Science.gov

Sample records for adjacent open water

  1. Declining extent of open-water refugia for top predators in Baffin Bay and adjacent waters.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L

    2004-12-01

    Global climate change is expected to severely impact Arctic ecosystems, yet predictions of impacts are complicated by region-specific patterns and nonuniform trends. Twentyfour open-water overwintering areas (or "microhabitats") were identified to be of particular importance for eight seabird and marine mammal species in the eastern Canadian High Arctic and Baffin Bay. Localized trends in the available fraction of open-water were examined in March during 1979--2001, derived from approximate sea ice concentrations from satellite-based microwave telemetry. Declines in the fraction of open-water were identified at microhabitats in Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, coastal West Greenland, and Lancaster Sound. Increases in open-water were observed in Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin. The biological importance of each microhabitat was examined based on species distribution and abundance. Potential consequences of reduced open-water for top marine predators include impacts on foraging efficiency and oxygen and prey availability.

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  7. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. Open water bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2016-03-01

    A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.

  10. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  11. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  12. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  13. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  14. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  15. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  16. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  17. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  18. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  19. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  20. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  1. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  2. A Faster, Unbiased Path Opening by Upper Skeletonization and Weighted Adjacency Graphs.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Teo; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L

    2016-12-01

    The path opening is a filter that preserves bright regions in the image in which a path of a certain length L fits. A path is a (not necessarily straight) line defined by a specific adjacency relation. The most efficient implementation known scales as O(min(L, d, Q) N) with the length of the path, L , the maximum possible path length, d , the number of graylevels, Q , and the image size, N . An approximation exists (parsimonious path opening) that has an execution time independent of path length. This is achieved by preselecting paths, and applying 1D openings along these paths. However, the preselected paths can miss important structures, as described by its authors. Here, we propose a different approximation, in which we preselect paths using a grayvalue skeleton. The skeleton follows all ridges in the image, meaning that no important line structures will be missed. An H-minima transform simplifies the image to reduce the number of branches in the skeleton. A graph-based version of the traditional path opening operates only on the pixels in the skeleton, yielding speedups up to one order of magnitude, depending on image size and filter parameters. The edges of the graph are weighted in order to minimize bias. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm scales linearly with image size, and that it is often slightly faster for longer paths than for shorter paths. The algorithm also yields the most accurate results-as compared with a number of path opening variants-when measuring length distributions.

  3. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an...

  4. Selected ground-water information for the Pasco basin and adjacent areas, Washington, 1986-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, B.W.; Schurr, K.M.; Lum, W. E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, conducted a study of the Pasco basin and adjacent areas, Washington, in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project at the Hanford site, Washington. The purpose of the study was to develop a data set that would help define the groundwater-flow system of the Pasco Basin. This report contains the basic data, without interpretation, that were collected from the start of the project in February 1986 through January 1989. Information presented is from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, State of Washington Department of Ecology , US Army Corps of Engineers, Kennewick Irrigation District, and the Survey, and consists of well location and construction data, records of water levels in the wells, and aquifer designations for each well. The aquifer designation represents the geohydrologic unit to which the well is reported to be open. (USGS)

  5. Water resources of Okaloosa County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trapp, Henry; Pascale, C.A.; Foster, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Okaloosa County, in the northwest Florida panhandle, uses the Floridan aquifer for water supply, although it also has abundant surface water and ground water in the surficial sand-and-gravel aquifer. Water levels have declined locally more than 90 feet in the upper limestone of the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is overlain by the Pensacola clay confining bed, and the Bucatunna Clay subdivides it into two limestone units. Water in the upper limestone is generally of good quality. The lower limestone probably contains saline water. Average daily stream discharge is about 2,500 million gallons. Stream discharge does not diminish excessively during droughts, owing to high base runoff. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer will decline as long as pumping increases in the present areas of withdrawal. The decline could be alleviated by redistribution of pumping, artificial recharge, and the use of the sand-and-gravel aquifer or streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  7. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  8. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  9. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  10. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  11. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 35744, June 20, 2011. (a... conduct lightering operations within these anchorages. (c) Vineyard and Nantucket Sounds—(1) Anchorage...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  16. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters... REGULATIONS § 334.420 Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. (a) Bombing and rocket firing area in Pamlico Sound in vicinity of Brant Island—(1) The area. The...

  17. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters... REGULATIONS § 334.420 Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. (a) Bombing and rocket firing area in Pamlico Sound in vicinity of Brant Island—(1) The area. The...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and... Sound and adjacent waters, Washington (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension of enforcement. The tank... Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of the enforcement of the tank...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and... Sound and adjacent waters, Washington (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension of enforcement. The tank... Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of the enforcement of the tank...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and... Sound and adjacent waters, Washington (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension of enforcement. The tank... Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of the enforcement of the tank...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of the enforcement of the tank ship... ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and... Sound and adjacent waters, Washington (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension of enforcement. The...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  11. Oyster Shell Dredging in Atchafalaya Bay and Adjacent Waters, Louisiana. Volume 2. Public Comments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Dredging in Atchafalaya Bay and Adjacent Waters, Louisiana. We appreciate the opportunity to review the DEIS. Sincerely yours, David Cottinginm Ecology ...subsequent effects on the aquatic ecosystem . General evaluation and testing procedures are outlined in the 404(b)(1) guidelines [Section 230.60 of Subpart G3...does not include zones 4-9 as integral parts of the regional ecosystem . The overall cummulative impact to the biology of the region can only be

  12. Temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kedong; Lin, Zhifeng; Ke, Zhiyuan

    2004-10-01

    The Pearl River is one of the large rivers in the world and it discharges to the northern part of the South China Sea. There has been a concern about the deterioration of dissolved oxygen conditions in the Pearl River estuary and adjacent coastal waters. In this study, historical data on dissolved oxygen (DO) from 1980s, recent data from a summer cruise in 1999, and a 10-year time series in DO for 1990-2000 were used to examine spatial and temporal distribution of DO in the Pearl River estuary and adjacent coastal waters near Hong Kong. In the adjacent coastal waters, low oxygen waters <4 mg l-1 occurred in large areas during the summer of 1981, but DO rarely dropped to <3 mg l-1. In the Pearl River estuary, DO was 3.5-4 mg l-1 in the eastern part, but was >4 mg l-1 in the western part in August 1984. In July 1999, DO was<4 mg l-1 in a near bottom 2 m layer in a large area of the estuary and was <2.5 mg l-1 in the eastern section, just inside the entrance of the estuary. In the coastal waters adjacent to Hong Kong, DO was>4 mg l-1. The 9-year time series showed that DO decreased periodically in summer, but rarely dropped to <3 mg l-1. There was no apparent trend of decreasing DO between 1990 and 2000. Compared to August 1984, DO decreased significantly during the summer of 1999 in the Pearl River estuary, but large scale hypoxia (<2 mg l-1) was not observed. The spatial distribution of low oxygen waters may be controlled by estuarine circulation because DO was significantly correlated with salinity in the summers of 1981 and 1984. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of DO in the bottom layer was parallel to the topography of the bottom, indicating the importance of benthic consumption of DO in the sediment and the subsequent flux of low DO waters from the sediment-water interface resuspended by physical mixing. Relative to the high loading of nitrogen from the Pearl River, the present PO4 concentration is still low. It is possible that the lack of large areas of

  13. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Two new species in the family Axinellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia and adjacent waters

    PubMed Central

    Austin, William C.; Ott, Bruce S.; Reiswig, Henry M.; Romagosa, Paula; McDaniel, Neil G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, Auletta krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m) and Dragmacidon kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m). We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas. PMID:24146581

  15. Summary of ground-water data, Post Headquarters and adjacent areas, White Sands Missile Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, T.E.

    1973-01-01

    Geohydrologic data have been obtained from more than 100 wells and test holes that have been drilled in the Post Headquarters and adjacent areas of White Sands Missile Range. Observation-well data show that, in general, a continuous decline of the water table has occurred in the vicinity of the well field since production began in 1949. Approximately 40,000 acre-feet of water has been produced from the aquifer to date (1972). A series of maps are presented which show the changes that have occurred in the well field as the result of development.

  16. Seasonal variability of nutrients in the Yangtze Estuary and adjacent waters: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, H.; Ding, P.

    2014-12-01

    Eutrophication has been one of the major threats to the coastal ecosystem. Several factors are believed to be associated with eutrophication, which including the high nutrient loads delivered into the estuary from river. Yangtze river is the longest river in China. It brings huge amount of nutrients into the Yangtze Estuary (YE) and adjacent East China Sea (ECS) and contributes significantly to the eutrophication in estuary and the adjacent waters. The eutrophication in this region exhibits strong seasonal variability, with the worst situation occurring in summer. This seasonal variability might be coupled with the timing of riverine nutrient inputs and physical processes (wind and along-shore current). To study seasonal variability of nutrients (N/P) in YE, a 3D physical-biological coupled model was applied to the YE and its adjacent waters. The physical model was the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) and the biological model was a nitrogen, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus (NPZD) model. The simulated nutrients distribution pattern was consistent with observation. With the numerical experiments, we examined nutrients transport under different river loads and different physical processes. Seasonal variability of nutrients budget in YE and alone-shelf transport flux were also studied.

  17. Ground-water hydrology of Pahvant Valley and adjacent areas, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1990-01-01

    The primary ground-water reservoir in Pahvant Valley and adjacent areas is in the unconsolidated basin fill and interbedded basalt. Recharge in 1959 was estimated to be about 70,000 acre-feet per year and was mostly by seepage from streams, canals, and unconsumed irrigation water and by infiltration of precipitation. Discharge in 1959 was estimated to be about 109,000 acre-feet and was mostly from springs, evapotranspiration, and wells.Water-level declines of more than 50 feet occurred in some areas between 1953 and 1980 because of less-than-normal precipitation and extensive pumping for irrigation. Water levels recovered most of these declines between 1983 and 1986 because of reduced withdrawals and record quantities of precipitation.The quality of ground water in the area west of Kanosh has deteriorated since large ground-water withdrawals began in about 1953. The cause of the deterioration probably is movement of poor quality water into the area from the southwest and possibly the west during periods of large ground-water withdrawals and recycling of irrigation water. The quality of water from some wells has improved since 1983, due to increased recharge and decreased withdrawals for irrigation.Water-level declines of m:>re than 80 feet in some parts of Pahvant Valley are projected if ground-water withdrawals continue for 20 years at the 1977 rate of about 96,000 acre-feet. Rises of as much as 58 feet and declines of as much as 47 feet are projected with withdrawals of 48,000 acre-feet per year for 20 years. The elimination of recharge from the Central Utah Canal is projected to cause water-level declines of up to 8 feet near the canal.

  18. Measures of Water Quality in Merrit Island National Wildlife Refuge Impoundments and Adjacent Indian River Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to conduct preliminary investigations to determine appropriate sampling strategies to measure the flux of dissolved nutrients (specifically, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, and PO4(3-)) and suspended particulate matter (TSS) between impoundments and the IRL in preparation for an intensive three-year monitoring program. In addition to nutrients and TSS, a variety of common water quality indicators were also measured during these preliminary studies. Six impoundments and a single restored marsh were selected for study. Over a month long period, water samples were collected weekly at selected impoundment culverts. Water was collected in duplicate as independent grab samples from both the lagoon side and within the perimeter ditch directly adjacent to the culverts. Water quality indicators inside and outside the marsh impoundments were different. Ammonium, salinity, bacteria, and chlorophyll-a were higher inside the impoundments as expected possibly as a result of the great affect of evaporation on impoundment water. Water quality indicators responded rapidly both inside and outside the impoundments as exemplified by the increase in NH4(+)-N concentrations during a horseshoe crab die-off. Water quality indicators were high variable during the month in which water samples were collected. Because the impoundments are widely spaced it is logistically unrealistic to sample each of the impoundments and associated seagrass beds on a single day, sampling must be stratified to allow patterns of material movement and the annual flux of materials to and from the impoundments to be determined.

  19. Contrasting microbial assemblages in adjacent water masses associated with the East Australian Current.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Justin R; Doblin, Martina A; Jeffries, Thomas C; Brown, Mark V; Newton, Kelly; Ralph, Peter J; Baird, Mark; Mitchell, James G

    2012-10-01

    Different oceanographic provinces host discrete microbial assemblages that are adapted to local physicochemical conditions. We sequenced and compared the metagenomes of two microbial communities inhabiting adjacent water masses in the Tasman Sea, where the recent strengthening of the East Australian Current (EAC) has altered the ecology of coastal environments. Despite the comparable latitude of the samples, significant phylogenetic differences were apparent, including shifts in the relative frequency of matches to Cyanobacteria, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Fine-scale variability in the structure of SAR11, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations, with more matches to 'warm-water' ecotypes observed in the EAC, indicates the EAC may drive an intrusion of tropical microbes into temperate regions of the Tasman Sea. Furthermore, significant shifts in the relative importance of 17 metabolic categories indicate that the EAC prokaryotic community has different physiological properties than surrounding waters.

  20. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  1. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  2. Estimated water use in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, A.D.; Trommer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Water-use data for 1980 are summarized in this report for 16 counties in the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Data include total use of ground water and surface water for each of five water-use categories. The 1980 withdrawals for each category were as follows: 290 million gallons per day for public supply, 63 million gallons per day for rural, 325 million gallons per day for industry, 416 million gallons per day for irrigation, and 6,605 million gallons per day for thermoelectric power generation. Withdrawals totaled 7,699 million gallons per day and included 983 million gallons per day of ground water and 6,716 million gallons per day of surface water. Excluding thermoelectric power generation, all water withdrawn was freshwater except 38 million gallons per day of saline ground water withdrawn for industrial use in Hillsborough County. (USGS)

  3. [Fish resources and their conservation strategies in Hepu Dugong State Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Guang; Wu, Xiaobing; Xu, Xinrong; Lai, Chunmiao; Ning, Yun; Luo, Jinfu

    2006-09-01

    An investigation was made on the fish resources and fish habitats of Hepu Dugong State Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters from June 2003 to May 2004. The local fish markets were surveyed, and fishermen and fishmongers were interviewed to get fishery information. A total of 57 fish species belonging to 41 families and 14 orders were recorded, among which, 55 were bony fish, and 2 were elasmobranch. There were 41 fish species belonging to warm-water fish, and 37 fish species belonging to benthonic fish. The faunal characteristic was mainly of Northern Pacific and Indo-Pacific fauna. Devastating fishing and environmental pollution were the most serious threats to the local fishery resources, and some countermeasures were proposed for conservation and management of the resources.

  4. Geochemistry of ground water in alluvial basins of Arizona and adjacent parts of Nevada, New Mexico, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Frederick N.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical and isotope analyses of ground water from 28 basins in the Basin and Range physiographic province of Arizona and parts of adjacent States were used to evaluate ground-water quality, determine processes that control ground-water chemistry, provide independent insight into the hydrologic flow system, and develop information transfer. The area is characterized by north- to northwest-trending mountains separated by alluvial basins that form a regional topography of alternating mountains and valleys. On the basis of ground-water divides or zones of minimal basin interconnection, the area was divided into 72 basins, each representing an individual aquifer system. These systems are joined in a dendritic pattern and collectively constitute the major water resource in the region. Geochemical models were developed to identify reactions and mass transfer responsible for the chemical evolution of the ground water. On the basis of mineralogy and chemistry of the two major rock associations of the area, a felsic model and a mafic model were developed to illustrate geologic, climatic, and physiographic effects on ground-water chemistry. Two distinct hydrochemical processes were identified: (1) reactions of meteoric water with minerals and gases in recharge areas and (2) reactions of ground water as it moves down the hydraulic gradient. Reactions occurring in recharge and downgradient areas can be described by a 13-component system. Major reactions are the dissolution and precipitation of calcite and dolomite, the weathering of feldspars and ferromagnesian minerals, the formation of montmorillonite, iron oxyhydroxides, and probably silica, and, in some basins, ion exchange. The geochemical modeling demonstrated that relatively few phases are required to derive the ground-water chemistry; 14 phases-12 mineral and 2 gas-consistently account for the chemical evolution in each basin. The final phases were selected through analysis of X-ray diffraction and fluorescence data

  5. Water quality in the lower Puyallup River valley and adjacent uplands, Pierce County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebbert, J.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Fuste, L.A.; Prych, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of most ground and surface water within and adjacent to the lower Puyallup River valley is suitable for most typical uses; however, some degradation of shallow groundwater quality has occurred. High concentrations of iron and manganese were found in groundwater, sampled at depths of < 40 ft, from wells tapping alluvial aquifers and in a few wells tapping deeper aquifers. Volatile and acid- and base/neutral-extractable organic compounds were not detected in either shallow or deep groundwater samples. The quality of shallow groundwater was generally poorer than that of deep water. Deep ground water (wells set below 100 ft) appears suitable as a supplementary water supply for fish-hatchery needs. Some degradation of water quality, was observed downstream from river mile 1.7 where a municipal wastewater-treatment plant discharges into the river. In the Puyallup River, the highest concentrations of most trace elements were found in bed sediments collected downstream from river mile 1.7. Median concentrations of arsenic, lead, and zinc were higher in bed sediments from small streams compared with those from the Puyallup River, possibly because the small stream drainages, which are almost entirely within developed areas, receive more urban runoff as a percentage of total flow. Total-recoverable trace-element concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria for acute toxicity in the Puyallup River and in some of the small streams. In most cases, high concentrations of total-recoverable trace elements occurred when suspended-sediment concentrations were high. Temperatures in all streams except Wapato Creek and Fife Dutch were within limits (18 C) for Washington State class A water. Minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations were relatively low at 5.6 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, for Wapato Creek and Fife Dutch. The poorest surface-water quality, which can be characterized as generally unsuitable for fish, was in Fife Dutch, a manmade channel and therefore

  6. Concentration of hydrocarbons associated with particles in the shelf waters adjacent to the entrance of Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, T. L.; Oertel, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    Particulate hydrocarbon concentrations were measured in 94 water samples. The concentrations ranged from below the detection limit ( 0.7 micro-G/L) to 32 micro-g/l. The mean for all samples was 5.6 micro-g/l. Particulate hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in the Bay mouth and lower in the shelf waters adjacent to the entrance of Chesapeake Bay. No coherent particulate hydrocarbon distribution is seen with depth in the water column. The Bay is postulated as one of the possible chronic sources of particulate hydrocarbons for the adjacent shelf waters.

  7. [Phytoplankton Light Absorption Properties During the Blooms in Adjacent Waters of the Changjiang Estuary].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang-yang; Shen, Fang; Li, Xiu-zhen

    2015-06-01

    Phytoplankton dominant species and their light absorption properties during the blooms occurred in August 2013 in adjacent waters of the Changjiang Estuary were analyzed. The results showed that phytoplankton blooms broke out in 10 out of 34 investigation stations, among which diatom blooms occurred in 6 stations while 3 stations were predominated by dinoflagellate. Phytoplankton absorption coefficients of both bloom and non-bloom waters exhibited large variations, with respective ranges of 0.199-0.832 m(-1) and 0.012-0.109 m(-1), while phytoplankton specific absorption coefficients spanned much narrower range, with the average values of bloom and non-bloom waters being 0.023 and 0.035 m2 x mg(-1), respectively. When transitioned from bloom to non-bloom waters, the proportion of phytoplankton with larger cell size lowered while that of smaller phytoplankton elevated, causing a less extent of package effect and thus higher specific absorption coefficients. Distinctive absorption spectra were observed between different types of bloom (such as diatom and dinoflagellate blooms) with similar phytoplankton cell size, mostly attributed to distinctive accessory pigment composition. The ratios of diadinoxanthin and chlorophyll-c2 concentrations to chlorophyll-a concentration in dinoflagellate blooms were higher than those in diatom blooms, which largely contributed to the shoulder peaks at 465 nm in dinoflagellate blooms.

  8. Hydrology, geochemistry and geothermal aspects of the thermal waters from Switzerland and adjacent alpine regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuataz, François-David

    1983-11-01

    Waters of 19 thermal areas in Switzerland and adjacent alpine regions were studied to acquire a better knowledge of their deep thermal circulation, geochemistry and low-temperature geothermal potential. A systematic multisampling and multitracing program was executed over a complete hydrologic cycle for each of the 19 thermal areas. Pertinent physical, chemical and isotopic parameters were measured and analyzed on thermal and nonthermal waters during nine sampling periods. Thermal water occurrences are generally related either to Triassic evaporites or to the weathered and fractured zone between crystalline basements (or ranges) and their sedimentary cover. Emergence areas are located in faulted or overthrust zones. Sulfate and calcium are the two principal ions responsible for the mineralization of most thermal waters. Actually, gypsum and anhydrite are more often encountered in Triassic evaporites than halite. Many variations of the water geochemistry, caused by seasonal changes, have been recorded during the hydrologic cycle. From mineralization, temperature and discharge variations, it has been possible to distinguish fast or delayed responses to rain or snow-melt events and mixing between deep-thermal and shallow-cold waters. Chemical geothermometers were tested on these warm waters. The chalcedony and Na-K-Ca geothermometers seem to be the only ones which display calculated temperatures in reasonable agreement with known local geothermal gradients or bottom-hole temperatures. The majority of inferred reservoir temperatures ranges from 40° to 60°C. Oxygen-18 and deuterium results show that most thermal waters fit along the meteoric water line, with some exceptions due to Mediterranean precipitation, possible water-rock isotopic exchange or mixing with connate waters. A regional oxygen-18 gradient has been established with altitude in order to locate and determine the elevation of intake areas. Tritium is very useful in the detection of mixing between deep

  9. [Temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu-San; Li, Zi-Cheng; Zhou, Juan; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Tang, Jing-Liang

    2011-09-01

    The events of red tide were collected in Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters from 1972 to 2009. Based on geographic information system (GIS) analysis on the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide, the distribution map was generated accordingly. The results show: (1) There are three red tide-prone areas, which are outside the Yangtze River estuary and the eastern of Sheshan, Huaniaoshan-Shengshan-Gouqi, Zhoushan and the eastern of Zhujiajian. The red tide occurred 174 times in total, in which there were 25 times covered the area was larger than 1 000 km2. After 2000, the frequency of red tide were significantly increasing; (2) The frequent occurrence of red tide was in May (51% of total occurrence) and June (20% of total occurrence); (3) In all of the red tide plankton, the dominant species were Prorocentrum danghaiense, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum dantatum, Nactiluca scientillans. The red tides caused by these species were 38, 35, 15, 10 times separately.

  10. Ground-water resources of southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater resources in southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas were studied to determine their potential for development as an alternative to the Mississippi River as a water-supply source for Jefferson Parish. Eight major aquifers consisting of thick sand units that underlie the study area are, in descending order: (1) shallow, (2) upper Ponchatoula, (3) lower Ponchatoula, (4) Abita, (5) Covington, (6) Tchefuncta, (7) Hammond, and (8) Amite. A fault zone, referred to as the Baton Rouge fault, crosses southern Tangipahoa Parish. Analyses of geophysical logs indicated that the deep aquifers south of the fault zone had been displaced from 350 to 400 feet, and that the deeper aquifers were not in hydraulic connection with the flow system north of the fault. The groundwater resources of southeastern Louisiana are immense and the quality of groundwater in Tangipahoa Parish is suitable for most uses. The quality of water in these aquifers generally meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standards for public supply. The hydrologic system underlying Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas in 1990 supplied about 19 Mgal/d of water that was suitable for public supply. However, substantial increases in pumping from the aquifer system would result in renewed water-level declines throughout the hydrologic system until a new equilibrium is established. A test we11 in southern Tangipahoa Parish, penetrated all eight aquifers. Total thickness of freshwater sand beds penetrated by the 3003-ft test hole was more than 1900 ft. Resistivity values from an electric log of the test typically averaged 200 ohm-meters, which indicates that the water has low dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations. An analysis of the Abita aquifer at Ruddock in St. John the Baptist Parish, for two of three hypothetical well fields, indicated that for a hypothetical we11 field with a pumping rate of 112 Mgal/d, the freshwater/saltwater interface could arrive at the outer perimeter we11 in

  11. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  12. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  13. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  14. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  15. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  16. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  17. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  18. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  19. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  20. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  1. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Habteselassie, M.Y.; Denene, Blackwood A.; Noble, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Methods and Results: Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E.??coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E.??coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Conclusions: Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. Significance and Impact of Study: This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ?? 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Water resources of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and adjacent areas, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.; White, Robert R.; Orr, Brennon R.; Roybal, R. Gary

    1981-01-01

    valleys in the adjacent upland areas. Ground water moves southeastward beneath the West Mesa area, converging with ground-water flow in the southern end of the Mesilla Valley. Good hydraulic connection exists between sediments of the West Mesa and Mesilla Valley areas. Ground water in the southern end of the Jornada del Muerto moves generally to the northwest, converges with south-flowing ground water near Point of Rocks, and moves westward into Rincon Valley sediments near Rincon. A small amount of ground water flows westward from the southern end of the Jornada del Muerto across a subsurface igneous body into the Mesilla Valley. Ground-water discharge occurs throughout the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys as drain flow to the river and evapotranspiration. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the water in the flood-plain alluvium of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys are generally greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. A freshwater zone, with dissolved-solids concentrations less than 1,000 milligrams per liter, underlies this thin, slightly saline zone beneath much of the Mesilla Valley. This freshwater zone, occurring in the Santa Fe Group, is surrounded by saline water. Within the study area, major dissolved ions in ground water include sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and sulfate. The Rio Grande is a gainlng stream in the northern parts of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and a losing stream in the southern part of the Mesilla Valley. Gains and losses result from a close interconnection with ground-water flow systems. Large surface-water irrigation allotments increase ground-water recharge. Increased recharge raises ground-water levels and improves shallow ground-water quality adjacent to these recharge areas. Shallow ground-water discharges to drains, which flow into the Rio Grande. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the Rio Grande increase by as much as 60 percent between Caballo Reservoir and the southern end of the study area.

  3. Nutrition considerations for open-water swimming.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Koivisto, Anu; Gerrard, David; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Open-water swimming (OWS) is a rapidly developing discipline. Events of 5-25 km are featured at FINA World Championships, and the international circuit includes races of 5-88 km. The Olympic OWS event, introduced in 2008, is contested over 10 km. Differing venues present changing environmental conditions, including water and ambient temperatures, humidity, solar radiation, and unpredictable tides. Furthermore, the duration of most OWS events (1-6 hr) creates unique physiological challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and muscle fuel stores. Current nutrition recommendations for open-water training and competition are either an extension of recommendations from pool swimming or are extrapolated from other athletic populations with similar physiological requirements. Competition nutrition should focus on optimizing prerace hydration and glycogen stores. Although swimmers should rely on self-supplied fuel and fluid sources for shorter events, for races of 10 km or greater, fluid and fuel replacement can occur from feeding pontoons when tactically appropriate. Over the longer races, feeding pontoons should be used to achieve desirable targets of up to 90 g/ hr of carbohydrates from multitransportable sources. Exposure to variable water and ambient temperatures will play a significant role in determining race nutrition strategies. For example, in extreme environments, thermoregulation may be assisted by manipulating the temperature of the ingested fluids. Swimmers are encouraged to work with nutrition experts to develop effective and efficient strategies that enhance performance through appropriate in-competition nutrition.

  4. An open source simulator for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Stephen; Meier, Philipp; Selby, Philip; Mohammed, Khaled; Khadem, Majed; Padula, Silvia; Harou, Julien; Rosenberg, David; Rheinheimer, David

    2015-04-01

    Descriptive modelling of water resource systems requires the representation of different aspects in one model: the physical system including hydrological inputs and engineered infrastructure, and human management, including social, economic and institutional behaviours and constraints. Although most water resource systems share some characteristics such as the ability to represent them as a network of nodes and links, geographical, institutional and other differences mean that invariably each water system functions in a unique way. A diverse group is developing an open source simulation framework which will allow model developers to build generalised water management models that are customised to the institutional, physical and economical components they are seeking to model. The framework will allow the simulation of complex individual and institutional behaviour required for the assessment of real-world resource systems. It supports the spatial and hierarchical structures commonly found in water resource systems. The individual infrastructures can be operated by different actors while policies are defined at a regional level by one or more institutional actors. The framework enables building multi-agent system simulators in which developers can define their own agent types and add their own decision making code. Developers using the framework have two main tasks: (i) Extend the core classes to represent the aspects of their particular system, and (ii) write model structure files. Both are done in Python. For task one, users must either write new decision making code for each class or link to an existing code base to provide functionality to each of these extension classes. The model structure file links these extension classes in a standardised way to the network topology. The framework will be open-source and written in Python and is to be available directly for download through standard installer packages. Many water management model developers are unfamiliar

  5. Population structure of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in the seas around the UK and adjacent waters.

    PubMed Central

    Walton, M J

    1997-01-01

    The population structure of harbour porpoises from British and adjacent waters was studied by examining variability in a 200 bp (base pair) section of the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extracted from 327 animals. This region contained 20 variable sites giving rise to 24 different haplotypes. Mean nucleotide diversity between all pairs of haplotypes was 0.81% (range 0-4%). The most common haplotype occurred in 63% of the samples and was recorded in all geographical areas; several other haplotypes were present in two or more of the sampling locations. This suggests considerable historical interconnections among populations, probably through gene flow. However, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) as determined by AMOVA (Analysis of Molecular Variance, Excoffier et al. 1992), between porpoises from the northern and southern North Sea, and between the northern North Sea and the Celtic/Irish Sea. The differences were predominantly due to variation among females. This sex-related difference in population genetic structure suggests that males disperse more than females. This has important consequences for evaluating the consequences of incidental catches of porpoises by fisheries in these seas since there may be a greater impact on local populations than is implied by simple calculations of mortality. PMID:9061964

  6. Statistical summaries of streamflow in Montana and adjacent areas, water years 1900 through 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the need to have more current information about streamflow characteristics in Montana, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, and Bureau of Land Management, conducted a study to analyze streamflow data. Updated statistical summaries of streamflow characteristics are presented for 286 streamflow-gaging sites in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record for water years 1900 through 2002. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high flow, the magnitude and probability of low flow for three seasons (March-June, July-October, and November-February), flow duration of the daily mean discharge, and the monthly and annual mean discharges. For streamflow-gaging stations where 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin is affected by dams or other large-scale human modification, streamflow is considered regulated. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for sites with sufficient data.

  7. Distribution patterns of phytoplankton in the Changjiang River estuary and adjacent waters in spring 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fanzhou; Xu, Zijun; Yu, Rencheng; Yuan, Yongquan; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2016-09-01

    The Changjiang River estuary and adjacent waters are one of the most notable regions for red tides/harmful algal blooms in China's coastal waters. In this study, phytoplankton samples were collected and analyzed during the outbreak stage of red tides in May 2009. It was found that dinoflagellates, Prorocentrum donghaiense and Karenia mikimotoi, and diatoms, Skeletonema spp. and Paralia sulcata, were the major taxa dominating the phytoplankton community. Cluster analysis, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) was conducted on a data matrix including taxa composition and cell abundance of the phytoplankton samples. The analyses categorized the samples into three groups at a similarity level of 30%. Group I was characterized by estuarine diatoms and distributed mainly in the highly turbid estuarine region. Group II, which was dominated by the diatom Skeletonema spp. and represented the red tide of Skeletonema spp., was situated around Group I in the sea area west of 122°50'E. Group III was characterized by a high proportion of dinoflagellates and was found further offshore compared with Groups I and II. Group III was further divided into two subgroups (III-S1 and III-S2) at a similarity level of 40%. Group III-S1 was characterized by the presence of the benthic diatom P. sulcata, representing phytoplankton samples collected either from the bottom or from the sea area affected by upwelling. Group III-S2 was dominated by dinoflagellates and represented red tides formed by P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi. A gradual change of red-tide causative species was observed from the estuary to the offshore sea area, from diatoms to armored dinoflagellates and then unarmored dinoflagellates. Environmental factors associated with each group, and thus affecting the distribution of phytoplankton and red tides, are discussed.

  8. A benchmark-multi-disciplinary study of the interaction between the Chesapeake Bay and adjacent waters of the Virginian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargis, W. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The social and economic importance of estuaries are discussed. Major focus is on the Chesapeake Bay and its interaction with the adjacent waters of the Virginia Sea. Associated multiple use development and management problems as well as their internal physical, geological, chemical, and biological complexities are described.

  9. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. 334.420 Section 334.420 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.420 Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. (a... date. Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point will have a call-in number for public use to...

  10. Amino acids in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent waters: origins, transformation and degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianfang; Li, Yan; Yin, Kedong; Jin, Haiyan

    2004-10-01

    Two cruises were conducted in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and adjacent coastal waters during July 1999 and 2000 to investigate spatial variation, transformation and degradation of amino acids (AAs). Salinity, suspended sediments (SS), chl a, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, AAs, and hexosamines were measured and analyzed. Concentrations of particulate hydrolysable AAs (PHAAs), dissolved combined AAs and dissolved free AAs ranged from 0.41 to 12.6 μmol L-1, 1.1 to 4.0 μmol L-1 and 0.15 to 1.10 μmol L-1, respectively. AAs concentrations were low in waters of salinity <10, increased to the maximum in the estuarine and coastal plumes (salinity =10-25) and decreased beyond the coastal plume. There was a region where PHAAs were maximum, which coincided with the region of the chl a maximum and depletion of dissolved inorganic phosphorus in the coastal plume south of Hong Kong. This indicates that most of the AAs in estuarine and coastal waters were produced through phytoplankton production and AAs might be a temporary sink for inorganic nitrogen. The ratios of AAs/HAs and glucosamine/galactosamine (Glc-NH2/Gal-NH2) were on average, 26.0 and 3.8, respectively, in biogenic particulate matter (chl a >5 μg L-1 and SS<10 mg L-1), decreased in turbid particles (SS>20 mg L-1) and reached the lowest values of 5.8 and 1.4 in sediments. In particular, the ratios of AAs/HAs, Glc-NH2/Gal-NH2 were low in the upper or northwest side of the estuary where turbidity was high. This indicated that these AAs were "old", likely due to resuspension of refractory organic matter from sediments or zooplankton grazing modification and bacterial reworking as the salt wedge advanced upstream near the bottom. Apparently, the dynamics of AAs in the PRE appeared to be governed by biological production processes and estuarine circulation in the estuary. As the chl a maximum developed downstream in the estuarine and coastal plume and the salt wedge moved upstream at

  11. Fish assemblage structure in the hypoxic zone in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Xiujuan; Jin, Xianshi; Yuan, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Fish assemblage structure in the hypoxic zone in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent waters were analyzed based on data from bottom trawl surveys conducted on the R/V Beidou in June, August and October 2006. Four fish assemblages were identified in each survey using two-way indicator species analysis (TWIA). High fish biomass was found in the northern part, central part and coastal waters of the survey area; in contrast, high fish diversity was found in the southern part of the survey area and the Changjiang estuary outer waters. Therefore, it is difficult to maintain high fishery production when high fish diversity is evenly distributed in the fish community. Fish became smaller and fish size spectra tended to be narrower because of fish species variations and differences in growth characteristics. Fish diversity increased, the age to maturity was reduced and some migrant species were not collected in the surveys. Fish with low economic value, small size, simple age structure and low tropic level were predominant in fish assemblages in the Changjiang estuary and its adjacent waters. The lowest hypoxic value decreased in the Changjiang estuary and its adjacent waters.

  12. Response to Memorandum by Rowley and Dixon Regarding U.S. Geological Survey Report Titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    mountains to evaluate effects caused by ground- water pumping in adjacent valleys. 7 Rowley and Dixon failed to recognize when they stated “Seepage tests...measurements: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92–144, 21 p. Sophocleous, Marious, 2000, From safe yield to sustainable development of water ...surface- water and ground- water quality , southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara counties, California, 1996–97: U.S. Geological Survey Water -Resources

  13. [Ecological niche breadth and niche overlap of dominant species of fish assemblage in Yangtze river estuary and its adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-sen; Yu, Zhen-hai; Sun, Shan; Jin, Xian-shi

    2013-08-01

    Based on the fishery resources data from the bottom trawl surveys conducted on the R/V Beidou in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters in June, August and October of 2006, the index of relative importance (IRI) was measured to determine the dominant species of fish assemblage, and the niche indicators and their seasonal variations of the dominant species were analyzed. A total of 10 dominant species in the 3 survey cruises were recorded, which were divided into two groups by the Bray-curtis similarity clustering and non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, with a significant seasonal variation of niche breadth and niche overlap. One group included Engraulis japonicus, Champsodon capensis, and Acropoma japonicum, whose niche breadth and niche overlap were larger in summer than in autumn, with a migration from the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters to outer deeper waters, while the other group included Trichiurus haumela, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, Apogon lineatus, Larimichthys polyactis, Psenopsis anomala, Argyrosomus argentatus, and Benthosema pterotum, whose niche breadth and niche overlap were larger in autumn than in summer, with a reverse migration from southern Yellow Sea and northern East China Sea to the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters. The different migration direction of the two groups was related to their ecological habits and environmental factors.

  14. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The synoptic repetitive coverage of the multispectral imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite, when photographically reprocessed using the state-of-the-art techniques, has given indication of spectral differences in Block Island and adjacent New England waters which were heretofore unknown. Of particular interest was the possible detection of relatively small amounts of phytoplankton prior to the occurrence of the red tide in Massachusetts waters. Preparation of spatial and temporal hydrographic charts using ERTS-1 imagery and ground truth analysis will hopefully determine the environmental impact on New York coastal waters.

  15. Role of dense shelf water cascading in the transfer of organochlorine compounds to open marine waters.

    PubMed

    Salvadó, Joan A; Grimalt, Joan O; López, Jordi F; Palanques, Albert; Heussner, Serge; Pasqual, Catalina; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel

    2012-03-06

    Settling particles were collected by an array of sediment trap moorings deployed along the Cap de Creus (CCC) and Lacaze-Duthiers (LDC) submarine canyons and on the adjacent southern open slope (SOS) between October 2005 and October 2006. This array collected particles during common settling processes and particles transferred to deep waters by dense shelf water cascading (DSWC). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs)--pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene--and hexachlorocyclohexanes were analyzed in all samples. The results show much higher settling fluxes of these compounds during DSWC than during common sedimentation processes. The area of highest deposition was located between 1000 and 1500 m depth and extended along the canyons and outside them showing their channelling effects but also overflows of dense shelf water from these canyons. Higher fluxes were observed near the bottom (30 m above bottom; mab) than at intermediate waters (500 mab) which is consistent with the formation and sinking of dense water close to the continental shelf and main displacement through the slope by the bottom. DSWC involved the highest settling fluxes of these compounds ever described in marine continental slopes and pelagic areas, e.g., peak values of PCBs (960 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)), DDTs (2900 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)), CBzs (340 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)) and lindane (180 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)).

  16. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, Timothy B.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resources problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas in Missouri and Oklahoma. Past mining activities have caused changes in the hydrogeology of the area. Lead and zinc mining has caused discontinuities and perforations in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the western area), which have created artificial ground-water recharge and discharge areas. Recharge to the shallow aquifer (rocks of Mississippian age) through collapses, shafts, and drill holes in the shale has caused the formation of a ground-water 'mound' in the vicinity of the Picher Field in Kansas and Oklahoma. Discharge of mine-contaminated ground water to Tar Creek occurs in Oklahoma from drill holes and shafts where the potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is above the land surface. Mining of ore in the shallow aquifer has resulted in extensive fracturing and removal of material, which has created highly transmissive zones and voids and increased ground-water storage properties of the aquifer. In the area east of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the eastern area), fractured rock and tailings on the land surface increased the amount of water available for infiltration to the shallow aquifer; in the western area, tailings on the impermeable shale created artificial, perched aquifer systems that slowly drain to surface streams. Pumping of the deep aquifer (rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age) by towns and industries, which developed as a result of the mining industry, has resulted in a potential for downward movement of water from the shallow aquifer. The potential is greatest in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Because of the large volume of water that may be transported from the shallow to the deep aquifer, open drill holes or casings present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. Mining

  17. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resource problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, and adjacent areas in Oklahoma and Missouri. Discontinuities and perforations, which were produced by mining in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact, have created artificial groundwater recharge and discharge areas. Abandoned wells and drill holes present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. There is a potential for downward movement from the shallow to the deep aquifer throughout the study area, with greatest potential in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Principal effects of abandoned mines on groundwater quality are lowered pH and increased concentrations of sulfate and trace metals of water in the mines. No conclusive evidence of lateral migration of contaminated mine water from the mines into the water-supply wells adjacent to the mines was found. Analyses of water from the deep aquifer did not indicate trace-metal contamination. The effects of abandoned mines on streamwater quality are most severe in Short Creek and Tar Creek. Increased concentrations of zinc and manganese were observed in the Spring River below Short Creek Kansas. (USGS)

  18. Water-quality, water-level, and lake-bottom-sediment data collected from the defense fuel supply point and adjacent properties, Hanahan, South Carolina, 1990-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, M.D.; Vroblesky, D.A.; Robertson, J.F.; Bradley, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-year scientific investigation to determine the potential for biore-mediation of ground-water contamination and to monitor the effectiveness of an engineered bioremediation system located at the Defense Fuel Supply Point and adjacent properties in Hanahan, S.C., has culminated in the collection of abundant water-quality and water-level data.This report presents the analytical results of the study that monitored the changes in surface- and ground-water quality and water-table elevations in the study area from December 1990 to January 1996. This report also presents analytical results of lake-bottom sediments collected in the study area.

  19. Chemical Interactions of Uranium in Water, Sediments, and Plants Along a Watershed Adjacent to the Abandoned Jackpile Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, J.; De Vore, C. L.; Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Roldan, C.; Bowers, F.; Spilde, M.; Artyushkova, K.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical interactions, mobility, and plant uptake of uranium (U) near abandoned mine wastes was investigated along the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine, located in Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico. Elevated U concentrations in surface water adjacent to mine waste range from 30 to 710 μg/L seasonally and decrease to 5.77 to 10.0 μg/L at a wetland 4.5 kilometers downstream of the mine. Although U concentrations in stream water are elevated, aqua regia acid digestions performed on co-located stream bed and stream bank sediments reveal that there is limited U accumulation on sediments along the reach between the mine and wetland, with most sediment concentrations being near the 3 mg/kg crustal average. However, U concentrations in sediments in the wetland are 4 times the background concentrations in the area. Individual results from salt cedar roots, stems, and leaves collected along the river transect show higher U concentrations in the roots adjacent to the mine waste (20 and 55 mg/kg) and lower in the stems and leaves. Translocation values calculated below 1 are evident in many of the plant samples, suggesting that U root to shoot translocation is minimal and U is accumulating in the roots. Concentrations of U in salt cedar roots from downstream of the mine waste decrease to 15 mg/kg. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis on sediment samples adjacent to the mine waste show a 75:25% ratio of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which can have an effect on adsorption properties. Electron microprobe results suggest that the ore in this area is present as a uranium-phosphate phase. Our results suggest that dilution, uptake by plants, and U sorption to wetland sediments are the dominant factors that help to decrease the U concentrations downstream of the mine.

  20. Open-Water Disposal of Material in Canadian Waters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    P 5.0 COMPARISON OF PUGET SOUND AND CANADIAN REVIEW PROCESSES Technical evaluation procedures for disposal of material in open-waters are less...contamination sources 51 V’p ’ p 9U74A ’n C2. CD Z . v*A a 40a 4A %n P .. L 4.0 V L -0 en0 N. =4. La m c .L Azf aa 0%aa - A Li06 0. I 090 %n ow cc 41. S. CL ’A -k...jo.u,.-to, ftitd. aove’ .go.,lce !(@) DESCRIBE CARRIER TRACK( WHILE DUMPING If vpileablIo Oftsiroe 1 L tirlrutanpowteur a. court d. Irmm-sion P . mle

  1. Identification of resonance waves in open water channels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article presents a procedure to determine the characteristics of open water channels required for controller and filter design, with special focus on the resonance waves. Also, a new simplified model structure for open water channels is proposed. The procedure applies System Identification tool...

  2. Potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, P.D.; Mills, L.R.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels increased 15 to 30 feet between May 1977 and September 1977 in the citrus and farming sections of southeastern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, and southwestern Polk Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumpage for irrigation and have the greatest range in water-level fluctuations between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 15 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A September 1978 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual high water-level period of the Floridan aquifer in the Southwest Florida Management District. Potentiometric levels increased 10 to 25 feet between May 1978 and September 1978, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk and Manatee Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest fluctuations in water-levels between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 10 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Sediment load from major rivers into Puget Sound and its adjacent waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Grossman, Eric E.; Curran, Christopher A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an estimated load of 6.5 million tons of sediment is transported by rivers to Puget Sound and its adjacent waters—enough to cover a football field to the height of six Space Needles. This estimated load is highly uncertain because sediment studies and available sediment-load data are sparse and historically limited to specific rivers, short time frames, and a narrow range of hydrologic conditions. The largest sediment loads are carried by rivers with glaciated volcanoes in their headwaters. Research suggests 70 percent of the sediment load delivered to Puget Sound is from rivers and 30 percent is from shoreline erosion, but the magnitude of specific contributions is highly uncertain. Most of a river's sediment load occurs during floods.

  5. A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Stephen D.; Lindner, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The stylasterid fauna of Alaska is revised, consisting of the description or redescription and illustration of 21 species, one additional subspecies, and a geographically adjacent species: Stylaster venustus. Six new species and one new subspecies are described: Errinopora fisheri, Errinopora undulata, Errinopora disticha, Errinopora dichotoma, Stylaster crassiseptum, Stylaster repandus, and Stylaster parageus columbiensis. Four subspecies are raised to species rank: Stylaster leptostylus, Stylaster trachystomus, Stylaster parageus, and Distichopora japonica, and five species and one subspecies were synonymized. A dichotomous key to the Errinopora species and tabular keys to the Errinopora and Alaskan Stylaster species are provided. The focus of the study was on the stylasterids from Alaska, primarily those from the diverse Aleutian Islands, but also including records from British Columbia. This is the first revisionary work on this fauna since the seminal report by Fisher in 1938. PMID:22303109

  6. [Assessment of ecosystem energy flow and carrying capacity of swimming crab enhancement in the Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Lin Qun; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhong-yi; Wu, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Stock enhancement is increasingly proved to be an important measure of the fishery resources conservation, and the assessment of carrying capacity is the decisive factor of the effects of stock enhancement. Meanwhile, the variations in the energy flow patterns of releasing species and ecosystem were the basis for assessing carrying capacity of stock enhancement. So, in the present study, based on the survey data collected from the Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters during 2012-2013, three Ecopath mass-balance models were established in June, August and October, and the variations in ecosystem energy flow in these months were analyzed, as well as the assessment of carrying capacity of swimming crab enhancement. The energy flow mainly concentrated on trophic level I-III in Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters, and was relatively less on trophic level IV or above. The system flow proportion on the trophic level I was the highest in June, and was the lowest in August. The highest system flow proportion on the trophic level II was found in August, and the lowest in June. The relative and absolute energy flow of swimming crab mainly concentrated on the trophic level III, and the mean trophic level of swimming crab among June, August and October were 3.28. Surplus production was relatively higher in Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters, the highest value was found in June, and the lowest value in August. The ratios of total primary production/total respiration (TPP/TR) were 5.49, 2.47 and 3.01 in June, August and October, respectively, and the ratios of total primary production/total biomass (TPP/B) were 47.61, 33.30 and 29.78, respectively. Combined with the low Finn' s cycling index (FCI: 0.03-0.06), these changes indicated that the Yellow River estuary ecosystem was at an early development stage with higher vulnerability. The energy conversion efficiency of system was from 7.3% to 11.5%, the mean trophic levels of the catch were 3.23, 2.97 and 2.82 in

  7. Ground Water in Kilauea Volcano and Adjacent Areas of Mauna Loa Volcano, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1993-01-01

    About 1,000 million gallons of water per day moves toward or into ground-water bodies of Kilauea Volcano from the lavas of Mauna Loa Volcano. This movement continues only to the northern boundaries of the east and southwest rift zones of Kilauea, where a substantial quantity of ground water is deflected downslope to other ground-water bodies or to the ocean. In the western part of Kilauea, the kaoiki fault system, which parallels the southwest rift zone, may be the main barrier to ground-water movement. The diversion of the ground water is manifested in the western part of Kilauea by the presence of large springs at the shore end of the Kaoiki fault system, and in the eastern part by the apparently large flow of unheated basal ground water north of the east rift zone. Thus, recharge to ground water in the rift zones of Kilauea and to the areas to the south of the rift zones may be largely by local rainfall. Recharge from rainfall for all of Kilauea is about 1,250 million gallons per day. Beneath the upper slopes of the Kilauea rift zones, ground-water levels are 2,000 feet or more above mean sea level, or more than 1,000 feet below land surface. Ground-water levels are at these high altitudes because numerous and closely spaced dikes at depth in the upper slopes impound the ground water. In the lower slopes, because the number of dikes decreases toward the surface, the presence of a sufficient number of dikes capable of impounding ground water at altitudes substantially above sea level is unlikely. In surrounding basal ground-water reservoirs, fresh basal ground water floats on seawater and, through a transition zone of mixed freshwater and seawater, discharges into the sea. The hydraulic conductivity of the dike-free lavas ranges from about 3,000 to about 7,000 feet per day. The conductivity in the upper slopes of the rift ranges from about 5 to 30 feet per day and that of the lower slopes of the east rift zone was calculated at about 7,000 feet per day. The

  8. Water quality at and adjacent to the south Dade County solid-waste disposal facility, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A water-quality reconnaissance was conducted at the south Dade County solid-waste landfill near Goulds, Florida, from December 1977 through August 1978. The landfill is located directly on the unconfined Biscayne aquifer, which, in the study area, is affected by saltwater intrusion. Water samples collected from six monitor well sites at two depths and four surface-water sites were analyzed to determine the chemical, physical, and biological conditions of the ground water and surface water of the study area. Results indicated that water quality beneath the landfill was highly variable with location and depth. Leachate was generally more evident in the shallow wells and during the dry-season sampling, but was greatly diluted and dispersed in the deep wells and during the wet season. High concentrations of contaminants were generated primarily in areas of the landfill with the most recent waste deposits. Chloride (limited to the shallow wells and the dry season), alkalinity, ammonia, iron, manganese, lead, phosphorus, and organic nitrogen indicate leachate contamination of the aquifer. Water-quality characteristics in the surface waters were generally only slightly above background levels. (USGS)

  9. Emergency ground-water supplies in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.

    1972-01-01

    Urban areas that are supplied from surface-water sources are especially vulnerable to major disruption of their water supplies. Such disruption could result from natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, or landslides or from such other causes as dam failures fallout of radioactive material or other toxic substance from the atmosphere or other toxic substances from the atmosphere or direct introduction (either accidental or deliberate) of any substance that would render the water unfit for use. Prolonged disruption of public water supplies not only causes personal hardships but also endangers health and safety unless suitable alternative emergency supplies can be provided. The degree of hardship and danger generally increases in direct relation to the population density. Ground water because it occurs beneath protective soil and rock materials is less subject to sudden major contamination than are surface-water bodies. For this reason and also because of its widespread availability in the Puget Sound region ground water is especially desireable as a sources of emergency supplies for drinking or other uses requiring water of good quality. In much of the area existing wells would be suitable as safe sources of emergency supplies.

  10. Ground-water resources in the tri-state region adjacent to the Lower Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Greenman, David W.; Lang, Solomon Max; Hilton, George Stockbridge; Outlaw, Donald E.

    1958-01-01

    The maximum beneficial utilization of the ground-water resources cannot be accomplished in haphazard fashion. It must be planned and controlled on the basis of sound, current information about the hydrology of the various aquifers. Continued and, in some areas, intensified investigations of the ground-water resources of the region should form the basis for such planning and control.

