plains and the Josephine Seamount. The interest to obtain a detailed and realistic velocity model for this area, integrating the available data from these studies, is clear, mainly to improve real-time earthquake hypocentral location and for tsunami and earthquake early warning. Since currently real-time seismic location tools allow the implementation of 3D velocity models, we aim to generate a full 3D crustal model. For this purpose we have reviewed more than 50 profiles obtained in different seismic surveys, from 1980 to 2008. Data from the most relevant and reliable 2D seismic velocity published profiles were retrieved. We first generated a Moho depth map of the studied area (latitude 32°N - 41°N and longitude 15°W - 5°W) by extracting Moho depths along each digitized profile with a 10 km spacing, and then interpolating this dataset using ordinary kriging method and generating the contour isodepth map. Then, a 3D crustal velocity model has been obtained. Selected vertical sections at different distances along each profile were considered to retrieve P-wave velocity values at each interface in order to reproduce the geometry and the velocity gradient within each layer. A double linear interpolation, both in distance and depth, with sampling rates of 10 km and 1 km respectively, was carried out to generate a (latitude, longitude, depth, velocity) matrix. This database of all the profiles was interpolated to obtain the P-wave velocity distribution map every kilometer of depth. The new 3D velocity model has been integrated in NonLinLoc location program to relocate several representative

  10. The localized environmental degradation of protected areas adjacent to bird feeding stations: a case study of the Australian brush-turkey Alectura lathami.

    PubMed

    Warnken, Jan; Hodgkison, Simon; Wild, Clyde; Jones, Darryl

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the potential for wildlife feeding to artificially increase population densities of the Australian brush-turkey, Alectura lathami and assessed the indirect adverse effects that this may have on surrounding forest floor vegetation. Census counts and observations of feeding activity conducted in recreation areas of Australia's Gold Coast hinterland confirmed that brush-turkey population densities were significantly elevated by the provision of food by humans. Brush-turkey densities were high at sites where birds are actively fed, moderate at sites where birds feed opportunistically and low at sites where humans have negligible impact on local food availability. Brush-turkeys caused significant environmental impact at sites where their population densities have been substantially elevated by active feeding. Across all sites, increases in brush-turkey density were accompanied by a significant decline in ground cover, leaf litter weight, seed density and seedling density. Natural environmental variables such as gradient, vegetation type and canopy cover did not explain the observed impacts. The impacts were consistent with those described in trampling studies and suggest that at high density, even small animals can have significant trampling impacts on their local environment. This study demonstrates that wildlife feeding can have detrimental impacts on the integrity of local environments and recommends greater consideration of small animals and their potential indirect impacts when regulating wildlife feeding in National Parks and other nature conservation areas.

  11. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts.

  12. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

  13. The localized environmental degradation of protected areas adjacent to bird feeding stations: a case study of the Australian brush-turkey Alectura lathami.

    PubMed

    Warnken, Jan; Hodgkison, Simon; Wild, Clyde; Jones, Darryl

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the potential for wildlife feeding to artificially increase population densities of the Australian brush-turkey, Alectura lathami and assessed the indirect adverse effects that this may have on surrounding forest floor vegetation. Census counts and observations of feeding activity conducted in recreation areas of Australia's Gold Coast hinterland confirmed that brush-turkey population densities were significantly elevated by the provision of food by humans. Brush-turkey densities were high at sites where birds are actively fed, moderate at sites where birds feed opportunistically and low at sites where humans have negligible impact on local food availability. Brush-turkeys caused significant environmental impact at sites where their population densities have been substantially elevated by active feeding. Across all sites, increases in brush-turkey density were accompanied by a significant decline in ground cover, leaf litter weight, seed density and seedling density. Natural environmental variables such as gradient, vegetation type and canopy cover did not explain the observed impacts. The impacts were consistent with those described in trampling studies and suggest that at high density, even small animals can have significant trampling impacts on their local environment. This study demonstrates that wildlife feeding can have detrimental impacts on the integrity of local environments and recommends greater consideration of small animals and their potential indirect impacts when regulating wildlife feeding in National Parks and other nature conservation areas. PMID:15160737

  14. Body condition of the deep water demersal resources at two adjacent oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean and the influence of the environmental features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, L.; Moranta, J.; Abelló, P.; Balbín, R.; Barberá, C.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Olivar, M. P.; Ordines, F.; Ramón, M.; Torres, A. P.; Valls, M.; Massutí, E.

    2014-10-01

    Body condition indices not only are often used as reliable indicators of the nutritional status of individuals but also can they be utilized to provide insights regarding food availability and habitat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between the body condition of the demersal species and the environmental features in the water column (i.e. the hydrographic conditions and the potential trophic resources) in two proximate areas, the north and south regions of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean), viz., the Balearic sub-basin (BsB) and the Algerian sub-basin (AsB), respectively, with different geomorphological and hydrodynamic features. Body condition indices were calculated for individuals of 21 demersal species including 11 teleosts, 4 elasmobranchs, 3 cephalopods and 3 crustaceans, which represented > 70-77% of the deep water resources, captured by bottom trawling. The morphometric indices, viz., Relative Condition Index (Kn) and Standardised Residuals (SR) from the length-weight relationship, were used. The results for each one of the 21 species indicated a significantly better condition in terms of Kn and SR in the BsB, for 7 and 9 species, respectively. In addition, a general model, including the 21 species together, showed better body condition in the BsB, and during the summer. The spatial and temporal differences in the body condition are discussed in the context of the environmental variables characterising both the study areas, which showed significant variations, for some of the hydrographic features (chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, salinity, potential density and temperature), as well as for some of the potential trophic resources (mesopelagic and epibenthic fauna). These findings suggest an environmental effect on the body condition of the deep-water resources in the Balearic Islands, one of the most oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean, and reveal more suitable environmental conditions for these species

  15. Western Black Sea onshore: evolution and petroleum potential

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, P.R.; Clark-Lowes, D.D.; Gorur, N.; More, C.

    1988-08-01

    The western Black Sea onshore area forms part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment, one of a number of microcontinental plates which collided during the closure of the Neotethys Sea. Integration of seismic, field, and borehole data has established the tectonic evolution of the region and demonstrated its hydrocarbon potential. In the Late Jurassic a widespread, uniform sequence of carbonates was deposited. This platform began to break up in the Aptian with the onset of Black Sea rifting. Shallow marine sands of reservoir quality were deposited on relict highs, while organic-rich shales accumulated in subsiding troughs. Continued differential subsidence and turbiditic sedimentation characterized the Late Cretaceous and Eocene, resulting in the burial and subsequent maturation of Paleozoic and Cretaceous source rocks. Late to post-Eocene fold-and-thrust tectonics created the main prospective structures. Preliminary burial history analysis indicates post-tectonic generation and migration. Hydrocarbon plays exist in both the Cretaceous and Paleozoic successions.

  16. Simulation of ground-water flow and the movement of saline water in the Hueco Bolson aquifer, El Paso, Texas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groschen, George E.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the projected withdrawal simulations from 1984-2000 indicate that the general historical trend of saline-water movement probably will continue. The saline water in the Rio Grande alluvium is the major source of saline-water intrusion into the freshwater zone throughout the historical period and into the future on the basis of simulation results. Some saline water probably will continue to move downward from the Rio Grande alluvium to the freshwater below. Injection of treated sewage effluent into some wells will create a small zone of freshwater containing slightly increased amounts of dissolved solids in the northern area of the Texas part of the Hueco bolson aquifer. Many factors, such as well interference, pumping schedules, and other factors not specifically represented in the regional simulation, can substantially affect dissolved-solids concentrations at individual wells.

  17. Hydrogeochemistry of Groundwater as Part of the Greenland Analogue Project in an Area of Continuous Permafrost Adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkemans, E.; Frape, S.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson-Liljedahl, L.; Lehtinen, A.; Annable, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    Studying groundwater in areas of continuous permafrost is often limited to studies of springs and open pingos (eg. Pollard et al. 1999 and Allen et al. 1976). Boreholes in such locations are expensive, risky and logistically challenging (eg. Stotler et al. 2011) resulting in a limited understanding of the interaction between continental scale ice sheets and groundwater. Continental ice sheet models are often coupled to groundwater flow systems; however, there is a lack of modern field data with which to compare the results of models and their treatment of groundwater flow systems under the influence of glaciation. The Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) aims to eliminate some of the uncertainties in modeling ice sheets by using the Greenland ice sheet as a modern analogue for past glaciations. Since 2009, 3 boreholes have been drilled, 2 of which contain sampling systems. DH-GAP01 is a 191 m deep borehole drilled at an angle into a talik and has been sampled and studied since 2009. DH-GAP04 is a 632 m deep, angled borehole that intersects the groundwater flow system directly beneath Isunguata Sermia and is producing preliminary groundwater samples. Additional information on groundwater in the Kangerlussuaq area comes from a spring located directly in front of the Leverett ice lobe. Geochemical and isotopic (δ18O, δ2H, δ37Cl, 87Sr/86Sr, and δ34S and δ18O of SO4) tools are used to interpret geochemical processes acting on groundwaters and provide insight into groundwater flow. Analyses of δ18O and δ2H in groundwaters from DH-GAP01 show the borehole waters fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Evaporation is an important process affecting the δ18O-δ2H of surface waters in the region causing lakes to plot along a local evaporation line (Leng and Anderson, 2003). The waters from the Leverett spring plot to the right of the GMWL as possibly a mixture of groundwater and surface evaporated fluids. However, both the waters from DH-GAP01 and the Leverett

  18. Stratigraphic contrasts and tectonic relationships between Carboniferous successions in the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect corridor and adjacent areas, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Watts, K.F.; Harris, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Carboniferous succession along the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) corridor in the Atigun Gorge area of the central Brooks Range consists of the Kayak Shale (Kinderhookian) and the Lisburne Group (Kinderhookian through Chesterian). The Kayak Shale is at least 210 m thick; it is chiefly black, noncalcareous shale with several limestone beds of pelmatozoan-bryozoan packstone and formed in an open-marine setting. The Lisburne Group is a carbonate rock succession about 650 m thick and consists mainly of skeletal packstone, wackestone, and mudstone which contain locally abundant calcispheres, ostracodes, algae, and sponge spicules; it accumulated largely in a shallow water platform environment with restricted circulation. This restriction was probably produced by a coeval belt of skeletal sand shoals recognized 70 km to the west in the Shainin Lake area. Significant and apparently abrupt shifts in the age and lithofacies of Carboniferous strata occur across the central and eastern Brooks Range. These shifts are most marked in a zone roughly coincident with what is interpreted by many workers to be the leading edge of the Endicott Mountains allochthon. Notable lithologic contrasts are also observed, however, between sections in the northern and southern parts of the Endicott Mountains allochthon. This suggests that considerable tectonic shortening has taken place within the allochthon, as well as between it and parautochthonous rocks to the northeast. The Carboniferous section near Mount Doonerak is more similar in age and lithofacies to coeval sections in the central Brooks Range that are considered allochthonous than to parautochthonous sections to the northeast. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Stratigraphic cross section of measured sections and drill holes of the Neslan Formation and adjacent formations, Book Cliffs Area, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirshbaum, Mark A.; Spear, Brianne D.

    2012-01-01

    This study updates a stratigraphic cross section published as plate 2 in Kirschbaum and Hettinger (2004) Digital Data Series 69-G (http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-069/dds-069-g/). The datum is a marine/tidal ravinement surface within the Cozzette Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation and the Thompson Canyon Sandstone and Sulphur Canyon Sandstone Beds of the Neslen Formation. One of the cores shown was included on the original cross section, and new core descriptions have been added to the upper part of the cored interval. A new core description (S178) is included in this report. Cores are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey Core Research Facility at the Denver Federal Center, Colorado. The following information has also been added to help define the stratigraphic framework: 1) At least five claystones interpreted as altered volcanic ashes have been identified and may give future workers a correlation tool within the largely continental section. 2) Thickness and general geometry of the Sego Sandstone, Buck Tongue of the Mancos Shale, and Castlegate Sandstone have been added to provide additional stratigraphic context. 3) The geometry in the Sego Sandstone, Buck Tongue of the Mancos Shale, and Castlegate Sandstone has been added to provide additional stratigraphic context. 4) Ammonite collections are from Gill and Hail. The zone of Didymoceras nebrascense projected into the East Salt Wash area is based on correlation of the flooding surface at the base of the Cozzette Member to this point as shown in Kirschbaum and Hettinger. 5) A leaf locality of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science is shown in its approximate stratigraphic position near Thompson Canyon. 6) A dinosaur locality of the Natural History Museum of Utah is shown in the Horse Canyon area measured section at the stratigraphic position where it was extracted.

  20. Spatial and temporal variations and controlling factors of sediment accumulation in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea area in the Holocene, especially in the Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhibing; Liu, Baohua; Zhao, Yuexia; Li, Xishuang; Jiang, Li; Si, Shaokun

    2016-08-01

    The sub-bottom and collected borehole data provide insight into the transport and accumulation processes of the Yangtze-derived sediment in the study area since ~11 kyr BP. Five seismic units were identified according to six major acoustic surfaces. The sedimentary strata consist of fluvial, estuarine and deltaic systems from the bottom up, characterized by two different trends in sediment accumulation rates, i.e., low-high-low, and high-low-high. On the inner shelf of the East China Sea, the terrain with trough and ridge was formed by the Early Holocene transgression strata (formed in ~10 to 12 kyr BP) scoured by the later rectilinear tidal current due to postglacial sea-level transgression, and the sharply protruding seismic units are interpreted to be bedrocks outcropping on the seafloor. An analysis of the sedimentary characteristics in the boreholes and such factors as difference in accumulation rates, and tectonic subsidence led us to conclude that the paleo-coastline was located not far away from and to the east of Core ZK09 at ~9 kyr BP, and the southern bank of the Yangtze River estuary was located to the south of Core ZK09. At ~9 kyr BP, the Yangtze-derived sediments were transported eastwards along the southern bank of the Yangtze River and the barrier due to the influence of the paleo-coastal current from the north, the direction of the Yangtze-derived sediment transport was split on the northeast of the Zhoushan archipelago, and the sediments covered the terrain with trough and ridge. During the high sea level period (7 kyr BP-present), the eastward migration of paleo-coastline had resulted in the increase in accumulation rate. We also conclude that the sharp increase in accumulation rate near the Yangtze River estuary after ~2 kyr BP was not primarily caused by human activities. The position shifts of the estuary caused by the paleo-coastline migration and sea level oscillations since the Holocene is the main cause controlling the Yangtze

  1. Maps showing formation temperatures and configurations of the tops of the Minnelusa Formation and the Madison Limestone, Powder River basin, Wyoming, Montana, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, William J.; Kilty, Kevin Thomas; Knottek, Richard K.

    1978-01-01

    This report is part of a study to describe the hydrogeologic framework needed to evaluate the water resources of the Paleozoic age aquifers in the Northern Great Plains coal region. Preliminary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota have indicated that these aquifers might provide a significant percentage of the water requirements for coal development. Geologic and water-temperature data for the Minnelusa Formation of Permian and Pennsylvanian age and for the Madison Limestone (Group where it is subdivided) of Mississippian and locally late Devonian age , and their equivalents, were compiled and interpreted. Maps were produced showing the altitude and ground-water temperatures of the top of these formations. The altitude (configuration) maps show the depth and position of the formations throughout the area. Temperature maps can be used to calculate changes in the viscosity of water caused by large temperature differences. The viscosity differences will be useful in adjusting calculated transmissivity aquifer values (the rate at which water can be transmitted through an aquifer). (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Status report on the geology of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site and adjacent areas. Volume I. Text and appendices A-E

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Puchlik, K.P.; Ramirez, A.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; Knauss, K.G.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    In April, 1979, geoscience personnel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) initiated comprehensive geologic, seismologic, and hydrologic investigations of the LLNL site and nearby areas. These investigations have two objectives: 1. to obtain data for use in preparing a Final Environmental Impact Report for LLNL, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act; 2. to obtain data for use in improving the determination of a design basis earthquake for structural analysis of LLNL facilities. The first phases of these investigations have been completed. Work completed to date includes a comprehensive literature review, analyses of three sets of aerial photographs, reconnaissance geophysical surveys, examination of existing LLNL site borehole data, and the logging of seven exploratory trenches, segments of two sewer trenches, a deep building foundation excavation, a road cut, and an enlarged creek bank exposure. One absolute age date has been obtained by the /sup 14/C method and several dates of pedogenic carbonate formation have been obtained by the /sup 230/Th//sup 234/U method. A seismic monitoring network has been established, and planning for a site hydrologic monitoring program and strong motion instrument network has been completed. The seismologic and hydrologic investigations are beyond the scope of this report and will be discussed separately in future documents.

  3. A reconnaissance of the water resources of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation and adjacent areas, Pacific County, Washington, 1978-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A 1978-79 reconnaissance of the quantity and quality of water in the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation yielded information needed by the Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe to plan future use of these resources. Ground water from the local artesian aquifer is suitable for most uses and it is estimated that yield can be as much as 100 to 500 gallons per minute. Long-term yields cannot be calculated from available data. Data from 1968-80 show no measurable declines in water levels or rates of flow due to pumping from the aquifer. Analysis of ground-water samples indicated no seawater intrusion into the aquifer. Mean monthly flows of two streams in the study area ranged from 0.53 to 3.28 cubic feet per second in February 1979. Estimated average 7-day low flows with a recurrance interval of 2 years ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 cubic feet per second. Analyses of surface-water samples indicated concentrations of Aldrin, DDD, DDT, Dieldrin, Diazinon , and Ethyl Parathion that exceeded EPA limits for protection of marine life. Samples of the stream-bottom material in one stream had high concentrations of Aldrin, DDD, DDE, DDT, Dichlobenil, and Dieldrin. Tribally owned tidelands into which these streams flow may be contaminated by these toxic chemicals. (USGS)

  4. Depositional Model for the Middle Eocene Oberlin Sand in Northwest Oberlin Field and Adjacent Areas, Allen Parish, Louisiana: A Well-log and Seismic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVey, Timothy Keith

    The depositional environment of the middle to late Eocene Oberlin sand of Northwest Oberlin Field and Pilgrim Church Field in central Allen Parish, Louisiana, was investigated. The depositional environment of the Oberlin sand has been interpreted from observations of spontaneous potential log signatures, conventional core reports, paleontological reports, shape of isochore maps, coherency extraction attribute, amplitude extraction attribute, and multiple seismic and subsurface cross sections. Focus is centered on the juxtaposition of component sand bodies and their proximity to the interdistributary and prodelta environments. Sand bodies include distributary channels, distributary mouth bars, crevasse subdeltas and shelfal bars and are interpreted to be the products of lower deltaic and shelf processes. The results of this study are based on seismic analysis, display techniques and subsurface maps calibrated to well logs, models, and recognition criteria of modern and ancient depositional environments previously described in the regional literature. The integration of all available data provides an objective and systematic approach detailing the origin, lateral extent, geometry and architecture of the Oberlin sand in the lower deltaic plain and shelf environments. The results of this study may be applicable to similar age sands on trend with the study area. Understanding of sand component types of the lower deltaic and shelf environments is vital to exploration success and development optimization of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs.