  11. Oceanic distribution and life cycle of Calanus species in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broms, Cecilie; Melle, Webjørn; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2009-10-01

    The distribution and demography of Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus were studied throughout their growth season on a basin scale in the Norwegian Sea using ordination techniques and generalized additive models. The distribution and demographic data were related to the seasonal development of the phytoplankton bloom and physical characteristics of water masses. The resulting quantified relationships were related to knowledge on life cycle and adaptations of Calanus species. C. finmarchicus was the numerically dominant Calanus species in Coastal, Atlantic and Arctic waters, showing strong association with both Atlantic and Arctic waters. C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis were associated with Arctic water; however, C. glacialis was occasionally observed in the Norwegian Sea and is probably an expatriate advected into the area from various origins. Demography indicated one generation per year of C. finmarchicus, a two-year life cycle of C. hyperboreus, and both one- and two-year life cycles for C. glacialis in the water masses where they were most abundant. For the examined Calanus species, young copepodites of the new generation seemed to be tuned to the phytoplankton bloom in their main water mass. The development of C. finmarchicus was delayed in Arctic water, and mis-match between feeding stages and the phytoplankton bloom may reduce survival and reproductive success of C. finmarchicus in Arctic water. Based on low abundances of C. hyperboreus CI-III in Atlantic water and main recruitment to CI prior to the phytoplankton bloom, we suggest that reproduction of C. hyperboreus in Atlantic water is not successful.

  12. Water resources of the Tulalip Indian Reservation and adjacent area, Snohomish County, Washington, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna M.; Kresch, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to improve the understanding of water resources of the Tulalip Plateau area, with a primary emphasis on the Tulalip Indian Reservation, in order to address concerns of the Tulalip Tribes about the effects of current and future development, both on and off the Reservation, on their water resources. The drinking-water supply for the Reservation comes almost entirely from ground water, so increasing population will continue to put more pressure on this resource. The study evaluated the current state of ground- and surface-water resources and comparing results with those of studies in the 1970s and 1980s. The study included updating descriptions of the hydrologic framework and ground-water system, determining if discharge and base flow in streams and lake stage have changed significantly since the 1970s, and preparing new estimates of the water budget. The hydrogeologic framework was described using data collected from 255 wells, including their location and lithology. Data collected for the Reservation water budget included continuous and periodic streamflow measurements, micrometeorological data including daily precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation, water-use data, and atmospheric chloride deposition collected under both wet- and dry-deposition conditions to estimate ground-water recharge. The Tulalip Plateau is composed of unconsolidated sediments of Quaternary age that are mostly of glacial origin. There are three aquifers and two confining units as well as two smaller units that are only localized in extent. The Vashon recessional outwash (Qvr) is the smallest of the three aquifers and lies in the Marysville Trough on the eastern part of the study area. The primary aquifer in terms of use is the Vashon advance outwash (Qva). The Vashon till (Qvt) and the transitional beds (Qtb) act as confining units. The Vashon till overlies Qva and the transitional beds underlie Qva and separate it from the undifferentiated sediments (Qu

  13. Adjacency effects in satellite radiometric products from coastal waters: a theoretical analysis for the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bulgarelli, Barbara; Kiselev, Viatcheslav; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Biases induced by land perturbations in satellite-derived water-leaving radiance are theoretically estimated for typical observation conditions in a coastal area of the northern Adriatic Sea hosting the Aqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) validation site. Two different correction procedures are considered: not deriving (AC-1) or alternatively deriving (AC-2) the atmospheric properties from the remote sensing data. In both cases, biases due to adjacency effects largely increase by approaching the coast and with the satellite viewing angle. Conversely, the seasonal and spectral dependence of biases significantly differ between AC-1 and AC-2 schemes. For AC-1 schemes average biases are within ±5% throughout the transect at yellow-green wavelengths, but at the coast they can reach -21% and 34% at 412 and 670 nm, respectively, and exceed 100% at 865 nm. For AC-2 schemes, adjacency effects at those wavelengths from which atmospheric properties are inferred add significant perturbations. For the specific case of a correction scheme determining the atmospheric properties from the near-infrared region and by adopting a power-law spectral extrapolation of adjacency perturbations on the derived atmospheric radiance, average biases become all negative with values up to -60% and -74% at 412 and 670 nm at the coast, respectively. The seasonal trend of estimated biases at the AAOT is consistent with intra-annual variation of biases from match-ups between in situ and satellite products derived with SeaDAS from SeaWiFS and MODIS data. Nevertheless, estimated biases at blue wavelengths exceed systematic differences determined from match-up analysis. This may be explained by uncertainties and approximations in the simulation procedure, and by mechanisms of compensation introduced by the turbid water correction algorithm implemented in SeaDAS.

  14. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Anderson, Chauncey; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for > 90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature.Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to

  15. Metazoan meiofauna in deep-sea canyons and adjacent open slopes: A large-scale comparison with focus on the rare taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchelli, S.; Gambi, C.; Zeppilli, D.; Danovaro, R.

    2010-03-01

    Metazoan meiofaunal abundance, total biomass, nematode size and the richness of taxa were investigated along bathymetric gradients (from the shelf break down to ca. 5000-m depth) in six submarine canyons and on five adjacent open slopes of three deep-sea regions. The investigated areas were distributed along >2500 km, on the Portuguese to the Catalan and South Adriatic margins. The Portuguese and Catalan margins displayed the highest abundances, biomass and richness of taxa, while the lowest values were observed in the Central Mediterranean Sea. The comparison between canyons and the nearby open slopes showed the lack of significant differences in terms of meiofaunal abundance and biomass at any sampling depth. In most canyons and on most slopes, meiofaunal variables did not display consistent bathymetric patterns. Conversely, we found that the different topographic features were apparently responsible for significant differences in the abundance and distribution of the rare meiofaunal taxa (i.e. taxa accounting for <1% of total meiofaunal abundance). Several taxa belonging to the temporary meiofauna, such as larvae/juveniles of Priapulida, Holothuroidea, Ascidiacea and Cnidaria, were encountered exclusively on open slopes, while others (including the Tanaidacea and Echinodea larvae) were found exclusively in canyons sediments. Results reported here indicate that, at large spatial scales, differences in deep-sea meiofaunal abundance and biomass are not only controlled by the available food sources, but also by the region or habitat specific topographic features, which apparently play a key role in the distribution of rare benthic taxa.

  16. Paleoenvironments and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation of southwestern Alabama and adjacent coastal water area

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-09-01

    Upper Jurassic Norphlet sediments in southwestern Alabama and the adjacent coastal water area accumulated under arid climatic conditions. The Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States extended into southwestern Alabama, providing a barrier for air and water circulation during Norphlet deposition. Norphlet paleogeography was dominated by a broad desert plain rimmed to the north and east by the Appalachians and to the south by a developing shallow sea. Initiation of Norphlet sedimentation was a result of erosion of the southern Appalachians. Norphlet conglomerates were deposited in coalescing alluvial fans in proximity to an Appalachian source. The conglomeratic sandstones grade downdip into red-bed lithofacies that accumulated in distal portions of alluvial fan and wadi systems. Quartzose sandstones (Denkman Member) were deposited as dune and interdune sediments on a broad desert plain. The source of the sand was the updip and adjacent alluvial fan, plain, and wadi deposits. A marine transgression was initiated late in Denkman deposition, resulting in the reworking of previously deposited Norphlet sediments. Norphlet hydrocarbon potential in southwestern and offshore Alabama is excellent with four oil and gas fields already established. Petroleum traps discovered to date are primarily structural traps involving salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, and extensional fault traps associated with salt movement. Reservoir rocks consist of quartzose sandstones, which are principally eolian in origin. Smackover algal carbonate mudstones were probably the source for the Norphlet hydrocarbons.

  17. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, May 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1979-01-01

    A May 1979 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual low water-level period. Potentiometric levels declined 4 to 21 feet between September 1978 and May 1979, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level declines ranged from 0 to 6 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Generally potentiometric levels were higher than previous May levels due to heavy rains in April and May. In parts of Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Counties, May 1979 potentiometric levels were 18 feet higher than those of September 1978. (USGS)

  18. An ecological study of the KSC Turning Basin and adjacent waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, T. A.; Lasater, J. A.; Clark, K. B.; Kalajian, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The conditions existing in the waters and bottoms of the Turning Basin, the borrow pit near Pad 39A, and the Barge Canal connecting them were investigated to determine the ecological significance of the chemical, biological, and microbiological parameters. The water quality, biological, microbiological findings are discussed. It is recommended that future dredging activities be limited in depth, and that fill materials should not be removed down to the clay strata.

  19. Two regimes of cloud water over the Okhotsk Sea and the adjacent regions around Japan in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Teruhisa; Iwasaki, Toshiki

    2015-03-01

    This study derived two regimes of cloud water with a dipole structure between over the Okhotsk Sea and over the adjacent regions around Japan in summer by using a climate index for cool summer. When the Okhotsk high develops, clouds are confined to a thin low-level layer owing to the enhanced stability in the lower atmosphere induced by the downward motion associated with the Okhotsk high. The resulting optically thin clouds allow more downward shortwave radiation to reach the surface of the Okhotsk Sea. In contrast, the low-level easterly winds blowing toward the Japanese Islands and the Eurasian continent enhance cloud formation. This is due to the convergence of the water vapor flux induced by the easterly winds associated with the Okhotsk high and the southerly winds associated with the Baiu frontal zone and the Pacific high and due to the orographic uplift of air mass. When a cyclonic circulation occurs over the Okhotsk Sea, a thick layer of low-level clouds extending close to the sea surface is formed. The convergence of the water vapor flux over the subarctic sea surface temperature (SST) frontal zone and the cool SST promote fog formation, and upward motion associated with the cyclonic circulation supports the high cloud water content from the lower to the upper troposphere. The resulting optically thick clouds reduce the downward shortwave radiation at the surface of the Okhotsk Sea. Over the regions around Japan, water vapor flux diverges owing to dry air originating from land and cloud water decreases.

  20. Trace Element Mobility in Water and Sediments in a Hyporheic Zone Adjacent to an Abandoned Uranium Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldan, C.; Blake, J.; Cerrato, J.; Ali, A.; Cabaniss, S.

    2015-12-01

    The legacy of abandoned uranium mines lead to community concerns about environmental and health effects. This study focuses on a cross section of the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine on the Laguna Reservation, west-central New Mexico. Often, the geochemical interactions that occur in the hyporheic zone adjacent to these abandoned mines play an important role in trace element mobility. In order to understand the mobility of uranium (U), arsenic (As), and vanadium (V) in the Rio Paguate; surface water, hyporheic zone water, and core sediment samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). All water samples were filtered through 0.45μm and 0.22μm filters and analyzed. The results show that there is no major difference in concentrations of U (378-496μg/L), As (0.872-6.78μg/L), and V (2.94-5.01μg/L) between the filter sizes or with depth (8cm and 15cm) in the hyporheic zone. The unfiltered hyporheic zone water samples were analyzed after acid digestion to assess the particulate fraction. These results show a decrease in U concentration (153-202μg/L) and an increase in As (33.2-219μg/L) and V (169-1130μg/L) concentrations compared to the filtered waters. Surface water concentrations of U(171-184μg/L) are lower than the filtered hyporheic zone waters while As(1.32-8.68μg/L) and V(1.75-2.38μg/L) are significantly lower than the hyporheic zone waters and particulates combined. Concentrations of As in the sediment core samples are higher in the first 15cm below the water-sediment interface (14.3-3.82μg/L) and decrease (0.382μg/L) with depth. Uranium concentrations are consistent (0.047-0.050μg/L) at all depths. The over all data suggest that U is mobile in the dissolved phase and both As and V are mobile in the particular phase as they travel through the system.

  1. Effects of Withdrawals on Ground-Water Levels in Southern Maryland and the Adjacent Eastern Shore, 1980-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water supply in most areas of Maryland?s Atlantic Coastal Plain, including Southern Maryland. The counties in this area are experiencing some of the most rapid growth and development in the State, resulting in an increased demand for ground-water production. The cooperative, basic water-data program of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Maryland Geological Survey has collected long-term observations of ground-water levels in Southern Maryland and parts of the Eastern Shore for many decades. Additional water-level observations were made by both agencies beginning in the 1970s, under the Power Plant Research Program of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. These long-term water levels commonly show significant declines over several decades, which are attributed to ground-water withdrawals. Ground-water-level trends since 1980 in major Coastal Plain aquifers such as the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, Magothy, upper Patapsco, lower Patapsco, and Patuxent were compared to water use and withdrawal data. Potentiometric surface maps show that most of the declines in ground-water levels can be directly related to effects from major pumping centers. There is also evidence that deep drawdowns in some pumped aquifers may be causing declines in adjacent, unpumped aquifers. Water-level hydrographs of many wells in Southern Maryland show linear declines in levels year after year, instead of the gradual leveling-off that would be expected as the aquifers equilibrate with pumping. A continual increase in the volumes of water being withdrawn from the aquifers is one explanation for why they are not reaching equilibrium. Although reported ground-water production in Southern Maryland has increased somewhat over the past several decades, the reported increases are often not large enough to account for the observed water-level declines. Numerical modeling simulations indicate that a steady, annual increase in the number of small wells could

  2. Corals persisting in naturally turbid waters adjacent to a pristine catchment in Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Albert, Simon; Fisher, Paul L; Gibbes, Badin; Grinham, Alistair

    2015-05-15

    Few water quality measurements exist from pristine environments, with fewer reported studies of coastal water quality from Solomon Islands. Water quality benchmarks for the Solomons have relied on data from other geographic regions, often from quite different higher latitude developed nations, with large land masses. We present the first data of inshore turbidity and sedimentation rate for a pristine catchment on Isabel Island. Surveys recorded relatively high coral cover. The lowest cover was recorded at 22.7% (Jejevo) despite this site having a mean turbidity (continuous monitoring) of 32 NTU. However, a similar site (Jihro) was significantly less turbid (2.1 mean NTU) over the same period. This difference in turbidity is likely due to natural features of the Jihro River promoting sedimentation before reaching coastal sites. We provide an important baseline for Solomon Island inshore systems, whilst demonstrating the importance of continuous monitoring to capture episodic high turbidity events.

  3. Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Waters and Dissolved Gases in Some Thermal Springs of Sicily and Adjacent Volcanic Islands, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassa, Fausto; Capasso, Giorgio; Favara, Rocco; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2006-04-01

    Hydrochemical (major and some minor constituents), stable isotope ([InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.], δ13CTDIC total dissolved inorganic carbon) and dissolved gas composition have been determined on 33 thermal discharges located throughout Sicily (Italy) and its adjacent islands. On the basis of major ion contents, four main water types have been distinguished: (1) a Na-Cl type; (2) a Ca-Mg > Na-SO4-Cl type; (3) a Ca-Mg-HCO3 type and (4) a Na-HCO3 type water. Most waters are meteoric in origin or resulting from mixing between meteoric water and heavy-isotope end members. In some samples, δ 18O values reflect the effects of equilibrium processes between thermal waters and rocks (positive 18O-shift) or thermal waters and CO2 (negative 18O-shift). Dissolved gas composition indicates the occurrence of gas/water interaction processes in thermal aquifers. N2/O2 ratios higher than air-saturated water (ASW), suggest the presence of geochemical processes responsible for dissolved oxygen consumption. High CO2 contents (more than 3000 cc/litre STP) dissolved in the thermal waters indicate the presence of an external source of carbon dioxide-rich gas. TDIC content and δ 13C TDIC show very large ranges from 4.6 to 145.3 mmol/Kg and from 10.0‰ and 2.8‰, respectively. Calculated values indicate the significant contribution from a deep source of carbon dioxide inorganic in origin. Interaction with Mediterranean magmatic CO2 characterized by heavier carbon isotope ratios ([InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] value from -3 to 0‰ vs V-PDB (CAPASSO et al., 1997, GIAMMANCO et al., 1998; INGUAGGIATO et al., 2000) with respect to MORB value and/or input of CO2-derived from thermal decomposition of marine carbonates have been inferred.

  4. Hydrogeochemistry and stable isotopes of ground and surface waters from two adjacent closed basins, Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, C.N.; Whittemore, D.O.

    1990-01-01

    The geochemistry and stable isotopes of groundwaters, surface waters, and precipitation indicate different sources of some dissolved constituents, but a common source of recharge and other constituents in two adjacent closed basins in the Atacama Desert region of northern Chile (24??15???-24??45???S). Waters from artesian wells, trenches, and ephemeral streams in the Punta Negra Basin are characterized by concentrations of Na>Ca>Mg and Cl ???SO4, with TDS Mg ??? Ca and SO4 > Cl, with TDS also Mg ??? Ca and SO4 > Cl, but with TDS up to 40 g/l. The deep mine waters have pH between 3.2 and 3.9, and are high in dissolved CO2 (??13 C = -4.8%PDB), indicating probable interaction with oxidizing sulfides. The deep mine waters have ??18O values of ???-1.8%.compared with values < -3.5??? for other Hamburgo Basin waters; thus the mine waters may represent a mixture of meteoric waters with deeper "metamorphic" waters, which had interacted with rocks and exchanged oxygen isotopes at elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the deep mine waters may represent fossil meteoric waters which evolved isotopically along an evaporative trend starting from values quite depleted in ??18O and ??Dd relative to either precipitation or shallow groundwaters. High I/Br ratios in the Hamburgo Basin waters and La Escondida mine waters are consistent with regionally high I in surficial deposits in the Atacama Desert region and may represent dissolution of a wind-blown evaporite component. Rain and snow collected during June 1984, indicate systematic ??18O and ??D fractionation with increasing elevation between 3150 and 4180 m a.s.l. (-0.21??.??18O and -1.7??.??D per 100 m). Excluding the deep mine waters from La Escondida, the waters from the Hamburgo and Punta Negra Basins have similar ??D and ??18O values and together show a distinct evaporative trend (??D = 5.0 ??18O - 20.2). Snowmelt from the central Andes Cordillera to the east is the most likely source of recharge to both basins. Some of the

  5. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA... Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an area... 41°15′30″, longitude 70°51′30″; thence northeasterly to latitude 41°17′30″, longitude...

  6. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA... Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an area... 41°15′30″, longitude 70°51′30″; thence northeasterly to latitude 41°17′30″, longitude...

  7. 76 FR 30023 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Subjects in 33 CFR Part 334 Danger zones, Marine safety, Navigation (water), Restricted areas, Waterways... current military training mission requires enhanced public safety and protection of vessels that operate.... Establishment of this additional danger zone will allow the Marine Corps to minimize the public safety...

  8. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay, Thimble Shoals Channel Anchorages. (i) Anchorage B . The waters bounded by a line connecting the... Bridge Tunnel or Monitor-Merrimac Bridge Tunnel (MMBT) must be capable of getting underway within 30 minutes with sufficient power to keep free of the bridge tunnel complex. (15) A vessel may not anchor...

  9. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bay, Thimble Shoals Channel Anchorages. (i) Anchorage B . The waters bounded by a line connecting the... Bridge Tunnel or Monitor-Merrimac Bridge Tunnel (MMBT) must be capable of getting underway within 30 minutes with sufficient power to keep free of the bridge tunnel complex. (15) A vessel may not anchor...

  10. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay, Thimble Shoals Channel Anchorages. (i) Anchorage B . The waters bounded by a line connecting the... Bridge Tunnel or Monitor-Merrimac Bridge Tunnel (MMBT) must be capable of getting underway within 30 minutes with sufficient power to keep free of the bridge tunnel complex. (15) A vessel may not anchor...

  11. Sewage effluent clean-up reduces phosphorus but not phytoplankton in lowland chalk stream (River Kennet, UK) impacted by water mixing from adjacent canal.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Martin, Ellie; Neal, Margaret; Hallett, John; Wickham, Heather D; Harman, Sarah A; Armstrong, Linda K; Bowes, Mike J; Wade, Andrew J; Keay, David

    2010-10-15

    Information is provided on phosphorus in the River Kennet and the adjacent Kennet and Avon Canal in southern England to assess their interactions and the changes following phosphorus reductions in sewage treatment work (STW) effluent inputs. A step reduction in soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration within the effluent (5 to 13 fold) was observed from several STWs discharging to the river in the mid-2000s. This translated to over halving of SRP concentrations within the lower Kennet. Lower Kennet SRP concentrations change from being highest under base-flow to highest under storm-flow conditions. This represented a major shift from direct effluent inputs to a within-catchment source dominated system characteristic of the upper part to the catchment. Average SRP concentrations in the lower Kennet reduced over time towards the target for good water quality. Critically, there was no corresponding reduction in chlorophyll-a concentration, the waters remaining eutrophic when set against standards for lakes. Following the up gradient input of the main water and SRP source (Wilton Water), SRP concentrations in the canal reduced down gradient to below detection limits at times near its junction with the Kennet downstream. However, chlorophyll concentrations in the canal were in an order of magnitude higher than in the river. This probably resulted from long water residence times and higher temperatures promoting progressive algal and suspended sediment generations that consumed SRP. The canal acted as a point source for sediment, algae and total phosphorus to the river especially during the summer months when boat traffic disturbed the canal's bottom sediments and the locks were being regularly opened. The short-term dynamics of this transfer was complex. For the canal and the supply source at Wilton Water, conditions remained hypertrophic when set against standards for lakes even when SRP concentrations were extremely low.

  12. Interannual to Decadal Variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and Adjacent Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multi-year warm events where temperature anomalies at 100m depth exceed 0.4oC, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for four years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  13. Selenium in waters in and adjacent to the Kendrick Project, Natrona County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, Marvin A.

    1975-01-01

    Selenium in concentrations exceeding the maximum limit, 0.01 milligrams per liter or 10 micrograms per liter, recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service in 'Drinking-Water Standards, 1962,' Public Health Pub. 956, is present in waters in areas near Casper, Wyo. Some streams containing selenium flow into the North Platte River upstream from several municipalities that obtain water from the river and the alluvium along the river. The area of this investigation includes about 725 square miles in Natrona County in central Wyoming. Study effort was most intensive within the area bounded by the North Platte River, Casper Creek, and Casper Canal, the approximate boundaries of the Kendrick irrigation project. Geologic formations in the area contain selenium that may have been derived from deposits of seleniferous material or from volcanic emanations brought down by rain. Formations older than Cretaceous age were not considered as important sources of selenium in waters of the area, because no irrigation water is applied to areas underlain by these rocks. The selenium concentration in 82 samples of Cretaceous rocks ranged from less than 10 to 4,200 ?g/kg (micrograms per kilogram of sample); no correlation was found between selenium concentration and the depth at which the sample was collected. Of four samples of Tertiary rocks analyzed, three contained no selenium and one had a selenium concentration of 40 ?g/kg. The selenium concentration in 93 samples of Quaternary rocks ranged from less than 10 to 52.0 ?g/kg, and the highest selenium concentration was generally found at depths less than 4 feet. No geologic formation has consistently high concentrations of selenium, but high concentrations were found at points throughout the study area. Probably the rocks in any locality could be the source of selenium in the water in the surrounding vicinity. The selenium concentration in water from some wells fluctuates widely. It is concluded that the selenium concentrations in the

  14. Surface-water features in Osceola County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, G.H.; Frazee, James M.

    1979-01-01

    The western two-thirds of Osceola County, Fla., drains southward by way of the Kissimmee River and its tributaries; the eastern one-third drains eastward to the St. Johns River or to marshy areas that make up part of the headwaters of the St. Johns River. About 15 percent of the county is covered by several hundred lakes whose surface areas range in size from a few to several thousand acres. Much of the natural drainage has been altered by canalization or regulated by control structures. Under natural conditions streamflow is seasonal, usually high in September or October and low in May or June, in phase with the rainy season. Control structures are used to maintain lake levels within a relatively small range in stage, producing greater seasonal variations in river flow than before regulation. Dissolved-solids concentration of much of the surface water is less than 240 mg/l, in some, much less. The water typically is of calcium bicarbonate type. Color is fairly high, in water draining from swamps, where the pickup of humic acids is significant. (Kosco-USGS)

  15. Spatial and seasonal patterns of ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zengguang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Wan, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Surveys were conducted in five voyages in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent coastal area from March to December 2011 during full moon spring tides. The ichthyoplankton assemblages and the environmental factors that affect their spatial and seasonal patterns were determined. Totally 35 and 12 fish egg and larvae taxa were identified, respectively. Over the past several decades, the egg and larval species composition has significantly changed in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters, most likely corresponding with the alteration of fishery resources, which are strongly affected by anthropogenic activities and climate change. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index identified four assemblages: near-shore bay assemblage, middle bay assemblage and two closely related assemblages (near-shore/middle bay assemblage and middle/edge of bay assemblage). The primary species of each assemblage principally reflected the spawning strategies of adult fish. The near-shore bay assemblage generally occurred in near-shore bay, with depths measuring <20 m, and the middle bay assemblage generally occurred in the middle of bay, with depths measuring 20 to 40 m. Spatial and seasonal variations in ichthyoplankton in each assemblage were determined by interactions between biological behavioral traits and oceanographic features, particularly the variation of local conditions within the constraint of a general reproductive strategy. The results of Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated that both fish egg and larval abundance were positively correlated with depth, which is critical to the oceanographic features in Haizhou Bay.

  16. Zooplankton of the waters adjacent to the C. P. Crane generating station. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, G.C.; Womack, C.J.; Olney, J.E.

    1980-08-01

    Zooplankton population in the Gunpowder River and its tributaries were sampled monthly from July, 1979-March, 1980 in a continuation of similar studies begun in March, 1979. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the present once-through cooling system of the Crane Power Plant. The principal effect of the C.P. Crane generating station on zooplankton of the area is a displacement of an original freshwater community through the pumping of cooling water from Seneca Creek to Saltpeter Creek.

  17. Assessment of the fresh-and brackish-water resources underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas on northern Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Swenson, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The city of Dunedin is enhancing their potable ground-water resources through desalination of brackish ground water. An assessment of the fresh- and brackish-water resources in the Upper Floridan aquifer was needed to estimate the changes that may result from brackish-water development. The complex hydrogeologic framework underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas of northern Pinellas County is conceptualized as a multilayered sequence of permeable zones and confining and semiconfining units. The permeable zones contain vertically spaced, discrete, water-producing zones with differing water quality. Water levels, water-level responses, and water quality are highly variable among the different permeable zones. The Upper Floridan aquifer is best characterized as a local flow system in most of northern Pinellas County. Pumping from the Dunedin well field is probably not influencing water levels in the aquifer outside Dunedin, but has resulted in localized depressions in the potentiometric surface surrounding production-well clusters. The complex geologic layering combined with the effects of production-well distribution probably contribute to the spatial and temporal variability in chloride concentrations in the Dunedin well field. Chloride concentrations in ground water underlying the Dunedin well field vary both vertically and laterally. In general, water-quality rapidly changes below depths of 400 feet below sea level. Additionally, randomly distributed water-producing zones with higher chloride concentrations may occur at shallow, discrete intervals above 400 feet. A relation between chloride concentration and distance from St. Joseph Sound is not apparent; however, a possible relation exists between chloride concentration and production-well density. Chloride-concentration data from production wells show a consistently increasing pattern that has accelerated since the late 1980's. Chloride-concentration data from 15 observation wells show increasing trends for 6 wells

  18. Larval distribution pattern of Muraenesox cinereus (Anguilliformes: Muraenesocidae) leptocephali in waters adjacent to Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hwan-Sung; Kim, Jin-Koo; Oh, Taeg Yun; Choi, Kwang Ho; Choi, Jung Hwa; Seo, Young Il; Lee, Dong Woo

    2015-09-01

    To understand the transport and recruitment processes of the daggertooth pike conger, Muraenesox cinereus, in the marginal seas of East Asia, we investigated the distribution pattern, estimated spawning areas and periods, and recruitment mechanisms of M. cinereus, based on 51 individuals of leptocephali collected from Korean waters during 2010-2014. Back-calculated hatching dates, determined from the daily incremental growth rates of the otoliths, indicated that the spawning period for M. cinereus was during July-September. The size range of M. cinereus leptocephali collected offshore of Jeju Island and southeast of the Korea-Japan intermediate zone was 16.6-20.9 mm TL (age, 18-23 d). We hypothesize that one of the spawning grounds of M. cinereus is located offshore in the East China Sea. In Korean waters, the ages and body lengths of M. cinereus leptocephali increased northward from latitude 31°30'N to 34°40'N, with metamorphosis occurring at latitude 34°40'N. Therefore, we surmised that the hatched preleptocephali of M. cinereus were transported from offshore areas in the East China Sea to Jeju Island and the Korea Strait (KS) by the Kuroshio and Tsushima Warm Current.

  19. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  20. Depositional and diagenetic history and petroleum geology of the Jurassic Norphlet Formation of the Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kugler, R.L.; Mink, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of deep (>20,000 ft) gas reservoirs in eolian sandstone of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation in Mobile Bay and offshore Alabama in the late 1970s represents one of the most significant hydrocarbon discoveries in the nation during the past several decades. Estimated original proved gas from Norphlet reservoirs in the Alabama coastal waters and adjacent federal waters is 7.462 trillion ft3 (Tcf) (75% recovery factor). Fifteen fields have been established in the offshore Alabama area. Norphlet sediment was deposited in an arid environment in alluvial fans, alluvial plains, and wadis in updip areas. In downdip areas, the Norphlet was deposited in a broad desert plain, with erg development in some areas. Marine transgression, near the end of Norphlet deposition, resulted in reworking of the upper part of the Norphlet Formation. Norphlet reservoir sandstone is arkose and subarkose, consisting of a simple assemblage of three minerals, quartz, albite, and K-feldspar. The present framework grain assemblage of the Norphlet is dominantly diagenetic, owing to albitization and dissolution of feldspar. Despite the simple framework composition, the diagenetic character of the Norphlet is complex. Important authigenic minerals include carbonate phases (calcite, dolomite, Fe-dolomite, and breunnerite), feldspar (albite and K-feldspar), evaporite minerals (anhydrite and halite), clay minerals (illite and chlorite), quartz, and pyrobitumen. The abundance and distribution of these minerals varies significantly between onshore and offshore regions of Norphlet production. The lack of sufficient internal sources of components for authigenic minerals, combined with unusual chemical compositions of chloride (Mg-rich), breunnerite, and some minor authigenic minerals, suggests that Louann-derived fluids influenced Norphlet diagenesis. In offshore Alabama reservoirs, porosity is dominantly modified primary porosity. Preservation of porosity in deep Norphlet reservoirs is due

  1. Ground-Water Hydrographs and 5-Year Ground-Water-Level Changes, 1984-93, for Selected Areas In and Adjacent to New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkins, D.W.; Garcia, Benjamin M.

    1995-01-01

    A cooperative observation-well monitoring program was begun in New Mexico in 1925 between the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico State Engineer Office. The majority of the wells are located in New Mexico; however, a few are in Texas east of Curry and Roosevelt County, New Mexico, and in Colorado along the Rio Grande. The program presently includes 22 wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders and 34 monitoring areas in which selected wells are measured periodically, usually every 5 years, to record changes in ground-water levels. These monitoring areas are those where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation, municipal, or industrial purposes. Water-level data and water-level changes computed from these data are used to determine areas of ground-water-level rises and declines. This information is necessary for management of ground-water resources in New Mexico. Included in this report are hydrographs of ground-water levels obtained from 22 wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders and maps of ground-water-level changes computed for a 5-year period in each of 34 monitoring areas. Well locations and ground-water-level data for a 5-year period are listed in tables for each monitoring area. Where available, plots of annual precipitation data for climatological stations within or adjacent to each monitoring area are included.

  2. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36°51′45.7″ N 76°19′31.5″ W 36°51′45.8″ N 76°19′20.7″ W 36°51′37.8″ N 76°19′24.3″ W 36°51′32.5″ N 76°19′31.1″ W 36°51′40.7″ N 76°19′37.3″ W 36°51′45.7″ N 76°19′31.5″ W (ii) Anchorage N, Hospital Point. The waters bounded by a line connecting the following points: Latitude Longitude 36°51′05.4″ N...

  3. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36°51′45.7″ N 76°19′31.5″ W 36°51′45.8″ N 76°19′20.7″ W 36°51′37.8″ N 76°19′24.3″ W 36°51′32.5″ N 76°19′31.1″ W 36°51′40.7″ N 76°19′37.3″ W 36°51′45.7″ N 76°19′31.5″ W (ii) Anchorage N, Hospital Point. The waters bounded by a line connecting the following points: Latitude Longitude 36°51′05.4″ N...

  4. Analysis and simulation of ground-water flow in Lake Wales Ridge and adjacent areas of central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    1996-01-01

    The Lake Wales Ridge is an uplands recharge area in central Florida that contains many sinkhole lakes. Below-normal rainfall and increased pumping of ground water have resulted in declines both in ground-water levels and in the water levels of many of the ridge lakes. A digital flow model was developed for a 3,526 square-mile area to help understand the current (1990) ground-water flow system and its response to future ground-water withdrawals. The ground-water flow system in the Lake Wales Ridge and adjacent area of central Florida consists of a sequence of sedimentary aquifers and confining units. The uppermost water-bearing unit of the study area is the surficial aquifer. This aquifer is generally unconfined and is composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer is underlain by the confined intermediate aquifer and confining units which consists of up to three water-bearing units composed of interbedded clastics and carbonate rocks. The lowermost unit of the ground- water flow system, the confined Upper Floridan aquifer, consists of a thick, hydraulically connected sequence of carbonate rocks. The Upper Floridan aquifer is about 1,200 to 1,400 feet thick and is the primary source for ground-water withdrawals in the study area. The generalized ground-water flow system of the Lake Wales Ridge is that water moves downward from the surficial aquifer to the intermediate aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the central area, primarily under the ridges, with minor amounts of water flow under the flatlands. The water flows laterally away fromn the central area, downgradient to discharge areas to the west, east, and south, and locally along valleys of major streams. Upward leakage occurs along valleys of major streams. The model was initially calibrated to the steady-state conditions representing September 1989. The resulting calibrated hydrologic parameters were then tested by simulating transient conditions for the period October 1989 through 1990. A

  5. Geochemistry of waters from springs, wells, and snowpack on and adjacent to Medicine Lake volcano, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical analyses of waters from cold springs and wells of the Medicine Lake volcano and surrounding region indicate small chloride anomalies that may be due to water-rock interaction or limited mixing with high-temperature geothermal fluids. The Fall River Springs (FRS) with a combined discharge of approximately 37 m3/s, show a negative correlation between chloride (Cl) and temperature, implying that the Cl is not derived from a high-temperature geothermal fluid. The high discharge from the FRS indicates recharge over a large geographic region. Chemical and isotopic variations in the FRS show that they contain a mixture of three distinct waters. The isotopic composition of recharge on and adjacent to the volcano are estimated from the isotopic composition of snow and precipitation amounts adjusted for evapotranspiration. Enough recharge of the required isotopic composition (-100 parts per thousand ??D) is available from a combination of the Medicine Lake caldera, the Fall River basin and the Long Bell basin to support the slightly warmer components of the FRS (32 m3/s). The cold-dilute part of the FRS (approximately 5 m3/s) may recharge in the Bear Creek basin or at lower elevations in the Fall River basin.

  6. Atmospheric and Adjacency Correction of Landsat-8 Imagery of Inland and Coastal Waters Near AERONET-OC Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, Cristiana; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Manzo, Ciro; Bresciani, Mariano; Braga, Federica; Giardino, Claudia; Schroeder, Thomas; Kratzer, Susanne; Brando, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Preliminary results of a new algorithm for the atmospheric correction of OLI imagery acquired over coastal and inland water are presented. The algorithm was based on the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV) radiative transfer model and the atmopheric contribution was simulated by using the microphysical properties of the aerosol, their size distribution and refractive index, available from the AERONET stations located in the study area. The SeaDAS software was also applied to the OLI data to compare the results obtained by OLI@CRI algorithm with the standard procedure for atmospheric correction of remotely data. Furthermore, the adjacency effect was removed by the well-known empirical formula as well as a new empirical formula to assess any possible improvement of the atmospheric correction products using the diffuse fraction of the total atmospheric transmission as weight for averaged reflectance removal. To validate the results and assess its accuracy, the above-water data acquired at AERONET- OC sites were used. A coastal area and a lake are considered, where AERONET and AERONET-OC data are available. These sites cover a significant range of both atmospheric (from boreal to tropics) and water quality conditions.

  7. Comparison of fish communities in a clean-water stream and an adjacent polluted stream

    SciTech Connect

    Reash, R.J.; Berra, T.M. )

    1987-10-01

    Fish populations were studied in two parallel tributaries of the Mohican River, Ohio: Clear Fork, relatively undisturbed; and Rocky Fork, which receives industrial discharges and sewage effluent. Water quality in Rocky Fork was significantly worse than the control stream with respect to heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn) and ammonia concentrations. Fish species richness and diversity increased downstream in Clear Fork but decreased downstream in Rocky Fork. Pollution-intolerant species were present in the headwaters of Rocky Fork and at all sites of Clear Fork. Fish community similarity of fish communities between corresponding headwater sites was significantly greater than similarity of corresponding downstream reaches, using polluted and unpolluted sites for comparison. Both headwater sites were dominated numerically by generalized invertebrate-feeding fish. At downstream sites in Clear Fork benthic insectivores became dominant in Rocky Fork, generalized invertebrate-feeding fish were present. Fish communities at polluted sites had comparatively lower variability of both trophic structure rank and relative abundance. The smaller populations of fish in these sites were dominated by a few pollution-tolerant species.

  8. Mapping the future expansion of Arctic open water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, Katherine R.; Miller, Christopher R.; Overeem, Irina; Kay, Jennifer E.

    2016-03-01

    Sea ice impacts most of the Arctic environment, from ocean circulation and marine ecosystems to animal migration and marine transportation. Sea ice has thinned and decreased in age over the observational record. Ice extent has decreased. Reduced ice cover has warmed the surface ocean, accelerated coastal erosion and impacted biological productivity. Declines in Arctic sea-ice extent cannot be explained by internal climate variability alone and can be attributed to anthropogenic effects. However, extent is a poor measure of ice decline at specific locations as it integrates over the entire Arctic basin and thus contains no spatial information. The open water season, in contrast, is a metric that represents the duration of open water over a year at an individual location. Here we present maps of the open water season over the period 1920-2100 using daily output from a 30-member initial-condition ensemble of business-as-usual climate simulations that characterize the expansion of Arctic open water, determine when the open water season will move away from pre-industrial conditions (`shift’ time) and identify when human forcing will take the Arctic sea-ice system outside its normal bounds (`emergence’ time). The majority of the Arctic nearshore regions began shifting in 1990 and will begin leaving the range of internal variability in 2040. Models suggest that ice will cover coastal regions for only half of the year by 2070.

  9. Evaluation of ground-water contribution to streamflow in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priest, Sherlyn

    2004-01-01

    Stream-aquifer relations in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina were evaluated as part of the Coastal Georgia Sound Science Initiative, the Georgia Environmental Protection Division's strategy to protect the Upper Floridan aquifer from saltwater intrusion. Ground-water discharge to streams was estimated using three methods: hydrograph separation, drought-streamflow measurements, and linear-regression analysis of streamflow duration. Ground-water discharge during the drought years of 1954, 1981, and 2000 was analyzed for minimum ground-water contribution to streamflow. Hydrograph separation was used to estimate baseflow at eight streamflow gaging stations during the 31-year period 1971?2001. Six additional streamflow gaging stations were evaluated using linear-regression analysis of flow duration to determine mean annual baseflow. The study area centers on three major river systems ? the Salkehatchie?Savannah?Ogeechee, Altamaha?Satilla?St Marys, and Suwannee ? that interact with the underlying ground-water system to varying degrees, largely based on the degree of incision of the river into the aquifer and on the topography. Results presented in this report are being used to calibrate a regional ground-water flow model to evaluate ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Hydrograph separation indicated decreased baseflow to streams during drought periods as water levels declined in the aquifer. Average mean annual baseflow ranged from 39 to 74 percent of mean annual streamflow, with a mean contribution of 58 percent for the period 1971?2001. In a wet year (1997), baseflow composed from 33 to 70 percent of mean annual streamflow. Drought-streamflow analysis estimated baseflow contribution to streamflow ranged from 0 to 24 percent of mean annual streamflow. Linear-regression analysis of streamflow duration estimated the Q35 (flow that is equaled or exceeded 35 percent of the time) as the most

  10. Photosynthesis irradiance parameters and community structure associated with coastal filaments and adjacent waters in the northern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Rory K.; Lohrenz, Steven E.; Rathbun, Catherine E.; Michelle Wood, A.; Arnone, Robert A.; Jones, Burton H.; Kindle, John C.; Weidemann, Alan D.

    Comparisons were made among size-fractionated photosynthesis-irradiance ( P- E) parameters, chlorophyll a size distributions, and accessory pigment composition of natural phytoplankton assemblages in filaments, coastal upwelling waters, and an oligotrophic region of the northern Arabian Sea during the Fall Intermonsoon in 1995. Differences between P- E parameters, PBmax and αB, were observed between filaments and adjacent waters and were associated with differences in phytoplankton community structure. In a southern filament and coastal upwelled waters, the majority of the estimated biomass (chlorophyll a) was present in the larger (2-20 and 20-200 μm) size fractions; dominant accessory pigments were 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin and peridinin. In higher salinity waters, high percentages of chlorophyll a and lutein/zeaxanthin were observed in the smallest size-fraction (<2 μm). Whole water values of PBmax ranged from 1.77 to 2.31 (g C g chl a-1 h -1) when the majority of the biomass was in the largest fractions. Higher values (more than 4.48 g C g chl a-1 h -1) were determined in whole water samples for communities comprised primarily of small cells. A size dependence was also observed in the value of αB, 0.017 or greater (g C g chl a-1 h -1)/(μmol quanta m -2 s -1) for whole water samples at stations dominated by small cells and 0.013 when derived from stations dominated by large cells. The observed pattern of larger phytoplankton associated with upwelling and filament waters was consistent with previous investigations and was, for the most part, comparable to findings in the California Current system. Our results show that differences in taxonomic composition and photosynthetic characteristics were indeed present between filament waters and other distinct regions; these results suggest that taxonomic variations may be associated with size-related variations in P- E parameters. Our findings provide a unique data set describing filament biology in the northern

  11. Successful water reuse in open recirculating cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vaska, M.; Lee, B.

    1994-12-31

    Water reuse in open recirculating cooling water systems is becoming increasingly prevalent in industry. Reuse can incorporate a number of varied approaches with the primary goal being water conservation. Market forces driving this trend include scarcity of fresh water makeup sources and higher costs associated with pretreatment of natural waters. Utilization of reuse water for cooling tower makeup has especially detrimental effects on corrosion and deposit rates. Additionally, once the reuse water is cycled and treated with inhibitors, dispersants and microbiocides, acceptability for discharge to a public waterway can be a concern. The task for water treatment suppliers is to guide industry in the feasibility and procedures for successfully achieving these goals. This paper focuses particularly on reuse of municipal wastewater for cooling tower makeup and explores techniques which have been found especially effective. Case histories are described where these concepts have been successfully applied in practice.

  12. Geomorphic data collected within and adjacent to Nebraska Public Power District's Cottonwood Ranch Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzel, Paul; Parker, Randolph; Nelson, Jonathan; Gyetvai, Steven; Burman, Aaron; Heckman, Ashley

    2003-01-01

    River-channel topographic surveys were conducted and bed-material samples were collected along transects across the Platte River during water year 2002 (October 1, 2001 to September 30, 2002). A total of 57 transect lines or cross sections were established within three study reaches located along the middle channel of the Platte River in a 2,650-acre parcel of land owned by the Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD), hereinafter referred to as the Cottonwood Ranch Property. Five additional cross sections were established downstream of the Cottonwood Ranch Property across the entire width of the Platte River as a component of a proposed future general monitoring program. A development and enhancement plan is proposed by NPPD on the Cottonwood Ranch Property to satisfy their Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing guidelines. The goal of the plan is to improve habitat along this reach for endangered species. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) designed a monitoring and research program to study and detect what effects, if any, these channel management actions have on channel morphology and sediment transport within and adjacent to the Cottonwood Ranch Property. This report presents the data-collection methods and summarizes the geomorphic data collected in support of the monitoring program for water year 2002.

  13. Temporal and spatial distribution of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lusan; Zhou, Juan; Zheng, Binghui; Cai, Wenqian; Lin, Kuixuan; Tang, Jingliang

    2013-07-15

    Between 1972 and 2009, evidence of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters was collected. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of these red tides, and it was subsequently used to map the distribution of these events. The results show that the following findings. (1) There were three red tide-prone areas: outside the Yangtze River Estuary and the eastern coast of Sheshan, the Huaniaoshan-Shengshan-Gouqi waters, and the Zhoushan areas and eastern coast of Zhujiajian. In these areas, red tides occurred 174 total times, 25 of which were larger than 1000 km(2) in areal extent. After 2000, the frequency of red tide outbreaks increased significantly. (2) During the months of May and June, the red tide occurrence in these areas was 51% and 20%, respectively. (3) Outbreaks of the dominant red tide plankton species Prorocentrum dong-haiense, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum dantatum, and Noctiluca scientillan occurred 38, 35, 15, and 10 times, respectively, during the study interval.

  14. Characterization of surface-water resources in the Great Basin National Park area and their susceptibility to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Beck, David A.; Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Eight drainage basins and one spring within the Great Basin National Park area were monitored continually from October 2002 to September 2004 to quantify stream discharge and assess the natural variability in flow. Mean annual discharge for the stream drainages ranged from 0 cubic feet per second at Decathon Canyon to 9.08 cubic feet per second at Baker Creek. Seasonal variability in streamflow generally was uniform throughout the network. Minimum and maximum mean monthly discharges occurred in February and June, respectively, at all but one of the perennial streamflow sites. Synoptic-discharge, specific-conductance, and water- and air-temperature measurements were collected during the spring, summer, and autumn of 2003 along selected reaches of Strawberry, Shingle, Lehman, Baker, and Snake Creeks, and Big Wash to determine areas where surface-water resources would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys. Comparison of streamflow and water-property data to the geology along each stream indicated areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals. These areas consist of reaches where streams (1) are in contact with permeable rocks or sediments, or (2) receive water from either spring discharge or ground-water inflow.

  15. Water depth-composition trends in ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin compared to those in equatorial Pacific crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, T. A.; Hein, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts have been used as proxies for paleo-seawater chemistry; however, element concentrations and growth rates in crusts can vary depending on the region, latitude, and water depth. Here we will look at 130 Fe-Mn crusts from seven seamounts adjacent to the California (CA) margin to explore trends in composition with water depth and latitude. Crusts were collected by ROV, resulting in a dataset with exact water depth and location coordinates. Water depth ranges from 570 to 3,934 m along a 700-km transect running roughly parallel to the CA margin. Crust samples used for comparison were collected by dredging along transects following the Gilbert Ridge and Tokelau Seamounts in the western equatorial Pacific, with water depths ranging from about 1,500 to 4,800 m. In addition to variations with latitude and water depth, element concentrations in CA margin crusts are influenced by high primary productivity in surface waters, terrestrial input, and upwelling along the continental margin. Elements associated with terrestrial input, including Na, Si, Al, K, Pb, and particularly Th, are enriched in CA margin crusts relative to crusts from the equatorial Pacific transects. Si is also associated with the biogenic phase, as are P, Ba, and Cu but these elements are lower in CA margin crusts. Ba is a proxy for primary productivity. CA margin crusts show Ba increasing with increasing water depth, while equatorial Pacific crusts show the inverse trend. In equatorial Pacific crusts, Ba correlates with decreasing latitude, which reflects increasing proximity to the high productivity zone of equatorial upwelling; additionally, local obstructional upwelling associated with primary productivity around seamounts and islands enhances the productivity signal. Cu, which is associated with the manganese oxide phase, in addition to the biogenic phase, also increases with water depth along the CA margin; this is consistent with the seawater profile for dissolved Cu. In

  16. Shallow ground-water quality adjacent to burley tobacco fields in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia, spring 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.C.; Connell, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey began an assessment of the upper Tennessee River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. A ground-water land-use study conducted in 1996 focused on areas with burley tobacco production in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Land-use studies are designed to focus on specific land uses and to examine natural and human factors that affect the quality of shallow ground water underlying specific types of land use. Thirty wells were drilled in shallow regolith adjacent to and downgradient of tobacco fields in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of the upper Tennessee River Basin. Ground-water samples were collected between June 4 and July 9, 1997, to coincide with the application of the majority of pesticides and fertilizers used in tobacco production. Ground-water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, 79 pesticides, 7 pesticide degradation products, 86 volatile organic compounds, and dissolved organic carbon. Nutrient concentrations were lower than the levels found in similar NAWQA studies across the United States during 1993-95. Five of 30 upper Tennessee River Basin wells (16.7 percent) had nitrate levels exceeding 10 mg/L while 19 percent of agricultural land-use wells nationally and 7.9 percent in the Southeast had nitrate concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. Median nutrient concentrations were equal to or less than national median concentrations. All pesticide concentrations in the basin were less than established drinking water standards, and pesticides were detected less frequently than average for other NAWQA study units. Atrazine was detected at 8 of 30 (27 percent) of the wells, and deethylatrazine (an atrazine degradation product) was found in 9 (30 percent) of the wells. Metalaxyl was found in 17 percent of the wells, and prometon, flumetralin, dimethomorph, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, dichlorprop, and silvex were detected once each (3 percent). Volatile organic compounds

  17. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    AD-A142 517 ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF DDT CONTAMINATION OF HUNTSVILLE SP..(U) WATER AND AIR RESEARCH INC GAINESVILLE FL d H...DDT Con- tamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek and Adjacent Lands and Waters , Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama a. i irk ut iPOR...Pruitt and J. C. Nichols 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER)» DACW01-79-C-0224 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Water and Air Research

  18. Open inlet conversion: Water quality benefits of two designs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Open surface inlets that connect to subsurface tile drainage systems provide a direct pathway for movement of sediment, nutrients, and agrochemicals to surface waters. This study was conducted to determine the reduction in drainage effluent total suspended sediment (TSS) and phosphorus (P) concentr...

  19. Simulation of Integrated Surface-Water/Ground-Water Flow and Salinity for a Coastal Wetland and Adjacent Estuary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    of MODFLOW (McDonald and Har- baugh, 1988) and MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), was designed to solve the three-dimensional variable-density ground...hydraulically resistive layer at the land surface, which for the Everglades application, corresponds to the peat and marl unit overlying the Biscayne aquifer...0 is the density of the surface water [ML -3]. This approximation for the flux through the unsaturated zone is based on the approach used by MODFLOW

  20. Water temperature, streamflow, and ground-water elevation in and adjacent to the Russian river between Hopland and Guerneville, California from 1998-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Marisa H.; Hatch, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Temperature, water level elevation, stage height, and river discharge data for this report were collected in and adjacent to the Russian River from Hopland to Guerneville, CA over a four-year period from 1998 to 2002 to establish baselines for long-term water quality, water supply and habitat. Data files presented in this report were collected by the USGS and the Sonoma County Water Agency's Engineering Resource and Planning, and Natural Resource Divisions. Temperature data were collected in single-channel submersible microloggers or temperature data were collected simultaneously with water-elevation data in dual-channel down-hole data loggers. Stream stage and streamflow data were collected at USGS stream gaging stations located near Hopland, Healdsburg, and Guerneville over a 130 km reach of the Russian River. During the period of record stream flow ranged from 3 to 1458 m3/s. Stream temperature ranged from 8 to 29 oC while groundwater temperature ranged from 10 to 38 oC. Stream stage varied 5 m seasonly, while ground-water level varied 19 m over the same time scale.

  1. Modeling sea-water intrusion with open boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, F.; Cruz-Sanjulian, J.

    1997-07-01

    The present study concerns the application of a new numerical approach to describe the fresh-water/sea-water relationships in coastal aquifers. Essentially, a solution to the partial differential equation governing the regional motion of a phreatic surface and the resulting interface between fresh water and salt water is analyzed by a Galerkin finite-element formulation. A single-phase steady numerical model was applied to approximate, with simple triangular elements, the regional behavior of a coastal aquifer under appropriate sinks, sources, Neumann, outflow face, and open boundary conditions. On the one hand, outflow open boundaries at the coastline were not treated with other classical boundary conditions, but instead with a formal numerical approach for open boundaries inspired in this particular case by the Dupuit approximation of horizontal outflow at the boundary. The solution to this numerical model, together with the Ghyben-Herzberg principle, allows the correct simulation of fresh-water heads and the position of the salt-water interface for a steeply sloping coast. Although the solutions were precise and do not present classical numerical oscillations, this approach requires a previous solution with Dirichlet boundary conditions at the coastline in order to find a good convergence of the solution algorithm. On the other hand, the same precise results were obtained with a more restrictive open boundary condition, similar in a way to the outflow face approach, which required less computer time, did not need a prior numerical solution and could be extended to different coastline conditions. The steady-state problem was solved for different hypothetical coastal aquifers and fresh-water usage through three types of numerical tests.

  2. Taxonomic review of Hadromerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia, Canada, and adjacent waters, with the description of nine new species.

    PubMed

    Austin, William C; Ott, Bruce S; Reiswig, Henry M; Romagosa, Paula; Mcdaniel, Neil G

    2014-06-26

    The history of sponge collecting and systematics in British Columbia is reviewed over the period 1878 to 1966. Recent additions and changes are provided in an on-line species list: www.mareco/org/kml/projects/NEsponges.asp. Hadromerids are the focus of this paper as eight of 19 species in British Columbia are considered new. An additional new species is described from southern California to clarify the status of Tethya californiana in BC. An update is timely for hadromerids in BC as there is new material and renewed interest, while existing descriptions are often inadequate. We describe new species and provide additions to previous descriptions for sponges of the order Hadromerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) in the cold temperate NE Pacific off British Columbia and adjacent waters. We propose one range extension and one new species in Clionaidae; two range extensions and five new species in Polymastiidae; one range extension, two name changes and two new species in Suberitidae; and one new species in Tethyidae. New species include Pione gibraltarensis n.sp., Polymastia piscesae n. sp., Radiella endeavourensis n. sp., Sphaerotylus raphidophora n. sp., Sphaerotylus verenae n. sp., Weberella perlucida n. sp., Prosuberites saanichensis n. sp., Suberites lambei n. sp., and Tethya vacua n. sp..

  3. The influence of mariculture on mercury distribution in sediments and fish around Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China waters.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Shao, Ding-Ding; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Shi, Jian-Bo; Sun, Xiao-lin; Wu, Fu-Yong; Lo, S C L; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Wong, Ming H

    2011-02-01

    To study the influence of mariculture on mercury (Hg) speciation and distribution in sediments and cultured fish around Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China waters, sediment samples were collected from six mariculture sites and the corresponding reference sites, 200-300 m away from the mariculture sites. Mariculture activities increased total mercury, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur concentrations in the surface sediments underneath mariculture sites, possibly due to the accumulation of unconsumed fish feed and fish excretion. However, methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations and the ratio of MeHg to THg (% MeHg) in sediments underneath mariculture sites were lower than the corresponding reference sites. The % MeHg in sediments was negatively correlated (r = -0.579, p < 0.05) with organic matter (OM) content among all sites, indicating that OM may have inhibited Hg methylation in surface sediments. Three mariculture fish species were collected from each mariculture site, including red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii). The average MeHg concentration in fish muscle was 75 μg kg⁻¹ (wet weight), and the dietary intake of MeHg through fish consumption for Hong Kong residents was 0.37 μg kg⁻¹ week⁻¹, which was lower than the corresponding WHO limits (500 μg kg⁻¹ and 1.6 μg kg⁻¹ week⁻¹).

  4. Relationships of surface water, pore water, and sediment chemistry in wetlands adjacent to Great Salt Lake, Utah, and potential impacts on plant community health.

    PubMed

    Carling, Gregory T; Richards, David C; Hoven, Heidi; Miller, Theron; Fernandez, Diego P; Rudd, Abigail; Pazmino, Eddy; Johnson, William P

    2013-01-15

    We collected surface water, pore water, and sediment samples at five impounded wetlands adjacent to Great Salt Lake, Utah, during 2010 and 2011 in order to characterize pond chemistry and to compare chemistry with plant community health metrics. We also collected pore water and sediment samples along multiple transects at two sheet flow wetlands during 2011 to investigate a potential link between wetland chemistry and encroachment of invasive emergent plant species. Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace and major elements, nutrients, and relevant field parameters. The extensive sampling campaign provides a broad assessment of Great Salt Lake wetlands, including a range of conditions from reference to highly degraded. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) to characterize the wetland sites based on the multiple parameters measured in surface water, pore water, and sediment. NMS results showed that the impounded wetlands fall along a gradient of high salinity/low trace element concentrations to low salinity/high trace element concentrations, whereas the sheet flow wetlands have both elevated salinity and high trace element concentrations, reflecting either different sources of element loading or different biogeochemical/hydrological processes operating within the wetlands. Other geochemical distinctions were found among the wetlands, including Fe-reducing conditions at two sites and sulfate-reducing conditions at the remaining sites. Plant community health metrics in the impounded wetlands showed negative correlations with specific metal concentrations in sediment (THg, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, Pb, Ag, Tl), and negative correlations with nutrient concentrations in surface water (nitrite, phosphate, nitrate). In the sheet flow wetlands, invasive plant species were inversely correlated with pore water salinity. These results indicate that sediment and pore water chemistry play an important role in wetland plant community health, and that monitoring and

  5. [Effects of macro-jellyfish abundance dynamics on fishery resource structure in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiu-Juan; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Jin, Xian-Shi; Dai, Fang-Qun

    2011-12-01

    Based on the bottom trawl survey data in May 2007 and May and June 2008, this paper analyzed the effects of the abundance dynamics of macro-jellyfish on the species composition, distribution, and abundance of fishery resource in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters. From May 2007 to June 2008, the average catch per haul and the top catch per haul of macro-jellyfish increased, up to 222.2 kg x h(-1) and 1800 kg x h(-1) in June 2008, respectively. The macro-jellyfish were mainly distributed in the areas around 50 m isobath, and not beyond 100 m isobath where was the joint front of the coastal waters of East China Sea, Yangtze River runoff, and Taiwan Warm Current. The main distribution area of macro-jellyfish in June migrated northward, as compared with that in May, and the highest catches of macro-jellyfish in May 2007 and May 2008 were found in the same sampling station (122.5 degrees E, 28.5 degrees N). In the sampling stations with higher abundance of macro-jellyfish, the fishery abundance was low, and the fishery species also changed greatly, mainly composed by small-sized species (Trachurus japonicus, Harpadon nehereus, and Acropoma japonicum) and pelagic species (Psenopsis anomala, Octopus variabilis) and Trichiurus japonicus, and P. anomala accounted for 23.7% of the total catch in June 2008. Larimichthys polyactis also occupied higher proportion of the total catch in sampling stations with higher macro-jellyfish abundance, but the demersal species Lophius litulon was not found, and a few crustaceans were collected. This study showed that macro-jellyfish had definite negative effects on the fishery community structure and abundance in the Yangtze River estuary fishery ecosystem, and further, changed the energy flow patterns of the ecosystem through cascading trophic interactions. Therefore, macro-jellyfish was strongly suggested to be an independent ecological group when the corresponding fishery management measures were considered.

  6. Integration of multi-source data for water quality classification in the Pearl River estuary and its adjacent coastal waters of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Li, Yok Shueng; Liu, Zhigang; Yin, Kedong; Li, Zhilin; Wai, Onyx WH.; King, Bruce

    2004-10-01

    The spatial patterns of water quality were studied by integrating a Landsat TM image, 58 in situ water quality datasets and 30 samples from two concentration maps of water quality parameters derived from SeaWiFS and NOAA/AVHRR images in the Pearl River estuary and the adjacent coastal waters of Hong Kong. The reflectance of TM bands 1-4 was derived by using the COST method. The normalized difference water index (NDWI) was extracted from the raw image and the threshold segmentation was used to retrieve the water pixels of spectral reflectance. In order to study the spectral reflectance categories related to water quality, a dataset comprising 88 sampling points from four spectral bands of a Landsat TM image was used. The samples were positioned according to the availability of water quality parameters in the study area, and five reflectance classes could be finally distinguished by using the cluster analysis. Three supervised classifiers, maximum likelihood (MLH), neural network (NN) and support vector machine (SVM), were employed to recognize the spatial patterns of ocean color. All the 88 samples were divided into two data sets: 65 in the training data set and 23 in the testing data set. The classification results using the three methods showed similar spatial patterns of spectral reflectance, although the classification accuracies were different. In order to verify our assumption that the spatial patterns of water quality in the coastal waters could be indirectly detected by ocean color classification using the Landsat TM image, five optically active water quality parameters: turbidity (TURB), suspended sediments (SS), total volatile solid (TVS), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and phaeo-pigment (PHAE), were selected to implement the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The analysis showed that a statistically significant difference in water quality clearly existed among the five classes of spectral reflectance. It was concluded that the five classes classified by reflectance

  7. An analysis of water data systems to inform the Open Water Data Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, David L.; Read, Emily K.; Lucido, Jessica M.; Slawecki, Tad; Young, Dwane

    2016-01-01

    Improving access to data and fostering open exchange of water information is foundational to solving water resources issues. In this vein, the Department of the Interior's Assistant Secretary for Water and Science put forward the charge to undertake an Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) that would prioritize and accelerate work toward better water data infrastructure. The goal of the OWDI is to build out the Open Water Web (OWW). We therefore considered the OWW in terms of four conceptual functions: water data cataloging, water data as a service, enriching water data, and community for water data. To describe the current state of the OWW and identify areas needing improvement, we conducted an analysis of existing systems using a standard model for describing distributed systems and their business requirements. Our analysis considered three OWDI-focused use cases—flooding, drought, and contaminant transport—and then examined the landscape of other existing applications that support the Open Water Web. The analysis, which includes a discussion of observed successful practices of cataloging, serving, enriching, and building community around water resources data, demonstrates that we have made significant progress toward the needed infrastructure, although challenges remain. The further development of the OWW can be greatly informed by the interpretation and findings of our analysis.

  8. Heat Sterilization of Water in a Large Open Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Yale, Charles E.; Linsley, James G.; Anderson, Lawrence C.

    1968-01-01

    A safe, convenient, and economical method of preparing and dispensing a large volume of sterile water in a movable container is described. A caster-mounted, rectangular, 100-gal, stainless-steel water tank was fabricated. An audible, solid-state water-level alarm was developed for use with a detachable sensing probe that could be autoclaved. A filter system was constructed to allow the tank to be autoclaved as an open vessel. Thermocouples were mounted within the tank of water to study the time-temperature relationships of the water during the sterilization cycle. In a downward displacement autoclave with a hot jacket, 75 min were required for the water temperature to rise from 140 to 240 F (60 to 116 C). A total of 3 hr for heating and holding includes an adequate safety factor to insure the sterility of the water immediately after autoclaving. The long-term sterility of the water and the safety of the system were verified by using the water to maintain a germ-free animal colony. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:5647520

  9. Seasonal dynamics of particulate organic matter in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal waters illustrated by amino acid enantiomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Zongguang; Hu, Jun; Zhu, Zhuoyi; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Total suspended matter (TSM) was collected in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent areas of the East China Sea in July, August, and November 2011, to study the composition and fate of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) during an August typhoon event and bottom trawling activities. Concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), and hydrolyzable particulate amino acids (PAA, D- and L-enantiomers) were higher during July and August than during November; however, D-arginine and alanine levels were significantly higher in November. Seasonal trends in the composition of PAAs indicate that in situ production is a key factor in their temporal distribution. No significant increase in TSM or decrease in labile organic matter was observed during the transit period following a typhoon event in August. In contrast, higher primary production was observed at this time as a result of the penetration of Changjiang Diluted Water caused by the typhoon event. Trawling effects were studied by comparing the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November) at similar sampling sites. The effect of trawling on the composition of bottom organic matter was studied by comparing D-amino acids concentrations and C/N ratios in the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November). A substantial contribution of microbial organic matter during the November cruise was indicated by a decrease in glutamic acid, an increase in TSM and D-alanine, and a lower carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio. In shallow coastal regions, anthropogenic activities (bottom trawling) may enhance the transfer of low-nutritional-value particulate organic matter into the benthic food chain.

  10. The impact of pumped water from a de-watered Magnesian limestone quarry on an adjacent wetland: Thrislington, County Durham, UK.

    PubMed

    Mayes, W M; Large, A R G; Younger, P L

    2005-12-01

    Although quarrying is often cited as a potential threat to wetland systems, there is a lack of relevant, quantitative case studies in the literature. The impact of pumped groundwater discharged from a quarry into a wetland area was assessed relative to reference conditions in an adjacent fen wetland that receives only natural runoff. Analysis of vegetation patterns at the quarry wetland site, using Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the species indicator values of Ellenberg, revealed a clear disparity between community transitions in the quarry wetland and the reference site. Limited establishment of moisture-sensitive taxa, the preferential proliferation of robust wetland species and an overall shift towards lower species diversity in the quarry wetland were explicable primarily by the physico-chemical environment created by quarry dewatering. This encompassed high pH (up to 12.8), sediment-rich effluent creating a nutrient-poor substrate with poor moisture retention in the quarry wetland, and large fluctuations in water levels.

  11. Distant water sailors: parasitic Copepoda of the open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B.

    1998-06-01

    Copepods represent one of the largest groups of ectoparasites of marine fish. They have been extensively studied in coastal waters where they have become major pests in aquaculture. However, there is very little information on the ecology of parasitic copepods of fishes in the open ocean. It is now recognised that oceanographic conditions determine the distribution and abundance of oceanic fish. The same conditions also influence the survival of both the individual parasitic copepod and its species.

  12. Ground-water quality and discharge to Chincoteague and Sinepuxent Bays adjacent to Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillow, Jonathan J.A.; Banks, William S.L.; Smigaj, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland Department of the Environment and the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, conducted a study to characterize the occurrence and distribution of viral contamination in small (withdrawing less than 10,000 gallons per day) public water-supply wells screened in the shallow aquifer in the Piedmont Physiographic Province in Baltimore and Harford Counties, Maryland. Two hundred sixty-three small public water-supply wells were in operation in these counties during the spring of 2000. Ninety-one of these sites were selected for sampling using a methodology that distributed the samples evenly over the population and the spatial extent of the study area. Each site, and its potential susceptibility to microbiological contamination, was evaluated with regard to hole depth, casing interval, and open interval. Each site was evaluated using characteristics such as on-site geology and on-site land use.Samples were collected by pumping between 200 and 400 gallons of untreated well water through an electropositive cartridge filter. Water concentrates were subjected to cell-culture assay for the detection of culturable viruses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction/gene probe assays to detect viral ribonucleic acid; grab samples were analyzed for somatic and male-specific coliphages, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, total oxidized nitrogen, nitrite, organic nitrogen, total phosphate, ortho-phosphate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potas-sium, chloride, sulfate, iron, acid-neutralizing capacity, pH, specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen.One sample tested positive for the presence of the ribonucleic acid of rotavirus through poly-merase chain-reaction analysis. Twenty-nine per-cent of the samples (26 of 90) had bacterial con-tamination. About 7 percent of the samples (6 of 90) were contaminated with either male-specific coliphage

  13. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    Potential human health and environmental impacts from discharge of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico concern regulators at the State and Federal levels, environmental interest groups, industry and the public. Current regulations in the United States require or propose azero discharge limit for coastal facilities based primarily on studies performed in low energy,poorly flushed environments. Produced water discharges in coastal Louisiana, however,include a number located in open bays, where potential and impacts are likely to be larger than the minimal impacts associated with offshore discharges, but smaller than those demonstrated in low-energy canal environments. This paper summarizes results of a conservative screening-level health and ecological assessment for contaminants discharged in produced water to open bays in Louisiana, and reports results of a probabilistic human health risk assessment for radium and lead. The initial human health and ecological risk assessments consisted of conservative screening analyses that identified potentially important contaminants and excluded others from further consideration. A more quantitative probabilistic risk assessment was completed for the human health effects of the two contaminants identified in this screen: radium and lead. This work is part of a series of studies on the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico, supported by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  14. Collaboration using open standards and open source software (examples of DIAS/CEOS Water Portal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S.; Sekioka, S.; Kuroiwa, K.; Kudo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The DIAS/CEOS Water Portal is a part of the DIAS (Data Integration and Analysis System, http://www.editoria.u-tokyo.ac.jp/projects/dias/?locale=en_US) systems for data distribution for users including, but not limited to, scientists, decision makers and officers like river administrators. One of the functions of this portal is to enable one-stop search and access variable water related data archived multiple data centers located all over the world. This portal itself does not store data. Instead, according to requests made by users on the web page, it retrieves data from distributed data centers on-the-fly and lets them download and see rendered images/plots. Our system mainly relies on the open source software GI-cat (http://essi-lab.eu/do/view/GIcat) and open standards such as OGC-CSW, Opensearch and OPeNDAP protocol to enable the above functions. Details on how it works will be introduced during the presentation. Although some data centers have unique meta data format and/or data search protocols, our portal's brokering function enables users to search across various data centers at one time. And this portal is also connected to other data brokering systems, including GEOSS DAB (Discovery and Access Broker). As a result, users can search over thousands of datasets, millions of files at one time. Users can access the DIAS/CEOS Water Portal system at http://waterportal.ceos.org/.

  15. Effects of fluctuating river-pool stages on ground-water levels in the adjacent alluvial aquifer in the lower Arkansas River, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freiwald, D.A.; Grosz, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to determine the effect of fluctuating the lower Arkansas River. A network of 41 wells was used to delineate 4 cross sections adjacent to river pools 2 and 5 of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System to examine groundwater levels at various distances from the river. The hydraulic gradient of water levels in the alluvial aquifer along these cross sections indicates that the river is losing water to the adjacent aquifer. The effect on groundwater levels in the alluvial aquifer caused by pool-stage fluctuations was most pronounced at distances less than about 2 miles from the Arkansas River. At distances greater than about 2 miles, the changes in groundwater levels probably were the result of water levels rising in the aquifer since the heavy summer irrigation withdrawals have ceased. An equation useful for estimating the distribution of head change an aquifer in response to river-pool-stage changes, was applied to the study area to estimate the effect of a 1-foot rise in pool stage on water levels in the adjacent alluvial aquifer after equilibrium conditions have been established. The theoretical head change (rise) in the aquifer was estimated to range from 1-foot at the Arkansas River to 0.57 foot at a distance of 5 miles away from the river. (USGS)

  16. Designing open water disposal for dredged muddy sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAnally, William H.; Adamec, Stephen A.

    1987-11-01

    Open water disposal of muddy sediments in the estuarine environment is practiced to minimize dredging costs and to preserve contained disposal site capacity. Open water sites are usually either dispersive or retentive. Dispersive sites are used in the expectation that disposed sediments will not remain there, but will be transported out of the site, leaving room for additional disposal. Retentive sites are designed to ensure that disposed sediments mostly remain within the site. Choice of one of these approaches depends on the site character, sediment character, and disposal quantities. Design of disposal management plans for both site types is accomplished by use of field observations, laboratory tests, and numerical modeling. Three disposal site studies illustrate the methods used. At the Alcatraz site in San Francisco Bay, a dispersive condition is maintained by use of constraints on dredged mud characteristics that were developed from laboratory tests on erosion rates and from numerical modeling of the dump process. Field experiments were designed to evaluate the management procedure. In Corpus Christi Bay a numerical model was used to determine how much disposed sediment returns to the navigation channel, and to devise a location for disposal that will minimize that return. In Puget Sound a model has been used to ensure that most of the disposed material remains in the site. New techniques, including a piped disposal through 60 m of water, were investigated.

  17. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana Open Bays

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1995-06-23

    Data were collected prior to termination of discharge at three sites (including two open bay sites at Delacroix Island and Bay De Chene) for the risk assessments. The Delacroix Island Oil and Gas Field has been in production since the first well drilling in 1940; the Bay De Chene Field, since 1942. Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Po, and 228Th were measured in discharges. Radium conc. were measured in fish and shellfish tissues. Sediment PAH and metal conc. were also available. Benthos sampling was conducted. A survey of fishermen was conducted. The tiered risk assessment showed that human health risks from radium in produced water appear to be small; ecological risk from radium and other radionuclides in produced water also appear small. Many of the chemical contaminants discharged to open Louisiana bays appear to present little human health or ecological risk. A conservative screening analysis suggested potential risks to human health from Hg and Pb and a potential risk to ecological receptors from total effluent, Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ag, Zn, and phenol in the water column and PAHs in sediment; quantitiative risk assessments are being done for these contaminants.

  18. The nocturnal water cycle in an open-canopy forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkelhammer, M.; Hu, J.; Bailey, A.; Noone, D. C.; Still, C. J.; Barnard, H.; Gochis, D.; Hsiao, G. S.; Rahn, T.; Turnipseed, A.

    2013-09-01

    The movement of moisture into, out-of, and within forest ecosystems is modulated by feedbacks that stem from processes which couple plants, soil, and the atmosphere. While an understanding of these processes has been gleaned from Eddy Covariance techniques, the reliability of the method suffers at night because of weak turbulence. During the summer of 2011, continuous profiles of the isotopic composition (i.e., δ18O and δD) of water vapor and periodic measurements of soil, leaf, and precipitation pools were measured in an open-canopy ponderosa pine forest in central Colorado to study within-canopy nocturnal water cycling. The isotopic composition of the nocturnal water vapor varies significantly based on the relative contributions of the three major hydrological processes acting on the forest: dewfall, exchange of moisture between leaf waters and canopy vapor, and periodic mixing between the canopy and background air. Dewfall proved to be surprisingly common (˜30% of the nights) and detectable on both the surface and within the canopy through the isotopic measurements. While surface dew could be observed using leaf wetness and soil moisture sensors, dew in the foliage was only measurable through isotopic analysis of the vapor and often occurred even when no dew accumulated on the surface. Nocturnal moisture cycling plays a critical role in water availability in forest ecosystems through foliar absorption and transpiration, and assessing these dynamics, as done here, is necessary for fully characterizing the hydrological controls on terrestrial productivity.

  19. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Southern Funeral Mountains and Adjacent Ground-Water Discharge Sites, Inyo County, California, and Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Slate, Janet L.; Berry, M.E.; Machette, Michael N.

    2008-01-01

    This map covers the southern part of the Funeral Mountains, and adjacent parts of four structural basins - Furnace Creek, Amargosa Valley, Opera House, and central Death Valley. It extends over three full 7.5-minute quadrangles, and parts of eleven others - a total area of about 950 square kilometers. The boundaries of this map were drawn to include all of the known proximal hydrogeologic features that may affect the flow of ground water that discharges from the springs of the Furnace Creek wash area, in the west-central part of the map. These springs provide the major potable water supply for Death Valley National Park.

  20. Using Passive Microwaves for Open Water Monitoring and Flood Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parinussa, R.; Johnson, F.; Sharma, A.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    One of the biggest and severest natural disasters that society faces is floods. An important component that can help in reducing the impact of floods is satellite remote sensing as it allows for consistent monitoring and obtaining catchment information in absence of physical contact. Nowadays, passive microwave remote sensing observations are available in near real time (NRT) with a couple of hours delay from the actual sensing. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is a multi-frequency passive microwave sensor onboard the Global Change Observation Mission 1 - Water that was launched in May 2012. Several of these frequencies have a high sensitivity to the land surface and they also have the capacity to penetrate clouds. These advantages come at the cost of the relatively coarse spatial resolution (footprints range from ~5 to ~50 km) which in turn allows for global monitoring. A relatively simple methodology to monitor the fraction of open water from AMSR2 observations is presented here. Low frequency passive microwave observations have sensitivity to the land surface but are modulated by overlying signals from physical temperature and vegetation cover. We developed a completely microwave based artificial neural network supported by physically based components to monitor the fraction of open water. Three different areas, located in China, Southeast Asia and Australia, were selected for testing purposes and several different characteristics were examined. First, the overall performance of the methodology was evaluated against the NASA NRT Global Flood Mapping system. Second, the skills of the various different AMSR2 frequencies were tested and revealed that artificial contamination is a factor to consider. The different skills of the tested frequencies are of interest to apply the methodology to alternative passive microwave sensors. This will be of benefit in using the numerous multi-frequency passive microwaves sensors currently observing our Earth

  1. Larval fish assemblages in a tropical mangrove estuary and adjacent coastal waters: Offshore-inshore flux of marine and estuarine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, A. L.; Chong, V. C.

    2011-10-01

    A total of 92,934 fish larvae representing 19 families were sampled monthly from the Sangga Kecil estuary (Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve) and adjacent coastal waters from May 2002 to October 2003. Larval fish assemblages were numerically dominated by Gobiidae (50.1%) and Engraulidae (38.4%). Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) revealed that the larval fish assemblages, including their ontogenetic stages, differed between the mangrove estuary and adjacent offshore waters, and that salinity, turbidity and zooplankton food are the major environmental factors structuring the larval fish assemblages. Estuarine preflexion gobiid larvae were ubiquitous in the coastal and estuarine waters. Larval stages of euryhaline species that were spawned in offshore waters, such as Engraulidae and Clupeidae, were largely advected into mangrove areas at the postflexion stages. Larvae of other euryhaline fishes (Sciaenidae, Blenniidae and Cynoglossidae) that may have been spawned inside the estuary were, however, exported to offshore waters. Given that the collective number of juvenile and adult fish families in the Matang estuary was 53, while the number of larval families was only 17, the former is quite disconnected from the existing larval fish population in the estuary.

  2. Nitrate removal in shallow, open-water treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Justin T; Jones, Zackary L; Sharp, Jonathan O; Sedlak, David L

    2014-10-07

    The diffuse biomat formed on the bottom of shallow, open-water unit process wetland cells contains suboxic zones that provide conditions conducive to NO3(-) removal via microbial denitrification, as well as anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). To assess these processes, nitrogen cycling was evaluated over a 3-year period in a pilot-scale wetland cell receiving nitrified municipal wastewater effluent. NO3(-) removal varied seasonally, with approximately two-thirds of the NO3(-) entering the cell removed on an annual basis. Microcosm studies indicated that NO3(-) removal was mainly attributable to denitrification within the diffuse biomat (i.e., 80 ± 20%), with accretion of assimilated nitrogen accounting for less than 3% of the NO3(-) removed. The importance of denitrification to NO3(-) removal was supported by the presence of denitrifying genes (nirS and nirK) within the biomat. While modest when compared to the presence of denitrifying genes, a higher abundance of the anammox-specific gene hydrazine synthase (hzs) at the biomat bottom than at the biomat surface, the simultaneous presence of NH4(+) and NO3(-) within the biomat, and NH4(+) removal coupled to NO2(-) and NO3(-) removal in microcosm studies, suggested that anammox may have been responsible for some NO3(-) removal, following reduction of NO3(-) to NO2(-) within the biomat. The annual temperature-corrected areal first-order NO3(-) removal rate (k20 = 59.4 ± 6.2 m yr(-1)) was higher than values reported for more than 75% of vegetated wetlands that treated water in which NO3(-) was the primary nitrogen species (e.g., nitrified secondary wastewater effluent and agricultural runoff). The inclusion of open-water cells, originally designed for the removal of trace organic contaminants and pathogens, in unit-process wetlands may enhance NO3(-) removal as compared to existing vegetated wetland systems.

  3. Are deep-sea organisms dwelling within a submarine canyon more at risk from anthropogenic contamination than those from the adjacent open slope? A case study of Blanes canyon (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Samuel; Fernández, Pilar; Company, Joan B.; Huertas, David; Solé, Montserrat

    2013-11-01

    Due to their geomorphological structure and proximity to the coastline, submarine canyons may act as natural conduit routes for anthropogenic contaminants that are transported from surface waters to the deep-sea. Organisms dwelling in these canyon environments might thus be at risk of experiencing adverse health effects due to higher pollution exposure. To address this question, chemical and biochemical analyses were conducted on two of the most abundant deep-sea fish species in the study area, namely Alepocephalus rostratus and Lepidion lepidion, and the most abundant deep-sea commercial decapod crustacean Aristeus antennatus sampled inside Blanes canyon (BC) and on the adjacent open slope (OS). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels, including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and derivatives, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in muscle tissue of selected samples from 900 m and 1500 m depth. Potential effects resulting from contaminant exposure were determined using hepatic biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), catalase (CAT), carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LP). L. lepidion and A. antennatus tissues exhibited higher POP levels inside BC compared to the OS at 900 m depth. These findings were consistent with biomarker data (i.e. enzymatic response to presence of contaminant agents). Elevated xenobiotic-metabolizing (EROD and PROD) and antioxidant enzymes (CAT and GPX) indicated higher contaminant exposure in both species caught within BC. No difference in POP accumulation between sites was observed in L. lepidion at 1500 m depth, nor in biomarker data, suggesting that the pollution gradient was less pronounced at greater depths. This trend was further corroborated

  4. Availability and chemistry of ground water on the Bruneau Plateau and adjacent eastern plain in Twin Falls County, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffatt, R.L.; Jones, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Bruneau plateau in south-central Idaho consists of about 889 ,600 acres of potentially irrigable land. About 112,200 of these acres have been developed for agriculture; 11,200 acres are irrigated with ground water, and the remaining acreage is irrigated with water from the Snake and Bruneau rivers and Salmon Falls Creek. On the basis of present usage, about 158,000 acre-feet of water per year are needed to develop an additional 63,000 acres. About 438,000 acre-feet per year are needed to irrigate existing and newly developed lands in dry years when streamflow in the Snake River at Milner Dam is inadequate to meet appropriated needs. Pumping lifts of about 400-600 feet and low well yields on the Bruneau plateau probably preclude large-scale irrigation development solely from local ground-water resources. However, supplemental sources of irrigation water are available from a perched-water aquifer, a thermal aquifer, and the regional aquifer adjacent to the plateau. About 100,000-115,000 acre-feet per year of water probably could be withdrawn from the perched and regional aquifers and conveyed to the plateau without serious impact on local ground-water resources. The amount of water that could be safely withdrawn from the thermal aquifer was not determined. (USGS)

  5. Development of ground-water resources in Orange County, Texas, and adjacent areas in Texas and Louisiana, 1971-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonnet, C.W.; Gabrysch, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Although saltwater encroachment is evident in parts of southern Orange County, the encroachment is not expected to be detrimental if the ground-water pumping remains stable and the projected increase in demands for water is met with surface-water supplies.

  6. Conceptualization and analysis of ground-water flow system in the Coastal Plain of Virginia and adjacent parts of Maryland and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harsh, John F.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    1990-01-01

    The ground-water flow system in the Coastal Plain of Virginia and adjacent parts of Maryland and North Carolina consists of a water table aquifer and an underlying sequence of confined aquifers and intervening confining units composed of unconsolidated sand and clay. A digital flow model was developed to enhance knowledge of the behavior of the ground-water flow system in response to its development. Ten pumping periods covering 90 yr of withdrawal simulated the history of ground-water development. Simulated potentiometric-surface maps for 1980 show lowered water levels and the development of coalescing cones of depression around the cities of Franklin, Suffolk, and Williamsburg and the town of West Point, all in Virginia. The largest simulated decline in water level, about 210 ft was near Franklin. Water budgets indicate that over the period of simulation (1891-1980): (1) pumpage from the model area increased by about 105 Mgal/d; (2) lateral boundary outflow increased by about 5 Mgal/d; (3) ground-water flow to streams and coastal water decreased by about 107.5 Mgal/d; (4) lateral boundary inflow increased by about 0.7 Mgal/d, and (5) water released from aquifer storage increased by about 1.6 Mgal/d. Simulated rates of recharge into the confined aquifer system at the end of the final pumping period (1980) varied up to 3.8 in/yr. and simulated rates of discharge out of the confined system varied up to 2.2 in/yr. Results of simulations show an increase of about 110 Mgal/d into the confined system from the unconfined system over the period of simulation. This increase in flow into the confined system affected local discharge of ground water to streams and regional discharge to coastal water. Lowering the storage coefficient of the aquifer had a minimal effect simulated water levels, whereas increasing the storage coefficient had a much more significant effect.

  7. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2015-10-21

    An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. The network currently (2014) consists of 125 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2014) measures and reports water levels from the 125 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 125 sites through water year 2014 (October 1, 2013, to September 30, 2014).

  8. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and discharge data for the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and adjacent waterways, southeastern Louisiana, August 2008 through December 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Mize, Scott V.; Lovelace, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet navigation channel (MRGO) was constructed in the early 1960s to provide a safer and shorter route between the Gulf of Mexico and the Port of New Orleans for deep-draft, ocean-going vessels and to promote the economic development of the Port of New Orleans. In 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers developed a plan to de-authorize the MRGO. The plan called for a rock barrier to be constructed across the MRGO near Bayou La Loutre. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Louisiana Coastal Area Science and Technology Program began a study to document the impacts of the rock barrier on water-quality and flow before, during, and after its construction. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and discharge data were collected in the MRGO and adjacent water bodies from August 2008 through December 2009.

  9. 76 FR 38409 - Notice of an Open Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Water Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Notice of an Open Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Water Information AGENCY: United States Geological Survey. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting of the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI). SUMMARY...: wenorton@usgs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This meeting is open to the public. Up to a half hour...

  10. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  11. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  12. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  13. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  14. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  15. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  16. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  17. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  18. Characteristics of the δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } distribution and its drivers in the Changjiang River estuary and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Wu, Zaixing; Yuan, Yongquan; Zhou, Peng; Cao, Xihua

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we conducted investigations in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary and adjacent waters (CREAW) in June and November of 2014. We collected water samples from different depths to analyze the nitrogen isotopic compositions of nitrate, nutrient concentrations (including inorganic N, P, and Si), and other physical and biological parameters, along with the vertical distribution and seasonal variations of these parameters. The compositions of nitrogen isotope in nitrate were measured with the denitrifier method. Results show that the Changjiang River diluted water (CDW) was the main factor affecting the shallow waters (above 10 m) of the CREAW, and CDW tended to influence the northern areas in June and the southern areas in November. δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } values in CDW ranged from 3.21‰-3.55‰. In contrast, the deep waters (below 30 m) were affected by the subsurface water of the Kuroshio Current, which intruded into the waters near 31°N in June. The δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } values of these waters were 6.03‰-7.6‰, slightly higher than the values of the Kuroshio Current. Nitrate assimilation by phytoplankton in the shallow waters of the study area varied seasonally. Because of the favorable temperature and nutrient conditions in June, abundant phytoplankton growth resulted in harmful algae blooms (HABs). Therefore, nitrate assimilation was strong in June and weak in November. The δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } fractionations caused by assimilation of phytoplankton were 4.57‰ and 4.41‰ in the shallow waters in June and November, respectively. These results are consistent with previous laboratory cultures and in situ investigations. Nitrification processes were observed in some deep waters of the study area, and they were more apparent in November than in June. The fractionation values of nitrification ranged from 24‰-25‰, which agrees with results for Nitrosospira tenuis reported by previous studies.

  19. Characteristics of the δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } distribution and its drivers in the Changjiang River estuary and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Wu, Zaixing; Yuan, Yongquan; Zhou, Peng; Cao, Xihua

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we conducted investigations in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary and adjacent waters (CREAW) in June and November of 2014. We collected water samples from different depths to analyze the nitrogen isotopic compositions of nitrate, nutrient concentrations (including inorganic N, P, and Si), and other physical and biological parameters, along with the vertical distribution and seasonal variations of these parameters. The compositions of nitrogen isotope in nitrate were measured with the denitrifier method. Results show that the Changjiang River diluted water (CDW) was the main factor aff ecting the shallow waters (above 10 m) of the CREAW, and CDW tended to influence the northern areas in June and the southern areas in November. δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } values in CDW ranged from 3.21‰-3.55‰. In contrast, the deep waters (below 30 m) were aff ected by the subsurface water of the Kuroshio Current, which intruded into the waters near 31°N in June. The δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } values of these waters were 6.03‰-7.6‰, slightly higher than the values of the Kuroshio Current. Nitrate assimilation by phytoplankton in the shallow waters of the study area varied seasonally. Because of the favorable temperature and nutrient conditions in June, abundant phytoplankton growth resulted in harmful algae blooms (HABs). Therefore, nitrate assimilation was strong in June and weak in November. The δ ^{15} N_{NO_3 } fractionations caused by assimilation of phytoplankton were 4.57‰ and 4.41‰ in the shallow waters in June and November, respectively. These results are consistent with previous laboratory cultures and in situ investigations. Nitrification processes were observed in some deep waters of the study area, and they were more apparent in November than in June. The fractionation values of nitrification ranged from 24‰-25‰, which agrees with results for Nitrosospira tenuis reported by previous studies.

  20. Utilization by fishes of the Alviso Island ponds and adjacent waters in south san francisco bay following restoration to tidal influence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Mejia, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Earthen levees of three isolated salt ponds known locally as the Alviso Island Ponds were intentionally breached in March 2006 to allow tidal exchange of the ponds with water from Coyote Creek. The water exchange transformed the previously fishless hypersaline ponds into lower salinity habitats suitable for fish life. This study documented fish utilization of the ponds, adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek, and an upstream reach in nearby Artesian Slough during May-July 2006. By the time the study was initiated, water quality conditions in the ponds were similar to conditions in adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek. The only variable exhibiting a strong gradient within the study area was salinity, which increased progressively from upstream to downstream in Coyote Creek. A total of 4,034 fish represented by 18 species from 14 families was caught during the study. Judging from cluster analysis of presence-absence data that excluded rare fish species, the 10 sampling units (3 ponds, 6 reaches in Coyote Creek, and 1 reach in Artesian Slough) formed two clusters or groups, suggesting two species assemblages. The existence of two groups was also suggested by ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). One group, which was composed of the three ponds and four of the lowermost reaches of Coyote Creek, was characterized by mostly estuarine or marine species (e.g., topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax; and longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis). The second group, which was composed of the two uppermost reaches of Coyote Creek and the one reach of Artesian Slough, was characterized by freshwater species (e.g., Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis) and by an absence of the estuarine/marine species noted in the first assemblage. Judging from a joint plot of selected water quality variables overlaying the ordination results, salinity was the only important variable associated with spatial distribution of fish species. Water

  1. Fish diversity in the Río de la Plata and adjacent waters: an overview of environmental influences on its spatial and temporal structure.

    PubMed

    Jaureguizar, A J; Solari, A; Cortés, F; Milessi, A C; Militelli, M I; Camiolo, M D; Luz Clara, M; García, M

    2016-07-01

    The fish diversity and the main environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of species, life history stages and community structure in the Río de la Plata (RdP) and adjacent waters are reviewed and analysed, with emphasis on the functional guild classification. The functional guild classification indicated that most species in the RdP were marine stragglers, zoobenthivores and oviparous species, although the biomass was dominated by estuarine species. Salinity had a stronger influence than temperature on the spatial pattern for all life stages, shallower and fresher waters are the preferred habitats of neonates and juveniles. During the breeding season (spring-summer), adults showed an intrusion into the inner part of RdP or to its adjacent nearshore waters from the offshore waters for spawning or mating, respectively. Variations in river discharge and wind patterns greatly affected the spatial extent of estuarine water, which ultimately influenced the domain of the main life-history stages (juveniles or adults) for both marine and estuarine fishes, as well as species and fish assemblage composition. The strong environmental gradient restricts some species and life-history stages to a particular section and defines three main fish assemblage areas. The composition of the fish assemblage is indicative of the recruitment of freshwater and marine species to the estuary in opposite ways, determined by the vertical stratification. Seasonal changes in the species composition were related to migration as a result of salinity and temperature variations and reproductive migrations to spawning and mating areas. This overview reveals that the RdP is under environmental variations that are likely to produce modifications to fish distribution and abundance that affect its fisheries. This context plus fish stock declines and changes in exploitation patterns could amplify the magnitude of the variations in the fisheries resources availability and affect the

  2. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25-40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. A population increase of about 20 percent in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water. An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2012), the network consists of 126 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA), currently (2012) measures and reports water levels from the 126 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 126 sites through water year 2012.

  3. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the basin human population from 1990 to 2000 and of about 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2011), the network consists of 126 wells and piezometers (a piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer and is often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths). This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at those 126 sites through water year 2011 to better help the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority manage water use.

  4. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande began. A population increase of about 20 percent in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water. An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2013), the network consists of 123 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2013) measures and reports water levels from the 123 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 123 sites through water year 2013.

  5. Towards environmental management of water turbidity within open coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Rachael K; Ridd, Peter V; Whinney, James C; Larcombe, Piers; Neil, David T

    2013-09-15

    Water turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) are commonly used as part of marine monitoring and water quality plans. Current management plans utilise threshold SSC values derived from mean-annual turbidity concentrations. Little published work documents typical ranges of turbidity for reefs within open coastal waters. Here, time-series turbidity measurements from 61 sites in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Moreton Bay, Australia, are presented as turbidity exceedance curves and derivatives. This contributes to the understanding of turbidity and SSC in the context of environmental management in open-coastal reef environments. Exceedance results indicate strong spatial and temporal variability in water turbidity across inter/intraregional scales. The highest turbidity across 61 sites, at 50% exceedance (T50) is 15.3 NTU and at 90% exceedance (T90) 4.1 NTU. Mean/median turbidity comparisons show strong differences between the two, consistent with a strongly skewed turbidity regime. Results may contribute towards promoting refinement of water quality management protocols.

  6. Coprostanol as a potential tracer of particulate sewage effluent to shelf waters adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. C.; Wade, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Samples were collected in the Chesapeake Bay entrance and contiguous shelf waters and were subsequently analyzed for particulate coprostanol and cholesterol concentrations. Surface coprostanol concentrations were fairly uniform, with a slight increase with depth. This increase with depth may be due to sewage-associated particulates settling as they leave the Bay, or the resuspension of contaminated sediment. Preliminary findings indicate sewage-associated materials are being transported from the Chesapeake Bay to shelf waters, where they may have a detrimental affect on living marine resources.

  7. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator); Hollman, R.; Alexander, J.; Nuzzi, R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photo-optical additive color quantitative measurements were made of ERTS-1 reprocessed positives of New York Bight and Block Island Sound. Regression of these data on almost simultaneous ship sample data of water's physical, chemical, biological, and optical properties showed that ERTS bands 5 and 6 can be used to predict the absolute value of the total number of particles and bands 4 and 5 to predict the relative extinction coefficient in New York Bight. Water masses and mixing patterns in Block Island Sound heretofore considered transient were found to be persistent phenomena requiring revision of existing mathematical and hydraulic models.

  8. Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing

    DOEpatents

    McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2009-03-10

    A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

  9. WATER-ROCK INTERACTIONS INFLUENCING MERCURY FATE AND TRANSPORT FROM AN ABANDONED MINE SITE TO AN ADJACENT AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clear Lake, located 150 km north of San Francisco, is one of the largest fresh water lakes in California and is an important economic resource for the region. Elevated mercury levels in fish in Clear Lake were identified in the late 1970s, resulting in a fish consumption advisor...

  10. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Bombing and rocket firing area in Pamlico Sound in vicinity of Brant Island—(1) The area. The waters.... Upon being so warned vessels working in the area shall leave the area immediately. (b) Bombing, rocket... regulations. (i) The area described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section will be used as bombing, rocket...

  11. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Bombing and rocket firing area in Pamlico Sound in vicinity of Brant Island—(1) The area. The waters.... Upon being so warned vessels working in the area shall leave the area immediately. (b) Bombing, rocket... regulations. (i) The area described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section will be used as bombing, rocket...

  12. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  13. Moving in extreme environments: open water swimming in cold and warm water.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Michael; Bradford, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Open water swimming (OWS), either 'wild' such as river swimming or competitive, is a fast growing pastime as well as a part of events such as triathlons. Little evidence is available on which to base high and low water temperature limits. Also, due to factors such as acclimatisation, which disassociates thermal sensation and comfort from thermal state, individuals cannot be left to monitor their own physical condition during swims. Deaths have occurred during OWS; these have been due to not only thermal responses but also cardiac problems. This paper, which is part of a series on 'Moving in Extreme Environments', briefly reviews current understanding in pertinent topics associated with OWS. Guidelines are presented for the organisation of open water events to minimise risk, and it is concluded that more information on the responses to immersion in cold and warm water, the causes of the individual variation in these responses and the precursors to the cardiac events that appear to be the primary cause of death in OWS events will help make this enjoyable sport even safer.

  14. Sub-canopy evapotranspiration from floating vegetation and open water in a swamp forest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among previous studies, there are large discrepancies in the difference between evapotranspiration from wetland vegetation and evaporation from open water. In this study, we investigate evapotranspiration differences between water and vegetation in a scenario that has otherwise not been extensively ...

  15. Waterbird use of high saltmarsh ponds created for open marsh water management (mosquito control)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Howe, M.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The excavation of small (1 ha) natural ponds or pannes or adjacent tidal creeks. Recent modifications in pond construction in Delaware and New Jersey allow for shallower, more sloping basins which should enhance use by waterfowl and shorebirds while still ensuring a water reservoir to support fish populations.

  16. The influence of climate cycles on the water regime and carbonate profile in chernozems of Central European Russia and adjacent territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazykina, G. S.; Ovechkin, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of long-term "dry" and "wet" climatic cycles on the water regime, hydrological parameters, and carbonate profiles of chernozems in Central European Russia and adjacent territories was studied. The hydrological and carbonate profiles were found to change during the wet cycle. However, the upper part of the hydrological profile is basically unchanging, whereas in its lower part, the number of hydrological horizons and contrast in their moistening decrease in the forest-steppe chernozems and increase in the steppe chernozems. The frequency of through wetting of chernozems increases during the wet cycles. The vertical lithological heterogeneity of the parent material affects the soil moisture status. In the wet climatic cycle, the moisture content above the lithological contact increases resulting in the development of the features of soil hydromorphism. In the carbonate profile, the character of pedofeatures is changing: some carbonate neoformations disappear, while the other ones develop. Possible variations of the periodically percolative water regime were revealed in chernozems. The classification of water regime proposed by A.A. Rode may be updated based on the data obtained during the dry climatic cycle. Rode's hypothesis about cyclic variations in the soil water regime is confirmed.

  17. Turnover and release of P-, N-, Si-nutrients in the Mexicali Valley (Mexico): interactions between the lower Colorado River and adjacent ground- and surface water systems.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Durán, A; Daesslé, L W; Camacho-Ibar, V F; Ortiz-Campos, E; Barth, J A C

    2015-04-15

    A study on dissolved nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate concentrations was carried out in various water compartments (rivers, drains, channels, springs, wetland, groundwater, tidal floodplains and ocean water) in the Mexicali Valley and the Colorado River delta between 2012 and 2013, to assess modern potential nutrient sources into the marine system after river damming. While nitrate and silicate appear to have a significant input into the coastal ocean, phosphate is rapidly transformed into a particulate phase. Nitrate is, in general, rapidly bio-consumed in the surface waters rich in micro algae, but its excess (up to 2.02 mg L(-1) of N from NO3 in winter) in the Santa Clara Wetland represents a potential average annual source to the coast of 59.4×10(3)kg N-NO3. Despite such localized inputs, continuous regional groundwater flow does not appear to be a source of nitrate to the estuary and coastal ocean. Silicate is associated with groundwaters that are also geothermally influenced. A silicate receiving agricultural drain adjacent to the tidal floodplain had maximum silicate concentrations of 16.1 mg L(-1) Si-SiO2. Seepage of drain water and/or mixing with seawater during high spring tides represents a potential source of dissolved silicate and nitrate into the Gulf of California.

  18. The fish and prawn communities of a Malaysian coastal mangrove system, with comparisons to adjacent mud flats and inshore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, V. C.; Sasekumar, A.; Leh, M. U. C.; D'Cruz, R.

    1990-11-01

    The fish and prawn communities of four coastal habitats in Selangor, Malaysia: (1) coastal mangrove swamps; (2) mud flats, including subtidal regions; (3) near inshore waters; and (4) far inshore waters, were examined with respect to species composition, abundance, diversity, similarity and sexual maturity. The number of fish species sampled for these habitats were 119, 70, 58 and 92 species respectively. For prawns, the number of species were 9, 16, 8 and 14 respectively. The mangrove community comprised 63-99% and 100% juvenile fish and prawn respectively. Despite a high species richness, it was low in fish species diversity due to the dominance (70%) of six species of fish of low economic value. In contrast, the prawn community was poor in species, and was dominated by three Penaeus spp. of high economic value. The intertidal mudflat community is largely transient and comprised mainly of species from both the mangrove and subtidal habitats. Fifty-six per cent of the fish population and 62·6% of the prawn population were juveniles. Many of the inshore fish and prawn species were also common species found in mangrove and mudflat habitats. Similarity coefficients indicate that the inshore fish and prawn communities are more similar to those of mud flats than mangroves. However, maturity studies indicate that only five species of fish are true migrants, that the majority of the fish species (juveniles and adults) are ubiquitous with a distribution that extends several nautical miles offshore. Results of this study indicate that tropical coastal mangroves function more importantly as feeding grounds than as nursery grounds for juveniles of commercially important fish species. Mangroves and mud flats are utilized during flood tides by many periodic foragers from the inshore waters. However, this study confirms that coastal mangroves and mud flats are important nursery areas for commercially important prawn species.

  19. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  20. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  1. Control of water erosion and sediment in open cut coal mines in tropical areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, T.; Nugraha, C.; Matsui, K.; Shimada, H.; Ichinose, M.; Gottfried, J.

    2005-07-01

    The purpose is to reduce the environmental impacts from open cut mining in tropical areas, such as Indonesia and Vietnam. Research conducted on methods for the control of water erosion and sediment from open cut coal mines is described. Data were collected on climate and weathering in tropical areas, mechanism of water erosion and sedimentation, characteristics of rocks in coal measures under wet conditions, water management at pits and haul roads and ramps, and construction of waste dumps and water management. The results will be applied to the optimum control and management of erosion and sediments in open cut mining. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Evaluation of cracking in feedwater piping adjacent to the steam generators in Nine Pressurized Water Reactor Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A.; Streit, R.D.; Scott, R.G.

    1980-06-25

    Cracking in ASTM A106-B and A106-C feedwater piping was detected near the inlet to the steam generators in a number of pressurized water reactor plants. We received sections with cracks from nine of the plants with the objective of identifying the cracking mechanism and assessing various factors that might contribute to this cracking. Variations were observed in piping surface irregularities, corrosion-product, pit, and crack morphology, surface elmental and crystal structure analyses, and steel microstructures and mechanical properties. However, with but two exceptions, namely, arrest bands and major surface irregularities, we were unable to relate the extent of cracking to any of these factors. Tensile and fracture toughness (J/sub Ic/ and tearing modulus) properties were measured over a range of temperatures and strain rates. No unusual properties or microstructures were observed that could be related to the cracking problem. All crack surfaces contained thick oxide deposits and showed evidence of cyclic events in the form of arrest bands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed fatigue striations on replicas of cleaned crack surfaces from one plant and possibly from three others. Calculations based on the observed striation spacings gave a value of ..delta..sigma = 150 MPa (22 ksi) for one of the major cracks. The direction of crack propagation was invariably related to the piping surface and not to the piping axis. These two factors are consistent with the proposed concept of thermally induced, cyclic, tensile surface stresses. Although surface irregularities and corrosion pits were sources for crack initiation and corrosion may have contributed to crack propagation, it is proposed that the overriding factor in the cracking problem is the presence of unforeseen cyclic loads.

  3. Distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Ford, John K. B.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2012-03-01

    Humpback whales are common in feeding areas off British Columbia (BC) from spring to fall, and are widely distributed along the coast. Climate change and the increase in population size of North Pacific humpback whales may lead to increased anthropogenic impact and require a better understanding of species-habitat relationships. We investigated the distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables and processes in BC waters using GIS and generalized additive models (GAMs). Six non-systematic cetacean surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2006. Whale encounter rates and environmental variables (oceanographic and remote sensing data) were recorded along transects divided into 4 km segments. A combined 3-year model and individual year models (two surveys each) were fitted with the mgcv R package. Model selection was based primarily on GCV scores. The explained deviance of our models ranged from 39% for the 3-year model to 76% for the 2004 model. Humpback whales were strongly associated with latitude and bathymetric features, including depth, slope and distance to the 100-m isobath. Distance to sea-surface-temperature fronts and salinity (climatology) were also constantly selected by the models. The shapes of smooth functions estimated for variables based on chlorophyll concentration or net primary productivity with different temporal resolutions and time lags were not consistent, even though higher numbers of whales seemed to be associated with higher primary productivity for some models. These and other selected explanatory variables may reflect areas of higher biological productivity that favor top predators. Our study confirms the presence of at least three important regions for humpback whales along the BC coast: south Dixon Entrance, middle and southwestern Hecate Strait and the area between La Perouse Bank and the southern edge of Juan de Fuca Canyon.