  5. Distribution and assessment of heavy metals off the Changjiang River mouth and adjacent area during the past century and the relationship of the heavy metals with anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Bi, Shipu; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Yong; Mei, Xi; Li, Anchun

    2015-07-15

    Forty-three surface sediment samples and one gravity core obtained from the offshore area of the Changjiang River were analyzed for selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg) to evaluate the spatial distribution and potential ecological risk during the last century. The results indicated that the sediments are composed of silty sand, sandy silt and silt and were deposited in a relatively stable environment over the last century. The studied marine sediments are fine and easily adsorb heavy metals from aquatic systems. The heavy metal concentrations were found to be enriched in the sediments and were generally closely related to anthropogenic activities. However, the data analysis demonstrated that the levels of heavy metal contamination were below background values during the last century, indicating low ecological risk. Spatially, a higher concentration was found at the entrance to the Changjiang River, while it decreased to the northeast. The vertical distribution of contamination levels and ecological risk can be divided into four periods based on the downcore variation in heavy metals: pre-1940s, 1940s-1970s, 1970s-1990s and the late 1990s to the present. These conclusions form the basis for implementing appropriate policies to protect marine sediment quality. PMID:26002099

  6. Potential effects of groundwater pumping on water levels, phreatophytes, and spring discharges in Spring and Snake Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.; Plume, Russell W.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing hydrologic effects of developing groundwater supplies in Snake Valley required numerical, groundwater-flow models to estimate the timing and magnitude of capture from streams, springs, wetlands, and phreatophytes. Estimating general water-table decline also required groundwater simulation. The hydraulic conductivity of basin fill and transmissivity of basement-rock distributions in Spring and Snake Valleys were refined by calibrating a steady state, three-dimensional, MODFLOW model of the carbonate-rock province to predevelopment conditions. Hydraulic properties and boundary conditions were defined primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model except in Spring and Snake Valleys. This locally refined model was referred to as the Great Basin National Park calibration (GBNP-C) model. Groundwater discharges from phreatophyte areas and springs in Spring and Snake Valleys were simulated as specified discharges in the GBNP-C model. These discharges equaled mapped rates and measured discharges, respectively. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity were distributed throughout Spring and Snake Valleys with pilot points and interpolated to model cells with kriging in geologically similar areas. Transmissivity of the basement rocks was estimated because thickness is correlated poorly with transmissivity. Transmissivity estimates were constrained by aquifer-test results in basin-fill and carbonate-rock aquifers. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity distributions of the GBNP-C model were estimated by minimizing a weighted composite, sum-of-squares objective function that included measurement and Tikhonov regularization observations. Tikhonov regularization observations were equations that defined preferred relations between the pilot points. Measured water levels, water levels that were simulated with RASA, depth-to-water beneath distributed groundwater and spring discharges, land-surface altitudes, spring discharge at

  7. Near-Surface Geologic Units Exposed Along Ares Vallis and in Adjacent Areas: A Potential Source of Sediment at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    A sequence of layers, bright and dark, is exposed on the walls of canyons, impact craters and mesas throughout the Ares Vallis region, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra, Mars. Four layers can be seen: two pairs of alternating dark and bright albedo. The upper dark layer forms the top surface of many walls and mesas. The upper dark-bright pair was stripped as a unit from many streamlined mesas and from the walls of Ares Valles, leaving a bench at the top of the lower dark layer, approximately 250 m below the highland surface on streamlined islands and on the walls of Ares Vallis itself. Along Ares Vallis, the scarp between the highlands surface and this bench is commonly angular in plan view (not smoothly curving), suggesting that erosion of the upper dark-bright pair of layers controlled by planes of weakness, like fractures or joints. These near-surface layers in the Ares Vallis area have similar thicknesses, colors, and resistances to erosion to layers exposed near the tops of walls in Valles Marineris (Treiman et al.) and may represent the same pedogenic hardpan units. From this correlation, and from analogies with hardpans on Earth, the light-color layers may be cemented by calcite or gypsum. The dark layers are likely cemented by an iron-bearing mineral. Mars Pathfinder instruments should permit recognition and useful analyses of hardpan fragments, provided that clean uncoated surfaces are accessible. Even in hardpan-cemented materials, it should be possible to determine the broad types of lithologies in the Martian highlands. However, detailed geochemical modeling of highland rocks and soils may be compromised by the presence of hardpan cement minerals.

  8. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  9. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  10. Phytoplankton and nutrient distributions in a front-eddy area adjacent to the coastal upwelling zone off Concepcion (Chile): implications for ecosystem productivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Carmen; Anabalón, Valeria; Hormazábal, Samuel; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    The impact that sub-mesoscale (1-10 km) to mesocale (50-100 km) oceanographic variability has on plankton and nutrient distributions (horizontal and vertical) in the coastal upwelling and transition zones off Concepcion was the focus of this study. Satellite time-series data (wind, sea-surface temperature (SST), and altimetry) were used to understand the dynamic context of in situ data derived from a short-term front survey (3 d) during the upwelling period (3-6 February, 2014). The survey included two transects perpendicular to the coast, covering the shelf and shelf-break areas just north of Punta Lavapie, a main upwelling center (˜37° S). Wind and SST time-series data indicated that the survey was undertaken just after a moderate upwelling event (end of January) which lead to a relaxation phase during early February. A submesoscale thermal front was detected previous to and during the survey and results from an eddy tracking algorithm based on altimetry data indicated that this front (F1) was flanked on its oceanic side by an anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy (M1), which was ˜25 d old at the sampling time. M1 strengthened the thermal gradient of F1 by bringing warmer oceanic water nearer to the colder coastal upwelling zone. The distributions of hydrographic variables and nutrients in the water column (<300 m depth) also denoted these two features. Phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a) and diatom abundance were highest in the surface layer (<20 m depth) between the coast and F1, with primary maxima in the latter, whereas they were highest at the subsurface (20-40 m depth) towards M1 and associated with secondary maxima. The distribution of dominant diatoms in the top layer (<100 m depth) indicated that both coastal and oceanic species were aggregated at F1 and in M1. These results suggest that the front-eddy interaction creates a complex field of submesoscale processes in the top layer, including vertical nutrient injections and lateral stirring, which contributes to the

  11. Water-level altitudes 1998 and water-level changes 1990-98 and 1997-98 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplin, L.S.; Santos, H.X.

    1998-01-01

    This report is one in an annual series of reports that depicts water-level altitudes and water-level changes since 1990 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas. The report, prepared in cooperation with the Ford Bend Subsidence District, presents maps for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers showing the approximate water-level altitudes in wells in 1998 and approximate water-level changes in wells from 1990 to 1998 and from 1997 to 1998. The most recent previously published water-level-altitude maps and water-level-change maps for the two aquifers are by Coplin and others (1997). The earliest water-level-altitude maps and water-level-change maps for the Chicot aquifer are by Wesselman (1972). The first maps of water-level altitudes and water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers are by Locke (1990).

  12. Seismotectonic Map of Afghanistan and Adjacent Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This map is part of an assessment of Afghanistan's geology, natural resources, and natural hazards. One of the natural hazards is from earthquake shaking. One of the tools required to address the shaking hazard is a probabilistic seismic-hazard map, which was made separately. The information on this seismotectonic map has been used in the design and computation of the hazard map. A seismotectonic map like this one shows geological, seismological, and other information that previously had been scattered among many sources. The compilation can show spatial relations that might not have been seen by comparing the original sources, and it can suggest hypotheses that might not have occurred to persons who studied those scattered sources. The main map shows faults and earthquakes of Afghanistan. Plate convergence drives the deformations that cause the earthquakes. Accordingly, smaller maps and text explain the modern plate-tectonic setting of Afghanistan and its evolution, and relate both to patterns of faults and earthquakes.

  13. Application of the Basin Characterization Model to Estimate In-Place Recharge and Runoff Potential in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2007-01-01

    A regional-scale water-balance model was used to estimate recharge and runoff potential and support U.S. Geological Survey efforts to develop a better understanding of water availability for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The water-balance model, or Basin Characterization Model (BCM), was used to estimate regional ground-water recharge for the 13 hydrographic areas in the study area. The BCM calculates recharge by using a distributed-parameter, water-balance method and monthly climatic boundary conditions. The BCM requires geographic information system coverages of soil, geology, and topographic information with monthly time-varying climatic conditions of air temperature and precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration, snow accumulation, and snowmelt are distributed spatially with process models. When combined with surface properties of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock and alluvium, the potential water available for in-place recharge and runoff is calculated using monthly time steps using a grid scale of 866 feet (270 meters). The BCM was used with monthly climatic inputs from 1970 to 2004, and results were averaged to provide an estimate of the average annual recharge for the BARCAS study area. The model estimates 526,000 acre-feet of potential in-place recharge and approximately 398,000 acre-feet of potential runoff. Assuming 15 percent of the runoff becomes recharge, the model estimates average annual ground-water recharge for the BARCAS area of about 586,000 acre-feet. When precipitation is extrapolated to the long-term climatic record (1895-2006), average annual recharge is estimated to be 530,000 acre-feet, or about 9 percent less than the recharge estimated for 1970-2004.

  14. 30 CFR 250.225 - What information on the onshore support facilities you will use must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL... constructed, or to be expanded. (2) If the onshore support facilities are, or will be, located in areas not...) and constructing or expanding the facilities. Describe any State or Federal permits or...

  15. Peru onshore-deepwater basins should have large potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H.

    1998-10-19

    Perupetro`s recent announcement that 13 offshore exploration blocks of nearly 1 million acres each will be offered for bids in the fourth quarter of 1998 has reawakened interest in this extensive, largely unexplored area. The new government policy, combined with the results of modern, deep-probing seismic surveys, has already led to a stepped-up search for oil and gas that will probably escalate. Most of Peru`s ten coastal basins are entirely offshore, but at both ends of the 1,500-mile coastline the sedimentary basins stretch from onshore across the continental shelf and down the continental slope. Two of these basin areas, both in the north, have commercial production. The third, straddling the country`s southern border, has never been drilled either on land or offshore. The Peruvian sectors of these three basins total roughly 50,000 sq miles in area, 75% offshore. All have major oil and gas potential. They are described individually in this article, an update in the ongoing studies last reported at the 1998 Offshore Technology Conference and in the first article of this series.

  16. Design, revision, and application of ground-water flow models for simulation of selected water-management scenarios in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Krause, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water flow models of the Floridan aquifer system in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida, were revised and updated to ensure consistency among the various models used, and to facilitate evaluation of the effects of pumping on the ground-water level near areas of saltwater contamination. The revised models, developed as part of regional and areal assessments of ground-water resources in coastal Georgia, are--the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model, the Glynn County area (Glynn) model, and the Savannah area (Savannah) model. Changes were made to hydraulic-property arrays of the RASA and Glynn models to ensure consistency among all of the models; results of theses changes are evidenced in revised water budgets and calibration statistics. Following revision, the three models were used to simulate 32 scenarios of hypothetical changes in pumpage that ranged from about 82 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) lower to about 438 Mgal/d higher, than the May 1985 pumping rate of 308 Mgal/d. The scenarios were developed by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division and the Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Planning Commission to evaluate water-management alternatives in coastal Georgia. Maps showing simulated ground-water-level decline and diagrams presenting changes in simulated flow rates are presented for each scenario. Scenarios were grouped on the basis of pumping location--entire 24-county area, central subarea, Glynn-Wayne-Camden County subarea, and Savannah-Hilton Head Island subarea. For those scenarios that simulated decreased pumpage, the water level at both Brunswick and Hilton Head Island rose, decreasing the hydraulic gradient and reducing the potential for saltwater contamination. Conversely, in response to scenarios of increased pumpage, the water level at both locations declined, increasing the hydraulic gradient and increasing the potential for saltwater contamination

  17. Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

    2012-11-01

    Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water.

  18. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  19. A Adaptive Mixing Depth Model for AN Industrialized Shoreline Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunk, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    Internal boundary layer characteristics are often overlooked in atmospheric diffusion modeling applications but are essential for accurate air quality assessment. This study focuses on a unique air pollution problem that is partially resolved by representative internal boundary layer description and prediction. Emissions from a secondary non-ferrous smelter located adjacent to a large waterway, which is situated near a major coastal zone, became suspect in causing adverse air quality. In an effort to prove or disprove this allegation, "accepted" air quality modeling was performed. Predicted downwind concentrations indicated that the smelter plume was not responsible for causing regulatory standards to be exceeded. However, chronic community complaints continued to be directed toward the smelter facility. Further investigation into the problem revealed that complaint occurrences coincided with onshore southeasterly flows. Internal boundary layer development during onshore flow was assumed to produce a mixing depth conducive to plume trapping or fumigation. The preceding premise led to the utilization of estimated internal boundary layer depths for dispersion model input in an attempt to improve prediction accuracy. Monitored downwind ambient air concentrations showed that model predictions were still substantially lower than actual values. After analyzing the monitored values and comparing them with actual plume observations conducted during several onshore flow occurrences, the author hypothesized that the waterway could cause a damping effect on internal boundary layer development. This effective decrease in mixing depths would explain the abnormally high ambient air concentrations experienced during onshore flows. Therefore, a full-scale field study was designed and implemented to study the waterway's influence on mixing depth characteristics. The resultant data were compiled and formulated into an area-specific mixing depth model that can be adapted to

  20. Offshore environmental concerns mitigated by onshore-based, extended-reach drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-04

    Extended-reach drilling may alleviate California environmental concerns by targeting distant offshore plays using onshore localities adjacent to preexisting facilities. If successful, it may set a precedent for offshore development without the use of new offshore platforms, thereby reducing the risk of offshore spills. Politicians, environmentalists, and the industry will closely watch the Gaviota No. 7 well, an extended-reach well operated by Benton Oil and Gas Co. in partnership with Molino Energy Co. The companies aim to find sweet gas in the Gaviota structure, an anticline hemmed in by two faults, located abut 1 1/4 miles offshore in the Santa Barbara Channel. Frank Reiber, project manager for Benton, characterizes the technologies used in the Gaviota No. 7, as fairly routine. However, state officials hail this onshore-to-offshore technique as the only practical way to develop oil or gas in state waters, given the political and environmental constraints that have virtually closed all waters within the 3-mile limit for decades. The paper describes the drilling and production program.

  1. Connecting onshore and offshore near-surface geology: Delaware's sand inventory project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, K.W.; Jordan, R.R.; Talley, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Delaware Geological Survey began a program to inventory on-land sand resources suitable for beach nourishment. The inventory included an assessment of the native beach textures using existing data and developing parameters of what would be considered suitable sand textures for Delaware's Atlantic beaches. An assessment of the economics of on-land sand resources was also conducted, and it was determined that the cost of the sand was competitive with offshore dredging costs. In addition, the sand resources were put into a geologic context for purposes of predicting which depositional environments and lithostratigraphic units were most likely to produce suitable sand resources. The results of the work identified several suitable on-land sand resource areas in the Omar and Beaverdam formations that were deposited in barrier-tidal delta and fluvial-estuarine environments, respectively. The identified on-land resources areas have not been utilized due to difficulties of truck transport and development pressures in the resource areas. The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from Cape Henlopen to Fenwick. This cross section identified the geologic units and potential sand resource bodies as found immediately along the coast. These units and resources are currently being extended offshore and tied to known and

  2. Crustal deformation at the Nankai subduction zone inferred from onshore GPS velocities and seafloor geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Okuda, T.; Nagai, S.; Kuno, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Philippine Sea plate (PH) subducts beneath the southwest Japan along the Nankai Trough with a rate of about 4-6 cm/yr, where megathrust earthquakes have repeatedly occurred every 100-150 years. The probability of earthquake occurrence within 30 years from January 1st, 2011 are estimated to be 87 %, 70 %, and 60 % for the next Tokai, Tonankai, and Nankai earthquakes, respectively. We are concerned about the expansion of earthquake damage because these earthquakes have possibilities of interlocking with adjacent segments according to the historical record. Thus, it is important to know the spatio-temporal variation of crustal deformation accompanied with plate interaction. For this issue, we have conducted seafloor geodetic observation at the Nankai Trough using a GPS/Acoustic technique since 2004. In this system, we estimate the position of a surveying vessel by Kinematic GPS analysis and measure the distance between the vessel and the benchmark on the seafloor by Acoustic measurements. Next we determine the location of the benchmark. For the repeatability of this observation, the location of benchmark is determined within a precision of 2-3 cm at horizontal components. Recently, a number of research institutes have conducted seafloor geodetic observation using this technique before and after earthquakes occurred in offshore area, and then they have provided significant achievement to understand inter-, co-, and post-seismic crustal deformation. Several seafloor benchmarks are located at the Nankai subduction zone, which are individually operated by Japan Coast Guard, Tohoku University, and Nagoya University. In the Kumano Basin, we have three seafloor benchmarks located about 60-80 km away from the deformation front of the Nankai Trough. The observations from 2005 to 2010 have illustrated that those benchmarks are moving at rates of about 3-4 cm/yr toward west-northwest with velocity uncertainties of about 2 cm/yr relative to the Amurian plate (AM). In this

  3. The crustal structures from Wuyi-Yunkai orogen to Taiwan orogen: the onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic experiment of TAIGER and ATSEE projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuochen, H.; Kuo, N. Y. W.; Wang, C. Y.; Jin, X.; Cai, H. T.; Lin, J. Y.; Wu, F. T.; Yen, H. Y.; Huang, B. S.; Liang, W. T.; Okaya, D. A.; Brown, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal structure is key information for understanding the tectonic framework and geological evolution in the southeastern China and its adjacent area. In this study, we integrated the data sets from the TAIGER and ATSEE projects to resolve onshore-offshore deep crustal seismic profiles from the Wuyi-Yunkai orogen to the Taiwan orogen in southeastern China. Totally, there are three seismic profiles resolved and the longest profile is 850 km. Unlike 2D and 3D first arrival travel-time tomography from previous studies, we used both refracted and reflected phases (Pg, Pn, PcP, and PmP) to model the crustal structures and the crustal reflectors. 40 shots, 2 earthquakes, and about 1,950 stations were used and 15,319 arrivals were picked among three transects. As a result, the complex crustal evolution since Paleozoic era are shown, which involved the closed Paleozoic rifted basin in central Fujian, the Cenozoic extension due to South China sea opening beneath the coastline of southern Fujian, and the on-going collision of the Taiwan orogen.

  4. H.R. 73: A Bill to protect the ecologically fragile coastal resources of south Florida by prohibiting offshore oil and gas activities and by cancelling Federal leases in the area of the Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to the south Florida coast. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 73, A Bill to protect the ecologically fragile coastal resources of south Florida by prohibiting offshore oil and gas activities and by cancelling Federal leases in the area of the Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to south Florida. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 4, 1995.

  5. Comparing offshore and onshore thermal histories: low-T thermochronology of the Utsira High, western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksienzyk, Anna K.; Jacobs, Joachim; Fossen, Haakon; Woznitza, Tobias; Wemmer, Klaus; Dunkl, István

    2016-04-01

    The Utsira High is a basement horst in the northern North Sea, flanked to the west and east by the Viking Graben and Stord Basin respectively. The basement is composed of Caledonian granitic and gabbroic rocks. Since Caledonian times, the North Sea region has been affected by extensional tectonics leading to rifting, active fault tectonics and uplift of basement blocks. Extensive drilling due to recent hydrocarbon exploration has made the basement of the Utsira High accessible for thermochronological investigations that allow a direct comparison with the results from onshore studies. Zircon (U-Th)/He, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He dating on seven samples from the Utsira High yielded Middle-Late Devonian, Late Permian-Late Jurassic and Middle Jurassic-Pliocene ages respectively, tracking cooling through successively lower closure temperatures and subsequent reheating during sedimentary burial since the Jurassic. Generally, basement rocks of the Utsira High reached near surface temperatures already in Carboniferous-Triassic times, much earlier than the oldest overlying sediments (Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous) might indicate. Onshore samples, on the other hand, generally cooled to near-surface temperatures in the Jurassic (coastal areas) or even later, in the Cretaceous-Cenozoic (inland areas). Only coastal areas experienced minor reburial followed by renewed exhumation in late Cretaceous-Cenozoic times. Both the basement of the Utsira High and onshore western Norway are strongly dissected by faults. K-Ar illite fault gouge dating shows that many of these faults were active during rifting. However, fault activity continued during the Cretaceous-Cenozoic, long after rifting in the North Sea had ceased. Large fault systems separate crustal blocks with distinct thermal histories, suggesting that uplift, erosion and landscape evolution along the North Sea rift margin were strongly fault-controlled.

  6. China pushing bigger foreign role in onshore exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-11

    China is stepping up its campaign to attract more foreign investment to boost onshore exploration. After years of moribund drilling activity and lagging production growth, China in the past year has done an about-face on foreign exploration and development investment. Beijing has opened onshore exploration acreage in 10 mostly northern and western provinces, including the prized Tarim basin, with prospects featuring a postulated combined potential resource of 40--60 billion bbl of oil and 87.5 tcf of natural gas. And joint venture opportunities in currently producing fields soon will be available. The paper discusses the new approaches, the Tarim bidding, Tarim contract, a second Tarim round needed, Tarim geology, Tarim drilling and production, Tarim infrastructure plans, other onshore bidding, existing contracts, and 1993 production sharing contracts.

  7. Correlations of onshore/offshore structure from a combined AVHRR/Geosat altimeter image of the Antarctic Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D.; Royer, J.Y.; Lawver, L.A. ); Sandwell, D.T. )

    1990-06-01

    Data collected by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard Nimbus-X and the satellite altimeter aboard Geosat have provided an extraordinary view of the Antarctic continent and the surrounding seafloor. To examine the relationship between onshore and offshore structure, the authors have merged an AVHRR mosaic image produced by the British National Remote Sensing Centre with a geoid image derived from two years of Geosat altimetry. They averaged 4-4 repeat cycles of Geosat data to improve the accuracy, resolution, and coverage of the marine geoid, especially in areas usually obscured by year-round ice. In addition to constructing the geoid image, the Geosat data were combined with available shipboard bathymetric data and magnetic anomaly identifications to construct a tectonic element chart of the Southern Ocean. The major tectonic elements include several large age-offset fracture zones that place tight constraints on the breakup of Gondwana. In many cases, onshore extensions of these major fracture zones correlate with prominent continental structures. For example, the Tasman FZ extends from the western edge of Tasmania for 2,500 km across the southern Indian Ocean and terminates along the eastern edge of George V Basin. Onshore, this prominent lineation continues along the edge of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains in Victoria Land, Antarctica. Similarly, the Udintsev FZ extends from the northern edge of the Chatham Rise for 4-500 km across the South Pacific to a point north of Thurston I., where it fades out. The onshore extension of the Udintsev FZ may mark a major tectonic and physiographic boundary between the Weddellia and Marie Byrd Land crustal blocks of West Antarctica. Other prominent onshore/offshore correlations include the continuation of the Queen Fabiola Mountains as the Gunnerus Ridge and the continuation of the Lambert-Amery aulacogen seaward onto the continental margin.

  8. Oil flow resumes in war torn onshore Neutral Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-09

    Oil production has resumed in the war ravaged onshore fields of the Neutral Zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait 1 year after the end of Persian Gulf War. Initial production of about 40,000 b/d is expected to rise to 60,000 b/d by year end. This paper reports that prior to the January-February 1991 war to oust occupying Iraqi military forces from Kuwait, the Neutral Zone's Wafra, South Umm Gudair, and South Fuwaris onshore fields produced about 135,000 b/d.

  9. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Assessment of injury to harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and adjacent areas following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study number 5. Restoration study number 73. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The goal of the project was to determine whether the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) had a measurable impact on harbor seals, Phocavitulina richardsi, in Prince William Sound (PWS) and adjacent areas. During the EVOS, harbor seals were exposed to oil both in the water and on land. The study was designed to investigate and quantify, as possible, the effects of oil and the disturbance associated with cleanup on distribution, abundance, and health of harbor seals in the affected area.

  10. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. Onshore wind energy potential over Iberia: present and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochinha, Carlos A.; Santos, João A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Onshore grid-connected wind power generation has been explored for more than three decades in the Iberian Peninsula. Further, increasing attention has been devoted to renewable energy sources in a climate change context. While advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, its distribution is not spatially homogeneous and not uniform throughout the year. Hence, understanding these spatial-temporal distributions is critical in power system planning. The present study aims at assessing the potential power output estimated from 10 m wind components simulated by a regional climate model (CCLM), driven by ERA40 reanalysis. Datasets are available on a grid with a high spatial resolution (approximately 20 km) and over a 40-yr period (1961-2000). Furthermore, several target sites, located in areas with high installed wind generation capacity, are selected for local-to-regional scale assessments. The results show that potential wind power is higher over northern Iberia, mostly in Cantabria and Galicia, while Andalucía and Cataluña record the lowest values. With respect to the intra-annual variability, summer is by far the season with the lowest potential energy outputs. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability reveals an overall downward long-term trend over the 40-yr period, particularly in the winter time series. A CCLM transient experiment, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario, is also discussed for a future period (2041-2070), after a model validation/calibration process (bias corrections). Significant changes in the wind power potential are projected for the future throughout Iberia, but their magnitude largely depends on the locations. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  13. Arctic summary report: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Arctic and their onshore impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, C.; Slitor, D. L.; Rudolph, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Issues and developments occuring in the Arctic Outer Continental Shelf subregion are discussed. The geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Diapir Field petroleum provinces are detailed. Recent lease sales, exploration activities, and the first development proposals for offshore areas of the North slope are considered. Issues relating to transporting resources from production islands to shore and various proposals for moving Arctic hydrocarbons to market are presented. Production projects onshore and possible support bases for offshore activity are also examined.

  14. Tectonic control on the distribution of onshore mud volcanoes in parts of the Upper Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Ojochenemi K.; Kurowska, Ewa E.; Schoeneich, Krzysztof; Alagbe, Solomon A.; Ayok, Jeremiah

    2016-06-01

    Onshore mud volcanoes are rare geological phenomena, which in Nigeria were reported for the first time few years ago in the Upper Benue Trough. In this study a detail geological mapping of the area of mud volcanoes occurrence was carried out, with the primary aim of defining their relationship, if any, to the structural geology there. The systematic field reconnaissance included field observations of the structural features, as well as analysis of the location and distribution of the onshore mud volcanoes, marking their locations on the topographic and geological maps, analysis of the aerial photographs and satellite images. The study area covered the central part of the Upper Benue Trough where the onshore mud volcanoes were found. The study area is the part of a sedimentary basin comprising Cretaceous clastic rocks that have been deformed intensively by a network of faults often embedded in the underlying Precambrian basement. This network of faults underwent a rejuvenation period from the Aptian to the Palaeocene. The most prominent tectonic structure in the study area is the NE - SW trending Kaltungo Fault Zone, however, there are other minor faults with N - S and NW - SE trends. This study shows that the mud volcanoes found in the study area are usually located near or within fault zones, within the outcropping Upper Cretaceous Yolde Formation and Upper Bima Sandstone, both of which were deformed by the Kaltungo faults, as well as by other minor faults. Worldwide, incidences of onshore mud volcano formation are usually attributed to areas of tectonic activity, rapid sedimentation or hydrocarbon occurrence. In this study, the interpretation of the field observations and mapping results, combined with information on the structural evolution of the study area and seismic pattern (very scarce), have led to the conclusion that the location of onshore mud volcanoes in the Upper Benue Trough, being located along the fault zones, is structurally controlled. The close

  15. On-Shore Central Hydraulic Power Generation for Wind and Tidal Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lim, Steven; Murray, Luke; Armstrong, Richard; Kimbrall, Richard; Cook-Chenault, Kimberly; DeGennaro, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and onshore wind energy can be converted to electricity at a central ground location by means of converting their respective energies into high-pressure hydraulic flows that are transmitted to a system of generators by high-pressure pipelines. The high-pressure flows are then efficiently converted to electricity by a central power plant, and the low-pressure outlet flow is returned. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently supporting a project led by Sunlight Photonics to demonstrate a 15 kW tidal hydraulic power generation system in the laboratory and possibly later submerged in the ocean. All gears and submerged electronics are completely eliminated. A second portion of this DOE project involves sizing and costing a 15 MW tidal energy system for a commercial tidal energy plant. For this task, Atlantis Resources Corporation s 18-m diameter demonstrated tidal blades are rated to operate in a nominal 2.6 m/sec tidal flow to produce approximately one MW per set of tidal blades. Fifteen units would be submerged in a deep tidal area, such as in Maine s Western Passage. All would be connected to a high-pressure (20 MPa, 2900 psi) line that is 35 cm ID. The high-pressure HEPG fluid flow is transported 500-m to on-shore hydraulic generators. HEPG is an environmentally-friendly, biodegradable, watermiscible fluid. Hydraulic adaptations to ORPC s cross-flow turbines are also discussed. For 15 MW of wind energy that is onshore or offshore, a gearless, high efficiency, radial piston pump can replace each set of top-mounted gear-generators. The fluid is then pumped to a central, easily serviceable generator location. Total hydraulic/electrical efficiency is 0.81 at full rated wind or tidal velocities and increases to 0.86 at 1/3 rated velocities.

  16. On-Shore Central Hydraulic Power Generation for Wind and Tidal Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lim, Steven; Murray, Luke; Armstrong, Richard; Kimball, Richard; Cook-Chenault, Kimberly; DeGennaro, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and onshore wind energy can be converted to electricity at a central ground location by means of converting their respective energies into high-pressure hydraulic flows that are transmitted to a system of generators by high-pressure pipelines. The high-pressure flows are then efficiently converted to electricity by a central power plant, and the low-pressure outlet flow is returned. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently supporting a project led by Sunlight Photonics to demonstrate a 15 kilowatt tidal hydraulic power generation system in the laboratory and possibly later submerged in the ocean. All gears and submerged electronics are completely eliminated.A second portion of this DOE project involves sizing and costing a 15 megawatt tidal energy system for a commercial tidal energy plant. For this task, Atlantis Resources Corporation's 18-m diameter demonstrated tidal blades are rated to operate in a nominal 2.6 m/sec tidal flow to produce approximately one megawatt per set of tidal blades. Fifteen units would be submerged in a deep tidal area, such as in Maine's Western Passage. All would be connected to a high-pressure (20 megapascals, 2900 pounds per square inch) line that is 35 cm ID. The high-pressure HEPG fluid flow is transported 500-m to on-shore hydraulic generators. HEPG is an environmentally-friendly, biodegradable, water-miscible fluid. Hydraulic adaptations to ORPC's cross-flow turbines are also discussed.For 15 megawatt of wind energy that is onshore or offshore, a gearless, high efficiency, radial piston pump can replace each set of top-mounted gear-generators. The fluid is then pumped to a central, easily serviceable generator location. Total hydraulic/electrical efficiency is 0.81 at full rated wind or tidal velocities and increases to 0.86 at 1/3 rated velocities.

  17. Offshore-onshore recent tectonic deformations in the eastern Rif and its foreland (Alhoceima-Nador, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Patricia; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Comas, Menchu; Chalouan, Ahmed; Azzouz, Omar; Jesús Román-Alpiste, Manuel; Pedrera, Antonio; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; López-Garrido, Ángel Carlos; Benmakhlouf, Mohamed; Roldán-García, Francisco Javier; Anahnah, Farida; González-Castillo, Lourdes

    2014-05-01

    The Rif Cordillera is formed by the southwestwards emplacement of the internal zones on the African foreland in the western Alboran Sea. However, the recent deformations are driven also by interaction with the NW-SE convergence of the Eurasian and African plates. The eastern Rif and its foreland constitute a key region to study the variability in structure and stresses related to a lateral boundary of this Alpine Cordillera. The continental crust of the Rif thinned toward Alboran Sea. The onshore and offshore area nearby the coast line, between Al Hoceima and Nador are suitable for recent tectonics studies due to the presence of wide Neogene and Quaternary basins that contribute to record the activity of recent structures. Multichannel seismic reflection data obtained along the coast during the GASALB cruise in November 2011, together with available data, allows to characterize the differences of the Rif and forleland Neogene-Quaternary basins. Offshore results are compared with field observations, that detailed cover several areas. In the Rif Cordillera (Al Hoceima area), recent basins open towards the Alboran Sea are formed by the active roughly N-S oriented faults in this seismogenic area. They are mainly normal in onshore area and becomes strike-slip offshore connecting with sinistral Al-Idrisi fault zone. In contrast, in the foreland represented by the Trois Fourches area, onshore N-S faults are inactive and are developed above a very well exposed folded detachment. Paleostress data in this area support the activity of the exhumed low-angle faults with NE-SW extension and a late radial extension. These new data allows underline the different stresses and age of deformation in the Rif and its foreland and support a westward displacement of deformation along recent time. Then, the most active and hence higher seismic hazard along Moroccan coast, also related to possible tsunamogenic faults, are located offshore Alhoceima area.

  18. Textural and mineralogical study of sandstones from the onshore Gulf of Alaska Tertiary Province, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; McLean, Hugh; Plafker, George

    1976-01-01

    Petrographic examination of 74 outcrop samples of Paleocene through Pliocene age from the onshore Gulf of Alaska Tertiary Province indicates that sandstones of the province characteristically are texturally immature and mineralogically unstable. Diagenetic alteration of framework grains throughout the stratigraphic sequence has produced widespread zeolite cement or phyllosilicate grain coatings and pseudomatrix. Multiple deformation and deep burial of the older Tertiary sequence--the Orca Group, the shale of Haydon Peak, and the Kulthieth and Tokun Formations--caused extensive alteration and grain interpenetration, resulting in low porosity values. Less intense deformation and intermediate depth of burial of the younger Tertiary sequence--the Katalla, Poul Creek, Redwood, and Yakataga Formations--has resulted in a greater range in textural properties. Most sandstone samples in the younger Tertiary sequence are poorly sorted, tightly packed, and have strongly appressed framework grains, but some are less tightly packed and contain less matrix. Soft and mineralogically unstable framework grains have undergone considerable alteration, reducing pore space even in the youngest rocks. Measurements of porosity, permeability, grain density, and sonic velocity of outcrop samples of the younger Tertiary sequence indicate a modest up-section improvement in sandstone reservoir characteristics. Nonetheless porosity and permeability values typically are below 16 percent and 15 millidarcies respectively and grain densities are consistently high, about 2.7 gm/cc. Low permeability and porosity values, and high grain densities and sonic velocities appear to be typical of most outcrop areas throughout the onshore Gulf of Alaska Tertiary Province.

  19. GREATEM survey in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd allah, S.; Mogi, T.; Femonko, E.

    2014-12-01

    To determine the electric-resistivity structure in coastal areas, airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been used many places. These results showed AEM can reveal seawater depth, sediment thickness, and depth to bedrock. However, until now, AEM could only reveal the resistivity structure to a depth of ˜200 m in coastal areas. Conventional AEM, using an airborne inductive source limits the depth of exploration because the presence of a conductor, such as saline surface water, decreases the penetration of the AEM signal. In order to enhance the depth of exploration, we used a grounded electrical source aligned parallel to the coast line and towed a magnetic receiver in the air. The method, called grounded-electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics, or GREATEM (Mogi et al., 1998), should enhance survey depth in coastal areas, since this method galvanically injects electric current into the ground. The method has increased the depth of exploration to 800 m in on-shore areas (Mogi et al., 2009, Ito et al. 2014). We have carried out a GREATEM survey at Kujukuri beach in central Japan, where an alluvial plain is dominated by sedimentary rocks and shallow water. Another GREATEM survey was performed at northwestern Awaji Island, where granitic rocks crop out onshore. In these studies, we faced issues how do we evaluate an effect of sea water on the data. To circumvent this problem, we used a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) modeling scheme based on the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method (Fomenko and Mogi, 2002) to study the effects of oceanic saltwater on GREATEM survey data at coastal areas. The models consisted of two adjacent layers where sea is a conductive thin sheet placed on top of a unifirm half space ( 100 Ohm-m). Then, we performed numerical forward modeling using the SFD method to generate a 3-D resistivity structure models from GREATEM field survey data at both of Kujukuri beach and the Nojima fault. As a result, we have

  20. Control of Submarine Groundwater Flow and Chemistry by Onshore and Offshore Buried Peat Along a Developed Long Island Shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, J. F.; Kroeger, K. D.; Crusius, J.; Schubert, C.; Paulsen, R.; Green, A. C.; Wanlass, J.; Baldwin, S.; Abbene, I. J.; Young, C.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along the north shore of Long Island’s Great South Bay estuary was investigated to characterize and quantify nutrient delivery to the bay from groundwater. Recent field activities included onshore and offshore piezometer and well sampling, sediment coring, stationary resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ porewater conductivity. Groundwater and surface water were sampled for analysis of nutrients, water quality parameters (conductivity, temperature, pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen), and age tracers. Results from detailed study at Patchogue Bay sites showed shallow plumes of low-salinity groundwater (salinity <3.5) located within 0.5 m of the estuary floor that decreased in thickness along one transect from approximately 4.5 m near shore to <1 m at 90 m offshore. Sediment cores collected near shore recovered buried submarine peat layers up to 49 cm thick that isolated low-salinity (salinity = 2-4) porewater below from brackish porewater above. In situ measurements of porewater conductivity and temperature in the upper 0.7 m of the sediment at one site verified the presence and extent of the peat layer there, as well as the isolation of terrestrially-derived groundwater beneath the layer extending offshore about 100 meters. Stationary electrical resistivity measurements also revealed the presence of high-resistivity (low-salinity) groundwater beneath the peat layer and more conductive porewater above the peat layer. Peat was found adjacent to existing or filled tidal creeks but was absent in cores collected offshore of the ends of peninsulas between tidal creeks. Much of the natural shoreline of the bay was developed in the 1950s and 1960s after construction of bulkheads and filling of tidal marshes with dredged or dumped fill material. Recharge of groundwater through buried peats and organic-rich soils in developed filled areas results in adjacent submarine groundwater plumes that are anoxic and ammonium-rich (average = 255

  1. Mapping faults and intrusions onshore Disko Island by use of Vibroseismic data, shallow marine seismic data and electromagnetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Ole R.; Nørmark, Egon; Gulbrandsen, Pelle; Sabra, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    The west Greenland margin is characterized by sedimentary basins containing high density of intrusions (dikes and sills) originating from the Cenozoic breakup and separation of Greenland and North American. The magmatic rocks have lately attracted interest due to observations of hydrocarbons associated to the intrusions but here due to the ore potential associated to the same intrusions. In 2000 a marine seismic campaign by GEUS in the coastal areas of West Greenland showed that it is possible to identify magmatic intrusions in the sedimentary succession as well as map normal faults, and that the intrusions are heterogeneous distributed and probably related to the normal faults. The presence of normal faults is known from the regional onshore geological mapping campaigns performed by GEUS. However, the marine seismic data indicate a much more complicated structural pattern than presented in the onshore maps, which is a well-known phenomenon (Marcussen et al., 2002). In 2012 and 2013 seismic data were acquired onshore on the northern coast of Disko as part of a research project funded by Avannaa Resources . The objective was initially to test whether it is possible to acquire data of a quality enabling the observation and mapping of intrusions in the subsurface. Later it was followed by a more extensive survey where it was attempted to map the depth to and geometry of the intrusions. The relatively dense seismic grid onshore -compared to the marine seismic data offshore west Greenland- enable the identification and more important the mapping of several intrusions. They show some of the same characteristics as intrusions observed at e.q. the Norwegian margin of the North Atlantic (Hansen et al., 2004). The preliminary results which integrate both marine and onshore seismic data revise the structural understanding of the area and indicate a close relation between the intrusions and the rift related normal faults. The results are consistent with remote sensing methods

  2. Laptev Sea: structural study, onshore - to offshore correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshilova, Margarita; Mouly, Benoit; Werner, Philippe; Nikishin, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    The Laptev Sea region is one of the remote and geologically complex areas of the eastern Russian Arctic. The main problem in interpreting the geological architecture of the region is the absence of wells in the area of interest, so all the information on the regional geology is based on a limited amount of marine seismic profiles and knowledge on adjoining near-coastal areas. We present a new variant of seismic interpretation and key horizons' age definition based on multichannel reflection seismic data acquired by BGR in 1997 and VSEGEI reports on the geology of the East Siberian coastal territory and the New Siberian Islands. As a result of seismic data reinterpretation five key horizons were defined throughout the Laptev Sea sedimentary basins. These horizons are tentatively assigned to major recognized geodynamic events and regional unconformities known from onshore geology. The bottom horizon follows a change in the reflection pattern from pronounced chaotic, rarely - sub-parallel to a less reflective, sometimes - transparent sequence. Remains of a Paleozoic carbonate platform are widespread outcropping on the New Siberian Islands and were also penetrated in deep wells along the East Siberian coast. So, defined horizon may indicate the presence of this platform below the rift-related sedimentary successions of the Laptev Sea sedimentary basins. The most popular hypothesis for the formation of the Amerasia ocean basin that of a counter-clockwise rotational opening of. If this hypothesis is correct, somewhere around the New Siberian Islands a global-scale transform fault, or transform fault zone, trending further along the eastern base of the Lomonosov Ridge must be present (Grantz et al. 1990). Our data indicates that a major shear zone cutting across the Laptev Shelf is unlikely. The second horizon from the bottom, which appears as a peneplain on several structural highs, corresponds to the rift onset. It most likely developed prior to the major Cenozoic

  3. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  4. Geologic appraisal of the petroleum potential of offshore southern California; the borderland compared to onshore coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, James Carlton

    1976-01-01

    Offshore southern California is part of a much larger Pacific continental margin, and the two areas have a similar geologic history at least as far back as middle Tertiary time. Assessment of the petroleum potential of the offshore Southern California borderland is accomplished by examining the adjacent highly explored productive coastal basins in the tectonically unstable area west of the San Andreas fault. Known oil and gas accumulations in this region can be characterized as follows: 88 percent comes from the Los Angeles and Ventura basins; 87 percent has been found in late Miocene and younger strata and only 0.2 percent has been found in Eocene strata; 80 percent has been found in thick deposits of deep-water turbidite reservoirs; and 5 percent has been found in fractured Miocene siliceous shale reservoirs. The percentage of siliceous shale reservoirs will increase as a result of recent discoveries in this rock type in the Santa Barbara Channel. Of the 212 known fields only 5 are giants (greater than 500 million barrels), and these fields account for 52 percent of all past production from the region. Most fields are faulted anticlines, and the largest fields have the highest oil recoveries per acre. Geologic knowledge of the offshore is limited by the availability of data. Data have been obtained from geophysical surveys, analyses of bedrock samples from the sea floor, and extrapolations of data from the mainland and offshore islands. Several factors have a negative effect on the assessment of the petroleum potential of the southern California borderland. They are: 1. The Neogene section is relatively thin, and the Paleogene section is thin and has a limited distribution. 2. Over large areas, Miocene sediments apparently rest directly on basement. 3. Along much of the Santa Rosa-Cortes Ridge, sediments are uplifted and truncated, exposing Paleogene rocks. 4. Organic content in Paleogene sediments is believed too low to generate large amounts of petroleum. 5

  5. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  6. Update on onshore disposal of offshore drilling wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-11-29

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing effluent limitations guidelines to govern discharges of cuttings from wells drilled using synthetic-based muds. To support this rulemaking, Argonne National Laboratory was asked by EPA and the US Department of Energy (DOE) to collect current information about those onshore commercial disposal facilities that are permitted to receive offshore drilling wastes. Argonne contacted state officials in Louisiana, Texas, California and Alaska to obtain this information. The findings, collected during October and November 1999, are presented by state.