  4. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    SciTech Connect

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project. Results: The model

  5. Particulate nitrogen and phosphorus in the East China Sea and its adjacent Kuroshio waters and evaluation of budgets for the East China Sea Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Jiulong; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in suspended particles are important to the cycles of N and P in marine ecosystem. Suspended particles were collected from the East China Sea (ECS) and its adjacent Kuroshio waters to investigate the composing and distribution characteristics of particulate inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus (PIN, PIP, PON and POP, respectively). The particulate N and P concentrations were fairly low in the Kuroshio water but much higher in the ECS water, especially in nearshore waters. PON and PIP were the dominant forms of particulate N and P, with an exception that POP was the major form of particulate P in the Kuroshio upper water. The regime of particulate N and P in the ECS was strongly influenced by riverine input, oceanic input, ocean current and photosynthesis. Among them, PON and POP were mainly from biogenic source, while PIN and PIP were originated from biogenic and external sources. And sedimentation, remineralization and resuspension were important influencing factors for the vertical distributions of particulate N and P. The budgets of particulate N and P for the ECS Shelf during rainy season (May-October) were also evaluated. The total particulate N and P (TPN and TPP) fluxes from oceanic input are respectively 10.99 and 2.49 times of those from riverine input. And oceanic input contains more POP, which is liable to be decomposed into phosphate, than riverine input. Furthermore, particulate nutrients fluxes from photosynthesis are the overriding source of total influxes for the ECS Shelf, accounting for 90.93% of TPN and 89.37% of TPP influxes. As for the photosynthetic fixed N and P, only 6.17% and 7.60% of them can reach the seafloor, while up to 87.73% and 60.06% of them are likely to be remineralized. The POP-rich oceanic input and the intensive photosynthesis and remineralization processes play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of N and P in the ECS.

  6. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Liping; Lei, Kun; Nan, Bingxu

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination was investigated in concurrently sampled surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment of Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China. The total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 71.12 to 4255.43 ng/L in water, from 1969.95 to 11612.21 ng/L in SPM, and from 374.84 to 11588.85 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediment. Although the 2-3 ring PAHs were main PAH congeners in water and SPM, the 4-6 ring PAHs were also detected and their distribution was site-specific, indicating a very recent PAHs input around the area since they were hydrophobic. The PAHs pollution was identified as mixed combustion and petroleum sources. Based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD), the ecological risk in SPM from 82% stations was found to be higher obviously than that in water. The risk in water was basically ranked as medium, while the risk in SPM was ranked as high. Analysis with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that negative eco-risk occasionally occurred in about 50% stations, while negative eco-risk frequently occurred in about 3% stations only caused by Phenanthrene(Phe) and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene(DBA). Here freshwater acute effects data together with saltwater data were used for SSD model. And this method could quickly give the rational risk information, and achieved our objective that compared the spatial difference of risk levels among three compartments. The results confirmed that the use of freshwater acute effects data from the ECOTOX database together with saltwater effects data is acceptable for risk assessment purposes in estuary.

  7. Imposed Cold-water Ingestion during Open Water Swimming in Internationally Ranked Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Hue, O; Monjo, R; Riera, F

    2015-11-01

    The authors explored the effects of open water swimming in a tropical environment on both core temperature (T c) and thermal perceptions of high-level swimmers during an official international 10-km race and two 5-km swimming tests. The swimmers drank neutral water (i. e., 28.0±3.0°C) ad libitum every 2,000 m during Competition, whereas the ingested volume was imposed in the 5-km tests: every 1,000 m, they drank 190 mL of cold water (CW, 1.1±0.7°C) or neutral water (NW, 28.0±3.0°C). They also self-rated their thermal comfort and sensation (TC and TS), and their T c was recorded. The study demonstrated that adequate fluid intake significantly decreased T c in swimmers swimming at race pace in hot water (i. e., 37.5±0.3°C vs. 38.3±0.4°C, in NW vs. Competition, respectively). This effect was more pronounced with cold water (i. e., 36.7±1.1°C, in CW). No significant changes were noted in mean heart rate (i. e., 145±5, 143±4 and 141±5 bpm for NW, CW and Competition, respectively). Further studies are needed to explore the effect of this cooling method on the performances of international swimmers during tropical swimming events.

  8. [Genetic variation at the pantophysin (PanI) locus in North-East Arctic cod Gadus morhua L. (Gadiformes: Gadidae) population in the Barents Sea and adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Makeenko, G A; Volkov, A A; Mugue, N S; Zelenina, D A

    2014-12-01

    We investigated polymorphisms in the pantophysin gene (Pan I locus) in a population of North-East Arctic cod, Gadus morhua L., throughout its foraging area in the Barents Sea and adjacent waters. Correlations between the frequencies of Pan I alleles and habitat conditions, such as depth and temperature, were explored. This study was based on a large number of specimens (2210 individuals) of different age and wide geographic sampling coverage. The frequency of the Pan I(A) allele, a known genetic marker of coastal cod, varied from zero to 0.47. Allele frequencies correlated with depth at the sampling location but not with bottom water temperatures. We observed variations in Pan I(A) frequencies among different age cohorts from the same area. The most prominent shift in Pan I polymorphism was detected at the early stages of the fish life cycle, between pelagic juveniles and benthic cod. We found that the Pan I(A) allele frequency in pelagic yearling cod was essentially same throughout the studied areas in the Barents Sea. In turn, juveniles settling at the northern and deep water locations showed a significant decrease in the allele frequency. In contrast, the frequency of the Pan I(A) allele remained constant in juveniles settling in shallow waters when compared to the pelagic stage. These results confirm the selective nature of the cod Pan I locus and indicate that selection process acting on individuals with different genotypes at the Pan I locus leads to the formation of a stable spatial distribution of allele frequencies observed in adult cod.

  9. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001--10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Woody vegetation, including ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), has encroached on some areas in central Texas that were historically oak grassland savannah. Encroachment of woody vegetation is generally attributed to overgrazing and fire suppression. Removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice (hereinafter referred to as "brush management") might change the hydrology in the watershed. These hydrologic changes might include changes to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local partners, examined the hydrologic effects of brush management in two adjacent watersheds in Comal County, Tex. Hydrologic data were collected in the watersheds for 3-4 years (pre-treatment) depending on the type of data, after which brush management occurred on one watershed (treatment watershed) and the other was left in its original condition (reference watershed). Hydrologic data were collected in the study area for another 6 years (post-treatment). These hydrologic data included rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but potential groundwater recharge was calculated by using a simplified mass balance approach. This fact sheet summarizes highlights of the study from the USGS Scientific Investigations Report on which it is based.

  10. Open Data, Open Specifications and Free and Open Source Software: A powerful mix to create distributed Web-based water information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Carolina; Brovelli, Maria Antonia; Moreno, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    We are in an age when water resources are increasingly scarce and the impacts of human activities on them are ubiquitous. These problems don't respect administrative or political boundaries and they must be addressed integrating information from multiple sources at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Communication, coordination and data sharing are critical for addressing the water conservation and management issues of the 21st century. However, different countries, provinces, local authorities and agencies dealing with water resources have diverse organizational, socio-cultural, economic, environmental and information technology (IT) contexts that raise challenges to the creation of information systems capable of integrating and distributing information across their areas of responsibility in an efficient and timely manner. Tight and disparate financial resources, and dissimilar IT infrastructures (data, hardware, software and personnel expertise) further complicate the creation of these systems. There is a pressing need for distributed interoperable water information systems that are user friendly, easily accessible and capable of managing and sharing large volumes of spatial and non-spatial data. In a distributed system, data and processes are created and maintained in different locations each with competitive advantages to carry out specific activities. Open Data (data that can be freely distributed) is available in the water domain, and it should be further promoted across countries and organizations. Compliance with Open Specifications for data collection, storage and distribution is the first step toward the creation of systems that are capable of interacting and exchanging data in a seamlessly (interoperable) way. The features of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) offer low access cost that facilitate scalability and long-term viability of information systems. The World Wide Web (the Web) will be the platform of choice to deploy and access these systems

  11. 75 FR 2159 - Notice of an Open Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... United States Geological Survey Notice of an Open Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Water Information... Committee on Water Information (ACWI). SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the ACWI. This... development and dissemination of water information, through reports from ACWI subgroups. The agenda...

  12. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, William P.; Buescher, Tom

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  13. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in surface waters in and adjacent to the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks: II. Probabilistic analyses.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Rand, Gary M

    2008-10-01

    A screening-level aquatic probabilistic risk assessment was completed to determine the potential risks of organic pesticides found in surface waters of the C-111 freshwater basin (11 sites at the east boundary of the Everglades National Park) and adjacent estuarine tidal zones (two sites in northeast Florida Bay, one site in south Biscayne Bay) in south Florida. It followed the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ecological risk framework and focused only on the acute and chronic risks of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos individually and jointly with atrazine, metolachlor, and malathion by comparing distributions of surface water exposure concentrations with the distributions of species toxicity data. The highest risk of acute effects was associated with endosulfan exposure to freshwater arthropods at S-178/site C on the C-111 system, followed by endosulfan effects to estuarine arthropods at Joe Bay in northeast Florida Bay. The highest risk of acute effects from joint toxicity of pesticides was to estuarine arthropods in Joe Bay followed by freshwater arthropods in S-178/site C. For fish, the highest acute risk was for endosulfan at S-178/site C. There was low potential for acute risk of endosulfan to fish at estuarine sites. Joint probability curves indicated that the majority of potential risks to arthropods and fish were due to endosulfan concentrations and not to chlorpyrifos, at S-178/site C. In addition, the highest risk of acute effects for saltwater organisms was in Joe Bay, which receives water from the C-111. The potential risk of chronic effects from pesticide exposures was minimal at fresh- and saltwater sites except at S-178/site C, where endosulfan concentrations showed the highest exceedence of species toxicity values. In general, potential risks were higher in February than June.

  14. Geology and ground-water resources of the Two Medicine unit and adjacent areas, Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana, with a section on chemical quality of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Q.F.; Zimmerman, Tom V.; Langford, Russell H.

    1965-01-01

    The Two Medicine Irrigation Unit, on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation of northern Montana, is irrigated by water diverted from Two Medicine Creek. Waterlogging because of overapplication of water and locally inadequate subsurface drainage is a serious problem. This study was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs to evaluate the problem and to suggest remedies. For this study, the geology was mapped, and data concerning 129 wells and test holes were gathered. The water level in 63 wells was measured periodically. Three test holes were drilled and 4 single-well and 1 multiple-well pump tests were made. Nineteen samples of ground water were collected and analyzed chemically, and applied irrigation water was analyzed periodically.

  15. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air... regulations. (1) Experimental test operations will be conducted by the U.S. Air Force within the...

  16. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.730... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas—(1) The...) Experimental test operations will be conducted by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) within the danger zone....

  17. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.730... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas—(1) The...) Experimental test operations will be conducted by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) within the danger zone....

  18. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air... regulations. (1) Experimental test operations will be conducted by the U.S. Air Force within the...

  19. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.730... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas—(1) The...) Experimental test operations will be conducted by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) within the danger zone....

  20. Mercury in surface waters of the open ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, G.A.; Fitzgerald, W.F. )

    1987-09-01

    Hg was determined in samples of surface seawater and rainfall from coastal and open ocean areas of the northwest Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Hg concentrations in surface seawater and open ocean rainfall ranged from 0.5 to 11 pM and 6 to 130 pM, respectively. The fluvial flux of Hg to the open ocean was estimated at 1.7 Gg/yr, using mean concentrations of Hg in rainfall and annual rainfall volume estimates for the major ocean basins. Fluvial input, while difficult to reliably assess, was a less important source of Hg to the ocean. The mean residence time of Hg in the surface mixed layer was calculated at 4-7 years. Surface seawater Hg distributions are markedly influenced by atmospheric sources. Due to an elevated supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rain, higher Hg values were observed in surface seawater in the northwest Atlantic Ocean than at low latitudes in the central North Pacific Ocean. Surface seawater Hg concentrations between coastal New England and the Sargasso Sea do not show the large offshore concentration gradient typical of elements which have relatively large fluvial or coastal sources. Rather, the Hg distribution in this region was similar to that obtained for the atmospherically derived constituents Pb and Pb{sup 210}. Surface seawater Hg measurements in the central Pacific Ocean along 160 degrees W between 20 degrees N and 20 degrees S showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area. In contrast to the surface distribution in the northwest Atlantic, a pronounced on-shore gradient in seas surface Hg concentration was observed in the Tasman Sea. 51 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Simulation of ground-water flow and the movement of saline water in the Hueco Bolson aquifer, El Paso, Texas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groschen, George E.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the projected withdrawal simulations from 1984-2000 indicate that the general historical trend of saline-water movement probably will continue. The saline water in the Rio Grande alluvium is the major source of saline-water intrusion into the freshwater zone throughout the historical period and into the future on the basis of simulation results. Some saline water probably will continue to move downward from the Rio Grande alluvium to the freshwater below. Injection of treated sewage effluent into some wells will create a small zone of freshwater containing slightly increased amounts of dissolved solids in the northern area of the Texas part of the Hueco bolson aquifer. Many factors, such as well interference, pumping schedules, and other factors not specifically represented in the regional simulation, can substantially affect dissolved-solids concentrations at individual wells.

  2. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered, Technically Recoverable Coalbed-Gas Resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocks, North Slope and Adjacent State Waters, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed-gas resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks underlying the North Slope and adjacent State waters of Alaska (USGS Northern Alaska Province 5001). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Northern Alaska Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one composite coalbed gas total petroleum system and three coalbed gas assessment units within the petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered coalbed-gas resources within each assessment unit.

  3. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean Kathleen F. Jones Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72...areas in the core ONR Arctic program: • Improving understanding of the physical environment and processes in the Arctic Ocean; • Developing integrated...Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  4. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Region Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative, the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, the San Antonio River Authority, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, Texas Parks and Wildlife, the Guadalupe Blanco River Authority, and the San Antonio Water System, evaluated the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in and adjacent to the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. By removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice, the hydrology in the watershed might change. Using a simplified mass balance approach of the hydrologic cycle, the incoming rainfall was distributed to surface water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. After hydrologic data were collected in adjacent watersheds for 3 years, brush management occurred on the treatment watershed while the reference watershed was left in its original condition. Hydrologic data were collected for another 6 years. Hydrologic data include rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured but potential groundwater recharge was calculated using a simplified mass balance approach. The resulting hydrologic datasets were examined for differences between the watersheds and between pre- and post-treatment periods to assess the effects of brush management. The streamflow to rainfall relation (expressed as event unit runoff to event rainfall relation) did not change between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods. The daily evapotranspiration rates at the reference watershed and treatment watershed sites exhibited a seasonal cycle during the pre- and post-treatment periods, with intra- and interannual variability. Statistical analyses indicate the mean

  5. Does soil water saturation mobilize metals from riparian soils to adjacent surface water? A field monitoring study in a metal contaminated region.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, Liesbeth; Smolders, Erik

    2013-06-01

    In the Noorderkempen (NW Belgium), a large area (about 280 km(2)) is contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) due to historical pollution by the Zn smelters. Direct aquatic emissions of metals have diminished over time, however the surface water metal concentration largely exceeds quality standards, mainly during winter periods. Monitoring data were analyzed to reveal whether these fluctuations are related to seasonal redox reactions in associated contaminated riparian soils that drain into the rivers. A field survey was set up with soil pore-water and groundwater monitored for three years in transects of soil monitoring points perpendicular to rivers at contaminated and non-contaminated sites. Site averaged surface water concentrations of a 15 year dataset exceeded local quality standards 4 to 200-fold. Winter averaged metal concentrations significantly exceeded the corresponding summer values 1.3-1.8 (Zn) and 1.5-2.4 fold (Cd). Zinc and Cd concentrations in water were positively related to Fe and Mn but not to Ca, K or Na suggesting that redox reactions and not dilution processes are involved. In ground- and pore-water of the associated riparian soils, the concentrations of Zn fluctuate by the same order of magnitude as in surface water but were generally smaller than in the corresponding contaminated rivers. In addition, correlations of dissolved Zn with Fe and Mn were lacking. This analysis suggests that redox reactions in streams, and not in riparian soils, explain the seasonal trends of Zn and Cd in surface water. Hence, river sediments and not riparian soils may be the cause of the winter peaks of Zn and Cd in these rivers.

  6. Isotope geochemistry and fluxes of carbon and organic matter in tropical small mountainous river systems and adjacent coastal waters of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Ryan; Bauer, James; Grottoli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that small mountainous rivers (SMRs) may act as sources of aged and/or refractory carbon (C) to the coastal ocean, which may increase organic C burial at sea and subsidize coastal food webs and heterotrophy. However, the characteristics and spatial and temporal variability of C and organic matter (OM) exported from tropical SMR systems remain poorly constrained. To address this, the abundance and isotopic character (δ13C and Δ14C) of the three major C pools were measured in two Puerto Rico SMRs with catchments dominated by different land uses (agricultural vs. non-agricultural recovering forest). The abundance and character of C pools in associated estuaries and adjacent coastal waters were also examined. Riverine dissolved and particulate organic C (DOC and POC, respectively) concentrations were highly variable with respect to land use and sampling month, while dissolved inorganic C (DIC) was significantly higher at all times in the agricultural catchment. In both systems, riverine DOC and POC ranged from modern to highly aged (2,340 years before present), while DIC was always modern. The agricultural river and irrigation canals contained very old DOC (1,184 and 2,340 years before present, respectively), which is consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that these tropical SMRs provide a source of aged DOC to the ocean. During months of high river discharge, OM in estuarine and coastal waters had C isotope signatures reflective of direct terrestrial input, indicating that relatively unaltered OM is transported to the coastal ocean at these times. This is also consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that C transported to the coastal ocean by SMRs may differ from that of larger rivers because it is exported from smaller catchments that have steeper terrains and fewer land-use types.

  7. Simulation of ground-water flow in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida-predevelopment, 1980, and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Dorothy F.; Rumman, Malek Abu; Clarke, John S.

    2005-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate steady-state ground-water flow in a 42,155-square-mile area of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. The model was developed to (1) understand and refine the conceptual model of regional ground-water flow, (2) serve as a framework for the development of digital subregional ground-water flow and solute-transport models, and (3) serve as a tool for future evaluations of hypothetical pumping scenarios used to facilitate water management in the coastal area. Single-density ground-water flow was simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference code MODFLOW-2000 for mean-annual conditions during predevelopment (pre?1900) and the years 1980 and 2000. The model comprises seven layers: the surficial aquifer system, the Brunswick aquifer system, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the Lower Floridan aquifer, and the intervening confining units. A combination of boundary conditions was applied, including a general-head boundary condition on the top active cells of the model and a time-variable fixed-head boundary condition along part of the southern lateral boundary. Simulated heads for 1980 and 2000 conditions indicate a good match to observed values, based on a plus-or-minus 10-foot (ft) calibration target and calibration statistics. The root-mean square of residual water levels for the Upper Floridan aquifer was 13.0 ft for the 1980 calibration and 9.94 ft for the 2000 calibration. Some spatial patterns of residuals were indicated for the 1980 and 2000 simulations, and are likely a result of model-grid cell size and insufficiently detailed hydraulic-property and pumpage data in some areas. Simulated potentiometric surfaces for predevelopment, 1980, and 2000 conditions all show major flow system features that are indicated by estimated peotentiometric maps. During 1980?2000, simulated water levels at the centers of pumping at Savannah and Brunswick rose more than 20 ft and 8 ft, respectively, in

  8. Open Cycle OTEC System with Fresh Water Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Masatugu; Tanaka, Tadayosi

    An open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) system is one of energy conversion methods to generate electricity from ocean thermal energy. For OC-OTEC system, steam evaporated from the surface seawater due to flash evaporation drives the turbine. At that time, dissolved gas such as air is introduced into the low-pressure system (OC-OTEC system) as the non-condensable gas, which degrades the performance of condensation heat transfer. In this paper, a small scale OC-OTEC experimental unit experimentally investigates the effect of non-condensable gas on the heat transfer performance in a condenser. The experimental results are discussed in comparison with theoretical estimation by Sparrow-Lin method. It is shown that the condensation is occupied by heat and mass transfer near a condensation surface and that the condensation efficiency is affected by exhaust quantity of non-condensable gas at relative high concentration ratio of condensable gas.

  9. Bacterial photosynthesis in surface waters of the open ocean.

    PubMed

    Kolber, Z S; Van Dover, C L; Niederman, R A; Falkowski, P G

    2000-09-14

    The oxidation of the global ocean by cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis, about 2,100 Myr ago, is presumed to have limited anoxygenic bacterial photosynthesis to oceanic regions that are both anoxic and illuminated. The discovery of oxygen-requiring photosynthetic bacteria about 20 years ago changed this notion, indicating that anoxygenic bacterial photosynthesis could persist under oxidizing conditions. However, the distribution of aerobic photosynthetic bacteria in the world oceans, their photosynthetic competence and their relationship to oxygenic photoautotrophs on global scales are unknown. Here we report the first biophysical evidence demonstrating that aerobic bacterial photosynthesis is widespread in tropical surface waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean and in temperate coastal waters of the northwestern Atlantic. Our results indicate that these organisms account for 2-5% of the photosynthetic electron transport in the upper ocean.

  10. The open sea as the main source of methylmercury in the water column of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossa, Daniel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Schäfer, Jörg; Lanceleur, Laurent; Guédron, Stéphane; Buscail, Roselyne; Thomas, Bastien; Castelle, Sabine; Naudin, Jean-Jacques

    2017-02-01

    Despite the ecologic and economical importance of coastal areas, the neurotoxic bioaccumulable monomethylmercury (MMHg) fluxes within the ocean margins and exchanges with the open sea remain unassessed. The aim of this paper is to address the questions of the abundance, distribution, production and exchanges of methylated mercury species (MeHgT), including MMHg and dimethylmercury (DMHg), in the waters, atmosphere and sediments of the Northwestern Mediterranean margin including the Rhône River delta, the continental shelf and its slope (Gulf of Lions) and the adjacent open sea (North Gyre). Concentrations of MeHgT ranged from <0.02 to 0.48 pmol L-1 with highest values associated with the oxygen-deficient zone of the open sea. The methylated mercury to total mercury proportion (MeHgT/HgT) increased from 2% to 4% in the Rhône River to up to 30% (averaging 18%) in the North Gyre waters, whereas, within the shelf waters, MeHgT/HgT proportions were the lowest (1-3%). We calculate that the open sea is the major source of MeHgT for the shelf waters, with an annual flux estimated at 0.68 ± 0.12 kmol a-1 (i.e., equivalent to 12% of the HgT flux). This MeHgT influx is more than 80 times the direct atmospheric deposition or the in situ net production, more than 40 times the estimated ;maximum potential; annual efflux from shelf sediment, and more than 7 times that of the continental sources. In the open sea, ratios of MMHg/DMHg in waters were always <1 and minimum in the oxygen deficient zones of the water column, where MeHg concentrations are maximum. This observation supports the idea that MMHg could be a degradation product of DMHg produced from inorganic divalent Hg.

  11. Pesticides in surface water, bed sediment, and ground water adjacent to commercial cranberry bogs, Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Vilas County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, David A.

    2005-01-01

    In samples from the Trout River, which is used as a source of water to maintain lake levels in the Corn Lakes, the only pesticides detected were the non-targeted compounds atrazine and deethyl atrazine, indicating it was not a source of targeted compounds detected in the Corn Lakes. Only two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and metolachlor) were detected in bed-sediment samples collected from the lakes; chlorpyrifos from Little Trout Lake and metolachlor from the Corn Lakes. Four pesticides (the targeted compounds napropamide and norflurazon and the non-targeted compounds atrazine and deethyl atrazine) were detected in ground-water samples from two of four sampled monitor wells. The highest ground-water concentrations (up to 0.14 ?g/L napropamide and 0.56 ?g/L norflurazon) were measured in samples from the monitoring well located directly downgradient from the Corn Lakes and commercial cranberry operations. No pesticides were detected in samples from the reference well located upgradient from the Corn Lakes and cranberry operations. Further study is needed to identify additional pesticides as well as chronic effects on aquatic organisms to determine whether cranberry-related pesticides affect the lake ecosystems of the Lac du Flambeau Reservation.

  12. Unmanned Evaluation of Mares Abyss 22 Navy Open Circuit Scuba Regulator for Cold Water Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-05

    scuba regulator was conducted, and the results were compared to the U.S. Navy performance limits and goals for use in cold water diving applications...resistive effort; work of breathing; unmanned evaluation; open circuit scuba regulator; cold water diving ; Mares Abyss 22 Navy; UBA; underwater

  13. Effects of water deficit on flower opening in coffee (Coffea arabica L.).

    PubMed

    Crisosto, C H; Grantz, D A; Meinzer, F C

    1992-03-01

    The response of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) floral buds to different water deficits followed by re-irrigation was investigated. Flower opening was stimulated by irrigation after one period of water deficit if predawn leaf water potential declined below -0.8 MPa. Similar stimulation of flowering was observed when less severe but more prolonged water deficits (ca. -0.3 to -0.5 MPa for two weeks) were imposed, even if water deficit was relieved by re-irrigation several times during this period. Consistent results were obtained in the field and in two greenhouse locations. Stimulation of flower opening by water deficit followed by re-irrigation was restricted to buds at the "open white cluster" stage of development (Stage 4). Only buds at this stage exhibited development of secondary xylem. Split-root experiments indicated that a root signal stimulated flower opening, independently of predawn or midday leaf water status. Frequent irrigation to prevent flowering, followed by a controlled water deficit and re-irrigation to stimulate flowering, may represent a practical method to synchronize flowering and shorten the harvest period in leeward coffee production areas in Hawaii.

  14. Fall diets of red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) and walleye (Sander vitreus) in Sandusky Bay and adjacent waters of western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, M.T.; Stapanian, M.A.; Bernhardt, G.; Turner, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Although published studies indicate the contrary, there is concern among many sport anglers that migrating red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) and other waterbirds pose a competitive threat to sport fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Erie. We quantified the diet of autumn-migrant mergansers and walleye during 1998-2000 in Sandusky Bay and adjacent waters of western Lake Erie. We hypothesized that the diets of both predators would be similar in species composition, but because of different foraging ecologies their diets would differ markedly in size of prey consumed. In addition to predator samples, we used trawl data from the same general area as an index of prey availability. We found that mergansers fed almost exclusively on fish (nine species). Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) were consumed in the greatest numbers, most frequently and comprised the greatest biomass. Walleye fed exclusively on fish: gizzard shad, alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and emerald shiner were consumed in the greatest numbers, most frequently and comprised the greatest biomass. Diet overlap between mergansers and walleye was 67% by weight and 66% by species frequency. Mean total lengths of gizzard shad, emerald shiner and round goby found in walleye stomachs exceeded those captured in trawls by 47%, on average. Mean total lengths of gizzard shad, emerald shiner and round goby were greater in walleye stomachs than in merganser stomachs. Mean total lengths of emerald shiner and round goby were less in merganser stomachs than in trawls. Our results suggest that although the diets of walleye and mergansers overlapped considerably, mergansers generally consumed smaller fish than walleye. Given the abundance and diversity of prey species available, and the transient nature of mergansers on Lake Erie during migration, we conclude that competition for food between these species is minimal.

  15. Low-Frequency Variability of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass Identified from the China Coastal Waters and Adjacent Seas Reanalysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4 ...In Section 4 , we investigate the interannual and decadal vari- ability of the YSCWM and discuss the relationship between the YSCWM and the three...higher than that of the surrounding water in winter. 4 Advances in Meteorology Section of 38.667∘N Section of 38.667∘N Section of 36.167∘N Section of

  16. Continued decrease of open surface water body area in Oklahoma during 1984-2015.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhenhua; Dong, Jinwei; Menarguez, Michael A; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Doughty, Russell B; Hooker, Katherine V; David Hambright, K

    2017-04-07

    Oklahoma contains the largest number of manmade lakes and reservoirs in the United States. Despite the importance of these open surface water bodies to public water supply, agriculture, thermoelectric power, tourism and recreation, it is unclear how these water bodies have responded to climate change and anthropogenic water exploitation in past decades. In this study, we used all available Landsat 5 and 7 images (16,000 scenes) from 1984 through 2015 and a water index- and pixel-based approach to analyze the spatial-temporal variability of open surface water bodies and its relationship with climate and water exploitation. Specifically, the areas and numbers of four water body extents (the maximum, year-long, seasonal, and average extents) were analyzed to capture variations in water body area and number. Statistically significant downward trends were found in the maximum, year-long, and annual average water body areas from 1984 through 2015. Furthermore, these decreases were mainly attributed to the continued shrinking of large water bodies (>1km(2)). There were also significant decreases in maximum and year-long water body numbers, which suggested that some of the water bodies were vanishing year by year. However, remarkable inter-annual variations of water body area and number were also found. Both water body area and number were positively related to precipitation, and negatively related to temperature. Surface water withdrawals mainly influenced the year-long water bodies. The smaller water bodies have a higher risk of drying under a drier climate, which suggests that small water bodies are more vulnerable under climate-warming senarios.

  17. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS TOP OF ONE-MILLION-GALLON UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR (BUILDING 190); TWO-STORY BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO (BUILDING 190 ADDITION) CONTAINS WATER SOFTENING EQUIPMENT; EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 27 VISIBLE AT RIGHT; BUILDINGS 181 AND 149 AT LEFT BACKGROUND; NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 166 AT EXTREME LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Reservoir-Water Softener Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. Cloud computing geospatial application for water resources based on free and open source software and open standards - a prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj

    2016-04-01

    Presently, most of the existing software is desktop-based, designed to work on a single computer, which represents a major limitation in many ways, starting from limited computer processing, storage power, accessibility, availability, etc. The only feasible solution lies in the web and cloud. This abstract presents research and development of a cloud computing geospatial application for water resources based on free and open source software and open standards using hybrid deployment model of public - private cloud, running on two separate virtual machines (VMs). The first one (VM1) is running on Amazon web services (AWS) and the second one (VM2) is running on a Xen cloud platform. The presented cloud application is developed using free and open source software, open standards and prototype code. The cloud application presents a framework how to develop specialized cloud geospatial application that needs only a web browser to be used. This cloud application is the ultimate collaboration geospatial platform because multiple users across the globe with internet connection and browser can jointly model geospatial objects, enter attribute data and information, execute algorithms, and visualize results. The presented cloud application is: available all the time, accessible from everywhere, it is scalable, works in a distributed computer environment, it creates a real-time multiuser collaboration platform, the programing languages code and components are interoperable, and it is flexible in including additional components. The cloud geospatial application is implemented as a specialized water resources application with three web services for 1) data infrastructure (DI), 2) support for water resources modelling (WRM), 3) user management. The web services are running on two VMs that are communicating over the internet providing services to users. The application was tested on the Zletovica river basin case study with concurrent multiple users. The application is a state

  19. Patterns of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin and adjacent southern waters: an approach based on records from the R/V Pillsbury expeditions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of deep-water corals in the Caribbean Sea was studied using records from oceanographic expeditions performed by the R/V Pillsbury. Sampled stations were sorted according to broad depth ranges and ecoregions and were analyzed in terms of species accumulation curves, variance in the species composition and contributions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity. According to the analysis of species accumulation curves using the Chao2 estimator, more diversity occurs on the continental slope (200-2000 m depth) than on the upper continental shelf (60-200 m depth). In addition to the effect of depth sampling, differences in species composition related to depth ranges were detected. However, the differences between ecoregions are dependent on depth ranges, there were fewer differences among ecoregions on the continental slope than on the upper continental shelf. Indicator species for distinctness of ecoregions were, in general, Alcyonaria and Antipatharia for the upper continental shelf, but also the scleractinians Madracis myriabilis and Cladocora debilis. In the continental slope, the alcyonarian Placogorgia and the scleractinians Stephanocyathus and Fungiacyathus were important for the distinction of ecoregions. Beta diversity was the most important component of gamma diversity in the Caribbean Basin. The contribution of ecoregions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity differed with depth range. On the upper continental shelf, the Southern Caribbean ecoregion contributed substantially to all components of diversity. In contrast, the northern ecoregions contributed substantially to the diversity of the Continental Slope. Strategies for the conservation of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin must consider the variation between ecoregions and depth ranges.

  20. Patterns of Deep-Water Coral Diversity in the Caribbean Basin and Adjacent Southern Waters: An Approach based on Records from the R/V Pillsbury Expeditions

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of deep-water corals in the Caribbean Sea was studied using records from oceanographic expeditions performed by the R/V Pillsbury. Sampled stations were sorted according to broad depth ranges and ecoregions and were analyzed in terms of species accumulation curves, variance in the species composition and contributions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity. According to the analysis of species accumulation curves using the Chao2 estimator, more diversity occurs on the continental slope (200–2000 m depth) than on the upper continental shelf (60–200 m depth). In addition to the effect of depth sampling, differences in species composition related to depth ranges were detected. However, the differences between ecoregions are dependent on depth ranges, there were fewer differences among ecoregions on the continental slope than on the upper continental shelf. Indicator species for distinctness of ecoregions were, in general, Alcyonaria and Antipatharia for the upper continental shelf, but also the scleractinians Madracis myriabilis and Cladocora debilis. In the continental slope, the alcyonarian Placogorgia and the scleractinians Stephanocyathus and Fungiacyathus were important for the distinction of ecoregions. Beta diversity was the most important component of gamma diversity in the Caribbean Basin. The contribution of ecoregions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity differed with depth range. On the upper continental shelf, the Southern Caribbean ecoregion contributed substantially to all components of diversity. In contrast, the northern ecoregions contributed substantially to the diversity of the Continental Slope. Strategies for the conservation of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin must consider the variation between ecoregions and depth ranges. PMID:24671156

  1. OpenDanubia - An integrated, modular simulation system to support regional water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muerth, M.; Waldmann, D.; Heinzeller, C.; Hennicker, R.; Mauser, W.

    2012-04-01

    The already completed, multi-disciplinary research project GLOWA-Danube has developed a regional scale, integrated modeling system, which was successfully applied on the 77,000 km2 Upper Danube basin to investigate the impact of Global Change on both the natural and anthropogenic water cycle. At the end of the last project phase, the integrated modeling system was transferred into the open source project OpenDanubia, which now provides both the core system as well as all major model components to the general public. First, this will enable decision makers from government, business and management to use OpenDanubia as a tool for proactive management of water resources in the context of global change. Secondly, the model framework to support integrated simulations and all simulation models developed for OpenDanubia in the scope of GLOWA-Danube are further available for future developments and research questions. OpenDanubia allows for the investigation of water-related scenarios considering different ecological and economic aspects to support both scientists and policy makers to design policies for sustainable environmental management. OpenDanubia is designed as a framework-based, distributed system. The model system couples spatially distributed physical and socio-economic process during run-time, taking into account their mutual influence. To simulate the potential future impacts of Global Change on agriculture, industrial production, water supply, households and tourism businesses, so-called deep actor models are implemented in OpenDanubia. All important water-related fluxes and storages in the natural environment are implemented in OpenDanubia as spatially explicit, process-based modules. This includes the land surface water and energy balance, dynamic plant water uptake, ground water recharge and flow as well as river routing and reservoirs. Although the complete system is relatively demanding on data requirements and hardware requirements, the modular structure

  2. The Experience of Implementation of Innovative Technology of Quarry Waste Water Purifying in Kuzbass Open Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Hellmer, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    Among all industries in Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia) the coal industry provides the most environmental threat. However, the construction of new and maintenance of existing open pit mines do not often correspond to the tasks of improving the environmental safety of surface mining. So the article describes the use of innovative quarry waste water purifying technology implemented in Kuzbass open pit mine «Shestaki». This technology is based on using artificial filter arrays made of overburden rock.

  3. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water

    PubMed Central

    Olufemi, Olukemi Temiloluwa; Adeyeye, Adeolu Ikechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS) or the distilled water (DW) group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Results: Forty-one (42.3%) of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315). The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389). Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities. PMID:28134091

  4. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new) of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae); specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record); Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis cruentata

  5. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species

    PubMed Central

    Kritsky, Delane C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new) of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae); specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record); Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis cruentata

  6. Development of a Site-specific Standard for Selenium in Open Waters of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moellmer, W. O.; Miller, T.; Ohlendorf, H.; Denbleyker, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a unique terminal lake located adjacent to a rapidly growing metropolitan area in the western United States. The open water of the GSL is protected for its current beneficial uses through the application of a narrative criteria clause in the state water quality standards. The Utah Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) initiated a process in 2004 to develop a site-specific numeric water quality standard for selenium for the open waters of the GSL to balance protection of the GSL's unique ecology and beneficial uses with burgeoning development. The process the DEQ initiated included the formation of a Great Salt Lake Water Quality Steering Committee and a Science Panel to identify the studies required, manage the studies and finally recommend a site-specific standard. Great Salt Lake Water Quality Steering Committee. The DEQ established the GSL Water Quality Steering Committee (Steering Committee) to provide a forum for stakeholders to assist in guiding the process of developing numeric standards for the lake. This group consists of federal and state regulatory agencies, other public entities, conservation organizations, recreation groups, and industrial users of the lake. Great Salt Lake Science Panel. The DEQ established the GSL Science Panel (Science Panel) to advise the DEQ and Steering Committee and provide overall technical direction and review for the program. The Science Panel is composed of 9 members representing federal and state regulatory agencies, industry and academia. The purpose of the panel is to identify data gaps in the literature, design and oversee scientific investigations to fill critical data gaps, and finally recommend a numeric water quality standard to the Steering Committee. Studies Currently Underway. A partnership of researchers—including local and national experts from education and industry—are collaborating with the DEQ, the Steering Committee, and the Science Panel to complete the studies required

  7. Tensions between opening up and closing down moments in transdisciplinary water research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Tobias; Maynard, Carly; Carr, Gemma; Bruns, Antje; Mueller, Eva; Lane, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Research on water is carried out by many disciplines that do not really talk to each other much, despite critical interactions of multiple social and biophysical processes in shaping how much and what kind of water is where, at what time and for whom. What is more, water has meaning to more than those who are scientists. And scientists are not so removed from the things they study as one might commonly believe. All these observations call for a transdisciplinary research agenda that brings together different scientific disciplines with the knowledge that other groups in society hold and that tries to be aware of its own limitations. The transdisciplinary perspective is especially pertinent to the scientific decade 2013-2022 of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) on change in hydrology and society, 'Panta Rhei,' for a balanced conceptualization and study of human-water relations. Transdisciplinarity is inherently about opening up traditional modes of knowledge production; in terms of framing the research problem, the methodology and the knowledge that is considered permissible. This should open up the range of options for management intervention, too. While decisions on how to intervene will inevitably close down the issue periodically, the point here is to leave alternative routes of action open long enough, or reopen them again, so as to counter unsustainable and inequitable path-dependencies and lock-ins. However, opening up efforts are frequently in conflict with factors that work to close down knowledge production. Among those are framings, path-dependencies, vested interests, researchers' positionalities, power, and scale. In this presentation, based on Krueger et al. (2016), we will reflect on the tensions between opening up and closing down moments in transdisciplinary water research and draw important practical lessons. References Krueger, T., Maynard, C.M., Carr, G., Bruns, A., Mueller, E.N. and Lane, S.N. (forthcoming in 2016) A

  8. Design, revision, and application of ground-water flow models for simulation of selected water-management scenarios in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Krause, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water flow models of the Floridan aquifer system in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida, were revised and updated to ensure consistency among the various models used, and to facilitate evaluation of the effects of pumping on the ground-water level near areas of saltwater contamination. The revised models, developed as part of regional and areal assessments of ground-water resources in coastal Georgia, are--the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model, the Glynn County area (Glynn) model, and the Savannah area (Savannah) model. Changes were made to hydraulic-property arrays of the RASA and Glynn models to ensure consistency among all of the models; results of theses changes are evidenced in revised water budgets and calibration statistics. Following revision, the three models were used to simulate 32 scenarios of hypothetical changes in pumpage that ranged from about 82 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) lower to about 438 Mgal/d higher, than the May 1985 pumping rate of 308 Mgal/d. The scenarios were developed by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division and the Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Planning Commission to evaluate water-management alternatives in coastal Georgia. Maps showing simulated ground-water-level decline and diagrams presenting changes in simulated flow rates are presented for each scenario. Scenarios were grouped on the basis of pumping location--entire 24-county area, central subarea, Glynn-Wayne-Camden County subarea, and Savannah-Hilton Head Island subarea. For those scenarios that simulated decreased pumpage, the water level at both Brunswick and Hilton Head Island rose, decreasing the hydraulic gradient and reducing the potential for saltwater contamination. Conversely, in response to scenarios of increased pumpage, the water level at both locations declined, increasing the hydraulic gradient and increasing the potential for saltwater contamination

  9. Open-channel, water-in-oil emulsification in paper-based microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Boban, M; Tuteja, A

    2017-04-11

    Open-channel microfluidic devices have shown great potential in achieving a high degree of fluid control, at relatively low-cost, while enabling the opportunity for rapid fabrication. However, thus far, work in open channel microfluidics has largely focused on controlling the flow of water or other aqueous solutions. In this work we present new open channel microfluidic devices based on surfaces with patterned wettabilty that are capable of controlling the flow of virtually all high and low surface tension liquids. The fabricated open channel devices are capable of constraining a variety of low surface tension oils at high enough flow rates to enable, for the first time, water-in-oil microfluidic emulsification in an open channel device. By changing the flow rates for both the aqueous (dispersed) and organic (continuous) phases, we show that it is possible to vary the size of the emulsified droplets produced in the open channel device. Finally, we utilized the fabricated devices to synthesize relatively monodisperse, hydrogel microparticles that could incorporate a drug molecule. We also investigated the drug release characteristics of the fabricated particles.

  10. Remote Sensing of Open Water in Northern High Latitudes for use in Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J.; Maumenee, N.; Bohn, T.; Lettenmaier, D.; Bowling, L.

    2007-12-01

    In the northern high latitudes open water bodies are common landscape features, having a large influence on hydrologic processes as well as surface-atmosphere carbon exchange and associated impacts on global climate. It is therefore of great importance to assess their spatial extent and temporal character in order to improve hydrologic and ecosystem process modeling. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an effective tool for this purpose since it is particularly sensitive to surface water and it can monitor large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We employ multi-temporal L-band SAR data from the Japanese Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (JERS-1) and ALOS PALSAR to map open water bodies across Alaska and Eurasia. A supervised decision tree-based classification approach was used to generate open water maps. For Alaska, we assembled regional-scale monthly JERS-1 SAR mosaics from data acquired during 1998. Digital elevation model (DEM) terrain and slope information were also employed in the decision tree classifier. These supplementary data aided significantly in improving classification performance in topographically complex regions where radar shadowing was prevalent. For study regions in Eurasia, PALSAR data was used in conjunction with JERS-1 imagery to map spatial patterns and seasonal variability in open water characteristics over selected study basins. These results were examined in relation to regional topographic and land cover characteristics. Classification results were also evaluated relative to other open water and land cover classification maps derived from Landsat, AVHRR, MODIS and SRTM. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology; at the University of Montana; at the University of Washington; and at Purdue University under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Portable platforms for setting rocket nets in open-water areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Rocket-netting of aquatic birds is generally done from permanent sites that are free of vegetation and debris to allow visibility and unobstructed projection of nets. We developed a technique for setting rocket nets on portable platforms to capture waterfowl in open-water habitats.

  12. Offset-Free Model Predictive Control of Open Water Channel Based on Moving Horizon Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekin Aydin, Boran; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) is a powerful control option which is increasingly used by operational water managers for managing water systems. The explicit consideration of constraints and multi-objective management are important features of MPC. However, due to the water loss in open water systems by seepage, leakage and evaporation a mismatch between the model and the real system will be created. These mismatch affects the performance of MPC and creates an offset from the reference set point of the water level. We present model predictive control based on moving horizon estimation (MHE-MPC) to achieve offset free control of water level for open water canals. MHE-MPC uses the past predictions of the model and the past measurements of the system to estimate unknown disturbances and the offset in the controlled water level is systematically removed. We numerically tested MHE-MPC on an accurate hydro-dynamic model of the laboratory canal UPC-PAC located in Barcelona. In addition, we also used well known disturbance modeling offset free control scheme for the same test case. Simulation experiments on a single canal reach show that MHE-MPC outperforms disturbance modeling offset free control scheme.

  13. Water transport mechanism through open capillaries analyzed by direct surface modifications on biological surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Daisuke; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hirai, Yuji; Yabu, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Ijiro, Kuniharu; Tsujii, Kaoru; Shimozawa, Tateo; Hariyama, Takahiko; Shimomura, Masatsugu

    2013-10-01

    Some small animals only use water transport mechanisms passively driven by surface energies. However, little is known about passive water transport mechanisms because it is difficult to measure the wettability of microstructures in small areas and determine the chemistry of biological surfaces. Herein, we developed to directly analyse the structural effects of wettability of chemically modified biological surfaces by using a nanoliter volume water droplet and a hi-speed video system. The wharf roach Ligia exotica transports water only by using open capillaries in its legs containing hair- and paddle-like microstructures. The structural effects of legs chemically modified with a self-assembled monolayer were analysed, so that the wharf roach has a smart water transport system passively driven by differences of wettability between the microstructures. We anticipate that this passive water transport mechanism may inspire novel biomimetic fluid manipulations with or without a gravitational field.

  14. Use of appropriate modeling in designing ground water control systems for open pit mines

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, M.P.

    1984-12-01

    Ground water problems in open pit mining are related either to excessive pressure heads or nettling amounts of water seepage in the pits. Water control alternatives usually vary from doing nothing else other than handle water in the pit to more elaborate systems of cut-off walls and pumping. Selection of effective and economic ground water control methods is a goal which can be achieved by balancing the time devoted to the analysis and the actual savings in selecting the best alternative. Criteria for selecting and using several modeling predictive methods are given to eliminate overdoing or underdoing during evaluation of ground water control alternatives. Practical guidelines and recommendations for use of modeling are given to handle typical situations. Guidelines and recommendations are based on experience of applying these techniques to diverse hydrologic conditions and mine plans.

  15. Water transport mechanism through open capillaries analyzed by direct surface modifications on biological surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Daisuke; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hirai, Yuji; Yabu, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Ijiro, Kuniharu; Tsujii, Kaoru; Shimozawa, Tateo; Hariyama, Takahiko; Shimomura, Masatsugu

    2013-10-23

    Some small animals only use water transport mechanisms passively driven by surface energies. However, little is known about passive water transport mechanisms because it is difficult to measure the wettability of microstructures in small areas and determine the chemistry of biological surfaces. Herein, we developed to directly analyse the structural effects of wettability of chemically modified biological surfaces by using a nanoliter volume water droplet and a hi-speed video system. The wharf roach Ligia exotica transports water only by using open capillaries in its legs containing hair- and paddle-like microstructures. The structural effects of legs chemically modified with a self-assembled monolayer were analysed, so that the wharf roach has a smart water transport system passively driven by differences of wettability between the microstructures. We anticipate that this passive water transport mechanism may inspire novel biomimetic fluid manipulations with or without a gravitational field.

  16. Contrasting sea-ice and open-water boundary layers during melt and freeze-up seasons: Some result from the Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernström, Michael; Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Sedlar, Joseph; Achtert, Peggy; Brooks, Barbara; Brooks, Ian; Persson, Ola; Prytherch, John; Salsbury, Dominic; Shupe, Matthew; Johnston, Paul; Wolfe, Dan

    2016-04-01

    With more open water present in the Arctic summer, an understanding of atmospheric processes over open-water and sea-ice surfaces as summer turns into autumn and ice starts forming becomes increasingly important. The Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment (ACSE) was conducted in a mix of open water and sea ice in the eastern Arctic along the Siberian shelf during late summer and early autumn 2014, providing detailed observations of the seasonal transition, from melt to freeze. Measurements were taken over both ice-free and ice-covered surfaces, offering an insight to the role of the surface state in shaping the lower troposphere and the boundary-layer conditions as summer turned into autumn. During summer, strong surface inversions persisted over sea ice, while well-mixed boundary layers capped by elevated inversions were frequent over open-water. The former were often associated with advection of warm air from adjacent open-water or land surfaces, whereas the latter were due to a positive buoyancy flux from the warm ocean surface. Fog and stratus clouds often persisted over the ice, whereas low-level liquid-water clouds developed over open water. These differences largely disappeared in autumn, when mixed-phase clouds capped by elevated inversions dominated in both ice-free and ice-covered conditions. Low-level-jets occurred ~20-25% of the time in both seasons. The observations indicate that these jets were typically initiated at air-mass boundaries or along the ice edge in autumn, while in summer they appeared to be inertial oscillations initiated by partial frictional decoupling as warm air was advected in over the sea ice. The start of the autumn season was related to an abrupt change in atmospheric conditions, rather than to the gradual change in solar radiation. The autumn onset appeared as a rapid cooling of the whole atmosphere and the freeze up followed as the warm surface lost heat to the atmosphere. While the surface type had a pronounced impact on boundary

  17. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  18. Characterisation of the water quality from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H B; Shantz, A; Shin, G; Sampson, M L; Meschke, J S

    2010-01-01

    An 8 month investigation into the quality of water from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia was conducted. Wells were analysed for indicators of the health (arsenic, fluoride, manganese, nitrate, total coliforms, E. coli, male-specific coliphage) and aesthetic (iron, chloride, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardnesss, turbidity, pH) quality of the water, and referenced to the Cambodian Drinking Water Standard when available. The shallow aquifer was chemically less of a health risk than the deep aquifer; however, microbial contamination was considerable for both shallow well types with mean E. coli loads of 10(3) CFU/100 mL and male-specific coliphage contamination of 10(2) PFU/eluate. Temporal variation in microbial contamination was significant (p<0.05), with overall loads decreasing during the dry season. The aesthetic quality of the water was poor for all samples, but worsened during the dry season. No significant difference was observed in the quality of water from open and rope-pump wells, despite their classification as unimproved and improved respectively by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Contaminants present in both well types may readily be removed by simple water treatment, suggesting that household treatment may be more beneficial to rural Cambodian households than shallow aquifer source improvements.

  19. Open data used in water sciences - Review of access, licenses and understandability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenroth, Esa; Lagerbäck Adolphi, Emma; Arheimer, Berit

    2016-04-01

    The amount of open data available for hydrology research is continually growing. In the EU-funded project SWITCH-ON (Sharing Water-related Information to Tackle Changes in the Hydrosphere - for Operational Needs: www.water-switch-on.eu), we are addressing water concerns by exploring and exploiting the untapped potential of these new open data. This work is enabled by many ongoing efforts to facilitate the use of open data. For instance, a number of portals provide the means to search for open data sets and open spatial data services (such as the GEOSS Portal, INSPIRE community geoportal or various Climate Services and public portals). However, in general, many research groups in water sciences still hesitate in using this open data. We therefore examined some limiting factors. Factors that limit usability of a dataset include: (1) accessibility, (2) understandability and (3) licences. In the SWITCH-ON project we have developed a search tool for finding and accessing data with relevance to water science in Europe, as the existing ones are not addressing data needs in water sciences specifically. The tool is filled with some 9000 sets of metadata and each one is linked to water related key-words. The keywords are based on the ones developed within the CUAHSI community in USA, but extended with non-hydrosphere topics, additional subclasses and only showing keywords actually having data. Access to data sets: 78% of the data is directly accessible, while the rest is either available after registration and request, or through a web client for visualisation but without direct download. However, several data sets were found to be inaccessible due to server downtime, incorrect links or problems with the host database management system. One possible explanation for this could be that many datasets have been assembled by research project that no longer are funded. Hence, their server infrastructure would be less maintained compared to large-scale operational services

  20. FREEWAT: an HORIZON 2020 project to build open source tools for water management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Borsi, Iacopo; Foglia, Laura

    2015-04-01

    FREEWAT is an HORIZON 2020 project financed by the EU Commission under the call WATER INNOVATION: BOOSTING ITS VALUE FOR EUROPE. FREEWAT main result will be an open source and public domain GIS integrated modelling environment for the simulation of water quantity and quality in surface water and groundwater with an integrated water management and planning module. FREEWAT aims at promoting water resource management by simplifying the application of the Water Framework Directive and other EU water related Directives. Specific objectives of the FREEWAT project are: to coordinate previous EU and national funded research to integrate existing software modules for water management in a single environment into the GIS based FREEWAT and to support the FREEWAT application in an innovative participatory approach gathering technical staff and relevant stakeholders (in primis policy and decision makers) in designing scenarios for the proper application of water policies. The open source characteristics of the platform allow to consider this an initiative "ad includendum" (looking for inclusion of other entities), as further research institutions, private developers etc. may contribute to the platform development. The core of the FREEWAT platform will be the SID&GRID framework in its version ported to the QGIS desktop. SID&GRID (GIS integrated physically-based distributed numerical hydrological model based on a modified version of MODFLOW 2005; Rossetto et al. 2013) is an open source and public domain modelling platform firstly developed within the EU-POR FSE 2007-2013 Regione Toscana - Italy and then ported to the QGIS desktop through a dedicated fund by Regione Toscana. SID&GRID will be complemented by June 2015 with solute transport (also density dependent) capabilities in aquifers within the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII project. Activities will be mainly carried out on two branches: (i) integration of modules, so that the software will fit the end-users requirements, including

  1. Influence of open water bodies on the generation of summertime convection over the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, D.; Bélair, S.; Carrera, M. L.; Leroyer, S.

    2014-12-01

    There are still numerous water features on the Canadian landscape that are not monitored. Specifically, there are landscape features (e.g. the prairies and Canadian shield regions of North America) that are ephemeral in nature and have a significant influence on convective storm generation and local weather patterns through turbulent exchanges of sensible and latent heat between land and the atmosphere. In this study we perform a series of numerical experiments with the GEM (Global Environmental Multiscale model) model at 2.5 km resolution to examine the sensitivity of the atmospheric boundary layer to the presence of open water bodies. At present the land-water fraction in the GEM model is specified by means of static geophysical databases which do not change annually. Uncertainty is introduced into this land-water fraction and the sensitivity of the resulting soil moisture and precipitation is quantified for a series of convective precipitation events over Alberta for the summer 2014 period.

  2. Managing dredged sediment placement in open-water disposal sites, Upper Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panageotou, W.; Garbaciak, Jr. S.

    2002-01-01

    The maintenance dredging of fine-grained sediment which accumulated in shipping channels in the Upper Chesapeake was discussed. The capacity of open-water sites was maximized in an environmentally acceptable manner to provide adequate time for the development of beneficial use or confined placement sites. The additional water column turbidity generated by dragging operations and bottom sediment movement during placement raised environmental concerns which weighted against the need to maximize capacity. The inter-agency team overseeing site management provided a mechanism to implement operational changes which maximized site capacity and insured operational use through the projected life span of the site.

  3. Hypothermia and afterdrop following open water swimming: the Alcatraz/San Francisco Swim Study.

    PubMed

    Nuckton, T J; Claman, D M; Goldreich, D; Wendt, F C; Nuckton, J G

    2000-10-01

    To determine whether or not participants in open water swim events experience hypothermia and afterdrop, rectal temperature was measured for up to 45 minutes in 11 subjects following the New Year's Day Alcatraz Swim. This event was held in open water (11.7 degrees C [53.0 degrees F]) in the San Francisco Bay, and participants did not wear wetsuits or other protective clothing. Biophysical parameters, including surfacelvolume ratio, body mass index, and percent body fat were measured before the swim, and statistical analysis was done to determine predictors of temperature decrease and afterdrop duration. Applying the American Heart Association definition of hypothermia (less than 36.0 C [96.8 degrees F]), hypothermia was seen in 5 of the 11 subjects. Using a more rigorous and traditional definition (less than 35.0 degrees C [95.0 degrees F]), hypothermia was seen in only one subject. Afterdrop, defined as continued cooling following removal from cold stress, was seen in 10 of the 11 subjects. Surface/volume ratio (S/V) and body mass index (BMI) predicted the lowest recorded temperatures (P < .05; r(S/V) = -.71, r(BMI) = .72) and afterdrop duration (P < .05; r(SN) = -.75, r(BMI) = .69). These results suggest that hypothermia and afterdrop can occur commonly after recreational open water swimming, and that participants should be observed for signs of temperature decrease following removal from cold stress.

  4. Stochastic Management of the Open Large Water Reservoir with Storage Function with Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozel, Tomas; Stary, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Described models are used random forecasting period of flow line with different length. The length is shorter than 1 year. Forecasting period of flow line is transformed to line of managing discharges with same length as forecast. Adaptive managing is used only first value of line of discharges. Stochastic management is worked with dispersion of controlling discharge value. Main advantage stochastic management is fun of possibilities. In article is described construction and evaluation of adaptive stochastic model base on genetic algorithm (classic optimization method). Model was used for stochastic management of open large water reservoir with storage function. Genetic algorithm is used as optimization algorithm. Forecasted inflow is given to model and controlling discharge value is computed by model for chosen probability of controlling discharge value. Model was tested and validated on made up large open water reservoir. Results of stochastic model were evaluated for given probability and were compared to results of same model for 100% forecast (forecasted values are real values). The management of the large open water reservoir with storage function was done logically and with increased sum number of forecast from 300 to 500 the results given by model were better, but another increased from 500 to 750 and 1000 did not get expected improvement. Influence on course of management was tested for different length forecasted inflow and their sum number. Classical optimization model is needed too much time for calculation, therefore stochastic model base on genetic algorithm was used parallel calculation on cluster.

  5. Development of a web application for water resources based on open source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents research and development of a prototype web application for water resources using latest advancements in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), open source software and web GIS. The web application has three web services for: (1) managing, presenting and storing of geospatial data, (2) support of water resources modeling and (3) water resources optimization. The web application is developed using several programming languages (PhP, Ajax, JavaScript, Java), libraries (OpenLayers, JQuery) and open source software components (GeoServer, PostgreSQL, PostGIS). The presented web application has several main advantages: it is available all the time, it is accessible from everywhere, it creates a real time multi-user collaboration platform, the programing languages code and components are interoperable and designed to work in a distributed computer environment, it is flexible for adding additional components and services and, it is scalable depending on the workload. The application was successfully tested on a case study with concurrent multi-users access.

  6. Modeling the impacts of winter cover crops on water quality in two adjacent sub-watersheds within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Maryland, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Choptank River on Maryland’s Eastern Shore has been designated by the USEPA as “impaired waters” under Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act of 1972, mainly because of significant nutrient loads that resulted in not meeting the EPA water quality standards. This water quality deteriorati...

  7. Water Velocity as a Driver of Stream Metabolism: a Parallel Application of the Open Water and Eddy Correlation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmans, D.; Berg, P.

    2013-12-01

    Inland waters respire or store a large portion of net terrestrial ecosystem production. As a result their metabolism is significant to the global carbon budget. The proximal drivers of aquatic respiration are organic matter availability, temperature, nutrients, and water velocity. Among these water velocity may be the least quantified. A partial explanation is that the footprint of the open water technique is typically hundreds of meters of river length, while the effect of a change in velocity may be specific to a local benthic environment, e.g., a riffle. With the eddy correlation technique oxygen flux is calculated from the turbulent fluctuation of vertical velocity and the oxygen concentration at a point in the water column. The footprint of the technique scales with the height of the point of measurement allowing an investigation of the in situ oxygen flux at the scale of a riffle. The combination of techniques, then, can be used to investigate the coupling of hydrodynamic conditions and benthic environments in driving aquatic ecosystem metabolism. This parallel approach was applied seasonally to examine the drivers of metabolism in a nutrient-rich, sand-bed coastal stream on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. An ecosystem-scale oxygen flux was calculated with the open water technique while pool-, run-, riffle-, and freshwater tidal-scale oxygen fluxes were calculated with the eddy correlation technique. At the ecosystem scale the stream bed functioned as an effective biocatalytic filter with an average annual net oxygen consumption of 300 mmol m^-2 d^-1. Prior to a stage-discharge shift water velocity explained 90% of the variance in ecosystem respiration (n = 63 days). After the stage-discharge shift water velocity explained 96 % of it (n = 40 days). Hyporheic exchange supported respiration in this system, contributing to its close correlation with water velocity. Among the physically similar benthic environments of the run, riffle, and freshwater tidal sites

  8. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  9. A Two-Step Double Filter Method to Extract Open Water Surfaces from Landsat ETM+ Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haijing; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, lakes and temporal ponds play a significant role in agriculture and livelihood of local communities as well as in ecology. Monitoring the changes of these open water bodies allows to draw conclusions on water use as well as climatic impacts and can assist in the formulation of a sustainable resource management strategy. The simultaneous monitoring of larger numbers of water bodies with respect to their stage and area is feasible with the aid of remote sensing. Here the monitoring of lake surface areas is discussed. Landsat TM and ETM+ images provide a medium resolution of 30m, and offer an easily available data source to monitor the long term changes of water surfaces in arid and semi-arid regions. In the past great effort was put into developing simple indices to extract water surfaces from satellite images. However, there is a common problem in achieving accurate results with these indices: How to select a threshold value for water pixels without introducing excessive subjective judgment. The threshold value would also have to vary with location, land features and seasons, allowing for inherent uncertainty. A new method was developed using Landsat ETM+ imaginary (30 meter resolution) to extract open water surfaces. This method uses the Normalized Difference of Vegetation Index (NDVI) as the basis for an objective way of selecting threshold values of Modified Normalized Difference of Water Index (MNDWI) and Stress Degree Days (SDD), which were used as a combined filter to extract open water surfaces. We choose two study areas to verify the method. One study area is in Northeast China, where bigger lakes, smaller muddy ponds and wetlands are interspersed with agricultural land and salt crusts. The other one is Kafue Flats in Zambia, where seasonal floods of the Zambezi River create seasonal wetlands in addition to the more permanent water ponds and river channels. For both sites digital globe images of 0.5 meter resolution are available

  10. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  11. An open-source wireless sensor stack: from Arduino to SDI-12 to Water One Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S.; Damiano, S. G.; Smith, K. M.; Olexy, J.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Mayorga, E.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Implementing a large-scale streaming environmental sensor network has previously been limited by the high cost of the datalogging and data communication infrastructure. The Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (CRB-CZO) is overcoming the obstacles to large near-real-time data collection networks by using Arduino, an open source electronics platform, in combination with XBee ZigBee wireless radio modules. These extremely low-cost and easy-to-use open source electronics are at the heart of the new DIY movement and have provided solutions to countless projects by over half a million users worldwide. However, their use in environmental sensing is in its infancy. At present a primary limitation to widespread deployment of open-source electronics for environmental sensing is the lack of a simple, open-source software stack to manage streaming data from heterogeneous sensor networks. Here we present a functioning prototype software stack that receives sensor data over a self-meshing ZigBee wireless network from over a hundred sensors, stores the data locally and serves it on demand as a CUAHSI Water One Flow (WOF) web service. We highlight a few new, innovative components, including: (1) a versatile open data logger design based the Arduino electronics platform and ZigBee radios; (2) a software library implementing SDI-12 communication protocol between any Arduino platform and SDI12-enabled sensors without the need for additional hardware (https://github.com/StroudCenter/Arduino-SDI-12); and (3) 'midStream', a light-weight set of Python code that receives streaming sensor data, appends it with metadata on the fly by querying a relational database structured on an early version of the Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2), and uses the WOFpy library to serve the data as WaterML via SOAP and REST web services.

  12. Did an Open Panama Isthmus Correspond to an Invasion of Pacific Water into the Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vangorder, S.; Nof, D.

    2002-12-01

    Existing general circulation modeling studies suggest that, prior to the closure of the Panama isthmus, low salinity Pacific ocean water invaded the Atlantic ocean via the associated gap between North and South America. According to this scenario, the invasion decreased the Atlantic Ocean salinity to the point where deep water formation was impossible and, consequently, no "conveyer belt" movement was in action. Using simple dynamical principles, analytical modeling and process-oriented numerical experiments, it is shown that one would normally expect a flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean (rather than from the Pacific to the Atlantic) through an open Panama isthmus. An analogous present-day situation is that of the Indonesian Throughflow which brings Pacific water to the Indian Ocean rather than the other way around. The direction of the flow in both situations is determined by the wind field to the east of the gaps. On this basis it is suggested that if low salinity Pacific water did in fact invade the Atlantic Ocean prior to the closure of the Panama isthmus, then this invasion took place via the Bering Strait rather than through the open Panama Isthmus.

  13. Did an open Panama Isthmus correspond to an invasion of Pacific water into the Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gorder, S.; Nof, D.

    2003-04-01

    Existing general circulation modeling studies suggest that, prior to the closure of the Panama Isthmus, low salinity Pacific ocean water invaded the Atlantic ocean via the associated gap between North and South America. According to this scenario, the invasion decreased the Atlantic Ocean salinity to the point where deep water formation was impossible and, consequently, no "conveyer belt" movement was in action. Using simple dynamical principles, analytical modeling and process-oriented numerical experiments, it is shown that one would normally expect a flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean (rather than from the Pacific to the Atlantic) through an open Panama isthmus. An analogous present-day situation is that of the Indonesian Throughflow which brings Pacific water to the Indian Ocean rather than the other way around. The direction of the flow in both situations is determined by the wind field to the east of the gaps. On this basis it is suggested that if low salinity Pacific water did in fact invade the Atlantic Ocean prior to the closure of the Panama isthmus, then this invasion took place via the Bering Strait rather than through the open Panama Isthmus.

  14. Simulated effects of impoundment of lake seminole on ground-water flow in the upper Floridan Aquifer in southwestern Georgia and adjacent parts of Alabama and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, L. Elliott; Torak, Lynn J.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrologic implications of the impoundment of Lake Seminole in southwest Georgia and its effect on components of the surface- and ground-water flow systems of the lower Apalachicola?Chattahoochee?Flint (ACF) River Basin were investigated using a ground-water model. Comparison of simulation results of postimpoundment drought conditions (October 1986) with results of hypothetical preimpoundment conditions (a similar drought prior to 1955) provides a qualitative measure of the changes in hydraulic head and ground-water flow to and from streams and Lake Seminole, and across State lines caused by the impoundment. Based on the simulation results, the impoundment of Lake Seminole changed ground-water flow directions within about 20?30 miles of the lake, reducing the amount of ground water flowing from Florida to Georgia southeast of the lake. Ground-water storage was increased by the impoundment, as indicated by a simulated increase of as much as 26 feet in the water level in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The impoundment of Lake Seminole caused changes to simulated components of the ground-water budget, including reduced discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer to streams (315 million gallons per day); reduced recharge from or increased discharge to regional ground-water flow at external model boundaries (totaling 183 million gallons per day); and reduced recharge from or increased discharge to the undifferentiated overburden (totaling 129 million gallons per day).

  15. Limnological characteristics of selected lakes in the Nebraska sandhills, U.S.A., and their relation to chemical characteristics of adjacent ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Baugh, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Limnological characteristics of Crane, Hackberry, Island and Roundup Lakes, and chemical characteristics of shallow ground water, within the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, western Nebraska, were determined during a preliminary investigation of the interaction between lakes and ground water in this study area between 1980 and 1984. When ice cover was absent, the lakes were well-mixed vertically, regardless of season. Depth to which 1% of surface illumination penetrated was commonly less than 1m. Variability in light penetration, as measured by Secchidisk transparency, appeared to be unrelated to changes in algal biomass, even though algal biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, varied seasonally within a two-order-of-magnitude range. Blue-green algae were the most abundant phytoplankton; this condition occurred most often when the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus in the lakes' water was less than 29. Although rotifers and copepod naupli commonly were the most abundant zooplankton in the lakes, cladocerans were dominant occasionally. Either sodium or calcium was the most abundant cation, and bicarbonate was the most abundant anion, in water from water-table wells and lakes sampled during the study. The second most abundant cation in the ground water was related to the location of the sampled well within the ground-water system. The lakes were a source of dissolved organic carbon seeping to ground water. Chemical and hydrologic data indicate there is interaction between lakes and ground water in the study area. ?? 1986.

  16. Environmental loads from water-sprinkled softwood timber. 1: Characteristics of an open and a recycling watering system

    SciTech Connect

    Borga, P.; Elowson, T.; Liukko, K.

    1996-06-01

    The concentrations of a number of organic and inorganic compounds in the wastewater from sprinkling of landstored softwood timber was monitored during a period of up to 18 weeks. A recycling system using a watering intensity of 160 mm/24 h, and an open system with intensities between 55 to 12 mm/24 h were studied. The compound classes investigated included dissolved organic carbon; distillable phenols; resin acids; bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); organic and inorganic phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen; and a number of metal ions. In the recycling system, the peak concentrations occurred after 4 to 6 weeks, and the amounts accumulated through refilling of water largely exceeded those present in the wastewater at the end of the storage. In the open system, net loads of compounds occurred during the first weeks, which thereafter turned into uptakes for most compounds. The PLFA increased during the first weeks and clearly responded to the peak concentrations in the waters. Already from the start there were strong uptakes of nitrate, sulfate, and many minerals in the piles, suggesting that the supply of macro- and micronutrients necessary for microbial growth, as well as available terminal electron acceptors, may be a limiting factor for the extent of microbial degradation performed in the pile.

  17. Spatiotemporal assessment of water chemistry in intermittently open/closed coastal lakes of Southern Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astel, Aleksander M.; Bigus, Katarzyna; Obolewski, Krystian; Glińska-Lewczuk, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Ionic profile, pH, electrolytic conductivity, chemical oxygen demand and concentration of selected heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) were determined in water of 11 intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs) located in Polish coastline. Multidimensional data set was explored by the use of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique to avoid supervised and predictable division for fully isolated, partially and fully connected lakes. Water quality assessment based on single parameter's mean value allowed classification of majority of lakes to first or second class of purity according to regulation presenting classification approach applicable to uniform parts of surface waters. The SOM-based grouping revealed seven clusters comprising water samples of similar physico-chemical profile. Fully connected lakes were characterized by the highest concentration of components characteristic for sea salts (NaCl, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4, K2SO4 and MgBr2), however spring samples from Łebsko were shifted to another cluster suggesting that intensive surface run-off and fresh-water inflow through Łupawa river decreases an impact of sea water intrusions. Forecasted characteristic of water collected in Resko Przymorskie lake was disturbed by high contamination by nitrites indicating accidental and local contamination due to usage of sodium nitrite for the curing of meat. Some unexpected sources of contamination was discovered in intermittently open and closed lakes. Presumably Zn contamination is due to use of wood preservatives to protect small wooden playgrounds or camping places spread around one of the lake, while increased concentration of Ni could be connected with grass and vegetation burning. Waters of Jamno lake are under the strongest anthropogenic impact due to inefficient removal of phosphates by waste water treatment plant and contamination by Fe and Mn caused by backwashing of absorption filters. Generally, the quality of ICOLLs' water was diversified, while

  18. FREEWAT: an HORIZON 2020 project to build open source tools for water management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foglia, L.; Rossetto, R.; Borsi, I.; Mehl, S.; Velasco Mansilla, V.

    2015-12-01

    FREEWAT is an HORIZON 2020 EU project. FREEWAT main result will be an open source and public domain GIS integrated modelling environment for the simulation of water quantity and quality in surface water and groundwater with an integrated water management and planning module. FREEWAT aims at promoting water resource management by simplifying the application of the Water Framework Directive and related Directives. Specific objectives of the project are: to coordinate previous EU and national funded research to integrate existing software modules for water management in a single environment into the GIS based FREEWAT and to support the FREEWAT application in an innovative participatory approach gathering technical staff and relevant stakeholders (policy and decision makers) in designing scenarios for application of water policies. The open source characteristics of the platform allow to consider this an initiative "ad includendum", as further institutions or developers may contribute to the development. Core of the platform is the SID&GRID framework (GIS integrated physically-based distributed numerical hydrological model based on a modified version of MODFLOW 2005; Rossetto et al. 2013) in its version ported to QGIS desktop. Activities are carried out on two lines: (i) integration of modules to fulfill the end-users requirements, including tools for producing feasibility and management plans; (ii) a set of activities to fix bugs and to provide a well-integrated interface for the different tools implemented. Further capabilities to be integrated are: - module for water management and planning; - calibration, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis; - module for solute transport in unsaturated zone; - module for crop growth and water requirements in agriculture; - tools for groundwater quality issues and for the analysis, interpretation and visualization of hydrogeological data. Through creating a common environment among water research/professionals, policy makers and

  19. A diverse benthic assemblage 100 km from open water under the Amery Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, M. J.; Craven, M.; Goldsworthy, P. M.; Carsey, F.

    2007-03-01

    A hot water drill was used to penetrate 480 m of ice to reveal a diverse benthic assemblage, dominated by suspension-feeding invertebrates, under the Amery Ice Shelf (East Antarctica) at a location 100 km from open water and at a depth of 775 m below sea level (840 m below the ice shelf surface). This is the first record of a benthic assemblage of this type found at this distance under an ice shelf. The few previous reports of life under ice shelves describe assemblages with very different trophic strategies (e.g., sparse assemblages of mobile scavengers or chemotrophs) or are in circumstances in which in situ photosynthesis at tide cracks or through the ice cannot be ruled out as a potential source of primary production. The physical characteristics of the Amery Ice Shelf and the feeding strategies represented together indicate that the only likely source of primary production to sustain the benthic assemblage is material advected from open water. This suggestion is supported by observed current speeds in the vicinity and reported rates of particle settling. The observation under an ice shelf of a benthic assemblage that is very similar to those found elsewhere in Antarctica, in locations dominated by annual sea ice or at depths below the photic zone, has implications for the interpretation of sediment paleorecords to represent the history of ice shelf advance and retreat. Without observations of this living assemblage in situ, the remnants of its component species in the sediment record, such as sponge spicules, echinoderm ossicles, and bryozoan fragments, could be interpreted reasonably, but erroneously, to represent open water conditions.

  20. Atmospheric water vapor and geoid measurements in the open ocean with GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocken, Christian; Johnson, James; Van Hove, Teresa; Iwabuchi, Tetsuya

    2005-06-01

    We have conducted two experiments to determine precipitable water vapor (PWV) and sea surface heights from a cruising ship in the open ocean. During the first experiment (July 7-13, 02) GPS and radiosonde PWV agreed at the 2 mm rms level. During the second experiment (Aug 23-30, 03) GPS compared at 1.5 mm rms (1.1 mm GPS high bias) with eight ship-launched radiosondes and at 2.8 mm rms (1.2 mm GPS high bias) to a ship-based water vapor radiometer (WVR). We estimate that the vertical position of the GPS antenna in the open ocean was determined to better than 10 cm rms. After correcting for ocean tides GPS estimated sea surface heights from the second cruise compared to the CARIB97 geoid at the 32 cm level in the vertical. Because space based observations of PWV over the oceans generally require cloudless conditions and are accurate to about 5-10% we conclude that ship based GPS observations can provide additional useful meteorological information. Based on the 10-cm vertical position rms and the high horizontal resolution of ship-based positions we further conclude that useful geodetic information can be obtained from high accuracy GPS observations from ships in the open oceans.

  1. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25-40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the basin human population from 1990 to 2000 and about a 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2010), the network consists of 124 wells and piezometers (a piezometer is a small-diameter subwell usually nested within a larger well). To better help the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority manage water use, this report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2010.

  2. Hydrology and water quality of a field and riparian buffer adjacent to a mangrove wetland in Jobos Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Models that estimate the effects of agricultural conservation practices on water quantity and quality have become increasingly important tools for short- and long-term assessments. In this study, we simulated the water quality and hydrology of a portion of the Jobos Bay watershed, Puerto Rico using...

  3. Detection and quantification of water-based aerosols using active open-path FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Oz; Linker, Raphael; Dubowski, Yael

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols have a leading role in many eco-systems and knowledge of their properties is critical for many applications. This study suggests using active Open-Path Fourier Transform Infra-Red (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for quantifying water droplets and solutes load in the atmosphere. The OP-FTIR was used to measure water droplets, with and without solutes, in a 20 m spray tunnel. Three sets of spraying experiments generated different hydrosols clouds: (1) tap water only, (2) aqueous ammonium sulfate (0.25–3.6%wt) and (3) aqueous ethylene glycol (0.47–2.38%wt). Experiment (1) yielded a linear relationship between the shift of the extinction spectrum baseline and the water load in the line-of-sight (LOS) (R2 = 0.984). Experiment (2) also yielded a linear relationship between the integrated extinction in the range of 880–1150 cm‑1 and the ammonium sulfate load in the LOS (R2 = 0.972). For the semi-volatile ethylene glycol (experiment 3), present in the gas and condense phases, quantification was much more complex and two spectral approaches were developed: (1) according to the linear relationship from the first experiment (determination error of 8%), and (2) inverse modeling (determination error of 57%). This work demonstrates the potential of the OP-FTIR for detecting clouds of water-based aerosols and for quantifying water droplets and solutes at relatively low concentrations.

  4. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Wetland Ecosystems Using Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Schroeder, R.

    2015-12-01

    Inundated vegetation and open water bodies are common features across the landscape and exert major impacts on hydrologic processes and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange. Their carbon emissions can have a large impact on global climate. It is therefore of great importance to assess their spatial extent and temporal variations in order to improve upon carbon balance estimates. Despite their importance in the global cycling of carbon and water and climate forecasting, they remain poorly characterized and modeled, primarily because of the scarcity of suitable regional-to-global remote sensing data for characterizing wetlands distribution and dynamics. Spaceborne microwave sensors are an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since they are sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure, and they can monitor large areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. Optical sensors however provide much higher spatial resolution as well as information on water color. We developed a methodology using data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to map wetland ecosystems at 100 meter resolution for target regions as well as SMAP radar data at 1 km resolution. We also used optical data from Landsat to map open water bodies and their color properties at 15 meter resolution. Inundation dynamics of these ecosystems was assessed using a coarser resolution, 25 km microwave product on surface water fraction, which was derived using combined active and passive microwave data from QuikSCAT and AMSR-E on a weekly basis. We compare information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products to the PALSAR, SMAP and Landsat based datasets to ensure information harmonization. The combination of high and low resolution datasets will allow for characterization of wetlands and open water bodies and assessment of their flooding status. This work has been undertaken

  5. Water-Level Data for the Albuquerque Basin and Adjacent Areas, Central New Mexico, Period of Record Through September 30, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25 to 40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompass the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin are currently (2008) obtained soley from ground-water resources. An increase of about 20 percent in the population from 1990 to 2000 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2008), the network consists of 144 wells and piezometers. This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at 125 sites through water-year 2008. In addition, data from 19 wells (Sites 127-30, 132-134, 136, 138-142 and 144-149) owned, maintained, and measured by Sandia National Laboratories are presented in this report.

  6. 78 FR 33700 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Pleasantville Aquatics 15th Annual 5K Open Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... action is necessary to provide for the safety of life and property in the navigable water. In addition... life on the navigable waters of the United States during the open water swim. C. Discussion of Rule On... the human environment. This rule involves the establishment of a safety zone for a duration of...

  7. Discharge, suspended sediment, and salinity in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and adjacent surface waters in South-Central Louisiana, 1997–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Perrien, Scott M.

    2015-10-19

    River water penetrates much of the Louisiana coast, as demonstrated by the large year-to-year fluctuations in salinity regimes of intradistributary basins in response to differences in flow regimes of the Mississippi and the Atchafalaya Rivers. This occurs directly through inflow along the GIWW and through controlled diversions and indirectly by transport into basin interiors after mixing with the Gulf of Mexico. The GIWW plays an important role in moderating salinity in intradistributary basins; for example, salinity in surface waters just south of the GIWW between Bayou Boeuf and the Houma Navigation Canal remained low even during a year with prolonged low water (2000).

  8. One year water chemistry monitoring of the flooding of the Meirama open pit (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vázquez, A.; Fernández-Bogo, S.

    2009-04-01

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama finished the extraction of brown lignite. Starting in April 2008, the flooding of the open pit has started and this is leading to the formation of a large mining lake (~2 km2 surface and up to 180 m depth) in which surface (river and rain water) and ground waters are involved. Since the beginning of the flooding, lake waters are weekly sampled and analyzed for temperature, pH, redox, EC, TDS, TSS, DO,DIC, DOC, turbidity, alkalinity/acidity as well as nearly 40 inorganic chemical components. Stable water isotopes (deuterium and oxygen) are also being recorded. In order to better understand the dynamic chemical evolution of lake waters, the chemical characteristics of rain water as well as a series of lake tributaries and ground waters are also being measured. Since the beginning of the flooding process, the chemical quality of lake water has experienced an interesting evolution that obeys to a variety of circumstances. The silicic geologic substratum of the catchment determines that both ground and surface waters have a rather low alkalinity. Moreover, the presence of disseminated sulfides (mainly pyrite) within the schistous materials of the mine slopes and internal rock dumps provokes a significant acidic load. From April to October 2008, the lake waters had only the contribution of rain and ground waters. Since the beginning of October, a significant volume of surface waters has been derived to the mine hole. Taking pH as indicator, the first water body had a rather acidic pH (~3) which was progressively amended with the addition of a certain amount of lime to reach an upper value of ~8 by late August. The diminution in the addition of lime up to its elimination, in December, has conducted to the progressive acidification of the lake. At present, an instrumented floating deck is being deployed in the lake. This device will serve as a base point where it is planned to locate a series of

  9. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.; Torres, Leeanna T.

    2010-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25 to 40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompass the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the population from 1990 to 2000 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2009), the network consists of 131 wells and piezometers. This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at 123 sites through water year 2009. In addition, data from four wells (Sites 140, 147, 148, and 149) owned, maintained, and measured by Sandia National Laboratories and three from Kirtland Air Force Base (Sites 119, 125, and 126) are presented in this report.

  10. Open Access Discovery of alunite in Cross crater, Terra Sirenum, Mars: Evidence for acidic, sulfurous waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Mustard, John F.; Clark, Roger N.; Murchie, Scott L.; Breit, George N.; Wray, James J.; Gondet, Brigitte; Poulet, Francois; Carter, John; Calvin, Wendy M.; Benzel, William M.; Seelos, Kimberly D.

    2016-01-01

    Cross crater is a 65 km impact crater, located in the Noachian highlands of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars (30°S, 158°W), which hosts aluminum phyllosilicate deposits first detected by the Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, L’Eau, les Glaces et l’Activitié (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer on Mars Express. Using high-resolution data from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we examine Cross crater’s basin-filling sedimentary deposits. Visible/shortwave infrared (VSWIR) spectra from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) show absorptions diagnostic of alunite. Combining spectral data with high-resolution images, we map a large (10 km × 5 km) alunite-bearing deposit in southwest Cross crater, widespread kaolin-bearing sediments with variable amounts of alunite that are layered in <10 m scale beds, and silica- and/or montmorillonite-bearing deposits that occupy topographically lower, heavily fractured units. The secondary minerals are found at elevations ranging from 700 to 1550 m, forming a discontinuous ring along the crater wall beneath darker capping materials. The mineralogy inside Cross crater is different from that of the surrounding terrains and other martian basins, where Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates and Ca/Mg-sulfates are commonly found. Alunite in Cross crater indicates acidic, sulfurous waters at the time of its formation. Waters in Cross crater were likely supplied by regionally upwelling groundwaters as well as through an inlet valley from a small adjacent depression to the east, perhaps occasionally forming a lake or series of shallow playa lakes in the closed basin. Like nearby Columbus crater, Cross crater exhibits evidence for acid sulfate alteration, but the alteration in Cross is more extensive/complete. The large but localized occurrence of alunite suggests a localized, high-volume source of acidic waters or vapors, possibly supplied by sulfurous (H2S- and/or SO2-bearing) waters in contact with a magmatic source, upwelling

  11. Factors influencing the dissolved iron input by river water to the open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krachler, R.; Jirsa, F.; Ayromlou, S.

    2005-05-01

    The influence of natural metal chelators on the bio-available iron input to the ocean by river water was studied. Ferrous and ferric ions present as suspended colloidal particles maintaining the semblance of a dissolved load are coagulated and settled as their freshwater carrier is mixed with seawater at the continental boundary. However, we might argue that different iron-binding colloids become sequentially destabilized in meeting progressively increasing salinities. By use of a 59Fe tracer method, the partitioning of the iron load from the suspended and dissolved mobile fraction to storage in the sediments was measured with high accuracy in mixtures of natural river water with artificial sea water. The results show a characteristic sequence of sedimentation. Various colloids of different stability are removed from a water of increasing salinity, such as it is the case in the transition from a river water to the open sea. However, the iron transport capacities of the investigated river waters differed greatly. A mountainous river in the Austrian Alps would add only about 5% of its dissolved Fe load, that is about 2.0 µg L-1 Fe, to coastal waters. A small tributary draining a sphagnum peat-bog, which acts as a source of refractory low-molecular-weight fulvic acids to the river water, would add approximately 20% of its original Fe load, that is up to 480 µg L-1 Fe to the ocean's bio-available iron pool. This points to a natural mechanism of ocean iron fertilization by terrigenous fulvic-iron complexes originating from weathering processes occurring in the soils upstream.

  12. Factors influencing the dissolved iron input by river water to the open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krachler, R.; Jirsa, F.; Ayromlou, S.

    The influence of natural metal chelators on the bio-available iron input to the ocean by river water was studied. Ferrous and ferric ions present as suspended colloidal particles maintaining the semblance of a dissolved load are coagulated and settled as their freshwater carrier is mixed with seawater at the continental boundary. However, we might argue that different iron-binding colloids become sequentially destabilized in meeting progressively increasing salinities. By use of a 59Fe tracer method, the partitioning of the iron load from the suspended and dissolved mobile fraction to storage in the sediments was measured with high accuracy in mixtures of natural river water with artificial sea water. The results show a characteristic sequence of sedimentation. Various colloids of different stability are removed from a water of increasing salinity, such as it is the case in the transition from a river water to the open sea. However, the iron transport capacities of the investigated river waters differed greatly. A mountainous river in the Austrian Alps would add only about 5% of its dissolved Fe load, that is about 2.0 µg L-1 Fe, to coastal waters. A small tributary draining a sphagnum peat-bog, which acts as a source of refractory low-molecular-weight fulvic acids to the river water, would add approximately 20% of its original Fe load, that is up to 480 µg L-1 Fe to the ocean's bio-available iron pool. This points to a natural mechanism of ocean iron fertilization by terrigenous fulvic-iron complexes originating from weathering processes occurring in the soils upstream.

  13. How should we build a generic open-source water management simulator?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadem, M.; Meier, P.; Rheinheimer, D. E.; Padula, S.; Matrosov, E.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing water needs for agriculture, industry and cities mean effective and flexible water resource system management tools will remain in high demand. Currently many regions or countries use simulators that have been adapted over time to their unique system properties and water management rules and realities. Most regions operate with a preferred short-list of water management and planning decision support systems. Is there scope for a simulator, shared within the water management community, that could be adapted to different contexts, integrate community contributions, and connect to generic data and model management software? What role could open-source play in such a project? How could a genericuser-interface and data/model management software sustainably be attached to this model or suite of models? Finally, how could such a system effectively leverage existing model formulations, modeling technologies and software? These questions are addressed by the initial work presented here. We introduce a generic water resource simulation formulation that enables and integrates both rule-based and optimization driven technologies. We suggest how it could be linked to other sub-models allowing for detailed agent-based simulation of water management behaviours. An early formulation is applied as an example to the Thames water resource system in the UK. The model uses centralised optimisation to calculate allocations but allows for rule-based operations as well in an effort to represent observed behaviours and rules with fidelity. The model is linked through import/export commands to a generic network model platform named Hydra. Benefits and limitations of the approach are discussed and planned work and potential use cases are outlined.

  14. Water and Streambed Sediment Quality, and Ecotoxicology of a Stream along the Blue Ridge Parkway, Adjacent to a Closed Landfill, near Roanoke, Virginia: 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebner, Donna Belval; Cherry, Donald S.; Currie, Rebecca J.

    2004-01-01

    A study was done of the effects of a closed landfill on the quality of water and streambed sediment and the benthic macroinvertebrate community of an unnamed stream and its tributary that flow through Blue Ridge Parkway lands in west-central Virginia. The primary water source for the tributary is a 4-inch polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe that protrudes from the slope at the base of the embankment bordering the landfill. An unusual expanse of precipitate was observed in the stream near the PVC pipe. Stream discharge was measured and water and streambed sediment samples were collected at a nearby reference site and at three sites downstream of the landfill in April and September 1999. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nitrate, total and dissolved metals, total dissolved solids, total organic carbon, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Streambed sediment samples were analyzed for total metals, total organic carbon, percent moisture, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, including organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. The benthic macroinvertebrate community within the stream channel also was sampled at the four chemical sampling sites and at one additional site in April and September. Each of the five sites was assessed for physical habitat quality. Water collected periodically at the PVC pipe discharge between November 1998 and November 1999 was used to conduct 48-hour acute and 7-day chronic toxicity tests using selected laboratory test organisms. Two 10-day chronic toxicity tests of streambed sediments collected near the discharge pipe also were conducted. Analyses showed that organic and inorganic constituents in water from beneath the landfill were discharged into the sampled tributary. In April, 79 percent of inorganic constituents detected in water had their highest concentrations at the site closest to the landfill; at the same site, 59 percent of inorganic

  15. Satellite Observed Variability in Antarctic and Arctic Surface Temperatures and Their Correlation to Open Water Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies using meterological station data have indicated that global surface air temperature has been increasing at a rate of 0.05 K/decade. Using the same set of data but for stations in the Antarctic and Arctic regions (>50 N) only, the increases in temperature were 0.08, and 0.22 K/decade, when record lengths of 100 and 50 years, respectively, were used. To gain insights into the increasing rate of warming, satellite infrared and passive microwave observations over the Arctic region during the last 20 years were processed and analyzed. The results show that during this period, the ice extent in the Antarctic has been increasing at the rate of 1.2% per decade while the surface temperature has been decreasing at about 0.08 K per decade. Conversely, in the Northern Hemisphere, the ice extent has been decreasing at a rate of 2.8% per decade, while the surface temperatures have been increasing at the rate of 0.38 K per decade. In the Antarctic, it is surprising that there is a short term trend of cooling during a global period of warming. Very large anomalies in open water areas in the Arctic were observed especially in the western region, that includes the Beaufort Sea, where the observed open water area was about 1x10(exp 6) sq km, about twice the average for the region, during the summer of 1998. In the eastern region, that includes the Laptev Sea, the area of open water was also abnormally large in the summer of 1995. Note that globally, the warmest and second warmest years in this century, were 1998 and 1995, respectively. The data, however, show large spatial variability with the open water area distribution showing a cyclic periodicity of about ten years, which is akin to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillations. This was observed in both western and eastern regions but with the phase of one lagging the other by about two years. This makes it difficult to interpret what the trends really mean. But although the record length of satellite data is still

  16. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Volume 2. Appendices I-III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    5.2 AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES 1-45 5.3 AQUATIC VERTEBRATES 1-46 5.4 BIRDS 1-56 5.5 MAMMALS 1-59 5.6 ALGAE AND FUNGI 1-59 6.0 EPA AMBIENT WATER QUALITY...AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES 1-45 5.3 AQUATIC VERTEBRATES 1-46 5.4 BIRDS 1-56 5.5 MAMMALS 1-59 5.6 ALGAE AND FUNGI 1-59 *’ 6.0 EPA AMBIENT WATER QUALITY...non-human toxicology of DOT; 4) EPA’s ambient water quality criteria; and 5) FDA’s regulations regarding DDT in fish. 2.0 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL

  17. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of striped dolphins suggest decline of pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

    PubMed

    Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Drago, M

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea subject to high mercury (Hg) pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the objective of discerning temporal changes in marine Hg pollution in the oceanic waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, we analysed liver and kidney from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) collected during 2007-2009 and compared them with previous results from a similar sample from 1990-1993. The effect of body length and sex on tissue Hg concentrations was investigated to ensure an unbiased comparison between the periods. The Hg concentrations did not show significant sex-related differences in any tissue or period but were correlated positively with body length. Using body length as a covariate, Hg concentrations in liver and kidney were higher in 1990-1993 than in 2007-2009. This result suggests that measures to reduce emissions in Western European countries have been effective in reducing mercury pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

  18. Proton momentum distribution in water: an open path integral molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Joseph A; Srinivasan, Varadharajan; Sebastiani, Daniel; Car, Roberto

    2007-06-21

    Recent neutron Compton scattering experiments have detected the proton momentum distribution in water. The theoretical calculation of this property can be carried out via "open" path integral expressions. In this work, present an extension of the staging path integral molecular dynamics method, which is then employed to calculate the proton momentum distributions of water in the solid, liquid, and supercritical phases. We utilize a flexible, single point charge empirical force field to model the system's interactions. The calculated momentum distributions depict both agreement and discrepancies with experiment. The differences may be explained by the deviation of the force field from the true interactions. These distributions provide an abundance of information about the environment and interactions surrounding the proton.

  19. Proton momentum distribution in water: an open path integral molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrone, Joseph A.; Srinivasan, Varadharajan; Sebastiani, Daniel; Car, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    Recent neutron Compton scattering experiments have detected the proton momentum distribution in water. The theoretical calculation of this property can be carried out via "open" path integral expressions. In this work, present an extension of the staging path integral molecular dynamics method, which is then employed to calculate the proton momentum distributions of water in the solid, liquid, and supercritical phases. We utilize a flexible, single point charge empirical force field to model the system's interactions. The calculated momentum distributions depict both agreement and discrepancies with experiment. The differences may be explained by the deviation of the force field from the true interactions. These distributions provide an abundance of information about the environment and interactions surrounding the proton.

  20. 4D photogrammetric technique to study free surface water in open channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubé, Damien; Berkaoui, Amine; Vinatier, Fabrice; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Belaud, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Characteristics of three-dimensional surface water are considered as the most valuable information to understand hydrodynamic phenomena in open channel flow. An accurate and coherent description of the free water surface morphology improves the accuracy of hydraulic models which study river processes. However, amongst existing techniques to measure three-dimensional surface, stereo-photogrammetry is clearly the most effective technique to obtain an instantaneous and high accurate 3D free water surface and it's suitable to both flume and field condition. Our study aims at developing this technique in two controlled channels, one in interior with glass borders (length: 6 m, width: 0.3 m and depth: 0.5 m) and one outside with cement borders (length: 13 m, width: 0.7 m and depth: 0.4 m). A system consisting in three NIKON-D3200 cameras, mounted to an adjustable tripod head, which is fixed to an inverted aluminium T-bar with the center camera higher than the two side cameras. Each camera is fitted with a 28 mm lens and cameras are synchronized using a Phottix(R) system. The system was mounted at a downstream position from the channel with an oblique configuration. A series of pictures taken at a 3 s interval during the water weight bearing were reported and analyzed using the Photoscan Pro(R) software for image matching. Validation procedure of the technique was realized using an orthophotography of the lateral border of the interior channel to delimit the line of water surface, and using a video capture of a slide fixed inside the outside channel. A high resolution and dynamic elevation map of the surface water was constructed. Our study give encouraging results, with a good capture of water surface morphology and a limited occlusion issues. The confrontation of the results with the validation dataset highlight limitations that need to be discussed with the audience.

  1. Influence of land use and open-water wetlands on water quality in the Lake Wallenpaupack basin, northeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sams, James I.; Day, Rick L.; Stiteler, John M.

    1999-01-01

    three basins displayed seasonal differences in water quality. Most of the annual yield occurred during early spring as a result of snowmelt runoff. Data collected from the Stevens Creek sites showed that an open-water wetland was very effective in removing sediment and total phosphorus but was not as effective in removing dissolved orthophosphate phosphorus and nitrogen. The wetland removed more than 96 percent of the sediment.

  2. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part II. Water temperature and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.; Davis, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Geothermal reconnaissance techniques have identified five areas in Utah County warranting further investigation for low-temperature geothermal resources. One area in northern Utah Valley is along Utah Lake fault zone and includes Saratoga Hot Springs. Water temperatures within this area range from 21 to 43/sup 0/C. Common ion analyses as well as B and Li concentrations indicate waters sampled in this area are anomalous when compared to other samples from the same aquifer. Two other areas in southern Utah Valley also coincide with the Utah Lake fault zone. Common ion analyses, trace element concentrations, and C1/HCO/sub 3/ ratios distinguish these areas from all other waters in this valley. Temperatures within these southern areas range from 21 to 32/sup 0/C. All three thermal areas are possibly the result of deep circulation of meteoric water being warmed and subsequently migrating upward within the Utah Lake fault zone. The Castilla Hot Springs area has been expanded by this study to include a spring located 3 mi further up Spanish Fork Canyon near the Thistle earthflow. A temperature of 50/sup 0/C was recorded for this spring and chemistry is similar to Castilla. In Goshen Valley, the fifth geothermal area identified, measured temperatures range from 20 to 27/sup 0/C for some wells and springs. Chemical analyses, however, do not discern the location of low-temperature geothermal reservoirs. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. A look deep inside the a hillslope reveals a structured heterogeneity of isotopic reservoirs and distinct water use strategies for adjacent trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshun, J.; Rempe, D. M.; Link, P.; Simonin, K. A.; Dietrich, W.; Dawson, T. E.; Fung, I.

    2012-12-01

    Whereas recent studies have begun to note the importance of weathered rock as a source of moisture for vegetation and, through transpiration, as a moderator of local and regional climate, no study has looked deeply into a hillslope in three-dimensions to explore dynamics in the hydrologic cycle and tree water use. Here, we use natural abundance stable isotope techniques to reveal distinct isotopic reservoirs within the hillslope, as well as quantify the movement of water from weathered rock and soil into vegetation. Our study site, at the Angelo Coast Range Reserve in Northern California, is a 4000 m2 unchanneled catchment that drains into Elder Creek, in the South Fork of the Eel River basin. Although average annual rainfall is 1900mm, 90% falls between October and May, forcing vegetation to find deep sources of moisture to survive the dry summer. An old-growth mixed conifer forest with trees as tall as 65 m grows on a 38° slope, with soils 10-60 cm thick underlain by vertically dipping, weathered turbidite sequences of the Coastal Franciscan Belt. A perched seasonally drains to unweathered bedrock. The water table fluctuates between 3 and 5 m below the surface near Elder Creek, and between 18 and 24 m below the surface at the hillslope divide. The site contains over 850 sensors monitoring the climatic variables and the movement of water through the subsurface, vegetation and into the atmosphere. Daily rainwater sampling during storm events from 2007-2012 shows a Local Meteoric Water Line, setting the context for our comparison of isotopic reservoirs. From Summer 2011 to Fall 2012, bi-weekly to tri-weekly samples were collected of tree xylem of over 30 individuals of Pseudotsuga menziesii, quercus agrifolia, arbutus menziesii, Umbellularia californica, Notholithocarpus densiflorus, acer macrophyllum, as well as from soil and rock to a depth of 1-1.3 m, and from the water table at 12 wells across the hillslope. Analysis reveals a structured heterogeneity of

  4. Social.Water--Open Source Citizen Science Software for CrowdHydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienen, M. N.; Lowry, C.

    2013-12-01

    CrowdHydrology is a crowd-sourced citizen science project in which passersby near streams are encouraged to read a gage and send an SMS (text) message with the water level to a number indicated on a sign. The project was initially started using free services such as Google Voice, Gmail, and Google Maps to acquire and present the data on the internet. Social.Water is open-source software, using Python and JavaScript, that automates the acquisition, categorization, and presentation of the data. Open-source objectives pervade both the project and the software as the code is hosted at Github, only free scripting codes are used, and any person or organization can install a gage and join the CrowdHydrology network. In the first year, 10 sites were deployed in upstate New York, USA. In the second year, expansion to 44 sites throughout the upper Midwest USA was achieved. Comparison with official USGS and academic measurements have shown low error rates. Citizen participation varies greatly from site to site, so surveys or other social information is sought for insight into why some sites experience higher rates of participation than others.

  5. Performance Prediction of Darrieus-Type Hydroturbine with Inlet Nozzle Operated in Open Water Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, K.; Watanabe, S.; Matsushita, D.; Tsuda, S.; Furukawa, A.

    2016-11-01

    Small hydropower is one of the renewable energies and is expected to be effectively used for local supply of electricity. We have developed Darrieus-type hydro-turbine systems, and among them, the Darrieus-turbine with a weir and a nozzle installed upstream of turbine is, so far, in success to obtain more output power by gathering all water into the turbine. However, there can several cases exist, in which installing the weir covering all the flow channel width is unrealistic, and in such cases, the turbine should be put alone in open channels without upstream weir. Since the output power is very small in such a utilization of small hydropower, it is important to derive more power for the cost reduction. In the present study, we parametrically investigate the preferable shape of the inlet nozzle for the Darrieus-type hydroturbine operated in an open flow channel. Experimental investigation is carried out in the open channel in our lab. Tested inlet nozzles are composed of two flat plates with the various nozzle converging angles and nozzle outlet (runner inlet) widths with the nozzle inlet width kept constant. As a result, the turbine with the nozzles having large converging angle and wide outlet width generates higher power. Two-dimensional unsteady numerical simulation is also carried out to qualitatively understand the flow mechanism leading to the better performance of turbine. Since the depth, the width and the flow rate in the real open flow channels are different from place to place and, in some cases from time to time, it is also important to predict the onsite performance of the hydroturbine from the lab experiment at planning stage. One-dimensional stream-tube model is developed for this purpose, in which the Darrieus-type hydroturbine with the inlet nozzle is considered as an actuator-disk modelled based on our experimental and numerical results.

  6. A Global Map of Open Water Bodies and Coastlines at 150m Based on Synergies Between SAR and Optical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, Celine; Santoro, Maurizio; Bontemps, Sophie; d'Andrimont, Raphael; Giustarini, Laura; Brockmann, Carsten; Militzer, Jan; Defourny, Pierre; Arino, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative, a global map of open water bodies and coastlines at 150 m resolution was derived using synthetic aperture radar and optical datasets including observations from the 2000-2012 period. This map and constitutive inputs were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively against a global reference validation database of 2110 samples, intentionally biased towards areas prone to errors in characterizing water bodies. It yielded more informative quality assessment figures in terms of the relative improvement between products and types of errors. The overall accuracy of the Climate Change Initiative global map of open water bodies at 150 m was found equal to 99% with a F-score of 89% for class water, significantly superior to its constitutive input water bodies datasets. The dataset is openly available at: http://maps.elie.ucl.ac.be/CCI/viewer since 2016.

  7. In situ spectroradiometric calibration of EREP imagery and estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island sound and adjacent New York coastal waters. [Willcox, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The first part of the study resulted in photographic procedures for making multispectral positive images which greatly enhance the color differences in land detail using an additive color viewer. An additive color analysis of the geologic features near Willcox, Arizona using enhanced black and white multispectral positives allowed compilation of a significant number of unmapped geologic units which do not appear on geologic maps of the area. The second part demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing Skylab remote sensor data to monitor and manage the coastal environment by relating physical, chemical, and biological ship sampled data to S190A, S190B, and S192 image characteristics. Photographic reprocessing techniques were developed which greatly enhanced subtle low brightness water detail. Using these photographic contrast-stretch techniques, two water masses having an extinction coefficient difference of only 0.07 measured simultaneously with the acquisition of S190A data were readily differentiated.