  7. 36 CFR 228.105 - Issuance of onshore orders and notices to lessees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... documentation or consultation pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act or the Endangered Species Act... comment and codified in the CFR. (3) Applicability of onshore oil and gas orders. Onshore Oil and Gas... administrative unit of the National Forest System (36 CFR 200.2) supervised by the authorized Forest officer...

  8. 36 CFR 228.105 - Issuance of onshore orders and notices to lessees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... documentation or consultation pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act or the Endangered Species Act... comment and codified in the CFR. (3) Applicability of onshore oil and gas orders. Onshore Oil and Gas... administrative unit of the National Forest System (36 CFR 200.2) supervised by the authorized Forest officer...

  9. 36 CFR 228.105 - Issuance of onshore orders and notices to lessees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... documentation or consultation pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act or the Endangered Species Act... comment and codified in the CFR. (3) Applicability of onshore oil and gas orders. Onshore Oil and Gas... administrative unit of the National Forest System (36 CFR 200.2) supervised by the authorized Forest officer...

  10. Circum-Arctic lithospheric transects from onshore to offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, V.; Coakley, B.; Faleide, J. I.; Jokat, W.; Miller, E. L.; Stephenson, R.; Meisling, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of the lithosphere over time involves the integration and interpretation of geological and geophysical data, combined with good knowledge of the physical processes at work in the lithosphere giving rise to past and present structures. Tectonic activity related to the rifting process created the present-day structure of today's Arctic basins and bathymetric highs, and in the process modified older structures and architecture of the crust and lithosphere. The correlation of circum-Arctic terranes and orogens help to not only reconstruct paleogeography but to also define the role and determine the nature of the lithospheric processes that were active in the complex tectonic evolution of the Arctic. CALE (Circum Arctic Lithosphere Evolution), an international and multidisciplinary effort involving c. 35 geologists and geophysicists from ten different countries working to link the onshore and offshore regions across the circum-Arctic region, is a scientific network in it's last year of a 5-year program. Sedimentary cover and crust to mantle cross-sections from onshore to offshore have been created integrating the latest scientific knowledge and data sets available for the Arctic. The project's principal Arctic transects include: Ellesmere-Canada Basin, Pacific Ocean-Lomonosov Ridge through the Bering Strait, across the Laptev Sea rift to the DeLong Islands, Barents and Kara regions across Timan-Pechora and Taimyr. These sections, the culmination of the CALE project, and their principle findings will be presented for the first time with discussion of outstanding issues yet to be resolved.

  11. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  12. Mid-range sidescan-sonar images covering parts of proposed tracts for OCS lease sale 56 and contiguous areas, Manteo, Cape Fear, and adjacent quadrangles off North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Cashman, K.V.; Chayes, Dale; Ryan, William B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO), collected 335 km of mid-range sidescan-sonar data in some of the tracts proposed for inclusion in Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 56 and in some contiguous areas (R.V. GYRE, September 18-25, 1980 [GYRE 80-9, leg 1]).

  13. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing Onshore natural gas...

  14. 40 CFR 113.4 - Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. 113.4 Section 113.4... SMALL ONSHORE STORAGE FACILITIES Oil Storage Facilities § 113.4 Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. Unless the United...

  15. 40 CFR 113.4 - Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. 113.4 Section 113.4... SMALL ONSHORE STORAGE FACILITIES Oil Storage Facilities § 113.4 Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. Unless the United...

  16. 40 CFR 113.4 - Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. 113.4 Section 113.4... SMALL ONSHORE STORAGE FACILITIES Oil Storage Facilities § 113.4 Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. Unless the United...

  17. 40 CFR 113.4 - Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. 113.4 Section 113.4... SMALL ONSHORE STORAGE FACILITIES Oil Storage Facilities § 113.4 Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. Unless the United...

  18. 40 CFR 113.4 - Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. 113.4 Section 113.4... SMALL ONSHORE STORAGE FACILITIES Oil Storage Facilities § 113.4 Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000 barrels or less capacity. Unless the United...

  19. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  20. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  1. Wave characteristic and morphologic effects on the onshore hydrodynamic response of tsunamis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apotsos, A.; Jaffe, B.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2011-01-01

    While the destruction caused by a tsunami can vary significantly owing to near- and onshore controls, we have only a limited quantitative understanding of how different local parameters influence the onshore response of tsunamis. Here, a numerical model based on the non-linear shallow water equations is first shown to agree well with analytical expressions developed for periodic long waves inundating over planar slopes. More than 13,000 simulations are then conducted to examine the effects variations in the wave characteristics, bed slopes, and bottom roughness have on maximum tsunami run-up and water velocity at the still water shoreline. While deviations from periodic waves and planar slopes affect the onshore dynamics, the details of these effects depend on a combination of factors. In general, the effects differ for breaking and non-breaking waves, and are related to the relative shift of the waves along the breaking–non-breaking wave continuum. Variations that shift waves toward increased breaking, such as steeper wave fronts, tend to increase the onshore impact of non-breaking waves, but decrease the impact of already breaking waves. The onshore impact of a tsunami composed of multiple waves can be different from that of a single wave tsunami, with the largest difference occurring on long, shallow onshore topographies. These results demonstrate that the onshore response of a tsunami is complex, and that using analytical expressions derived from simplified conditions may not always be appropriate.

  2. Onshore and Offshore Outsourcing with Agility: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussmaul, Clifton

    This chapter reflects on case study based an agile distributed project that ran for approximately three years (from spring 2003 to spring 2006). The project involved (a) a customer organization with key personnel distributed across the US, developing an application with rapidly changing requirements; (b) onshore consultants with expertise in project management, development processes, offshoring, and relevant technologies; and (c) an external offsite development team in a CMM-5 organization in southern India. This chapter is based on surveys and discussions with multiple participants. The several years since the project was completed allow greater perspective on both the strengths and weaknesses, since the participants can reflect on the entire life of the project, and compare it to subsequent experiences. Our findings emphasize the potential for agile project management in distributed software development, and the importance of people and interactions, taking many small steps to find and correct errors, and matching the structures of the project and product to support implementation of agility.

  3. Oil spill fluorosensing lidar for inclined onshore or shipboard operation.

    PubMed

    Karpicz, Renata; Dementjev, Andrej; Kuprionis, Zenonas; Pakalnis, Saulius; Westphal, Rainer; Reuter, Rainer; Gulbinas, Vidmantas

    2006-09-01

    An oil spill detection fluorosensing lidar for onshore or shipboard operation is described. Some difficulties for its operation arise from the inclined path of rays. This is due to the increased reflection of the laser beam at the air-water interface, the decreased fluorescence signal, and the increased background light when compared with other instruments having a close-to-nadir measuring geometry. The analysis of these problems shows that they significantly reduce the detection distance in the presence of a flat water surface. However, waves on the water surface weaken the influence of the laser beam reflections but at the same time cause a variable fluorescence signal, which makes specific signal processing necessary for increased detection ranges. A fluorescence data processing method is proposed that efficiently eliminates the background water column fluorescence from signals such as yellow substance. This enables oil fluorescence to be distinguished from variable natural water fluorescence. PMID:16912805

  4. Response to memorandum by Rowley and Dixon regarding U.S. Geological Survey report titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Applications pending for permanent permits to pump large quantities of ground water in Spring and Snake Valleys adjacent to Great Basin National Park (the Park) prompted the National Park Service to request a study by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the susceptibility of the Park's surface-water resources to pumping. The result of this study was published as U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5099 'Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada,' by P.E. Elliott, D.A. Beck, and D.E. Prudic. That report identified areas within the Park where surface-water resources are susceptible to ground-water pumping; results from the study showed that three streams and several springs near the eastern edge of the Park were susceptible. However, most of the Park's surface-water resources likely would not be affected by pumping because of either low-permeability rocks or because ground water is sufficiently deep as to not be directly in contact with the streambeds. A memorandum sent by Peter D. Rowley and Gary L. Dixon, Consulting Geologists, to the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) on June 29, 2006 was critical of the report. The memorandum by Rowley and Dixon was made available to the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the public during the Nevada State Engineer's 'Evidentiary Exchange' process for the recent hearing on applications for ground-water permits by SNWA in Spring Valley adjacent to Great Basin National Park. The U.S. Geological Survey was asked by the National Park Service to assess the validity of the concerns and comments contained in the Rowley and Dixon memorandum. An Administrative Letter Report responding to Rowley and Dixon's concerns and comments was released to the National Park Service on October 30, 2006. The National Park Service subsequently requested that the

  5. High-resolution Mapping of Offshore and Onshore Glaciogenic Features in Melville Bay, Northwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, F.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Greenwood, S.; Mayer, L. A.; Jakobsson, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents results from high resolution mapping in the northwestern part of Greenland's continental shelf, offshore from the Greenland Ice Sheet. The study area is located at about 74o30'N and 58 o40'W where high-resolution seafloor imagery were collected from ~200-500 m water depth. These data were analyzed and compared to existing high-resolution satellite imagery of exposed glacial landforms from the nearby coastal areas. Offshore geophysical mapping equipment consisted of a Kongsberg EM2040 multibeam that was bow-mounted on the sailing vessel Explorer of Sweden together with a Seatex MRU5+ motion sensor and GPS antennas. In addition, a GAVIA autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) from University of Iceland with installed Geoswath interfometric sonar and Marine Sonic side-scan was used. The data from these systems permitted the production of both 5-m (for the EM2040) and 2-m (for the Geoswath) resolution bathymetric grids for landform analyzes. Sediment characterization analysis was also undertaken using the co-registered backscatter data. The exposed onshore landforms were studied using data from the high-res QuickBird satellite images with a 2-m pixel resolution. Geomorphic analysis of the data shows that past tectonic and glacial scouring processes have shaped the present-day landscape in both the offshore and onshore study areas. The terrain consists of glacially eroded bedrock covered with very thin surficial sediments resembling a 'cnoc-and-lochan' terrain, although the degree of erosion varies spatially, probably as a result of local variations in the rock properties. Different glacially influenced features are identified and described in the study. These features have been used to understand and infer past ice-sheet processes, particularly ice-flow direction and the extent of ice-cover on the continental shelves from previous extreme glaciation events. The backscatter information from the high-resolution interferometric sonar show fine

  6. The preservation potential of onshore tsunami sediments - implications for hazard assessment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiske, M.; Piepenbreier, J.; Benavente, C. L.; Bahlburg, H.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, numerous post-tsunami surveys documented the characteristics of sedimentary and erosional features caused by onshore tsunami inundation. Even though unique sedimentological characteristics have not been recognized, the available data help to identify ancient tsunami deposits and to extend the tsunami record of a given coastal area back in time. Consequently recurrence intervals of tsunami and related hazards can be better constrained. However, the style of preservation and the extent of post-depositional and diagenetic changes of such deposits have not yet been thoroughly assessed. Here we present results of a survey of Holocene siliciclastic onshore tsunami sediments found in Peru and Chile. We explore how coastal topography, depositional environment, climate, syn- and post-seismic tectonic movements, and the mineralogical composition influence the style and extent of preservation of tsunami deposits. We report that sediments deposited in areas affected by seasonal rainfalls, such as hurricane seasons, wet winter months, or infrequent climate phenomena like El Niño events, will be altered and potentially removed shortly after an event. The rapid burial with post-tsunami sediments helps to protect the event deposits from surface modifications. Tsunami deposits, especially of the last or the greatest wave can possess an increased preservation potential, because they will not be affected by successive waves. This holds especially for sediments deposited on flat coastal plains where the backwash is either weak or channelized. A larger distance to the shoreline places deposits out of reach of normal wave and tide action. Eolian processes can erode sediments quickly, or smoothen and infill scoured surfaces. Coarser deposits may have a higher preservation potential compared to muddy deposits because they are less likely to be reworked by run-off or wind. By contrast, muddy tsunami deposits may escape erosion by wind in some areas because of the

  7. The 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, its seismic cycle, and postseismic hazard viewed from onshore geologic and geomorphic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, S.; Meghraoui, M.; Tsutsumi, H.; Ferry, M.; Haraguchi, T.; Mechernich, S.; Okumura, K.

    2012-12-01

    The great Tohoku-oki mega-thrust earthquake, which was significantly underestimated by seismologists, gives us an opportunity to understand the complex subduction process and associated seismic hazard. Our Japan-France (ANR-JST) research cooperative 'PALET' project of Tohoku-oki paleoseismology, addresses the issue of long-term faulting behaviour and earthquake prevision of the NE Japan coastline. The aim is to reveal the seismic cycle of M9 events, by investigating 1) paleo-tsunami record in Holocene deposits, 2) long-term behaviour of directly triggered inland normal faults, and 3) long-term deformation using marine terraces and comparison with the 2011 coseismic movements. Following the pioneering papers on the 869 A.D. Jogan tsunami in the Sendai to Fukushima region, we focus here on the Sanriku coast, north of the 2011 source. Previous paleotsunami studies (Haraguchi & Ishibe, 2009) performed at six sites are added to new surveys from Kesennuma area. Seven well-preserved paleo-tsunami horizons from 1,000 and 6,000 y.B.P were found at six onshore sites, yielding 500-700 years of recurrence intervals of extremely large tsunamis. A 35-m coring sample recovered from the Ozuchi Bay instead preserved 22 units of tsunami deposits during the past 8,000 years suggesting more frequent but relatively smaller tsunami events. Seismic hazard onshore influenced by the Tohoku-oki earthquake has been dramatically raised. A typical case is the Mw 6.6 Iwaki earthquake of 11 April 2011 with surface faulting. Our stress calculations suggest that the Tohoku-oki mainshock flipped stress field in the fore-arc region and promoted the normal faulting activity that had been extremely dormant before 2011. We mapped two sub-parallel surface ruptures (15-km long each) and then conducted paleoseismic trenches. We found evidence for the penultimate earthquake that occurred sometime between 12,600 and 17,400 y.B.P. However, since several other normal faults in the region share the similar

  8. 43 CFR 3183.5 - Participating area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participating area. 3183.5 Section 3183.5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Filing and Approval of Documents § 3183.5 Participating area. Two counterparts of a...

  9. 43 CFR 3183.5 - Participating area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participating area. 3183.5 Section 3183.5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Filing and Approval of Documents § 3183.5 Participating area. Two counterparts of a...

  10. 43 CFR 3183.5 - Participating area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participating area. 3183.5 Section 3183.5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS UNIT AGREEMENTS: UNPROVEN AREAS Filing and Approval of Documents § 3183.5 Participating area. Two counterparts of a...

  11. Bedrock geology of the northern Columbia Plateau and adjacent areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, D. A.; Wright, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau is surrounded by a complex assemblage of highly deformed Precambrian to lower Tertiary continental and oceanic rocks that reflects numerous episodes of continental accretion. The plateau itself is comprised of the Columbia River basalt group formed between about 16.5 x 1 million years B.P. and 6 x 1 million years B.P. Eruptions were infrequent between about 14 and 6 x 1 million years B.P., allowing time for erosion and deformation between successive outpourings. The present-day courses of much of the Snake River, and parts of the Columbia River, across the plateau date from this time. Basalt produced during this waning activity is more heterogeneous chemically and isotopically than older flows, reflecting its prolonged period of volcanism.

  12. Quaternary geology of the Channeled Scabland and adjacent areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    The quaternary history of the channeled scabland is characterized by discrete episodes of catastrophic flooding and prolonged periods of loess accumulation and soil formation. The loess sequence was correlated with Richmond's Rocky Mountain glacial chronology. At least five major catastrophic flood events occurred in the general vicinity of the channeled scabland. The earliest episode occurred prior to the extensive deposition of the Palouse formation. The last major episode of flooding occurred between about 18,000 and 13,000 years ago. It probably consisted of two outbursts from glacial Lake Missoula.

  13. Groundwater vulnerability to onshore unconventional and conventional hydrocarbon activities in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, Sian; Bloomfield, John; Ward, Rob; Davey, Ian; Hart, Alwyn

    2016-04-01

    In the last five years there has been a renewed interest in onshore oil and gas in England as new extraction technologies and continued energy demand have allowed for the development of less accessible resources. Until now, shale gas has received most attention in England although exploration licences have also been granted for coal bed methane and mine gas in addition to more conventional hydrocarbon resources. While there is some interest in underground coal gasification there are currently no licences granted. Potential impacts on groundwater from shale gas operations have been well publicised. Hazards include contamination from spills or leaks of frack-fluids and returned water, at the surface, through leaky wells or via subsurface pathways from the source rock, and the availability of water resources. Groundwater is an important resource in England, providing an average of 31% of water resources in England and Wales, and up to 100% in some areas of south-east England. In its role as the environmental regulator the Environment Agency must manage the risks associated with these hazards, and those associated with other onshore oil and gas activities, so that they are minimised. Here we focus on the groundwater contamination risk from source rocks though subsurface pathways. Despite the abundant literature emerging from the North American continent there remain great uncertainties as to the risk. These uncertainties are amplified when translated to Europe due to significant policy and geological differences. Research from North America indicates that risk is influenced by the exploitation and well completion methods and the geological setting, including: pre-existing fracture and fault networks; stress regime; petrological and rheological properties of the rock between the source and groundwater receptor and the distance between the source and receptors. A joint British Geological Survey/ EA project - iHydrogeology (http://www.bgs

  14. Determining littoral sediment transport paths adjacent to an eroding carbonate beach through net sediment grain-size trend analysis: Lanikai Beach, Hawaii.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochicchio, C. J.; Fletcher, C.; Vitousek, S.; Romine, B.; Smith, T.

    2007-12-01

    Identifying long-term trends of sediment transport in coastal environments is a fundamental goal shared by coastal scientists, engineers, and resource managers. Historical photographic analysis and predictive computer models have served as the primary approaches to charactering long-term trends in sediment flux. Net sediment grain-size trend analysis is an empirical, sedimentologically based technique that uses physical sediment samples to identify long-term sediment transport pathways. Originally developed by McLaren and Bowles (1985), net sediment grain-size trend analysis identifies progressive trends in grain-size parameters (mean size, sorting, and skewness) in sediment samples. Ultimately, the results give an indication of long-shore sediment transport, a visualization of individual littoral cells, and a better understanding of sediment processes in the near- shore region. We applied two methodologies put forth by Gao and Collins (1992) and Roux (1994) to 214 samples collected off Lanikai Beach, Hawaii; an excellent example of a coastal environment with chronic beach erosion. The Gao methodology searches point-to-point search for the two trend types used by McLaren. The Roux methodology simultaneously searches between five adjacent points for four trend types. Despite significant differences, similar trends dominate in both sets of results. The Gao methodology produces generalized trends while the Roux methodology shows finer details of sediment transport. Long-shore transport direction is shown to be northward for the majority of the study area, implying a sediment supply to the south. Therefore erosion is instigated if the sediment supply south of Lanikai Beach is cut off. A strong onshore sediment transport trend fails to accrete a beach in an armored section of the southern Lanikai coastline, demonstrating the erosive effect of increased wave refraction from coastal armoring. Results of the sediment trend analyses agree well with tidal current models

  15. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  16. Aeroelastic Instabilities of Large Offshore and Onshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bir, Gunjit; Jonkman, Jason

    2007-07-01

    Offshore turbines are gaining attention as means to capture the immense and relatively calm wind resources available over deep waters. This paper examines the aeroelastic stability of a three-bladed 5MW conceptual wind turbine mounted atop a floating barge with catenary moorings. The barge platform was chosen from the possible floating platform concepts, because it is simple in design and easy to deploy. Aeroelastic instabilities are distinct from resonances and vibrations and are potentially more destructive. Future turbine designs will likely be stability-driven in contrast to the current loads-driven designs. Reasons include more flexible designs, especially the torsionally-flexible rotor blades, material and geometric couplings associated with smart structures, and hydrodynamic interactions brought on by the ocean currents and surface waves. Following a brief description of the stability concept and stability analysis approach, this paper presents results for both onshore and offshore configurations over a range of operating conditions. Results show that, unless special attention is paid, parked (idling) conditions can lead to instabilities involving side-to-side motion of the tower, edgewise motion of the rotor blades, and yawing of the platform.

  17. Onshore Transport of Large Nearshore Boulders during Super Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A. B.; Mori, N.; Zhang, Y.; Tajima, Y.; Pecor, W.; Yasuda, T.; Chen, S. E.; Nakamura, S.; Cruz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan made a Philippines landfall in November, 2013 as one of the strongest storms in history. The coast of Eastern Samar Province has deep water very close to shore and experienced extreme wave conditions, with hindcast Hs>18m near landfall. These waves generated large shoreline runup, and caused severe damage to coastal communities even though hindcast storm surge was <1m at these locations. One consequence of the storm was the transport of very large (up to 5m length) boulders shoreward to elevations near 10m, where they were stranded as waves and surge diminished. This presentation describes a field survey of a boulder field on Calicoan Island, combined with Boussinesq simulation of the nearshore storm hydrodynamics and boulder transport modeling using a modified version of the Imamura et al. methodology. Results show highly intermittent shoreward boulder transport driven by infragravity runup, with both inertial and drag forces significant. Boulder transport distance was found to be sensitive to wave properties, enough so that it may in some instances be possible to estimate hydrodynamic properties of historical storms. The coastal boulder transport literature often features uncertainty about whether boulder fields with unknown origin were generated by storms or by tsunamis, and has suggested that coastal storms can not transport boulders very far inland. However, the present work demonstrates that the potential to transport large boulders far onshore to high inland elevations does not lie exclusively with tsunamis, but can also be achieved by strong tropical cyclones.

  18. LIDAR wind speed measurements at a Taiwan onshore wind park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ta-Hui; Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Ya-Fei; Tai, Tzy-Hwan; Huang, Chien-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of wind speed and wind direction were carried out using a Leosphere Windcube LIDAR system at a Taiwan onshore wind park. The Lidar shot a total of five laser beams to the atmosphere to collect the light-of-sight (LOS) velocity. Four beams were sent successively in four cardinal directions along a 28° scanning cone angle, followed by a fifth, vertical beam. An unchangeable sampling rate of approximately 1.2 Hz was set in the LIDAR system to collect the LOS velocity. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data from two GE 1.5 MW wind turbines near the LIDAR deployment site were acquired for the whole measuring period from February 4 to February 16 of 2015. The SCADA data include the blade angular velocity, the wind velocity measured at hub height from an anemometer mounted on the nacelle, the wind turbine yaw angle, and power production; each parameter was recorded as averages over 1-min periods. The data analysis involving the LIDAR measurements and the SCADA data were performed to obtain the turbulent flow statistics. The results show that the turbine power production has significant dependence to the wind speed, wind direction, turbulence intensity and wind shear.

  19. Lidar Measurements of On-Shore Wind Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. M.; Michael, P.; Raynor, G.

    1973-01-01

    The concept to place electric power generating stations on the oceans off the coast of the United States has instilled new efforts in research for improved understanding of the diffusion properties of the atmosphere in the ocean-air interface. The Atomic Energy Commission has instigated a program by the Meteorology Group at Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the low level, on-shore wind systems that dominate many of the coastal regions. Analytical techniques and specialized instrumentation from previous studies at Brookhaven are being used in this new program. The Brookhaven Lidar system is used to measure some of the physical properties of the oil-fog plume originating from a portable smoke generator on a boat off the coast. The oil-fog plume is used as a tracer which can be observed, photographed and measured to determine the diffusive power of the atmosphere associated with the ocean-air interface and the discontinuities found in the ocean-land boundary. This paper will describe the program rather briefly and the oil-fog scattering measurements that have been made with the Lidar system.

  20. Onshore Wind Farms: Value Creation for Stakeholders in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskienė, Marija; Rudzkis, Paulius; Kanopka, Adomas

    With the costs of fossil fuel consistently rising worldwide over the last decade, the development of green technologies has become a major goal in many countries. Therefore the evaluation of wind power projects becomes a very important task. To estimate the value of the technologies based on renewable resources also means taking into consideration social, economic, environmental, and scientific value of such projects. This article deals with economic evaluation of electricity generation costs of onshore wind farms in Lithuania and the key factors that have influence on wind power projects and offer a better understanding of social-economic context behind wind power projects. To achieve these goals, this article makes use of empirical data of Lithuania's wind power farms as well as data about the investment environment of the country.Based on empirical data of wind power parks, the research investigates the average wind farm generation efficiency in Lithuania. Employing statistical methods the return on investments of wind farms in Lithuania is calculated. The value created for every party involved and the total value of the wind farm is estimated according to Stakeholder theory.

  1. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  2. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power. PMID:22715929

  3. An evaluation of onshore digital elevation models for tsunami inundation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Kongko, W.; Harig, S.; Horspool, N.; Hanung, R.; Rojali, A.; Maher, N.; Fountain, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hossen, J.; Upi, S.; Dewanto, S. E.; Cummins, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami inundation models provide fundamental information about coastal areas that may be inundated in the event of a tsunami along with additional parameters such as flow depth and velocity. This can inform disaster management activities including evacuation planning, impact and risk assessment and coastal engineering. A fundamental input to tsunami inundation models is adigital elevation model (DEM). Onshore DEMs vary widely in resolution, accuracy, availability and cost. A proper assessment of how the accuracy and resolution of DEMs translates into uncertainties in modelled inundation is needed to ensure results are appropriately interpreted and used. This assessment can in turn informdata acquisition strategies depending on the purpose of the inundation model. For example, lower accuracy elevation data may give inundation results that are sufficiently accurate to plan a community's evacuation route but not sufficient to inform engineering of a vertical evacuation shelters. A sensitivity study is undertaken to assess the utility of different available onshore digital elevation models for tsunami inundation modelling. We compare airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR), ASTER and SRTM against high resolution (<1 m horizontal resolution, < 0.15 m vertical accuracy) LiDAR or stereo-camera data in three Indonesian locations with different coastal morphologies (Padang, West Sumatra; Palu, Central Sulawesi; and Maumere, Flores), using three different computational codes (ANUGA, TUNAMI-N3 and TsunAWI). Tsunami inundation extents modelled with IFSAR are comparable with those modelled with the high resolution datasets and with historical tsunami run-up data. Large vertical errors (> 10 m) and poor resolution of the coastline in the ASTER and SRTM elevation models cause modelled inundation to be much less compared with models using better data and with observations. Therefore we recommend that ASTER and SRTM should not be used for modelling tsunami

  4. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an...

  5. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an...

  6. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an...

  7. Marine magnetic survey and onshore gravity and magnetic survey, San Pablo Bay, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.; Denton, Kevin M.; Watt, Janet T.

    2016-09-12

    IntroductionFrom November 2011 to August 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 1,000 line-kilometers (length of lines surveyed in kilometers) of marine magnetic data on San Pablo Bay, 98 onshore gravity stations, and over 27 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data in northern California. Combined magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken to study subsurface geologic structures as an aid in understanding the geologic framework and earthquake hazard potential in the San Francisco Bay Area. Furthermore, marine magnetic data illuminate local subsurface geologic features in the shallow crust beneath San Pablo Bay where geologic exposure is absent.Magnetic and gravity methods, which reflect contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying San Pablo Bay. Exposed rock units surrounding San Pablo Bay consist mainly of Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, Great Valley sequence, Franciscan Complex rocks, Miocene sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated alluvium (Graymer and others, 2006). The contrasting magnetic and density properties of these rocks enable us to map their subsurface extent.

  8. An evaluation of onshore digital elevation models for modelling tsunami inundation zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Jonathan; Latief, Hamzah; Kongko, Widjo; Harig, Sven; Horspool, Nick; Hanung, Raditya; Rojali, Aditia; Maher, Nicola; Fuchs, Annika; Hossen, Jakir; Upi, Supriyati; Edi, Dewanto; Rakowsky, Natalja; Cummins, Phil

    2015-06-01

    A sensitivity study is undertaken to assess the utility of different onshore digital elevation models (DEM) for simulating the extent of tsunami inundation using case studies from two locations in Indonesia. We compare airborne IFSAR, ASTER and SRTM against high resolution LiDAR and stereo-camera data in locations with different coastal morphologies. Tsunami inundation extents modelled with airborne IFSAR DEMs are comparable with those modelled with the higher resolution datasets and are also consistent with historical run-up data, where available. Large vertical errors and poor resolution of the coastline in the ASTER and SRTM elevation datasets cause the modelled inundation extent to be much less compared with the other datasets and observations. Therefore ASTER and SRTM should not be used to underpin tsunami inundation models. a model mesh resolution of 25 m was sufficient for estimating the inundated area when using elevation data with high vertical accuracy in the case studies presented here. Differences in modelled inundation between digital terrain models (DTM) and digital surface models (DSM) for LiDAR and IFSAR are greater than differences between the two data types. Models using DTM may overestimate inundation while those using DSM may underestimate inundation when a constant Manning’s roughness value is used. We recommend using DTM for modelling tsunami inundation extent with further work needed to resolve the scale at which surface roughness should be parameterised.

  9. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  10. Palynofacies and palaeoenvironmental significance of the Albian - Cenomanian succession of the Epunsa-1 well, onshore Tano Basin, western Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta-Peters, D.; Achaegakwo, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Palynofacies analysis carried out on thirty-three (33) cutting samples between the intervals 2990-5960 ft from the Epunsa-1 well onshore Tano Basin, identified three palynofacies types (P-1 to P-3). Palynofacies 1 (P-1) reflects deposition in shallow marine environment adjacent to active fluvial sources under a mud-dominated oxic (distal shelf) condition, Palynofacies 2 (P-2) was deposited in a shallow marine to fluvio-deltaic environment under a heterolithic oxic shelf condition and Palynofacies 3 (P-3) was deposited in a fluvio-deltaic environment in proximity to the source of vegetation under a dysoxic shelf condition. Visual kerogen analysis and spore colour for evaluation of hydrocarbon potential and thermal maturation respectively indicate early mature oil/gas prone to immature gas prone source rocks in the studied interval in the Epunsa-1 well. The presence of Afropollis, Classopollis, Ephedripites, and elaterate pollen as well as pteridophytic fern spores suggest a paleoenvironment with parent plants inhabiting moist biotopes or wetlands in a humid and warm coastal plain in a semi-arid/arid climate. Biostratigraphically significant elaterate pollen and associated taxa indicate Albian - Cenomanian age for the sediments.

  11. Onshore and offshore basins of northeast Libya: Their origin and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Shegewi, O.M.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive data base of more than 3000 km of seismic lines, gravity and magnetic data, more than 30 subsurface well logs, and surface geology data were utilized to examine and interpret the sedimentary and tectonic history of the onshore and offshore parts of Northeast Libya and their hydrocarbon potential. The Dernah-Tobruk and Benghazi offshore basins form the northern parts of the study area. The Cyrenaica Stable Platform represents the southern parts. The Sirual Trough stretches E-W and opens into the Antelat Trough in the west. Between these elements is the uplifted areas of the Al Jabal Al Akhdar. Six principal tectonic phases were responsible for the formation and development of these structural elements: the pre-Mesozoic phase, the Triassic-Jurassic rifting phase, the Neocomian and the Aptian-Albian renewed rifting phases, the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene uplifting phase; and the Eocene-Middle Oligocene rifting phase. Oceanic crust of probable Aptian-Albian age is evident on the seismic lines north of the master fault marking the southern boundary of the rift separating the north African plate and Apulia. The western boundary of the Dernah High displayed clearly NE-SW strike-slip movement of these trajectories. Oceanic crust is also present west of the Dernah High. Positive gravity and magnetic anomalies traverse parallel to the boundary of this oceanic plate Mesogea. The prerequisites for commercial hydrocarbon production are present in abundance. Reservoirs ranging in age from Paleozoic clastics in the Cyrenaica Stable Platform to Mesozoic and Tertiary carbonates throughout the rest of the region. Several deep sites for the generation of hydrocarbons were also present, including the rifted northern parts of the Dernah-Tobruk basin, the Antelat Trough and the Cyrenaica Passive Margin. The Cretaceous and Tertiary section in the study area contain several potential seal rocks. Several potential trap types are also present.

  12. Pg shingles: preliminary results from the onshore GLIMPCE refraction experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereu, R. F.; Epili, D.; Green, A. G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1986, a series of near vertical Seismic reflection lines and coincident Seismic refraction lines were recorded across the Great Lakes in the GLIMPCE experiment. From a refraction point of view this experiment was unique as this was the first time in North America that long range refraction lines up to 350 km were recorded with a trace spacing of less than 100 metres. The source of energy was a large air gun. Some preliminary results of the nature of the onshore recordings made by the University of Western Ontario are presented in this paper. Observations of many of the in-line profiles show that the character of the Pg crustal phase is not simple but has a "shingle-like" pattern which may be caused by wide-angle reflection effects from numerous long and short reflectors within the crust. Theoretical studies indicate that the amplitudes of the wide-angle reflected signals from thin high-velocity layers are in general much larger than those from thin low-velocity layers. Supercritical reflected waves are not possible from the top of a low-velocity layer. The closely spaced traces show in minute detail the manner in which one travel-time branch fades and the next one arrives. The results seem to indicate that the Pg phase in our data set has little direct wave component but, instead, is made up of a whole series of "shingled or fish-scaled" wide-angle reflection components, each with successively larger apparent velocities. These results are in agreement with the findings of the near-vertical reflection component of the experiment.

  13. Tidal Energy System for On-Shore Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Allan J

    2012-06-26

    Addressing the urgent need to develop LCOE competitive renewable energy solutions for US energy security and to replace fossil-fuel generation with the associated benefits to environment impacts including a reduction in CO2 emissions, this Project focused on the advantages of using hydraulic energy transfer (HET) in large-scale Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems for harvesting off-shore tidal energy in US waters. A recent DOE resource assessment, identifies water power resources have a potential to meet 15% of the US electric supply by 2030, with MHK technologies being a major component. The work covered a TRL-4 laboratory proof-in-concept demonstration plus modeling of a 15MW full scale system based on an approach patented by NASA-JPL, in which submerged high-ratio gearboxes and electrical generators in conventional MHK turbine systems are replaced by a submerged hydraulic radial pump coupled to on-shore hydraulic motors driving a generator. The advantages are; first, the mean-time-between-failure (MTBF), or maintenance, can be extended from approximately 1 to 5 years and second, the range of tidal flow speeds which can be efficiently harvested can be extended beyond that of a conventional submerged generator. The approach uses scalable, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, facilitating scale-up and commercialization. All the objectives of the Project have been successfully met (1) A TRL4 system was designed, constructed and tested. It simulates a tidal energy turbine, with a 2-m diameter blade in up to a 2.9 m/sec flow. The system consists of a drive motor assembly providing appropriate torque and RPM, attached to a radial piston pump. The pump circulates pressurized, environmentally-friendly, HEES hydraulic fluid in a closed loop to an axial piston motor which drives an electrical generator, with a resistive load. The performance of the components, subsystems and system were evaluated during simulated tidal cycles. The pump is contained in a tank for

  14. The Relative Effects of Wave Climatology and Tidal Currents on Beach Processes Adjacent to a Major Tidal Inlet, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P. L.; Hanes, D. M.; Ruggiero, P.

    2004-12-01

    Identifying the processes that control the morphological evolution of beaches adjacent to tidal inlets is challenging due to the complex interactions between waves, currents, and bathymetry, each with high spatial and temporal variability. In the shadow of the large ebb tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, CA, the wave refraction patterns at Ocean Beach are complex and the effects of the offshore wave climate on beach and nearshore morphology cannot be assessed simply by analyzing data from an offshore wave buoy. Instead, the United States Geological Survey has employed a multi-faceted approach that links wave data with numerical modeling, periodic three- dimensional topographic beach surveys, cross shore bathymetric surveys using personal watercraft, onshore grain-size analysis using a bed sediment camera, and a multi-beam survey covering the entire mouth of San Francisco Bay. Initial analyses demonstrate that the spatial distribution of wave energy and direction controls short-term (i.e. days to years) beach evolution, including the location of erosional "hot spots." These conclusions are supported by topographic LIDAR surveys that covered the study area in 1997, 1998 and 2002, bracketing the last major El Niño/ Southern Oscillation cycles. In this study, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) modeling is combined with high resolution bathymetry and high resolution beach surveys to quantify short-term morphological change and to provide links to nearshore processes. Initial SWAN results show a focusing of wave energy at the location of an erosional hot-spot on the southern end of Ocean Beach during the prevailing northwest swell. During El Niño winters, swell out of the west and southwest dominates the region, and although the wave energy is focused further to the north on Ocean Beach, the oblique wave approach sets up a strong northerly littoral drift, thereby starving the southern end of sediment, leaving it increasingly vulnerable to wave attack when

  15. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  20. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  1. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  2. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  4. Integration of onshore and offshore seismological data to study the seismicity of the Calabrian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Guerra, Ignazio; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Gervasi, Anna; Harabaglia, Paolo; Luzio, Dario; Stellato, Gilda

    2014-05-01

    The Pollino Massif marks the transition from the Southern Appenninic to the Calabrian Arc. On the western side it is characterized by a moderately sized seismicity (about 9 M > 4 events in the last 50 years), well documented in the last 400 years. The moment tensor solutions available in this area yields, mainly, normal faults with coherent Southern Appeninic trend. This remains true also for the events that are localized on the calabrian side of Pollino, South of the massif. In most of the Sibari plane, seismic activity is very scarce, while it is again rather marked on its southeastern corner, both onshore and offshore. The above observations point to the perspective that the stress field of a vast portion of Northern Calabria still resembles that of the Southern Appenines. In this frame, it becomes important to investigate the offshore seismicity of the Sibari Gulf and the deformation pattern within the Sibari Plane. The latter might function as a hinge to transfer the deformation of the extensional fault system in the Pollino area to a different offshore fault system. Since return times of larger events might be very long, we need to investigate the true seismic potential of the offshore faults and to verify whether they are truly strike slip or if they could involve relevant thrust or normal components, that would add to the risk that of potentially associated tsunamis. Despite their importance in the understanding of the seismotectonic processes taking place in the Southern Appenninic - Calabrian Arc border and surrounding areas, the seismicity and the seismogenic volumes of the Sibari Gulf until now has not been well characterized due to the lack of offshore seismic stations. The seismicity of the Calabrian is monitored by the Italian National Seismic Network (INSN) managed by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and by the Calabrian Regional Seismic Network (CRSN) managed by the University of Calabria. Both the network comprise only on

  5. Origin, transport and deposition of leaf-wax biomarkers in the Amazon Basin and the adjacent Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, Christoph; Sawakuchi, André O.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Baker, Paul A.; Zabel, Matthias; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-11-01

    -chain n-alkanes from the Amazon estuary and plume represent an integrated signal of different regions of the onshore basin. Our results also imply that n-alkanes are not extensively remineralized during transport and that the signal at the Amazon estuary and plume includes refractory compounds derived from the western sector of the Basin. These findings will aid in the interpretation of plant wax-based records of marine sediment cores collected from the adjacent ocean.