  8. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in surface waters in and adjacent to the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks: I. Hazard assessment and problem formulation.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Rand, Gary M

    2008-10-01

    An aquatic risk assessment under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) ecological risk framework was conducted for atrazine, metolachlor, malathion, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan in the C-111 freshwater basin (eastern boundary of the Everglades National Park), northeast Florida Bay, and south Biscayne Bay in South Florida. Based on the use of the hazard quotient approach, measured concentrations of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in surface waters suggest potential hazards to aquatic organisms and were, therefore, considered as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs). The problem formulation included an overview of the physical/chemical and environmental fate characteristics and aquatic toxicology of the COPECs. Background surface water exposure concentrations of endosulfan and toxicity data from laboratory and field studies indicate that fish and invertebrate mortality may be a concern when endosulfan is applied in agricultural areas near aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Detection and quantification of water-based aerosols using active open-path FTIR

    PubMed Central

    Kira, Oz; Linker, Raphael; Dubowski, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Aerosols have a leading role in many eco-systems and knowledge of their properties is critical for many applications. This study suggests using active Open-Path Fourier Transform Infra-Red (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for quantifying water droplets and solutes load in the atmosphere. The OP-FTIR was used to measure water droplets, with and without solutes, in a 20 m spray tunnel. Three sets of spraying experiments generated different hydrosols clouds: (1) tap water only, (2) aqueous ammonium sulfate (0.25–3.6%wt) and (3) aqueous ethylene glycol (0.47–2.38%wt). Experiment (1) yielded a linear relationship between the shift of the extinction spectrum baseline and the water load in the line-of-sight (LOS) (R2 = 0.984). Experiment (2) also yielded a linear relationship between the integrated extinction in the range of 880–1150 cm−1 and the ammonium sulfate load in the LOS (R2 = 0.972). For the semi-volatile ethylene glycol (experiment 3), present in the gas and condense phases, quantification was much more complex and two spectral approaches were developed: (1) according to the linear relationship from the first experiment (determination error of 8%), and (2) inverse modeling (determination error of 57%). This work demonstrates the potential of the OP-FTIR for detecting clouds of water-based aerosols and for quantifying water droplets and solutes at relatively low concentrations. PMID:27121498

  10. Catchment Prediction In Changing Environments (CAPICHE): A collaborative experiment in an open water science laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    Predicting the function of hydrological systems under near-stationary conditions faces a number of challenges due to incomplete system understanding, and uncertainty in models and measurements. However, due to changes in climate, land use/land cover, and water demand, the hydrological function of many catchments cannot be considered as stationary. Such changes make modelling catchment systems more difficult, as models need to account for non-stationary forcing and boundary conditions, which in turn can change internal catchment function, and the states and processes that dominate hydrological response. In addition, such models may need to be used to make predictions beyond a range of conditions for which they were originally calibrated. Despite these problems, deriving accurate hydrological predictions under changing conditions is increasingly important for future water resource and flood hazard assessment. Simulating catchments under changing conditions may require more complex distributed models in order to adequately represent spatial changes in boundary conditions (e.g. land cover change). However, the potential for complex models to address these issues cannot be realised in many places because of data problems, which may result from a lack of data, data access issues, and time-consuming problems in bringing diverse sources of data together and into a useable format. A greater understanding of the link between model complexity and data is required to make appropriate modelling choices. Virtual water science laboratories offer the ideal opportunity to explore the issues of model complexity and data availability in the context of predictions under changing environments because they: (1) provide an opportunity to share open data; (2) provide a platform to compare different models; (3) facilitate collaboration between different modelling research groups. This paper introduces a new collaborative experiment, conducted in an open virtual water science laboratory as

  11. Hydrology of, and water quality in, the open burning area and vicinity, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1989-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storck, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine whether shallow ground water at Picatinny Arsenal Morris County, New Jersey, has been con- taminated as a result of operations at the open burning area, which is used for burning of waste explosives and materials contaminated with explosives. Results of previous investigations indicate that the soil in this area is contaminated with metals and organic compounds. Twenty-seven wells were sampled for analysis for inorganic constituents, nutrients, and explosive compounds. Selected wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and dioxin and furan compounds. Surface-water and streambed- material samples were collected at three sites in Green Pond Brook. Water-level measurements indicate that ground-water flow generally is nearly horizontal and toward Green Pond Brook. The average velocity of the ground water is estimated to be 0.03 to 1.8 feet per day. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground-water samples from the unconfined aquifer were consistently greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations. Because similarly high concentrations of these constituents have been found in ground-water samples at the arsenal, they are not considered to be a consequence of activities at the open burning area. Contaminants from the open burning area appear to be contributing to elevated concentratons of lead, zinc, and explosive com- pounds found in the streambed material. Other trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons probably are derived from both the open burning area and upstream sources. Volatile organic compounds were detected in surface-water samples at low concentrations, although most were found upstream from the open burning area. No inorganic or organic constituents were detected in ground-water or surface-water samples in concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection

  12. Open Ocean Assessments for Management in the GEF Transboundary Waters Assessment Project (TWAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A. S.; Alverson, K. D.

    2010-12-01

    A methodology for a thematic and scientifically-credible assessment of Open Ocean waters as a part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Transboundary Waters Assessment Project (TWAP) has been developed in the last 18 months by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, and is presented for feedback and comment. While developed to help the GEF International Waters focal area target investment to manage looming environmental threats in interlinked freshwater and marine systems (a very focused decision support system), the assessment methodology could contribute to other assessment and management efforts in the UN system and elsewhere. Building on a conceptual framework that describes the relationships between human systems and open ocean natural systems, and on mapping of the human impact on the marine environment, the assessment will evaluate and make projections on a thematic basis, identifying key metrics, indices, and indicators. These themes will include the threats on key ecosystem services of climate change through sea level rise, changed stratification, warming, and ocean acidification; vulnerabilities of ecosystems, habitats, and living marine resources; the impact and sustainability of fisheries; and pollution. Global-level governance arrangements will also be evaluated, with an eye to identifying scope for improved global-level management. The assessment will build on sustained ocean observing systems, model projections, and an assessment of scientific literature, as well as tools for combining knowledge to support identification of priority concerns and in developing scenarios for management. It will include an assessment of key research and observing needs as one way to deal with the scientific uncertainty inherent in such an exercise, and to better link policy and science agendas.

  13. Selenium and Other Elements in Water and Adjacent Rock and Sediment of Toll Gate Creek, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, December 2003 through March 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, J.R.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Streamwater and solid samples (rock, unconsolidated sediment, stream sediment, and efflorescent material) in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Colorado, were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements to determine trace-element concentrations and stream loads from December 2003 through March 2004, a period of seasonally low flow. Special emphasis was given to selenium (Se) concentrations because historic Se concentrations exceeded current (2004) stream standards. The goal of the project was to assess the distribution of Se concentration and loads in Toll Gate Creek and to determine the potential for rock and unconsolidated sediment in the basin to be sources of Se to the streamwater. Streamwater samples and discharge measurements were collected during December 2003 and March 2004 along Toll Gate Creek and its two primary tributaries - West Toll Gate Creek and East Toll Gate Creek. During both sampling periods, discharge ranged from 2.5 liters per second to 138 liters per second in the watershed. Discharge was greater in March 2004 than December 2003, but both periods represent low flow in Toll Gate Creek, and results of this study should not be extended to periods of higher flow. Discharge decreased moving downstream in East Toll Gate Creek but increased moving downstream along West Toll Gate Creek and the main stem of Toll Gate Creek, indicating that these two streams gain flow from ground water. Se concentrations in streamwater samples ranged from 7 to 70 micrograms per liter, were elevated in the upstream-most samples, and were greater than the State stream standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Se loads ranged from 6 grams per day to 250 grams per day, decreased in a downstream direction along East Toll Gate Creek, and increased in a downstream direction along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek. The largest Se-load increases occurred between two sampling locations on West Toll Gate Creek during both sampling periods and between the two sampling

  14. Polarization of 'water-skies' above arctic open waters: how polynyas in the ice-cover can be visually detected from a distance.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Ramón; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    The foggy sky above a white ice-cover and a dark water surface (permanent polynya or temporary lead) is white and dark gray, phenomena called the 'ice-sky' and the 'water-sky,' respectively. Captains of icebreaker ships used to search for not-directly-visible open waters remotely on the basis of the water sky. Animals depending on open waters in the Arctic region may also detect not-directly-visible waters from a distance by means of the water sky. Since the polarization of ice-skies and water-skies has not, to our knowledge, been studied before, we measured the polarization patterns of water-skies above polynyas in the arctic ice-cover during the Beringia 2005 Swedish polar research expedition to the North Pole region. We show that there are statistically significant differences in the angle of polarization between the water-sky and the ice-sky. This polarization phenomenon could help biological and man-made sensors to detect open waters not directly visible from a distance. However, the threshold of polarization-based detection would be rather low, because the degree of linear polarization of light radiated by water-skies and ice-skies is not higher than 10%.

  15. Chemical-quality reconnaissance of the water and surficial bed material in the Delaware River estuary and adjacent New Jersey tributaries, 1980-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hochreiter, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents chemical-quality data collected from May 1980 to January 1981 at several locations within the Delaware River estuary and selected New Jersey tributaries. Samples of surface water were analyzed Environmental Protection Agency ' priority pollutants, ' including acid extractable, base/neutral extractable and volatile organic compounds, in addition to selected dissolved inorganic constituents. Surficial bed material at selected locations was examined for trace metals, insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and base/neutral extractable organic compounds. Trace levels (1-50 micrograms per liter) of purgeable organic compounds, particularly those associated with the occurrence of hydrocarbons, were found in about 60% of the water samples taken. DDT, DDD, DDE, PCB 's and chlordane are present in most surficial bed material samples. Diazinon was the only organophosphorous insecticide detected in the study (1.6 micrograms per kilogram at one location). High values for select trace metals in bed material were discovered at two locations. Of the 10 sites sampled, the surficial bed material containing the most contamination was found along one cross section of Raccoon Creek at Bridgeport. An additional analysis of Raccoon Creek revealed bed material containing toluene, oil and grease, and trace quantities of 15 base/neutral extractable organic compounds, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, and chlorinated benzenes.

  16. Potential effects of groundwater pumping on water levels, phreatophytes, and spring discharges in Spring and Snake Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.; Plume, Russell W.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing hydrologic effects of developing groundwater supplies in Snake Valley required numerical, groundwater-flow models to estimate the timing and magnitude of capture from streams, springs, wetlands, and phreatophytes. Estimating general water-table decline also required groundwater simulation. The hydraulic conductivity of basin fill and transmissivity of basement-rock distributions in Spring and Snake Valleys were refined by calibrating a steady state, three-dimensional, MODFLOW model of the carbonate-rock province to predevelopment conditions. Hydraulic properties and boundary conditions were defined primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model except in Spring and Snake Valleys. This locally refined model was referred to as the Great Basin National Park calibration (GBNP-C) model. Groundwater discharges from phreatophyte areas and springs in Spring and Snake Valleys were simulated as specified discharges in the GBNP-C model. These discharges equaled mapped rates and measured discharges, respectively. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity were distributed throughout Spring and Snake Valleys with pilot points and interpolated to model cells with kriging in geologically similar areas. Transmissivity of the basement rocks was estimated because thickness is correlated poorly with transmissivity. Transmissivity estimates were constrained by aquifer-test results in basin-fill and carbonate-rock aquifers. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity distributions of the GBNP-C model were estimated by minimizing a weighted composite, sum-of-squares objective function that included measurement and Tikhonov regularization observations. Tikhonov regularization observations were equations that defined preferred relations between the pilot points. Measured water levels, water levels that were simulated with RASA, depth-to-water beneath distributed groundwater and spring discharges, land-surface altitudes, spring discharge at

  17. RELATIONS BETWEEN BACTERIAL NITROGEN METABOLISM AND GROWTH EFFICIENCY IN AN ESTUARINE AND AN OPEN-WATER ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial uptake or release of dissolved nitrogen compounds (amino nitrogen, urea, ammonium and nitrate) were examined in 0.8 |m filtered water from an estuary (Santa Rosa Sound [SRS], northwestern Florida) and an open-water location in the Gulf of Mexico [GM]. The bacterial nutr...

  18. Body condition of the deep water demersal resources at two adjacent oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean and the influence of the environmental features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, L.; Moranta, J.; Abelló, P.; Balbín, R.; Barberá, C.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Olivar, M. P.; Ordines, F.; Ramón, M.; Torres, A. P.; Valls, M.; Massutí, E.

    2014-10-01

    Body condition indices not only are often used as reliable indicators of the nutritional status of individuals but also can they be utilized to provide insights regarding food availability and habitat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between the body condition of the demersal species and the environmental features in the water column (i.e. the hydrographic conditions and the potential trophic resources) in two proximate areas, the north and south regions of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean), viz., the Balearic sub-basin (BsB) and the Algerian sub-basin (AsB), respectively, with different geomorphological and hydrodynamic features. Body condition indices were calculated for individuals of 21 demersal species including 11 teleosts, 4 elasmobranchs, 3 cephalopods and 3 crustaceans, which represented > 70-77% of the deep water resources, captured by bottom trawling. The morphometric indices, viz., Relative Condition Index (Kn) and Standardised Residuals (SR) from the length-weight relationship, were used. The results for each one of the 21 species indicated a significantly better condition in terms of Kn and SR in the BsB, for 7 and 9 species, respectively. In addition, a general model, including the 21 species together, showed better body condition in the BsB, and during the summer. The spatial and temporal differences in the body condition are discussed in the context of the environmental variables characterising both the study areas, which showed significant variations, for some of the hydrographic features (chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, salinity, potential density and temperature), as well as for some of the potential trophic resources (mesopelagic and epibenthic fauna). These findings suggest an environmental effect on the body condition of the deep-water resources in the Balearic Islands, one of the most oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean, and reveal more suitable environmental conditions for these species

  19. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-22

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has a program of research in the environmental aspects of oil and gas extraction. This sampling project will characterize the environmental impacts associated with the discharge of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), metals and organics in produced water. This report is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico, supported by the USDOE. These assessments are being coordinated with the field study, using the collected data to perform human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the development and use of appropriate discharge practices. The initial human health and ecological risk assessments consist of conservative screening analyses meant to identify potentially important contaminants, and to eliminate others from further consideration. More quantitative assessments were done for contaminants identified, in the screening analysis, as being of potential concern. Section 2 gives an overview of human health and ecological risk assessment to help put the analyses presented here in perspective. Section 3 provides the hazard assessment portion of the risk assessment, and identifies the important receptors and pathways of concern. Section 3 also outlines the approach taken to the risk assessments presented in the rest of the report. The remaining sections (4 through 9) present the human health and ecological risk assessments for discharges of produced water to open bays in Louisiana.

  20. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Volume 3. Appendices IV-VI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    SEDIMENTS 1-14 4.5 DEGRADATION BY SPECIFIC MICROBIAL POPULATIONS 1-15 4.6 DEGRADATION BY FUNGI 1-15 4.7 DEGRADATION BY ALGAE 1-15 4.8 DEGRADATION BY A...AQUATIC VERTEBRATES 1-46 5.4 BIRDS 1-56 5.5 MAMMALS 1-59 5.6 ALGAE AND FUNGI 1-59 6.0 EPA AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR DDT 1-59 7.0 FDA REGULATIONS...sp. 11,561,323 10,690,680 Oscillatoria sp. 546,683 135,503 Spirulina sp. 17,133 20,248 Euglenophyta Euglena sp. 74,760 404,950 Phacus sp. 3,115 3,115

  1. Determination of selected pesticides in water samples adjacent to agricultural fields and removal of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos using soil bacterial isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Alamgir Zaman; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Rahman, M. A.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Alam, M. Khorshed

    2015-06-01

    The use of pesticide for crops leads to serious environmental pollution, therefore, it is essential to monitor and develop approaches to remove pesticide from contaminated environment. In this study, water samples were collected to monitor pesticide residues, and degradation of chlorpyrifos was also performed using soil bacteria. Identification of pesticide residues and determination of their levels were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Among 12 samples, 10 samples were found contaminated with pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was detected in four tested samples and concentrations ranged from 3.27 to 9.31 μg/l whereas fenitrothion ranging from (Below Detection Limit, <0.1 μg/l) to 33.41 μg/l in the tested samples. Parathion was found in two tested samples at the concentration of 0.73 and 6.23 μg/l. None of the tested samples was found contaminated with Methoxychlor, DDT and Ethion. Three soil bacterial isolates, Pseudomonas peli BG1, Burkholderia caryophylli BG4 and Brevundimonas diminuta PD6 degraded chlorpyrifos completely in 8, 10 and 10 days, respectively, when 20 mg/l chlorpyrifos was supplied as sole source of carbon. Whereas, BG1, BG4 and PD6 took 14, 16 and 16 days, respectively, for complete removal of 50 mg/l chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos degradation rates were found maximum by all three isolates at 2nd day of incubation for both tested concentrations. The results of the present study suggest the need for regular monitoring of pesticide residues in water, to protect the aquatic environment. Chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates can be used to clean up environmental samples contaminated with the organophosphate pesticides.

  2. Supporting diverse data providers in the open water data initiative: Communicating water data quality and fitness of use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Sara; Hamilton, Stuart; Lucido, Jessica M.; Garner, Bradley D.; Young, Dwane

    2016-01-01

    Shared, trusted, timely data are essential elements for the cooperation needed to optimize economic, ecologic, and public safety concerns related to water. The Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) will provide a fully scalable platform that can support a wide variety of data from many diverse providers. Many of these will be larger, well-established, and trusted agencies with a history of providing well-documented, standardized, and archive-ready products. However, some potential partners may be smaller, distributed, and relatively unknown or untested as data providers. The data these partners will provide are valuable and can be used to fill in many data gaps, but can also be variable in quality or supplied in nonstandardized formats. They may also reflect the smaller partners' variable budgets and missions, be intermittent, or of unknown provenance. A challenge for the OWDI will be to convey the quality and the contextual “fitness” of data from providers other than the most trusted brands. This article reviews past and current methods for documenting data quality. Three case studies are provided that describe processes and pathways for effective data-sharing and publication initiatives. They also illustrate how partners may work together to find a metadata reporting threshold that encourages participation while maintaining high data integrity. And lastly, potential governance is proposed that may assist smaller partners with short- and long-term participation in the OWDI.

  3. Evapotranspiration from marsh and open-water sites at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008--2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stannard, David I.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Polette, Danial J.; Cameron, Jason M.; Waibel, M. Scott; Spears, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Water allocation in the Upper Klamath Basin has become difficult in recent years due to the increase in occurrence of drought coupled with continued high water demand. Upper Klamath Lake is a central component of water distribution, supplying water downstream to the Klamath River, supplying water for irrigation diversions, and providing habitat for various species within the lake and surrounding wetlands. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the hydrologic budget of the lake and wetlands, and yet estimates of ET have been elusive—quantified only as part of a lumped term including other substantial water-budget components. To improve understanding of ET losses from the lake and wetlands, measurements of ET were made from May 2008 through September 2010. The eddy-covariance method was used to monitor ET at two wetland sites continuously during this study period and the Bowen-ratio energy-balance method was used to monitor open-water lake evaporation at two sites during the warmer months of the 3 study years. Vegetation at one wetland site (the bulrush site) consists of a virtual monoculture of hardstem bulrush (formerly Scirpus acutus, now Schoenoplectus acutus), and at the other site (the mixed site) consists of a mix of about 70 percent bulrush, 15 percent cattail (Typha latifolia), and 15 percent wocus (Nuphar polysepalum). Measured ET at these two sites was very similar (means were ±2.5 percent) and mean wetland ET is computed as a 70 to 30 percent weighted average of the bulrush and mixed sites, respectively, based on community-type distribution estimated from satellite imagery. Biweekly means of wetland ET typically vary from maximum values of around 6 to 7 millimeters per day during midsummer, to minimum values of less than 1 mm/d during midwinter. This strong annual signal primarily reflects life-cycle changes in the wetland vegetation, and the annual variation of radiative input to the surface and resulting temperature. The perennial vegetation

  4. Numerical study of the effects of lamp configuration and reactor wall roughness in an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the assessment of a numerical procedure used to determine the UV lamp configuration and surface roughness effects on an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The performance of the open channel water disinfection UV reactor was numerically analyzed on the basis of the performance indictor reduction equivalent dose (RED). The RED values were calculated as a function of the Reynolds number to monitor the performance. The flow through the open channel UV reactor was modelled using a k-ε model with scalable wall function, a discrete ordinate (DO) model for fluence rate calculation, a volume of fluid (VOF) model to locate the unknown free surface, a discrete phase model (DPM) to track the pathogen transport, and a modified law of the wall to incorporate the reactor wall roughness effects. The performance analysis was carried out using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent 15.0). Four case studies were analyzed based on open channel UV reactor type (horizontal and vertical) and lamp configuration (parallel and staggered). The results show that lamp configuration can play an important role in the performance of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The effects of the reactor wall roughness were Reynolds number dependent. The proposed methodology is useful for performance optimization of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.

  5. Mulga, a major tropical dry open forest of Australia: recent insights to carbon and water fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo; Cleverly, James; Nolan, Rachael H.; Ma, Xuanlong; Tarin, Tonantzin; Santini, Nadia S.

    2016-12-01

    Mulga, comprised of a complex of closely related Acacia spp., grades from a low open forest to tall shrublands in tropical and sub-tropical arid and semi-arid regions of Australia and experiences warm-to-hot annual temperatures and a pronounced dry season. This short synthesis of current knowledge briefly outlines the causes of the extreme variability in rainfall characteristic of much of central Australia, and then discusses the patterns and drivers of variability in carbon and water fluxes of a central Australian low open Mulga forest. Variation in phenology and the impact of differences in the amount and timing of precipitation on vegetation function are then discussed. We use field observations, with particular emphasis on eddy covariance data, coupled with modelling and remote sensing products to interpret inter-seasonal and inter-annual patterns in the behaviour of this ecosystem. We show that Mulga can vary between periods of near carbon neutrality to periods of being a significant sink or source for carbon, depending on both the amount and timing of rainfall. Further, we demonstrate that Mulga contributed significantly to the 2011 global land sink anomaly, a result ascribed to the exceptional rainfall of 2010/2011. Finally, we compare and contrast the hydraulic traits of three tree species growing close to the Mulga and show how each species uses different combinations of trait strategies (for example, sapwood density, xylem vessel implosion resistance, phenological guild, access to groundwater and Huber value) to co-exist in this semi-arid environment. Understanding the inter-annual variability in functional behaviour of this important arid-zone biome and mechanisms underlying species co-existence will increase our ability to predict trajectories of carbon and water balances for future changing climates.

  6. Comparison of physiological responses to open water kayaking and kayak ergometry.

    PubMed

    van Someren, K A; Phillips, G R; Palmer, G S

    2000-04-01

    This study compared the physiological responses of simulated kayaking on a K1 ERGO kayak ergometer with open water paddling. Nine well-trained male kayakers (VO2peak 4.27 +/- 0.58 L x min(-1), age 24 +/- 4 yr, mass 77.3 +/- 6.4 kg, height 179.5 +/- 5.3 cm; [mean +/- SD]) performed two 4 min exercise bouts on open water (OW) and on an air braked kayak ergometer (Erg). During exercise, expired air and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured. The distance covered during OW (992 +/- 47.1 m) was highly correlated (r2 = 0.86) with the total work performed in Erg (47.64 +/- 7.67 kJ). There were no differences between trials for oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production or estimated carbohydrate oxidation. However, during OW, minute ventilation was significantly higher at 60 and 90 s (104.2 +/- 16.4 vs. 92.6 +/- 20.4 L x min(-1) and 120.5 +/- 15.8 vs. 111.7 +/- 17.6 L x min(-1) for 60 and 90 s, respectively, p < 0.05), and HR was higher in OW during the first minute (120 +/- 20 vs. 104 +/- 19 beats x min(-1), 164 +/- 8 vs. 147 +/- 18 beats x min(-1) and 178 +/- 6 vs. 170 +/- 7 beats x min(-1) for 0, 30, and 60 s, respectively, p < 0.05). There were no differences in peak VO2 between OW and Erg (4.10 +/- 0.49 vs. 4.09 +/- 0.53 L x min(-1), respectively) nor in post-exercise blood (lactate) (6.43 +/- 1.47 vs. 6.59 +/- 0.99 mmol x L(-1), respectively). We conclude that the K1 ERGO accurately simulates the physiological demands of short-term, high-intensity kayaking.

  7. Biochemical and hematological changes following the 120-km open-water marathon swim.

    PubMed

    Drygas, Wojciech; Rębowska, Ewa; Stępień, Ewa; Golański, Jacek; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively. Blood samples for hematological and biochemical parameters were collected 30 min, 4 hrs, 10 hrs and 8 days after the swim. The body temperature of the swimmer was 36.7°C before and 35.1°C after the swim. The hematological parameters remained within the reference range in the postexercise period except for leucocytes (17.5 and 10.6 x G/l noted 30 minutes and 4 hours after the swim, respectively). Serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase and C-reactive protein increased above the reference range reaching 11.3 mmol/l, 1054 nmol/l/s and 25.9 mg/l, respectively. Symptomatic hyponatremia was not observed. Although the results demonstrate that an experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without negative health consequences, further studies addressing the potential risks of marathon swimming are required. Key pointsData on biochemical changes due to long-distance swimming are scarce.This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim.An experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without serious health consequences.Regarding the growing popularity of marathon swimming further studies addressing the potential risks of such exhaustive exercise are required.

  8. Biochemical and Hematological Changes Following the 120-Km Open-Water Marathon Swim

    PubMed Central

    Drygas, Wojciech; Rębowska, Ewa; Stępień, Ewa; Golański, Jacek; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively. Blood samples for hematological and biochemical parameters were collected 30 min, 4 hrs, 10 hrs and 8 days after the swim. The body temperature of the swimmer was 36.7°C before and 35.1°C after the swim. The hematological parameters remained within the reference range in the postexercise period except for leucocytes (17.5 and 10.6 x G/l noted 30 minutes and 4 hours after the swim, respectively). Serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase and C-reactive protein increased above the reference range reaching 11.3 mmol/l, 1054 nmol/l/s and 25.9 mg/l, respectively. Symptomatic hyponatremia was not observed. Although the results demonstrate that an experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without negative health consequences, further studies addressing the potential risks of marathon swimming are required. Key points Data on biochemical changes due to long-distance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim. An experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without serious health consequences. Regarding the growing popularity of marathon swimming further studies addressing the potential risks of such exhaustive exercise are required. PMID:25177192

  9. Waterbird use of saltmarsh ponds created for open marsh water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Howe, M.A.; Klugman, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    Open Marsh Water Management (OMWM) as an alternative to pesticides for mosquito control in saltmarshes along the Atlantic Coast has created debate among biologists. We designed an experiment to determine waterbird (American black duck (Anas rubripes) and other waterfowl, wading birds, shorebirds, gulls, and terns) use (during daylight) of ponds created for mosquito control compared with use of pre-existing water bodies (i.e., natural tidal ponds, creeks, old ditches) and refuge impoundments. We also evaluated the influence of pond size and depth on waterbird use of wetlands. We documented bird use of different habitats for 1 year. The highest densities of waterfowl, in autumn, occurred in 0.030.06ha ponds (P lt 0.05) versus ponds either lt 0.02 ha or gt 0.08 ha; highest shorebird densities occurred in summer in ponds gt 0.10 ha (P lt 0.05). Pond depth affected shorebird and other waterfowl use in some seasons. Comparisons of mean number of birds using created (OMWM) ponds with mean number of birds using other water bodies revealed that most species showed no pattern (P gt 0.05) of disproportionate use versus availability. At high tidal levels, most species groups used OMWM ponds in the marsh more often (P lt 0.05) than other water bodies. Black ducks and other waterfowl used nearby refuge impoundments in higher densities than they did OMWM ponds, for nesting and during autumn-winter (all Ps lt 0.05). Creating small ( lt 0.1 ha) ponds for mosquito control does not enhance waterbird habitat, at least not where large impoundments are in close proximity. We recommend that in areas where OMWM practices seem appropriate, fewer large ( gt 0.10 ha) ponds be constructed with shallow ( lt 15 cm) basins and sloping sides.

  10. Inter-annual variability in the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor in adjacent pine and hardwood forests: links to drought, disturbance, and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, K. A.; Ward, E. J.; Oishi, A. C.; Stoy, P. C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the variation in long-term biosphere-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapor is necessary to characterize the benefits and services of terrestrial ecosystems, including the highly productive forests of the Southeastern United States. This study quantifies flux variability at inter-annual times scales using eight-year eddy covariance records from two co-located ecosystems in the Duke Forest (North Carolina, USA): a hardwood deciduous forest (HW) and a pine plantation (PP), which together represent the dominant forest types in the region. When averaged across the study period, annual net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) was similar in PP and HW (NEE = -560 and -520 g C m-2 y-1 in PP and HW, respectively). Variation in annual NEE was high in both ecosystems, but higher in the pine site (CV = 0.38) as compared to the hardwood site (CV = 0.23). Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (RE), which together represent the primary components of NEE, were not necessarily more variable in the pine site; however, the coupling between annual GEP and RE was weaker in PP as compared to HW, contributing to higher overall variability in PP NEE. Our results identify at least two factors contributing to this decoupling: 1) an ice storm event, which reduced PP GEP while increasing or having no effect on PP RE, and 2) two severe drought events, which cause large reductions in PP GEP but not RE. Additionally, in both ecosystems, variability in GEP and NEE is strongly related to the length of the active season (r2 = 0.60 - 0.93), a variable reflecting the seasonality of carbon assimilation that is largely independent from patterns of leaf area development.

  11. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  12. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Properties of water and steam: Network, open, and interactive IT-resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Orlov, K. A.; Aleksandrov, A. A.; Ochkov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    New tendencies in publishing data on the thermophysical properties of substances are considered taking as an example water and steam, substances used as the main working fluid in thermal and nuclear power engineering. The advantages and shortcomings of both the traditional approach to publishing data on the properties of substances in hard printed form and the modern one, according to which the data are published in electronic form on Internet websites, are pointed out. The important requirements for publishing data in electronic form are described: the data must be presented in the form of network open and interactive calculations with examples of using them. A critical analysis of the relevant Internet resources is given. Some aspects of the work conducted by the International Association on the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) are described. Particular examples of possible ways in which modern IT-resources on calculating the properties of substances can be set up are given: a hard printed handbook, a calculation program for being installed on a computer, calculation documents for downloading from a website, and using server calculations based on the technologies Mathcad Calculation Server on the website of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National Research University and SMath on the website of the Elsevier electronic publishing house.

  14. Carbon release from boreal peatland open water pools: Implication for the contemporary C exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Luc; Strachan, Ian B.; Garneau, Michelle; Roulet, Nigel T.

    2014-03-01

    While peatland ecosystems overall are long-term net carbon (C) sinks, the open water pools that are characteristic of boreal peatlands have been found to be C sources to the atmosphere. However, the contribution of these pools to the ecosystem level C budget is often ignored even if they cover a significant area of the peatland surface. Here we examine the annual CO2 and CH4 ecosystem-atmosphere exchange, including the release following ice melt, from pools in a boreal maritime peatland, in order to estimate the annual loss of C from these water bodies. Over a 16 month period, dissolved CO2 and CH4 were measured periodically in five pools while continuous measurements of CO2 were made in one pool using a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor. Fluxes were calculated using the thin boundary layer model and the eddy covariance technique (spring release only). We calculated an annual C release from pools of 103.3 g C m-2 yr-1 of which 15% was released during the spring ice melt. This release is the same order of magnitude, but with the opposite sign, as the average net ecosystem carbon balance for pool-free northern peatlands (-22 to -70 g C m-2 yr-1). We discuss the origin of the released C, as the magnitude of the release could have a significant impact on the contemporary C exchange of boreal peatlands.

  15. Final Report: Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-01

    Potential human health and environmental impacts from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico are of concern to regulators at the State and Federal levels, the public, environmental interest groups and industry. Current and proposed regulations require a zero discharge limit for coastal facilities, based primarily on studies in low energy, poorly flushed environments. However, produced water discharges in coastal Louisiana include a number of open bay sites, where potential human health and environmental impacts are likely to be smaller than those demonstrated for low energy canal environments, but greater than the minimal impacts associated with offshore discharges. Additional data and assessments are needed to support risk managers at the State and Federal levels in the development of regulations that protect human health and the environment without unnecessary cost to the economic welfare of the region and the nation. This project supports the Natural Gas and Oil Initiative objectives to: (1) improve coordination on environmental research; (2) streamline State and Federal regulation; (3) enhance State, and Federal regulatory decision making capability; (4) enhance dialogue through industry/government/public partnerships; and (5) work with States and Native American Tribes.

  16. INVERSE ESTIMATION OF BED ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENTS IN OPEN-CHANNELS WITH FLOOD PLAINS BY USING ADJOINT SHALLOW-WATER MODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke

    This study describes the methodology on an inverse estimation of the bed roughness coefficients in open-channels with flood plains. The coefficients are identified by an adjoint shallow-water model and an optimal control theory. Several twin experiments were carried out with the synthetic data in order to validate the method. The data assimilated consists of values of the water level and depth-averaged velocity. The results showed that the coefficients can be accurately predicted with the velocity data, while the estimation fails with the water level data. This is because the cross-sectionally distributed bed roughness does not always influence the lateral profile of the water level, but the local velocity field. Namely, the relation between the lateral profile of the water level and the bed roughness turns out to be non-unique in open-channels with flood plains.

  17. Open Software Tools Applied to Jordan's National Multi-Agent Water Management Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Stephen; Meier, Philipp; Harou, Julien; Yoon, Jim; Selby, Philip; Lachaut, Thibaut; Klassert, Christian; Avisse, Nicolas; Khadem, Majed; Tilmant, Amaury; Gorelick, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is the fourth most water scarce country in the world, where demand exceeds supply in a politically and demographically unstable context. The Jordan Water Project (JWP) aims to perform policy evaluation by modelling the hydrology, economics, and governance of Jordan's water resource system. The multidisciplinary nature of the project requires a modelling software system capable of integrating submodels from multiple disciplines into a single decision making process and communicating results to stakeholders. This requires a tool for building an integrated model and a system where diverse data sets can be managed and visualised. The integrated Jordan model is built using Pynsim, an open-source multi-agent simulation framework implemented in Python. Pynsim operates on network structures of nodes and links and supports institutional hierarchies, where an institution represents a grouping of nodes, links or other institutions. At each time step, code within each node, link and institution can executed independently, allowing for their fully autonomous behaviour. Additionally, engines (sub-models) perform actions over the entire network or on a subset of the network, such as taking a decision on a set of nodes. Pynsim is modular in design, allowing distinct modules to be modified easily without affecting others. Data management and visualisation is performed using Hydra (www.hydraplatform.org), an open software platform allowing users to manage network structure and data. The Hydra data manager connects to Pynsim, providing necessary input parameters for the integrated model. By providing a high-level portal to the model, Hydra removes a barrier between the users of the model (researchers, stakeholders, planners etc) and the model itself, allowing them to manage data, run the model and visualise results all through a single user interface. Pynsim's ability to represent institutional hierarchies, inter-network communication and the separation of node, link and

  18. Using Support Vector Machines to Automatically Extract Open Water Signatures from POLDER Multi-Angle Data Over Boreal Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, J.; Diaz-Barrios, M.; Pinzon, J.; Ustin, S. L.; Shih, P.; Tournois, S.; Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Perry, G. L.; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study used Support Vector Machines to classify multiangle POLDER data. Boreal wetland ecosystems cover an estimated 90 x 10(exp 6) ha, about 36% of global wetlands, and are a major source of trace gases emissions to the atmosphere. Four to 20 percent of the global emission of methane to the atmosphere comes from wetlands north of 4 degrees N latitude. Large uncertainties in emissions exist because of large spatial and temporal variation in the production and consumption of methane. Accurate knowledge of the areal extent of open water and inundated vegetation is critical to estimating magnitudes of trace gas emissions. Improvements in land cover mapping have been sought using physical-modeling approaches, neural networks, and active microwave, examples that demonstrate the difficulties of separating open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation. Here we examine the feasibility of using a support vector machine to classify POLDER data representing open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation.

  19. Sex difference in open-water ultra-swim performance in the longest freshwater lake swim in Europe.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, Evelyn; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Senn, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    This study examined participation and performance trends in the 26.4-km open-water ultra-swim "Marathon Swim in Lake Zurich," Switzerland. A total of 461 athletes (157 women and 304 men) finished the race between 1987 and 2011. The mean age of the finishers during the studied period was 32.0 ± 6.5 years for men and 30.9 ± 7.2 years for women. The mean age of finishers and the age of winners increased significantly across years for both sexes (p < 0.01). The winner times were significantly lower for men (403 ± 43 minutes) compared with women (452 ± 63 minutes) (p < 0.01). In contrast, the mean swimming time of the finishers did not differ between men (530 ± 39 minutes) and women (567 ± 71 minutes) (p > 0.05). The swimming time performance remained stable (p > 0.05) for both sexes across years. A higher age was associated with an increased risk for not finishing the race (odds ratio = 0.93, p = 0.045). Swim time was negatively associated with water temperature in the top 3 swimmers (ß = -9.87, p = 0.025). These results show that open-water ultra-swimming performance of elite swimmers over 26.4 km in a freshwater lake is affected by age, sex, and water temperature. The sex difference in open-water ultra-swimming performance (approximately 11.5%) remained unchanged these last 25 years. It seems unlikely that elite female swimmers will achieve the same performance of elite male swimmers competing in open-water ultra-swimming in water of approximately 20 °C. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics such as skeletal muscle mass and thermoregulation need additional investigations in female and male open-water ultra-swimmers.

  20. An Open Software Platform for Sharing Water Resource Models, Code and Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Stephen; Meier, Philipp; Mohamed, Khaled; Korteling, Brett; Matrosov, Evgenii; Huskova, Ivana; Harou, Julien; Rosenberg, David; Tilmant, Amaury; Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Wicks, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The modelling of managed water resource systems requires new approaches in the face of increasing future uncertainty. Water resources management models, even if applied to diverse problem areas, use common approaches such as representing the problem as a network of nodes and links. We propose a data management software platform, called Hydra, that uses this commonality to allow multiple models using a node-link structure to be managed and run using a single software system. Hydra's user interface allows users to manage network topology and associated data. Hydra feeds this data directly into a model, importing from and exporting to different file formats using Apps. An App connects Hydra to a custom model, a modelling system such as GAMS or MATLAB or to different file formats such as MS Excel, CSV and ESRI Shapefiles. Hydra allows users to manage their data in a single, consistent place. Apps can be used to run domain-specific models and allow users to work with their own required file formats. The Hydra App Store offers a collaborative space where model developers can publish, review and comment on Apps, models and data. Example Apps and open-source libraries are available in a variety of languages (Python, Java and .NET). The App Store can act as a hub for water resource modellers to view and share Apps, models and data easily. This encourages an ecosystem of development using a shared platform, resulting in more model integration and potentially greater unity within resource modelling communities. www.hydraplatform.org www.hydraappstore.com

  1. The speciation of marine particulate iron adjacent to active and passive continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Marcus, Matthew A.

    2012-03-01

    We use synchrotron-based chemical-species mapping techniques to compare the speciation of suspended (1-51 μm) marine particulate iron collected in two open ocean environments adjacent to active and passive continental margins. Chemical-species mapping provides speciation information for heterogeneous environmental samples, and is especially good for detecting spectroscopically distinct trace minerals and species that could not be detectable by other methods. The average oxidation state of marine particulate iron determined by chemical-species mapping is comparable to that determined by standard bulk X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy. Using chemical-species mapping, we find that up to 43% of particulate Fe in the Northwest Pacific at the depth of the adjacent active continental margin is in the Fe(II) state, with the balance Fe(III). In contrast, particulate iron in the eastern tropical North Atlantic, which receives the highest dust deposition on Earth and is adjacent to a passive margin, is dominated by weathered and oxidized Fe compounds, with Fe(III) contributing 90% of total iron. The balance is composed primarily of Fe(II)-containing species, but we detected individual pyrite particles in some samples within an oxygen minimum zone in the upper thermocline. Several lines of evidence point to the adjacent Mauritanian continental shelf as the source of pyrite to the water column. The speciation of suspended marine particulate iron reflects the mineralogy of iron from the adjacent continental margins. Since the solubility of particulate iron has been shown to be a function of its speciation, this may have implications for the bioavailability of particulate iron adjacent to passive compared to active continental margins.

  2. Research for visualization of running state of long-distance water transmission pipeline based on OpenGL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Xuejun; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-03-01

    The running condition of long distance water pipeline are complicated and changeable, and the lag of water flow is obvious, which is the key technical problem to be solved in the process of regulation and control. According to the present situation of the long-distance water conveyance project, the visualization simulation technology is used to study the operation and management of the long-distance water conveyance pipeline based on OpenGL technology. The system developed in this paper can combine pipeline information, working condition data and relevant data to provide a visualization platform for analysis and decision-making of project management and operation.

  3. Geology and ground-water features of salt springs, seeps, and plains in the Arkansas and Red River basins of western Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Kansas and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.E.

    1963-01-01

    The salt springs, seeps, and plains described in this report are in the Arkansas and Red River basins in western Oklahoma and adjacent areas in Kansas and Texas. The springs and seeps contribute significantly to the generally poor water quality of the rivers by bringing salt (HaCI) to the surface at an estimated daily rate of more than 8,000 tons. The region investigated is characterized by low hills and rolling plains. Many of the rivers are eroded 100 feet or more below the .surrounding upland surface and in places the valleys are bordered by steep bluffs. The alluvial plains of the major rivers are wide and the river channels are shallow and unstable. The flow of many surface streams is intermittent, especially in the western part of the area. All the natural salt-contributing areas studied are within the outcrop area of rocks of Permian age. The Permian rocks, commonly termed red beds, are composed principally of red and gray gypsiferous shale, siltstone, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. Many of the formations contain halite in the subsurface. The halite occurs mostly as discontinuous lenses in shale, although some of the thicker, more massive beds are extensive. It underlies the entire region studied at depths ranging from about 30 feet to more than 2,000 feet. The salt and associated strata show evidence of extensive removal of salt through solution by ground water. Although the salt generally occurs in relatively impervious shale small joints and fractures ,allow the passage of small quantities of water which dissolves the salt. Salt water occurs in the report area at depths ranging from less than 100 feet to more than 1,000 feet. Salt water occurs both as meteoric and connate, but the water emerging as salt springs is meteoric. Tritium analyses show that the age of the water from several springs is less than 20 years. The salt springs, seeps, and plains are confined to 13 local areas. The flow of the springs and seeps is small, but the chloride

  4. Hydrogeomorphic and Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality, Habitat, and Fish of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands represent a dynamic interface between coastal watersheds and the open lake. Compared to the adjacent lakes, these wetlands have generally warmer water, reduced wave energy, shallow bathymetry, higher productivity, and structurally complex vegetated h...

  5. Assessments of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands and ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Navajo Nation conduct an assessment of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation lands and an assessment of ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. Navajo Nation lands include about 17,000 square miles in northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Utah. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project in northwestern New Mexico is the largest area of agriculture on the Navajo Nation. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project began operation in 1976; presently (2001) about 62,000 acres are available for irrigated agriculture. Numerous pesticides have been used on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project during its operation. Aquifer sensitivity is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest. Aquifer sensitivity is a function of the intrinsic characteristics of the geologic material in question, any underlying saturated materials, and the overlying unsaturated zone. Sensitivity is not dependent on agronomic practices or pesticide characteristics.' Ground-water vulnerability is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest under a given set of agronomic management practices, pesticide characteristics, and aquifer sensitivity conditions.' The results of the aquifer sensitivity assessment on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands indicated relative sensitivity within the boundaries of the study area. About 22 percent of the study area was not an area of recharge to bedrock aquifers or an area of unconsolidated deposits and was thus assessed to have an insignificant potential for contamination. About 72 percent of the Navajo Nation study area was assessed to be in the categories of most potential

  6. Microparticle production, neutrophil activation, and intravascular bubbles following open-water SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Thom, Stephen R; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bogush, Marina; Bhopale, Veena M; Yang, Ming; Bushmann, Kim; Pollock, Neal W; Ljubkovic, Marko; Denoble, Petar; Dujic, Zeljko

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate annexin V-positive microparticles (MPs) and neutrophil activation in humans following decompression from open-water SCUBA diving with the hypothesis that changes are related to intravascular bubble formation. Sixteen male volunteer divers followed a uniform profile of four daily SCUBA dives to 18 m of sea water for 47 min. Blood was obtained prior to and at 80 min following the first and fourth dives to evaluate the impact of repetitive diving, and intravascular bubbles were quantified by trans-thoracic echocardiography carried out at 20-min intervals for 2 h after each dive. MPs increased by 3.4-fold after each dive, neutrophil activation occurred as assessed by surface expression of myeloperoxidase and the CD18 component of β(2)-integrins, and there was an increased presence of the platelet-derived CD41 protein on the neutrophil surface indicating interactions with platelet membranes. Intravascular bubbles were detected in all divers. Surprisingly, significant inverse correlations were found among postdiving bubble scores and MPs, most consistently at 80 min or more after the dive on the fourth day. There were significant positive correlations between MPs and platelet-neutrophil interactions after the first dive and between platelet-neutrophil interactions and neutrophil activation documented as an elevation in β(2)-integrin expression after the fourth dive. We conclude that MPs- and neutrophil-related events in humans are consistent with findings in an animal decompression model. Whether there are causal relationships among bubbles, MPs, platelet-neutrophil interactions, and neutrophil activation remains obscure and requires additional study.

  7. Long open-path instrument for simultaneously monitoring of methane, CO2 and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Parlange, Marc

    2013-04-01

    A new, long open-path instrument for monitoring of path-averaged methane, CO2 and water vapor concentrations will be presented. The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver -distant retroreflector). A VCSEL with a central wavelength of 1654 nm is used as a light source. The receiver is built around a 20 cm Newtonian telescope. The design optical path length is 2000 m but can be further extended. To avoid distortions in the shape of the spectral lines caused by atmospheric turbulences they are scanned within 1 µs. The expected concentration resolution for the above mentioned path length is of the order of 2 ppb for methane, 100 ppb for CO2 and 100 ppm for water vapor. The instrument is developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland and will be used within the GAW+ CH program for long-term monitoring of background methane and CO2 concentrations in the Swiss Alps. The initial calibration validation tests at EPFL were completed in December 2012 and the instrument will be installed at the beginning of 2013 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (HARSJ). The HARSJ is located at 3580 m ASL and is one of the 24 global GAW stations. One of the goals of the project is to compare path-averaged to the ongoing point measurements of methane in order to identify possible influence of the station. Future deployments of a copy of the instrument include the Canadian arctic and Siberian wetlands. The instrument can be used for ground truthing of satellite observation as well.

  8. Making Water Chemistry Data From Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems Accessible Using Open Source Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venezky, D. Y.; Mariner, R. H.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, W. C.

    2004-12-01

    Chemical and isotopic data collected over several decades by the U.S. Geological Survey from volcano-hydrothermal systems were recently organized into a web-accessible database for public use. The data were collected by members of the Barnes and/or Mariner projects and were supplemented with data from samples submitted for analysis by other researchers with similar interests. The data are primarily chemical and isotopic analyses of waters (thermal, mineral, or fresh) and associated gas (free and/or dissolved) collected from hot springs, mineral springs, cold springs, geothermal wells, fumaroles, and gas seeps. Additional data for a few streams, lakes, and oil wells are included. The web site follows a multi-stage design, first allowing for basic access to the MySQL database, then a user-friendly GIS (Geographic Information System) interface, and finally access to additional documentation and searching features. The initial web pages allow the user to choose the type of data (site, physical parameters, major and minor dissolved constituents, dissolved and free gas composition, water isotopes, and other isotopes) and the sample location. The data are then shown in a table that can be downloaded in several formats. The second stage of the project added an open-source GIS package called WorldKit, which gives easy-to-code and easy-to-use clickable icons on a base map using XML (Extensible Markup Language). WorldKit is also adding a zoom interface (zoomify) that uses new technology to reduce the display time. The final stage of the project involves more complex queries, alternative data presentation, and integrated background information. The more complex queries allow users to select multiple types of data from multiple sites. The data can be found at http://hotspringchem.wr.usgs.gov/.

  9. Importance of open-water ice growth and ice concentration evolution: a study based on FESOM-ECHAM6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Lohmann, G.

    2015-10-01

    A newly developed global climate model FESOM-ECHAM6 with an unstructured mesh and high resolution is applied to investigate to what degree the area-thickness distribution of new ice formed in open water affects the ice and ocean properties. A sensitivity experiment is performed which reduces the horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio of open-water ice growth. The resulting decrease in the Arctic winter sea-ice concentration strongly reduces the surface albedo, enhances the ocean heat release to the atmosphere, and increases the sea-ice production. Furthermore, our simulations show a positive feedback mechanism among the Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the surface air temperature in the Arctic, as the sea ice transport affects the freshwater budget in regions of deep water formation. A warming over Europe, Asia and North America, associated with a negative anomaly of Sea Level Pressure (SLP) over the Arctic (positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO)), is also simulated by the model. For the Southern Ocean, the most pronounced change is a warming along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), especially for the Pacific sector. Additionally, a series of sensitivity tests are performed using an idealized 1-D thermodynamic model to further investigate the influence of the open-water ice growth, which reveals similar results in terms of the change of sea ice and ocean temperature. In reality, the distribution of new ice on open water relies on many uncertain parameters, for example, surface albedo, wind speed and ocean currents. Knowledge of the detailed processes is currently too crude for those processes to be implemented realistically into models. Our sensitivity experiments indicate a pronounced uncertainty related to open-water sea ice growth which could significantly affect the climate system.

  10. Ceramic-like open-celled geopolymer foam as a porous substrate for water treatment catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovářík, T.; Křenek, T.; Pola, M.; Rieger, D.; Kadlec, J.; Franče, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents results from experimental study on microstructural and mechanical properties of geopolymer-based foam filters. The process for making porous ceramic-like geopolymer body was experimentally established, consists of (a) geopolymer paste synthesis, (b) ceramic filler incorporation, (c) coating of open-celled polyurethane foam with geopolymer mixture, (d) rapid setting procedure, (e) thermal treatment. Geopolymer paste was based on potassium silicate solution n(SiO2)/n(K2O)=1.6 and powder mixture of calcined kaolin and precipitated silica. Various types of ceramic granular filler (alumina, calcined schistous clay and cordierite) were tested in relation to aggregate gradation design and particle size distribution. The small amplitude oscillatory rheometry in strain controlled regime 0.01% with angular frequency 10 rad/s was applied for determination of rheology behavior of prepared mixtures. Thermal treatment conditions were applied in the temperature range 1100 – 1300 °C. The developed porous ceramic-like foam effectively served as a substrate for highly active nanoparticles of selected Fe+2 spinels. Such new-type of nanocomposite was tested as a heterogeneous catalyst for technological process of advanced oxidative degradation of resistive antibiotics occurring in waste waters.

  11. Flood discharges of a small river into open coastal waters: Plume traits and material fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Troy F.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2006-08-01

    The dynamics of plumes from large rivers are relatively well known. Many estuaries are small, however, and discharge directly onto exposed, open shorelines and presumably produce smaller plumes that may have different properties. Therefore this study measured traits of a small estuary on the Australian East Coast as a model system, focusing on (a) plume size, (b) distinctness of plume edges, and (c) imprints on the seafloor. Although plumes were found to be limited in spatial extent (ca. 1 km offshore × 2.4 km longshore) and were constrained near the shore by onshore winds, they exported high nutrient loads from an urbanised watershed. The small plumes were shallow (<2 m) and strongly buoyant, with sharp vertical and horizontal clines similar to much larger plumes. The edges of the plumes were highly distinct, clearly separating disparate water masses that trapped significantly higher amounts of nutrients inside the plume. Some particulate material exported from the estuary in the plumes reached the benthos of the nearshore zone, as evidenced by increases in copper concentrations in sediments under the plume. By contrast, the amount of land-sourced carbon delivered by small plumes to the seafloor was minor in comparison to larger inputs from marine sources (e.g. onshore advection of phytoplankton blooms or algae dislodged from reefs) that swamped any contribution from plumes. Overall, small plumes can be important in land-ocean coupling, but their zone of influence may be limited.

  12. Biotransformation of trace organic contaminants in open-water unit process treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Justin T; Jones, Zackary L; Sharp, Jonathan O; Sedlak, David L

    2014-05-06

    The bottoms of shallow, open-water wetland cells are rapidly colonized by a biomat consisting of an assemblage of photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms. To assess the contribution of biotransformation in this biomat to the overall attenuation of trace organic contaminants, transformation rates of test compounds measured in microcosms were compared with attenuation rates measured in a pilot-scale system. The biomat in the pilot-scale system was composed of diatoms (Staurosira construens) and a bacterial community dominated by β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Biotransformation was the dominant removal mechanism in the pilot-scale system for atenolol, metoprolol, and trimethoprim, while sulfamethoxazole and propranolol were attenuated mainly via photolysis. In microcosm experiments, biotransformation rates increased for metoprolol and propranolol when algal photosynthesis was supported by irradiation with visible light. Biotransformation rates increased for trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in the dark, when microbial respiration depleted dissolved oxygen concentrations within the biomat. During summer, atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol were rapidly attenuated in the pilot-scale system (t1/2 < 0.5 d), trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole were transformed more slowly (t1/2 ≈ 1.5-2 d), and carbamazepine was recalcitrant. The combination of biotransformation and photolysis resulted in overall transformation rates that were 10 to 100 times faster than those previously measured in vegetated wetlands, allowing for over 90% attenuation of all compounds studied except carbamazepine within an area similar to that typical of existing full-scale vegetated treatment wetlands.