  6. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 3 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection of...—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression...

  7. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing...

  8. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing...

  9. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection...-3 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural...

  10. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection...-3 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural...

  11. 40 CFR 60.5401 - What are the exceptions to the equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5401 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas... for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) You may comply with...

  12. 40 CFR 60.5401 - What are the exceptions to the equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment leak standards for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5401 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas... for affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) You may comply with...

  13. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405 Section 60.5405 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5405 What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 60.5402 - What are the alternative emission limitations for equipment leaks from onshore natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations for equipment leaks from onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5402 Section 60.5402 Protection... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production... onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) If, in the Administrator's judgment, an alternative means...

  15. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405 Section 60.5405 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5405 What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 60.5402 - What are the alternative emission limitations for equipment leaks from onshore natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations for equipment leaks from onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5402 Section 60.5402 Protection... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production... onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) If, in the Administrator's judgment, an alternative means...

  17. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  18. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Chul

    2015-01-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  19. Geologic framework of the offshore region adjacent to Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.N.; Roberts, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Several multichannel, common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection profiles concentrated in the area of the entrance to Delaware Bay provide a tie between the known onshore geology of the Coastal Plain of Delaware and the offshore geology of the Baltimore Canyon Trough. The data provide a basis for understanding the geologic framework and petroleum resource potential of the area immediately offshore Delaware. Our research has focused on buried early Mesozoic rift basins and their geologic history. Assuming that the buried basins are analogous to the exposed Newark Supergroup basins of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic age, the most likely possibility for occurrence of hydrocarbon source beds in the area of the landward margin of the Baltimore Canyon Trough is presumed to be lacustrine, organic-rich shales probably present in the basins. Although buried basins mapped offshore Delaware are within reach of drilling, no holes have been drilled to date; therefore, direct knowledge of source, reservoir, and sealing beds is absent. Buried rift basins offshore Delaware show axial trends ranging from NW-SE to NNE-SSW. Seismic reflection profiles are too widely spaced to delineate basin boundaries accurately. Isopleths of two-way travel time representing basin fill suggest that, structurally, the basins are grabens and half-grabens. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, bounding faults of the basins intersect or merge with low-angle fault surfaces that cut the pre-Mesozoic basement. The rift basins appear to have formed by Mesozoic extension that resulted in reverse motion on reactivated basement thrust faults that originated from compressional tectonics during the Paleozoic. Computer-plotted structure contour maps derived from analysis of seismic reflection profiles provide information on the burial history of the rift basins. The postrift unconformity bevels the rift basins and, in the offshore area mapped, ranges from 2000 to 12,000 m below present sea level. The oldest

  20. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  1. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  2. 40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1A Table W-1A of Subpart W—Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production Onshore petroleum...

  3. Detrital zircon geochronology and provenance analysis applied to the onshore Makran accretionary wedge, SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Burg, J.; Winkler, W.; Ruh, J. B.; Von Quadt, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Makran is one of the largest accretionary wedges in the world, located in Southeast Iran. The Makran Basin is composed of turbidity sediments ranging in age from late Cretaceous to Holocene. The analysis of detrital zircons is important to interpret the provenance of the sediments and to clarify the geological history of the sedimentary basins and their surrounding source regions. We present about 2777 new U-Pb ages (ICP laser ablation mass spectrometry) from individual detrital zircons of 18 sandstone samples collected throughout the onshore Makran. 101 detrital zircon ages from a late Cretaceous fine grained sandstone ranges from 180-160 Ma (Mid-Jurassic). 478 detrital zircon ages obtained from the mid to late Eocene sandstone reveals different sources for the NE and NW parts of the Makran Basin. Zircon grains in the NE basin belong to two populations peaked at Mid-Jurassic and Mid-Eocene, with the noticeable absence of Cretaceous grains. In the NW basin, detrital zircons are Mid-Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene. 587 detrital zircon grains from fine to medium grained Oligocene sandstones collected in different parts of the basin range from Mid-Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene. 1611 detrital zircon age from Early Miocene sandstones collected in the eastern and western parts of the basin show distinctly different detrital zircon ages. They range from Mid-Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene in the eastern basin, from Late Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene in the west. Detrital zircon ages from Mid and Late Miocene sandstones rang from Late Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene. These new detrital zircon U-Pb age data show that the eastern and western parts of the Makran Basin received sediments from different source areas during Eocene and Early Miocene times. Mid and Late Miocene sediment are recycled (cannibalism) from the Oligocene units of the basin.

  4. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  5. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  6. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  7. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  8. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  9. Onshore-offshore trends in benthic faunal change: drive by clade origination

    SciTech Connect

    Bottjer, D.J.; Jablonski, D.

    1985-01-01

    Higher taxa in Phanerozoic benthic communities appear to arise preferentially in nearshore habitats and expand outwards across the continental shelf. This pattern is demonstrably independent of sea-level fluctuations, and could be driven by a variety of evolutionary processes, including: 1) differential origination of novelties nearshore; and 2) equal occurrence of innovations across the shelf, but with offshore novelties more extinction-prone than onshore novelties in the early phases of diversification. To test these mechanism, it is necessary to analyze the pattern on a clade-by-clade basis, rather than leaving the clades embedded within their communities. Review and synthesis of the literature indicates that a number of clades have their first species originating onshore with a subsequent history that shows either (A) migration offshore while losing onshore components or (B) expansion offshore while persisting onshore. In a detailed study of pattern A the authors have compiled presence/absence data for the crinoid order Isocrinida in 70 post-Paleozoic benthic communities, which shows migration across the shelf in the mid-Mesozoic. These studies show that different, contemporaneous clades proceeded across the shelf at different times and rates; no evidence is found for cohesive community migration. The supposed pattern of community migration may be an epiphenomenon, underlain by individualistic clade histories that appear to act in concert when viewed on a coarse time scale.

  10. 30 CFR 210.155 - What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Management (BLM) under 43 CFR 3103.4-2 must submit Form MMS-4377, Stripper Royalty Rate Reduction Notification, under 43 CFR 3103.4-2(b)(3). (b) Reporting options. You may find Form MMS-4377 on our Internet..., Gas, and Geothermal Resources § 210.155 What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper...

  11. Cenomanian-Turonian organic facies in the western Mediterranean and along the adjacent Atlantic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnt, W.; Herbin, J.P.; Thurow, J.; Wiedmann, J.

    1988-08-01

    Pre-Cenomanian sediments of the western Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic margin are characterized by low total organic content (TOC) with an important terrestrial component. During the Cenomanian, TOC increased and the marine component became dominant, culminating around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary with TOC up to 40%. After the Turonian, organic-rich sediments progressively disappeared and were replaced by more oxygenated sediments. Study methods include considering data from outcrops, DSDP/ODP sites, or petroleum wells. Detailed data from onshore locations allowed the development of high-resolution stratigraphy, analysis of depositional environment, and calculation of sedimentation rates. Analysis of these data indicates Cenoamnian-Turonian organic-rich sediments can be observed in a wide range of bathymetric settings. They are widespread in the western Mediterranean and Atlantic and have been especially studied in Italy (Apennines, southern Alps), Tunisia (Bahloul), Algeria, Morocco (Rif Mountains, Atlas Mountains, Tarfaya), Gibraltar arch, Spain (Betics, Bay of Biscay, Galicia margin), Senegal (Cape Verde basin, Casamance), and Nigeria (Benue, Calabar flank).

  12. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  13. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false TRIDENT Basin adjacent to... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.600 TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape... at latitude 28°24′37″, longitude 80°35′26″ and the entire basin. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  14. Contents, seasonal variations, and forms of migration of major and minor elements in surface waters in the area of the Tyrnyauz Tungsten-Molybdenum Combine (TTMC) and adjacent areas (Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Russian Federation) and actions for recovery of the ecological environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Karamurzov, B. S.; Gazeev, V. M.; Lexin, A. B.; Shevchenko, A. V.; Dolov, S. M.; Dudarov, Z. I.

    2016-04-01

    Anomalous concentrations of numerous major and minor elements significantly exceeding the threshold limit values (TLV) for drinking water were registered in the area of the Tyrnyauz Tungsten-Molybdenum Combine (TTMC). The maximal excess of the TLV (by one or two orders of magnitude) were obtained for Mo (up to 11 mg/L), W (4.4 mg/L), As (1.5 mg/L), Mn (8.4 mg/L), and Tl (up to 3.3 μg/L) in water of the Bolshoi Mukulan Brook flowing through the mines and three brooks flowing out from the base of the embankment of the tailing store no. 1. They are the major pollutants for water of the Baksan River. Upon flowing out to the plain, water of the Baksan River shows significant excess of the TLVs (in summer) for Al, Fe, Mn, Be, Si, Ti, Tl, and Hg.

  15. Comparison of onshore Bouguer anomalies with GOCE Satellite Data in two sections of the Andes: at 29°S and at 39°S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, O.; Gimenez, M.; Braitenberg, C.; Martinez, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the present work we compare the Bouguer anomaly obtained from onshore measurements with the Bouguer anomaly obtained from satellite GOCE data along two well known sections of the Andes, at 29°18'S and at 38°45'S. The first gravimetric section, published by Martinez et al. (2006), describes a gravity and altimetric profile that extends over a distance surpassing 800km in Argentina, at 29°18'S. Using gravimetric inversion methods a crustal model was obtained which is in accordance with the main regional geologic structures. This model fits with a dominant collision mechanism that affected ancient blocks and is a two-layer crustal model with lateral density variations. The Chilenia, Cuyania, Famatina System, Pampia and River Plate cratons were detected. From the gravimetric signal we identify beyond doubt the suture zone between the Precordillera and the Famatina System Ranges, as well as the shear zone between the latter ranges and the Velasco Range. The maximum crustal thickness determined beneath the Andean Cordillera at this latitude is 69 km, whereas under the Famatina System and the Velasco Ranges the values obtained are, respectively, 56 km and 46.5 km. The second profile was published by Folguera et al., (2008). The western retroarc of the Southern Andes between 38° and 40°S is formed by a NNW-elongated ridge not associated with stacked thrust sheets. On the contrary, during the last 4-3 Ma this ridge was affected by extensional deformation, regional uplift and related folding on a very broad scale. Receiver function analysis shows that the drainage divide area and adjacent retroarc lie over an attenuated crust. Normal crustal thickness at these latitudes is around 42km, whereas in this part of the retroarc the thickness is less than 32km. The causes for such attenuation have been linked to a moderate steepening of the subducted Nazca plate beneath South American plate, which is suggested by a westward shift and narrowing of the arc during the last 5Ma

  16. High resolution mapping of offshore and onshore glaciogenic features in metamorphic bedrock terrain, Melville Bay, northwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Francis; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Mayer, Larry; Egilsson, Arnar; Thorsteinsson, Tómas; Jakobsson, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Geomorphological studies of previously glaciated landscapes are important to understand how ice sheets and glaciers respond to rapidly changing climate. Melville Bay, in northwestern Greenland, contains some of the most sensitive but least studied ice sheet sectors in the northern hemisphere, where the bathymetric knowledge previously was restricted to a few sparsely distributed single beam echo soundings. We present here the results of high-resolution, geomorphological mapping of the offshore and onshore landscapes in Melville Bay using multibeam sonar and satellite data, at 5- and 10-m resolutions respectively. The results show a similar areally-scoured bedrock-dominated landscape with a glacially modified cnoc-and-lochan morphology on the inner shelf (150-500 m depth) and on the nearby exposed coast. This is manifested by the presence of U-shaped troughs, moutonée-type elongated landforms, stoss-and-lee forms, and streamlined features. The submarine landscape shows features that are characteristic of bedrock in folded, faulted, and weathered metamorphic terrain, and, to a lesser extent, glacially molded bedforms; while coastal landforms exhibit higher relief, irregular-shaped basins, and more subdued fracture valleys. Although generally similar, the onshore and offshore landscapes contain examples of distinctly different landform patterns, which are interpreted to reflect a longer exposure to long-term deep weathering as well as to more recent periglacial weathering processes on land. The spatial variability in the distribution of landforms across the landscape in both study areas is mostly attributed to differences in lithological properties of the bedrock. The lack of sediment cover on the inner shelf is likely a result of a capacity for sediment erosion and removal by the West Greenland Current flowing northward over the area in combination with limited sediment supply from long sea ice-cover seasons. The distribution and orientation of the landforms in the

  17. Adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Binbin

    2012-03-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lip. It is a common benign lesion in the oral region. Although there are many conservative treatments such as the creation of a pouch (marsupialization), freezing (cryosurgery), micromarsupialization, and CO2 laser vaporization, surgical resection is the most commonly used means. Generally speaking, an elliptic incision was made to fully enucleate the lesion along with the overlying mucosa and the affected glands, then direct suturing is adequate. However, in some cases, direct suturing could cause lower lip deformity, and adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection might be quite necessary. Based on our experience, adjacent mucosal flaps could be used when lesions were close to or even break through the vermilion border or their diameters were much more than 1 cm. A-T advancement flaps and transposition flaps were the mostly applied ones. Follow-up showed that all patients realized primary healing after 1 week postoperatively with satisfactory lower lip appearance, and there was no sign of increasing incidence of relapse. PMID:22421867

  18. Effects of mass-wasting on the stratigraphic architecture of a fjord-valley fill: Correlation of onshore, shear-wave seismic and marine seismic data at Trondheim, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Louise; L'Heureux, Jean-Sébastien; Sauvin, Guillaume; Polom, Ulrich; Lecomte, Isabelle; Vanneste, Maarten; Longva, Oddvar; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2013-05-01

    A combined record of onshore, high-resolution, shear-wave seismic and marine, P-wave seismic data shows the near-shore stratigraphic organisation of a fjord-valley fill at Trondheim, central Norway. The overall stratigraphy shows a typical fjord-valley fill of up to 160 m in thickness that is composed of glaciomarine and fjord-marine sediments overlain by deltaic deposits which, in the onshore section, are draped by an anthropogenic fill. An interval characterised by low shear-wave velocities below the onshore, anthropogenic fills is shown by sampled drillings to comprise part clay and part organic deposits. The seismic record reveals evidence of recurrent mass-wasting events that include landslide debris, turbidite deposits and channel features. A chronological framework for the stratigraphy is provided by existing radiocarbon dates for local deglaciation and mass-wasting events. The combined onshore-offshore datasets document the Lateglacial to Holocene development of an emerging fjord and delta system affected by major, mass-wasting events. The architectural development of the younger part of the stratigraphy is interpreted as particularly affected by two, known mass-wasting events each involving several million m3 of debris. A thick layer of debris from a 3500 cal yr event probably resulted in a blockage of the subaqueous channels, diversion of turbidity currents and deposition of lateral accretion packages, whereby local fjord sedimentation temporarily increased. A 2200 cal yr event resulted in a sudden reorganisation of the distributary system whereby distal delta sedimentation abruptly shifted north- to northeastwards to an area temporarily subjected to marine erosion during fall of relative sea level. The study adds to the understanding of landslides and low-stiffness zones in the area of importance for near-shore geohazard assessment. The study also provides insight into the stratigraphic variability of fjord-valley fills, and highlights the interplay

  19. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Bernstein, G. H.; Porod, W.

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing.

  20. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  1. Correlation of offshore seismic profiles with onshore New Jersey Miocene sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteverde, D.H.; Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    The New Jersey passive continental margin records the interaction of sequences and sea-level, although previous studies linking seismically defined sequences, borehole control, and global ??18O records were hindered by a seismic data gap on the inner-shelf. We describe new seismic data from the innermost New Jersey shelf that tie offshore seismic stratigraphy directly to onshore boreholes. These data link the onshore boreholes to existing seismic grids across the outer margin and to boreholes on the continental slope. Surfaces defined by age; facies, and log signature in the onshore boreholes at the base of sequences Kw2b, Kw2a, Kw1c, and Kw0 are now tied to seismic sequence boundaries m5s, m5.2s, m5.4s, and m6s, respectively, defined beneath the inner shelf. Sequence boundaries recognized in onshore boreholes and inner shelf seismic profiles apparently correlate with reflections m5, m5.2, m5.4, and m6, respectively, that were dated at slope boreholes during ODP Leg 150. We now recognize an additional sequence boundary beneath the shelf that we name m5.5s and correlate to the base of the onshore sequence Kw1b. The new seismic data image prograding Oligocene clinoforms beneath the inner shelf, consistent with the results from onshore boreholes. A land-based seismic profile crossing the Island Beach borehole reveals reflector geometries that we tie to Lower Miocene litho- and bio-facies in this borehole. These land-based seismic profiles image well-defined sequence boundaries, onlap and downlap truncations that correlate to Transgressive Systems Tracts (TST) and Highstand Systems Tracts (HST) identified in boreholes. Preliminary analysis of CH0698 data continues these system tract delineations across the inner shelf The CH0698 seismic profiles tie seismically defined sequence boundaries with sequences identified by lithiologic and paleontologic criteria. Both can now be related to global ??18O increases and attendant glacioeustatic lowerings. This integration of core

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  7. New York and New Jersey area contingency plan. Change 4

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-24

    Change 4 updates the Area Contingency Plan, which describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State, and local response to a discharge of oil or a release of hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, New York.

  8. DEROCS: A computer program to simulate offshore oil and natural gas development scenarios and onshore service base requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Philip A.; Smith, E.T.; Robinson, S.R.; Wong, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The FORTRAN IV (H) computer program, DEROCS, constructs Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) resource development scenarios and quantifies the requirements for and impacts of the operation of the onshore service bases necessary to support offshore oil and gas operations. The acronym DEROCS stands for 'Development of Energy Resources of the Outer Continental Shelf.' The user may specify the number, timing, and amounts of offshore oil and natural gas finds, onshore service base locations, and multiplier relationships between offshore development activities and onshore land, supply, labor and facility requirements. The program determines schedules of platform installation, development drilling, production from platforms, and well workover, and calculates on a yearly basis the requirements for and impacts of the operation of the onshore service bases demanded by offshore activities. We present two examples of program application.

  9. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  10. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-01-01

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented. PMID:27515618

  11. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  12. Magnetic anomalies northeast of Cape Adare, northern Victoria Land (Antarctica), and their relation to onshore structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damaske, D.; Läufer, A.L.; Goldmann, F.; Möller, H.-D.; Lisker, F.

    2007-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey was flown over the offshore region northeast of Cape Adare and the magnetic anomalies compared to onshore structures between Pennell Coast and Tucker Glacier. The magnetic anomalies show two nearly orthogonal major trends. NNW-SSE trending anomalies northeast of Cape Adare represent seafloor spreading within the Adare Trough. A connection of these anomalies to the Northern Basin of the Ross Sea is not clear. Onshore faults are closely aligned to offshore anomalies. Main trends are NW-SE to NNW-SSE and NE-SW to NNESSW. NNW-SSE oriented dextral-transtensional to extensional faults parallel the Adare Peninsula and Adare Trough anomalies. NE-SW trending normal faults appear to segment the main Hallett volcanic bodies.

  13. Oil and gas possibilities onshore and offshore Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Keese, G.O.

    1984-09-01

    Nearly half of the total area of the Republic of Ghana is covered by sedimentary rocks. These rocks are found mainly in four different parts of the country: Tano basin, Keta basin, Voltaian basin, and the continental shelf. Because oil seeps in saturated superficial sands were found in the Tano basin, efforts to find oil in Ghana started as far back as 1896 in this basin, which is located at the extreme southwestern part of Ghana and has an area of 1165 km/sup 2/ (450 mi/sup 2/). The Keta basin, located at the extreme southeastern part of Ghana, has an area of 2200 km/sup 2/ (850 mi/sup 2/). The continental shelf of Ghana is at the southern part of the country and has an area of 27,562 km/sup 2/ (10,640 mi/sup 2/). The possibility of finding oil and/or gas at the extreme western part of the continental shelf cannot be overemphasized. The expansive Voltaian sedimentary basin, located in the central part of Ghana, covers an area of about 103,600 km/sup 2/ (40,000 mi/sup 2/). Although no trace of hydrocarbon was found in the only well that has been drilled so far in this basin, the presence of traces of bitumen in some parts of the basin indicates that, despite of its age, the basin might prove to be an oil province. The recent discovery of oil in the Ivory Coast means that it is possible to find oil or gas in Ghana, inasmuch as Ghana's petroleum potential is closely associated with that of the Ivory Coast basin, which extends for 560 km (300 mi) along the entire Ivory Coast and persists eastward into Ghana for an additional 320 km (200 mi), terminating in the area directly west of Accra.

  14. Seismic architecture of the Chalk Group from onshore reflection data in eastern Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Julien; Anderskouv, Kresten; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars; Stemmerik, Lars; Surlyk, Finn; Thibault, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Cretaceous-Danian chalk is well exposed in the 14 km long coastal cliff of Stevns Klint (eastern Denmark). The cliff is a world renowned for its spectacular exposure of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Based on regional geological knowledge of the field and cores, the characteristics of the Chalk Group have been well constrained. Distinct sedimentary facies have been encountered; the sedimentology, the biostratigraphy, the diagenesis and the reservoir properties have been thoroughly investigated and reported. Stimulated by the intensive geological research, the field studies have been completed with the acquisition of an extensive set of subsurface data. The data include high resolution 2D multichannel seismics onshore and offshore, a seismic refraction profile, two entirely cored boreholes including wireline logs, GPR cross-hole tomography, thermographic analysis, etc. We intend to compile and merge the geological and geophysical datasets to investigate the variation of the Chalk Group properties and their signature in the subsurface. In this communication, the seismic reflection data are being analysed. Very high resolution litho-, bio- and cyclostratigraphy can be correlated with the seismic stratigraphy. Several seismic facies are identified in the Chalk Group: the 'transparent' (white chalk), the stratified (marl-chalk alternations), the crudely stratified (flint-rich chalk) and the hummocky (bryozoan mounds). The units notably vary in thickness at a relatively small scale. The variations confirm the complex shelf organisation which was highly influenced by bottom currents. In addition to the stratigraphic observations, peculiar deformation structures can be recognised. The area has been supposedly tectonically stable since deposition as the coastal cliff lacks fault offset but the succession has been uplifted of c. 1 km. The main fracture patterns are associated with the recent unloading of the ice, opening shallow horizontal fractures

  15. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs via Dynamic Instrumentation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castellvi, Antonio E.; Huang, Hao; Vestgaarden, Tov; Saigal, Sunil; Pienkowski, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional (rigid) fusion instrumentation is believed to accelerate the degeneration of adjacent discs by increasing stresses caused by motion discontinuity. Fusion instrumentation that employs reduced rod stiffness and increased axial motion, or dynamic instrumentation, may partially alleviate this problem, but the effects of this instrumentation on the stresses in the adjacent disc are unknown. We used a finiteelement model to calculate and compare the stresses in the adjacent-level disc that are induced by rigid and dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation. Methods A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the lumbar spine was obtained that simulated flexion and extension. The L5–S1 segment of this model was fused, and the L4–L5 segment was fixed with rigid or dynamic instrumentation. The mechanical properties of the dynamic instrumentation were determined by laboratory testing and then used in the finite-element model. Peak stresses in the lumbar discs were calculated and compared. Results The reduced-stiffness component of the dynamic instrumentation was associated with a 1% to 2% reduction in peak compressive stresses in the adjacent-level disc (at 45° flexion), and the increased axial motion component of this instrumentation reduced peak disc stress by 8% to 9%. Areas of disc tissue exposed to 80% of peak stresses of 6.17 MPa were 47% less for discs adjacent to dynamic instrumentation than for those adjacent to rigid instrumentation. Conclusions Reduced stiffness and increased axial motion of dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation designs result in an approximately 10% cumulative stress reduction for each flexion cycle. The effect of this stress reduction over many cycles may be substantial. Clinical Relevance The cumulative effect of this reduced amplitude and distribution of peak stresses in the adjacent disc may partially alleviate the problem of adjacent-level disc degeneration. PMID:25802582

  16. Active Tectonics along the Carboneras Fault (SE Iberian Margin): Onshore-Offshore Paleoseismological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, X.; Masana, E.; Gràcia, E.; Pallàs, R.; Santanach, P.; Dañobeitia, J. J.; Party, I.

    2006-12-01

    The southern margin of the Iberian Peninsula hosts the convergent boundary between the European and African Plates. At the eastern Betic Cordillera, the Neogene and Quaternary shortening has mainly been absorbed by left-lateral strike-slip faults, which in the Iberian Peninsula is represented by the Eastern Betics Shear Zone (EBSZ). One of the longest structures in the EBSZ is the Carboneras Fault, with almost 50 km onshore and more than 100 km offshore. The low record seismicity along its trace, suggest either non seismic behaviour or long recurrence intervals (104 years). The aim of this work is an integrated onshore-offshore neotectonic and paleoseismological study of the Carboneras Fault Zone to characterize its seismic potential. The onshore study was made through regional geological and geomorphological analysis, geophysical prospecting, microtopography, trenching, and dating (14 C, U/Th, TL). Onshore macro and microstructures as beheaded and offset alluvial fans and S-C microstructures in the fault zone reveals a Quaternary left-lateral strike-slip motion combined with a vertical component along the fault. Trenching reveals this fault is seismogenic, with at least four late Quaternary events. The oldest occurred between 54.9 and 32.2 ka BP, the second one between 40.9 and 27.1 ka BP, and the two most recent events occurred between 30.8 and 0.875 ka BP. The thickness of the colluvial wedges suggest a Mw=7 for the first and Mw=6.6 for the second event. The mean recurrence rate is 14 ka, and the minimum elapsed time is 875 years. The offshore portion, studied by high-resolution marine geophysical methods, shows very similar strike-slip structures. The marine paleoseismic data will be integrated with the onland results in order to accurately determine the recent activity and seismic parameters of the entire Carboneras Fault.

  17. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economicmore » method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.« less

  18. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economic method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.

  19. An Experimental Investigation on the Interferences among Multiple Turbines in Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei; Ozbay, Ahmet; Hu, Hui

    2013-11-01

    We report an experimental study to investigate the wake interferences among multiple wind turbines on onshore and offshore wind farms. The experimental studies are conducted in a large-scale Aerodynamic/Atmospheric Boundary Layer (AABL) Wind Tunnel with an array of scaled three-blade Horizontal Axial Wind Turbine (HAWT) models placed in atmospheric boundary layer winds with different mean and turbulence characteristics to simulate the situations in onshore and offshore wind farms. In addition to measuring dynamic wind loads (both forces and moments) and the power outputs of the scaled turbine models, a Particle Image Velocity (PIV) system is used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to quantify the turbulent wake vortex flows and the wake interferences among the wind turbines sited over onshore and offshore wind farms with non-homogenous surface winds. The detailed flow field measurements are correlated with the dynamic wind loads and power output measurements to elucidate underlying physics in order to gain further insight into the characteristics of the dynamic wind loads and wake interferences among multiple wind turbines for higher total power yield and better durability of the wind turbines. The research work is funded by NSF and IAWIND.

  20. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  1. Onshore-Offshore Fault Correlation: An Integrated Approach for Understanding Basin Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. A.; Bergh, S.; Henningsen, T.; Olesen, O.

    2008-12-01

    The Lofoten and Vesterålen passive continental margin in north Norway records prolonged rifting during the Mesozoic, leading to final separation and formation of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea in the early Eocene. The islands of Lofoten and Vesterålen represent exposed basement highs, being an integral part of this margin. This makes it the ideal location for onshore-offshore investigations. In this study we integrate offshore seismic data and stratigraphy, bathymetry, potential field data onshore- offshore, onshore lineament analysis, digital elevation models, AFT age data and fault/fracture mapping. This allows us to correlate the offshore and onshore fault system(s), infer timing and kinematics of rifting, and investigate potential basement control of fault development. Our results indicate that the Mid/Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous rifting initiated in the Callovian (possibly Bathonian) as a result of E-W directed extension, and was followed by a period of tectonic quiescence or reduced tectonic activity in Volgian to Berriasian times, with renewed rifting in the Valanginian lasting up to the late Early Cretaceous. These rifting events resulted in the development of major fault-bounded basins, delineated by N-S to NNE-SSW striking normal faults linked by ENE-WSW striking transfer faults, together defining a zig-zag fault pattern in map view. Onshore the ENE-WSW striking fault zones tend to follow pre- existing (ductile) basement fabric while the N-S to NNE-SSW striking faults often cut the basement fabric. This indicates that the pre-existing basement fabric played an important role in localizing zones of fault segment linkage and basin segmentation. In the Late Cretaceous the margin was uplifted and eroded until the final rifting event, due to NNW-SSE directed extension, was initiated in the latest Cretaceous and resulted in final breakup in the early Eocene. This last rifting event reactivated and utilized some of the more distal NE-SW to ENE-WSW striking

  2. Seismic activity offshore Martinique and Dominica islands (Central Lesser Antilles subduction zone) from temporary onshore and offshore seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M.; Galve, A.; Monfret, T.; Sapin, M.; Charvis, P.; Laigle, M.; Evain, M.; Hirn, A.; Flueh, E.; Gallart, J.; Diaz, J.; Lebrun, J. F.

    2013-09-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of a unique set of seismological data recorded by two temporary networks of seismometers deployed onshore and offshore in the Central Lesser Antilles Island Arc from Martinique to Guadeloupe islands. During the whole recording period, extending from January to the end of August 2007, more than 1300 local seismic events were detected in this area. A subset of 769 earthquakes was located precisely by using HypoEllipse. We also computed focal mechanisms using P-wave polarities of the best azimuthally constrained earthquakes. We detected earthquakes beneath the Caribbean forearc and in the Atlantic oceanic plate as well. At depth seismicity delineates the Wadati-Benioff Zone down to 170 km depth. The main seismic activity is concentrated in the lower crust and in the mantle wedge, close to the island arc beneath an inner forearc domain in comparison to an outer forearc domain where little seismicity is observed. We propose that the difference of the seismicity beneath the inner and the outer forearc is related to a difference of crustal structure between the inner forearc interpreted as a dense, thick and rigid crustal block and the lighter and more flexible outer forearc. Seismicity is enhanced beneath the inner forearc because it likely increases the vertical stress applied to the subducting plate.

  3. Offshore and onshore liquefaction at Moss Landing spit, central California - result of the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.G.; Chase, T.E.; Hicks, K.R. ); Gardner-Taggart, J.; Ledbetter, M.T.; Barminski, R. ); Baxter, C. )

    1991-09-01

    As a result of the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta (Santa Cruz Mountains, California) earthquake, liquefaction of the fluvial, estuarine, eolian, and beach sediments under a sand spit destroyed the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories and damaged other structures and utilities. Initial studies suggested that the liquefaction was a local phenomenon. More detailed offshore investigations, however, indicate that it occurred over a large area (maximum 8 km{sup 2}) during or shortly after the earthquake with movement of unconsolidated sediment toward and into the head of Monterey submarine canyon. This conclusion is supported by side-scan sonographs, high-resolution seismic-reflection and bathymetric profiles, onshore and sea-floor photographs, and underwater video tapes. Many distinct lobate features were identified on the shallow shelf. These features almost certainly were the result of the October 17 earthquake; they were subsequently destroyed by winter storms. In addition, fresh slump scars and recently dislodged mud debris were found on the upper, southern wall of Monterey submarine canyon.

  4. Sandy signs of a tsunami's onshore depth and speed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, K.; Bourgeois, J.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Lynett, P.; Jaffe, B.; Yeh, H.; Weiss, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tsunamis rank among the most devastating and unpredictable natural hazards to affect coastal areas. Just 3 years ago, in December 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami caused more than 225,000 deaths. Like many extreme events, however, destructive tsunamis strike rarely enough that written records span too little time to quantify tsunami hazard and risk. Tsunami deposits preserved in the geologic record have been used to extend the record of tsunami occurrence but not the magnitude of past events. To quantify tsunami hazard further, we asked the following question: Can ancient deposits also provide guidance on the expectable water depths and speeds for future tsunamis?

  5. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  6. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Pacific (Southern California) and their onshore impacts: a summary report, May 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macpherson, George S.; Bernstein, Janis

    1980-01-01

    Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas exploration and development have been under way in the Pacific (Southern California) Region since 1966. During that time, there have been four Federal lease sales: in 1966, 1968, 1975 (Sale 35), and 1979 (Sale 48). Oil and gas production from three leases has been going on since 1968. It peaked in 1971 and now averages around 31,400 barrels of oil and 15.4 million cubic feet of gas per day. Discoveries on areas leased in the 1968 and 1975 sales have led to plans for eight new platforms to begin production in the early 1980's. Five platforms are in the eastern end of Santa Barbara Channel, one is in the western Channel, and two are in San Pedro Bay, south of Long Beach. Three rigs are doing exploratory drilling in the Region. The most recent estimates by the U.S. Geological Survey of remaining reserves for all identified fields in the Southern California Region are 695 million barrels of oil and 1,575 billion cubic feet of gas (January 1979). The USGS has also made risked estimates of economically recoverable oil and gas resources for all the leased tracts in the Region (March 1980). These risked estimates of economically recoverable resources are 394 billion barrels of oil and 1,295 billion cubic feet of gas. The USGS estimates of undiscovered recoverable resources for the entire Southern California OCS Region (January 1980) are 3,200 million barrels of oil and 3,400 billion cubic feet of gas. Because of the long history of oil and gas production in Southern California from wells onshore and in State waters, there are many existing facilities for the transportation, processing, and refining of oil and gas. Some of the expected new OCS production can be accommodated in these facilities. Four new onshore projects will be required. Two of these are under construction: (1) a 9.6-km (6-mi) onshore oil pipeline (capacity: 60,000 bpd) between Carpinteria (Santa Barbara County) and the existing Mobil-Rincon separation and treatment

  7. Effects of different boundary conditions and palaeotopographies on the onshore response of tsunamis in a numerical model - A case study from western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röbke, B. R.; Schüttrumpf, H.; Vött, A.

    2016-08-01

    Hydrodynamic numerical models are essential in modern tsunami hazard assessment. They allow the economical simulation of possible tsunami scenarios for areas at risk and provide reliable and detailed insights into local onshore dynamics. This is especially true when simulations are calibrated with field traces of past tsunami inundation events. Following this approach, the current study focuses on palaeotsunami events indicated by sedimentary and geomorphological field traces in the northern Gulf of Kyparissia (NW Greece). Based on three different digital elevation models (DEM) - reflecting the recent and two palaeotopographies - various tsunami wave constellations according to the solitary and N-wave theory are numerically simulated. The main objective is to investigate the effects of both, different palaeotopographies and boundary conditions on the tsunami onshore response in the numerical model. Tsunami landfall related to N-waves is found to be considerably stronger compared to solitary waves. This phenomenon, known as the N-wave effect, is demonstrated for the first time in a specific study area. Inundation dynamics are even stronger affected by the different palaeotopographies, which is due to substantial vertical crust movements in the northern Gulf of Kyparissia considered in the palaeo-DEMs. By applying different waveforms and palaeotopographies, the model achieves close agreement with field observations, altogether revealing a significant tsunami hazard for the Gulf of Kyparissia, which is in contrast to conventional numerical studies of the area. The marked differences between the presented scenarios emphasise the need to consider a wide variety of possible hydrodynamic boundary conditions and probable topographical conditions in order to find scenarios in plausible accordance with palaeotsunami field traces. Once a plausible scenario is found it can be applied to the recent topography in view of a reliable modern hazard assessment.

  8. Macrobenthos of Yenisei Bay and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Trawl samples were collected in the northern region of Yenisei Bay and adjacent parts of the Kara Sea shelf. A total of eight stations were taken. We found more than 200 species of benthic organisms. A consecutive replacement of benthic communities is observed when going to the north from the Ob and Yenisei estuaries to the open parts of the sea. We could distinguish four different species complexes in the investigated area: a brackish-water complex where Saduria entomon is dominant; an intermediate complex where S. sibirica, S. sabini and Portlandia aestuariorum are dominant; a transitional complex with P. arctica as a dominant species and with a small amount of Ophiocten sericeum; a marine complex where O. sericeum is dominant. When salinity increased, some brackish-water species were replaced by related euryhaline species. One such example was the replacement of brackish-water Saduria entomon isopods by two euryhaline species: S. sibirica and S. sabini. The consecutive replacement of benthic communities showed a break near Sverdrup Island. In this area the marine complex was replaced by a transitional complex with P. arctica.

  9. SPERTI Reactor Pit Building (PER605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Reactor Pit Building (PER-605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument Cell (PER-606). Security fencing surrounds complex, to which gate entry is provided next to Guard House (PER-607). Note gravel road leading to control area. Earth-covered conduit leads from instrument cell to terminal building out of view. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: June 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1701 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Bering Sea summary report: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Bering Sea and their onshore impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, J.; Pierson, R.; Kurz, F.

    1983-09-01

    Two federal offshore oil-and-gas lease sales have been held in the Bering Sea Subregion. Lease Sale 57, Norton Basin, was held on March 15, 1983. Lease Sale 70, St. George Basin, was held on April 12, 1983. The sale offered 479 tracts, of which 97 received bids. The Department of the Interior has indicated that it will accept 96 of the 97 high bids; however, to date, leases have not been awarded. The Department of the Interior was enjoined from issuing leases by the US District Court of Alaska because of possible impacts from postlease preliminary seismic activities on gray and right whales. In accordance with the Court's ruling, leases cannot be issued until the completion of a supplemental environmental impact statement, which is anticipated to occur in November 1983. Six lease offerings in the Bering Sea Subregion are scheduled through 1987. Six deep stratigraphic test wells are the only wells drilled to date in the Bering Sea Subregion. To date, oil companies have not submitted exploration plans for the Norton Basin Planning Area. Exploration in Norton Basin could begin in the summer of 1984, at the earliest. Exploration plans cannot be submitted for the St. George Basin Planning Area until the leases are awarded. At this time, various onshore areas are being considered as possible support bases for offshore oil-and-gas exploration. At this stage, before exploratory drilling has occurred and in the absence of a commercial discovery, plans for transporting petroleum from the Bering Sea to markets in the United States are unclear. The current estimates of risked resources for lands leased in Lease Sale 57, Norton Basin, are 33 million barrels of oil and 110 billion cubic feet of gas. Lease Sale 70, St. George Basin, estimates of risked resources for leased lands are 27 million barrels of oil and 310 billion cubic feet of gas. 55 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Late quaternary sea level changes of Gabes coastal plain and shelf: Identification of the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, southern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gzam, Maher; Mejdoub, Noureddine El; Jedoui, Younes

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf of the Gulf of Gabes is outlined, during the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, by the genesis of forced regressive beach ridges situated respectively at -19 m b.s.l/100 ka and -8 m b.s.l/80 ka. This area, considered as a stable domain since at least the last 130 ka (Bouaziz et al. 2003), is a particular zone for the reconstruction of the late quaternary sea-level changes in the region. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and field observations are highlighted to deduce interaction between hydrodynamic factors and antecedent topography. Variations in geomorphology were attributed to geological inheritance. Petrography and sedimentary facies of the submerged coastal ridges reveal that the palaeocoastal morphology was more agitated than today and the fluvial discharges are consistent. Actual morphologic trend deduced from different environment coasts (sandy coasts, sea cliffs and tidal flat) is marked by accumulation of marine sands and progradation.