  13. An Open-source Community Web Site To Support Ground-Water Model Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, S. R.; Bakker, M.; Craig, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    A community wiki wiki web site has been created as a resource to support ground-water model development and testing. The Groundwater Gourmet wiki is a repository for user supplied analytical and numerical recipes, howtos, and examples. Members are encouraged to submit analytical solutions, including source code and documentation. A diversity of code snippets are sought in a variety of languages, including Fortran, C, C++, Matlab, Python. In the spirit of a wiki, all contributions may be edited and altered by other users, and open source licensing is promoted. Community accepted contributions are graduated into the library of analytic solutions and organized into either a Strack (Groundwater Mechanics, 1989) or Bruggeman (Analytical Solutions of Geohydrological Problems, 1999) classification. The examples section of the wiki are meant to include laboratory experiments (e.g., Hele Shaw), classical benchmark problems (e.g., Henry Problem), and controlled field experiments (e.g., Borden landfill and Cape Cod tracer tests). Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  14. Effects of open marsh water management on numbers of larval salt marsh mosquitoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James-Pirri, Mary-Jane; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Erwin, R. Michael; Taylor, Janith

    2009-01-01

    Open marsh water management (OMWM) is a commonly used approach to manage salt marsh mosquitoes than can obviate the need for pesticide application and at the same time, partially restore natural functions of grid-ditched marshes. OMWM includes a variety of hydrologic manipulations, often tailored to the specific conditions on individual marshes, so the overall effectiveness of this approach is difficult to assess. Here, we report the results of controlled field trials to assess the effects of two approaches to OMWM on larval mosquito production at National Wildlife Refuges (NWR). A traditional OMWM approach, using pond construction and radial ditches was used at Edwin B. Forsythe NWR in New Jersey, and a ditch-plugging approach was used at Parker River NWR in Massachusetts. Mosquito larvae were sampled from randomly placed stations on paired treatment and control marshes at each refuge. The proportion of sampling stations that were wet declined after OMWM at the Forsythe site, but not at the Parker River site. The proportion of samples with larvae present and mean larval densities, declined significantly at the treatment sites on both refuges relative to the control marshes. Percentage of control for the 2 yr posttreatment, compared with the 2 yr pretreatment, was >90% at both treatment sites.

  15. Effects of open marsh water management on numbers of larval salt marsh mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    James-Pirri, Mary-Jane; Ginsberg, Howard S; Erwin, R Michael; Taylor, Janith

    2009-11-01

    Open marsh water management (OMWM) is a commonly used approach to manage salt marsh mosquitoes than can obviate the need for pesticide application and at the same time, partially restore natural functions of grid-ditched marshes. OMWM includes a variety of hydrologic manipulations, often tailored to the specific conditions on individual marshes, so the overall effectiveness of this approach is difficult to assess. Here, we report the results of controlled field trials to assess the effects of two approaches to OMWM on larval mosquito production at National Wildlife Refuges (NWR). A traditional OMWM approach, using pond construction and radial ditches was used at Edwin B. Forsythe NWR in New Jersey, and a ditch-plugging approach was used at Parker River NWR in Massachusetts. Mosquito larvae were sampled from randomly placed stations on paired treatment and control marshes at each refuge. The proportion of sampling stations that were wet declined after OMWM at the Forsythe site, but not at the Parker River site. The proportion of samples with larvae present and mean larval densities, declined significantly at the treatment sites on both refuges relative to the control marshes. Percentage of control for the 2 yr posttreatment, compared with the 2 yr pretreatment, was >90% at both treatment sites.

  16. Analysis of a dense water pulse following mid-winter opening of polynyas in western Foxe Basin, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defossez, M.; Saucier, F. J.; Myers, P. G.; Caya, D.; Dumais, J.-F.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study has shown that Foxe Basin's dense waters originate from coastal latent heat polynyas and each year replace 2/3rd of the basin's deep waters by propagating southeastwards in Foxe Channel as a gravity current. The formation mechanisms in 2004 of these dense waters are examined here. Strong meteorological events occurring in mid-winter over the domain are responsible for the simultaneous opening of two large polynyas at Lyon Inlet and along Melville Peninsula's eastern coast while a third important and recurrent polynya opens earlier at Hall Beach (northwestern Foxe Basin). Large sea-atmosphere heat exchanges take place in these polynyas, leading to the production of 21.2 × 10 12 kg of sea-ice and 1.53 × 10 12 m 3 of dense water. The ice production rate is on average five to six times higher in the polynyas than in the rest of the basin. Following the topography, the dense waters formed at Hall Beach and along Melville Peninsula cascade into Foxe Channel, while those produced at Lyon Inlet sink directly in the channel through deep convection. The two mechanisms synchronize and combine together when Lyon Inlet and Melville Peninsula polynyas open up. The heat exchanges, sea-ice and brine production rates estimated with a 21-year near-climatology are similar to those found in 2004. The results also show that the produced dense waters can overflow into Hudson Bay.

  17. THE EFFECT OF AMOUNT OF CRUDE OIL ON EXTENT OF ITS BIODEGRADATION IN OPEN WATER- AND SANDY BEACH- LABORATORY SIMULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lepo, J.E., C. R. Cripe, J.L. Kavanaugh, S. Zhang and G.P. Norton. 2003. Effect of Amount of Crude Oil on Extent of Its Biodegradation in Open Water- and Sandy Beach-Laboratory Simulations. Environ. Technol. 24(10):1291-1302. (ERL,GB 1109).

    We examined the biodegradation ...

  18. 77 FR 23120 - Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount Pleasant, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... open water swim. The event is scheduled to take place on Saturday, May 19, 2012. Approximately 600 people are expected to participate in the swim. These special local regulations are necessary to...

  19. Influence of open ocean nitrogen supply on the skeletal δ15N of modern shallow-water scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingchen T.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Cohen, Anne L.; Sinclair, Daniel J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Cobb, Kim M.; Erler, Dirk V.; Stolarski, Jarosław; Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Ren, Haojia

    2016-05-01

    The isotopic composition of skeleton-bound organic nitrogen in shallow-water scleractinian corals (hereafter, CS-δ15N) is an emerging tool for studying the marine nitrogen cycle in the past. The CS-δ15N has been shown to reflect the δ15N of nitrogen (N) sources to corals, with most applications to date focusing on the anthropogenic/terrestrial N inputs to reef environments. However, many coral reefs receive their primary N sources from the open ocean, and the CS-δ15N of these corals may provide information on past changes in the open ocean regional and global N cycle. Using a recently developed persulfate/denitrifier-based method, we measured CS-δ15N in modern shallow-water scleractinian corals from 8 sites proximal to the open ocean. At sites with low open ocean surface nitrate concentrations typical of the subtropics and tropics, measured CS-δ15N variation on seasonal and annual timescales is most often less than 2‰. In contrast, a broad range in CS-δ15N (of ∼10‰) is measured across these sites, with a strong correlation between CS-δ15N and the δ15N of the deep nitrate supply to the surface waters near the reefs. While CS-δ15N can be affected by other N sources as well and can vary in response to local reef conditions as well as coral/symbiont physiological changes, this survey indicates that, when considering corals proximal to the open ocean, the δ15N of the subsurface nitrate supply to surface waters drives most of the CS-δ15N variation across the global ocean. Thus, CS-δ15N is a promising proxy for reconstructing the open ocean N cycle in the past.

  20. The signatures of stable isotopes δ 15N and δ 13C in anadromous and non-anadromous Coilia nasus living in the Yangtze River, and the adjacent sea waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Tang, Wenqiao; Dong, Wenxia

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotopes are increasingly used to investigate seasonal migrations of aquatic organisms. This study employed stable isotopes ( δ 13C and δ 15N) for Coilia nasus from the lower Yangtze River and the adjacent East China Sea to distinguish different ecotypic groups, ascertain trophic nutrition positions, and reflect environmental influences on C. nasus. δ 13C signatures of C. nasus sampled from Zhoushan (ZS), Chongming (CM), and Jingjiang (JJ) waters were significantly higher than those from the Poyang Lake (PYL) ( P < 0.05). By contrast, δ 15N signatures of C. nasus in ZS, CM, and JJ groups were significantly lower than those in PYL group ( P < 0.05). Basing on δ 13C and δ 15N signatures, we could distinguish anadromous (ZS, CM, and JJ) and non-anadromous (PYL) groups. The trophic level (TL) of anadromous C. nasus ranged from 2.90 to 3.04, whereas that of non-anadromous C. nasus was 4.38. C. nasus occupied the middle and top nutrition positions in the marine and Poyang Lake food webs, respectively. C. nasus in Poyang Lake were significantly more enriched in δ 15N but depleted in δ 13C, suggesting that anthropogenic nutrient inputs and terrigenous organic carbon are important to the Poyang Lake food web. This study is the first to apply δ 15N and δ 13C to population assignment studies of C. nasus in the Yangtze River and its affiliated waters. Analysis of stable isotopes ( δ 15N and δ 13C) is shown to be a useful tool for discriminating anadromous and non-anadromous C. nasus.

  1. Endogenous ethylene does not regulate opening of unstressed Iris flowers but strongly inhibits it in water-stressed flowers.

    PubMed

    Çelikel, Fisun G; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2012-09-15

    The floral buds of Iris flowers (Iris x hollandica) are enclosed by two sheath leaves. Flower opening depends on lifting the flower up to a position whereby the tepals can move laterally. This upward movement is carried out by elongation of the subtending pedicel and ovary. In the pedicels and ovaries of unstressed control flowers, the concentration of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and the rate of ethylene production increased during d 0-1 of flower opening, and then decreased. Exposure to ≥200 nL L(-1) ethylene for 24 h at 20°C inhibited elongation of the pedicel+ovary, and inhibited flower opening. However, pulsing of unstressed flowers with solutions containing inhibitors of ethylene synthesis (AOA, AVG), or an inhibitor of ethylene action (STS), did not affect pedicel+ovary elongation or flower opening. When the flowers were dehydrated for 2 d at 20°C and 60% RH, they did not open when subsequently placed in water, and showed inhibited elongation in the pedicel+ovary. This dehydration treatment resulted in elevated pedicel+ovary ACC levels and in increased ethylene production. Treatment with STS prevented the increase in ACC levels and ethylene production, overcame the effect of dehydration on elongation of the pedicel+ovary, and resulted in full flower opening. It is concluded that flower opening in unstressed Iris flowers is not regulated by endogenous ethylene. An increase in endogenous ethylene above normal levels during stress, by contrast, strongly inhibited flower opening, due to its inhibitory effect on elongation of the pedicel+ovary.

  2. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  3. Response to memorandum by Rowley and Dixon regarding U.S. Geological Survey report titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Applications pending for permanent permits to pump large quantities of ground water in Spring and Snake Valleys adjacent to Great Basin National Park (the Park) prompted the National Park Service to request a study by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the susceptibility of the Park's surface-water resources to pumping. The result of this study was published as U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5099 'Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada,' by P.E. Elliott, D.A. Beck, and D.E. Prudic. That report identified areas within the Park where surface-water resources are susceptible to ground-water pumping; results from the study showed that three streams and several springs near the eastern edge of the Park were susceptible. However, most of the Park's surface-water resources likely would not be affected by pumping because of either low-permeability rocks or because ground water is sufficiently deep as to not be directly in contact with the streambeds. A memorandum sent by Peter D. Rowley and Gary L. Dixon, Consulting Geologists, to the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) on June 29, 2006 was critical of the report. The memorandum by Rowley and Dixon was made available to the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the public during the Nevada State Engineer's 'Evidentiary Exchange' process for the recent hearing on applications for ground-water permits by SNWA in Spring Valley adjacent to Great Basin National Park. The U.S. Geological Survey was asked by the National Park Service to assess the validity of the concerns and comments contained in the Rowley and Dixon memorandum. An Administrative Letter Report responding to Rowley and Dixon's concerns and comments was released to the National Park Service on October 30, 2006. The National Park Service subsequently requested that the

  4. Visible and Thermal Imaging of Sea Ice and Open Water from Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness Flights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    seasonal evolution of the ice cover. APPROACH The Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights based out of Kodiak Alaska offer a tremendous...and Thermal Imaging of Sea Ice and Open Water from Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness Flights 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...temperature, melt pond temperature, percentage ice coverage, and ice flow and melt pond size 3 distributions. We are also collaborating within APL

  5. Genome Sequence of the Marine Bacterium Vibrio campbellii DS40M4, Isolated from Open Ocean Water

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Graciela M.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Fishman, Brian; Naka, Hiroaki; Haygood, Margo G.; Crosa, Jorge H.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio sp. strain DS40M4 is a marine bacterium that was isolated from open ocean water. In this work, using genomic taxonomy, we were able to classify this bacterium as V. campbellii. Our genomic analysis revealed that V. campbellii DS40M4 harbors genes related to iron transport, virulence, and environmental fitness, such as those encoding anguibactin and vanchrobactin biosynthesis proteins, type II, III, IV, and VI secretion systems, and proteorhodopsin. PMID:22275102

  6. Determination of fecal contamination origin in reclaimed water open-air ponds using biochemical fingerprinting of enterococci and fecal coliforms.

    PubMed

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R

    2013-05-01

    Low levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were recently detected in two reclaimed water open-air ponds used to irrigate a golf course located in Northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a biochemical fingerprinting method to track the origin of fecal contamination in water with low FIB levels, as in the aforementioned ponds. We also aimed to determine whether FIB presence was due to regrowth of the reclaimed water populations or to a contribution of fecal matter whose source was in the golf facility. Three hundred and fifty enterococcal strains and 308 fecal coliform strains were isolated from the ponds and reclamation plant, and they were biochemically phenotyped. In addition, the inactivation of several microbial fecal pollution indicators (fecal coliforms, total bifidobacteria, sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria, somatic bacteriophages, and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) was studied using a mesocosm in situ in order to obtain information about their decay rate. Although FIB concentration was low, the biochemical fingerprinting provided evidence that the origin of the fecal contamination in the ponds was not related to the reclaimed water. Biochemical fingerprinting thus proved to be a successful approach, since other microbial source-tracking methods perform poorly when dealing with low fecal load matrices. Furthermore, the mesocosm assays indicated that none of the microbial fecal indicators was able to regrow in the ponds. Finally, the study highlights the fact that reclaimed water may be recontaminated in open-air reservoirs, and therefore, its microbial quality should be monitored throughout its use.

  7. Influence of open and sealed fractures on fluid flow and water saturation in sandstone cores using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraka-Lokmane, S.; Teutsch, G.; Main, I. G.

    2001-11-01

    We use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to image the imbibition of water by capillary action in a right-cylindrical sample of a porous sedimentary rock with low iron content. In the method some 55 repeat images are taken over a period of approximately two hours, covering five vertical sections. The evolution of the water flood front and the degree of water saturation can be observed by examining snapshots of proton density. The results clearly show (a) the development of a rising wetting front in the rock matrix (b) preferential flow along open fractures observed on the core surface, and (c) reduced flow associated with sealed fractures. The inferred location, orientation and connectivity of conducting and sealing fractures are confirmed by impregnating the sample after the test with an appropriate low-viscosity setting resin and taking serial thin sections in destructive mode. The results validate the utility of MRI as a non-destructive analytical tool for visualizing the distribution of water inside fractured porous media with low iron content. The technique identifies paths of high and low permeability in the sample, and quantifies the fracture location, orientation, and connectivity in sedimentary rocks. Preferential fluid flow in open fractures during capillary imbibition implies that the fractures are more water-wet than the clasts within the matrix. This may be due to due to differences in the age, morphology and mineral structure on the surface of the pores and the fractures.

  8. Opening of the closed water area and consequent changes of ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra activity ratios in coastal lagoon Nakaumi, southwest Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ritsuo; Nakamura, Kosaku; Seto, Koji; Inoue, Mutsuo; Kofuji, Hisaki

    2013-11-01

    In Lake Nakaumi, the second largest coastal lagoon in Japan, artificially closed (Honjyo) area, which was left untouched for 28 years, was partly opened in May, 2009. (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of waters in Honjyo area and Lake Nakaumi showed a well-tuned seasonal variation exhibiting high value in summer. After the opening event, however, the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in the Honjyo water showed an unclear seasonal variation in both surface and deep water. This opening event caused the change of active movement of lake and marine water.

  9. An open source massively parallel solver for Richards equation: Mechanistic modelling of water fluxes at the watershed scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgogozo, L.; Renon, N.; Soulaine, C.; Hénon, F.; Tomer, S. K.; Labat, D.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Sekhar, M.; Ababou, R.; Quintard, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present a massively parallel open source solver for Richards equation, named the RichardsFOAM solver. This solver has been developed in the framework of the open source generalist computational fluid dynamics tool box OpenFOAM® and is capable to deal with large scale problems in both space and time. The source code for RichardsFOAM may be downloaded from the CPC program library website. It exhibits good parallel performances (up to ˜90% parallel efficiency with 1024 processors both in strong and weak scaling), and the conditions required for obtaining such performances are analysed and discussed. These performances enable the mechanistic modelling of water fluxes at the scale of experimental watersheds (up to few square kilometres of surface area), and on time scales of decades to a century. Such a solver can be useful in various applications, such as environmental engineering for long term transport of pollutants in soils, water engineering for assessing the impact of land settlement on water resources, or in the study of weathering processes on the watersheds.

  10. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s.Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area.Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late summer

  11. Water quality model parameter identification of an open channel in a long distance water transfer project based on finite difference, difference evolution and Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongguo; Yang, Haidong; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Biyu

    2014-01-01

    A new method is proposed based on the finite difference method (FDM), differential evolution algorithm and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation to identify water quality model parameters of an open channel in a long distance water transfer project. Firstly, this parameter identification problem is considered as a Bayesian estimation problem and the forward numerical model is solved by FDM, and the posterior probability density function of the parameters is deduced. Then these parameters are estimated using a sampling method with differential evolution algorithm and MCMC simulation. Finally this proposed method is compared with FDM-MCMC by a twin experiment. The results show that the proposed method can be used to identify water quality model parameters of an open channel in a long distance water transfer project under different scenarios better with fewer iterations, higher reliability and anti-noise capability compared with FDM-MCMC. Therefore, it provides a new idea and method to solve the traceability problem in sudden water pollution accidents.

  12. Impacts of open-ocean deep convection in the Weddell Sea on coastal and bottom water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Wu, Yang; Lin, Xia; Liu, Chengyan; Xie, Zelin

    2016-07-01

    A high resolution global ocean-sea ice model is employed to investigate the impacts of open-ocean deep convection on coastal and bottom water temperature in the Weddell Sea. The imposed strong and persistent cyclonic wind forcing and the large loss of bottom water weaken the stratification and eventually trigger the occurrence of open-ocean deep convection in the southern limb of the Weddell Gyre in this model. The production rate of the bottom water induced by the deep convection is estimated to be about 5 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s) for a polynya with a similar size to that of the observed Weddell Polynya in the mid-1970s. The cooling induced by deep convection at mid-depth is transported towards the shelf regions by standing meanders or eddies to affect the basal melting of ice shelves, and is transported westward by an intensified slope current; interior coastal temperature in regions with a broader continental shelf is less affected by the deep convection, as the intensified slope current acts to suppress heat exchanges across the shelf break. Also, the deep convection causes warming in the Weddell bottom water around the convection site, when the simulated polynya size is similar to that of the observed Weddell Polynya in the mid-1970s. This finding sheds light on the observed non-monotonic decadal change (cooling between 1984-1992 and warming between 1998-2008) in the Weddell bottom water temperature. When the simulated polynya further develops into a large size across the Weddell Sea, the sustained broad deep convection causes large cooling in the bottom water in the western Weddell Sea and warming in the eastern Weddell Sea, with the bottom water temperature also being strongly modulated by a greatly intensified Weddell Gyre.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS OPEN CUT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with traditional open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been d...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS. OPEN CUT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with tradition open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been dev...

  15. Visible and thermal imaging of sea ice and open water from Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chickadel, C. C.; Lindsay, R. W.; Clark, D.

    2014-12-01

    An uncooled thermal camera (microbolometer) and RGB camera were mounted in the tail section of a US Coast Guard HC-130 to observe sea ice, open water, and cloud tops through the open rear cargo doors during routine Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights. Recent flights were conducted over the Beaufort Sea in June, July, and August of 2014, with flights planned for September and October. Thermal and visible images were collected at low altitude (100m) during times when the cargo doors were open and recorded high resolution information on ice floes, melt ponds, and surface temperature variability associated with the marginal ice zone (MIZ). These observations of sea ice conditions and surface water temperatures will be used to characterize floe size development and the temperature and albedo of ice ponds and leads. This information will allow for a detailed characterization of sea ice that can be used in process studies and for model evaluation, calibration of satellite remote sensing products, and initialization of sea ice prediction schemes.

  16. Sediment, water column, and open-channel denitrification in rivers measured using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisinger, Alexander J.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Hoellein, Timothy J.; Hall, Robert O.

    2016-05-01

    Riverine biogeochemical processes are understudied relative to headwaters, and reach-scale processes in rivers reflect both the water column and sediment. Denitrification in streams is difficult to measure, and is often assumed to occur only in sediment, but the water column is potentially important in rivers. Dissolved nitrogen (N) gas flux (as dinitrogen (N2)) and open-channel N2 exchange methods avoid many of the artificial conditions and expenses of common denitrification methods like acetylene block and 15N-tracer techniques. We used membrane-inlet mass spectrometry and microcosm incubations to quantify net N2 and oxygen flux from the sediment and water column of five Midwestern rivers spanning a land use gradient. Sediment and water column denitrification ranged from below detection to 1.8 mg N m-2 h-1 and from below detection to 4.9 mg N m-2 h-1, respectively. Water column activity was variable across rivers, accounting for 0-85% of combined microcosm denitrification and 39-85% of combined microcosm respiration. Finally, we estimated reach-scale denitrification at one Midwestern river using a diel, open-channel N2 exchange approach based on reach-scale metabolism methods, providing an integrative estimate of riverine denitrification. Reach-scale denitrification was 8.8 mg N m-2 h-1 (95% credible interval: 7.8-9.7 mg N m-2 h-1), higher than combined sediment and water column microcosm estimates from the same river (4.3 mg N m-2 h-1) and other estimates of reach-scale denitrification from streams. Our denitrification estimates, which span habitats and spatial scales, suggest that rivers can remove N via denitrification at equivalent or higher rates than headwater streams.

  17. Eddy covariance measurements of surface energy budget and evaporation in a cool season over southern open water in Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Heping; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Shuhua; Jiang, Haimei; Sheng, Li; Williams, Quinton L.

    2009-02-01

    Eddy covariance measurements of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat fluxes were made over a large southern open water surface of Ross Barnett Reservoir (the Reservoir hereafter) in Mississippi during the cool season with frequent incursions of cold fronts from 1 September 2007 to 31 January 2008. The eddy covariance tower was located in the middle of the main body of the Reservoir with the tower fetches exceeding 2.0 km in all directions. The Reservoir was ice-free in winter and the water temperatures always decreased with depth. Over the entire cool season, the averaged water surface temperatures were 1.8°C higher than the overlying air (i.e., positive temperature gradients that led to thermally convective conditions) and the averaged vapor pressure near the water surface was 0.8 kPa greater than the overlying air (i.e., positive vapor pressure gradients), though occasionally negative gradients for temperature and vapor pressure were also observed for short periods. On average, the wind speeds were considerably large (3.9 m s-1) to maintain adequate turbulent mixing mechanically. As a consequence of the combined effect of thermally and mechanically generated turbulent mixing, consistently positive H (with a mean H of 20.0 W m-2) and LE (with a mean LE of 80.0 W m-2) occurred during the entire season. These continuous energy losses via H and LE resulted in release of a large amount of energy stored in the water to the atmosphere. The mean Bowen ratio was low for this open water surface (i.e., 0.3), suggesting that most of the energy released from the water fueled evaporation rather than sensible heating of the atmosphere. Nighttime evaporative water losses were substantial, contributing to 45% of the total evaporative water loss in this cool season. Frequent incursions of cold fronts with windy, cold, and dry air masses significantly promoted turbulent exchanges of sensible and latent heat through enhanced turbulent mixing thermally and mechanically, leading to

  18. Automatic Measurement of Water Levels by Using Image Identification Method in Open Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung Yang, Han; Xue Yang, Jia

    2014-05-01

    Water level data is indispensable to hydrology research, and it is important information for hydraulic engineering and overall utilization of water resources. The information of water level can be transmitted to management office by the network so that the management office may well understand whether the river level is exceeding the warning line. The existing water level measurement method can only present water levels in a form of data without any of images, the methods which make data just be a data and lack the sense of reality. Those images such as the rising or overflow of river level that the existing measurement method cannot obtain simultaneously. Therefore, this research employs a newly, improved method for water level measurement. Through the Video Surveillance System to record the images on site, an image of water surface will be snapped, and then the snapped image will be pre-processed and be compared with its altitude reference value to obtain a water level altitude value. With the ever-growing technology, the application scope of image identification is widely in increase. This research attempts to use image identification technology to analyze water level automatically. The image observation method used in this research is one of non-contact water level gage but it is quite different from other ones; the image observation method is cheap and the facilities can be set up beside an embankment of river or near the houses, thus the impact coming from external factors will be significantly reduced, and a real scene picture will be transmitted through wireless transmission. According to the dynamic water flow test held in an indoor experimental channel, the results of the research indicated that all of error levels of water level identification were less than 2% which meant the image identification could achieve identification result at different water levels. This new measurement method can offer instant river level figures and on-site video so that a

  19. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  20. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  1. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  2. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  4. Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    Included in this paper are the opening remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.

  5. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-09

    sea spray over the open ocean and the severity of sea spray icing on fixed offshore structures. We will use existing information on the relationship...and the resulting spray icing on offshore structures, such as wind turbines and exploration, drilling , and production platforms. Our approach...International Ocean ( Offshore ) and Polar Engineering Conference, Anchorage, AK, 30 June–5 July 2013, International Society of Offshore and Polar

  6. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  7. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  8. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  9. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  10. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  11. 30 CFR 817.13 - Casing and sealing of exposed underground openings: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by the regulatory authority. Use of a drilled hole or monitoring well as a water well must meet the... underground openings: General requirements. Each exploration hole, other drillhole or borehole, shaft, well..., fish and wildlife, and machinery in the permit area and adjacent area. Each exploration hole,...

  12. 30 CFR 817.13 - Casing and sealing of exposed underground openings: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by the regulatory authority. Use of a drilled hole or monitoring well as a water well must meet the... underground openings: General requirements. Each exploration hole, other drillhole or borehole, shaft, well..., fish and wildlife, and machinery in the permit area and adjacent area. Each exploration hole,...

  13. 30 CFR 817.13 - Casing and sealing of exposed underground openings: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by the regulatory authority. Use of a drilled hole or monitoring well as a water well must meet the... underground openings: General requirements. Each exploration hole, other drillhole or borehole, shaft, well..., fish and wildlife, and machinery in the permit area and adjacent area. Each exploration hole,...

  14. 30 CFR 817.13 - Casing and sealing of exposed underground openings: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by the regulatory authority. Use of a drilled hole or monitoring well as a water well must meet the... underground openings: General requirements. Each exploration hole, other drillhole or borehole, shaft, well..., fish and wildlife, and machinery in the permit area and adjacent area. Each exploration hole,...

  15. 30 CFR 817.13 - Casing and sealing of exposed underground openings: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by the regulatory authority. Use of a drilled hole or monitoring well as a water well must meet the... underground openings: General requirements. Each exploration hole, other drillhole or borehole, shaft, well..., fish and wildlife, and machinery in the permit area and adjacent area. Each exploration hole,...

  16. eWaterCycle: Building an operational global Hydrological forecasting system based on standards and open source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, Niels; Bierkens, Marc; Donchyts, Gennadii; van de Giesen, Nick; Hummel, Stef; Hut, Rolf; Kockx, Arno; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verlaan, Martin; Weerts, Albrecht; Winsemius, Hessel

    2015-04-01

    At EGU 2015, the eWaterCycle project (www.ewatercycle.org) will launch an operational high-resolution Hydrological global model, including 14 day ensemble forecasts. Within the eWaterCycle project we aim to use standards and open source software as much as possible. This ensures the sustainability of the software created, and the ability to swap out components as newer technologies and solutions become available. It also allows us to build the system much faster than would otherwise be the case. At the heart of the eWaterCycle system is the PCRGLOB-WB Global Hydrological model (www.globalhydrology.nl) developed at Utrecht University. Version 2.0 of this model is implemented in Python, and models a wide range of Hydrological processes at 10 x 10km (and potentially higher) resolution. To assimilate near-real time satellite data into the model, and run an ensemble forecast we use the OpenDA system (www.openda.org). This allows us to make use of different data assimilation techniques without the need to implement these from scratch. As a data assimilation technique we currently use (variant of) an Ensemble Kalman Filter, specifically optimized for High Performance Computing environments. Coupling of the model with the DA is done with the Basic Model Interface (BMI), developed in the framework of the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) (csdms.colorado.edu). We have added support for BMI to PCRGLOB-WB, and developed a BMI adapter for OpenDA, allowing OpenDA to use any BMI compatible model. We currently use multiple different BMI models with OpenDA, already showing the benefits of using this standard. Throughout the system, all file based input and output is done via NetCDF files. We use several standard tools to be used for pre- and post-processing data. Finally we use ncWMS, an NetCDF based implementation of the Web Map Service (WMS) protocol to serve the forecasting result. We have build a 3D web application based on Cesium.js to visualize the output. In

  17. Measuring water exchange between the Venetian Lagoon and the open sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gačić, M.; Kovačević, V.; Mazzoldi, A.; Paduan, J.; Arena, F.; Mancero Mosquera, I.; Gelsi, G.; Arcari, G.

    Almost 15 centuries ago, people fleeing civil disorder and barbarian invasions after the collapse of the Roman Empire began building houses on low-lying islands in the middle of a lagoon. These islands later on—in the 10th century—became the city of Venice, the center of the long-lived Venetian Republic. Surrounded by water, the republic flourished for more than 7 centuries thanks to its strategic position. It fell into decline only at the end of the eighteenth century after being occupied by Napoleon. The early Venetians who built their city on the water to defend it from attacks would never have expected that the water would become the city's most dangerous enemy. In fact, this is what has been going on during the last century Venice risks being destroyed by the very waters that once served as its defense.

  18. Case Study: Competition Nutrition Intakes During the Open Water Swimming Grand Prix Races in Elite Female Swimmer.

    PubMed

    Kumstát, Michal; Rybárová, Silvie; Thomas, Andy; Novotný, Jan

    2016-08-01

    The nutritional intake of elite open water swimmers during competition is not well established, and therefore this case study aims to provide new insights by describing the feeding strategies adopted by an elite female swimmer (28 yrs; height; 1.71 m; body mass: 60 kg; body fat: 16.0%) in the FINA open water Grand Prix 2014.Seven events of varying distances (15-88 km) and durations (3-12 hrs) were included. In all events, except one, feeds were provided from support boats. Swimmer and support staff were instructed to track in detail all foods and beverages consumed during the events. Nutritional information was gathered from the packaging and dietary supplements labels and analyzed by nutrition software. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) and protein intake reached 83 ± 5 g·h-1 and 12 ± 8 g·h-1, respectively. Fat intake was neglected (~1 g·h-1). Mean in-race energy intake reached 394 ± 26 kcal·h-1. Dietary supplements in the form of sport beverages and gels, containing multitransportable CHO, provided 40 ± 4 and 49 ± 6% of all CHO energy, respectively. Caffeine (3.6 ± 1.8 mg·kg-1 per event) and sodium (423 ± 16 mg·h-1) were additionally supplemented in all events. It was established that continuous intake of high doses of CHO and sodium and moderate dose of caffeine were an essential part of the feeding strategy for elite-level high intensity ultra-endurance open-water swimming races. A well scheduled and well-prepared nutrition strategy is believed to have ensured optimal individual performance during Grand Prix events.

  19. Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria in open-water unit process treatment wetlands: Modeling endogenous and exogenous inactivation rates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mi T; Jasper, Justin T; Boehm, Alexandria B; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-10-15

    A pilot-scale open-water unit process wetland was monitored for one year and found to be effective in enhancing sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). The removal of Escherichia coli and enterococci in the open-water wetland receiving non-disinfected secondary municipal wastewater reached 3 logs and 2 logs in summer time, respectively. Pigmented enterococci were shown to be significantly more resistant to sunlight inactivation than non-pigmented enterococci. A model was developed to predict the inactivation of E. coli, and pigmented and non-pigmented enterococci that accounts for endogenous and exogenous sunlight inactivation mechanisms and dark processes. Endogenous inactivation rates were modeled using the sum of UVA and UVB irradiance. Exogenous inactivation was only significant for enterococci, and was modeled as a function of steady-state singlet oxygen concentration. The rate constants were determined from lab experiments and an empirical correction factor was used to account for differences between lab and field conditions. The model was used to predict removal rate constants for FIB in the pilot-scale wetland; considering the variability of the monitoring data, there was general agreement between the modeled values and those determined from measurements. Using the model, we estimate that open-water wetlands at 40° latitude with practical sizes can achieve 3-log (99.9%) removal of E. coli and non-pigmented enterococci throughout the year [5.5 ha and 7.0 ha per million gallons of wastewater effluent per day (MGD), respectively]. Differences in sunlight inactivation rates observed between pigmented and non-pigmented enterococci, as well as between lab-cultured and indigenous wastewater bacteria highlight the challenges of using FIB as model organisms for actual pathogens in natural sunlit environments.

  20. On the turbulent flow around water turbines placed in an open channel: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, F.; Chamorro, L. P.; Arndt, R.

    2010-12-01

    A growing interest in water turbines (using tidal, river, marine currents) has been observed during the last few years. Fundamental understanding of the turbulent flow around the water turbines is crucial to predict the potential effects of these structures on the local morphology, water flow and power available in the current, among others. In this study, a series of model water turbines (single and an aligned array) of 50 cm rotor diameter were placed in the main channel of the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory at the University of Minnesota. The main channel is approx 2.5 m wide, 1.8 m height and 85 m long. Flow around the water turbines were analyzed under subcritical conditions. Turbine hub heights coincided with the channel mid height. A series of acoustic Doppler anemometers (ADV) were used to obtain 3 velocity components of the flow at a rate of 200 Hz. Selected streamwise and spanwise vertical planes were measured to describe the kinematics around the water turbines. Potential interactions with the lateral walls were also addressed. High order statistics (mean velocity, turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses) as well as two point correlations and spectra were computed to infer fundamental differences and similitude with their counterparts, the wind turbines.

  1. Analysis of 10 km swimming performance of elite male and female open-water swimmers.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Pascale; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated trends in performance and sex difference in swimming speed of elite open-water swimmers at FINA 10 km competitions (i.e. World Cup races, European Championships, World Championships and Olympic Games). Swimming speed and sex difference in swimming speed of the fastest and the top ten women and men per event competing at 10 km open-water races between 2008 and 2012 were analysed using single and multi-level regression analyses. A total of 2,591 swimmers (i.e. 1,120 women and 1,471 men) finished 47 races. Swimming speed of the fastest women (1.35 ± 0.9 m/s) and men (1.45 ± 0.10 m/s) showed no changes across years. The mean sex difference in swimming speed for the fastest swimmers was 6.8 ± 2.5%. Swimming speed of the top ten female swimmers per event was 1.34 ± 0.09 m/s and remained stable across the years. The top ten male swimmers per event showed a significant decrease in swimming speed over time, even though swimming speed in the first race (i.e. January 2008, 1.40 ± 0.0 m/s) was slower than the swimming speed in the last race (i.e. October 2012, 1.50 ± 0.0 m/s) (P < 0.05). To summarize, swimming performances remained stable for the fastest elite open-water swimmers at 10 km FINA competitions between 2008 and 2012, while performances of the top ten men tended to decrease. The sex difference in swimming speed in elite ultra-swimmers (~7%) appeared smaller compared to other ultra-distance disciplines such as running. Further studies should examine how body shape and physiology of elite open-water ultra-distance swimmers influence performances.

  2. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. The Effects of Cylinder Head Gasket Opening on Engine Temperature Distribution for a Water-Cooled Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J. Y.; Chi, G. X.

    2017-02-01

    In a liquid-cooled engine, coolant is pumped throughout the water jacket of the engine, drawing heat from the cylinder head, pistons, combustion chambers, cylinder walls, and valves, etc. If the engine temperature is too high or too low, various problems will occur. These include overheating of the lubricating oil and engine parts, excessive stresses between engine parts, loss of power, incomplete burning of fuel, etc. Thus, the engine should be maintained at the proper operating temperature. This study investigated the effects of different cylinder head gasket opening on the engine temperature distributions in a water-cooled motorcycle engine. The numerical predictions for the temperature distribution are in good agreement with the experimental data within 20%.

  4. The removal of mercury from water by open chain ligands containing multiple sulfurs.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Aaron; Atwood, David; Santilliann-Jiminez, Q Eduardo

    2008-08-15

    Mercury pollution is a serious challenge faced by environmental chemists over the world. For several years now, our group has been developing new compounds to precipitate and thereby remove mercury from water. In this paper, we present a new family of alkyl thiol mercury chelates to add to the aromatic ligands we have previously reported. These new compounds are effective at precipitating mercury from water and with an excess of the best compound, removal is quantitative. Furthermore, the precipitates are stable and released little to no mercury back into solution during leaching studies.

  5. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in young-of-the-year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the vicinity of a Superfund Site in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, and in the adjacent waters.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dockum, Bruce W; Cleary, Thomas; Farrington, Cameron; Wieczorek, Daniel

    2013-07-15

    Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the vicinity of a PCB Superfund Site in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, and in the adjacent waters. PCB concentrations in bluefish varied between different locations, and also among fish from a given location. A generally decreasing gradient in PCB concentrations was evident as the bluefish were collected away from the Superfund Site. The average sum of PCB concentrations were highest for bluefish collected in the Upper Harbor between Interstate-195 Bridge and Coggeshall Street Bridge (Upper Harbor), followed by bluefish in Lower Harbor from north of Popes Island Bridge (Lower Harbor), and bluefish from Outer Harbor south of Hurricane Barrier (Outer Harbor). The levels of PCBs in bluefish from Clarks Cove and PCBs in bluefish from Buzzards Bay were similar and lowest among all bluefish specimens analyzed in the present study. Pesticide concentrations were about one order of magnitude or lower than the PCB concentrations, and the gradient of pesticide concentrations generally followed the gradient of PCB concentrations. Some of the commonly detected pesticides in the order of decreasing concentrations included DDTs and metabolites, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan sulfate, and α-chlordane. Distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the tissues of YOY bluefish from Clarks Cove. PCBs and lipids in the brain samples of YOY bluefish were generally numerically greater than PCBs in the liver samples, but these differences were not statistically significant. PCBs and lipids in hypaxial muscle samples were numerically greater than PCBs in epaxial muscle samples, although these two groups of tissues were not statistically different. Despite the higher susceptibility of lighter PCB homologs to geophysical and biogeochemical weathering processes, the relative dominance of lighter homologs

  6. AN OPEN-SOURCE COMMUNITY WEB SITE TO SUPPORT GROUND-WATER MODEL TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A community wiki wiki web site has been created as a resource to support ground-water model development and testing. The Groundwater Gourmet wiki is a repository for user supplied analytical and numerical recipes, how-to's, and examples. Members are encouraged to submit analyti...

  7. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-17

    carbon dioxide sensor, and an Ophir hygrometer /thermometer on a “turbulence” tripod near the northeast shore of the island (Figure 4). 5 Figure 3...turbulence” tripod with its sonic anemometer/thermometer, carbon dioxide and water vapor sensor, and hygrometer /thermometer deployed near the shore of

  8. Planting the [open quote]seeds[close quote] for increased water availability for hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.A. )

    1993-08-01

    Cloud seeding programs are providing some hydro producers with a way of increasing their water reserves on short notice and with relatively low cost. The fundamental formula has been known for half a century: clouds plus cold plus solid particles equal precipitation. What was not certain until more recently is how that relationship could be effectively used to alter the weather in positive ways. Research and practical experience now show that cloud seeding -- adding tiny solid particles to the right clouds at the right temperature -- works. More pertinent, evidence is mounting that hydropower producers can use well-designed, carefully times seeding programs to increase the amount of water available to their systems and thus enhance electricity generation. Cloud seeding has several advantages as a tool to augment hydroelectric production. Seeding programs typically require no capital investment by the utility or other power producer, and can be started and stopped on relatively short notice. Operating costs usually are less than $10 per acre-foot of additional streamflow. More broadly, the additional water produced for hydro generation has the environmental and community relations benefits of being reusable and less expensive than thermal power alternatives. There also normally are the additional benefits of increased water supplies for other users.

  9. 77 FR 38319 - Open Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Water Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Hydrologic Frequency Analysis Work Group's progress on revising Bulletin 17B, Guidelines For Determining Flood Flow Frequency; and a demonstration of a new component of the National Environmental Methods Index that provides better access to statistical and assessment methods for water quality. The ACWI...

  10. On the stability of ion water clusters at atmospheric conditions: Open system Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidi, Zouhaier S.

    2012-09-01

    The formation of water clusters on Li+, Na+, K+, Cl-, and I- ions from water vapor at atmospheric conditions have been studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The extended simple point charge model has been employed for water molecules. The polarization of ions in the field of molecules and the polarization of molecules in the field of ions have been considered explicitly in the total Hamiltonian of the molecular system. The cluster formation work and the Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of attachment reactions of one water molecule to the cluster have been calculated via the bicanonical ensemble method. Our results reveal the formation of stable clusters in equilibrium with the moist atmosphere in a wide range of vapor pressure values, with largest clusters are formed around cations. Decreasing the temperature, from 293 K to 253 K, leads to the formation of larger equilibrium clusters, and enhances the stability of systems as whole. According to clusters' molecular structures, negative ions are expected to be more active in atmospheric processes, including chemical reactions and cloud formation, than positive ones.

  11. Using open source software for the supervision and management of the water resources system of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozanis, S.; Christofides, A.; Efstratiadis, A.; Koukouvinos, A.; Karavokiros, G.; Mamassis, N.; Koutsoyiannis, D.; Nikolopoulos, D.

    2012-04-01

    The water supply of Athens, Greece, is implemented through a complex water resource system, extending over an area of around 4 000 km2 and including surface water and groundwater resources. It incorporates four reservoirs, 350 km of main aqueducts, 15 pumping stations, more than 100 boreholes and 5 small hydropower plants. The system is run by the Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP) Over more than 10 years we have developed, information technology tools such as GIS, database and decision support systems, to assist the management of the system. Among the software components, "Enhydris", a web application for the visualization and management of geographical and hydrometeorological data, and "Hydrognomon", a data analysis and processing tool, are now free software. Enhydris is entirely based on free software technologies such as Python, Django, PostgreSQL, and JQuery. We also created http://openmeteo.org/, a web site hosting our free software products as well as a free database system devoted to the dissemination of free data. In particular, "Enhydris" is used for the management of the hydrometeorological stations and the major hydraulic structures (aqueducts, reservoirs, boreholes, etc.), as well as for the retrieval of time series, online graphs etc. For the specific needs of EYDAP, additional GIS functionality was introduced for the display and monitoring of the water supply network. This functionality is also implemented as free software and can be reused in similar projects. Except for "Hydrognomon" and "Enhydris", we have developed a number of advanced modeling applications, which are also generic-purpose tools that have been used for a long time to provide decision support for the water resource system of Athens. These are "Hydronomeas", which optimizes the operation of complex water resource systems, based on a stochastic simulation framework, "Castalia", which implements the generation of synthetic time series, and "Hydrogeios", which employs

  12. Quantification of the inevitable: the influence of soil macrofauna on soil water movement in rehabilitated open-cut mined lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, S.; Williams, E. R.

    2016-01-01

    Recolonisation of soil by macrofauna (especially ants, termites and earthworms) in rehabilitated open-cut mine sites is inevitable and, in terms of habitat restoration and function, typically of great value. In these highly disturbed landscapes, soil invertebrates play a major role in soil development (macropore configuration, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, etc.) and can influence hydrological processes such as infiltration, seepage, runoff generation and soil erosion. Understanding and quantifying these ecosystem processes is important in rehabilitation design, establishment and subsequent management to ensure progress to the desired end goal, especially in waste cover systems designed to prevent water reaching and transporting underlying hazardous waste materials. However, the soil macrofauna is typically overlooked during hydrological modelling, possibly due to uncertainties on the extent of their influence, which can lead to failure of waste cover systems or rehabilitation activities. We propose that scientific experiments under controlled conditions and field trials on post-mining lands are required to quantify (i) macrofauna-soil structure interactions, (ii) functional dynamics of macrofauna taxa, and (iii) their effects on macrofauna and soil development over time. Such knowledge would provide crucial information for soil water models, which would increase confidence in mine waste cover design recommendations and eventually lead to higher likelihood of rehabilitation success of open-cut mining land.

  13. Quantification of the inevitable: the influence of soil macrofauna on soil water movement in rehabilitated open-cut mine land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, S.; Williams, E. R.

    2015-08-01

    Recolonisation of soil by macrofauna (especially ants and termites) in rehabilitated open-cut mine sites is inevitable. In these highly disturbed landscapes, soil invertebrates play a major role in soil development (macropore configuration, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, etc.) and can influence hydrological processes such as infiltration and seepage. Understanding and quantifying these ecosystem processes is important in rehabilitation design, establishment and subsequent management to ensure progress to the desired end-goal, especially in waste cover systems designed to prevent water reaching and transporting underlying hazardous waste materials. However, soil macrofauna are typically overlooked during hydrological modelling, possibly due to uncertainties on the extent of their influence, which can lead to failure of waste cover systems or rehabilitation activities. We propose that scientific experiments under controlled conditions are required to quantify (i) macrofauna - soil structure interactions, (ii) functional dynamics of macrofauna taxa, and (iii) their effects on macrofauna and soil development over time. Such knowledge would provide crucial information for soil water models, which would increase confidence in mine waste cover design recommendations and eventually lead to higher likelihood of rehabilitation success of open-cut mining land.

  14. Techical findings document for generic issue 51: Improving the reliability of open-cycle service-water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, K.I.

    1988-08-01

    This report summarizes information needed to prepare a fouling surveillance and control program for a nuclear power plant. The safety significance of bivalve and other fouling is reviewed. Many safety-related systems are cooled either directly by the open-cycle water system or indirectly through intermediate cooling loops. Residual heat-removal heat exchangers, containment cooling units, diesel-generator coolers, fire-protection systems, and safety-related equipment coolers have been fouled by bivalves, sediment, or corrosion. The biological characteristics of bivalves enhance their ability to foul service-water systems. The design of the service-water system provides areas where sediments can accumulate and where bivalves can settle and grow. Surveillance and control systems are available to reduce the occurrence of bivalve, sediment, and corrosion fouling. No one technique seems to provide the best answer. A workable surveillance and control program requires using several surveillance and control alternatives. Utility experience has shown that continuous low-level chlorination of the service-water system is one of the most effective means of minimizing the safety significance of macrofouling.

  15. Behavior of fish predators and their prey: habitat choice between open water and dense vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and northern pike, Esox lucius, foraging on fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, was quantified in pools with 50% cover (half the pool had artificial stems at a density of 1000 stems m−2). Both predators spent most of their time in the vegetation. Largemouth bass searched for bluegills and ambushed minnows, whereas the relatively immobile northern pike ambushed all prey. Minnows were closer to predators and were captured more frequently than bluegills. Even when minnows dispersed, they moved continually and eventually wandered within striking distance of a predator. Bluegills dispersed in the cover with predators. Bass captured the few bluegills that strayed into the open and pike captured those that approached too closely in the cover. The ability of predators to capture prey while residing in habitats containing patches of dense cover may explain their residence in areas often considered to be poor ones for foraging.

  16. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    spray ice density data. Our second spray instrument will be a cloud imaging probe with an optical array. It photographs and then automatically sizes...third moment of the drop concentration from the cloud imaging probe is the spray liquid water content. Hence, the combination of the two instruments...working with Edgar Andreas at NWRA. We are borrowing Chris Fairall’s cloud imaging probe. The data for the spray climatologies come from the National

  17. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    spray instrument will be a cloud imaging probe, which we are borrowing from Chris Fairall at NOAA/ESRL. This device consists of an optical array; it...each 25 µm wide. The integral of the third moment of the drop concentration from the cloud imaging probe is the spray liquid water content. Hence...Gloersen P, Zwally HJ. 1996. updated yearly. Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus -7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data, October 1979. Boulder

  18. Undocumented water column sink for cadmium in open ocean oxygen-deficient zones

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, David J.; Conway, Tim M.; John, Seth G.; Christian, James R.; Kramer, Dennis I.; Pedersen, Tom F.; Cullen, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a micronutrient and a tracer of biological productivity and circulation in the ocean. The correlation between dissolved Cd and the major algal nutrients in seawater has led to the use of Cd preserved in microfossils to constrain past ocean nutrient distributions. However, linking Cd to marine biological processes requires constraints on marine sources and sinks of Cd. Here, we show a decoupling between Cd and major nutrients within oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs) in both the Northeast Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, which we attribute to Cd sulfide (CdS) precipitation in euxinic microenvironments around sinking biological particles. We find that dissolved Cd correlates well with dissolved phosphate in oxygenated waters, but is depleted compared with phosphate in ODZs. Additionally, suspended particles from the North Atlantic show high Cd content and light Cd stable isotope ratios within the ODZ, indicative of CdS precipitation. Globally, we calculate that CdS precipitation in ODZs is an important, and to our knowledge a previously undocumented marine sink of Cd. Our results suggest that water column oxygen depletion has a substantial impact on Cd biogeochemical cycling, impacting the global relationship between Cd and major nutrients and suggesting that Cd may be a previously unidentified tracer for water column oxygen deficiency on geological timescales. Similar depletions of copper and zinc in the Northeast Pacific indicate that sulfide precipitation in ODZs may also have an influence on the global distribution of other trace metals. PMID:24778239

  19. Malaria vectors in Lake Victoria and adjacent habitats in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Noboru; Dida, Gabriel O; Sonye, George O; Futami, Kyoko; Njenga, Sammy M

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control.

  20. Rise time reduction of thermal actuators operated in air and water through optimized pre-shaped open-loop driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, T.; Doll, J. C.; Loizeau, F.; Hosseini, N.; Peng, A. W.; Fantner, G. E.; Ricci, A. J.; Pruitt, B. L.

    2017-04-01

    Electrothermal actuators have many advantages compared to other actuators used in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). They are simple to design, easy to fabricate and provide large displacements at low voltages. Low voltages enable less stringent passivation requirements for operation in liquid. Despite these advantages, thermal actuation is typically limited to a few kHz bandwidth when using step inputs due to its intrinsic thermal time constant. However, the use of pre-shaped input signals offers a route for reducing the rise time of these actuators by orders of magnitude. We started with an electrothermally actuated cantilever having an initial 10–90% rise time of 85 μs in air and 234 μs in water for a standard open-loop step input. We experimentally characterized the linearity and frequency response of the cantilever when operated in air and water, allowing us to obtain transfer functions for the two cases. We used these transfer functions, along with functions describing desired reduced rise-time system responses, to numerically simulate the required input signals. Using these pre-shaped input signals, we improved the open-loop 10–90% rise time from 85 μs to 3 μs in air and from 234 μs to 5 μs in water, an improvement by a factor of 28 and 47, respectively. Using this simple control strategy for MEMS electrothermal actuators makes them an attractive alternative to other high speed micromechanical actuators such as piezoelectric stacks or electrostatic comb structures which are more complex to design, fabricate, or operate.

  1. AquaPedia: Building Intellectual Capacity Through Shared Learning and Open Access Platform to Resolve Water Conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, S.; Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A.; Lin, C.; Gao, Y.

    2009-04-01

    consider the impact of natural factors (E, P, and Q) and coupling among them. We recognize that uncertainties and incomplete information about interconnections, feedbacks, and complexities within and between societal and natural systems will continue to pose high barriers in finding an effective solution and reaching an agreement for a given water conflict. Sharing of knowledge across river basins can catalyze this learning process. Yet, each water problem or conflict is usually highly contextual and local with different patterns of interconnections and complexities within and between societal and natural system. A management intervention that works in one basin may not be applicable to another due to differences in social-economic context and natural settings. Consequently, we need a conceptual framework that can integrate knowledge as well as compare and contrast outcomes across different scales, boundaries, and river basins. Such a framework will allow us to share knowledge and speed up the learning process across scales and boundaries. Our proposed web-based, wiki-style, self-learning repository of interactive and searchable water case studies, AquaPedia, is a step in that direction. This repository of water information and collective wisdom will bring together various stakeholders across the globe on a common platform to discuss and craft possible solution(s) for a conflict through joint fact finding and interactive learning. An open access collaborative model is adopted in AquaPedia so that stakeholders can participate in the creation, collaboration, discussion, and modification of the content in a meaningful way. The goal is to encourage and combine multiple perspectives and explore negotiated solutions to water conflicts.

  2. Intraocular pressure fluctuation after water drinking test in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Yi-Chieh; Teng, Mei-Ching; Lin, Pei-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Chia; Lai, Ing-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Context: Only a few studies have assessed intraocular pressure (IOP) changes during the water drinking test (WDT) in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate IOP changes during WDT in patients with PACG versus primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Settings and Design: This was a prospective and single tertiary center study. Materials and Methods: PACG and POAG patients (n = 15 each) without prior glaucoma surgery were enrolled and subjected to WDT, wherein they consumed an amount of water proportional to their body weight within 10 min. IOP was measured at baseline and every 15 min for 1 h after water intake. Statistical Analysis Used: Intergroup comparisons were performed using Mann–Whitney U-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used for comparisons of IOP before and after water intake in the two groups. Regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with IOP fluctuations during WDT. Results: IOP changes over 1 h after water intake showed no significant differences between groups. The mean maximum fluctuation from baseline was 3.61 ± 2.49 and 3.79 ± 1.91 mmHg, respectively, in the PACG and POAG groups. The mean peak IOP was 19.17 ± 4.32 and 19.87 ± 3.44 mmHg in the PACG and PAOG groups, respectively. The axial length and anterior chamber depth showed no correlations with IOP fluctuations. Conclusions: We found similar IOP fluctuation curves and peak IOP values in both PACG and POAG patients subjected to WDT. These findings suggest that WDT is a useful test to induce IOP peaks in both POAG and PACG patients. PMID:28112134

  3. Insights on the Impact of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Tomato Tolerance to Water Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which form symbioses with the roots of the most important crop species, are usually considered biofertilizers, whose exploitation could represent a promising avenue for the development in the future of a more sustainable next-generation agriculture. The best understood function in symbiosis is an improvement in plant mineral nutrient acquisition, as exchange for carbon compounds derived from the photosynthetic process: this can enhance host growth and tolerance to environmental stresses, such as water stress (WS). However, physiological and molecular mechanisms occurring in arbuscular mycorrhiza-colonized plants and directly involved in the mitigation of WS effects need to be further investigated. The main goal of this work is to verify the potential impact of AM symbiosis on the plant response to WS. To this aim, the effect of two AM fungi (Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) under the WS condition was studied. A combined approach, involving ecophysiological, morphometric, biochemical, and molecular analyses, has been used to highlight the mechanisms involved in plant response to WS during AM symbiosis. Gene expression analyses focused on a set of target genes putatively involved in the plant response to drought, and in parallel, we considered the expression changes induced by the imposed stress on a group of fungal genes playing a key role in the water-transport process. Taken together, the results show that AM symbiosis positively affects the tolerance to WS in tomato, with a different plant response depending on the AM fungi species involved. PMID:27208301

  4. Water-mediated cation intercalation of open-framework indium hexacyanoferrate with high voltage and fast kinetics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Shao, Hezhu; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Guoqiang; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Zhaoping

    2016-06-20

    Rechargeable aqueous metal-ion batteries made from non-flammable and low-cost materials offer promising opportunities in large-scale utility grid applications, yet low voltage and energy output, as well as limited cycle life remain critical drawbacks in their electrochemical operation. Here we develop a series of high-voltage aqueous metal-ion batteries based on 'M(+)/N(+)-dual shuttles' to overcome these drawbacks. They utilize open-framework indium hexacyanoferrates as cathode materials, and TiP2O7 and NaTi2(PO4)3 as anode materials, respectively. All of them possess strong rate capability as ultra-capacitors. Through multiple characterization techniques combined with ab initio calculations, water-mediated cation intercalation of indium hexacyanoferrate is unveiled. Water is supposed to be co-inserted with Li(+) or Na(+), which evidently raises the intercalation voltage and reduces diffusion kinetics. As for K(+), water is not involved in the intercalation because of the channel space limitation.

  5. Water-mediated cation intercalation of open-framework indium hexacyanoferrate with high voltage and fast kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Shao, Hezhu; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Guoqiang; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Zhaoping

    2016-06-01

    Rechargeable aqueous metal-ion batteries made from non-flammable and low-cost materials offer promising opportunities in large-scale utility grid applications, yet low voltage and energy output, as well as limited cycle life remain critical drawbacks in their electrochemical operation. Here we develop a series of high-voltage aqueous metal-ion batteries based on `M+/N+-dual shuttles' to overcome these drawbacks. They utilize open-framework indium hexacyanoferrates as cathode materials, and TiP2O7 and NaTi2(PO4)3 as anode materials, respectively. All of them possess strong rate capability as ultra-capacitors. Through multiple characterization techniques combined with ab initio calculations, water-mediated cation intercalation of indium hexacyanoferrate is unveiled. Water is supposed to be co-inserted with Li+ or Na+, which evidently raises the intercalation voltage and reduces diffusion kinetics. As for K+, water is not involved in the intercalation because of the channel space limitation.

  6. Continuous field measurements of δD in water vapor by open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Wenqing; Zhang, Tianshu

    2012-12-01

    The stable isotopes in atmospheric water vapor contain rich information on the hydrologic cycles and gaseous exchange processes between biosphere and atmosphere. About one-week field experiment was conducted to continuously measure the isotope composition of water vapor in ambient air using an open-path FTIR system. Mixing ratios of H2 16O and HD16O were measured simultaneously. Analysis of water vapor isotopes revealed that the variations of H2 16O and HD16O were highly related. Mixing ratios of both isotopes varied considerably on a daily timescale or between days, with no obvious diurnal cycle, whereas the deuterium isotopic [delta]D showed clear diel cycle. The results illustrated that the correlation between [delta]D and H2O mixing ratio was relatively weak, which was also demonstrated by the Keeling plot analysis with the whole data. Yet the further Keeling analysis on a daily timescale displayed more obvious linear relationship between [delta]D and the total H2O concentration. All daily isotopic values of evapotranspiration source were obtained, with the range between -113.93±10.25‰ and -245.63±17.61‰ over the observation period.

  7. Michrochip chromatography using an open-tubular microchannel and a ternary water-ACN-ethyl acetate mixture carrier solution.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Takafumi; Yamashita, Kenichi; Maeda, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2013-03-01

    A capillary chromatography system has been developed using a ternary mixed-solvents solution, i.e. water-hydrophilic/hydrophobic organic solvent mixture as a carrier solution. Here, we tried to carry out the chromatographic system on a microchip incorporating the open-tubular microchannels. A model analyte solution of isoluminol isothiocyanate (ILITC) and ILITC-labeled biomolecule was injected to the double T-junction part on the microchip. The analyte solution was delivered in the separation microchannel (40 μm deep, 100 μm wide, and 22 cm long) with the ternary water-ACN-ethyl acetate mixture carrier solution (3:8:4 volume ratio, the organic solvent rich or 15:3:2 volume ratio, the water-rich). The analyte, free-ILITC and labeled BSA mixture, was separated through the microchannel, where the carrier solvents were radially distributed in the separation channel generating inner and outer phases. The outer phase acts as a pseudo-stationary phase under laminar flow conditions in the system. The ILITC and the labeled BSA were eluted and detected with chemiluminescence reaction.

  8. Water-mediated cation intercalation of open-framework indium hexacyanoferrate with high voltage and fast kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Shao, Hezhu; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Guoqiang; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable aqueous metal-ion batteries made from non-flammable and low-cost materials offer promising opportunities in large-scale utility grid applications, yet low voltage and energy output, as well as limited cycle life remain critical drawbacks in their electrochemical operation. Here we develop a series of high-voltage aqueous metal-ion batteries based on ‘M+/N+-dual shuttles' to overcome these drawbacks. They utilize open-framework indium hexacyanoferrates as cathode materials, and TiP2O7 and NaTi2(PO4)3 as anode materials, respectively. All of them possess strong rate capability as ultra-capacitors. Through multiple characterization techniques combined with ab initio calculations, water-mediated cation intercalation of indium hexacyanoferrate is unveiled. Water is supposed to be co-inserted with Li+ or Na+, which evidently raises the intercalation voltage and reduces diffusion kinetics. As for K+, water is not involved in the intercalation because of the channel space limitation. PMID:27321702

  9. How Does Leaf Anatomy Influence Water Transport outside the Xylem?1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas N.; Scoffoni, Christine; Sack, Lawren

    2015-01-01

    Leaves are arguably the most complex and important physicobiological systems in the ecosphere. Yet, water transport outside the leaf xylem remains poorly understood, despite its impacts on stomatal function and photosynthesis. We applied anatomical measurements from 14 diverse species to a novel model of water flow in an areole (the smallest region bounded by minor veins) to predict the impact of anatomical variation across species on outside-xylem hydraulic conductance (Kox). Several predictions verified previous correlational studies: (1) vein length per unit area is the strongest anatomical determinant of Kox, due to effects on hydraulic pathlength and bundle sheath (BS) surface area; (2) palisade mesophyll remains well hydrated in hypostomatous species, which may benefit photosynthesis, (3) BS extensions enhance Kox; and (4) the upper and lower epidermis are hydraulically sequestered from one another despite their proximity. Our findings also provided novel insights: (5) the BS contributes a minority of outside-xylem resistance; (6) vapor transport contributes up to two-thirds of Kox; (7) Kox is strongly enhanced by the proximity of veins to lower epidermis; and (8) Kox is strongly influenced by spongy mesophyll anatomy, decreasing with protoplast size and increasing with airspace fraction and cell wall thickness. Correlations between anatomy and Kox across species sometimes diverged from predicted causal effects, demonstrating the need for integrative models to resolve causation. For example, (9) Kox was enhanced far more in heterobaric species than predicted by their having BS extensions. Our approach provides detailed insights into the role of anatomical variation in leaf function. PMID:26084922

  10. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B.K.; Althof, J.A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations. 33 refs., 69 figs., 38 tabs.

  11. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B. K.; Althof, J. A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations.

  12. Freshwater mass balance and exchange of water masses with the open sea: the Mljet Lakes (Croatia, Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martincic, Urska; Bezak, Nejc; Zagar, Dusan; Makovec, Tihomir; Lucic, Davor; Onofri, Vladimir; Malacic, Vlado

    2016-04-01

    Two karstic seawater lakes (Veliko - Big and Malo - Small Lake) located in the National Park Mljet on the Mljet Island in Croatia were investigated in this study. The Small and the Big Lake cover 0.25 and 1.45 km2, respectively. The two lakes are connected to each other and to the sea by narrow channels. The connecting channel between the Big Lake and the sea is 12 m wide and 3 m deep. The connection to the Small Lake leads through another artificial channel (2.7 m wide and 0.8 m deep). The average salinity of the Big and the Small lake is 37.75 and 36.9, respectively, and the average salinity of the open sea is 38.5. While previous studies have been conducted due to the lakes' unique ecosystem and the karstic characteristics of the area, the main aim of this study was to determine the freshwater mass balance and exchange of water masses with the nearby sea. Several measurement campaigns were performed between 2008 and 2015 when meteorological parameters as well as salinity, water temperature and water velocities in both lakes and the channels were observed. A perpetual year was determined using available meteorological data. The contribution of the surface runoff to both lakes was modelled using the hydrological rainfall-runoff HEC-HMS model. Curve number parameter was estimated using the CLC Corine Land cover and geomorphological maps. Evaporation from the lake was calculated using the Verburg, Kondo and Coare equations. We found that the annual evaporation approximately equals the annual rainfall to the lake surface (cca. 550-600 mm). From the hydrological model and the difference between precipitation and evaporation from the lake surface we calculated the annual net excess of freshwater between 0.5 106 and 0.7 106 m3. The average salinity in both lakes is lower than the salinity in the sea; therefore, we hypothesize that the excess water should be discharged either through the channel between the Big Lake and the open sea or through underwater karstic sink

  13. Cumulative effects of restoration efforts on ecological characteristics of an open water area within the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, B.R.; Shi, W.; Houser, J.N.; Rogala, J.T.; Guan, Z.; Cochran-Biederman, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological restoration efforts in large rivers generally aim to ameliorate ecological effects associated with large-scale modification of those rivers. This study examined whether the effects of restoration efforts-specifically those of island construction-within a largely open water restoration area of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) might be seen at the spatial scale of that 3476ha area. The cumulative effects of island construction, when observed over multiple years, were postulated to have made the restoration area increasingly similar to a positive reference area (a proximate area comprising contiguous backwater areas) and increasingly different from two negative reference areas. The negative reference areas represented the Mississippi River main channel in an area proximate to the restoration area and an open water area in a related Mississippi River reach that has seen relatively little restoration effort. Inferences on the effects of restoration were made by comparing constrained and unconstrained models of summer chlorophyll a (CHL), summer inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and counts of benthic mayfly larvae. Constrained models forced trends in means or in both means and sampling variances to become, over time, increasingly similar to those in the positive reference area and increasingly dissimilar to those in the negative reference areas. Trends were estimated over 12- (mayflies) or 14-year sampling periods, and were evaluated using model information criteria. Based on these methods, restoration effects were observed for CHL and mayflies while evidence in favour of restoration effects on ISS was equivocal. These findings suggest that the cumulative effects of island building at relatively large spatial scales within large rivers may be estimated using data from large-scale surveillance monitoring programs. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  15. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  16. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  17. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  18. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  19. Particle-water partitioning of PCBs in the photic zone: a 25-month study in the open Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Anna; Gustafsson, Orjan; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf

    2004-03-01

    From previous laboratory and field studies, it remains unclear whether partitioning of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to phytoplankton from water is kinetically limited or may be treated as an equilibrium process. Here, we report on the partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to particulate organic carbon (POC), dominated by planktonic primary production, in the open Baltic Sea during a 25-month period. The organic carbon-normalized partition coefficient (Koc) was corrected for temperature, salinity, and sorption to filter-passing organic carbon. At all 21 sampling occasions, the log Koc-log Kow regression was significantly linear, despite a large variation in biogeochemical parameters such as POC concentration and composition, primary production, and phytoplankton species composition. These data strongly suggest that partitioning of PCBs to POC in temperate surface waters is equilibrated and therefore not kinetically limited by factors such as rapid phytoplankton growth rate or large cell size. The partitioning of PCBs to the POC was described throughout seasonal cycles by log Koc = 0.88 +/- 0.07 log Kow + 0.90 +/- 0.47 (95% confidence interval). The slope of the log Koc-log Kow regression for the single sampling occasions varied between 0.56 and 1.25, and there was a seasonal variation in the POC sorbent quality (e.g., log Koc for PCB 28 varied between 5.5 and 6.9; median 5.9). These variations reflect the variability in structural composition of the POC pool in such pelagic waters. Being able to predict particle-water partitioning of HOCs significantly reduces the required complexity of both food web uptake models and predictions of POC-mediated export of HOCs to the deep ocean.

  20. Air-water fluxes of N₂O and CH₄ during microalgae (Staurosira sp.) cultivation in an open raceway pond.

    PubMed

    Ferrón, Sara; Ho, David T; Johnson, Zackary I; Huntley, Mark E

    2012-10-02

    The industrial-scale production of biofuels from cultivated microalgae has gained considerable interest in the last several decades. While the climate benefits of microalgae cultivation that result from the capture of atmospheric CO(2) are known, the counteracting effect from the potential emission of other greenhouse gases has not been well quantified. Here, we report the results of a study conducted at an industrial pilot facility in Hawaii to determine the air-water fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) from open raceway ponds used to grow the marine diatom Staurosira sp. as a feedstock for biofuel. Dissolved O(2), CH(4), and N(2)O concentrations were measured over a 24 h cycle. During this time, four SF(6) tracer release experiments were conducted to quantify gas transfer velocities in the ponds, and these were then used to calculate air-water fluxes. Our results show that pond waters were consistently supersaturated with CH(4) (up to 725%) resulting in an average emission of 19.9 ± 5.6 μmol CH(4) m(-2) d(-1). Upon NO(3)(-) depletion, the pond shifted from being a source to being a sink of N(2)O, with an overall net uptake during the experimental period of 3.4 ± 3.5 μmol N(2)O m(-2) d(-1). The air-water fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) expressed as CO(2) equivalents of global warming potential were 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the overall CO(2) uptake by the microalgae.

  1. A comparison of methods for estimating open-water evaporation in small wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, Jason R.; Stannard, David I.

    2010-01-01

    We compared evaporation measurements from a floating pan, land pan, chamber, and the Priestley-Taylor (PT) equation. Floating pan, land pan, and meteorological data were collected from June 6 to July 21, 2005, at a small wetland in the Canadian River alluvium in central Oklahoma, USA. Evaporation measured with the floating pan compared favorably to 12 h chamber measurements. Differences between chamber and floating pan rates ranged from −0.2 to 0.3 mm, mean of 0.1 mm. The difference between chamber and land pan rates ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 mm, mean of 1.5 mm. The mean chamber-to-floating pan ratio was 0.97 and the mean chamber-to-land pan ratio was 0.73. The chamber-to-floating pan ratio of 0.97 indicates the use of a floating pan to measure evaporation in small limited-fetch water bodies is an appropriate and accurate method for the site investigated. One-sided Paired t-Tests indicate daily floating pan rates were significantly less than land pan and PT rates. A two-sided Paired t-Test indicated there was no significant difference between land pan and PT values. The PT equation tends to overestimate evaporation during times when the air is of low drying power and tends to underestimate as drying power increases.

  2. Spirulina platensis growth in open raceway ponds using fresh water supplemented with carbon, nitrogen and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Colla, Luciane Maria; Duarte Filho, Paulo

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using fresh water from Mangueira Lagoon (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) for biomass production in open raceway ponds (0.7 m long, 0.18 m wide, 0.075 m deep) we studied the influence of nutrient addition (carbon as sodium bicarbonate, nitrogen as urea, phosphate, sulfate, ferric iron, magnesium and potassium) on the growth rate of the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis using a 22 factorial design. In unsupplemented lagoon water production of S platensis was 0.78 +/- 0.01 g/l (dry weight basis) while the addition of 2.88 g/l of sodium bicarbonate (without added urea, phosphate, sulfate or metal ions) resulted in 0.82 +/- 0.01 g/l after 400 hours of culture. The further addition of phosphate and metal ions resulted in growth for up to 750 h and a final S. platensis biomass of 1.23 +/- 0.04 to 1.34 +/- 0.03 g/l.

  3. Water saving at the field scale with Irrig-OH, an open-hardware environment device for soil water potential monitoring and irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation practices is an important objective which should be pursued in many countries, especially in areas where water scarcity causes strong conflicts among the different water uses. The efficient use of water is a key factor in coping with the food demand of an increasing world population and with the negative effects of the climate change on water resources availability in many areas. In this complex context, it is important that farmers adopt instruments and practices that enable a better management of water at the field scale, whatever the irrigation method they adopt. This work presents the hardware structure and the functioning of an open-hardware microstation based on the Arduino technology, called Irrig-OH, which allows the continuous and low-cost monitoring of the soil water potential (SWP) in the root zone for supporting the irrigation scheduling at the field scale. In order to test the microstation, an experiment was carried out during the agricultural season 2014 at Lodi (Italy), with the purpose of comparing the farmers' traditional management of irrigation of a peach variety and the scheduling based on the SWP measurements provided by the microstation. Additional measurements of leaf water potential (LWP), stomatal resistance, transpiration (T), crop water stress index (CWSI) and fruit size evolution were performed respectively on leafs and fruits for verifying the plant physiological responses on different SWP levels in soil. At the harvesting time, the peach production in term of quantity and quality (sucrose content was measured by a rifractometer over a sample of one hundred fruits) of the two rows were compared. Irrigation criteria was changed with respect to three macro-periods: up to the endocarp hardening phase (begin of May) soil was kept well watered fixing the SWP threshold in the first 35 cm of the soil profile at -20 kPa, during the pit hardening period (about the entire month of May) the allowed SWP threshold was

  4. An open-loop ground-water heat pump system: transient numerical modeling and site experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Russo, S.; Taddia, G.; Gnavi, L.

    2012-04-01

    KEY WORDS: Open-loop ground water heat pump; Feflow; Low-enthalpy; Thermal Affected Zone; Turin; Italy The increasing diffusion of low-enthalpy geothermal open-loop Groundwater Heat Pumps (GWHP) providing buildings air conditioning requires a careful assessment of the overall effects on groundwater system, especially in the urban areas where several plants can be close together and interfere. One of the fundamental aspects in the realization of an open loop low-enthalpy geothermal system is therefore the capacity to forecast the effects of thermal alteration produced in the ground, induced by the geothermal system itself. The impact on the groundwater temperature in the surrounding area of the re-injection well (Thermal Affected Zone - TAZ) is directly linked to the aquifer properties. The transient dynamic of groundwater discharge and temperature variations should be also considered to assess the subsurface environmental effects of the plant. The experimental groundwater heat pump system used in this study is installed at the "Politecnico di Torino" (NW Italy, Piedmont Region). This plant provides summer cooling needs for the university buildings. This system is composed by a pumping well, a downgradient injection well and a control piezometer. The system is constantly monitored by multiparameter probes measuring the dynamic of groundwater temperature. A finite element subsurface flow and transport simulator (FEFLOW) was used to investigate the thermal aquifer alteration. Simulations were continuously performed during May-October 2010 (cooling period). The numerical simulation of the heat transport in the aquifer was solved with transient conditions. The simulation was performed by considering only the heat transfer within the saturated aquifer, without any heat dispersion above or below the saturated zone due to the lack of detailed information regarding the unsaturated zone. Model results were compared with experimental temperature data derived from groundwater

  5. Astronaut Charles Duke stands at rock adjacent to 'House Rock'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, stands at a rock adjacent (south) to the huge 'House Rock' (barely out of view at right edge). Note shadow at extreme right center where the two moon-exploring crewmen of the mission sampled what they referred to as the 'eastwest split of House Rock' or the open space between this rock and 'House Rock'. Duke has a sample bag in his hand, and a lunar surface rake leans against the large boulder.

  6. Bubbles, microparticles, and neutrophil activation: changes with exercise level and breathing gas during open-water SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Thom, Stephen R; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bogush, Marina; Yang, Ming; Bhopale, Veena M; Pollock, Neal W; Ljubkovic, Marko; Denoble, Petar; Madden, Dennis; Lozo, Mislav; Dujic, Zeljko

    2013-05-15

    The study goal was to evaluate responses in humans following decompression from open-water SCUBA diving with the hypothesis that exertion underwater and use of a breathing mixture containing more oxygen and less nitrogen (enriched air nitrox) would alter annexin V-positive microparticle (MP) production and size changes and neutrophil activation, as well as their relationships to intravascular bubble formation. Twenty-four divers followed a uniform dive profile to 18 m of sea water breathing air or 22.5 m breathing 32% oxygen/68% nitrogen for 47 min, either swimming with moderately heavy exertion underwater or remaining stationary at depth. Blood was obtained pre- and at 15 and 120 min postdive. Intravascular bubbles were quantified by transthoracic echocardiography postdive at 20-min intervals for 2 h. There were no significant differences in maximum bubble scores among the dives. MP number increased 2.7-fold, on average, within 15 min after each dive; only the air-exertion dive resulted in a significant further increase to 5-fold over baseline at 2 h postdive. Neutrophil activation occurred after all dives. For the enriched air nitrox stationary at depth dive, but not for other conditions, the numbers of postdive annexin V-positive particles above 1 μm in diameter were correlated with intravascular bubble scores (correlation coefficients ∼0.9, P < 0.05). We conclude that postdecompression relationships among bubbles, MPs, platelet-neutrophil interactions, and neutrophil activation appear to exist, but more study is required to improve confidence in the associations.

  7. Effect of the cathode open ratios on the water management of a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell fed with neat methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianglin; Faghri, Amir

    2011-08-01

    A novel approach has been proposed to improve the water management of a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) fed with neat methanol without increasing its volume or weight. By adopting perforated covers with different open ratios at the cathode, the water management has been significantly improved in a DMFC fed with neat methanol. An optimized cathode open ratio could ensure both the sufficient supply of oxygen and low water loss. While changing the open ratio of anode vaporizer can adjust the methanol crossover rate in a DMFC. Furthermore, the gas mixing layer, added between the anode vaporizer and the anode current collector to increase the mass transfer resistance, can improve the cell performance, decrease the methanol crossover, and increase the fuel efficiency. For the case of a DMFC fed with neat methanol, an anode vaporizer with the open ratio of 12% and a cathode open ratio of 20% produced the highest peak power density, 22.7 mW cm-2, and high fuel efficiency, 70.1%, at room temperature of 25 ± 1 °C and ambient humidity of 25-50%.

  8. Observations of tidal flux between a submersed aquatic plant stand and the adjacent channel in the Potomac River near Washington, D.C.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rybicki, N.B.; Jenter, H.L.; Carter, V.; Baltzer, R.A.; Turtora, M.

    1997-01-01

    Dye injection studies and direct velocity and water-level measurements were made in macrophyte stands and adjacent channels in order to observe the effects of the macrophyte stand on flow and mass exchange in the tidal Potomac River. During the summer, dense stands of submersed aquatic plants cover most shoals <2 m deep. Continuous summertime water-level records within a submersed aquatic plant stand and in the adjacent channel revealed time-varying gradients in water-surface elevation between the two areas. Water-level gradients are created by differing rates of tidal water-level change in vegetated and unvegetated areas. Results were consistent with the idea that on a rising tide the water was slower to enter a macrophyte stand, and on a falling tide it was slower to leave it. Differences in water elevation between the stand and the open channel generated components of velocity in the stand that were at right angles to the line of flow in the channel. Seasonal differences in flow speed and direction over the shoals indicate substantial differences in resistance to flow as a result of the vegetation.

  9. Long-distance swimming by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea during years of extensive open water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) depend on sea ice for catching marine mammal prey. Recent sea-ice declines have been linked to reductions in body condition, survival, and population size. Reduced foraging opportunity is hypothesized to be the primary cause of sea-ice-linked declines, but the costs of travel through a deteriorated sea-ice environment also may be a factor. We used movement data from 52 adult female polar bears wearing Global Positioning System (GPS) collars, including some with dependent young, to document long-distance swimming (>50 km) by polar bears in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi seas. During 6 years (2004-2009), we identified 50 long-distance swims by 20 bears. Swim duration and distance ranged from 0.7 to 9.7 days (mean = 3.4 days) and 53.7 to 687.1 km (mean = 154.2 km), respectively. Frequency of swimming appeared to increase over the course of the study. We show that adult female polar bears and their cubs are capable of swimming long distances during periods when extensive areas of open water are present. However, long-distance swimming appears to have higher energetic demands than moving over sea ice. Our observations suggest long-distance swimming is a behavioral response to declining summer sea-ice conditions.

  10. Variations of extent, area, and open water of the polar sea-ice covers: 1978-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Gloersen, P.; Campbell, W.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Scanning Multichannel microwave Radiometer (SMMR) which operated onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite from October 1978 to August 1987 obtained sequential synoptic observations of the entire Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers every 2 days through the clouds during night and day. It is a unique almost decade-long data set of the large-scale behavior of sea ice on earth. Ibis paper presents the results of an analysis of SMMR observations of the Arctic, Antarctic, and global sea ice area, extent, and open water within the ice pack. These data are corrected for instrumental drift and errors due to variations in the ecliptic angle. Also presented is an analysis based on a combination of Fourier and ordinary least-squares regression techniques which yields their interannual variations and trends. In the power spectra of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice areas and extents, the largest peaks are the dominant annual cycles, the second and third harmonics which are distinct, and the fourth and fifth which are identifiable. In order to remove the seasonal cycle, the first five harmonics are subtracted from the area and extent data, obtaining the residuals from which the trends are determined. During this 9-year period, the Arctic ice cover has negative trends of 1.9 +/- 1.3% for the extent and 1.6 +/- 1.6% for the area, with confidence levels of 95% as defined by the two-sigma criterion.

  11. Ethylene modifies architecture of root system in response to stomatal opening and water allocation changes between root and shoot.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Beauclair; Antonin, Leblanc; Servane, Lemauviel-Lavenant; Deleu, Carole; Le Deunff, Erwan

    2009-01-01

    Ethylene plays a key role in the elongation of exploratory and root hair systems in plants, as demonstrated by pharmacological modulation of the activity of ethylene biosynthesis enzymes: ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO). Thus, treatments with high concentrations (10 microM) of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, inhibitor of ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC, ethylene precursor, ACO activator) severely decrease the elongation of the exploratory root system but induce opposite effects on the root hair system: root hair length and numbers were increased in seedlings treated with ACC, whereas they were reduced in seedlings treated with AVG. Until now, such elongation changes of root architecture had not been questioned in terms of nitrate uptake. In the march issue of Plant Physiology we report that N uptake and nitrate transporter BnNrt2.1 transcript level were markedly reduced in ACC treated seedlings, but were increased in AVG treated seedlings compared to the control.1 Because recent studies have revealed that ethylene can also modulate stomatal opening as well as root hair cell elongation, we have examined whether pharmacological modulation of ethylene biosynthesis could affect, in an integrated manner, and at a whole-plant level, the exploratory and root hair systems, through changes of stomatal conductance and water allocation between the root and shoot.

  12. Application of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Service (WPS) Standard for Exposing Water Models as Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, J. L.; Castronova, A. M.; Huynh, N.; Caicedo, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Management of water systems often requires the integration of data and models across a range of sources and disciplinary expertise. Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) have emerged as a powerful paradigm for providing this integration. Including models within a SOA presents challenges because services are not well suited for applications that require state management and large data transfers. Despite these challenges, thoughtful inclusion of models as resources within a SOA could have distinct advantages that center on the idea of abstracting complex computer hardware and software from service consumers while, at the same time, providing powerful resources to client applications. With these advantages and challenges of using models within SOA in mind, this work explores the potential of a modeling service standard as a means for integrating models as resources within SOA. Specifically, we investigate the use of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Service (WPS) standard for exposing models as web services. Through extension of a Python-based implementation of WPS (called pyWPS), we present a demonstration of the methodology through a case study involving a storm event that floods roads and disrupts travel in Columbia, SC. The case study highlights the benefit of an urban infrastructure system with its various subsystems (stormwater, transportation, and structures) interacting and exchanging data seamlessly.

  13. Ethylene modifies architecture of root system in response to stomatal opening and water allocation changes between root and shoot

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Beauclair; Antonin, Leblanc; Servane, Lemauviel-Lavenant; Deleu, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Ethylene plays a key role in the elongation of exploratory and root hair systems in plants, as demonstrated by pharmacological modulation of the activity of ethylene biosynthesis enzymes: ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO). Thus, treatments with high concentrations (10 µM) of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, inhibitor of ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC, ethylene precursor, ACO activator) severely decrease the elongation of the exploratory root system but induce opposite effects on the root hair system: root hair length and numbers were increased in seedlings treated with ACC, whereas they were reduced in seedlings treated with AVG. Until now, such elongation changes of root architecture had not been questioned in terms of nitrate uptake. In the march issue of Plant Physiology we report that N uptake and nitrate transporter BnNrt2.1 transcript level were markedly reduced in ACC treated seedlings, but were increased in AVG treated seedlings compared to the control.1 Because recent studies have revealed that ethylene can also modulate stomatal opening as well as root hair cell elongation, we have examined whether pharmacological modulation of ethylene biosynthesis could affect, in an integrated manner, and at a whole-plant level, the exploratory and root hair systems, through changes of stomatal conductance and water allocation between the root and shoot. PMID:19704705

  14. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Effects of Submersed Aquatic Macrophytes on Physical and Chemical Properties of Surrounding Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    significantly altered profiles of oxygen and pH within macrophyte beds as compared with open waters. (Continued) 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT...water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH exhibited strikingly greater variations over daily cycles in macrophyte beds than in adjacent open water...that submersed aquatic macrophytes can have important effects on dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and pH (see, for example, Van, Haller, and Bowes

  15. FINDING THE SCALES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO LANDSCAPE CHARACTER AND TRIBUTARY INPUTS TO OPEN NEARSHORE WATERS, A GREAT LAKES COAST-WIDE EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2002 we sampled over 40 stretches of open coastline across the US portion of the Great Lakes with an equal effort planned for 2003. Sites were selected to represent an intended gradient of landscape disturbance in watersheds hydrologically-connected to nearshore waters. Half t...

  16. Baobab trees (Adansonia) in Madagascar use stored water to flush new leaves but not to support stomatal opening before the rainy season.

    PubMed

    Chapotin, Saharah Moon; Razanameharizaka, Juvet H; Holbrook, N Michele

    2006-01-01

    Baobab trees (Adansonia, Bombacaceae) are widely thought to store water in their stems for use when water availability is low. We tested this hypothesis by assessing the role of stored water during the dry season in three baobab species in Madagascar. In the dry season, leaves are present only during and after leaf flush. We quantified the relative contributions of stem and soil water during this period through measures of stem water content, sap flow and stomatal conductance. Rates of sap flow at the base of the trunk were near zero, indicating that leaf flushing was almost entirely dependent on stem water. Stem water content declined by up to 12% during this period, yet stomatal conductance and branch sap flow rates remained very low. Stem water reserves were used to support new leaf growth and cuticular transpiration, but not to support stomatal opening before the rainy season. Stomatal opening coincided with the onset of sap flow at the base of the trunk and occurred only after significant rainfall.

  17. Terrigenous Sedimentation Patterns at Reefs Adjacent to the Guanica Bay Watershed, Southwest Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, C.; Whitall, D.

    2014-12-01

    Guanica Bay is an estuary on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico with numerous nearshore reefs located in adjacent coastal waters. As part of the multi-agency Guanica Bay Watershed Project, a study was undertaken to establish baseline levels of terrigenous sedimentation reaching reefs adjacent to the Guanica Bay watershed as well as establish spatial and temporal patterns in its delivery. To characterize and quantify sedimentation patterns, sediment traps were established at nine reef sites occurring along an ~ 14 km stretch of coastline centered on the outlet of the bay. Sites were located at shallow reefs within 2 km of the shore at depths of ~ 10 m. Two additional sites were located at the mouth of the Rio Loco where it empties into Guanica Bay and at the mouth of the bay where it opens into adjacent coastal waters. Traps were collected monthly from August 2009 through July 2012 to determine both the amount of sediment accumulation (mg cm-2 day-1) and its composition. Composition is expressed in terms of relative amounts of calcium carbonate (in situ production), organic material and terrigenous material. Average trap accumulation rates among the reef sites ranged from ~ 3 to 28 mg cm-2 day-1. Average percent terrigenous material within reef accumulation ranged from ~ 20% to 30%. While trap accumulation rates are highly variable on both spatial and temporal scales, the composition of sediments and relative amount of terrigenous material is fairly uniform. Similar temporal patterns in accumulation rates among the sites without corresponding changes in composition of sediments point to resuspension of bottom sediments by wave action as a primary driver of sedimentary dynamics at these reefs. Sites closest to Guanica Bay display the highest degree of terrigenous influence in terms of trap accumulation rates and percent terrigenous material, which is consistent with Guanica Bay serving as a local source of terrigenous material to coastal waters. However, the lack of

  18. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  19. Spatio-temporal evolution of a Tertiary carbonate platform margin and adjacent basinal deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Moyra E. J.; Chambers, John L. C.; Manning, Christina; Nas, Dharma S.

    2012-10-01

    The variability in low to moderate energy carbonate platform margins is poorly known from the geological record. Here, the spatial and temporal evolution of platform margin and adjacent basinal deposits is evaluated from the little known Tertiary Kedango Limestone that developed in a semi-enclosed marine embayment in SE Asia. The hypothesis here is that platform margin development will reflect regional and perhaps global influences, such as tectonics, eustasy or biotic change, rather than windward-leeward effects and storms that typically impact strongly upon open oceanic platforms. The development of the carbonate platform was determined through logging, petrography, facies evaluation, provenance and high-resolution dating studies. Eleven carbonate facies were identified from the 30 km long western margin of the > 600 m thick platform and its adjacent slope and basinal deposits. Larger benthic foraminifera and coralline algal packstones and wackestones dominated in shallow waters. During the Oligo-Miocene, coral patch reef-related floatstones, rudstones and less commonly boundstones were also present on the platform top. Perhaps surprisingly for a low energy platform there was considerable variation along the platform margin and much reworking of material into slope and basinal deposits during the Oligo-Miocene. Reworked material includes shallow water bioclasts, clasts from older siliciclastics, fresh feldspars, lithified slope and platform top carbonate clasts, some of the latter showing evidence for karstification. The western platform margin varied laterally over a few kilometres from a gently sloping unrimmed platform, to a probable bank top, with in places coral-fringed, bypass and erosional faulted escarpment margins. Eustasy may have influenced shallowing and deepening trends on the platform top, but apparently had little impact on mass wasting. Instead platform margin development was strongly impacted by tectonics (including active faulting), terrestrial

  20. Hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and parts of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and Alabama during drought conditions, July 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of the Interior sustainable water strategy, WaterSMART, the U.S. Geological Survey documented hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and western and central Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia during low-flow conditions in July 2011. Moderate-drought conditions prevailed in this area during early 2011 and worsened to exceptional by June, with cumulative rainfall departures from the 1981-2010 climate normals registering deficits ranging from 17 to 27 inches. As a result, groundwater levels and stream discharges measured below median daily levels throughout most of 2011. Water-quality field properties including temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were measured at selected surface-water sites. Record-low groundwater levels measured in 12 of 43 surficial aquifer wells and 128 of 312 Upper Floridan aquifer wells during July 2011 underscored the severity of drought conditions in the study area. Most wells recorded groundwater levels below the median daily statistic, and 7 surficial aquifer wells were dry. Groundwater-level measurements taken in July 2011 were used to determine the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Groundwater generally flows to the south and toward streams except in reaches where streams discharge to the aquifer. The degree of connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and streams decreases east of the Flint River where thick overburden hydraulically separates the aquifer from stream interaction. Hydraulic separation of the Upper Floridan aquifer from streams located east of the Flint River is shown by stream-stage altitudes that differ from groundwater levels measured in close proximity to streams. Most streams located in the study area during 2011 exhibited below normal flows (streamflows less than the 25th percentile), substantiating the severity of drought conditions that year. Streamflow

  1. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock

  2. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu

  3. UNESCO's HOPE Initiative—Providing Free and Open-Source Hydrologic Software for Effective and Sustainable Management of Africa's Water Resources Temporary Title

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, P. M.; Filali-Meknassi, Y.; Sanford, W. E.; Winston, R. B.; Kuniansky, E.; Dawson, C.

    2015-12-01

    UNESCO's HOPE Initiative—the Hydro Free and (or) Open-source Platform of Experts—was launched in June 2013 as part of UNESCO's International Hydrological Programme. The Initiative arose in response to a recognized need to make free and (or) open-source water-resources software more widely accessible to Africa's water sector. A kit of software is being developed to provide African water authorities, teachers, university lecturers, and researchers with a set of programs that can be enhanced and (or) applied to the development of efficient and sustainable management strategies for Africa's water resources. The Initiative brings together experts from the many fields of water resources to identify software that might be included in the kit, to oversee an objective process for selecting software for the kit, and to engage in training and other modes of capacity building to enhance dissemination of the software. To date, teams of experts from the fields of wastewater treatment, groundwater hydrology, surface-water hydrology, and data management have been formed to identify relevant software from their respective fields. An initial version of the HOPE Software Kit was released in late August 2014 and consists of the STOAT model for wastewater treatment developed by the Water Research Center (United Kingdom) and the MODFLOW-2005 model for groundwater-flow simulation developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Kit is available on the UNESCO HOPE website (http://www.hope-initiative.net/).Training in the theory and use of MODFLOW-2005 is planned in southern Africa in conjunction with UNESCO's study of the Kalahari-Karoo/Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer, which extends over an area that includes parts of Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa, and in support of the European Commission's Horizon 2020 FREEWAT project (FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management; see the UNESCO HOPE website).

  4. Ichnological trends along an open-water transect across a large marginal-marine epicontinental basin, the modern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Bonsdorff, Erik; Moros, Matthias; Kabel, Karoline; Kotilainen, Aarno T.; Ryabchuk, Daria; Kallonen, Aki; Hämäläinen, Keijo

    2011-11-01

    Late Holocene sediments in the Baltic Sea provide an opportunity to study lateral changes in the assemblages of identifiable biogenic sedimentary structures (ichnofossils) in a large, high-latitude semi-enclosed sea with instrumentally determined gradients in biodiversity and environmental factors such as salinity and oxygen availability. Integrated sedimentological and ichnological analysis is carried out on 6 long cores collected along an open-sea, declining salinity transect across the basin. Muddy sediments in euhaline (Kattegat) and polyhaline (Mecklenburg Bight) sites are characterized by the archetypal Cruziana Ichnofacies, portrayed by subsurface deposit-feeding structures ( Scolicia and Planolites), surface deposit-feeding structures ( Skolithos), and structures that reflect both these feeding strategies ( Palaeophycus, Arenicolites/ Polykladichnus and unnamed biodeformational structures produced by bivalves). The ichnofossils are tiered to 3 levels. The Cruziana Ichnofacies is impoverished in the higher mesohaline Arkona Basin and even more so with declining salinity farther inland. The deepest, oxygen-restricted study sites (Gotland Deep and the western Gulf of Finland) below a permanent halocline are characterized by very small and shallow deposit-feeding structures ( Planolites and rare flat Arenicolites/ Polykladichnus), and poorly developed tiering. The nearly freshwater eastern Gulf of Finland is characterized by the Cenozoic archetypal Mermia Ichnofacies, dominated by narrow and shallow subsurface and surface deposit-feeding structures ( Planolites and flat Arenicolites/ Polykladichnus). Large Planolites (3-7 mm in diameter) at this site are untypical of Mermia Ichnofacies assemblages. These results confirm the earlier observations that marine forms dominate brackish-water ichnoassemblages, with the ichnofossil size and diversity decreasing with declining salinity. The results also confirm the predicted decreases in the ichnofossil size and

  5. Geochemical data from analyses of rock, sediment, water, and solid-phase leaching at the Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Otton, James K.; Horton, Robert J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Sullivan, Jonah E.

    2008-01-01

    This report releases data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from the Tuba City Open Dump area from January 2008 to September 2008 with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Navajo and Hopi Tribes. These data were collected in support of investigations into the possible sources and resulting transport of radionuclides and other dissolved constituents in the surrounding ground water from the Tuba City Open Dump. This report provides a discussion of data collection and analytical methods with the data in a tabular format.

  6. 78 FR 15007 - Notice of Open House-Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Revised Water Control Manuals for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... given that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District (USACE), will conduct open house style... writing to: Commander, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, Attn: PD-EI (ACT-DEIS), P.O. Box 2288, Mobile AL 36628. A limited number of CD copies will also be available at the DEIS open...

  7. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J.

    1952-01-01

    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  8. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River basin, northeastern Montana, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, J.H.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic (47 micrograms/L), uranium (43 microg/L), and vanadium (51 microg/L) in Dry Lake Unit, and boron (1,000 microg/L) in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain (56 microg/L) and two shallow domestic wells (40 and 47 microg/L) were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation (64 picocuries/L) and gross beta radiation (71 picocuries/L) were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediments of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium (99 micrograms/g), copper (37 microg/g), nickel (37 microg/g), vanadium (160 microg/g), and zinc (120 microg/g) that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. With few exceptions, concentrations of trace elements and pesticides in biota generally were less than values known to produce harmful effects on growth or reproduction. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  10. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Their Color Properties Through Optical Remote Sensing to Identify Areas of Vector-Borne Disease Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the risk of vector-borne disease outbreaks is a required step towards their control and eradication. Satellite observations can provide needed data to support agency decisions with respect to deployment of preventative measures and control resources. The coverage and persistence of open water is one of the primary indicators of conditions suitable for mosquito breeding habitats. This is currently a poorly measured variable due to its spatial and temporal variability across landscapes, especially in remote areas. Here we develop a methodology for monitoring these conditions through optical remote sensing images from Landsat. We pansharpen the images and apply a decision tree classification approach using Random Forests to generate 15 meter resolution maps of open water. In addition, since some mosquitos breed in clear water while others in turbid water, we classify water bodies according to their water color properties and we validate the results using field knowledge. We focus in East Africa where we assses the usefulness of these products to improve prediction of malaria outbreaks. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Reduction of Ferricytochrome c by Dithionite Ion: Electron Transfer by Parallel Adjacent and Remote Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Creutz, Carol; Sutin, Norman

    1973-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of horseheart ferricytochrome c by sodium dithionite (phosphate buffer-sodium chloride; pH 6.5, μ = 1.0, 25°) features two reaction pathways; one with the rate constant k3 = 1.17 × 104 M-1 sec-1, the other with the rate constant k1k2/k-1 = 6.0 × 104 M-1 sec-1. These pathways are interpreted in terms of remote attack (possibly by way of the exposed edge of the porphyrin system) and adjacent attack (requiring the opening of the heme crevice). The limiting rate for the adjacent pathway (k1 = 30 sec-1) is in good agreement with the rate of heme-crevice opening of ferricytochrome c determined in other studies. The implication of the adjacent attack pathway to the function of cytochrome c in vivo is discussed. PMID:4352650

  12. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 1. Hydraulic conditions adjacent to the well bore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Thomas, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Temperature and formation resistivity logs obtained in borehole KP-1 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project indicate that the adjacent formation is characterized by several zones of distinctly different average temperature and water salinity. A series of hydraulic analyses and water sampling programs were conducted to rule out the possibility of local hydraulic effects associated with the presence of the borehole in the generation of these apparent groundwater zones. Hydraulic tests and sampling with the borehole cased to a depth of 710 m and open below that depth indicate that the deep aquifer contains seawater at a temperature nearly identical to that of the open ocean at the same depth. Various analyses give estimates of aquifer transmissivity of about 10-3 m2/s in the vicinity of the borehole. Isolation of this deeper aquifer from the overlying groundwater zones was investigated by perforating the casing at six locations and then measuring the changes in water level in the borehole, in the salinity of the fluid column, in the temperature profile of the fluid column, and in the rate of flow in the fluid column induced by the perforations. These results positively confirm that the zones of distinctly different formation properties indicated on the temperature and resistivity logs are not caused by flow in or around casing. Flow and fluid column salinity induced by the perforations also confirm significant differences between the hydraulic heads and geochemistry of the different groundwater zones inferred from the well logs.

  13. Safety of spray-dried powder formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A exposure to subadult/adult unionid mussels during simulated open-water treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Waller, Diane L.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    After exposure, the mussels were consolidated into wire mesh cages and placed in the Black River for a 27-28 day postexposure period, after which time survival of mussels was assessed. Of the 1,170 mussels tested in the study, 3 were confirmed dead and 5 were not recovered and treated as mortalities in the analysis. The effect and interactions of species, SDP exposure concentration, and SDP exposure duration were analyzed and did not affect mussel survival (p > 0.98). The results from this study indicate that SDP exposure at the maximum approved open-water concentration of 100 mg/L for up to 3 times the maximum approved open-water exposure duration of 8 hours (in other words for 24 hours of exposure) is unlikely to reduce survival of subadult or adult mussels.

  14. The effect of warm summer 2012 on seasonal and annual methane dynamics in adjacent small lakes on the ice-free margin of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. R.; Cadieux, S. B.; Pratt, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    In thermally stratified lakes, the greatest annual CH4 emissions typically occur during thermal overturn events. In July of 2012, Greenland experienced significant warming that resulted in substantial melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and enhanced runoff events. This unusual climate phenomenon provided an opportunity to examine the effects of short-term natural heating on lake thermal structure and CH4 dynamics and compare these observations with those from the following year when temperatures were within normal conditions. In this study, we present CH4 concentrations within the water column of 5 adjacent small lakes on the ice-free margin of Southwest Greenland under open-water and ice-covered conditions from 2012-2014. Enhanced warming of the epilimnion in 2012 lead to strong thermal stability and the development of an anoxic hypolimnia in each of the lakes. As a result, mean dissolved CH4 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.0001) greater under open water conditions in 2012 than in 2013. In all of the lakes, mean CH4 concentrations under ice-covered conditions were significantly (p < 0.0001) greater than under open-water conditions, suggesting spring overturn may be the period with the largest annual CH4 flux to the atmosphere. As the climate continues to warm, greater heat income and warming of lake surface waters will lead to increased thermal stratification and hypolimnetic anoxia, which will result in increased water column inventories of CH4. Additionally, continual warming will result in shorter ice cover durations, which may reduce the winter inventory of CH4 and lead to a decrease in total CH4 flux during ice-melt. Taken together, these results indicate that in Arctic lakes, a shortening of winter ice cover and increased thermal stratification during open-water conditions will lead to increased CH4 production, higher water column CH4 inventories and greater CH4 emissions at fall overturn.

  15. Reorganization of substrate waters between the closed and open cubane conformers during the S2 to S3 transition in the oxygen evolving complex.

    PubMed

    Capone, Matteo; Bovi, Daniele; Narzi, Daniele; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2015-10-27

    A crucial step in the mechanism for oxygen evolution in the Photosystem II complex resides in the transition from the S2 state to the S3 state of Kok–Joliot’s cycle, in which an additional water molecule binds to the cluster. On the basis of computational chemistry calculations on Photosystem II models, we propose a reorganization mechanism involving a hydroxyl (W2) and a μ2-oxo bridge (O5) that is able to link the closed cubane S2B intermediate conformer to the S3 open cubane structure. This mechanism can reconcile the apparent conflict between recently reported water exchange and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments, and theoretical studies.

  16. The hydraulics of exchange flow between adjacent confined building zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Saleh; Flynn, Morris

    2012-11-01

    Buoyancy-driven flow between two finite zones containing fluid of slightly different density is investigated. The two zones are connected through a common opening that spans the channel width so that a two layer exchange flow develops once it is removed. In the zone that initially contained dense fluid, a buoyant plume of light fluid mixes with the dense fluid leading, over time, to the development of a nontrivial ambient density stratification. Meanwhile, dense fluid flows as a gravity current into the zone that initially contained light fluid. This gravity current reflects from the end wall and propagates back toward the opening in the form of an internal bore. When the bore reaches the opening, the dynamics of the exchange flow (and consequently the source conditions of the buoyant plume) are substantially altered. Such dynamics are modeled by combining elements of gravity current, internal bore, plume and exchange flow theory; model predictions, such as that the density jump across the first front steadily decreases once the exchange flow becomes transient, are corroborated by salt-bath laboratory experiments. Substantially different predictions arise when either or both of the adjacent zones are assumed to be well-mixed so that no vertical gradient of density is allowed.

  17. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous…

  18. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  19. EARLY SENESCENCE1 Encodes a SCAR-LIKE PROTEIN2 That Affects Water Loss in Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Yuchun; Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Jie; Li, Xiaojing; Leng, Yujia; Dai, Liping; Huang, Lichao; Shao, Guosheng; Ren, Deyong; Hu, Jiang; Guo, Longbiao; Pan, Jianwei; Zeng, Dali

    2015-01-01

    The global problem of drought threatens agricultural production and constrains the development of sustainable agricultural practices. In plants, excessive water loss causes drought stress and induces early senescence. In this study, we isolated a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, designated as early senescence1 (es1), which exhibits early leaf senescence. The es1-1 leaves undergo water loss at the seedling stage (as reflected by whitening of the leaf margin and wilting) and display early senescence at the three-leaf stage. We used map-based cloning to identify ES1, which encodes a SCAR-LIKE PROTEIN2, a component of the suppressor of cAMP receptor/Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous complex involved in actin polymerization and function. The es1-1 mutants exhibited significantly higher stomatal density. This resulted in excessive water loss and accelerated water flow in es1-1, also enhancing the water absorption capacity of the roots and the water transport capacity of the stems as well as promoting the in vivo enrichment of metal ions cotransported with water. The expression of ES1 is higher in the leaves and leaf sheaths than in other tissues, consistent with its role in controlling water loss from leaves. GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN-ES1 fusion proteins were ubiquitously distributed in the cytoplasm of plant cells. Collectively, our data suggest that ES1 is important for regulating water loss in rice. PMID:26243619

  20. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System.

    PubMed

    Lavrynenko, O M; Pavlenko, O Yu; Shchukin, Yu S

    2016-12-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.