  12. Beach characteristics mitigate effects of onshore wind on horseshoe crab spawning: Implications for matching with shorebird migration in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Jackson, N.L.; Nordstrom, K.F.; Weber, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of food availability by unfavorable physical processes at energetically demanding times can limit recruitment of migratory species as predicted by the match-mismatch hypothesis. Identification and protection of disruption-resistant habitat could contribute to system resilience. For example, horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus spawning and shorebird stopover must match temporally in Delaware Bay for eggs to be available to shorebirds. Onshore winds that generate waves can create a mismatch by delaying horseshoe crab spawning. We examined effects of beach characteristics and onshore winds on spawning activity at five beaches when water temperatures were otherwise consistent with early spawning activity. Onshore winds resulted in reduced spawning activity during the shorebird stopover, when spawning typically peaks in late May. During the period with high onshore wind, egg density was highest on the foreshore exposed to the lowest wave heights. Onshore wind was low in early June, and spawning and egg densities were high at all sites, but shorebirds had departed. Beaches that can serve as a refuge from wind and waves can be identified by physical characteristics and orientation to prevailing winds and should receive special conservation status, especially in light of predicted increases in climate change-induced storm frequency. These results point to a potential conservation strategy that includes coastal management for adapting to climate change-induced mismatch of migrations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Animal Conservation ?? 2011 The Zoological Society of London.

  13. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  14. The Crustal Structure of Northern Continental Margin of South China Sea: Revealed by Joint Onshore-Offshore Wide-Angle Seismic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J.; Sun, J.; Xia, S.; Xu, H.

    2015-12-01

    The northern margin of South China Sea (SCS) is a rifted margin which located in the jointing area between South China Block and SCS Basin, it not only preserved the information about intensive tectonic deformation and magmatism generated by the west Pacific subducted to Eurasian Plate in late Mesozoic, but also recorded the process from continental margin rifting to seafloor spreading of SCS in Cenozoic for the same mechanical property. To investigate crustal structure of northern margin of SCS, a wide-angle onshore-offshore seismic experiment and a coincident multi-channel seismic (MCS) profile were carried out in the northern margin of SCS, 2010. A total of 14 stations consisted of ocean bottom seismometers, portable and permanent land stations were deployed during the survey. The two-dimensional precise crustal structure model of Pearl River Estuary (PRE) region was constructed from onshore to offshore. The model reveals that South mainland of China is a typical continental crust with a 30-32 km Moho depth, and a localized high-velocity anomaly in middle-lower crust under land area near Hong Kong was imaged, which may reflect magma underplating caused by subduction of paleo-Pacific plate in late Mesozoic. The Littoral Fault Zone (LFZ) lies 12 km south of Dangan Island with a width of 18-20 km low-velocity fracture zone from surface to Moho discontinuity. The shelf zone south of LFZ was consisted of a differential thinning upper and lower continental crust, which indicate stretch thinning of passive continent margin during the Cenozoic spreading of the SCS. All these results appear to further confirm that the northern margin of SCS experienced a transition from active margin to passive one from late Mesozoic to Cenozoic.

  15. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  16. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  18. Seabed drifter movement in San Diego Bay and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Robert R.; Wallace, William J.

    1982-06-01

    The seabed drifter has been used successfully to provide valuable information in many estuarine and open sea environments. It was therefore selected for use in the San Diego area. Five hundred drifters were released in San Diego Bay and adjacent ocean waters to delineate bottom flow patterns. Four significant bottom drift regimes are differentiated: off-coastal, main bay channel, open and semi-enclosed docking basins. Mean residual bottom drift ranged between 0·17km day -1 off the coast to essentially zero in the docking basins. Off-coast drifter results (31% recovery) showed a persistent northmoving bottom current with shallow near-coast drift distances between 4 and 25 km. This nearshore north moving bottom current appears to cause a net bottom water inflow into the main San Diego Bay channel (44% recovery). In the open bay a reverse trend was observed from the 16% of the drifters recovered. At the head of the estuary, evaporative densification is believed to occur, with the heavier water sinking and moving outward, towards the estuary mouth, resulting in an area of opposing bottom water currents. In this area San Diego Gas and Electric power plant takes in an average 150 million gallons of cooling water daily which, discharged as warm surface water, is suggested as the surface divergence mode required to reconcile the observed flow. With the three San Diego Bay electric power plants utilizing more than 5% of the maximum tidal prism for cooling purposes, this flow may play a major role in the overall bay circulation and requires quantitative investigation.

  19. Hg bioaccumulation in marine copepods around hydrothermal vents and the adjacent marine environment in northeastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Shih-Hui; Fang, Tien-Hsi

    2013-09-15

    The Hg concentration in seawater and copepod samples collected from the area around hydrothermal vents at Kueishan Island and the adjacent marine environment in northeastern Taiwan were analyzed to study Hg bioaccumulation in copepods living in polluted and clean marine environments. The seawater collected from the hydrothermal vent area had an extremely high concentration of dissolved Hg, 50.6-256 ng l(-1). There was slightly higher Hg content in the copepods, 0.08-0.88 μg g(-1). The dissolved Hg concentration in the hydrothermal vent seawater was two to three orders of magnitude higher than that in the adjacent environment. The bioconcentration factor of the studied copepods ranged within 10(3)-10(6), and showed higher dissolved concentration as the bioconcentration factor was lower. A substantial abundance, but with less copepod diversity was recorded in the seawater around the hydrothermal vent area. Temora turbinata was the species of opportunity under the hydrothermal vent influence.

  20. Roles of the Mendocino Transform, Vizcaino Block, and Onshore King Range Terrane in Evolution of the Northern San Andreas Fault System and Its Associated Slab Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, R. J.; Barth, G. A.; Scheirer, D. S.; Hoover, S. M.; Trehu, A. M.; Jencks, J.

    2014-12-01

    We integrate recent seismic reflection, geochemical and radiometric age data from basalts and sedimentary rocks along the Mendocino Transform (MT) and Gorda Escarpment, with basalt ages and biostratigraphy from the Miocene King Range terrane (KRT) of the Franciscan Complex, to better link the onshore and offshore geology and clarify how the northernmost San Andreas Fault (SAF) evolved. The MT extends eastward from the Gorda Ridge spreading center, along the S side of the Gorda Plate, to the edge of the North American plate (NAP) and separates the Cascadia subduction zone to the north, from the modern SAF to the south. Between 127.5º W and the shoreline, the MT and Mendocino Ridge (MR) align with the N side of the S-tilted Vizcaino structural block (VB), a remnant of NAP captured by the Pacific plate ~12 Ma, when the MT was 480 km S of its present location. The modern SAF bounds the NE-side of the VB. The SW side of the VB is bounded at the base of the continental slope by the proto-San Andreas fault (PSAF), where extinct remnants of the Pacific-Farallon ridge (PFR) interacted with the paleosubduction margin to form an incipient transform and several microplates, now part of the Pacific plate. Capture of the VB resulted from inboard breaking of the MT with a jump of the PSAF to the modern SAF. Dated ~20-12 Ma basaltic rocks from the MR between ~125º-128º W may be partly exhumed slab window underplating that formed beneath the VB during breakup of the PFR along the PSAF. High Fe and Ti relative to Mg in MR and KRT basalts, suggest eruption near ridge-transform intersections and perhaps, intratransform spreading.Onshore, high KRT relief aligns with the MR offshore. The KRT was assembled ~16-15 Ma (basalt K-Ar age; biostratigraphy); followed by its complex deformation and zeolitic metamorphism, indicating subduction to 5-8 km depth ~15-14 Ma and thermal metamorphism ~13.8 Ma (K-Ar age; vitrinite reflectance). The thermal overprint sets the KRT apart from adjacent

  1. High pressurized CO2 release CFD calculations from onshore pipeline leakages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Nicoleta; Gorenz, Paul; Egbers, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Emissions from high pressurized pipelines can be determined on the basis of hydrodynamical and thermophysical calculations of the escaped fluid. If a rupture occurs when CO2 is onshore transported in liquid form there will be initially a large pressure drop in the pipeline, the pressure will fall until the liquid becomes a mixture of saturated vapor/liquid. In the vicinity of the rupture, liquid CO2 will escape and immediately vaporize and expand, some of the liquid will desublimate into dry ice, which will precipitate onto the ground [1, 2]. The period of time taken for a large amount of carbon dioxide to be discharged would be short. Initially CO2 will escape by pushing the overlying soil upwards at an explosion-like speed. After the pressure in the pipe fell the flow profile of the escaping gas will almost be as described for gaseous material transport. The expansion of carbon dioxide will occur at sonic speed and will continue to do so until the pressure ratio between the CO2 and the ambient air is lower than about 1.9 [3]. As a result of the expansion also the temperature of the escaping gas will fall drastically and a cloud of cold gas will form which is then dispersed and slowly mixed with ambient air. The rate of emptying the pipeline is controlled by the pipe cross-section area and the speed of the escaping gas, or by the pressure difference between the pipeline and the atmosphere. Therefore the mass flow will be largest immediately after the accident with an exponential decay in time. In this study a two-phase model is applied to a high pressurized pipeline through which liquid carbon dioxide flows. A leakage is considered to be at different positions along the pipeline and the release pressure is calculated over several parameter ranges. It is also intended to characterize from hydrodynamical point of view the dispersion of released CO2 in the ambient medium by means of CFD simulations which includes multiphase flow treatment. For that a turbulent two

  2. Geomechanical analysis of a welding salt layer and its effects on adjacent sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Mahdi; Nikolinakou, Maria A.; Hudec, Michael R.; Flemings, Peter B.

    2016-06-01

    We simulate welding of the source layer of a salt diapir with a forward finite-element model and study stresses and deformation in the salt layer and the diapir, as well as in their adjacent sediments. Welded salt layers are abundant in mature salt basins, where most or all of the salt has withdrawn into diapirs. However, there is little understanding of the stress field in these layers and their adjacent sediments. We show that salt flow along the source layer leads to significant stress anomalies inside the layer and in adjacent sediments. In the source layer, salt pressure becomes higher than overburden stress in nearly welded areas and becomes lower than overburden stress in adjacent thicker areas. When the source layer welds, stresses increase significantly in sediments near the weld tip, which helps compaction of these sediments and possibly their fracturing and faulting. Our model illustrates that all sediments overlying the weld experience this stress increase and the associated material changes as the weld tip propagates along the weld. We present natural examples fitting our predictions and discuss the importance of our results for the exploration, characterization, and production of reservoirs near welded salt layers.

  3. Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

    1994-01-01

    Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  4. 30 CFR 250.258 - What information on the onshore support facilities you will use must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS... onshore support facilities are existing, to be constructed, or to be expanded; and (2) For DPPs only... expanding any of the onshore support facilities. (b) Air emissions. A description of the source,...

  5. 40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1B Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98—Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major equipment...

  6. 40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1B Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98—Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major equipment...

  7. Structural development of the southern basin, onshore Trinidad: Implications for hydrocarbon entrapment

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, L.J.; Bierley, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    Episodic compressional deformation across onshore southern Trinidad formed a complex spectrum of fold timing and fold types. Successful oil traps are not related to a specific time interval of structural formation, a specific oil expulsion event or a specific fold morphology. Traps that retained hydrocarbons may be related to seal facies. The tectono-stratigraphic section of onshore southern Trinidad, south of the Central Ranges, is comprised of three generalized depositional packages. Firstly, a southerly sourced Cretaceous to late Oligocene passive margin sequence of deepwater sands, shales and marls; secondly, a northerly sourced late Oligocene through middle Miocene syntectonic sequence of shallow to deep-water sands and shales; and thirdly, a west-southwesterly sourced late Miocene through Pleistocene shelfal sequence. Observations of compressional structures that folded these sediments during an early period of compressional deformation 25-10 million years before present suggest that all mudrock lithofacies could act as effective seals and trap hydrocarbons. Subsequent structural modification that occurred during a late period of compressional deformation between 5 million years and present day caused refolding and refaulting of these traps. Restructured traps that were sealed by brittle, Mesozoic deep-water facies failed and hydrocarbons migrated to shallower structural levels. Restructured folds that were sealed by ductile, Tertiary shallow-water facies retained trap fill.

  8. A vector auto-regressive model for onshore and offshore wind synthesis incorporating meteorological model information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D.; Bell, K. R. W.; McMillan, D.; Infield, D.

    2014-05-01

    The growth of wind power production in the electricity portfolio is striving to meet ambitious targets set, for example by the EU, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020. Huge investments are now being made in new offshore wind farms around UK coastal waters that will have a major impact on the GB electrical supply. Representations of the UK wind field in syntheses which capture the inherent structure and correlations between different locations including offshore sites are required. Here, Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) models are presented and extended in a novel way to incorporate offshore time series from a pan-European meteorological model called COSMO, with onshore wind speeds from the MIDAS dataset provided by the British Atmospheric Data Centre. Forecasting ability onshore is shown to be improved with the inclusion of the offshore sites with improvements of up to 25% in RMS error at 6 h ahead. In addition, the VAR model is used to synthesise time series of wind at each offshore site, which are then used to estimate wind farm capacity factors at the sites in question. These are then compared with estimates of capacity factors derived from the work of Hawkins et al. (2011). A good degree of agreement is established indicating that this synthesis tool should be useful in power system impact studies.

  9. Integrated onshore-offshore investigation of a Mediterranean layered coastal aquifer.

    PubMed

    Lofi, Johanna; Pezard, Philippe; Bouchette, Frédéric; Raynal, Olivier; Sabatier, Pierre; Denchik, Nataliya; Levannier, Arnaud; Dezileau, Laurent; Certain, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Most of the Mediterranean coastal porous aquifers are intensively exploited. Because of climatic and anthropogenic effects, understanding the physical and geological controls on groundwater distribution and flow dynamics in such aquifers is crucial. This study presents the results of a structural investigation of a system located along the coastline of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). A key aspect of this study relies on an onshore-offshore integrated approach combining outcrops, seismic profiles, and borehole data analysis. This multidisciplinary approach provides constraints on pore-fluid salinity distribution and stratigraphic organization, which are crucial in assessing the modes of groundwater/seawater exchanges. Onshore, Lower Pliocene deposits dip gently seaward. They are unconformably overlain by Holocene clays in the lagoons. Offshore the Pliocene deposits either outcrop at the seabed or are buried below nonconsolidated sands infilling paleo-valleys. Beneath the lido, the groundwater salinity distribution consists of salty pore water, overlying fresher pore water. Active circulation of groundwater masses is inferred from the geophysical results. In particular, offshore outcrops and paleo-valleys may play an important role in salt water intrusion. PMID:23163402

  10. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  11. 33 CFR 334.270 - York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted area. 334.270 Section 334.270 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.270 York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center... point on shore at Cheatham Annex Depot at latitude 37°17′14″ N., longitude 76°35′38″ W.; thence to...

  12. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of...

  13. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of...

  14. Evaluation of the potential of the Clare Basin, SW Ireland, for onshore carbon sequestration using electromagnetic geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Joan Campanya i.; Ogaya, Xenia; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker; Ledo, Juanjo; McConnell, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture, sequestration and long-term storage (CCS) is a critically important and intellectually and technologically challenging bridging technology for assisting humanity to migrate from its dependence on fossil fuels to green energy over the next half century. The IRECCSEM project (www.ireccsem.ie) is a Science Foundation Ireland Investigator Project to evaluate Ireland's potential for onshore carbon sequestration in saline aquifers by integrating new electromagnetic geophysical data with existing geophysical and geological data. The main goals of the project are to determine porosity and permeability values of the potential reservoir formation as well as to evaluate the integrity of the seal formation. During the summer of 2014, a magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in the Carboniferous Clare Basin (SW Ireland). Data from a total of 140 sites were acquired, including audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), broadband magnetotelluric (BBMT) and long period magnetotelluric (LMT) data. These new data added to existing MT data acquired at 32 sites during a feasibility pilot survey conducted in 2010. The nominal space between the 2014 sites was 0.6 km between AMT sites, 1.2 km between BBMT sites and 8 km between LMT sites. The electrical resistivity distribution beneath the survey area was constrained using three different types of electromagnetic data: MT impedance tensor responses (Z), geomagnetic transfer functions (GTF) and inter-station horizontal magnetic transfer-functions (HMT). A newly-computed code based on the Generalized Archie's Law and available data from boreholes were used to relate the obtained geoelectrical model to rock properties (i.e. porosity and permeability). The results are compared to independent geological and geophysical data for superior interpretation.

  15. Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Childers

    2011-03-30

    Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

  16. Cutaneous plasmacytoma adjacent to Bowenoid actinic keratosis on the scalp: Is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    Mosea, A.; Millwaters, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous extramedullary plasmacytoma without bone marrow involvement is very rare. We present a plasmacytoma on the scalp with an adjacent Bowenoid disease. Presentation An 86 year old man presented to our unit with an ulcerated lump on the vertex of the scalp. Excisional biopsy showed plasmacytoma with adjacent Bowenoid actinic keratosis. Blood tests did not show any systemic multiple myeloma. However, skeletal survey showed possible osteolytic lesions in some areas. Sixteen months afterwards, the patient remains well on follow up. Discussion As far as we know, this is the first reported case of a cutaneous plasma cell tumour next to an area of Bowenoid actinic keratosis. Relevant literature is investigated here for possible correlation. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, solitary primary cutaneous plasmacytoma can be treated surgically with a favourable outcome. A hypothesis of correlation between Bowenoid actinic keratosis and plasmacytoma is investigated here. Further research is needed to confirm this finding. PMID:26930256

  17. 75 FR 81846 - Expansion of the Santa Maria Valley Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... during the summer growing season, the marine air moves onshore, passing through low-elevation passes in... shows that growing season totals for 2004 in the original viticultural area and in the expansion area... growing season, 1 growing degree day accumulates for each degree Fahrenheit that a day's mean...

  18. Area contingency plan for Plymouth to Salisbury, MA, changes 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-07

    Changes 1-3 update the Area Contingency Plan (ACP). The ACP describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State, and local response to a discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, Boston.

  19. Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts area contingency plan, updated through change 4

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-27

    Change 4 updates the Area Contingency Plan, which describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State, and Local response to a discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, Providence.

  20. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  1. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  2. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  3. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  5. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  6. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  7. 2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. 7; THIS CONTROL GATE IS A 1980s RECONSTRUCTION. - Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lift Lock No. 7 & Control Gate, East side of DuPage River, Channahon, Will County, IL

  8. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  9. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 28. TOP VIEW OF CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO BRIDGE, CATENARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. TOP VIEW OF CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  14. GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM DREY STREET PLANT, INSIDE WELCOME WALL - Chambers Window Glass Company, Warehouse & Shipping, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. 10. SLATE PATIO ADJACENT TO SOUTH PORCH OF HOUSE, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLATE PATIO ADJACENT TO SOUTH PORCH OF HOUSE, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF REAR PORCH. SHED IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Butt Valley Dam, Gate Tender's House, Butt Valley Reservoir Road, Caribou, Plumas County, CA

  16. Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance of the northwest wing - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  18. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  20. 31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING WEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA