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Sample records for adjacent riparian areas

  1. Distribution of inorganic phosphorus in profiles and particle-size fractions across an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. S.; Li, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    Riparian buffer can trap sediment and nutrients sourced from upper cropland and minimizing eutrophication risk of water quality. This study aimed to investigate the distributions of soil inorganic phosphorus (Pi) forms among profile and particle-size fractions in an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake, Southwestern China. The Ca-bound fraction (62 %) was the major proportion of the Pi in the riparian soils. Buffer rehabilitation from cropped area had a limited impact on total phosphorus (TP) concentrations after 3 years, but has contributed to a change in Pi forms. At 0-20 cm soil layer, levels of the Olsen-P, nonoccluded, Ca-bound and total Pi were lower in the buffer than the cropped area; however, the Pi distribution between the cropped area and the buffer did not differ significantly as depth increased. The clay fraction corresponded to 57 % of TP and seemed to be both a sink for highly recalcitrant Pi and a source for labile Pi. The lower concentration of Pi forms in the silt and sand particle fraction in the surface soil was observed in the buffer area, which indicating that the Pi distribution in coarse particle fraction has sensitively responded to land-use changes.

  2. Distribution of inorganic phosphorus in profiles and particle fractions of Anthrosols across an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo Sheng; Cha Li, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Riparian buffers can trap sediment and nutrients sourced from upper cropland, minimizing the eutrophication risk of water quality. This study aimed to investigate the distributions of soil inorganic phosphorus (Pi) forms among profile and particle-size fractions in an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake, southwestern China. The Ca-bound fraction (62 %) was the major proportion of the Pi in the riparian soils. After 3 years' restoration, buffer rehabilitation from cropped area had a limited impact on total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, but has contributed to a change in Pi forms. In the 0-20 cm soil layer, levels of the Olsen-P, non-occluded, Ca-bound, and total Pi were lower in the buffer than the cropped area; however, the Pi distribution between the cropped area and the buffer did not differ significantly as depth increased. The clay fraction corresponded to 57 % of TP and seemed to be both a sink for highly recalcitrant Pi and a source for labile Pi. The lower concentration of Pi forms in the silt and sand particle fraction in the surface soil was observed in the buffer area, which indicated that the Pi distribution in coarse particle fraction had sensitively responded to land use changes.

  3. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gordon H; Bisson, Peter A; Rieman, Bruce E; Benda, Lee E

    2006-08-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually within a decade after a wildfire. Additionally, fire and subsequent erosion events contribute wood and coarse sediment that can create and maintain productive aquatic habitats over time. The potential effects of postfire logging in riparian areas depend on the landscape context and disturbance history of a site; however available evidence suggests two key management implications: (1) fire in riparian areas creates conditions that may not require intervention to sustain the long-term productivity of the aquatic network and (2) protection of burned riparian areas gives priority to what is left rather than what is removed. Research is needed to determine how postfire logging in riparian areas has affected the spread of invasive species and the vulnerability of upland forests to insect and disease outbreaks and how postfire logging will affect the frequency and behavior of future fires. The effectiveness of using postfire logging to restore desired riparian structure and function is therefore unproven, but such projects are gaining interest with the departure of forest conditions from those that existed prior to timber harvest, fire suppression, and climate change. In the absence of reliable information about the potential consequence of postfire timber harvest, we conclude that providing postfire riparian zones with the same environmental protections they received before they burned isjustified ecologically Without a commitment to monitor management experiments, the effects of postfire riparian logging will remain unknown and highly contentious.

  4. Non-native earthworms in riparian soils increase nitrogen flux into adjacent aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Costello, David M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2008-12-01

    Riparian zones are an important transition between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and they function in nutrient cycling and removal. Non-native earthworms invading earthworm-free areas of North America can affect nutrient cycling in upland soils and have the potential to affect it in riparian soils. We examined how the presence of earthworms can affect riparian nutrient cycling and nutrient delivery to streams. Two mesocosm experiments were conducted to determine how (1) the biomass of earthworms and (2) earthworm species can affect nutrient flux from riparian zones to nearby streams and how this flux can affect streamwater nutrients and periphyton growth. In separate experiments, riparian soil cores were amended with one of four mixed earthworm biomasses (0, 4, 10, or 23 g m(-2) ash-free dry mass) or with one of three earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus terrestris, L. rubellus) or no earthworm species. Riparian soil cores were coupled to artificial streams, and over a 36-day period, we measured nutrient leaching rates, in-stream nutrient concentrations, and periphyton growth. Ammonium leaching increased with increasing biomass and was greatest from the A. caliginosa treatments. Nitrate leaching increased through time and increased at a greater rate with higher biomass and from cores containing A. caliginosa. We suggest that the overall response of increased nitrate leaching [90% of total nitrogen (N)] was due to a combination of ammonium excretion and burrowing by earthworms, which increased nitrification rates. During both experiments, periphyton biomass increased through time but did not differ across treatments despite high in-stream inorganic N. Through time, in-stream phosphorus (P) concentration declined to <5 microg l(-1), and periphyton growth was likely P-limited. We conclude that activities of non-native earthworms (particularly A. caliginosa) can alter biogeochemical cycling in riparian zones, potentially reducing the N

  5. Nitrous oxide emission from cropland and adjacent riparian buffers in contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K; Jacinthe, P A; Vidon, P; Liu, X; Baker, M E

    2014-01-01

    Riparian buffers are important nitrate (NO) sinks in agricultural watersheds, but limited information is available regarding the intensity and control of nitrous oxide (NO) emission from these buffers. This study monitored (December 2009-May 2011) NO fluxes at two agricultural riparian buffers in the White River watershed in Indiana to assess the impact of land use and hydrogeomorphologic (HGM) attributes on emission. The study sites included a riparian forest in a glacial outwash/alluvium setting (White River [WR]) and a grassed riparian buffer in tile-drained till plains (Leary Weber Ditch [LWD]). Adjacent corn ( L.) fields were monitored for land use assessment. Analysis of variance identified season, land use (riparian buffer vs. crop field), and site geomorphology as major drivers of NO fluxes. Strong relationships between N mineralization and NO fluxes were found at both sites, but relationships with other nutrient cycling indicators (C/N ratio, dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C) were detected only at LWD. Nitrous oxide emission showed strong seasonal variability; the largest NO peaks occurred in late spring/early summer as a result of flooding at the WR riparian buffer (up to 27.8 mg NO-N m d) and N fertilizer application to crop fields. Annual NO emission (kg NO-N ha) was higher in the crop fields (WR: 7.82; LWD: 6.37) than in the riparian areas. A significant difference ( < 0.02) in annual NO emission between the riparian buffers was detected (4.32 vs. 1.03 kg NO-N ha at WR and LWD, respectively), and this difference was attributed to site geomorphology and flooding (WR is flood prone; no flooding occurred at tile-drained LWD). The study results demonstrate the significance of landscape geomorphology and land-stream connection (i.e., flood potential) as drivers of NO emission in riparian buffers and therefore argue that an HGM-based approach should be especially suitable for determination of regional NO budget in riparian ecosystems.

  6. Nitrous oxide emission from cropland and adjacent riparian buffers in contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K; Jacinthe, P A; Vidon, P; Liu, X; Baker, M E

    2014-01-01

    Riparian buffers are important nitrate (NO) sinks in agricultural watersheds, but limited information is available regarding the intensity and control of nitrous oxide (NO) emission from these buffers. This study monitored (December 2009-May 2011) NO fluxes at two agricultural riparian buffers in the White River watershed in Indiana to assess the impact of land use and hydrogeomorphologic (HGM) attributes on emission. The study sites included a riparian forest in a glacial outwash/alluvium setting (White River [WR]) and a grassed riparian buffer in tile-drained till plains (Leary Weber Ditch [LWD]). Adjacent corn ( L.) fields were monitored for land use assessment. Analysis of variance identified season, land use (riparian buffer vs. crop field), and site geomorphology as major drivers of NO fluxes. Strong relationships between N mineralization and NO fluxes were found at both sites, but relationships with other nutrient cycling indicators (C/N ratio, dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C) were detected only at LWD. Nitrous oxide emission showed strong seasonal variability; the largest NO peaks occurred in late spring/early summer as a result of flooding at the WR riparian buffer (up to 27.8 mg NO-N m d) and N fertilizer application to crop fields. Annual NO emission (kg NO-N ha) was higher in the crop fields (WR: 7.82; LWD: 6.37) than in the riparian areas. A significant difference ( < 0.02) in annual NO emission between the riparian buffers was detected (4.32 vs. 1.03 kg NO-N ha at WR and LWD, respectively), and this difference was attributed to site geomorphology and flooding (WR is flood prone; no flooding occurred at tile-drained LWD). The study results demonstrate the significance of landscape geomorphology and land-stream connection (i.e., flood potential) as drivers of NO emission in riparian buffers and therefore argue that an HGM-based approach should be especially suitable for determination of regional NO budget in riparian ecosystems. PMID:25602568

  7. Riparian Areas of the Southwest: Learning from Repeat Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaimes, George N.; Crimmins, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of riparian areas, as well as potential impacts from climate change, are concepts that land and water managers and stakeholders need to understand to effectively manage and protect riparian areas. Rapid population growth in the southwestern United States, and multiple-use designation of most riparian areas, makes…

  8. State wetlands and riparian area protection programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Frederick; Pieart, Scott; Cook, Edward; Rich, Jacqueline; Coltman, Virginia

    1994-03-01

    The protection of wetlands and riparian areas has emerged as an important environmental planning issue. In the United States, several federal and state laws have been enacted to protect wetlands and riparian areas. Specifically, the federal Clean Water Act includes protection requirements in Sections 301 and 303 for state water quality standards, Section 401 for state certification of federal actions (projects, permits, and licenses), and Section 404 for dredge and fill permits. The Section 401 water quality state certification element has been called the “sleeping giant” of wetlands protection because it empowers state officials to veto or condition federally permitted or licensed activities that do not comply with state water quality standards. State officials have used this power infrequently. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of state wetland and riparian programs. Contacts were established with officials in each state and in the national and regional offices of key federal agencies. Based on interviews and on a review of federal and state laws, state program effectiveness was analyzed. From this analysis, several problems and opportunities facing state wetland protection efforts are presented.

  9. IDENTIFICATION EFFICIENCY IN GROUNDWATER ADJACENT TO DITCHES WITHIN CONSTRUCTED RIPARIAN WETLANDS: KANKAKEE WATERSHED, ILLINOIS-INDIANA, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dual isotope evaluations of NO3 in groundwater adjacent to ditches within constructed riparian wetlands across the Kankakee water-shed may assist the determination of denitrification efficiency. Groundwater sampling indicates the NO3 -N exceeded 10 mg 1-1 in constructed riparian ...

  10. Risk assessment of riparian plant invasions into protected areas.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2007-04-01

    Protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated. River corridors represent crucial links to the surrounding landscape but are also major conduits for invasion of alien species. We developed a framework to assess the risk that alien plants in watersheds adjacent to a protected area will invade the protected area along rivers. The framework combines species- and landscape-level approaches and has five key components: (1) definition of the geographical area of interest, (2) delineation of the domain into ecologically meaningful zones, (3) identification of the appropriate landscape units, (4) categorization of alien species and mapping of their distribution and abundance, and (5) definition of management options. The framework guides the determination of species distribution and abundance through successive, easily followed steps, providing the means for the assessment of areas of concern. We applied the framework to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We recorded 231 invasive alien plant species (of which 79 were major invaders) in the domain. The KNP is facing increasing pressure from alien species in the upper regions of the drainage areas of neighboring watersheds. On the basis of the climatic modeling, we showed that most major riparian invaders have the ability to spread across the KNP should they be transported down the rivers. With this information, KNP managers can identify areas for proactive intervention, monitoring, and resource allocation. Even for a very large protected area such as the KNP, sustainable management of biodiversity will depend heavily on the response of land managers upstream managing alien plants. We suggest that this framework is applicable to plants and other passively dispersed species that invade protected areas situated at the end of a drainage basin.

  11. MINARETS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N. King; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Minarets Wilderness and adjacent areas in the central Sierra Nevada, California was conducted. The results of the survey indicate that the study area has a substantiated resource potential for small deposits of copper, silver, zinc, lead, and iron, and a probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum. No energy-resource potential was identified in the study.

  12. Soil Salinity Dynamics in Arid Non-flooded Riparian Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2005-05-01

    Soil salinity is a common problem in arid riparian areas of the arid Southwest, but the dynamics of soil salinity in these areas are not well understood. The main causes of soil salinity in non-flooded riparian areas are generally known as low precipitation, high evapotranspiration, and capillary flux from saline shallow ground water. However, some riparian areas maintain a relatively low soil salinity for a long period of time with thriving salt-sensitive vegetation such as Cottonwoods while other areas are completely salinized and covered by salt-tolerant vegetation such as Saltcedars. Is this difference in soil salinity caused by a small amount of deep infiltration sufficient to leach salts back to the ground water or by ground water dynamics that 'wash' the soil profile from below? The results of this study, using the modeling program HYDRUS-1D, indicate that differences in soil salinity levels among different riparian areas are not caused by a small amount of deep infiltration but by ground water fluctuations that 'wash' the soil profile from below.

  13. Water Table Dynamics of a Rocky Mountain Riparian Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    Riparian areas in mountain valleys serve as collection points for local precipitation, hillslope runoff, deeper groundwater, and channel water. Little is known about how complex hydrological interactions among these water sources govern riparian water table dynamics, particularly on an event basis partly owing to a lack of high frequency spatial and temporal data. Herein I describe the magnitude and rate of change of groundwater storage in a 1.3 km2 Canadian Rocky Mountain peat riparian area. Weekly manual measurement of hydraulic heads in a network of 51 water table wells during the summers of 2006 and 2007 showed large temporal and spatial variations in well response. A near constant increase in the spatial heterogeneity of the water table was observed as the riparian area dried. Cluster analysis and principle components analysis were performed on these weekly data to objectively classify the riparian area into spatial response units. Results were classification of the standpipes into five distinct water table regimes. One well representing each water table regime was outfitted with a sensor in 2008 that measured hourly head, which was used to characterize temporal dynamics of water table response. In spring, snowmelt runoff combined with an ice lens 20-30 cm below the ground surface led to consistently high water tables throughout the riparian area. In summer, the water table fell throughout the riparian in response to declining hillslope inputs and increased evaporative demand, but rates of decline were highly variable among the water table regimes. Chloride concentrations suggest variability reflects differences in the degree to which the water table regimes are influenced by stream stage, hillslope inputs, and proximity to beaver dams. Water table regime responses to rain events were flashy, with dramatic rises and falls (up to 20 cm) in short periods of time (<30 h), suggesting the unsaturated soil was near saturation. The stream was considerably more

  14. Bridging Disciplines with the Riparian Area Management Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockerill, Kristan M.; Titus, Jonathan H.

    2004-01-01

    Faculty at Columbia University's Earth Semester created the interdisciplinary Riparian Area Management Project to help students integrate information and skills from life sciences, geosciences, social sciences, and humanities focused coursework. Structured as a "consulting" contract, students were required to make a policy recommendation utilizing…

  15. Subtropical reservoir shorelines have reduced plant species and functional richness compared with adjacent riparian wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenzhi; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Hui; Song, Yu; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-12-01

    Dam construction has large negative effects on biodiversity in river and riparian ecosystems worldwide. This study aimed to determine whether reservoir shorelines had lower plant species diversity and functional diversity than unregulated or lightly regulated riparian wetlands and to examine the responses of plant diversity and functional traits to reservoir shoreline environmental gradients. We surveyed 146, 44, and 67 plots on reservoir shorelines and in mainstem and tributary riparian wetlands, respectively, in a subtropical river-reservoir system. Species richness, functional richness, evenness, and divergence were calculated to reflect the species and functional diversity of plant communities. Environmental factors including elevation above water level, slope, landform type, substrate, disturbance, and cover were measured. The results showed that both species and functional richness were significantly lower on reservoir shorelines than in riparian wetlands. The relative species number of clonal plants and relative cover of annual plants were both negatively related to slope and elevation. Structural equation modeling and other statistical analyses indicated that most environmental factors had significant effects on species and functional richness on reservoir shorelines but had no significant effect on functional evenness and divergence. Our findings suggest that reservoir shoreline wetlands formed by damming rivers and inundating pre-existing riparian wetlands can be a biodiversity coldspot in regulated rivers at the plot level. Topographic factors are important in determining the plant diversity and vegetation establishment on reservoir shorelines in the Yangtze River basin.

  16. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  17. A Review of Effectiveness of Riparian Buffers in Agricultural Areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been growing recognition of the importance of riparian buffers between agricultural fields and waterbodies in recent years. Riparian buffers play an important role in mitigating the impacts of land use activities on water quality and aquatic ecosystems. Riparian buffer systems have been st...

  18. Ecological Impact of LAN: San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric Richard; Craine, Brian L.

    2015-08-01

    The San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona is home to nearly 45% of the 900 total species of birds in the United States; millions of songbirds migrate though this unique flyway every year. As the last undammed river in the Southwest, it has been called one of the “last great places” in the US. Human activity has had striking and highly visible impacts on the San Pedro River. As a result, and to help preserve and conserve the area, much of the region has been designated the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA). Attention has been directed to impacts of population, water depletion, and border fence barriers on the riparian environment. To date, there has been little recognition that light at night (LAN), evolving with the increased local population, could have moderating influences on the area. STEM Laboratory has pioneered techniques of coordinated airborne and ground based measurements of light at night, and has undertaken a program of characterizing LAN in this region. We conducted the first aerial baseline surveys of sky brightness in 2012. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) shapefiles allow comparison and correlation of various biological databases with the LAN data. The goal is to better understand how increased dissemination of night time lighting impacts the distributions, behavior, and life cycles of biota on this ecosystem. We discuss the baseline measurements, current data collection programs, and some of the implications for specific biological systems.

  19. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    PubMed

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p < 0.001), indicating that mercury depuration is rapid or tissue dilution occurs in these riparian predators. Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered. PMID:26387024

  20. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    PubMed

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p < 0.001), indicating that mercury depuration is rapid or tissue dilution occurs in these riparian predators. Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF LAND USE IN RIPARIAN AREAS WITHIN THE CONTENTNEA WATERSHED OF NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of land use in riparian areas within the Contentnea watershed of North Carolina.

    Wright, C.J.,1 and S.W. Alberty.2 1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA 30605 USA; 2OAO Corporation, Athens, GA 30605 USA.

    Legislation mandating riparian bu...

  2. Implications of the results of colonization experiments for designing riparian restoration projects adjacent to agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many headwater streams and their riparian habitats in the Midwestern United States have been modified for agricultural drainage. Agricultural drainage often results in reductions of physical habitat diversity, shifts from woody to herbaceous riparian vegetation, and the loss of riparian habitat. T...

  3. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  4. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  5. Habitat selection by juvenile Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) in headwater riparian areas, northwestern Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Stephanie R.; Betts, Matthew G.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hagar, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    Lower order, non-fish-bearing streams, often termed “headwater streams”, have received minimal research effort and protection priority, especially in mesic forests where distinction between riparian and upland vegetation can be subtle. Though it is generally thought that breeding bird abundance is higher in riparian zones, little is known about species distributions when birds are in their juvenile stage – a critical period in terms of population viability. Using radio telemetry, we examined factors affecting habitat selection by juvenile Swainson’s thrushes during the post-breeding period in headwater basins in the Coast Range of Oregon, USA. We tested models containing variables expected to influence the amount of food and cover (i.e., deciduous cover, coarse wood volume, and proximity to stream) as well as models containing variables that are frequently measured and manipulated in forest management (i.e., deciduous and coniferous trees separated into size classes). Juvenile Swainson’s thrushes were more likely to select locations with at least 25% cover of deciduous, mid-story vegetation and more than 2.0 m3/ha of coarse wood within 40 m of headwater streams. We conclude that despite their small and intermittent nature, headwater streams and adjacent riparian areas are selected over upland areas by Swainson’s thrush during the postfledging period in the Oregon Coast Range.

  6. [Distribution pattern of rare plants along riparian zone and its implication for conservation in Shennongjia area].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingxi; Deng, Hongbing; Cai, Qinghua

    2002-11-01

    Due to the importance of riparian zone in maintaining and protecting regional biodiversity, more and more ecologists paid their attentions to riparian zone, and had been aware of the important effects of riparian zone in basic study and practical management. In this study, forty sampling belts (10 m x 100 m) parallel to the bank of Xiangxi River at different elevations in Shennongjia area were selected to investigate the riparian vegetation and rare plants. Fourteen species of rare plants were found in riparian zone, accounting for 42.4% of total rare plant species in Shennongjia area. The main distribution range of the fourteen rare plant species was the mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest at elevation of 1200-1800 m, where species diversity of plant community was the maximum at the moderate elevation. Fourteen rare plant species could be divided into three groups against the elevation, namely low elevation species group, moderate elevation species group, and high elevation group. In the paper, the authors discussed the reasons forming the distribution pattern of rare plant species, and pointed out the important function of riparian zone on rare plant species protection.

  7. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Factors influencing nest success of songbirds in aspen and willow riparian areas in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heltzel, J.M.; Earnst, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the effects of livestock grazing, agriculture, and human habitation on nest predation and brood parasitism in riparian areas in the western United States. However, we know little about factors influencing nest success in riparian areas lacking such anthropogenic influences, in part because the influences are so pervasive. We studied riparian bird communities in a 115 000 ha wildlife refuge where livestock grazing was discontinued > 10 years ago, and which has little nearby agriculture or human habitation. We monitored nests on 24 aspen (Populus tremuloides) and 10 willow (Salix spp.) plots. Brood parasitism rates were substantially lower than at other western sites and did not differ between aspen and willow habitats. Nest success in aspen was relatively high compared to that reported for other western sites and higher than in willow. Predators may have been able to find nests more efficiently in willow than in aspen because territory densities were higher in willow (40 versus 30 pairs per ha, respectively), because willow had less structural heterogeneity, or both. We did not find strong evidence that nest success was influenced by aspen patch size or distance to riparian edge, indicating that even small aspen patches provide valuable nesting habitat. Weather was an important cause of nest failure, particularly at higher elevations during late-spring snowstorms. Our results indicate that riparian areas without major anthropogenic impacts, especially aspen stands, constitute high-quality breeding habitat and warrant conservation focus. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  9. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Fuel Reduction Management Practices in Riparian Areas of the Western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Katharine R.; Pilliod, David S.; Dwire, Kathleen A.; Rhoades, Charles C.; Wollrab, Sherry P.; Young, Michael K.

    2010-07-01

    Two decades of uncharacteristically severe wildfires have caused government and private land managers to actively reduce hazardous fuels to lessen wildfire severity in western forests, including riparian areas. Because riparian fuel treatments are a fairly new management strategy, we set out to document their frequency and extent on federal lands in the western U.S. Seventy-four USDA Forest Service Fire Management Officers (FMOs) in 11 states were interviewed to collect information on the number and characteristics of riparian fuel reduction treatments in their management district. Just under half of the FMOs surveyed (43%) indicated that they were conducting fuel reduction treatments in riparian areas. The primary management objective listed for these projects was either fuel reduction (81%) or ecological restoration and habitat improvement (41%), though multiple management goals were common (56%). Most projects were of small extent (93% < 300 acres), occurred in the wildland-urban interface (75%), and were conducted in ways to minimize negative impacts on species and habitats. The results of this survey suggest that managers are proceeding cautiously with treatments. To facilitate project planning and implementation, managers recommended early coordination with resource specialists, such as hydrologists and fish and wildlife biologists. Well-designed monitoring of the consequences of riparian fuel treatments on fuel loads, fire risk, and ecological effects is needed to provide a scientifically-defensible basis for the continued and growing implementation of these treatments.

  11. Fuel reduction management practices in riparian areas of the Western USA.

    PubMed

    Stone, Katharine R; Pilliod, David S; Dwire, Kathleen A; Rhoades, Charles C; Wollrab, Sherry P; Young, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    Two decades of uncharacteristically severe wildfires have caused government and private land managers to actively reduce hazardous fuels to lessen wildfire severity in western forests, including riparian areas. Because riparian fuel treatments are a fairly new management strategy, we set out to document their frequency and extent on federal lands in the western U.S. Seventy-four USDA Forest Service Fire Management Officers (FMOs) in 11 states were interviewed to collect information on the number and characteristics of riparian fuel reduction treatments in their management district. Just under half of the FMOs surveyed (43%) indicated that they were conducting fuel reduction treatments in riparian areas. The primary management objective listed for these projects was either fuel reduction (81%) or ecological restoration and habitat improvement (41%), though multiple management goals were common (56%). Most projects were of small extent (93% < 300 acres), occurred in the wildland-urban interface (75%), and were conducted in ways to minimize negative impacts on species and habitats. The results of this survey suggest that managers are proceeding cautiously with treatments. To facilitate project planning and implementation, managers recommended early coordination with resource specialists, such as hydrologists and fish and wildlife biologists. Well-designed monitoring of the consequences of riparian fuel treatments on fuel loads, fire risk, and ecological effects is needed to provide a scientifically-defensible basis for the continued and growing implementation of these treatments. PMID:20499233

  12. Holding onto the Green Zone: A Youth Program for the Study and Stewardship of Community Riparian Areas. Leader Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Kate; Wooster, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems are an exciting and dynamic subject for study. These areas are valuable lands and important wildlife habitats, and they contribute greatly to the environmental health of an area. Definitions for the term "riparian" vary, but in this curriculum, the land called the "Green Zone" lies between flowing water and upland ecosystems.…

  13. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  14. Bacterial community structure in the Sulu Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The deep waters of the Sulu Sea are characterized by relatively high and constant water temperatures and low oxygen concentrations. To examine the effect of these characteristics on the bacterial community structure, the culture-independent molecular method was applied to samples from the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas. DNA was extracted from environmental samples, and the analysis was carried out on PCR-amplified 16S rDNA; fragments were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis. Stations in the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas showed much more prominent vertical stratification of bacterial community structures than horizontal variation. As predominant sequences, cyanobacteria and α-proteobacteria at 10 m depth, δ-proteobacteria at 100 m depth, and green nonsulfur bacteria below 1000 m depth were detected in all sampling areas. High temperatures and low oxygen concentrations are thought to be minor factors in controlling community structure; the quantity and quality of organic materials supplied by the sinking particles, and hydrostatic pressure are believed to be important.

  15. Does soil water saturation mobilize metals from riparian soils to adjacent surface water? A field monitoring study in a metal contaminated region.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, Liesbeth; Smolders, Erik

    2013-06-01

    In the Noorderkempen (NW Belgium), a large area (about 280 km(2)) is contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) due to historical pollution by the Zn smelters. Direct aquatic emissions of metals have diminished over time, however the surface water metal concentration largely exceeds quality standards, mainly during winter periods. Monitoring data were analyzed to reveal whether these fluctuations are related to seasonal redox reactions in associated contaminated riparian soils that drain into the rivers. A field survey was set up with soil pore-water and groundwater monitored for three years in transects of soil monitoring points perpendicular to rivers at contaminated and non-contaminated sites. Site averaged surface water concentrations of a 15 year dataset exceeded local quality standards 4 to 200-fold. Winter averaged metal concentrations significantly exceeded the corresponding summer values 1.3-1.8 (Zn) and 1.5-2.4 fold (Cd). Zinc and Cd concentrations in water were positively related to Fe and Mn but not to Ca, K or Na suggesting that redox reactions and not dilution processes are involved. In ground- and pore-water of the associated riparian soils, the concentrations of Zn fluctuate by the same order of magnitude as in surface water but were generally smaller than in the corresponding contaminated rivers. In addition, correlations of dissolved Zn with Fe and Mn were lacking. This analysis suggests that redox reactions in streams, and not in riparian soils, explain the seasonal trends of Zn and Cd in surface water. Hence, river sediments and not riparian soils may be the cause of the winter peaks of Zn and Cd in these rivers.

  16. BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR STREAM-RIPARIAN AREAS: PERSPECTIVES FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST HEADWATER FORESTS, MICROCLIMATES, AND AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream-riparian areas represent a nexus of biodiversity, with disproportionate numbers of species tied to and interacting within this key habitat. New research in Pacific Northwest headwater forests, especially the characterization of microclimates and amphibian distributions, is...

  17. RIPARIAN AREAS OF AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN WESTERN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Willamette Valley is a productive, diversified agricultural area in western Oregon. Pastureland and grass seed fields, mostly located on poorly drained soils, account for 60% of the agricultural land in the valley. The size and character of Willamette Valley streams and ass...

  18. Spatiotemporal patterns of water table fluctuations and evapotranspiration induced by riparian vegetation in a semiarid area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Weifeng; Wang, Tiejun; Franz, Trenton E.; Chen, Xunhong

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater evapotranspiration (ETg) links various ecohydrological processes and is an important component in regional water budgets. In this study, an extensive monitoring network was established in a semiarid riparian area to investigate various controls on the spatiotemporal pattern of water table fluctuations (WTFs) and ETg induced by riparian vegetation. Along a vegetation gradient (˜1200 m), diurnal WTFs were observed during a growing season in areas covered by woody species (Populus sect. Aigeiros and Juniperus virginiana) and wet slough vegetation (Panicum virgatum and Bromus inermis) with deeper root systems; whereas, no diurnal WTFs were found in the middle section with shallower-rooted grasses (Poa pratensis and Carex sp.). The occurrence of diurnal WTFs was related to temperature-controlled plant phenology at seasonal scales and to radiation at subdaily scales. Daily ETg in the mid-growing season was calculated using the White method. The results revealed that depth to water table (DTWT) was the dominant control on ETg, followed by potential evapotranspiration (ETp). By combining the effects of DTWT and ETp, it was found that at shallower depths, ETg was more responsive to changes in ETp, due to the closer linkage of land surface processes with shallower groundwater. Finally, exponential relationships between ETg/ETp and DTWT were obtained at the study site, although those relationships varied considerably across the sites. This study demonstrates the complex interactions of WTFs and ETg with surrounding environmental variables and provides further insight into modeling ETg over different time scales and riparian vegetation.

  19. Geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dilamarter, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas in Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee is presented as a background for interpreters evaluating the present land surface using remotely sensed imagery. Eight physiographic units were analyzed and are briefly discussed with reference to topography and surface deposits. Great diversity was found to be characteristic of the region, the result of different structural influences and geomorphic processes. The landscape bears the marks of fluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine and karstic environments, so a regional geomorphic history was compiled from the literature as an aid to understanding the land surface. Three smaller zones in Kentucky were analyzed in greater detail regarding topography and geomorphic development because of their potential importance in subsurface exploration.

  20. Assessing Critical Source Areas in Watersheds for Conservation Buffer Planning and Riparian Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2009-11-01

    A science-based geographic information system (GIS) approach is presented to target critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer placement. Critical source areas are the intersection of hydrologically sensitive areas and pollutant source areas in watersheds. Hydrologically sensitive areas are areas that actively generate runoff in the watershed and are derived using a modified topographic index approach based on variable source area hydrology. Pollutant source areas are the areas in watersheds that are actively and intensively used for such activities as agricultural production. The method is applied to the Neshanic River watershed in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. The capacity of the topographic index in predicting the spatial pattern of runoff generation and the runoff contribution to stream flow in the watershed is evaluated. A simple cost-effectiveness assessment is conducted to compare the conservation buffer placement scenario based on this GIS method to conventional riparian buffer scenarios for placing conservation buffers in agricultural lands in the watershed. The results show that the topographic index reasonably predicts the runoff generation in the watershed. The GIS-based conservation buffer scenario appears to be more cost-effective than the conventional riparian buffer scenarios.

  1. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  2. Spectral discrimination of giant reed (Arundo donax L.): A seasonal study in riparian areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2013-06-01

    The giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is amongst the one hundred worst invasive alien species of the world, and it is responsible for biodiversity loss and failure of ecosystem functions in riparian habitats. In this work, field spectroradiometry was used to assess the spectral separability of the giant reed from the adjacent vegetation and from the common reed, a native similar species. The study was conducted at different phenological periods and also for the giant reed stands regenerated after mechanical cutting (giant reed_RAC). A hierarchical procedure using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Classification and Regression Trees (CART) was used to select the minimum number of optimal bands that discriminate the giant reed from the adjacent vegetation. A new approach was used to identify sets of wavelengths - wavezones - that maximize the spectral separability beyond the minimum number of optimal bands. Jeffries Matusita and Bhattacharya distance were used to evaluate the spectral separability using the minimum optimal bands and in three simulated satellite images, namely Landsat, IKONOS and SPOT. Giant reed was spectrally separable from the adjacent vegetation, both at the vegetative and the senescent period, exception made to the common reed at the vegetative period. The red edge region was repeatedly selected, although the visible region was also important to separate the giant reed from the herbaceous vegetation and the mid infrared region to the discrimination from the woody vegetation. The highest separability was obtained for the giant reed_RAC stands, due to its highly homogeneous, dense and dark-green stands. Results are discussed by relating the phenological, morphological and structural features of the giant reed stands and the adjacent vegetation with their optical traits. Weaknesses and strengths of the giant reed spectral discrimination are highlighted and implications of imagery selection for mapping purposes are argued based on present results.

  3. The Current Tectonics of the Yukon and Adjacent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.; Leonard, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current tectonics across the Yukon and adjacent areas of western Northwest Territories (NWT) and northern British Columbia appear to be driven primarily by the Yakutat Terrane collision, an "indenter" in the corner of the Gulf of Alaska. GPS data show 1-10 mm/yr northward and eastward, decreasing inland. The rates from earthquake statistics are similar although there are important discrepancies. The eastern Cordillera earthquake mechanisms are mainly thrust in the Mackenzie Mountains of southwestern NWT where the Cordillera upper crust is overthrusting the craton. To the north, the mechanisms are mainly strike-slip in the Richardson Mountains that appear to lie along the edge of the craton. The deformation appears to be limited to the hot and weak Cordillera with the strong craton providing an irregular eastern boundary. For example, there is an eastward bow in the craton edge and the deformation in the Mackenzie Mountains. On the Beaufort Sea margin in the region of the Mackenzie Delta there appears to be a type of "subduction zone" with the continent very slowly overthrusting the oceanic plate, a process that has continued since at least the Cretaceous. A northward moving continental margin block is bounded by left lateral faulting in the west (Canning Displacement Zone of eastern Alaska) and right lateral faulting in the east (Richardson Mountains in eastern Yukon). There is almost no seismicity on this thrust belt but as for some other subduction zones such as Cascadia there is the potential for very infrequent great earthquakes.

  4. A Conceptual Site Model for Nature and Extent of Contamination in a Riparian-Near Shore Area - 12410

    SciTech Connect

    Morgans, Donna; Lowe, John; McCarthy, Chris; Aly, Alaa

    2012-07-01

    The 100-K decision area is located along the Columbia River and includes source Operable Units (OUs), a groundwater OU, and the adjacent surface water, saturated sediment and aquatic biota. A conceptual site model (CSM) has been developed to evaluate concentrations of non-radiological substances and radionuclides detected in soil, water and sediments in a riparian near-shore area along the Columbia River. The CSM is used to determine if potential transport pathways exist to these media from Hanford Site sources by incorporating information from the physical system, surface hydrology, subsurface hydrogeology, analytical results, and ecological evaluation into the model. Six contaminants of ecological concern, mostly metals and non-radiological inorganics, have been identified in riparian and near-shore media. With few exceptions (notably chromium and hexavalent chromium), there are ambient sources for these constituents in soil, sediment and water that are unrelated to the Hanford Site. While the CSM documented analytical and biological conditions, this paper presents results focused on analytical measurements to document the potential for these contaminants to be related to a release from the Hanford Site. The purpose for preparing this CSM was to address, on a reactor decision area basis, the potential for Hanford Site contaminants in soil or groundwater to migrate to riparian or near-shore areas at concentrations that could be of concern for ecological receptors. This CSM supplements the analysis of River Corridor-wide ecological risks presented in the ecological risk assessment of the RCBRA. The RCBRA identified on a site-wide basis some contaminants of ecological concern that warranted further evaluation. Based on the results of the further evaluation contained in this CSM, with the exception of hexavalent chromium, detected concentrations of contaminants in riparian or near-shore media are not reliably detectable at levels of ecological concern, or are not

  5. Role of riparian areas in atmospheric pesticide deposition and its potential effect on water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian buffers are known to mitigate hydrologic losses of nutrients and other contaminants as they exit agricultural fields. The vegetation of riparian buffers can also trap atmospheric contaminants, but these pollutants can subsequently be delivered via rain to the riparian buffer floor. These ...

  6. Flood impact assessment on the development of Archaia Olympia riparian area in Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasaporti, Christina; Podimata, Marianthi; Yannopoulos, Panayotis

    2013-04-01

    A long list of articles in the literature examines several issues of flood risk management and applications of flood scenarios, taking into consideration the climate changes, as well as decision making tools in flood planning. The present study tries to highlight the conversation concerning flood impacts on the development rate of a riparian area. More specifically, Archaia (Ancient) Olympia watershed was selected as a case study area, since it is considered as a region of special interest and international significance. In addition, Alfeios River, which is the longest river of Peloponnisos Peninsula, passes through the plain of Archaia Olympia. Flood risk scenarios allow scientists and practitioners to understand the adverse effects of flooding on development activities such as farming, tourism etc. and infrastructures in the area such as road and railway networks, Flokas dam and the hydroelectric power plant, bridges, settlements and other properties. Flood risks cause adverse consequences on the region of Archaia Olympia (Ancient Olympic stadium) and Natura 2000 site area. Furthermore, SWOT analysis was used in order to quantify multicriteria and socio-economic characteristics of the study area. SWOT analysis, as a planning method, indicates the development perspective by identifying the strengths, weaknesses, threads and opportunities. Subsequent steps in the process of intergraded River Management Plan of Archaia Olympia could be derived from SWOT analysis. The recognition and analysis of hydro-geomorphological influences on riparian development activities can lead to the definition of hazardous and vulnerability zones and special warning equipment. The former information combined with the use of the spatial database for the catchment area of the River Alfeios, which aims to gather multiple watershed data, could serve in preparing the Management Plan of River Basin District 01 where Alfeios R. belongs. Greece has to fulfill the obligation of implementing River

  7. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  8. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  9. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  10. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  11. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  12. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  13. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  14. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: What is revisited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, A.; Jrbashyan, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagyan, A.; Baghdassaryan, H.; Davtian, V.

    2006-07-01

    The validity of some data in Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62] that are revisited by R. Haroutiunian is considered. A conclusion is made that the revisions suggested by Haroutiunian concern unessential parts of the content of work by Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62]. This article presents new evidence and re-proves the earlier conclusions that are disputed or revised by R. Haroutiunian.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  16. Amphibian and reptile abundance in riparian and upslope areas of five forest types in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, D.M.; Anthony, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    We compared species composition and relative abundance of herpetofauna between riparian and upslope habitats among 5 forest types (shrub, open sapling-pole, large sawtimber and old-growth conifer forests, and deciduous forests) in Western Oregon. Riparian- and upslope- associated species were identified based on capture frequencies from pitfall trapping. Species richness was similar among forest types but slightly greater in the shrub stands. The abundances of 3 species differed among forest types. Total captures was highest in deciduous forests, intermediate in the mature conifer forests, and lowest in the 2 young coniferous forests. Species richness was similar between stream and upslope habitats; however, captures were higher in riparian than upslope habitat. Tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei), Dunn's salamanders (Plethodon dunni), roughskin newts(Tanicha granulosa), Pacific giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) and red-legged frogs(Rana aurora) were captured more frequently in riparian than upslope habitats. Of these species the red-legged frog and Pacific giant salamander may depend on riparian habitat for at least part of their life requirements, while tailed frogs, Dunn's salamanders and roughskin newts appear to be riparian associated species. In addition, we found Oregon salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzi) were associated with upslope habitats. We suggest riparian management zones should be al least 75-100 m on each side of the stream and that management for upslope/and or old forest associates may be equally as important as for riparian species.

  17. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  18. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  19. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  20. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  1. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  2. Evaluation of an extreme-condition-inverse calibration remote sensing model for mapping energy balance fluxes in arid riparian areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.-H.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Kleissl, J.; Allen, R. G.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Scott, R. L.; Steinwand, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of the surface energy balance components in arid riparian areas is needed for sustainable management of water resources as well as for a better understanding of water and heat exchange processes between the land surface and the atmosphere. Since the spatial and temporal distributions of these fluxes over large areas are difficult to determine from ground measurements alone, their prediction from remote sensing data is very attractive as it enables large area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to estimate all the energy balance components in the arid riparian areas of the Middle Rio Grande Basin (New Mexico), San Pedro Basin (Arizona), and Owens Valley (California). We compare instantaneous and daily SEBAL fluxes derived from Landsat TM images to surface-based measurements with eddy covariance flux towers. This study presents evidence that SEBAL yields reliable estimates for actual evapotranspiration rates in riparian areas of the southwestern United States. The great strength of the SEBAL method is its internal calibration procedure that eliminates most of the bias in latent heat flux at the expense of increased bias in sensible heat flux.

  3. Seismotectonic domains of northeastern India and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, D. R.; Dasgupta, Sujit

    Eastern Himalaya, Meghalaya plateau, upper Assam valley, northern part of the Indo-Burmese arc and the Mishmi block constitute major tectonostratigraphic domains in northeastern India. Many lineaments of faults, both parallel and oblique to the Himalayan trend, are already known. Interpretation of satellite images combined with surface geological studies suggest that many such oblique lineaments transgress the boundary of individual tectonic domains and some continue from the Tethyan Himalaya to the foredeep or cut across both Himalayan and Burmese arcs. The entire area is highly seismic; seismicity pattern, focal mechanism solutions, geological set up and fault/lineament fabric when studied together clearly defines several seismotectonic domains. In east Nepal-Sikkim, the northward push of India is accommodated through conjugate shear failure wherein seismic strike-slip movement occurs mostly along NE faults. Further east NW/WNW Kopili-Bomdila faults are associated with many large earthquakes and lateral motion along them allows a bulk southeastward movement of this segment of Himalaya towards the Burmese arc. The Mishmi block, structurally oblique to both the Himalayan and Burmese arcs, also indicates a net southeast tectonic transportation. The upper Assam valley is aseismic and arguably does not represent an area of seismic gap. Seismicity in both Meghalaya plateau and Sylhet plains is unrelated to movements along the Dauki fault.

  4. A seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khattri, K.N.; Rogers, A.M.; Perkins, D.M.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    We have produced a probabilistic seismic hazard map showing peak ground accelerations in rock for India and neighboring areas having a 10% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Seismogenic zones were identified on the basis of historical seismicity, seismotectonics and geology of the region. Procedures for reducing the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs were followed before estimating recurrence parameters. An eastern United States acceleration attenuation relationship was employed after it was found that intensity attenuation for the Indian region and the eastern United States was similar. The largest probabilistic accelerations are obtained in the seismotectonic belts of Kirthar, Hindukush, Himalaya, Arakan-Yoma, and the Shillong massif where values of over 70% g have been calculated. ?? 1984.

  5. The Isostatic State of Ethiopia and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2003-04-01

    Over 35000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models and perform geologic correlations over a large section of the Afro-Arabian shield. Ethiopia is an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ca. 5000km Afro-Arabian rift and it includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinsez models. These anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expression of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity over the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. A series of NW-SE and E-W trending features are evident in the different isostatic residual maps. These parallel features include, from north to south, the Najid fault system, Red Sea axial zone, Melka Werer cross structure, the Anza rift and the Aswa shear zone. Additional NW-SE structures are apparent in the southern rift system, although these features are somewhat diffuse. Curvature enhanced maps are also useful for mapping fracture zones, major gravity lineaments and, in some cases, orientation of faults. Important areas from a metallogenesis point of view have been identified for further examination. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and qualitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  6. Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 35,000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models against geologic structures over a part of the Afro-Arabian shield. The area of Ethiopia covers an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ≈5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and the Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinesz (flexural rigidity D = 10 22 Nm) models. The isostatic residual anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expressions of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity in the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. The small mean isostatic residual anomaly (about 8 mGal) and the isostatic analysis show a slight positive bias indicating under compensation. The undercompensation may imply that there are upper crustal features that are not compensated regionally (probably supported by the rigidity of the lithosphere) and isostatic disequilibrium in the region. Therefore, the high topography of Ethiopia and East African plateau is partly compensated by thicker crust (broad negative isostatic regional anomaly) and partly by dynamic forces. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and quantitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  7. Regional tectonics of Myanmar (Burma) and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Staskowski, R.J.; Loyd, S.P.; Tabbutt, V.M. ); Dolan, Stein, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of 38 contiguous Landsat Multispectral Scanner scenes acquired over Myanmar (Burma) reveals numerous large-scale features associated with margins of the Burman plate, previously unidentified northeast-southwest-trending discontinuities, important extensions of previously mapped fault trends, and numerous structural features that appear favorable for petroleum exploration. A mosaic of these scenes at 1:1,000,000 scale shows a large number of tectonic elements and their spatial relationships. Within the area of investigation are portions of the Indian, Burman, Lhasa, and Shan-Thai plates, and perhaps other, smaller plates. The Himalayan front and Indo-Burman Ranges manifest effects of current and recently past plate movement. The complexity of the kinematic history accounts for the diversity of structural features in the area. The last major event in this long and violent saga, which began in middle Miocene (approximately 11 Ma) time and continues to the present, is the recent change from a collisional to a right-lateral strike-slip transform margin between the Indian and Burman plates. The complexity of the structures visible is the product of multiple plate collisions, rotation of the Indian plate and parts of the Asian plate, and long-continued convergence that changed velocity and direction tbrough time. The most obvious evidence of this complexity, which is immediately apparent on geologic maps or the Landsat mosaic of the region, is the almost right-angle relationship of the folds of the Indo-Burman Ranges and the frontal thrusts and suture zones of the Himalaya. These two sets of compressive features imply maximum compressive stress axes that lie at right angles to each other. The implications are either that the orientation of the stress field changes rapidly over a short distance or that the stress field has changed through time. Both occurrences seem to be true.

  8. Hydrology of Lake Placid and adjacent area, Highlands County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, D. Briane; Stoker, Yvonne E.

    1985-01-01

    The study conducted during 1982-83, documents hydrologic conditions in Lake Placid and surrounding areas of Florida. Lake-stage data indicate that the 2- to 50-year flood stage ranges from 93.9 to 96.2 ft. Lake stage is reflected by annual departure of precipitation of the previous year from long-term average. A bathymetric map at 5 ft intervals indicates sinks in the lake bottom. Maximum depth and volume were 54 ft and more than 85,000 acre-feet, respectively. Lake Placid is a surface expression of the water table surficial aquifer with normal flow direction from south to north. Above average amounts of precipitation during winter 1983 created a groundwater mound north of Mirror Lake that caused reversal of the groundwater gradient in the water table aquifer. Lake water is neutral to slightly acidic, with low alkalinity and salinity. Nutrient concentrations are low and remain constant since 1966. Water samples collected since 1966 show trends toward increasing ionic composition and dissolved solids. Organic, inorganic, and phytoplankton analyses show Lake Placid to be relatively clear and clean. (USGS)

  9. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  10. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  15. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  16. Transmission of foodborne zoonotic pathogens to riparian areas by grazing sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Sara J.; Gray, Jeffrey T.; Menzies, Paula I.; Hook, Sarah E.; Millman, Suzanne T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if sheep grazing near riparian areas on pasture in Ontario are an important risk factor for the contamination of water with specific foodborne pathogens. Ten Ontario sheep farms were visited weekly for 12 wk during the summer of 2005. Samples of feces, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, and Yersinia enterocolitica, by bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The data was analyzed as repeated measures over time using mixed models. No samples were positive for Salmonella, and no samples were confirmed positive for E. coli O157:H7 after PCR. Levels of Campylobacter were highest in the soil, but did not differ between soil where sheep grazed or camped and roadside soil that had never been grazed (P = 0.85). Levels of Yersinia were highest in water samples and were higher in soil where sheep had access (P = 0.01). The prevalence of positive Campylobacter and Yersinia samples were not associated with locations where sheep spent more time (Campylobacter P = 0.46, Yersinia P = 0.99). There was no effect of stocking density on the prevalence of Campylobacter (P = 0.30), but as the stocking density increased the levels of Yersinia increased (P = 0.04). It was concluded that although sheep transmit Yersinia to their environment, pastured sheep flocks are not major risk factors for the transmission of zoonotic pathogens into water. PMID:19436581

  17. Summary geochemical maps, Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area, Mono and Tuolumne counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.; Sutley, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hoover Wilderness and the adjacent Hoover Extension (East), Hoover Extension (West), and Cherry Creek A Roadless Areas (the adjacent study area) encompass approximately 153,900 acres (241 mi2; 623 km2) in the Inyo, Stanislaus, and Toiyabe Naitonal Forests, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, Calif. These two areas lie along and mostly east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, along the north and east sides of Yosemite National Park. Elevations vary from a high of 12,446 ft (3,793 m) on the crest of the Sierra Nevada to a low of about 6,500 ft (1,981 m) near the Bridgeport Ranger Station. Access to the Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area is by U.S. Highway 395, California State Highways 108 (Sonora Pass) and 120 (Tioga Pass), and by other paved and graded roads that lead off of these U.S. and State highways.

  18. STREAM TEMPERATURE SIMULATION OF FORESTED RIPARIAN AREAS: I. WATERSHED-SCALE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To simulate stream temperatures on a watershed scale, shading dynamics of topography and riparian vegetation must be computed for estimating the amount of solar radiation that is actually absorbed by water for each stream reach. A series of computational procedures identifying th...

  19. Cattle use of perennial streams and associated riparian areas on a northeastern Oregon landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stream and riparian health is a major concern for state and federal land management agencies that are charged with oversight of extensive land holdings in the mountain west of the United States. Several federal agencies in the 1980s and 1990s determined that livestock grazing had adversely impacted...

  20. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That portion of San Diego Bay southerly of Ballast Point, exclusive of the southwesterly portion of the...

  1. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That portion of San Diego Bay southerly of Ballast Point, exclusive of the southwesterly portion of the...

  2. Effect of organic matter and roots in soil respiration in a Mediterranean riparian areas in Central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garrido, Laura; Delgado, Juan Antonio; Martinez, Teodora

    2010-05-01

    Soil respiration is one of the largest carbon flux components within terrestrial ecosystems, and small changes in the magnitude of soil respiration could have a large effect on the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The main objective is evaluating the factors controlling soil respiration on the global carbon cycle in riparian areas of Henares River. We evaluated total soil respiration as it was affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, root respiration and organic matter in four areas differing in vegetation cover. We specifically assessed the contribution of soil organic matter and fine root biomass (≤1 mm.) in soil carbon dioxide flux. The study area is located on the riverbanks of Henares River where it passes through the municipal term of Alcala de Henares (Madrid) in Central Spain. Measurements were performed in spring and autumn of 2009. The study was conducted on four different types of riparian vegetation: natural Mediterranean riparian forest, reforestation of 1994, reforestation of 1999 and riparian grassland without trees. In each area of study 3, 25x25 m, plots were delimited and within each plot three sampling units of 50x50 cm were selected at random. The temperature of the ground was taken during the measures from respiration using a Multi-thermometer (-50°C - +300°C) at 5 cm depth. The moisture content of the ground was measured at 5 cm of depth with a HH2 Moisture meter (Delta Devices, Cambridge, UK). The measures of respiration of the ground were realised in field by means of LCI portable (LC pro ADC Bioscientific, Ltd. UK) connected to a ground respiration camera. We introduced the camera 3 cm into the soil just after eliminating the vegetation grass of the surface of measurement cutting carefully the aerial part, without damaging the roots. Soil CO2 flux measurements were registered after stabilization. Immediately after CO2 measurements, we obtained soil samples by means of a drill of 2.18 cm of diameter taking samples to 10 cm and

  3. Report calls for riparian protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A 22 March report by The (U.S.) National Academies calls for the protection and restoration of riparian areas in the United States. However, it concedes that key difficulties in this endeavor include the lack of basic information about the extent and ecological health of these areas, and even a precise ecological definition of what a riparian area is.The report, “Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management” prepared by the Water Science and Technology Board of the National Research Council, states that “restoration of riparian functions along America's water bodies should be a national goal.”

  4. META-ANALYSIS OF NITROGEN REMOVAL IN RIPARIAN BUFFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian buffer zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width may be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrog...

  5. Holding onto the Green Zone: A Youth Program for the Study and Stewardship of Community Riparian Areas. Action Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of the Interior, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Scientists call the land along the edges of a river, stream, or lake a riparian zone. In this guide, riparian zone will be called the Green Zone. Riparian zones make up only a small part of land in the United States. But they are very important. They protect water quality and quantity, supply food and shelter for fish and wildlife, and provide…

  6. Language testing during awake "anesthesia" in a bilingual patient with brain lesion adjacent to Wernicke's area.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Federico; Stazi, Elisabetta; Delfini, Roberto; Rosa, Giovanni

    2011-04-01

    Awake "anesthesia" is the preferable anesthetic approach for neurosurgical procedures that require intraoperative localization of eloquent brain areas. We describe intraoperative inducible selective English aphasia in a bilingual (English and Italian) patient undergoing awake anesthesia for excision of a brain lesion adjacent to Wernicke's area with no postoperative neurological sequelae. We discuss the importance of intraoperative brain mapping and intraoperative language testing in bilingual patients to prevent iatrogenic-related morbidity.

  7. Restoration of riparian areas following the removal of cattle in the northwestern great basin.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Jonathan L; Ripple, William J; Wilson, Todd M; Painter, Luke E

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the effects of the elimination of livestock in riparian systems at Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in southeastern Oregon, 23 years after the removal of cattle grazing, using 64 photos taken before grazing was removed compared with later retake photos. Two methods were used for this assessment: (1) a qualitative visual method comparing seven cover types and processes and (2) a new quantitative method of inserting digital line transects into photos. Results indicated that channel widths and eroding banks decreased in 64 and 73% of sites, respectively. We found a 90% decrease in the amount of bare soil (P < 0.001) and a 63% decrease in exposed channel (P < 0.001) as well as a significant increase in the cover of grasses/sedges/forbs (15% increase, P = 0.037), rushes (389% increase, P = 0.014), and willow (388% increase, P < 0.001). We also assessed the accuracy of the new method of inserting digital line transects into photo pairs. An overall accuracy of 91% (kappa 83%) suggests that digital line transects can be a useful tool for quantifying vegetation cover from photos. Our results indicate that the removal of cattle can result in dramatic changes in riparian vegetation, even in semi-arid landscapes and without replanting or other active restoration efforts.

  8. Stratigraphic and lithologic characteristics of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in the Danube and Sava riparian area near Belgrade (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadić, D.; Gaudenyi, T.; Bogićević, K.; Tošović, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Quaternary sediments in the Danube and Sava riparian area near Belgrade have a considerable thickness. Several categories of deposits (fluvial-lacustrine, fluvial and aeolian) of Pliocene and Quaternary age have been identified. Their thickness, granulometric composition and paleontological features change depending on the distance from the recent Danube and Sava riverbeds. The Pleistocene fluvial deposits are underlain by sediments of the Late Miocene (Sarmatian and Pannonian) or the Plio-Pleistocene age, and are overlain by fluvial-palustrine deposits of the Pleistocene age and recent alluvial deposits. Pleistocene fluvial deposits that form a major part of the Quaternary sediments, have a great significance, since they are proved to be excellent collectors of ground water. Although these deposits are at lower altitudes in the area of Srem, they could be correlated with the high Danube and Morava terraces in Serbia and Drava in Croatia on the basis of their lithologic and paleontological features.

  9. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  10. SCAPEGOAT WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, BOB MARSHALL AND GREAT BEAR WILDERNESSES, AND ADJACENT STUDY AREAS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earhart, Robert L.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocarbon and non-fuels mineral surveys indicate that parts of the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses and several of the adjacent study areas have probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for hydrocarbon accumulations, especially natural gas; the Scapegoat and Great Bear Wildernesses have a substantiated resource potential for copper and silver. The Bob Marshall Wilderness has a substantiated potential for barite and a probable potential for copper and silver. Lead, zinc, coal, and limestone occur locally within the study areas but such occurrences are small and low grade and no resource potential is identified.

  11. Climatic Factors Drive Population Divergence and Demography: Insights Based on the Phylogeography of a Riparian Plant Species Endemic to the Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Shao-Tian; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Zhou, Zhuo; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary climatic factors have played a significant role in population divergence and demography. Here we investigated the phylogeography of Osteomeles schwerinae, a dominant riparian plant species of the hot/warm-dry river valleys of the Hengduan Mountains (HDM), Qinling Mountains (QLM) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP). Three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (trnD-trnT, psbD-trnT, petL-psbE), one single copy nuclear gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; G3pdh), and climatic data during the Last Interglacial (LIG; c. 120–140 ka), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; c. 21 ka), and Current (c. 1950–2000) periods were used in this study. Six cpDNA haplotypes and 15 nuclear DNA (nDNA) haplotypes were identified in the 40 populations of O. schwerinae. Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, median-joining networks, and Bayesian phylogenetic trees based on the cpDNA and nDNA datasets, all suggested population divergence between the QLM and HDM-YGP regions. Our climatic analysis identified significant heterogeneity of the climatic factors in the QLM and HDM-YGP regions during the aforementioned three periods. The divergence times based on cpDNA and nDNA haplotypes were estimated to be 466.4–159.4 ka and 315.8–160.3 ka, respectively, which coincide with the time of the weakening of the Asian monsoons in these regions. In addition, unimodal pairwise mismatch distribution curves, expansion times, and Ecological Niche Modeling suggested a history of population expansion (rather than contraction) during the last glaciation. Interestingly, the expansion times were found being well consistent with the intensification of the Asian monsoons during this period. We inferred that the divergence between the two main lineages is probably caused by disruption of more continuous distribution because of weakening of monsoons/less precipitation, whilst subsequent intensification of the Asian monsoons during the last glaciation facilitated the expansion of O. schwerinae

  12. 33 CFR 334.1080 - San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure Island; naval restricted area. 334.1080 Section 334.1080 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1080 San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1080 - San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure Island; naval restricted area. 334.1080 Section 334.1080 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1080 San Francisco Bay adjacent to northeast corner of Treasure...

  14. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can

  16. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  17. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  18. Relevance of estuaries adjacent to megalopolis as modifiers of internal shelf areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Angela; Lazzzari, Leticia; Carreira, Renato; Farias, Cassia; Mauad, Cristiane

    2014-05-01

    Guanabara Bay located in the humid tropical region is a eutrophic estuarine system bordered by the second largest metropolitan area of Brazil. Human intervention resulted in water conditions ranging from complete anoxia in the polluted inner bay area to the adjacent, relatively pristine, open coastal area. In the present work the goals were to estimate nutrients and carbon fluxes between the bay and the adjacent coastal waters and to characterize by using stable isotopes, hydrocarbons and sterols the provenance of the exported/imported organic matter. Water samples were collected from three different depths over 25 hours cycles in the wet and dry seasons at a single station strategically positioned in the bay. Measurements included CTD, nutrients, chlorophylls, DOC, POC, PN, δ13C and δ15N, hydrocarbons and sterols in SPM. Most substances showed higher concentrations in ebb tide events and through statistical tools a significant difference between the campaigns was proved. The fluxes estimated on annual basis revealed the expressive exportation to the inner continental shelf of 1.27x104 Kmol DIN yr-1, 9.52x102 Kmol DIP yr-1, 2.65x104 tons DOC yr-1, 1.96x104 tons COP yr-1, 2.96x104 tons NP yr-1.

  19. Riparian and Associated Habitat Characteristics Related to Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Responses of Small Streams in Selected Agricultural Areas, United States, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Munn, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Physical factors, including both in-stream and riparian habitat characteristics that limit biomass or otherwise regulate aquatic biological condition, have been identified by previous studies. However, linking the ecological significance of nutrient enrichment to habitat or landscape factors that could allow for improved management of streams has proved to be a challenge in many regions, including agricultural landscapes, where many ecological stressors are strong and the variability among watersheds typically is large. Riparian and associated habitat characteristics were sampled once during 2003-04 for an intensive ecological and nutrients study of small perennial streams in five contrasting agricultural landscapes across the United States to determine how biological communities and ecosystem processes respond to varying levels of nutrient enrichment. Nutrient concentrations were determined in stream water at two different sampling times per site and biological samples were collected once per site near the time of habitat characterization. Data for 141 sampling sites were compiled, representing five study areas, located in parts of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware and Maryland), Georgia, Indiana, Ohio, Nebraska, and Washington. This report examines the available data for riparian and associated habitat characteristics to address questions related to study-unit contrasts, spatial scale-related differences, multivariate correlation structure, and bivariate relations between selected habitat characteristics and either stream nutrient conditions or biological responses. Riparian and associated habitat characteristics were summarized and categorized into 22 groups of habitat variables, with 11 groups representing land-use and land-cover characteristics and 11 groups representing other riparian or in-stream habitat characteristics. Principal components analysis was used to identify a reduced set of habitat variables that describe most of the variability among the

  20. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  3. [Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community structure in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent areas].

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun-xiang; Yu, Zhi-ming; Song, Xiu-xian; Han, Xiao-tian; Cao, Xi-hua; Yuan, Yong-quan

    2013-09-01

    Three cruises were carried out in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent areas in May, November, June during 2009-2010. The spatial variations of phytoplankton community structure were investigated based on RP-HPLC analysis of pigments and CHEMTAX processing of the pigment data. 21 kinds of pigments were detected, among which chlorophyll a, peridinin, fucoxanthin, 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, chlorophyll b, diadinoxanthin, alloxanthin and zeaxanthin were the major pigments in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent areas. Chlorophyll a was the most abundant in all pigments, followed by fuxoxanthin. Other pigments generally contributed a minor proportion to the total pigments. High concentrations of fucoxanthin and peridinin were observed in May 2009 and June 2010, indicating blooms of diatoms and dinoflagellates. The results showed that the composition and distribution of phytoplankton pigments were influenced by environmental factors. The phytoplankton community, as determined by biomarker pigment concentration using HPLC and CHEMTAX, was composed mainly of diatoms, dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, chlorophytes, cyanobacteria, prymnesiophytes, chrysophytes and prasinophytes. The dominant algal groups were diatoms, dinoflagellates and chlorophytes in May 2009. The phytoplankton community was characterized by high contribution of diatoms in November 2009. Diatoms, dinoflagellates and cryptophytes accounted for 62.5% of chlorophyll a in June 2010, and the relative abundance of cyanobacteria was higher in this cruise. The spatial variations of phytoplankton community structure featured distinct regionality. Diatoms, chlorophytes and cryptophytes were the main groups in the inshore waters, and the abundances of prymnesiophytes, chrysophytes and cyanobacteria were increasing from inshore to the open sea. PMID:24288983

  4. Denitrification and patterns of electron donors and acceptors in 8 riparian zones with contrasting hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidon, P.; Hill, A.

    2004-12-01

    A better understanding of nitrate removal mechanisms is important for managing the water quality function of stream riparian zones. We examined the linkages between hydrologic flow paths, patterns of electron donors and acceptors and the importance of denitrification as a nitrate removal mechanism in 8 riparian zones on glacial till and outwash landscapes in southern Ontario, Canada. Nitrate-N concentrations in shallow groundwater from adjacent cropland declined from levels that were often 10-30 mg L-1 near the field-riparian edge to <1 mg L-1 in the riparian zones throughout the year. Chloride data suggest that dilution cannot account for most of this nitrate decline. Despite contrasting hydrogeologic settings, these riparian zones displayed a well-organized pattern of electron donors and acceptors that resulted from the transport of oxic nitrate-rich groundwater to portions of the riparian zones where low DO concentrations and an increase in DOC concentrations were encountered. The natural abundances of d15N and in situ acetylene injection to piezometers indicate that denitrification is the primary mechanism of nitrate removal in all of the riparian zones. Our data indicate that effective nitrate removal by denitrification occurs in riparian zones with hydric soils as well as in non-hydric riparian zones and that a shallow water table is not always necessary for efficient nitrate removal by denitrification. The location of "hot spots" of denitrification within riparian areas can be explained by the influence of key landscape variables such as slope, sediment texture and depth of confining layers on hydrologic pathways that link supplies of electron donors and acceptors.

  5. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  6. Hydrogeology of recharge areas and water quality of the principal aquifers along the Wasatch Front and adjacent areas, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, P.B.; Susong, D.D.; Wold, S.R.; Heilweil, V.M.; Baskin, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The principal basin-fill aquifers in Cache Valley, the lower Bear River area, and along the Wasatch Front provide ground water to about 84 percent of the population of Utah. Recharge areas for the principal aquifers were mapped to provide information needed for the implementation of ground-water quality regulations and a State ground-water protection plan. Water samples were collected and analyzed to provide baseline water- quality data for the principal aquifers. The study area includes five subareas: Cache Valley, the 1ower Bear River area, the East Shore area, Salt Lake Valley, and Utah and Goshen Valleys. Basin-fill deposits in each subarea are lithologically heterogeneous. The principal aquifers in most of the subareas are composed of multiple discontinuous unconfined and confined aquifers and confining layers. Primary recharge areas generally are located along adjacent mountain fronts and extend into the valleys at the mouths of major drainages. Secondary recharge areas are located on the benches and uplands of the valleys. Ground-water flow generally is from these recharge areas to the discharge areas in the topographically low parts of the valleys. In general, dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water range from less than 500 mg/L to about 3,000 mg/L. Of 73 water samples, 5 contained inorganic constituents in concentrations that exceeded State of Utah water-quality standards. None of the samples contained concentrations of organic compounds that exceeded State standards.

  7. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resource problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, and adjacent areas in Oklahoma and Missouri. Discontinuities and perforations, which were produced by mining in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact, have created artificial groundwater recharge and discharge areas. Abandoned wells and drill holes present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. There is a potential for downward movement from the shallow to the deep aquifer throughout the study area, with greatest potential in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Principal effects of abandoned mines on groundwater quality are lowered pH and increased concentrations of sulfate and trace metals of water in the mines. No conclusive evidence of lateral migration of contaminated mine water from the mines into the water-supply wells adjacent to the mines was found. Analyses of water from the deep aquifer did not indicate trace-metal contamination. The effects of abandoned mines on streamwater quality are most severe in Short Creek and Tar Creek. Increased concentrations of zinc and manganese were observed in the Spring River below Short Creek Kansas. (USGS)

  8. Beaver dams and overbank floods influence groundwater-surface water interactions of a Rocky Mountain riparian area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Overbank flooding is recognized by hydrologists as a key process that drives hydrogeomorphic and ecological dynamics in mountain valleys. Beaver create dams that some ecologists have assumed may also drive riparian hydrologic processes, but empirical evidence is lacking. We examined the influence of two in-channel beaver dams and a 10 year flood event on surface inundation, groundwater levels, and flow patterns in a broad alluvial valley during the summers of 2002-2005. We studied a 1.5 km reach of the fourth-order Colorado River in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. The beaver dams and ponds greatly enhanced the depth, extent, and duration of, inundation associated with floods; they also elevate the water table during both high and low flows. Unlike previous studies we found the main effects of beaver on hydrologic processes occurred downstream of the dam rather than being confined to the near-pond area. Beaver dams on the Colorado River caused river water to move around them as surface runoff and groundwater seepage during both high- and low-flow periods. The beaver dams attenuated the expected water table decline in the drier summer months for 9 and 12 ha of the 58 ha study area. Thus we provide empirical evidence that beaver can influence hydrologic processes during the peak flow and low-flow periods on some streams, suggesting that beaver can create and maintain hydrologic regimes suitable for the formation and persistence of wetlands. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Landsat-faciliated vegetation classification of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Shasby, M.B.; Bailey, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-based vegetation map was prepared for Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent lands, 2 million and 2.5 million acres respectively. The refuge lies within the middle boreal sub zone of south central Alaska. Seven major classes and sixteen subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed); deciduous scrub (lowland and montane, subalpine); dwarf scrub (dwarf shrub tundra, lichen tundra, dwarf shrub and lichen tundra, dwarf shrub peatland, string bog/wetlands); herbaceous (graminoid meadows and marshes); scarcely vegetated areas ; water (clear, moderately turbid, highly turbid); and glaciers. The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photo interpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved: preprocessing (geometric connection), spectral class labeling of sample areas, derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, preliminary classification of the entree study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification through ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The vegetation map (scale 1:250,000) was a pioneering effort since there were no intermediate-sclae maps of the area. Representative of distinctive regional patterns, the map was suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning and wildlife management.

  10. Integrated riparian evaluation guide: Intermountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Riparian areas consist of riparian ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands. They may be associated with lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, potholes, marshes, springs, bogs, wet meadows, and intermittent or perennial streams where free and unbound water is available. Though riparian areas constitute only a fraction of the total land area, they are more productive in terms of both plant and animal species diversity and biomass per unit area than the remainder of the land base. The guide provides an integrated approach for: Stratifying and classifying riparian areas according to their natural inherent characteristics, and their respective existing or conditions; Data collection; Evaluation of riparian areas; Future development and linkage of a riparian data base; and Preparation of a written narrative to interpret the data and suggest management applications.

  11. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. 334.530 Section 334.530 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.530 Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the...

  12. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. 334.530 Section 334.530 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.530 Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the...

  13. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. 334.530 Section 334.530 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.530 Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the...

  14. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. 334.530 Section 334.530 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.530 Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the...

  15. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. 334.530 Section 334.530 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.530 Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the...

  16. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  17. Field guide to geologic excursions in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, William R.; Lund, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This field guide contains road logs for field trips planned in conjunction with the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America held at Southern Utah University in Cedar City, Utah. There are a total of eight field trips, covering various locations and topics in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada. In addition, the field guide contains a road log for a set of Geological Engineering Field Camp Exercises run annually by the University of Missouri at Rolla in and around Cedar City. Two of the field trips address structural aspects of the geology in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona; two trips deal with ground water in the region; and along with the Field Camp Exercises, one trip, to the Grand Staircase, is designed specifically for educators. The remaining trips examine the volcanology and mineral resources of a large area in and around the Tusher Mountains in Utah; marine and brackish water strata in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument; and the Pine Valley Mountains, which are cored by what may be the largest known laccolith in the world. The "Three Corners" area of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada is home to truly world-class geology, and I am confident that all of the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting attendees will find a field trip suited to their interests.

  18. Project Work Plan 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2006-04-30

    The 100-N Area Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) identified phyto¬remediation as a potential technology both for the removal of 90Sr from the soil of the riparian zone and as a filter for groundwater along the Columbia River. Recent greenhouse and growth chamber studies have demonstrated the viability of phytoextraction to remove 90Sr from this area’s soil/water; in conjunction with monitored natural attenuation and an apatite barrier the process would make an effective treatment for remediation of the 100-N Area 90Sr plume. All activities associated with the 100-NR-1 and 100-NR-2 Operable Units of the Hanford 100-N Area have had, and continue to have, significant regulatory and stakeholder participation. Beginning in 1998 with the ITRD process, presentations to the ITRD TAG were heavily attended by EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology, and stakeholders. In addition, three workshops have been held to receive regulatory and stakeholder feedback on monitored natural attenuation, the apatite barrier, and phytoremediation; these were held in Richland in August 2003, December 2004, and August 2005. The apatite injection treatability test plan (DOE 2005) describes phytoremediation as a technology to be evaluated during the March 2008 evaluation milestone as described in the Tri-Party Agreement change request (M-16-06-01 Change Control Form). If, during this evaluation milestone, phytoremediation is favorably evaluated it would be incorporated into the treatability test plan. The phytoremediation treatability test described in this proposal is strongly supported by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  19. Riparian vegetation controls on the hydraulic geometry of streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, M.

    2010-12-01

    A synthesis of field measurements, remote observations, and numerical modeling techniques highlights the significance of riparian vegetation in determining the geometry of streams and impacting sediment transport dynamics in temperate, Piedmont regions. Specifically, forested and grassy riparian vegetation establish streams with significantly different widths and with different timescales for attaining a state of dynamic equilibrium. The interactions between riparian vegetation, channel form, and channel dynamics are scale dependent. Scale dependency arises because of variations in ratios of vegetation length scales and geomorphic scales (e.g., channel width and depth). Stream reaches with grassy vegetation experience more frequent overbank discharges, migrate more quickly, and exhibit a more classic dynamic equilibrium than forested reaches. These phenomena are relevant to current watershed management efforts that aim to reduce sediment and nutrient loads to receiving water bodies, such as the Chesapeake Bay. The reforestation of riparian buffers is a common restoration technique that intends to improve water quality, temperature regimes, and in-stream physical habitat. Passive reforestation of riparian areas along a tributary to Sleepers River in Danville, VT, USA caused an increase in channel width and cross-sectional area over a 40-year period. From a comparison of historical records and current cross-sectional dimensions, the channel widening resulted in the mobilization of approximately 85 kg/ha/yr of floodplain sediments. Long-term monitoring of suspended sediments in an adjacent watershed indicates that this sediment source may account for roughly 40 percent of the total suspended sediment load. In some instances, increased sediment loads associated with channel widening may be an unforeseen consequence that compromises riparian restoration efforts.

  20. Mine and prospect map of the Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas, Coconino County, Arizona, and Kane County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas are mostly in Coconino County Ariz., but extend into Kane County, Utah. The area studied in this report encompasses about 560 mi2 (1,450 km2). The study area includes the established Paria Canyon Primitive and Vermilion Cliffs Natural Areas between U.S. Highways 89 and 89A.

  1. Ground-water resources of southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater resources in southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas were studied to determine their potential for development as an alternative to the Mississippi River as a water-supply source for Jefferson Parish. Eight major aquifers consisting of thick sand units that underlie the study area are, in descending order: (1) shallow, (2) upper Ponchatoula, (3) lower Ponchatoula, (4) Abita, (5) Covington, (6) Tchefuncta, (7) Hammond, and (8) Amite. A fault zone, referred to as the Baton Rouge fault, crosses southern Tangipahoa Parish. Analyses of geophysical logs indicated that the deep aquifers south of the fault zone had been displaced from 350 to 400 feet, and that the deeper aquifers were not in hydraulic connection with the flow system north of the fault. The groundwater resources of southeastern Louisiana are immense and the quality of groundwater in Tangipahoa Parish is suitable for most uses. The quality of water in these aquifers generally meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standards for public supply. The hydrologic system underlying Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas in 1990 supplied about 19 Mgal/d of water that was suitable for public supply. However, substantial increases in pumping from the aquifer system would result in renewed water-level declines throughout the hydrologic system until a new equilibrium is established. A test we11 in southern Tangipahoa Parish, penetrated all eight aquifers. Total thickness of freshwater sand beds penetrated by the 3003-ft test hole was more than 1900 ft. Resistivity values from an electric log of the test typically averaged 200 ohm-meters, which indicates that the water has low dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations. An analysis of the Abita aquifer at Ruddock in St. John the Baptist Parish, for two of three hypothetical well fields, indicated that for a hypothetical we11 field with a pumping rate of 112 Mgal/d, the freshwater/saltwater interface could arrive at the outer perimeter we11 in

  2. Hydrogeologic data for the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas, Coconino and Yavapai counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2002-01-01

    Data on geology, topography, hydrology, climate, land use, and vegetation were compiled between October 2000 and September 2001 and assembled into a database for use by local and regional waterresource managers and for future water-resource investigations. The hydrologic data include information on wells, springs, streamflow, water chemistry, and water use. Limitations of the data and additional data needs also were prepared. The roughly 5,000-square-mile Coconino Plateau contains a complex regional aquifer that has become increasingly important as a source of water supply for domestic, municipal, and in-stream uses owing to population growth and development. The flow characteristics of the regional aquifer are poorly understood because the aquifer is deeply buried, which limits exploratory drilling and testing, and because the geologic structure, which controls the occurrence and movement of ground water, is complex. The study area is about 10,300 square miles and, besides containing the entire Coconino Plateau, includes parts of adjacent areas where ground water from the Coconino Plateau discharges. Selected data are presented in tabular or graphical form. All data are available in electronic form.

  3. Archaeoseismological Study of Prehistoric Earthquakes in Anhui Province, China and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Shen, X.; Gong, X.; Wu, W.; Hu, Z.; Zheng, H.; Chen, A.; Zhao, P.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Damaging earthquakes on faults typically recur at intervals of centuries to millennia but the seismographs that record them have only been around for about hundred years. Complete records of earthquakes of Ms5 or above for Anhui Province of China and its adjacent areas began in 1336 and most previous records were lost. To reduce the hazard from earthquakes we need a longer record of them than can be provided from such instruments. Archaeoseismological evidence has the potential to determine earthquake activity over millennial time spans, especially when integrated with historical documents and geological evidence. In recent years, taking advantage of large-scale civil excavations, our research team including earthquake and archaeological scientists have cataloged, identified, and analyzed deformation relics of the late-Quaternary period, especially the Neolithic Age. Prehistoric earthquake traces were found in the cultural layers of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period in Southwest Anhui, the late Dawenkou cultural period in North Anhui, and the Eastern Zhou in South Henan. Along the segment of the Tanlu Fault Zone on the border of Jiangsu-Anhui Provinces, several rapid deformation events mainly in the form of oblique translational thrust had occurred since Late Pleistocene, which was confirmed by microscopic studies. The research findings have partly filled the gap of earthquake records in the area and enriched research methodologies in archaeology, prehistoric earthquakes and earthquake prediction. The project was sponsored by China Earthquake Science Special Research Funding Program (#201308012)

  4. Footprint methods to separate N2O emission rates from adjacent paddock areas.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sandipan; McMillan, Andrew M S; Sturman, Andrew P; Harvey, Mike J; Laubach, Johannes

    2015-03-01

    Using micrometeorological techniques to measure greenhouse gas emissions from differently treated adjacent plots is a promising avenue to verify the effect of mitigation strategies at the field scale. In pursuing such an approach, it is crucial to accurately characterize the source area of the fluxes measured at each sampling point. Hence, a comprehensive footprint analysis method is required so that emission rates can be obtained for a specific field within a biochemically heterogeneous area. In this study, a footprint analysis method is developed to estimate the emission for an experiment where the flux of N2O is measured from several control and treated plots. The emission rate of an individual plot is estimated using an inverse footprint fraction approach where the footprint fractions are obtained from an analytical footprint model. A numerical solution for obtaining the background flux for such a multiplot measurement system is also provided. Results of the footprint analysis method are assessed, first, by comparing footprint fractions obtained from both an analytical footprint model and a "forward" simulation of a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) model; and second, by comparing the emission rates of a control plot obtained from the footprint analysis method and from the "backward" simulation of the bLs model. It is found that the analytical footprint fractions compare well with the values obtained from the bLs model (correlation coefficient of 0.58 and 0.66 within p value <0.001). An average of 4.3 % of the measured fluxes is found to be contributed by sources outside the measured area and, excluding this outside area contribution to the measured flux, footprint corrected emission rates within the defined domain are found to increase by 2.1 to 5.8 % of the measured flux. Also, the proposed method of emission rate estimation is found to work well under a wide range of atmospheric stability. PMID:24899395

  5. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Las Vegas Strip and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    As proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of the Las Vegas Strip and adjacent areas on December 29, 2008. This survey was one of the bi-annual surveys carried in support of the city of Las Vegas Police Department (LVPD) before significant events on the Las Vegas Strip: e.g., the annual New Year’s Eve and July Fourth celebrations. The AMS operation and appropriate law enforcement agencies selected this area as an appropriate urban location to exercise AMS capability for mapping environmental radiation and searching for man-made radioactive sources. The surveys covered approximately 11 square miles. Each survey required a 2.5-hour-long flight, performed at an altitude of 300 ft above ground level (AGL) at a line spacing of 600 ft. Water line and test line flights are conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to determine the non-terrestrial background contributed by aircraft, radon, and cosmic activity, and to determine the altitude-dependent air mass correction. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2" x 4" x 16" sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Gamma energy spectral data were collected second-by-second over the survey area. This spectral data allows the system to distinguish between natural terrestrial background contributions and man-made radioisotope contributions. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific man-made radioactive isotopes. Data geo-locations were determined with a Real-Time Differential Global Positioning System (RDGPS).

  6. HCH and DDT in sediments from marine and adjacent riverine areas of North Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Wang, Tieyu; Khim, Jong Seong; Luo, Wei; Jiao, Wentao; Lu, Yonglong; Naile, Jonathan E; Chen, Chunli; Zhang, Xiang; Giesy, John P

    2010-07-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and their environmental risks in surface sediments collected from marine and adjacent riverine/estuarine areas in the northern Bohai Sea, China, were investigated. Concentrations of SigmaHCH and SigmaDDT in sediments ranged from below detection (areas of the world. The source of HCH in sediments could be explained by the large amount of historical use, while DDT seemed to be a combination of erosion of the weathered soils and long-range atmospheric transport. Concentrations of HCH in sediments from the study areas did not exceed sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), with the exception of gamma-HCH. However, risks posed by concentrations of DDT observed in sediments were found to be moderate to high compared with those posed by consensus-based SQGs. Although the mean sedimentary concentrations of HCH and DDT found in the area of the northern Bohai Sea, China were lower than suggested SQGs in general, their concentrations in some locations were close to or above the SQGs for adverse effects in benthic organisms and, thus, remain a cause for concern.

  7. Sediment dynamics in restored riparian forest with different widths and agricultural surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucchi Boschi, Raquel; Simões da Silva, Laura; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The riparian forests are essential to maintaining the quality of water resources, aquifer recharge and biodiversity. Due to the ecological services provided by riparian forests, these areas are considered by the law as Permanent Preservation Areas, being mandatory maintenance and restoration. However, the obligation of restoration and the extent of the Permanent Preservation Areas as defined by the Brazilian Forest Code, based on water body width, elucidates the lack of accurate scientific data on the influence of the size of the riparian forest in maintaining their ecological functions, particularly regarding the retention of sediments. Studies that evaluate the ideal width of riparian forests to guarantee their ecological functions are scarce and not conclusive, especially when we consider newly restored forests, located in agricultural areas. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of erosion and sedimentation in restored riparian forests with different widths situated in agricultural areas. The two study areas are located in a Semideciduous Tropical Forest inserted in sugarcane landscapes of São Paulo state, Brazil. The installed plots had 60 and 100 m in length and the riparian forest has a width of 15, 30 and 50 m. The characteristics of the sediments inside the plots were evaluated by detailed morphological and micromorphological studies as well as physical characterization. The dynamics of deposition and the amount of deposited sediments have been assessed with graded metal stakes partially buried inside the plots. The intensity, frequency and distribution of rainfall, as well as the occurrence of extreme events, have been evaluated by data collected from rain gauges installed in the areas. We expect that smaller widths are not able to retain sediments originated from the adjacent sugarcane areas. We also believe that extreme events are responsible for generating most of the sediments. The results will be important to support the discussion about an

  8. Hydrology and snowmelt simulation of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas, Summit County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.; Susong, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing residential and commercial development is placing increased demands on the ground- and surface-water resources of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas in the southwestern corner of Summit County, Utah. Data collected during 1993-95 were used to assess the quantity and quality of the water resources in the study area. Ground water within the study area is present in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated valley fill. The complex geology makes it difficult to determine the degree of hydraulic connection between different blocks of consolidated rocks. Increased ground-water withdrawal during 1983- 95 generally has not affected ground-water levels. Ground-water withdrawal in some areas, however, caused seasonal fluctuations and a decline in ground-water levels from 1994 to 1995, despite greater-than-normal recharge in the spring of 1995. Ground water generally has a dissolved-solids concentration that ranges from 200 to 600 mg/L. Higher sulfate concentrations in water from wells and springs near Park City and in McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek than in other parts of the study area are the result of mixing with water that discharges from the Spiro Tunnel. The presence of chloride in water from wells and springs near Park City and in streams and wells near Interstate Highway 80 is probably caused by the dissolution of applied road salt. Chlorofluorocarbon analyses indicate that even though water levels rise within a few weeks of snowmelt, the water took 15 to 40 years to move from areas of recharge to areas of discharge. Water budgets for the entire study area and for six subbasins were developed to better understand the hydrologic system. Ground-water recharge from precipitation made up about 80 percent of the ground-water recharge in the study area. Ground-water discharge to streams made up about 40 percent of the surface water in the study area and ground-water discharge to springs and mine tunnels made up about 25 percent. Increasing use of

  9. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, R; Ritter, A; Li, Y C

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO3-, N-NH4+, P-PO4(3-), Total P, F-and Cl-) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO3-, P-PO4(3-)and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F-and Cl- are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying land

  10. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying

  11. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, R; Ritter, A; Li, Y C

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO3-, N-NH4+, P-PO4(3-), Total P, F-and Cl-) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO3-, P-PO4(3-)and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F-and Cl- are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying land

  12. Hydrogeology of the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas, Coconino and Yavapai Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Monroe, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Two large, regional ground-water flow systems occur in the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas: the C aquifer and the Redwall-Muav aquifer. The C aquifer occurs mainly in the eastern and southern parts of the 10,300-square-mile Coconino Plateau study area, and the Redwall-Muav aquifer underlies the entire study area. The C aquifer is a water-table aquifer for most of its occurrence with depths to water that range from a few hundred feet to more than 1,500 feet. In the western part of the Coconino Plateau study area, the C aquifer is dry except for small localized perched water-bearing zones decoupled from the C aquifer to the east. The Redwall-Muav aquifer underlies the C aquifer and ranges from at least 3,000 feet below land surface in the western part of the Coconino Plateau study area to more than 3,200 feet below land surface in the eastern part of the study area. The Redwall-Muav aquifer is a confined aquifer for most of its occurrence with hydraulic heads of several hundred to more than 500 feet above the top of the aquifer in the western part of the study area and more than 2,000 feet above the top of the aquifer in the eastern part of the study area near Flagstaff. In the eastern and northeast parts of the area, the C aquifer and the Redwall-Muav aquifer are in partial hydraulic connection through faults and other fractures. The water discharging from the two aquifers on the Coconino Plateau study area is generally of good quality for most intended uses. Water from sites in the lower Little Colorado River Canyon had high concentrations of most trace elements relative to other springs, rivers, and streams in the study area. Concentrations of barium, arsenic, uranium, and lead, and gross alpha radioactivity were greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water at some sites. Ground water discharging to most springs, streams, and wells on the Coconino Plateau and in adjacent areas is a calcium magnesium

  13. Volcanic hazards of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1994-12-01

    Potential volcanic hazards are assessed, and hazard zone maps are developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent areas. The basis of the hazards assessment and mapping is the past volcanic history of the INEL region, and the apparent similarity of INEL volcanism with equivalent, well-studied phenomena in other regions of active volcanism, particularly Hawaii and Iceland. The most significant hazards to INEL facilities are associated with basaltic volcanism, chiefly lava flows, which move slowly and mainly threaten property by inundation or burning. Related hazards are volcanic gases and tephra, and ground disturbance associated with the ascent of magma under the volcanic zones. Several volcanic zones are identified in the INEL area. These zones contain most of the volcanic vents and fissures of the region and are inferred to be the most probable sites of future INEL volcanism. Volcanic-recurrence estimates are given for each of the volcanic zones based on geochronology of the lavas, together with the results of field and petrographic investigations concerning the cogenetic relationships of INEL volcanic deposits and associated magma intrusion. Annual probabilities of basaltic volcanism within the INEL volcanic zones range from 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year (average 16,000-year interval between eruptions) for the axial volcanic zone near the southern INEL boundary and the Arco volcanic-rift zone near the western INEL boundary, to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year (average 100,000-year interval between eruptions) for the Howe-East Butte volcanic rift zone, a geologically old and poorly defined feature of the central portion of INEL. Three volcanic hazard zone maps are developed for the INEL area: lava flow hazard zones, a tephra (volcanic ash) and gas hazard zone, and a ground-deformation hazard zone. The maps are useful in land-use planning, site selection, and safety analysis.

  14. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  15. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  16. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  17. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  18. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  19. Factors affecting songbird nest survival in riparian forests in a midwestern agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peak, R.G.; Thompson, F. R.; Shaffer, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting nest success of songbirds in riparian forest and buffers in northeastern Missouri. We used an information-theoretic approach to determine support for hypotheses concerning effects of nest-site, habitat-patch, edge, and temporal factors on nest success of songbirds in three narrow (55-95 m) and three wide (400-530 m) riparian forests with adjacent grassland-shrub buffer strips and in three narrow and three wide riparian forests without adjacent grassland-shrub buffer strips. We predicted that temporal effects would have the most support and that habitat-patch and edge effects would have little support, because nest predation would be great across all sites in the highly fragmented, predominantly agricultural landscape. Interval nest success was 0.404, 0.227, 0.070, and 0.186, respectively, for Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and forest interior species pooled (Acadian Flycatcher [Empidonax virescens], Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapillus], and Kentucky Warbler [Oporornis formosus]). The effect of nest stage on nest success had the most support; daily nest success for Gray Catbird and Indigo Bunting were lowest in the laying stage. We found strong support for greater nest success of Gray Catbird in riparian forests with adjacent buffer strips than in riparian forests without adjacent buffer strips. Patch width also occurred in the most-supported model for Gray Catbird, but with very limited support. The null model received the most support for Northern Cardinal. Riparian forests provided breeding habitat for area-sensitive forest species and grassland-shrub nesting species. Buffer strips provided additional breeding habitat for grassland-shrub nesting species. Interval nest success for Indigo Bunting and area-sensitive forest species pooled, however, fell well below the level that is likely necessary to balance juvenile

  20. Factors affecting songbird nest survival in riparian forests in a Midwestern agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peak, R.G.; Thompson, F. R.; Shaffer, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting nest success of songbirds in riparian forest and buffers in northeastern Missouri. We used an information-theoretic approach to determine support for hypotheses concerning effects of nest-site, habitat-patch, edge, and temporal factors on nest success of songbirds in three narrow (55DS95 m) and three wide (400DS530 m) riparian forests with adjacent grasslandDSshrub buffer strips and in three narrow and three wide riparian forests without adjacent grasslandDSshrub buffer strips. We predicted that temporal effects would have the most support and that habitat-patch and edge effects would have little support, because nest predation would be great across all sites in the highly fragmented, predominantly agricultural landscape. Interval nest success was 0.404, 0.227, 0.070, and 0.186, respectively, for Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and forest interior species pooled (Acadian Flycatcher [Empidonax virescens], Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapillus], and Kentucky Warbler [Oporornis formosus]). The effect of nest stage on nest success had the most support; daily nest success for Gray Catbird and Indigo Bunting were lowest in the laying stage. We found strong support for greater nest success of Gray Catbird in riparian forests with adjacent buffer strips than in riparian forests without adjacent buffer strips. Patch width also occurred in the most supported model for Gray Catbird, but with very limited support. The null model received the most support for Northern Cardinal. Riparian forests provided breeding habitat for areas sensitive forest species and grassland-shrub nesting species. Buffer strips provided additional breeding habitat for grassland-shrub nesting species. Interval nest success for Indigo Bunting and area-sensitive forest species pooled, however, fell well below the level that is likely necessary to balance

  1. Geochemistry and hydrology of thermal springs in the Idaho Batholith and adjacent areas, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of nature of thermal springs in the Idaho batholith and adjacent areas suggest a relation between structural controls and deeply circulating hot-water systems. Springs issuing from granitic rocks are associated mostly with major regional fault structures. Springs issuing from other rocks probably are related to local faulting. Individual spring flows and water temperatures are variable and range from less than 1 gallon per minute to 2,710 gallons per minute and from 20.5 degrees to 94.0 degrees Celsius. Annual spring discharge is at least 27,000 acre-feet; heat discharges convectively is estimated to be 5.0 x 107 calories per second. Thermal springs discharge relatively dilute water; dissolved solids range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. The chemical quality of the water suggests deep circulation of meteoric water. Estimated reservoir temperatures are generally less than 100 degrees Celsius, but temperatures for several springs exceed 150 degrees Celsius. Stable-isotope data suggest that most of the thermal water is not derived from current precipitation. Carbon-14 values indicate that thermal waters are old; apparent residence times range from 9,000 to more than 40,000 years.

  2. How to Regenerate and Protect Desert Riparian Populus euphratica Forest in Arid Areas.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hongbo; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Hailiang; Zhao, Xinfeng

    2015-01-01

    We found that the most suitable flooding disturbance model for regenerating Populus euphratica forest was two to three times per year with a duration of 15-20 days and an intensity of 25-30 m(3)/s. The flooding should take place during the seed emergence to young tree growth stages, and should be based on flooding experiments and data from vegetation quadrats and ecological water conveyance. Furthermore, we found that tree-ring width index for P. euphratica declined as the groundwater depth increased, and ascertained that the minimum groundwater depths for young trees, near-mature trees, mature trees and over-mature trees were 4.0 m, 5.0-5.4 m, 6.9 m and 7.8 m, respectively. These were derived from a quantitative relationship model between groundwater depth and tree-ring width index. The range for ecological water conveyance volume was 311-320 million m(3) in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. This study not only provides a technical basis for sustainable ecological water conveyance in the Tarim River Basin, but also offers a theoretical guide and scientific information that could be used in similar areas to regenerate and protect Populus euphratica around the world. PMID:26481290

  3. How to Regenerate and Protect Desert Riparian Populus euphratica Forest in Arid Areas

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hongbo; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Hailiang; Zhao, Xinfeng

    2015-01-01

    We found that the most suitable flooding disturbance model for regenerating Populus euphratica forest was two to three times per year with a duration of 15–20 days and an intensity of 25–30 m3/s. The flooding should take place during the seed emergence to young tree growth stages, and should be based on flooding experiments and data from vegetation quadrats and ecological water conveyance. Furthermore, we found that tree-ring width index for P. euphratica declined as the groundwater depth increased, and ascertained that the minimum groundwater depths for young trees, near-mature trees, mature trees and over-mature trees were 4.0 m, 5.0–5.4 m, 6.9 m and 7.8 m, respectively. These were derived from a quantitative relationship model between groundwater depth and tree-ring width index. The range for ecological water conveyance volume was 311–320 million m3 in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. This study not only provides a technical basis for sustainable ecological water conveyance in the Tarim River Basin, but also offers a theoretical guide and scientific information that could be used in similar areas to regenerate and protect Populus euphratica around the world. PMID:26481290

  4. How to Regenerate and Protect Desert Riparian Populus euphratica Forest in Arid Areas.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hongbo; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Hailiang; Zhao, Xinfeng

    2015-10-20

    We found that the most suitable flooding disturbance model for regenerating Populus euphratica forest was two to three times per year with a duration of 15-20 days and an intensity of 25-30 m(3)/s. The flooding should take place during the seed emergence to young tree growth stages, and should be based on flooding experiments and data from vegetation quadrats and ecological water conveyance. Furthermore, we found that tree-ring width index for P. euphratica declined as the groundwater depth increased, and ascertained that the minimum groundwater depths for young trees, near-mature trees, mature trees and over-mature trees were 4.0 m, 5.0-5.4 m, 6.9 m and 7.8 m, respectively. These were derived from a quantitative relationship model between groundwater depth and tree-ring width index. The range for ecological water conveyance volume was 311-320 million m(3) in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. This study not only provides a technical basis for sustainable ecological water conveyance in the Tarim River Basin, but also offers a theoretical guide and scientific information that could be used in similar areas to regenerate and protect Populus euphratica around the world.

  5. How to Regenerate and Protect Desert Riparian Populus euphratica Forest in Arid Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hongbo; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Hailiang; Zhao, Xinfeng

    2015-10-01

    We found that the most suitable flooding disturbance model for regenerating Populus euphratica forest was two to three times per year with a duration of 15-20 days and an intensity of 25-30 m3/s. The flooding should take place during the seed emergence to young tree growth stages, and should be based on flooding experiments and data from vegetation quadrats and ecological water conveyance. Furthermore, we found that tree-ring width index for P. euphratica declined as the groundwater depth increased, and ascertained that the minimum groundwater depths for young trees, near-mature trees, mature trees and over-mature trees were 4.0 m, 5.0-5.4 m, 6.9 m and 7.8 m, respectively. These were derived from a quantitative relationship model between groundwater depth and tree-ring width index. The range for ecological water conveyance volume was 311-320 million m3 in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. This study not only provides a technical basis for sustainable ecological water conveyance in the Tarim River Basin, but also offers a theoretical guide and scientific information that could be used in similar areas to regenerate and protect Populus euphratica around the world.

  6. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Linda J; Duursma, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA) is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st) century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  7. Using monitoring, LiDAR and MODFLOW to Estimate Hyporheic Fluxes for a Dynamic Large River Riparian Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    In unrevetted reaches, the Willamette River in northwest Oregon is a dynamic anastomosing system. Riparian zones are frequently divided into multiple islands during most of the wet winter season. The dividing stream channels are mostly absent during the dry summer season. This po...

  8. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  9. Hiawatha National Forest Riparian Inventory: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abood, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Riparian areas are dynamic, transitional ecotones between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with well-defined vegetation and soil characteristics. Riparian areas offers wildlife habitat and stream water quality, offers bank stability and protects against erosions, provides aesthetics and recreational value, and other numerous valuable ecosystem functions. Quantifying and delineating riparian areas is an essential step in riparian monitoring, riparian management/planning and policy decisions, and in preserving its valuable ecological functions. Previous approaches to riparian areas mapping have primarily utilized fixed width buffers. However, these methodologies only take the watercourse into consideration and ignore critical geomorphology, associated vegetation and soil characteristics. Other approaches utilize remote sensing technologies such as aerial photos interpretation or satellite imagery riparian vegetation classification. Such techniques requires expert knowledge, high spatial resolution data, and expensive when mapping riparian areas on a landscape scale. The goal of this study is to develop a cost effective robust workflow to consistently map the geographic extent and composition of riparian areas within the Hiawatha National Forest boundary utilizing the Riparian Buffer Delineation Model (RBDM) v3.0 and open source geospatial data. This approach recognizes the dynamic and transitional natures of riparian areas by accounting for hydrologic, geomorphic and vegetation data as inputs into the delineation process and the results would suggests incorporating functional variable width riparian mapping within watershed management planning to improve protection and restoration of valuable riparian functionality and biodiversity.

  10. The release of phosphorus to porewater and surface water from river riparian sediments.

    PubMed

    Surridge, Ben W J; Heathwaite, A L; Baird, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Sediments can be both a source and a sink of dissolved phosphorus (P) in surface water and shallow groundwater. Using laboratory mesocosms, we studied the influence of flooding with deionized water and simulated river water on P release to solution using sediment columns taken from a riparian wetland. The mesocosm incubation results showed that rather than retaining nutrients, sediments in the riparian zone may be a significant source of P. Concentrations of dissolved P in porewater reached more than 3 mg L(-1) and in surface water over 0.8 mg L(-1) within a month of sediment inundation. The reductive dissolution of P-bearing iron (Fe) oxides was the likely mechanism responsible for P release. Dissolved P to Fe molar ratios in anaerobic samples were approximately 0.45 when columns were flooded with water that simulated the chemistry of the adjacent river. This suggests there was insufficient Fe in the anaerobic samples to precipitate all P if the solutions were oxygenated or transported to an aerobic environment. If the anaerobic wetland solutions were delivered to oxygenated rivers and streams adjacent to the riparian zone, the equilibrium concentration of P in these systems could rise. The timing of P release was inversely related to the nitrate (NO3-) concentration in floodwater. This indicates that in riparian zones receiving low nitrate loads, or where NO3- loads are being progressively reduced, the risk of dissolved P release may increase. These findings present particular challenges for restoration and management in riparian areas.

  11. Using Repeated LIDAR to Characterize Topographic Changes in Riparian Areas and Stream Channel Morphology in Areas Undergoing Urban Development: An Accuracy Assessment Guide for Local Watershed Managers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban development and the corresponding increases in impervious surfaces associated with that development have long been known to have adverse impacts upon urban riparian systems, water quality and quantity, groundwater recharge, streamflow, and aquatic ecosystem integrity. The ...

  12. 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory Riparian Inventory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Elizabeth J.; Hansen, Leslie A.; Hathcock, Charles D.; Keller, David C.; Zemlick, Catherine M.

    2012-03-29

    A total length of 36.7 kilometers of riparian habitat were inventoried within LANL boundaries between 2007 and 2011. The following canyons and lengths of riparian habitat were surveyed and inventoried between 2007 and 2011. Water Canyon (9,669 m), Los Alamos Canyon (7,131 m), Pajarito Canyon (6,009 m), Mortandad Canyon (3,110 m), Two-Mile Canyon (2,680 m), Sandia Canyon (2,181 m), Three-Mile Canyon (1,883 m), Canyon de Valle (1,835 m), Ancho Canyon (1,143 m), Canada del Buey (700 m), Sandia Canyon (221 m), DP Canyon (159 m) and Chaquehui Canyon (50 m). Effluent Canyon, Fence Canyon and Potrillo Canyon were surveyed but no areas of riparian habitat were found. Stretches of inventoried riparian habitat were classified for prioritization of treatment, if any was recommended. High priority sites included stretches of Mortandad Canyon, LA Canyon, Pajarito Canyon, Two-Mile Canyon, Sandia Canyon and Water Canyon. Recommended treatment for high priority sites includes placement of objects into the stream channel to encourage sediment deposition, elimination of channel incision, and to expand and slow water flow across the floodplain. Additional stretches were classified as lower priority, and, for other sites it was recommended that feral cattle and exotic plants be removed to aid in riparian habitat recovery. In June 2011 the Las Conchas Wildfire burned over 150,000 acres of land in the Jemez Mountains and surrounding areas. The watersheds above LA Canyon, Water Canyon and Pajarito Canyon were burned in the Las Conchas Wildfire and flooding and habitat alteration were observed in these canyon bottoms (Wright 2011). Post fire status of lower priority areas may change to higher priority for some of the sites surveyed prior to the Las Conchas Wildfire, due to changes in vegetation cover in the adjacent upland watershed.

  13. Environmental Factors Controlling Ostracod Distribution on the Tibetan Plateau and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerner, N.; Pröttel, R.; Glodniok, S.; Söndgerath, D.; Naumann, K.; Frenzel, P.; Mischke, S.; Schwalb, A.

    2014-12-01

    Non-marine ostracods represent a reliable tool to reconstruct past climate conditions. The investigation of environmental tolerances of modern ostracod species is therefore vital to estimate past climate conditions based on fossil assemblages. To determine the climate range of individual ostracod species their modern geographical distribution is combined with climate data sets. The overlap of modern ecological tolerances of ostracod species found in a fossil assemblage yield information about past air temperatures [1]. In our study we establish ecological tolerances of species from the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas and indicate which environmental parameter is most important for species distribution. Therefore the point biserial correlation coefficient is applied on the species distribution of 34 taxa from 364 locations based on the presence/absence of species. We use a 0.93 km gridded climate database that pairs climate parameters with modern collection sites. In total we investigated the influence of 20 different environmental parameters, such as annual temperature amplitude, July and January temperatures, precipitation, salinity and altitude. The yearly temperature range is the most important factor defining the distribution for Candona candida and Fabaeformiscandona gyirongensis. The distribution of Eucypris mareotica is also influenced by the yearly temperature range, but in addition is restricted by low salinities. Species showing no correlation to temperature variations in their distribution were also identified. The distribution of Limnocythere inopinata and Heterocypris salina is restricted by the amount of precipitation, especially during winter months, and low salinities. On the other hand, Candona neglectaseems to be unaffected by any of the studied parameters and probably only is limited by extremely high salinities. The calculated mutual climate ranges of the investigated ostracod species will be applied to ostracod assemblage data from a long

  14. Analyzing riparian forest cover changes along the Firniz River in the Mediterranean City of Kahramanmaras in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akay, Abdullah E; Sivrikaya, Fatih; Gulci, Sercan

    2014-05-01

    Riparian forests adjacent to surface water are important transitional zones which maintain and enrich biodiversity and ensure the sustainability in a forest ecosystem. Also, riparian forests maintain water quality, reduce sediment delivery, enhance habitat areas for aquatic life and wildlife, and provide ecological corridors between the upland and the downstream. However, the riparian ecosystems have been degraded mainly due to human development, forest operations, and agricultural activities. In order to evaluate the impacts of these factors on riparian forests, it is necessary to estimate trends in forest cover changes. This study aims to analyze riparian forest cover changes along the Firniz River located in Mediterranean city of Kahramanmaras in Turkey. Changes in riparian forest cover from 1989 to 2010 have been determined by implementing supervised classification method on a series of Landsat TM imagery of the study area. The results indicated that the classification process applied on 1989 and 2010 images provided overall accuracy of 80.08 and 75 %, respectively. It was found that the most common land use class within the riparian zone was productive forest, followed by degraded forest, agricultural areas, and other land use classes. The results also indicated that the areas of degraded forest and forest openings increased, while productive forest and agricultural areas decreased between the years of 1989 and 2010. The amount of agricultural areas decreased due to the reduction in the population of rural people. According to these results, it can be concluded that special forest management and operation techniques should be implemented to restore the forest ecosystem in riparian areas. PMID:24338054

  15. Water resources of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and adjacent areas, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.; White, Robert R.; Orr, Brennon R.; Roybal, R. Gary

    1981-01-01

    valleys in the adjacent upland areas. Ground water moves southeastward beneath the West Mesa area, converging with ground-water flow in the southern end of the Mesilla Valley. Good hydraulic connection exists between sediments of the West Mesa and Mesilla Valley areas. Ground water in the southern end of the Jornada del Muerto moves generally to the northwest, converges with south-flowing ground water near Point of Rocks, and moves westward into Rincon Valley sediments near Rincon. A small amount of ground water flows westward from the southern end of the Jornada del Muerto across a subsurface igneous body into the Mesilla Valley. Ground-water discharge occurs throughout the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys as drain flow to the river and evapotranspiration. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the water in the flood-plain alluvium of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys are generally greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. A freshwater zone, with dissolved-solids concentrations less than 1,000 milligrams per liter, underlies this thin, slightly saline zone beneath much of the Mesilla Valley. This freshwater zone, occurring in the Santa Fe Group, is surrounded by saline water. Within the study area, major dissolved ions in ground water include sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and sulfate. The Rio Grande is a gainlng stream in the northern parts of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and a losing stream in the southern part of the Mesilla Valley. Gains and losses result from a close interconnection with ground-water flow systems. Large surface-water irrigation allotments increase ground-water recharge. Increased recharge raises ground-water levels and improves shallow ground-water quality adjacent to these recharge areas. Shallow ground-water discharges to drains, which flow into the Rio Grande. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the Rio Grande increase by as much as 60 percent between Caballo Reservoir and the southern end of the study area.

  16. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Lorion, Christopher M; Kennedy, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Riparian forest buffers may play a critical role in moderating the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream ecosystems, but very few studies have examined the ecological effects of riparian buffers in the tropics. To test the hypothesis that riparian forest buffers can reduce the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream biota, we sampled fish assemblages in lowland headwater streams in southeastern Costa Rica representing three different treatments: (1) forested reference stream reaches, (2) stream reaches adjacent to pasture with a riparian forest buffer averaging at least 15 m in width on each bank, and (3) stream reaches adjacent to pasture without a riparian forest buffer. Land cover upstream from the study reaches was dominated by forest at all of the sites, allowing us to isolate the reach-scale effects of the three study treatments. Fish density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forest and forest buffer reaches, mostly due to an increase in herbivore-detritivores, but fish biomass did not differ among reach types. Fish species richness was also higher in pasture reaches than in forested reference reaches, while forest buffer reaches were intermediate. Overall, the taxonomic and trophic structure of fish assemblages in forest and forest buffer reaches was very similar, while assemblages in pasture reaches were quite distinct. These patterns were persistent across three sampling periods during our 15-month study. Differences in stream ecosystem conditions between pasture reaches and forested sites, including higher stream temperatures, reduced fruit and seed inputs, and a trend toward increased periphyton abundance, appeared to favor fish species normally found in larger streams and facilitate a native invasion process. Forest buffer reaches, in contrast, had stream temperatures and allochthonous inputs more similar to forested streams. Our results illustrate the importance of riparian areas to stream ecosystem integrity in the tropics

  17. Induced seismicity caused by hydraulic fracturing in deep geothermal wells in Germany and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenefisch, Thomas; Brückner, Lisa; Ceranna, Lars; Gestermann, Nicolai; Houben, Georg; Tischner, Torsten; Wegler, Ulrich; Wellbrink, Matthias; Bönnemann, Christian; Bertram, Andreas; Kirschbaum, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the BGR has worked out a study on the potential environmental impact caused by hydraulic fracturing or chemical stimulations in deep geothermal reservoirs in Germany and adjacent areas. The investigations and analyses are based on existing studies and information provided by operators. The two environmental impacts being essentially considered in the report are induced seismicity and possible contamination of the groundwater reservoirs which serve for drinking water supply. Altogether, in this study, information on 30 hydraulic frac operations and 26 chemical stimulations including information from neighboring countries were compiled and analyzed. Out of the hydraulic stimulations two thirds were carried out as waterfracs and one third as fracturing with proppants. Parameters used in the study to characterize the induced seismicity are maximum magnitude, number of seismic events, size of the seismically active volume, and the relation of this volume to fault zones and the cap rock, as well as, finally, the impacts at the Earth's surface. The response of the subsurface to hydraulic fracturing is variable: There are some activities, which cause perceptible seismic events, others, where no perceptible but instrumentally detected events occurred, and moreover activities without even any instrumentally detected events. A classification of seismic hazard with respect to tectonic region, geology, or depth of the layer is still difficult, since the number of hydraulic fracturing measures in deep geothermal wells is small making a statistically sound analysis impossible. However, there are some indications, that hydraulic fracturing in granite in tectonically active regions like the Upper Rhine Graben results in comparatively stronger, perceptible seismicity compared to hydraulic fracturing in the sedimentary rocks of the North German basin. The maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes caused by hydraulic fracturing of deep geothermal wells in Germany are

  18. Quantifying the performance of automated GIS-based geomorphological approaches for riparian zone delineation using digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, D.; Barquín, J.; Álvarez-Cabria, M.; Peñas, F. J.

    2012-10-01

    Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for managing rivers and adjacent areas; however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is usually only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. In this work we created several floodplain surfaces by means of two different GIS-based geomorphological approaches using digital elevation models (DEMs), in an attempt to find hydrologically meaningful potential riparian zones for river networks at the river basin scale. Objective quantification of the performance of the two geomorphologic models is provided by analysing coinciding and exceeding areas with respect to the 50-yr flood surface in different river geomorphological types.

  19. 33 CFR 334.85 - New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island, New York; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island, New York; restricted area. 334.85 Section 334.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE...

  20. Anatomy of the Visual Word form Area: Adjacent Cortical Circuits and Long-Range White Matter Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion…

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Riparian Buffer Mapping Tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milheim, Lesley E.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Land use and land cover within riparian areas greatly affect the conditions of adjacent water features. In particular, riparian forests provide many environmental benefits, including nutrient uptake, bank stabilization, steam shading, sediment trapping, aquatic and terrestrial habitat, and stream organic matter. In contrast, residential and commercial development and associated transportation infrastructure increase pollutant and nutrient loading and change the hydrologic characteristics of the landscape, thereby affecting both water quality and habitat. Restoring riparian areas is a popular and cost effective restoration technique to improve and protect water quality. Recognizing this, the Chesapeake Executive Council committed to restoring 10,000 miles of riparian forest buffers throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed by the year 2010. In 2006, the Chesapeake Executive Council further committed to 'using the best available...tools to identify areas where retention and expansion of forests is most needed to protect water quality'. The Chesapeake Bay watershed encompasses 64,000 square miles, including portions of six States and Washington, D.C. Therefore, the interpretation of remotely sensed imagery provides the only effective technique for comprehensively evaluating riparian forest protection and restoration opportunities throughout the watershed. Although 30-meter-resolution land use and land cover data have proved useful on a regional scale, they have not been equally successful at providing the detail required for local-scale assessment of riparian area characteristics. Use of high-resolution imagery (HRI) provides sufficient detail for local-scale assessments, although at greater cost owing to the cost of the imagery and the skill and time required to process the data. To facilitate the use of HRI for monitoring the extent of riparian forest buffers, the U.S. Forest Service and the U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Geographic Science Center funded the

  2. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area

    PubMed Central

    Rawluk, Ashley A.; Crow, Gary; Legesse, Getahun; Veira, Douglas M.; Bullock, Paul R.; González, Luciano A.; Dubois, Melanie; Ominski, Kim H.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The implementation of off-stream waterers (OSW) may reduce the amount of time cattle spend in riparian areas, thus minimizing impacts such as removal of vegetation, soil compaction, and deterioration in water quality. Furthermore, when used with natural barriers as a partial exclusion method, these management strategies may offer a cost-effective alternative to completely excluding cattle via streambank fencing. This study was conducted to determine the impact of OSW and barriers on animal performance and watering behavior. The presence of OSW had no significant effect on cow and calf weights averaged over the grazing season. Although the results were not consistent over the periods and locations, the data provided some indication of the efficacy of the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area. Cattle watered at the OSW when available, but they did not use the OSW exclusively. The observed inconsistency may, in part, be attributed to the environmental conditions present during this field trial. Abstract A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris), Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW) with or without natural barriers on (i) amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP), (ii) watering location (OSW or stream), and (iii) animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture—which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size—was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT), OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR), and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR). Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002), 2 (p = 0.1116), and 3 (p < 0.0001) at the Killarney site compared to cattle in 3NOBARR at the same site. Cattle in 2BARR at the

  3. Conodont and Radiolarian Data from the De Long Mountains Quadrangle and Adjacent Areas, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Blome, Charles D.; Young, Lorne E.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report presents biostratigraphic data from 289 collections at 189 localities in the De Long Mountains, Misheguk Mountain, and Noatak quadrangles (fig. 1); most of these data have never been previously published. The collections were made during studies of the Red Dog massive sulfide deposit in 1998?2004 and in support of regional mapping projects in 1979, 1981, 1983, and 1997?98. The collections?mostly conodonts and some radiolarians?tightly constrain the age of many stratigraphic units of Devonian through Triassic age exposed within the study area, and provide additional data on the depositional environments and thermal history of these rocks. The data are presented in a series of tables, organized by fossil type, stratigraphic unit, and location. Tables 1?12 contain conodont data, mostly from the De Long Mountains quadrangle. All of these collections were initially examined, or were reevaluated, from 1997 through 2004, and complete faunal lists are given for all samples. Table 13 lists ages and conodont color alteration indices (CAIs) of 27 collections from 24 localities in the Noatak quadrangle; updated faunal lists were not prepared for these samples. Radiolarian data?all from the De Long Mountains quadrangle?are given in table 14; these collections were analyzed between 1998 and 2003. Collection localities are shown in four maps (sheets 1, 2). Map 1 (sheet 1) shows all outcrop samples from the De Long Mountains and western Misheguk Mountain quadrangle (locs. 1-121). Maps 2?4 (sheets 1, 2) show all drill hole sample localities; samples come from the Su-Lik deposit and in and around the Anarraaq deposit (map 2, locs. 122?135), in and adjacent to the Red Dog deposits (Paalaaq, Aqqaluk, Main, and Qanaiyaq) (map 3, locs. 136?158), and from drill holes along the Port Road in the Noatak quadrangle (map 4, locs. 159?160). Map 4 (sheet 2) also shows all outcrop samples from the Noatak quadrangle (locs. 161?189). The text summarizes the lithofacies

  4. Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All these

  5. Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All

  6. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  7. The ecology of riparian habitats of the southern California coastal region: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, P.M.; Keller, E.; Sands, A.; Massey, B.M. , Mill Valley, CA; Keller , Santa Barbara, CA; Sands , Mill Valley, CA; Massey , Long Beach, CA )

    1989-09-01

    In the 200 years since California's settlement by Europeans, almost every river in southern California has been channelized or dammed to allow development on the floodplains, causing the loss of a highly productive ecosystem. The riparian zone occurs along streambanks where soils are fertile and water is abundant; amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals all move back and forth across the riparian zone from streams into adjacent wetland and upland areas. Irreversible alterations of the riparian ecosystem result from the diversion or loss of transported water to the system through diking, damming, channelization, levee building, or road construction. Clearing for crops, grazing, or golf courses is potentially reversible as long as the water supply remains unaltered. Successful restoration work requires early agreement on project goals, site-specific restoration design, correct project implementation, enforcement of permit conditions, a maintenance and management program, and long-range monitoring. 288 refs., 54 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, Timothy B.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resources problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas in Missouri and Oklahoma. Past mining activities have caused changes in the hydrogeology of the area. Lead and zinc mining has caused discontinuities and perforations in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the western area), which have created artificial ground-water recharge and discharge areas. Recharge to the shallow aquifer (rocks of Mississippian age) through collapses, shafts, and drill holes in the shale has caused the formation of a ground-water 'mound' in the vicinity of the Picher Field in Kansas and Oklahoma. Discharge of mine-contaminated ground water to Tar Creek occurs in Oklahoma from drill holes and shafts where the potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is above the land surface. Mining of ore in the shallow aquifer has resulted in extensive fracturing and removal of material, which has created highly transmissive zones and voids and increased ground-water storage properties of the aquifer. In the area east of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the eastern area), fractured rock and tailings on the land surface increased the amount of water available for infiltration to the shallow aquifer; in the western area, tailings on the impermeable shale created artificial, perched aquifer systems that slowly drain to surface streams. Pumping of the deep aquifer (rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age) by towns and industries, which developed as a result of the mining industry, has resulted in a potential for downward movement of water from the shallow aquifer. The potential is greatest in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Because of the large volume of water that may be transported from the shallow to the deep aquifer, open drill holes or casings present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. Mining

  9. Shallow groundwater denitrification in riparian zones of a headwater agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Todd R; Groffman, Peter M; Kaushal, Sujay S; Walter, M Todd

    2014-03-01

    Riparian zones adjacent to cropped lands are effective at reducing nitrate (NO) loads to receiving water bodies primarily through plant assimilation and denitrification. Denitrification represents a permanent removal pathway and a greenhouse gas source, converting NO to inert N gas or nitrous oxide (NO), and has been the subject of many studies in agricultural landscapes. Despite the prevailing notion that riparian zones can be areas of enhanced denitrification, there is a lack of in situ denitrification measurements from these areas that buffer streams and rivers from NO originating in upland cropped soils, especially over time scales that capture seasonal dynamics. We measured in situ groundwater denitrification rates in two riparian zones of an intensive dairy farm located in the headwaters of the Susquehanna River. Denitrification rates determined monthly over a 1-yr period with the N-NO push-pull method ranged from 0 to 4177 μg N kg soil d (mean, 830 ± 193 μg N kg soil d). Denitrification showed a distinct seasonal pattern, with highest rates observed in the spring and summer, concomitant with warmer temperatures and decreasing dissolved oxygen. We estimate an annual N loss of 470 ± 116 kg yr ha of riparian zone via denitrification in the shallow saturated zone, with the potential for >20% of this amount occurring as NO. Total denitrification from shallow groundwater in the riparian zone was equivalent to 32% of manure N spread on the adjacent upland field, confirming the importance of riparian zones in agricultural landscapes at controlling N loads entering downstream waters. PMID:25602674

  10. SOIL NITROUS OXIDE, NITRIC OXIDE, AND AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM A RECOVERING RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents two years of seasonal nitric oxide, ammonia, and nitrous oxide trace gas fluxes measured in a recovering riparian zone with cattle excluded and in an adjacent riparian zone grazed by cattle. In the recovering riparian zone, average nitric oxide, ammonia, and ni...

  11. Grande Ronde Model Watershed Project; Dark Canyon Riparian Exclosure, Completion Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuck, Todd

    2003-03-01

    The Baker Field Office, Vale District Bureau of Land Management (BLM) submitted a project proposal for funding in 2002 through the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program (GRMWP). The project consisted of constructing two riparian exclosures to prevent livestock grazing in the riparian areas of Dark Canyon and Meadow Creek. The BLM completed the NEPA documentation and supplied the fencing materials. Funding from BPA through the GRMWP was used to complete the construction of the two exclosures. This project was completed in the fall of 2002. The project area is located in Union County, Oregon on BLM managed land adjacent to Dark Canyon and Meadow Creek, T. 3. S., R. 35 E., Section 24 and 25. Section 24 is along Dark Canyon Creek and section 25 is along Meadow Creek. Approximately 0.4 miles of stream would be protected from grazing with the construction of the two exclosures. A two person crew was hired to construct a four-strand barbed wire fence. The fence enclosed the riparian area on both sides of each creek so that no grazing would occur within the riparian area on BLM managed land. Total fence length is approximately 1.25 miles. Materials consisted of metal fence posts, barbed wire, rockjacks, fence stays, and 2 x 4's. The fence was constructed in the fall of 2002. The riparian area is effectively excluded from livestock grazing at this time. The construction of the exclosures should enhance riparian vegetation, increase bank stability, and improve riparian and in-stream habitat by exclusion of livestock in the riparian areas. Monitoring will ensure that the exclosures continues to be effective. Annual monitoring will include photo-points and compliance checks during the grazing season by BLM personnel. The BLM will submit a monitoring report, which includes the results of the annual monitoring, to the GRMWP in years 2005 and 2007. The exclosures do cross the creeks so maintenance may be needed on occasion, especially after high flow events in the creeks. Material

  12. Riparian vegetation structure under desertification scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosário Fernandes, M.; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, M. Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Riparian areas are responsible for many ecological and ecosystems services, including the filtering function, that are considered crucial to the preservation of water quality and social benefits. The main goal of this study is to quantify and understand the riparian variability under desertification scenario(s) and identify the optimal riparian indicators for water scarcity and droughts (WS&D), henceforth improving river basin management. This study was performed in the Iberian Tâmega basin, using riparian woody patches, mapped by visual interpretation on Google Earth imagery, along 130 Sampling Units of 250 m long river stretches. Eight riparian structural indicators, related with lateral dimension, weighted area and shape complexity of riparian patches were calculated using Patch Analyst extension for ArcGis 10. A set of 29 hydrological, climatic, and hydrogeomorphological variables were computed, by a water modelling system (MOHID), using monthly meteorological data between 2008 and 2014. Land-use classes were also calculated, in a 250m-buffer surrounding each sampling unit, using a classification based system on Corine Land Cover. Boosted Regression Trees identified Mean-width (MW) as the optimal riparian indicator for water scarcity and drought, followed by the Weighted Class Area (WCA) (classification accuracy =0.79 and 0.69 respectively). Average Flow and Strahler number were consistently selected, by all boosted models, as the most important explanatory variables. However, a combined effect of hidrogeomorphology and land-use can explain the high variability found in the riparian width mainly in Tâmega tributaries. Riparian patches are larger towards Tâmega river mouth although with lower shape complexity, probably related with more continuous and almost monospecific stands. Climatic, hydrological and land use scenarios, singly and combined, were used to quantify the riparian variability responding to these changes, and to assess the loss of riparian

  13. RESEARCH SHOWS IMPORTANCE OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS FOR AQUATIC HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issue: Excess nitrogen from fertilizer, septic tanks, animal feedlots, and runoff from pavement can threaten aquatic ecosystem health. Riparian buffers -- the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands -- are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling excess ...

  14. Records of selected wells and lithologic logs of test holes, Hendry County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, John E.; Causaras, Carmen R.; O'Donnell, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    To provide water-resource information for Hendry County, Florida , geologic test holes were drilled in the surficial aquifer, and an extensive inventory was compiled of wells in the surficial aquifer and deep artesian aquifers. This report provides: (1) records for 788 selected wells and test holes including location , construction, water use, water level, chloride concentration, specific conductance, temperature, yield, hydrogen sulfide, and iron-staining problems; and (2) lithologic logs for 26 test holes ranging in depth from 90 to 650 feet. A few inventoried wells and two test holes are in adjacent parts of Collier or Glades Counties. (USGS)

  15. Soil Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Cropland and Riparian Buffers in Different Hydrogeomorphic Settings.

    PubMed

    Jacinthe, P A; Vidon, P; Fisher, K; Liu, X; Baker, M E

    2015-07-01

    Riparian buffers contribute to the mitigation of nutrient pollution in agricultural landscapes, but there is concern regarding their potential to be hot spots of greenhouse gas production. This study compared soil CO and CH fluxes in adjacent crop fields and riparian buffers (a flood-prone forest and a flood-protected grassland along an incised channel) and examined the impact of water table depth (WTD) and flood events on the variability of gas fluxes in riparian zones. Results showed significantly ( < 0.001) higher CO emission in riparian areas than in adjoining croplands (6.8 ± 0.6 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5 Mg CO-C ha yr; mean ± SE). Daily flux of CO and soil temperature were significantly related ( < 0.002), with Q values ranging between 1.75 and 2.53. Significant relationships ( < 0.05) were found between CH daily flux and WTD. Flood events resulted in enhanced CH emission (up to +44.5 mg CH-C m d in a swale) under warm soil conditions (>22°C), but the effect of flooding was less pronounced in early spring (emission <1.06 mg CH-C m d), probably due to low soil temperature. Although CH flux direction alternated at all sites, overall the croplands and the flood-affected riparian forest were CH sources, with annual emission averaging +0.04 ± 0.17 and +0.92 ± 1.6 kg CH-C ha, respectively. In the riparian forest, a topographic depression (<8% of the total area) accounted for 78% of the annual CH emission, underscoring the significance of landscape heterogeneity on CH dynamics in riparian buffers. The nonflooded riparian grassland, however, was a net CH sink (-1.08 ± 0.22 kg CH-C ha yr), probably due to the presence of subsurface tile drains and a dredged/incised channel at that study site. Although these hydrological alterations may have contributed to improvement in the CH sink strength of the riparian grassland, this must be weighed against the water quality maintenance functions and other ecological services provided by riparian buffers. PMID:26437089

  16. Riparian Wetlands: Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian wetlands are critical systems that perform functions and provide services disproportionate to their extent in the landscape. Mapping wetlands allows for better planning, management, and modeling, but riparian wetlands present several challenges to effective mapping due t...

  17. Assessing Anthropogenic Influence and Edge Effect Influence on Forested Riparian Buffer Spatial Configuration and Structure: An Example Using Lidar Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasser, L. A.; Chasmer, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Forested riparian buffers (FRB) perform numerous critical ecosystem services. However, globally, FRB spatial configuration and structure have been modified by anthropogenic development resulting in widespread ecological degradation as seen in the Gulf of Mexico and the Chesapeake Bay. Riparian corridors within developed areas are particularly vulnerable to disturbance given two edges - the naturally occurring stream edge and the matrix edge. Increased edge length predisposes riparian vegetation to "edge effects", characterized by modified physical and environmental conditions at the interface between the forested buffer and the adjacent landuse, or matrix and forest fragment degradation. The magnitude and distance of edge influence may be further influenced by adjacent landuse type and the width of the buffer corridor at any given location. There is a need to quantify riparian buffer spatial configuration and structure over broad geographic extents and within multiple riparian systems in support of ecologically sound management and landuse decisions. This study thus assesses the influence of varying landuse types (agriculture, suburban development and undeveloped) on forested riparian buffer 3-dimensional structure and spatial configuration using high resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data collected within a headwater watershed. Few studies have assessed riparian buffer structure and width contiguously for an entire watershed, an integral component of watershed planning and restoration efforts such as those conducted throughout the Chesapeake Bay. The objectives of the study are to 1) quantify differences in vegetation structure at the stream and matrix influenced riparian buffer edges, compared to the forested interior and 2) assess continuous patterns of changes in vegetation structure throughout the buffer corridor beginning at the matrix edge and ending at the stream within buffers a) of varying width and b) that are adjacent to varying landuse

  18. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous rocks, which are widespread throughout the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) and adjacent areas north of the Brooks Range, make up the major part of the thick sedimentary fill of the Colville basin. Much seismic and well information obtained since 1974 has aided considerably in understanding these rocks. These data include about 20,000 km of seismic lines, covering much of the NPRA with a grid spacing of 10-20 km, and 28 exploratory wells that bring the total to more than 50 wells in and adjacent to the NPRA. The purpose of this chapter is to interpret the depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the NPRA and adjacent areas on the basis of the latest seismic and well data and well data and on information from outcrops in the southern part of the Colville basin. The basin geometry and depositional history described in earlier reports are repeated here in the context of the overall Lower Cretaceous depositional history. Well data (including paleontology) and seismic data are used almost exclusively to interpret relations in the northern foothills and coastal plain areas. Surface data and some well data are used in the southern parts of the northern foothills, and surface data are used exclusively to interpret the depositional history in the southern foothills and Brooks Range. The quality of seismic data is fair to good in most of the coastal plain, where the structure is simple. In the northern foothills, tracing seismic reflections is more difficult, especially in the shallower part of the section because of structural complications in the thrust-faulted anticlines. The quality of seismic data across the structurally complex southern foothills area is inadequate to correlate stratigraphic units of the outcrop area of the southern foothills with subsurface units to the north.

  19. Annual ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration from areas of spring-fed riparian vegetation along the eastern margin of Death Valley, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laczniak, Randell J.; Smith, J. LaRue; DeMeo, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    Flow from major springs and seeps along the eastern margin of Death Valley serves as the primary local water supply and sustains much of the unique habitat in Death Valley National Park. Together, these major spring complexes constitute the terminus of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System--one of the larger flow systems in the Southwestern United States. The Grapevine Springs complex is the least exploited for water supply and consequently contains the largest area of undisturbed riparian habitat in the park. Because few estimates exist that quantify ground-water discharge from these spring complexes, a study was initiated to better estimate the amount of ground water being discharged annually from these sensitive, spring-fed riparian areas. Results of this study can be used to establish a basis for estimating water rights and as a baseline from which to assess any future changes in ground-water discharge in the park. Evapotranspiration (ET) is estimated volumetrically as the product of ET-unit (general vegetation type) acreage and a representative ET rate. ET-unit acreage is determined from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery; and a representative ET rate is computed from data collected in the Grapevine Springs area using the Bowen-ratio solution to the energy budget, or from rates given in other ET studies in the Death Valley area. The ground-water component of ET is computed by removing the local precipitation component from the ET rate. Two different procedures, a modified soil-adjusted vegetation index using the percent reflectance of the red and near-infrared wavelengths and land-cover classification using multi-spectral imagery were used to delineate the ET units within each major spring-discharge area. On the basis of the more accurate procedure that uses the vegetation index, ET-unit acreage for the Grapevine Springs discharge area totaled about 192 acres--of which 80 acres were moderate-density vegetation and 112 acres were high

  20. Cetacean biomass densities near submarine canyons compared to adjacent shelf/slope areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Robert D.; Winn, Howard E.

    1987-02-01

    Estimated cetacean biomass densities in areas of the northeastern U.S. continental shelf edge encompassing major submarine canyons were compared to those in neighboring shelf/slope areas. It was hypothesized that biomass-densities would prove to be higher in the canyon areas: however, the analysis demonstrated significantly lower total cetacean biomass in the canyon areas. When species were analyzed individually, only spotted dolphins ( Stenella spp.) showed a significant difference, with higher densities near the canyons. The canyons are apparently not more important as a cetacean habitat than the shelf break region generally.

  1. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  2. Occurrence and toxicity of sediment-associated contaminants in Guangzhou College City and its adjacent areas: the relationship to urbanization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Quan; Wang, Fei; Li, Hui-Zhen; You, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Guangzhou College City in the southeast of Guangzhou, China, became a home to 10 universities in 2003 after a largely agricultural past. The city has since experienced rapid urbanization with limited development of adjacent areas. Twenty-one sediment samples were collected in the city and its adjacent areas to evaluate the influence of urbanization in different functional zones on sediment quality in local waterways. Sediment toxicity was assessed by 10-day toxicity tests using two benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca. In addition, various organic contaminants-including current-use pesticides (pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-were analyzed, and a toxic unit (TU) approach was applied to identify possible toxicity contributors. In general, 38 and 4.8% of the sediments exhibited acute toxicity to C. dilutus and H. azteca, respectively, with 9.5% of the samples resulting in 100% mortality to C. dilutus. Distribution analysis showed that the rural industrial area, which is south of the city, had the greatest contaminant concentrations and greatest toxicity to both organisms compared with the other areas. Pyrethroids, especially cypermethrin, appeared to contribute the most to the observed toxicity, yet the lack of relationship between the toxicity and TU of pyrethroids may reflect toxicity associated with other contaminants.

  3. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-07-07

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems.

  4. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems. PMID:26149418

  5. Riparian evapotranspiration in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Brent M.; Rus, David L.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing demands being placed on the water resources of Nebraska, characterizing evapotranspiration (ET) from riparian vegetation has gained importance to water users and managers. This report summarizes and compares the results from several studies of the ET from cottonwood-dominated riparian forests, riparian grasslands, and common reed, Phragmites australis, in Nebraska. Reported results show that the highest seasonal ET amounts were associated with Phragmites australis, followed by riparian forests, with riparian grasslands experiencing the lowest total ET of the studied vegetation communities.

  6. Trophic coupling between two adjacent benthic food webs within a man-made intertidal area: A stable isotopes evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed at establishing the effects of human-made physical modifications on the trophic structure and functioning of an intertidal benthic food web in Arcachon Bay (France). The main food sources and the most representative consumers were sampled on an artificial rocky dyke and its adjacent seagrass meadow. The food sources of consumers were inferred through the use of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The contributions of the different food sources to the diets of the consumers were established using the Isosource mixing model. In order to reduce the range of feasible contributions, additional non-isotopic constraints were added when necessary to the outputs of this model. We observed a more complex food web than previously shown for artificial habitats. Moreover, it appears that several consumers inhabiting the artificial environment base most of their diet on allochtonous eelgrass-derived detritus. In turn, several consumers inhabiting the eelgrass meadow consumed significantly macroalgae-derived material originating from the adjacent artificial rocky area. These results point out that the food webs associated to adjacent habitats can influence each other through the utilisation of exported organic matter.

  7. Aeromagnetic map of the Glacier Peak Wilderness and adjacent areas, Chelan, Skagit, and Snohomish counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanigan, V.J.; Sherrard, Mark

    1985-01-01

    The Glacier Peak Wilderness encompasses 464,741 acres, including 483 acres of patented mining and millsite claims. Also included in the present study are nine areas adjoining the wilderness (see fig. 1), totaling 90,034 acres of recommended wilderness additions. All these lands are here collectively called the “study area.” Access to the study area is provided by generally well maintained trails from gravel or dirt roads along major valleys above Darrington, Marblemount, Stehekin, Holden, Trinity, and Lake Wnatchee. Other than the main access trails across a few passes (Cloudy Pass, Buck Creek Pass, White Pass, and Indian Pass), trails are rough, infrequently maintained, or nonexistent.

  8. Regional prospectivity of Mesozoic and Tertiary in the eastern Adriatic and adjacent area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Dolan, P.; Lunn, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Post-Hercynian deposits in the eastern Adriatic and the adjacent external zones of the Dinarides and Albanian Hellenides may be subdivided into four facies groups. (1) Permian-Lower Triassic clastics and carbonates with some evaporites, (2) Middle Triassic-lower Tertiary carbonate platform facies with associated continental margin deeper marine sequences, (3) Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary flysch, and (4) middle Tertiary molasse and postorogenic Neogene sediments. The Permian to lower Tertiary section was deposited during the complex Alpine cycle, while the upper Tertiary section is the product of post-Alpine deposition. This depositional history during markedly different tectonic regimes creates two groups of petroleum plays in the eastern Adriatic: (1) Alpine cycle plays in the Permian to lower Tertiary in the thrust-faulted and folded foreland of Adria and (2) post-Alpine plays in upper Tertiary postorogenic or late synorogenic basins. Around the Adriatic, the post-Alpine plays have so far proved the most successful. Major production occurs in the onshore Po basin and its extension beneath the Adriatic. Some of this production is from deep Alpine-cycle reservoirs, but the bulk is from the upper Tertiary-Quaternary. Similar horizons produce onshore and offshore the central-southern Adriatic coast of Italy. Major Tertiary production also occurs to the northeast in the Pannonian basin of Yugoslavia and Hungary from Miocene and younger sequences. Onshore Albania produces significant quantities of hydrocarbons; although data are scarce, much of this production is presumably from upper Tertiary molasse or lower Tertiary flysch.

  9. Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?

    PubMed

    Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the

  10. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  11. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part I. Gravity survey

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.A.; Cook, K.L.

    1983-04-01

    During 1980 and 1981 a total of 569 new gravity stations were taken in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. The new stations were combined with 530 other gravity stations taken in previous surveys which resulted in a compilation of 1099 stations which were used in this study. The additional surveys were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the area for the possible development of geothermal resources by providing an interpreted structural framework by delineating faults, structural trends, intrusions, thickness of valley fill, and increased density of host rock. The gravity data are presented as (1) a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map with a 2 mgal contour interval on a scale of 1:100,000 and (2) five generally east-trending gravity profiles. A geologic interpretation of the study area was made from the gravity map and from the interpretive geologic cross sections which were modeled along the gravity profiles.

  12. Bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soils cannot be predicted by a single model in two adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Fen; Wei, Chaoyang; Liang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a single model could be used to predict the bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soils in two adjacent areas and to determine the feasibility of using existing data sets of total metal concentrations and soil property parameters (e.g., pH, total organic carbon, and soil texture) when predicting heavy metal bioaccessibility. A total of 103 topsoil samples were collected from two adjacent areas (Baotou and Bayan Obo). A total of 76 samples were collected from Baotou, and 27 were collected from Bayan Obo. The total and bioaccessible concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were measured following complete composite acid digestion and a simple bioaccessibility extraction test. The average total concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 8.95, 27.53, 28.40, and 79.50 mg/kg, respectively, in Baotou and 18.12, 30.75, 38.09, and 87.62 mg/kg in Bayan Obo. Except for As, these values were similar in both areas. The average bioaccessible heavy metal concentrations (Bio-HMs) for each target HM were also similar. In Baotou, the average Bio-HM values for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 1.16, 3.76, 16.31, and 16.10 mg/kg, respectively, and 1.26, 2.51, 14.31, and 8.68 mg/kg in Bayan Obo. However, the relative bioaccessibilities for each HM in Baotou were greater than those in Bayan Obo, with mean values for Pb, Zn, Cu, and As of 57, 20, 17, and 12 %, respectively, in Baotou and 40, 11, 9, and 8 % in Bayan Obo. In both areas, prediction models were successfully created using heavy metal concentrations and soil physicochemical parameters; however, models of the same target element differed between the areas, which indicated that a common model for both sites does not exist. Bio-HMs were highly affected by soil properties, which were found to differ between the adjacent areas. In addition, soil properties with large variations played major roles in the predictive models. This study highlights the importance

  13. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A September 1978 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual high water-level period of the Floridan aquifer in the Southwest Florida Management District. Potentiometric levels increased 10 to 25 feet between May 1978 and September 1978, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk and Manatee Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest fluctuations in water-levels between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 10 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, P.D.; Mills, L.R.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels increased 15 to 30 feet between May 1977 and September 1977 in the citrus and farming sections of southeastern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, and southwestern Polk Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumpage for irrigation and have the greatest range in water-level fluctuations between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 15 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area....

  16. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area....

  17. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  18. Carbon dioxide transport across the hillslope-riparian-stream continuum in a boreal headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, F. I.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Wallin, M. B.; Billett, M. F.; Heal, K. V.; Laudon, H.; Öquist, M. G.; Bishop, K.

    2015-03-01

    Headwater streams export CO2 as lateral downstream export and vertical evasion from the stream surface. CO2 in boreal headwater streams generally originates from adjacent terrestrial areas, so determining the sources and rate of CO2 transport along the hillslope-riparian-stream continuum could improve estimates of CO2 export via the aquatic pathway, especially by quantifying evasion at higher temporal resolutions. Continuous measurements of dissolved CO2 concentrations and water table were made along the hillslope-riparian-stream continuum in the Västrabäcken sub-catchment of the Krycklan catchment, Sweden. Daily water and CO2 export from the hillslope and riparian zone were estimated over one hydrological year (October 2012-September 2013) using a flow-concentration model and compared with measured lateral downstream CO2 export. Total water export over the hydrological year from the hillslope was 230 mm yr-1 compared with 270 mm yr-1 from the riparian zone. This corresponds well (proportional to the relative upslope contributing area) to the annual catchment runoff of 265 mm yr-1. Total CO2 export from the riparian zone to the stream was 3.0 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1. A hotspot for riparian CO2 export was observed at 30-50 cm depth (accounting for 71 % of total riparian export). Seasonal variability was high with export peaks during the spring flood and autumn storm events. Downstream lateral CO2 export (determined from stream water dissolved CO2 concentrations and discharge) was 1.2 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1. Subtracting downstream lateral export from riparian export (3.0 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1) gives 1.8 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 which can be attributed to evasion losses (accounting for 60 % of export via the aquatic pathway). The results highlight the importance of terrestrial CO2 export, especially from the riparian zone, for determining catchment aquatic CO2 losses and the importance of the CO2 evasion component to carbon export via the aquatic conduit.

  19. Carbon dioxide transport across the hillslope-riparian-stream continuum in a boreal headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, F. I.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Wallin, M. B.; Billett, M. F.; Heal, K. V.; Laudon, H.; Öquist, M. G.; Bishop, K.

    2014-11-01

    Headwater streams export CO2 as lateral downstream export and vertical evasion from the stream surface. CO2 in boreal headwater streams generally originates from adjacent terrestrial areas, so determining the sources and rate of CO2 transport along the hillslope-riparian-stream continuum could improve estimates of CO2 export via the aquatic pathway, especially by quantifying evasion at higher temporal resolutions. Continuous measurements of dissolved CO2 concentrations and water table were made along the hillslope-riparian-stream continuum in the Västrabäcken sub-catchment of the Krycklan Catchment, Sweden. Daily water and CO2 export from the hillslope and riparian zone were estimated over one hydrological year (October 2012-September 2013) using a flow-concentration model and compared with measured lateral downstream CO2 export. Total water export over the hydrological year from the hillslope was 230 mm yr-1 compared with 270 mm yr-1 from the riparian zone. This corresponds well (proportional to the relative upslope contributing area) to the annual catchment runoff of 265 mm yr-1. Total CO2 export from the riparian zone to the stream was 3.0 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1. A hotspot for riparian CO2 export was observed at 30-50 cm depth (accounting for 71% of total riparian export). Seasonal variability was high with export peaks during the spring flood and autumn storm events. Downtream lateral CO2 export (determined from stream water dissolved CO2 concentrations and discharge) was 1.2 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1. Subtracting downstream lateral export from riparian export (3.0 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1) gives 1.8 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 which can be attributed to evasion losses (accounting for 60% of export via the aquatic pathway). The results highlight the importance of terrestrial CO2 export, especially from the riparian zone, for determining catchment aquatic CO2 losses and the importance of the CO2 evasion component to carbon export via the aquatic conduit.

  20. A regional ionospheric TEC mapping technique over China and adjacent areas on the basis of data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aa, Ercha; Huang, Wengeng; Yu, Shimei; Liu, Siqing; Shi, Liqin; Gong, Jiancun; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a regional total electron content (TEC) mapping technique over China and adjacent areas (70°E-140°E and 15°N-55°N) is developed on the basis of a Kalman filter data assimilation scheme driven by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and International GNSS Service. The regional TEC maps can be generated accordingly with the spatial and temporal resolution being 1°×1° and 5 min, respectively. The accuracy and quality of the TEC mapping technique have been validated through the comparison with GNSS observations, the International Reference Ionosphere model values, the global ionosphere maps from Center for Orbit Determination of Europe, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Automated Processing of GPS TEC data from Madrigal database. The verification results indicate that great systematic improvements can be obtained when data are assimilated into the background model, which demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique in providing accurate regional specification of the ionospheric TEC over China and adjacent areas.

  1. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  2. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J., III

    1952-01-01

    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  3. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of sedimentary bodies in Jiaozhou Bay and Adjacent Sea Areas, Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Heping; Li, Guangxue; Li, Shuanglin; Li, Shaoquan; Li, Chun

    2011-06-01

    The distributions of thickness of unconsolidated Quaternary sedimentary layers in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao offshore area were studied by using 1079-km high-resolution shallow seismic profiles and drilling core data, and the factors controlling the Quaternary evolution were discussed. The results show that such thickness distributions resulted from the coactions of geologic structures and marine hydrodynamic conditions since the Holocene. The geologic structures controlled the slope deposit, proluvial and fluvial fillings since the late Pleistocene. Holocene marine hydrodynamics eroded away sediments at the bay mouth, and tides carried these eroded materials to the sides of the bay mouth and released them there, forming channel-ridge-alternating geomorphic features. During transgressive processes, the sea level rose rapidly, and insufficient sediment supply and tidal actions yielded the relict sediments in the east of Qingdao offshore area.

  4. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, May 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1979-01-01

    A May 1979 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual low water-level period. Potentiometric levels declined 4 to 21 feet between September 1978 and May 1979, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level declines ranged from 0 to 6 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Generally potentiometric levels were higher than previous May levels due to heavy rains in April and May. In parts of Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Counties, May 1979 potentiometric levels were 18 feet higher than those of September 1978. (USGS)

  5. Variability of community interaction networks in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Regional and small-scale local oceanographic conditions can lead to high variability in community structure even among similar habitats. Communities with identical species composition can depict distinct networks due to different levels of disturbance as well as physical and biological processes. In this study we reconstruct community networks in four different areas off the Oregon Coast by matching simulated communities with observed dynamics. We compared reserves with harvested areas. Simulations suggested that different community networks, but with the same species composition, can represent each study site. Differences were found in predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory interactions between community members. In addition, each site can be represented as a set of models, creating alternative stages among sites. The set of alternative models that characterize each study area depicts a sequence of functional responses where each specific model or interaction structure creates different species composition patterns. Different management practices, either in the past or of the present, may lead to alternative communities. Our findings suggest that management strategies should be analyzed at a community level that considers the possible consequences of shifting from one community scenario to another. This analysis provides a novel conceptual framework to assess the consequences of different management options for ecological communities. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A reconnaissance of hydrogeologic conditions in Lehigh Acres and adjacent areas of Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward Hoye; Missimer, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lehigh Acres, a residential community with a population of about 13,500 and comprising an area of about 94 square miles (243 square kilometres) in the eastern part of Lee County, has been under development since 1954. Prior to development the area was poorly drained. By 1974, more than 150 miles (241 kilometres) of drainageways had been constructed to drain the area. The water-bearing formations underlying Lehigh Acres include the water-table, sandstone, lower Hawthorn, and Suwannee aquifers. The water-table aquifer is usually not more than 30 feet (9 metres) thick; it contains water of relatively good quality, except for iron and color. Water levels in this aquifer probably have been affected by construction of drainage canals. The sandstone aquifer, used extensively throughout the area as a source of water supply usually contains water of good quality although the water is hard and in places may contain concentrations of dissolved solids and iron which exceed the recommended limits of the U.S. Public Health Service and the State of Florida for drinking water. The lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers, usually encountered at depths between 440 and 850 feet (135 and 262 metres), contains water with relatively high concentrations of sodium, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Three streams, the Orange River, Hickey Creek, and Bedman Creek and the canals connected to them, provide drainage of the area. Except for the Orange River, where the water is of good chemical quality, little is known of the water quality. Similarly, little information is available on stream discharge except for the Orange River where the average annual discharge was 41.1 cubic feet per second (11.6 cubic metres per second) between 1935-46. Most lakes and ponds in Lehigh Acres are hydraulically connected to the water-table aquifer such that factors which affect one also affect the other. Theoretical drawdown curves indicate that the drainage canals may affect ground-water levels to a

  7. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  8. Spatio-temporal distributions of chlorofluorocarbons and methyl iodide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Da; Yang, Gui-Peng; He, Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs), such as dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113), and methyl iodide (CH3I), in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area were measured during two cruises from 21 February to 10 March 2014 and from 10 to 21 July 2014. VHOC concentrations showed seasonal variation with higher values during winter. VHOC distributions evidently decreased along the freshwater plume from the river mouth to the open sea and from inshore to offshore regions. VHOC distributions were obviously influenced by the Changjiang runoff, anthropogenic inputs, and biological release of phytoplankton. The study area was a net sink for CFC-12 and CFC-11, but a net source for atmospheric CH3I during the study periods. PMID:26707981

  9. Spatio-temporal distributions of chlorofluorocarbons and methyl iodide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Da; Yang, Gui-Peng; He, Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs), such as dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113), and methyl iodide (CH3I), in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area were measured during two cruises from 21 February to 10 March 2014 and from 10 to 21 July 2014. VHOC concentrations showed seasonal variation with higher values during winter. VHOC distributions evidently decreased along the freshwater plume from the river mouth to the open sea and from inshore to offshore regions. VHOC distributions were obviously influenced by the Changjiang runoff, anthropogenic inputs, and biological release of phytoplankton. The study area was a net sink for CFC-12 and CFC-11, but a net source for atmospheric CH3I during the study periods.

  10. Geology of the Stroudsburg quadrangle and Adjacent areas, Pennsylvania--New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack Burton

    1971-01-01

    The Stroudsburg area is within the Valley and Ridge and Great Valley physiographic provinces, Northampton and Monroe Counties, Pennsylvania, and Warren County, New Jersey. The northeast-trending subparallel valleys and ridges resulted from erosion of folded heterogeneous sedimentary rocks. These are Middle Ordovician to Middle Devonian in age and are more than 17,000 feet thick. Deposition of a thick flysch sequence (Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age) accompanied onset of Taconic orogenesis. It was followed by deposition of a thick molasse sequence of Silurian and Early Devonian age (continental and marginal-marine clastics--Shawangunk Formation and Bloomsburg Red Beds--overlain by predominantly marginal-marine and subtidal limestone, dolomite, shale, and sandstone--Poxono Island Formation through Oriskany Group). Basin deepening and gradual shallowing occurred during Esopus through Mahantango deposition, heralding the Acadian clastic wedge exposed north of the Stroudsburg area. Interpretation of sedimentary structures and regional stratigraphic relations suggest that the Silurian and Devonian rocks were deposited in the following environments: A1luviated coastal plain (meandering and braided streams), tidal flats (supratidal and intertidal), barrier zone, and neritic zone (upper and lower). The rock stratigraphic units have been grouped into four lithotectonic units, each having a different style of deformation. Folds produced in these rocks are disharmonic, and it is believed that each rock sequence is set off from units above and below by decollements, or zones of detachment. Movement was northwest into the Appalachian basin, primarily by gravitational sliding. The contact between the Shawangunk Formation of Silurian age and Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age, is one zone of detachment as well as an angular unconformity. Deformational effects of the Middle to Late Ordovician Taconic orogeny are elusive, but it appears that the folds and most minor

  11. Hydrogeology of Valley-Fill Aquifers and Adjacent Areas in Eastern Chemung County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-10-19

    Water-resource potential is greatest within saturated sand and gravel in the Chemung River valley (nearly 1 mile wide), especially where induced infiltration of additional water from the Chemung River is possible. The second most favorable area is the Newtown Creek valley at the confluence of Newtown Creek with North Branch Newtown Creek east of Horseheads, N.Y. Extensive sand and gravel deposits within the Breesport, N.Y., area are largely unsaturated but may have greater saturation along the east side of Jackson Creek immediately north of Breesport. Till deposits confine sand and gravel along Newtown Creek at Erin, N.Y., and along much of the upper reach of North Branch Newtown Creek; this confining unit may limit recharge and potential well yield. The north-south oriented valleys of Baldwin and Wynkoop Creeks end at notched divides that imply input of glacial meltwater and limited sediment from outside of the present watersheds. These two valleys are relatively narrow but contain variably sorted sand and gravel, which, in places, may be capable of supplying modest-size community water systems.

  12. Emergency ground-water supplies in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.

    1972-01-01

    Urban areas that are supplied from surface-water sources are especially vulnerable to major disruption of their water supplies. Such disruption could result from natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, or landslides or from such other causes as dam failures fallout of radioactive material or other toxic substance from the atmosphere or other toxic substances from the atmosphere or direct introduction (either accidental or deliberate) of any substance that would render the water unfit for use. Prolonged disruption of public water supplies not only causes personal hardships but also endangers health and safety unless suitable alternative emergency supplies can be provided. The degree of hardship and danger generally increases in direct relation to the population density. Ground water because it occurs beneath protective soil and rock materials is less subject to sudden major contamination than are surface-water bodies. For this reason and also because of its widespread availability in the Puget Sound region ground water is especially desireable as a sources of emergency supplies for drinking or other uses requiring water of good quality. In much of the area existing wells would be suitable as safe sources of emergency supplies.

  13. Flood hazards in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Nassar, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Floods are natural hazards that have complicated man's land-use planning for as long as we have had a history. Although flood hzards are a continuing danger, the year-to-year threat cannot be accurately predicted. Also, on any one stream, the time since the last destructive flood might be so long that most people now living near the stream have not experienced such a flood. Because of the unpredictability and common infrequency of disastrous flooding, or out of ignorance about the danger, or perhaps because of an urge to gamble, man tends to focus his attention on only the advantages of the flood-prone areas, rather than the risk due to the occasional major flood. The purposes of this report are to: (1) briefly describe flood hazards in this region, including some that may be unique to the Puget Sound basin, (2) indicate the parts of the area for which flood-hazard data are available, and (3) list the main sources of hydrologic information that is useful for flood-hazard analysis in conjuction with long-range planning. This map-type report is one of a series being prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey to present basic environmental information and interpretations to assist land-use planning in the Puget Sound region.

  14. Isostatic gravity map of the Point Sur 30 x 60 quadrangle and adjacent areas, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.T.; Morin, R.L.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of a regional effort to investigate the tectonics and water resources of the central Coast Range. This map serves as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults in the area. Local spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field (after removing variations caused by instrument drift, earth-tides, latitude, elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure), as expressed by the isostatic anomaly, reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust, which in turn can be related to rock type. Steep gradients in the isostatic gravity field often indicate lithologic or structural boundaries. Gravity highs reflect the Mesozoic granitic and Franciscan Complex basement rocks that comprise both the northwest-trending Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges, whereas gravity lows in Salinas Valley and the offshore basins reflect the thick accumulations of low-density alluvial and marine sediment. Gravity lows also occur where there are thick deposits of low-density Monterey Formation in the hills southeast of Arroyo Seco (>2 km, Marion, 1986). Within the map area, isostatic residual gravity values range from approximately -60 mGal offshore in the northern part of the Sur basin to approximately 22 mGal in the Santa Lucia Range.

  15. Gravity and Magnetic Investigations of the Mojave National Preserve and Adjacent Areas, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Biehler, S.; Negrini, R.; Mickus, K.; Miller, D.M.; Miller, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data provide the underpinnings of a hydrogeologic framework for the Mojave National Preserve by estimating the thickness of Cenozoic deposits and locating inferred structural features that influence groundwater flow. An inversion of gravity data indicates that thin (<1 km) basin deposits cover much of the Preserve, except for Ivanpah Valley and the Woods Mountains volcanic center. Localized areas of Cenozoic deposits thicker than 500 m are predicted beneath parts of Lanfair Valley, Fenner Valley, near Kelso, Soda Lake, and southeast of Baker. Along the southern margin of the Mojave National Preserve, basins greater than 1 km deep are located between the Clipper and Marble Mountains, between the Marble and Bristol Mountains, and south of the Bristol Mountains near Amboy. Both density and magnetization boundaries defined by horizontal-gradient analyses coincide locally with Cenozoic faults and can be used to extend these faults beneath cover. Magnetization boundaries also highlight the structural grain within the crystalline rocks and may serve as a proxy for fracturing, an important source of permeability within the generally impermeable basement rocks, thus mapping potential groundwater pathways through and along the mountain ranges in the study area.

  16. Reclamation by tubewell drainage in Rechna Doab and adjacent areas, Punjab region, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1975-01-01

    Around the turn of the century, a network of more than 40,000 miles of canals was constructed to divert water from the Indus River and its tributaries to about 23 million acres of largely unused desert in the Punjab region of Pakistan. The favorable climate and the perennial supply of irrigation water made available through the canals instituted the beginning of intensive farming. However, because of generally poor drainage and the high rate of canal leakage, the water table began to rise. As the population increased and agriculture expanded, the demand for irrigation water soon exceeded the available supply. Spreading of the canal supply to meet the expanded needs locally created shortages that prevented adequate leaching. Increased evaporation from the rising water table further contributed to the progressive accumulation of soluble salts in the soil. By the late 1930's the combined effect of waterlogging and salinity had reduced the agricultural productivity of the region to one of the lowest in the world. In 1954, after several unsuccessful projects were undertaken to reclaim affected areas and to stop the progressive encroachment of waterlogging and salinization, the Government of Pakistan in cooperation with the U.S. International Cooperation Administration undertook a study of the geology and hydrology of the Indus Plain that ultimately resulted in the formulation of a ground-water reclamation program. The principal feature of the program is the utilization of a network of deep wells spaced about a mile apart for the dual purpose of lowering the water table and for providing supplemental irrigation water. Through financial assistance and technical and engineering support principally from the United States, construction began in 1960 on the first of 18 proposed reclamation projects that eventually will include 21 million acres and more than 28,000 wells having an installed capacity of more than 100,000 cubic feet per second. An area of about 1.3 million acres

  17. A catalog of borehole geophysics for the 100 Areas and adjacent 600 Area, Hanford Site, 1962 to May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R E; Pearson, A W

    1992-09-01

    This report catalogs geophysical borehole logs acquired between 1962, when logging began, and May 15, 1992 in the 100 Areas and the surrounding 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Separate tables were prepared for each respective set of wells. Each table lists all wells known to have been drilled, all borehole geophysical logs measured, and the location of these logs. No information is provided for logs acquired by the Westinghouse Hanford Company spectral gamma logging system. Maps are provided for identification of the specific wells in the 1200 Areas. A cross reference between the well numbering scheme employed by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project and that based on the Hanford grid name is provided for the appropriate wells in the 600 area.

  18. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas in the Great Basin of Nevada and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkham, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Great Basin is a region of about 210,000 square miles having no surface drainage to the ocean; it includes most of Nevada and parts of Utah, California, Oregon, Idaho, and Wyoming. The area is characterized by many parallel mountain ranges and valleys trending north-south. Stream channels usually are well defined and steep within the mountains, but on reaching the alluvial fan at the canyon mouth, they may diverge into numerous distributary channels, be discontinuous near the apex of the fan, or be deeply entrenched in the alluvial deposits. Larger rivers normally have well-defined channels to or across the valley floors, but all terminate at lakes or playas. Major floods occur in most parts of the Great Basin and result from snowmelt, frontal-storm rainfall, and localized convective rainfall. Snowmelt floods typically occur during April-June. Floods resulting from frontal rain and frontal rain on snow generally occur during November-March. Floods resulting from convective-type rainfall during localized thunderstorms occur most commonly during the summer months. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas are grouped into five general categories: Detailed, historical, analytical, physiographic, and reconnaissance. The detailed and historical methods are comprehensive methods; the analytical and physiographic are intermediate; and the reconnaissance method is only approximate. Other than the reconnaissance method, each method requires determination of a T-year discharge (the peak rate of flow during a flood with long-term average recurrence interval of T years) and T-year profile and the development of a flood-boundary map. The procedure is different, however, for each method. Appraisal of the applicability of each method included consideration of its technical soundness, limitations and uncertainties, ease of use, and costs in time and money. Of the five methods, the detailed method is probably the most accurate, though most expensive. It is applicable to

  19. Water resources of the Tulalip Indian Reservation and adjacent area, Snohomish County, Washington, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna M.; Kresch, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to improve the understanding of water resources of the Tulalip Plateau area, with a primary emphasis on the Tulalip Indian Reservation, in order to address concerns of the Tulalip Tribes about the effects of current and future development, both on and off the Reservation, on their water resources. The drinking-water supply for the Reservation comes almost entirely from ground water, so increasing population will continue to put more pressure on this resource. The study evaluated the current state of ground- and surface-water resources and comparing results with those of studies in the 1970s and 1980s. The study included updating descriptions of the hydrologic framework and ground-water system, determining if discharge and base flow in streams and lake stage have changed significantly since the 1970s, and preparing new estimates of the water budget. The hydrogeologic framework was described using data collected from 255 wells, including their location and lithology. Data collected for the Reservation water budget included continuous and periodic streamflow measurements, micrometeorological data including daily precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation, water-use data, and atmospheric chloride deposition collected under both wet- and dry-deposition conditions to estimate ground-water recharge. The Tulalip Plateau is composed of unconsolidated sediments of Quaternary age that are mostly of glacial origin. There are three aquifers and two confining units as well as two smaller units that are only localized in extent. The Vashon recessional outwash (Qvr) is the smallest of the three aquifers and lies in the Marysville Trough on the eastern part of the study area. The primary aquifer in terms of use is the Vashon advance outwash (Qva). The Vashon till (Qvt) and the transitional beds (Qtb) act as confining units. The Vashon till overlies Qva and the transitional beds underlie Qva and separate it from the undifferentiated sediments (Qu

  20. [Distribution patterns of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Yangtze estuary and its adjacent areas and environmental quality assessment].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ju-jiang; Fan, De-jiang; Yang, Dong-fang; Qi, Hong-yan; Xu, Lin

    2008-09-01

    The concentrations of six heavy metals were determined in the fine fraction ( < 63 microm) of surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent areas by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The average contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn are 10.47, 0.19, 37.68, 36.86, 97.80 and 98.65 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The contents of As, Cd and Cu appear gradually degressive from west to east, while the contents of Pb, Cr and Zn appear no apparent difference. In generally, the concentrations of heavy metals are higher in the south sea areas than those in the north sea areas. Environmental assessment with single factor method suggests that As, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn are moderately contaminated, while Cd is not polluted. The values of As,Cu and Cr are between effect range-low (ERL) and effect range-median (ERM), which indicate they occasionally bring adverse biological effect at most stations, and the values of Cd,Pb and Zn are below ERL mean they rarely bring adverse biological effect by sediment quality guidelines assessment. From the results of factor analysis and cluster analysis, we conclude that the outer sea areas of the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay have lower sediment environmental quality, therefore much attention should be paid to these areas.

  1. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

  2. Paleoenvironments and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation of southwestern Alabama and adjacent coastal water area

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-09-01

    Upper Jurassic Norphlet sediments in southwestern Alabama and the adjacent coastal water area accumulated under arid climatic conditions. The Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States extended into southwestern Alabama, providing a barrier for air and water circulation during Norphlet deposition. Norphlet paleogeography was dominated by a broad desert plain rimmed to the north and east by the Appalachians and to the south by a developing shallow sea. Initiation of Norphlet sedimentation was a result of erosion of the southern Appalachians. Norphlet conglomerates were deposited in coalescing alluvial fans in proximity to an Appalachian source. The conglomeratic sandstones grade downdip into red-bed lithofacies that accumulated in distal portions of alluvial fan and wadi systems. Quartzose sandstones (Denkman Member) were deposited as dune and interdune sediments on a broad desert plain. The source of the sand was the updip and adjacent alluvial fan, plain, and wadi deposits. A marine transgression was initiated late in Denkman deposition, resulting in the reworking of previously deposited Norphlet sediments. Norphlet hydrocarbon potential in southwestern and offshore Alabama is excellent with four oil and gas fields already established. Petroleum traps discovered to date are primarily structural traps involving salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, and extensional fault traps associated with salt movement. Reservoir rocks consist of quartzose sandstones, which are principally eolian in origin. Smackover algal carbonate mudstones were probably the source for the Norphlet hydrocarbons.

  3. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as to be of negligible impact on the farm's agricultural production. Negligible impact of the... the alluvial valley floor area to the farm's total agricultural production over the life of the mine... sufficiently detailed geologic, hydrologic, land use, soils, and vegetation data and analysis to...

  4. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as to be of negligible impact on the farm's agricultural production. Negligible impact of the... the alluvial valley floor area to the farm's total agricultural production over the life of the mine... sufficiently detailed geologic, hydrologic, land use, soils, and vegetation data and analysis to...

  5. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H. ); Garten, C.T. Jr. . Environmental Sciences Div.)

    1992-03-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage areas (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from tree leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during he dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. This paper discovers seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation which will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests.

  6. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Hikaru ); Garten, C.T. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage area (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from trees leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during the dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. Seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  7. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    2009-04-01

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extract 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 ± 0.06%) of the total label removed from the soil by

  8. Uranium deposits at Shinarump Mesa and some adjacent areas in the Temple Mountain district, Emery County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.

    1953-01-01

    Deposits of uraniferous hydrocarbons are associated with carnotite in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age at Shinarump Mesa and adjacent areas of the Temple Mountain district in the San Rafael Swell of Emery County, Utah. The irregular ore bodies of carnotite-bearing sandstone are genetically related to lenticular uraniferous ore bodies containing disseminated asphaltitic and humic hydrocarbon in permeable sandstones and were localized indirectly by sedimentary controls. Nearly non-uraniferous bitumen commonly permeates the sandstones in the Shinarump conglomerate and the underlying Moekopi formation in the area. The ore deposits at Temple Mountain have been altered locally by hydrothermal solutions, and in other deposits throughout the area carnotite has been transported by ground and surface water. Uraniferous asphaltite is thought to be the non-volatile residue of an original weakly uraniferous crude oil that migrated into the San Rafael anticline; the ore metals concentrated in the asphaltite as the oil was devolatilized and polymerized. Carnotite is thought to have formed from the asphaltite by ground water leaching. It is concluded that additional study of the genesis of the asphaltitic uranium ores in the San Rafael Swell, of the processes by which the hydrocarbons interact and are modified (such as heat, polymerization, and hydrogenation under the influence of alpha-ray bombardment), of petroleum source beds, and of volcanic intrusive rocks of Tertiary age are of fundamental importance in the continuing study of the uranium deposits on the Colorado Plateau.

  9. Modeling The Water Table In The Middle Rio Grande River Riparian Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasheh, O. Z.; Neale, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Middle Rio Grande River (MRGR) is the main source of fresh water for the state of New Mexico. An arid area with low water resources created a situation where water is extensively diverted or stored to supply the high demand for municipalities and agricultural activities. The extensive water diversions over the last few decades has affected the composition of the native riparian vegetation such as cottonwood and coyote willow and enhanced the spread of invasive species harmful to the river system such as Tamarisk and Russian Olives. The river aquatic system has also been badly affected. The need to study the river hydrological processes and their relation with its health is important to preserve the river ecosystem. The water table within the riparian zone is intrinsically connected to the flows in the river. Large withdrawals of water by Tamarisk affect the surface flows, which coupled with the large diversions for irrigation result in a complicated river management problem. In this paper we describe the methodology used to spatially model the water table depth between the river and the adjacent drains parallel to the river. Water table readings are used to check the model. Evapotranspiration by the riparian vegetation is estimated and included in the soil moisture balance. The model runs as an application in ArcGIS. Spatial layers include soils and riparian vegetation maps obtained from the classification of airborne high resolution multispectral imagery.

  10. Reach-Scale Influence of Riparian Vegetation on Fluvial Erosion (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, T.; Hopkinson, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    A strong link exists between riparian vegetation and stream channel morphology. With increased emphasis on water quality and aquatic habitat in headwater streams, a complete understanding of the role of riparian vegetation on channel form is important for effective stream management and restoration. Streambank fluvial erosion plays a key role in channel migration; streambank undercutting leads to slope instability, mass wasting, and bank retreat. By influencing the local microclimate, streambank hydrology and soil strength, and reach-scale hydraulics, riparian vegetation exerts considerable influence on the processes involved in channel form. The susceptibility of streambank soils to fluvial entrainment depends not only on the soil type, but also on soil moisture, bulk density, and the soil stress history due to wet/dry and freeze/thaw cycling. Riparian vegetation exerts significant influence on all of these factors through precipitation interception, increased infiltration and evapotranspiration, and altered exposure to day time solar heating and night time cooling. The timing and magnitude of these influences depends on the vegetation form, root distribution, and temporal growth patterns. Riparian vegetation also increases the physical resistance of streambank soils to hydraulic shear stress through root reinforcement; the roots of herbaceous plants are typically very fine and are located primarily within the top 30 cm of the soil. In comparison, woody plants have a more uniform root distribution over the upper 1 m of the streambank, providing root reinforcement with greater depth. The presence of above-ground vegetation on streambanks increases hydraulic resistance and alters both flow and turbulence patterns in the channel. Dense riparian vegetation creates a zone of uniform velocity adjacent to the streambank, with an additional boundary layer and area of increased turbulence at the interface between the vegetation and the main channel. At high flows, flexible

  11. Legal mechanisms for protecting riparian resource values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Berton L.; Lord, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Riparian resources include the borders of rivers, lakes, ponds, and potholes. These border areas are very important for a number of reasons, including stream channel maintenance, flood control, aesthetics, erosion control, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water quality maintenance. These diverse functions are not well protected by law or policy. We reviewed law and policies regarding endangered species habitat designation, land use planning, grazing management, water allocation, takings, and federal permits and licenses, along with the roles of federal, state, and local governments. We discuss the politics of implementing these policies, focusing on the difficulties in changing entrenched water and land use practices. Our review indicates a lack of direct attention to riparian ecosystem issues in almost all environmental and land use programs at every level of government. Protection of riparian resource values requires a means to integrate existing programs to focus on riparian zones.

  12. Groundwater-Stream Interactions in a Seasonal Flooded Riparian Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, J. K.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Nilsson, B.

    2011-12-01

    At Odense River in Denmark several wetlands/riparian zones have recently been reconstructed with one objective to rehabilitate the wetland/riparian zone as a buffer strip enhancing depletion of agricultural inputs of diffuse pollutants like nutrients and pesticides to the receiving Odense River. The approach is initiated to either force the polluted groundwater through a reactive buffer strip and/or allowing polluted river water to flood and infiltrate the reactive riparian zone. However, often the hydraulics of these systems is poorly understood and therefore it is difficult to evaluate the efficiency of the systems and several questions often remain unanswered; Is residence time in the riparian zone long enough to sufficiently deplete the pollutants? What are the effects of flooding and infiltration of polluted river water on the hydraulics of the buffer strip? Can differences in groundwater flow paths in periods with flooding reduce the effect of the buffer strip by shortening flow paths to the surface water and hence alter residence time; that is, does groundwater-stream interaction change during and after flooding? And finally; is it possible to upscale the overall effect for a whole river system? Monitoring is ongoing in a reconstructed riparian zone heavily polluted with nitrate as a part of the EU project AQUAREHAB. The setup is a grid of 50 piezometers installed in selected transects following groundwater flow paths from an adjacent agricultural site to the river. The piezometer setup permits us to follow the changes in hydraulic heads and to perform water sampling for chemical characterization. The site has been characterized by geophysical Multi-Electrode-Profiling and correlated to two geotechnical drillings to depths of 20 m, by slug-test, and hydro periods have been determined from continuous recording of river stage. Temperature is used as a tracer for monitoring discharge of groundwater to the stream (non-continuous converted to an estimate of flux

  13. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    river’s edge. Less than two weeks later (March 21), the river began the spring rise. Periodic (daily) or continuous flooding occurred at the site over the next 3 to 4 months. River levels at times were over the top of the enclosure’s fence. This same pattern was repeated for the next 2 years. It was however evident that even submerged for part, or all of the day, that the plants continued to flourish. There were no indications of herbivory or animal tracks observed within the plot although animals were present in the area. Biomass production over the three years followed a typical growth curve with a yield of about 1 kg for the first year when the trees were establishing themselves, 4 kg for the second, and over 20 kg for the third when the trees were entering the exponential phase of growth. On a metric Ton per hectare (mT/ha) basis this would be 0.2 mT/ha in 2007, 0.87 mT/ha in 2008, and 4.3 mT/ha in 2009. Growth curve extrapolation predicts 13.2 mT/ha during a fourth year and potentially 29.5 mT/ha following a fifth year. Using the observed Ca and Sr concentrations found in the plant tissues, and Sr CR’s calculated from groundwater analysis, projected biomass yields suggest the trees could prove effective in removing the contaminant from the 100-NR-2 riparian zone.

  14. Numerical simulation and preliminary analysis on ocean waves during Typhoon Nesat in South China Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jichao; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang

    2014-05-01

    Using the wave model WAVEWATCH III (WW3), we simulated the generation and propagation of typhoon waves in the South China Sea and adjacent areas during the passage of typhoon Nesat (2011). In the domain 100°-145°E and 0°-35°N, the model was forced by the cross-calibrated multi-platform (CCMP) wind fields of September 15 to October 5, 2011. We then validated the simulation results against wave radar data observed from an oil platform and altimeter data from the Jason-2 satellite. The simulated waves were characterized by five points along track using the Spectrum Integration Method (SIM) and the Spectrum Partitioning Method (SPM), by which wind sea and swell components of the 1D and 2D wave spectra are separated. There was reasonable agreement between the model results and observations, although the WW3 wave model may underestimate swell wave height. Significant wave heights are large along the typhoon track and are noticeably greater on the right of the track than on the left. Swells from the east are largely unable to enter the South China Sea because of the obstruction due to the Philippine Islands. During the initial stage and later period of the typhoon, swells at the five points were generated by the propagation of waves that were created by typhoons Haitang and Nalgae. Of the two methods, the 2D SPM method is more accurate than the 1D SIM which overestimates the separation frequency under low winds, but the SIM method is more convenient because it does not require wind speed and wave direction. When the typhoon left the area, the wind sea fractions decreased rapidly. Under similar wind conditions, the points located in the South China Sea are affected less than those points situated in the open sea because of the influence of the complex internal topography of the South China Sea. The results reveal the characteristic wind sea and swell features of the South China Sea and adjacent areas in response to typhoon Nesat, and provide a reference for swell

  15. Mapping the response of riparian vegetation to possible flow reductions in the Snake River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter Johnson, W.; Dixon, Mark D.; Simons, Robert; Jenson, Susan; Larson, Kevin

    1995-09-01

    This study was initiated to determine the general effects of potential flow reductions in the middle Snake River (Swan Falls Dam downstream to the Idaho-Oregon border) on its riparian vegetation. Considerable water from the river is currently used to irrigate the adjacent Snake River Plain, and increased demand for water in the future is likely. The problem was subdivided into several research components including: field investigation of the existing riparian vegetation and river environment, hydrological modeling to calculate the effects of one flow scenario on hydrological regime, and integration of vegetation and hydrological modeling results with a Geographic Information System (GIs) to map the riverbed, island, and bank conditions under the scenario flow. Field work was conducted in summer 1990. Riparian vegetation along 40 U.S. Geological Survey cross-sections was sampled at approximately 1.25 mile intervals within the 50 mile long study area. Cross-section and flow data were provided by the U.S. Geological. Survey. GIs mapping of land/water cover using ARC/INFO was based on 1987 aerial photographs. Riverbed contour maps were produced by linking cross-section data, topographic contouring software ( ANUDEM), and GIs. The maps were used to spatially display shallow areas in the channel likely to become vegetated under reduced flow conditions. The scenario would reduce flow by approximately 20% (160 MAF) and lower the river an average of 0.5 ft. The scenario flow could cause a drop in the elevation of the riparian zone comparable to the drop in mean river level and expansion of the lower riparian zone into shallow areas of the channel. The GIs maps showed that the shallow areas of the channel more likely to become vegetated under the scenario flow are located in wide reaches near islands. Some possible ecological consequences of the scenario flow include a greater area of riparian habitat, reduced flow velocity and sedimentation in shallow channels leading to

  16. Paleostress adjacent to the Alpine Fault of New Zealand - Fault, vein, and styolite data from the Doctors Dome area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, Andrew; Wise, Donald U.

    1992-11-01

    Doctors Dome, 75 km north of Christchurch, New Zealand, is an early Pleistocene to Recent structure being deformed along the southeast edge of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. Paleostress in the area has been determined in basement rocks of the Mesozoic meta-graywacke Torlesse Supergroup which lies unconformably beneath Cretaceous and younger cover rocks. Inversion of basement fault data for the area indicates a general northwest compression with two peaks, one WNW-ESE parallel to the shortening suggested by the older vein system and the other parallel to southeast-northwest stylolite columns in the cover rocks. This direction is approximately parallel to regional indicators of contemporary deformation in and adjacent to the Alpine Fault Zone and suggests that the stress field affecting these rocks has not changed significantly since the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene. Like the San Andreas system, this compression is at a high angle to the strike of the zone as a whole, but is compatible with the direction of plate convergence and motion of the major faults. Between the overlappig ends of the Alpine Fault and the Hikurangi Subduction Zone the Alpine Fault may become subhorizontal at middle-lower crustal levels, partially decoupling the crust from underlying structures, and thus allowing oblique motion to be transferred directly onto the fault from the subduction complex, while aiding the change from subduction to continental collision.

  17. Linking Changes in Management and Riparian Physical Functionality to Water Quality and Aquatic Habitat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife and aquatic habitats are dependent on the development of riparian area management strategies. Land management strategies consider certain basic ecological and economic relationships. These relationships are functions of riparian and te rrestrial ecosystems, which include...

  18. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Stephen F.; Vasconcelos, Huann C. G.; Mendes-Junior, Raimundo N. G.; Araújo, Andrea S.; Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Nascimento, Walace S.; Isaac, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation) along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization.

  19. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Stephen F.; Vasconcelos, Huann C. G.; Mendes-Junior, Raimundo N. G.; Araújo, Andrea S.; Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Nascimento, Walace S.; Isaac, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation) along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization. PMID:27699201

  20. Effects of Stream and Elevation Resolution on Riparian Metrics and Restoration Identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though riparian areas attenuate nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff at the field scale, best management practices and locations for restoring riparian areas should be determined at watershed scales. Riparian metrics (e.g., percent forest within 100m of stream)...

  1. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles.

  2. Comparison of phylogeographic structure and population history of two Phrynocephalus species in the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Xia, Lin; He, Jingbo; Wu, Yonghua; Fu, Jinzhong; Yang, Qisen

    2010-12-01

    An aridification of the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas since middle Pleistocene has produced significant genetic structuring of the local fauna. We examined the phylogeographic patterns, population structure and history of Phrynocephalus axillaris and Phrynocephalus forsythii using a mitochondrial fragment ND4-tRNA(LEU). Phylogenetic hypotheses were constructed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference, and the divergence times of major lineages were estimated by BEAST. Population structure and history were inferred by nested clade analysis, neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, and isolation by distance analysis. The two species might have experienced different evolutionary history throughout their current distribution. For P. forsythii, a vicariant event, as a consequence of geological isolation and desert expansion, might have produced the significant divergence between the Tarim and the Yanqi populations. For P. axillaris, populations of the Yanqi, Turpan and Hami Basins might have been established through dispersal during demographic expansion. Climatic fluctuations caused alternate expansion and shrinkage of rivers and oases several times, which likely led to habitat fragmentation for both species. Interaction between vicariance, dispersal and habitat fragmentation produced the current distribution and genetic diversity. The observed difference between the two species may be due partially to their different reproductive modes (ovoviviparous vs. oviparous). PMID:20955804

  3. Spring land temperature anomalies in northwestern US and the summer drought over Southern Plains and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; Oaida, Catalina M.; Diallo, Ismaila; Neelin, J. David; Li, Suosuo; De Sales, Fernando; Gu, Yu; Robinson, David A.; Vasic, Ratko; Yi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent drought and associated heatwave episodes are important features of the US climate. Many studies have examined the connection between ocean surface temperature changes and conterminous US droughts. However, remote effects of large-scale land surface temperature variability, over shorter but still considerable distances, on US regional droughts have been largely ignored. The present study combines two types of evidence to address these effects: climate observations and model simulations. Our analysis of observational data shows that springtime land temperature in northwest US is significantly correlated with summer rainfall and surface temperature changes in the US Southern Plains and its adjacent areas. Our model simulations of the 2011 Southern Plains drought using a general circulation model and a regional climate model confirm the observed relationship between land temperature anomaly and drought, and suggest that the long-distance effect of land temperature changes in the northwest US on Southern Plains droughts is probably as large as the more familiar effects of ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric internal variability. We conclude that the cool 2011 springtime climate conditions in the northwest US increased the probability of summer drought and abnormal heat in the Southern Plains. The present study suggests a strong potential for more skillful intra-seasonal predictions of US Southern Plains droughts when such facts as ones presented here are considered.

  4. Comparison of phylogeographic structure and population history of two Phrynocephalus species in the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Xia, Lin; He, Jingbo; Wu, Yonghua; Fu, Jinzhong; Yang, Qisen

    2010-12-01

    An aridification of the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas since middle Pleistocene has produced significant genetic structuring of the local fauna. We examined the phylogeographic patterns, population structure and history of Phrynocephalus axillaris and Phrynocephalus forsythii using a mitochondrial fragment ND4-tRNA(LEU). Phylogenetic hypotheses were constructed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference, and the divergence times of major lineages were estimated by BEAST. Population structure and history were inferred by nested clade analysis, neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, and isolation by distance analysis. The two species might have experienced different evolutionary history throughout their current distribution. For P. forsythii, a vicariant event, as a consequence of geological isolation and desert expansion, might have produced the significant divergence between the Tarim and the Yanqi populations. For P. axillaris, populations of the Yanqi, Turpan and Hami Basins might have been established through dispersal during demographic expansion. Climatic fluctuations caused alternate expansion and shrinkage of rivers and oases several times, which likely led to habitat fragmentation for both species. Interaction between vicariance, dispersal and habitat fragmentation produced the current distribution and genetic diversity. The observed difference between the two species may be due partially to their different reproductive modes (ovoviviparous vs. oviparous).

  5. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria community in surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; He, Hui; Yu, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which obtain energy from dissimilatory sulfate reduction, play a vital role in the carbon and sulfur cycles. The dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), catalyzing the last step in the sulfate reduction pathway, has been found in all known SRB that have been tested so far. In this study, the diversity of SRB was investigated in the surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit gene ( dsrB). Based on dsrB clone libraries constructed in this study, diversified SRB were found, represented by 173 unique OTUs. Certain cloned sequences were associated with Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and a large fraction (60%) of novel sequences that have deeply branched groups in the dsrB tree, indicating that novel SRB inhabit the surface sediments. In addition, correlations of the SRB assemblages with environmental factors were analyzed by the linear model-based redundancy analysis (RDA). The result revealed that temperature, salinity and the content of TOC were most closely correlated with the SRB communities. More information on SRB community was obtained by applying the utility of UniFrac to published dsrB gene sequences from this study and other 9 different kinds of marine environments. The results demonstrated that there were highly similar SRB genotypes in the marine and estuarine sediments, and that geographic positions and environmental factors influenced the SRB community distribution.

  6. Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

  7. Atmospheric inputs and nitrogen saturation status in and adjacent to Class I wilderness areas of the northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Templer, Pamela H; Weathers, Kathleen C; Lindsey, Amanda; Lenoir, Katherine; Scott, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric inputs of N and S in bulk deposition (open collectors) and throughfall (beneath canopy collectors) were measured in and adjacent to two Class 1 wilderness areas of the northeastern US. In general, atmospheric S inputs followed our expectations with throughfall S fluxes increasing with elevation in the White Mountains, New Hampshire and throughfall S fluxes being greater in coniferous than deciduous stands in both sites. In contrast, throughfall N fluxes decreased significantly with elevation. Throughfall NO3 (-) fluxes were greater in coniferous than deciduous stands of Lye Brook, Vermont, but were greater in deciduous than coniferous stands of the White Mountains. We found overlap in the range of values for atmospheric N inputs between our measurements and monitoring data [National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET)] for wet and total (wet + dry) deposition at Lye Brook. However, our measurements of total S deposition in the White Mountains and bulk (wet) deposition at both Lye Brook and the White Mountains were significantly lower than NADP plus CASTNET, and NADP data, respectively. Natural abundance (18)O in throughfall and bulk deposition were not significantly different, suggesting that there was no significant biological production of [Formula: see text] via nitrification in the canopy. NO3 (-) concentrations in streams were low and had natural abundance (18)O values consistent with microbial production, demonstrating that atmospheric N is being biologically transformed while moving through these watersheds and that these forested watersheds are unlikely to be N saturated.

  8. Riparian Ficus Tree Communities: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

  9. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.

  10. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon. PMID:25437521

  11. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon.

  12. Integrated geophysical data processing and interpretation of crustal structure in Ethiopia with emphasis on the Ogaden Basin and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Ketsela

    The combined effects of magmatism and stretching due to asthenosphere upwelling modifies the crustal structure of the Earth as seen in the Ethiopian rift and adjacent areas. The Ethiopian rift provides unique opportunities to understand the nature of rifted crust and the intensity of its modification by magmatic processes. I used geological and geophysical data to conduct an integrated study in and around the Ethiopian rift including the northern Kenyan rift and the northern part of the Kenyan dome. New gravity, controlled source seismic, and teleseismic data from the EAGLE (Ethiopia-Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment) were used as additional constraints in my analysis of the crustal structure of Ethiopian rift and adjacent plateaus. Application of a residual gravity anomaly filtering technique using upward continuation revealed various crustal features within the Ethiopian rift and the flanking plateau regions. Short wavelength high amplitude positive anomalies coincide with the local volcanic complexes and calderas. In addition low gravity anomalies are associated with areas of thicker sediments within the rift valley. Axial and cross rift gravity profiles were modeled in 2.5 dimensions constrained with seismic refraction and geologic data. The axial model connects the Kenyan dome through Turkana rift and Main Ethiopian rift (MER) up to the Afar triple junction and provides a new integrated picture of lithospheric structure along the rift for over 1000 km. This model indicates a thin crust (26 km) underlying the Afar region. The crust gradually thickens towards the MER where it is about 35-40 km thick. Towards the south the crust thins and is only 22 km thick when it reaches the Turkana area. The southern section of the axial model indicates that the crust is about 35 km thick beneath the central Kenyan rift. All these thickness values are in agreement with the EAGLE and Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP) and earlier refraction results and

  13. Spring Database for the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavelko, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    A database containing nearly 3,400 springs was developed for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area in White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah. The spring database provides a foundation for field verification of springs in the study area. Attributes in the database include location, geographic and general geologic settings, and available discharge and temperature data for each spring.

  14. Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about

  15. Simulation of Soil Quality with Riparian Forests and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre; Casagrande, José Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    Riparian forests are entrusted with important hydrological functions, such as riparian zone protection, filtering sediments and nutrients and mitigation of the amount of nutrients and xenobiotic molecules from the surrounding agro ecosystems. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0,2 and 0.2-0.4 m and its chemical (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, sum of bases-SB, bases saturation, V%, and aluminum saturation, m%); physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological attributes (basal respiration and microbial biomass) were determined. This work aimed to study the liner method of combining data, figures of merit (FoM), weighing process and the scoring functions developed by Wymore and asses the quality of the soil (SQI) by means of chemical, physical and microbiological soil attributes, employing the additive pondered model for two areas of riparian forest at different stages of ecological succession and an adjacent area cultivated with sugar cane, located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. Some hierarchical functions containing FoMs and their parameters were constructed, and from them weights were assigned to each FoM and parameter, in a way that cluster of structures with the same FoMs and parameters with different weights were formed. These clusters were used to calculate the SQI for all vegetal formations considering two types of soil (Oxisol and Podzol), in that way, the SQI was calculated for each combination of vegetation and soil. The SQIs values were usually higher in the oldest riparian forest, while the recent riparian forest showed the smallest SQI values, for both types of soil. The variation of values within a combination vegetation/soil was also different between all combinations, being that the set of values from the oldest riparian forest presented the lowest amplitude. It was also observed that the Oxisols, regardless of the vegetation, presented higher SQIs

  16. RIPARIAN BUFFER WIDTH, VEGETATIVE COVER, AND NITROGEN REMOVAL EFFECTIVENESS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Buffer width may be positively related to nitrogen removal efficiency by influencing nitrogen retention throug...

  17. RIPARIAN BUFFER WIDTH, VEGETATIVE COVER, AND NITROGEN REMOVAL EFFECTIVENESS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Buffer width may be related to nitrogen removal efficiency by influencing nitrogen retention through plant seq...

  18. Flood-deposited wood debris and its contribution to heterogeneity and regeneration in a semi-arid riparian landscape.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Neil E; Naiman, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    We investigated whether large woody debris (LWD) piles create nodes of environmental resources that contribute to the recovery of riparian vegetation and that also augment the heterogeneity and resilience of the riverine system. River and riparian systems are typified by a large degree of heterogeneity and complex interactions between abiotic and biotic elements. Disturbance such as floods re-distribute the resources, such as LWD, and thereby add greater complexity to the system. We examined this issue on a semi-arid savanna river where approximately a 100-year return interval flood in 2000 uprooted vegetation and deposited substantial LWD. We investigated the micro-environment within the newly established LWD piles and compared this with conditions at adjacent reference sites containing no LWD. We found soil nutrient concentrations to be significantly higher in LWD piles compared with the reference plots (total N +19%, available P +51%, and total C +36%). Environmental variables within LWD piles and reference sites varied with landscape position in the river-riparian landscape and with LWD pile characteristics. Observed differences were generally between piles located in the terrestrial and riparian areas as compared to piles located on the macro-channel floor. After 3 years the number and cover of woody species were significantly higher when associated with LWD piles, regardless of landscape position or pile type. We conclude that LWD piles formed after large floods act as resource nodes by accumulating fine sediments and by retaining soil nutrients and soil moisture. The subsequent influence of LWD deposition on riparian heterogeneity is discerned at several spatial scales including within and between LWD piles, across landscape positions and between channel types. LWD piles substantially influence the initial developmental of riparian vegetation as the system regenerates following large destructive floods. PMID:16025355

  19. Surface water and groundwater nitrogen dynamics in a well drained riparian forest within a poorly drained agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer H; Griffith, Stephen M; Wigington, Parker J

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of riparian zones in mitigating nutrient in ground and surface water depends on the climate, management, and hydrogeomorphology of a site. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a well drained, mixed-deciduous riparian forest to buffer a river from N originating from a poorly drained grass seed cropping system. The study site was adjacent to the Calapooia River in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Water was found to move from the rapid drainage of swale surface water. During winter hydrological events, the riparian forest also received river water. Low nitrate (NO3-) concentrations (0.2-0.4 mg NO3- -NL(-1)) in the shallow groundwater of the cropping system were associated with low rates of mineralization and nitrification (33 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) and high grass seed crop uptake of N (155 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). The riparian forest soil had higher rates of mineralization (117 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) that produced quantities of soil N that were within the range of literature values for plant uptake, leading to relatively low concentrations of shallow groundwater NO3 (0.6-1.8 mg NO3- -NL(-1)). The swale that dissected the cropping system and riparian area was found to have the highest rates of denitrification and to contribute dissolved organic C to the river. Given the dynamic nature of the hydrology of the Calapooia River study site, data suggest that the riparian forest plays a role not only in reducing export of NO3- from the cropping system to the river but also in processing nutrients from river water.

  20. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  1. Riparian Zone Evapotranspiration Estimates using Streamflow Diel Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, E.; McNamara, J. P.; Benner, S. G.; Flores, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Diel climate variations impact vegetation and hydrologic systems in semi-arid mountainous watersheds primarily through transpiration. The impact diel variations have are particularly evident in streamflow during low flows. Understanding the controls on streamflow diel signals and the interaction they have within the riparian zone has been a focus of multiple studies to better understand the riparian zones as a system. The focus of the study was to monitor streamflow diel signals at five gauging stations within the same watershed to calculate riparian zone evapotranspiration (ET) and to understand diel signal variability throughout the watershed. Amplitude and timing of diel signals were analyzed at each site and used in determining controls on the diel signal. Meteorological and sap flux measurements were also monitored on both hillslope and riparian areas for comparison of fluxes. A spatially distributed hypsometric method was used to calculate ET for each gauging station sub-watershed for comparison with riparian ET estimates. The study found that, with the use of diel signals and a fixed riparian area, the estimated riparian zone ET ranged from a fraction to several times the calculated meteorological ET depending on the season. Although the riparian zone ET calculation was highly variable, it was constrained using diel signal timing and amplitude. Observations of differences in hillslope and riparian zone meteorological and sap flux variables also supported diel signal calculations. The study concludes that riparian zone ET is a substantial contributor to watershed scale ET during the summer months and that streamflow diel signal plays a large role in understanding watershed scale interactions and the riparian zone's influence on a semi-arid watershed.

  2. Mature and old-growth riparian forests: structure, dynamics, and effects on Adirondack stream habitats.

    PubMed

    Keeton, William S; Kraft, Clifford E; Warren, Dana R

    2007-04-01

    Riparian forests regulate linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet relationships among riparian forest development, stand structure, and stream habitats are poorly understood in many temperate deciduous forest systems. Our research has (1) described structural attributes associated with old-growth riparian forests and (2) assessed linkages between these characteristics and in-stream habitat structure. The 19 study sites were located along predominantly first- and second-order streams in northern hardwood-conifer forests in the Adirondack Mountains of New York (U.S.A.). Sites were classified as mature forest (6 sites), mature with remnant old-growth trees (3 sites), and old-growth (10 sites). Forest-structure attributes were measured over stream channels and at varying distances from each bank. In-stream habitat features such as large woody debris (LWD), pools, and boulders were measured in each stream reach. Forest structure was examined in relation to stand age using multivariate techniques, ANOVA, and linear regression. We investigated linkages between forest structure and stream characteristics using similar methods, preceded by information-theoretic modeling (AIC). Old-growth riparian forest structure is more complex than that found in mature forests and exhibits significantly greater accumulations of aboveground tree biomass, both living and dead. In-stream LWD volumes were significantly (alpha = 0.05) greater at old-growth sites (200 m3/ha) compared to mature sites (34 m3/ha) and were strongly related to the basal area of adjacent forests. In-stream large-log densities correlated strongly with debris-dam densities. AIC models that included large-log density, debris-dam density, boulder density, and bankfull width had the most support for predicting pool density. There were higher proportions of LWD-formed pools relative to boulder-formed pools at old-growth sites as compared to mature sites. Old-growth riparian forests provide in

  3. Overview of mine drainage geochemistry at historical mines, Humboldt River basin and adjacent mining areas, Nevada. Chapter E.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    Reconnaissance hydrogeochemical studies of the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas of northern Nevada have identified local sources of acidic waters generated by historical mine workings and mine waste. The mine-related acidic waters are rare and generally flow less than a kilometer before being neutralized by natural processes. Where waters have a pH of less than about 3, particularly in the presence of sulfide minerals, the waters take on high to extremely high concentrations of many potentially toxic metals. The processes that create these acidic, metal-rich waters in Nevada are the same as for other parts of the world, but the scale of transport and the fate of metals are much more localized because of the ubiquitous presence of caliche soils. Acid mine drainage is rare in historical mining districts of northern Nevada, and the volume of drainage rarely exceeds about 20 gpm. My findings are in close agreement with those of Price and others (1995) who estimated that less than 0.05 percent of inactive and abandoned mines in Nevada are likely to be a concern for acid mine drainage. Most historical mining districts have no draining mines. Only in two districts (Hilltop and National) does water affected by mining flow into streams of significant size and length (more than 8 km). Water quality in even the worst cases is naturally attenuated to meet water-quality standards within about 1 km of the source. Only a few historical mines release acidic water with elevated metal concentrations to small streams that reach the Humboldt River, and these contaminants and are not detectable in the Humboldt. These reconnaissance studies offer encouraging evidence that abandoned mines in Nevada create only minimal and local water-quality problems. Natural attenuation processes are sufficient to compensate for these relatively small sources of contamination. These results may provide useful analogs for future mining in the Humboldt River basin, but attention must be given to

  4. Validating LiDAR Derived Estimates of Canopy Height, Structure and Fractional Cover in Riparian Areas: A Comparison of Leaf-on and Leaf-off LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasser, L. A.; Chasmer, L. E.; Taylor, A.; Day, R.

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of riparian buffers is integral to understanding the landscape scale impacts of disturbance on wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. Riparian buffers may be characterized using in situ plot sampling or via high resolution remote sensing. Field measurements are time-consuming and may not cover a broad range of ecosystem types. Further, spectral remote sensing methods introduce a compromise between spatial resolution (grain) and area extent. Airborne LiDAR can be used to continuously map and characterize riparian vegetation structure and composition due to the three-dimensional reflectance of laser pulses within and below the canopy, understory and at the ground surface. The distance between reflections (or ‘returns’) allows for detection of narrow buffer corridors at the landscape scale. There is a need to compare leaf-off and leaf-on surveyed LiDAR data with in situ measurements to assess accuracy in landscape scale analysis. These comparisons are particularly important considering increased availability of leaf-off surveyed LiDAR datasets. And given this increased availability, differences between leaf-on and leaf-off derived LiDAR metrics are largely unknown for riparian vegetation of varying composition and structure. This study compares the effectiveness of leaf-on and leaf-off LiDAR in characterizing riparian buffers of varying structure and composition as compared to field measurements. Field measurements were used to validate LiDAR derived metrics. Vegetation height, canopy cover, density and overstory and understory species composition were recorded in 80 random plots of varying vegetation type, density and structure within a Pennsylvania watershed (-77.841, 40.818). Plot data were compared with LiDAR data collected during leaf on and leaf off conditions to determine 1) accuracy of LiDAR derived metrics compared to field measures and 2) differences between leaf-on and leaf-off LiDAR metrics. Results illustrate that differences exist between

  5. Nesting ecology of Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian and palustrine wetlands of eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McWethy, D.B.; Austin, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Little information exists on breeding Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian wetlands of the Intermountain West. We examined the nesting ecology of Sandhill Cranes associated with riparian and palustrine wetlands in the Henry's Fork Watershed in eastern Idaho in 2003. We located 36 active crane nests, 19 in riparian wetlands and 17 in palustrine wetlands. Nesting sites were dominated by rushes (Juncus spp.), sedges (Carex spp.), Broad-leaved Cattail (Typha latifolia) and willow (Salix spp.), and adjacent foraging areas were primarily composed of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), cinquefoil (Potentilla spp.),Rabbitbrush (Ericameria bloomeri) bunch grasses, upland forbs, Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and cottonwood (Populus spp.). Mean water depth surrounding nests was 23 cm (SD = 22). A majority of nests (61%) were surrounded by vegetation between 3060 cm, 23% by vegetation 60 cm in height. We were able to determine the fate of 29 nests, of which 20 were successful (69%). Daily nest survival was 0.986 (95% LCI 0.963, UCI 0.995), equivalent to a Mayfield nest success of 0.654 (95% LCI 0.324, UCI 0.853). Model selection favored models with the covariates vegetation type, vegetation height, and water depth. Nest survival increased with increasing water depth surrounding nest sites. Mean water depth was higher around successful nests (30 cm, SD = 21) than unsuccessful nests (15 cm, SD 22). Further research is needed to evaluate the relative contribution of cranes nesting in palustrine and riparian wetlands distributed widely across the Intermountain West.

  6. Riparian ecosystems in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Alfarouk, Khalid O; Ibrahim, Muntaser E; Gatenby, Robert A; Brown, Joel S

    2013-01-01

    Intratumoral evolution produces extensive genetic heterogeneity in clinical cancers. This is generally attributed to an increased mutation rate that continually produces new genetically defined clonal lineages. Equally important are the interactions between the heritable traits of cancer cells and their microenvironment that produces natural selection favoring some clonal ‘species’ over others. That is, while mutations produce the heritable variation, environmental selection and cellular adaptation govern the strategies (and genotypes) that can proliferate within the tumor ecosystem. Here we ask: What are the dominant evolutionary forces in the cancer ecosystem? We propose that the tumor vascular network is a common and primary cause of intratumoral heterogeneity. Specifically, variations in blood flow result in variability in substrate, such as oxygen, and metabolites, such as acid, that serve as critical, but predictable, environmental selection forces. We examine the evolutionary and ecological consequences of variable blood flow by drawing an analogy to riparian habitats within desert landscapes. We propose that the phenotypic properties of cancer cells will exhibit predictable spatial variation within tumor phenotypes as a result of proximity to blood flow. Just as rivers in the desert create an abrupt shift from the lush, mesic riparian vegetation along the banks to sparser, xeric and dry-adapted plant species in the adjacent drylands, we expect blood vessels within tumors to promote similarly distinct communities of cancer cells that change abruptly with distance from the blood vessel. We propose vascular density and blood flow within a tumor as a primary evolutionary force governing variations in the phenotypic properties of cancer cells thus providing a unifying ecological framework for understanding intratumoral heterogeneity. PMID:23396634

  7. Radioecology of Vertebrate Animals in the Area Adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Site in 1986-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, E. B.; Gashchak, S. P.; Makliuk, Y. A.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    A widespread environmental contamination of the areas adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) site attracted a great deal of publicity to the biological consequences of the ChNPP catastrophe. However, only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of the local wild fauna and most of them were published in Eastern European languages, making them poorly accessible for Western scientists. In addition, evaluation of this information appears difficult due to significant differences in raw data acquisition and analysis methodologies and final data presentation formats. Using an integrated approach to assessment of all available information, the International Radioecology Laboratory scientists showed that the ChNPP accident had increased the average values of the animals 137Cs and 90Sr contamination by a factor of thousands, followed by its decrease by a factor of tens, primarily resulting from a decrease in the biological accessibility of the radionuclides. However, this trend depended on many factors. Plant and bottom feeding fish species were the first to reach the maximum contamination levels. No data are available on other vertebrates, but it can be assumed that the same trend was true for all plant feeding animals and animals searching for food on the soil surface. The most significant decrease of the average values occurred during the first 3-5 years after the accident and it was the most pronounced for elks and plant and plankton feeding fish. Their diet included elements “alienated” from the major radionuclide inventory; for example, upper soil layers and bottom deposits where the fallout that had originally precipitated on plants, water and soils gradually migrated. Further radionuclide penetration into deeper layers of soils and its bonding with their mineral components intensified decontamination of the fauna. It took a while for the contamination of predatory fish and mammals (wolves) to reach the maximum

  8. Assessment of the fresh-and brackish-water resources underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas on northern Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Swenson, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The city of Dunedin is enhancing their potable ground-water resources through desalination of brackish ground water. An assessment of the fresh- and brackish-water resources in the Upper Floridan aquifer was needed to estimate the changes that may result from brackish-water development. The complex hydrogeologic framework underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas of northern Pinellas County is conceptualized as a multilayered sequence of permeable zones and confining and semiconfining units. The permeable zones contain vertically spaced, discrete, water-producing zones with differing water quality. Water levels, water-level responses, and water quality are highly variable among the different permeable zones. The Upper Floridan aquifer is best characterized as a local flow system in most of northern Pinellas County. Pumping from the Dunedin well field is probably not influencing water levels in the aquifer outside Dunedin, but has resulted in localized depressions in the potentiometric surface surrounding production-well clusters. The complex geologic layering combined with the effects of production-well distribution probably contribute to the spatial and temporal variability in chloride concentrations in the Dunedin well field. Chloride concentrations in ground water underlying the Dunedin well field vary both vertically and laterally. In general, water-quality rapidly changes below depths of 400 feet below sea level. Additionally, randomly distributed water-producing zones with higher chloride concentrations may occur at shallow, discrete intervals above 400 feet. A relation between chloride concentration and distance from St. Joseph Sound is not apparent; however, a possible relation exists between chloride concentration and production-well density. Chloride-concentration data from production wells show a consistently increasing pattern that has accelerated since the late 1980's. Chloride-concentration data from 15 observation wells show increasing trends for 6 wells

  9. Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after controlled flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Roche, James W.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryWe present results of an observational and modeling study of the hydrologic response of a riparian wetland to controlled flooding. The study site is located in Poopenaut Valley, Yosemite National Park (USA), adjacent to the Tuolumne River. This area is flooded periodically by releases from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and was monitored during one flood sequence to assess the relative importance of inundation versus groundwater rise in establishing and maintaining riparian wetland conditions, defined on the basis of a minimum depth and duration of soil saturation, and to determine how restoration benefits might be achieved while reducing total flood discharge. Soil moisture data show how shallow soils were wetted by both inundation and a rising water table as the river hydrograph rose repeatedly during the controlled flood. The shallow groundwater aquifer under wetland areas responded quickly to conditions in the adjacent river, demonstrating a good connection between surface and subsurface regimes. The observed soil drainage response helped to calibrate a numerical model that was used to test scenarios for controlled flood releases. Modeling of this groundwater-wetland system suggests that inundation of surface soils is the most effective mechanism for developing wetland conditions, although an elevated water table helps to extend the duration of soil saturation. Achievement of wetland conditions can be achieved with a smaller total flood release, provided that repeated cycling of higher and lower river elevations is timed to benefit from the characteristic drainage behavior of wetland soils. These results are robust to modest variations in the initial water table elevation, as might result from wetter or dryer conditions prior to a flood. However, larger changes to initial water table elevation, as could be associated with long term climate change or drought conditions, would have a significant influence on wetland development. An ongoing controlled flooding

  10. Gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in urban forests than adjacent open areas during summer but not in winter--Exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Tervo, Peatta; Setälä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    While the potential of plants to uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence of the effects of this process on local atmospheric PAH concentrations and human health is tenuous. We measured gaseous PAH concentrations using passive samplers in urban tree-covered areas and adjacent open, treeless areas in a near-road environment in Finland to gain information on the ability of urban vegetation to improve air quality. The ability of urban, mostly deciduous, vegetation to affect PAHs was season dependent: during summer, concentrations were significantly higher in tree-covered areas, while in the fall, concentrations in open areas exceeded those in tree-covered areas. During winter, concentrations in tree-covered areas were either lower or did not differ from those in open areas. Results of this study imply that the commonly believed notion that trees unequivocally improve air quality does not apply to PAHs studied here.

  11. Gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in urban forests than adjacent open areas during summer but not in winter--Exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Tervo, Peatta; Setälä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    While the potential of plants to uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence of the effects of this process on local atmospheric PAH concentrations and human health is tenuous. We measured gaseous PAH concentrations using passive samplers in urban tree-covered areas and adjacent open, treeless areas in a near-road environment in Finland to gain information on the ability of urban vegetation to improve air quality. The ability of urban, mostly deciduous, vegetation to affect PAHs was season dependent: during summer, concentrations were significantly higher in tree-covered areas, while in the fall, concentrations in open areas exceeded those in tree-covered areas. During winter, concentrations in tree-covered areas were either lower or did not differ from those in open areas. Results of this study imply that the commonly believed notion that trees unequivocally improve air quality does not apply to PAHs studied here. PMID:26412199

  12. Hydrologic assessment of a riparian section along Boulder Creek near Boulder, Colorado, September 1989-September 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Native woody riparian species, primarily plains cottonwood (Populus fremontii), are regenerating at less than historical rates along Boulder Creek, a regulated stream near Boulder, Colorado. Loss of native riparian habitats might cause a decline in numbers of some native wildlife species. Previous studies have indicated that streamflow regulation can adversely affect native riparian vegetation reproduction. Surface- and ground-water data were collected from September 1989 to September 1991 along a riparian section of Boulder Creek to assist ecologists in assessing woody plant-recruitment characteristics. Annual mean streamflows in Boulder Creek at Cottonwood Grove of 34.5 cubic feet per second for water year 1990 (October 1, 1989- September 30, 1990) and 34.1 cubic feet per second for water year 1991 were 53 percent less than a site on Boulder Creek about 5 miles upstream from the study area. Diversions dating from 1882 caused most of the decrease. The alluvial aquifer in the study area averaged 5 feet in thickness and consisted of gravel- to cobble-size particles derived from crystalline rock of Precambrian age. The direction of ground-water movement was similar to the direction of streamflow. Ground-water movement in the northeastern part of the grove was affected by a pond constructed at a lower elevation than the stream channel. Water levels in the alluvial aquifer adjacent to the stream pre- dominantly were affected by stream stage, whereas farther from the channel, ground-water levels were affected by other processes such as evapotrans- piration, infiltration, and recharge from urban runoff.

  13. Depositional and diagenetic history and petroleum geology of the Jurassic Norphlet Formation of the Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kugler, R.L.; Mink, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of deep (>20,000 ft) gas reservoirs in eolian sandstone of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation in Mobile Bay and offshore Alabama in the late 1970s represents one of the most significant hydrocarbon discoveries in the nation during the past several decades. Estimated original proved gas from Norphlet reservoirs in the Alabama coastal waters and adjacent federal waters is 7.462 trillion ft3 (Tcf) (75% recovery factor). Fifteen fields have been established in the offshore Alabama area. Norphlet sediment was deposited in an arid environment in alluvial fans, alluvial plains, and wadis in updip areas. In downdip areas, the Norphlet was deposited in a broad desert plain, with erg development in some areas. Marine transgression, near the end of Norphlet deposition, resulted in reworking of the upper part of the Norphlet Formation. Norphlet reservoir sandstone is arkose and subarkose, consisting of a simple assemblage of three minerals, quartz, albite, and K-feldspar. The present framework grain assemblage of the Norphlet is dominantly diagenetic, owing to albitization and dissolution of feldspar. Despite the simple framework composition, the diagenetic character of the Norphlet is complex. Important authigenic minerals include carbonate phases (calcite, dolomite, Fe-dolomite, and breunnerite), feldspar (albite and K-feldspar), evaporite minerals (anhydrite and halite), clay minerals (illite and chlorite), quartz, and pyrobitumen. The abundance and distribution of these minerals varies significantly between onshore and offshore regions of Norphlet production. The lack of sufficient internal sources of components for authigenic minerals, combined with unusual chemical compositions of chloride (Mg-rich), breunnerite, and some minor authigenic minerals, suggests that Louann-derived fluids influenced Norphlet diagenesis. In offshore Alabama reservoirs, porosity is dominantly modified primary porosity. Preservation of porosity in deep Norphlet reservoirs is due

  14. Approximate altitude of water levels in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas,January-February 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.

    1993-01-01

    This report was prepared in cooperation with the Fort Bend Subsidence District, and presents maps of the approximate altitude of water levels in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers (figs. -2) during January-February 1991 in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas.  These approximate altitudes of water levels give an approximate depth to potable ground water within Fort Bend County and can be used to estimate depth for installing well pumps.

  15. Multiscale remote sensing analysis to monitor riparian and upland semiarid vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Uyen

    The health of natural vegetation communities is of concern due to observed changes in the climatic-hydrological regime and land cover changes particularly in arid and semiarid regions. Monitoring vegetation at multi temporal and spatial scales can be the most informative approach for detecting change and inferring causal agents of change and remediation strategies. Riparian communities are tightly linked to annual stream hydrology, ground water elevations and sediment transport. These processes are subject to varying magnitudes of disturbance overtime and are candidates for multi-scale monitoring. My first research objective focused on the response of vegetation in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, to reduced base flows and climate change. I addressed the correlation between riparian vegetation and hydro-climate variables during the last three decades in one of the remaining undammed rivers in the southwestern U.S. Its riparian forest is threatened by the diminishing base flows, attributed by different studies either to increases in evapotranspiration (ET) due to conversion of grasslands to mesquite shrublands in the adjacent uplands, or to increased regional groundwater pumping to serve growing populations in surrounding urban areas and or to some interactions of those causes. Landsat 5 imagery was acquired for pre- monsoon period, when riparian trees had leafed out but before the arrival of summer monsoon rains in July. The result has showed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from both Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) had significant decreases which positively correlated to river flows, which decreased over the study period, and negatively correlated with air temperatures, which have increased by about 1.4°C from 1904 to the present. The predictions from other studies that decreased river flows could negatively impact the riparian forest were supported by this study. The pre-monsoon Normalized Different Vegetation

  16. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  17. Disturbance and California riparian tree establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendix, J.; Cowell, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    As is the case in many ecosystems, tree establishment in riparian corridors is often episodic, following disturbance events that clear colonization sites. In many riparian settings, flooding is the most obvious, and relevant disturbance agent. However, in Mediterranean-climate regions, fire is an equally important disturbance agent. In California, the frequency and severity of both floods and fire are expected to change with projected climate change, making an understanding of their roles key to understanding future ecological processes in California riparian environments. In this paper, we use tree-ring data from the Transverse Ranges of Southern California to explore the relative importance of fire and flood in the establishment of riparian gallery forest. We examined 42 cores of Alnus rhombifolia, Populus fremontii and Quercus agrifolia from the riparian zone adjacent to Piedra Blanca and Potrero John Creeks in California’s Transverse Ranges, and compared their establishment dates with records of fire and floods, to see how establishment related to disturbance history. Our results show some evidence for major fire having an impact, as all of the largest stems dated to the few years following the 1932 Matilija fire, which had burned all of the sites in our sample. The remainder of the record is less straightforward, although there is an establishment peak in the 1970s, which may be related to a 1975 fire that burned part of the Potrero John watershed. Of note, the establishment chronology shows no relationship to the flood record, as years of major floods do not relate to either prolific or sparse years in the tree-ring record. This record suggests that large fires may serve as a trigger for tree establishment in California riparian settings, but that they are hardly a prerequisite, as many stems germinated between fires. Indeed, ongoing regeneration is apparently independent of disturbance, given the apparent irrelevance of flooding in this regard. The result

  18. Changes In Tree Species In Riparian Zones Of Urban Streams May Have Effects On Restoration And Storm Water Control Efforts

    EPA Science Inventory

    A riparian zone is the land and vegetation within and directly adjacent to surface water ecosystems, such as lakes and streams. The vegetation in riparian zones provides ecosystem services (such as reducing flooding and bank erosion and reducing levels of pollutants in streams) ...

  19. Groundwater flow path dynamics and nitrogen transport potential in the riparian zone of an agricultural headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mark R.; Buda, Anthony R.; Elliott, Herschel A.; Hamlett, James; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Schmidt, John P.

    2014-04-01

    Shallow groundwater dynamics play a critical role in determining the chemistry and movement of nitrogen (N) in the riparian zone. In this study, we characterized N concentration variability and hydrologic transport pathways in shallow groundwater draining areas of a riparian area with and without emergent groundwater seeps. The study was conducted in FD36, an agricultural headwater catchment in the Ridge and Valley physiographic region of central Pennsylvania, USA. Three seep and adjacent non-seep areas were each instrumented with a field of 40 piezometers installed in a grid pattern (1.5-m spacing) at both 20- and 60-cm depths. Piezometers were monitored seasonally for approximately two years (October 2010-May 2012). Results showed that hydraulic head within seep areas was variable and some regions exhibited upward vertical hydraulic gradients of 0.18-0.27. Non-seep areas were characterized by uniform hydraulic head levels and were relatively hydrostatic. Nitrate-N (NO3-N) concentrations in seep areas were significantly greater than those in the non-seep areas at two of the three study sites. A two-component mixing model using chloride as a conservative tracer indicated that shallow groundwater in seep areas was primarily (53-75%) comprised of water from a shallow fractured aquifer, which had elevated NO3-N concentrations (5.7 mg L-1). Shallow groundwater in non-seep areas, however, was comprised (58-82%) of perched water on top of the fragipan that was likely recharged locally in the riparian zone and had low NO3-N concentrations (0.6 mg L-1). Higher NO3-N concentrations, variable hydraulic head, and groundwater emergence onto the land surface in seep areas provided evidence for preferential flow paths as an important conduit for water and N movement in these areas of the riparian zone. We conclude that the potential for N delivery to the stream in FD36 was much greater from seep areas compared to non-seep areas. Targeted management of seeps should be a priority

  20. Food web structure of the coastal area adjacent to the Tagus estuary revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of energy sources, pathways and trophic linkages among organisms is crucial for the understanding of food web dynamics. Stable isotopes were used to identify the trophic level of food web components and track the incorporation of organic matter of different origins in the coastal ecosystem adjacent to the Tagus estuary. It was shown that the river Tagus is a major source of organic carbon to this system. Also, the wide difference in δ 13C among the primary consumers allowed the identification of the pelagic and the benthic energy pathways. The maximum trophic level observed was 2.4 for Sepia officinalis. This value is indicative of a short food web. It was concluded that the diet of the upper trophic level species relies directly on the lower food web levels to a considerable extent, instead of relying mostly on intermediate trophic level species. Moreover, the δ 15N values of primary consumers were very close to that of particulate organic matter, probably due to poorly known processes occurring at the basis of the food web. This lowers the trophic length of the whole food web. Reliance on benthic affinity prey was high for all upper trophic level secondary consumers.

  1. Using GIS Models to Identify Relative Nitrogen Attenuation by Riparian Buffers in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian areas have demonstrated the ability to attenuate nutrients and provide water quality services at the field scale, but services of riparian buffers for downstream users should be assessed at watershed scales. GIS-based riparian models have been developed to connect ripari...

  2. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  3. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  4. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  5. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  6. Riparian forest buffers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The concept behind a riparian buffer is to put the natural benefits and functions of riparian areas to work in nonpoint pollution control. These linear strips of forest can serve as the last line of defense from the activities we undertake in managing the land, such as agriculture, grazing and urban development. Unlike most best management practices, the high value of forests to wildlife and fish, helps buffers accomplish habitat benefits at the same time they improve their water quality.

  7. Preliminary digital model of ground-water flow in the Madison Group, Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    A digital simulation model was used to analyze regional ground-water flow in the Madison Group aquifer in the Powder River Basin in Montana and Wyoming and adjacent areas. Most recharge to the aquifer originates in or near the outcrop areas of the Madison in the Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills, and most discharge occurs through springs and wells. Flow through the aquifer in the modeled areas was approximately 200 cubic feet per second. The aquifer can probably sustain increased ground-water withdrawals of up to several tens of cubic feet per second, but these withdrawals probably would significantly lower the potentiometric surface in the Madison aquifer in a large part of the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Hydrology of the LC Holding coal-lease tract and adjacent areas, southwestern Utah, and potential effects of coal mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, G.E.; Seiler, R.L.; Stolp, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management recognized a need for baseline hydrologic data and an understanding of the hydrologic system in the L.C. Holding coal-lease tract in order to determine the potential effects of mining on the water resources of the area. The potential impacts of mining on the hydrology of the area are of concern because Zion National Park is less than 3 miles from the westernmost part of the lease tract. Much of the water that passes through the Park either originates in the lease tract or traverses it. Runoff from melting snowpacks and summer thundershowers contributes most of the flow to perennial streams in the area. Base flow is sustained by spring discharge and diffuse seepage. Regional groundwater movement is southward. Most of the geologic formations in the study area contain aquifers. The water table of the regional aquifer is about 870 ft deep in the Navajo Sandstone. Groundwater issuing from the Navajo Sandstone on the east side of Zion Canyon has specific conductance values several times larger than groundwater from the west side, indicating recharge to the Navajo from the overlying strata, which contain water of larger specific conductance. Potential effects of mining in the area include: (1) increased dissolved-solids concen- trations and decreased pH values in both surface and groundwater; (2) dewatering of aquifers, causing a decrease or cessation of flow to some springs; and (3) land subsidence and associated subsidence fractures.

  9. Riparian forest composition affects stream litter decomposition despite similar microbial and invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Kominoski, John S; Marczak, Laurie B; Richardson, John S

    2011-01-01

    Cross-boundary flows of energy and nutrients link biodiversity and functioning in adjacent ecosystems. The composition of forest tree species can affect the structure and functioning of stream ecosystems due to physical and chemical attributes, as well as changes in terrestrial resource subsidies. We examined how variation in riparian canopy composition (coniferous, deciduous, mixed) affects adjacent trophic levels (invertebrate and microbial consumers) and decomposition of organic matter in small, coastal rainforest streams in southwestern British Columbia. Breakdown rates of higher-quality red alder (Alnus rubra) litter were faster in streams with a greater percentage of deciduous than coniferous riparian canopy, whereas breakdown rates of lower-quality western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) litter were independent of riparian forest composition. When invertebrates were excluded using fine mesh, breakdown rates of both litter species were an order of magnitude less and were not significantly affected by riparian forest composition. Stream invertebrate and microbial communities were similar among riparian forest composition, with most variation attributed to leaf litter species. Invertebrate taxa richness and shredder biomass were higher in A. rubra litter; however, taxa evenness was greatest for T. heterophylla litter and both litter species in coniferous streams. Microbial community diversity (determined from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms) was unaffected by riparian forest or litter species. Fungal allele richness was higher than bacterial allele richness, and microbial communities associated with lower-quality T. heterophylla litter had higher diversity (allele uniqueness and richness) than those associated with higher-quality A. rubra litter. Percent variation in breakdown rates was mostly attributed to riparian forest composition in the presence of invertebrates and microbes; however, stream consumer biodiversity at adjacent trophic levels

  10. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... displayed from at least three feet above the surface of the water. (3) Vessels engaged in fishing, including... precautionary area shall tend nets or other gear placed in the water so as to facilitate the movement of the... 11 knots through the water. (3) Vessels engaged in fishing, including gillnet and purse seine...

  11. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs.

  12. Impacts of an Invasive Snail (Tarebia granifera) on Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Streams: The Role of Riparian Deforestation in Trinidad, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Jennifer M.; Snider, Sunny B.; MacNeill, Keeley; Gilliam, James F.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species and habitat degradation are two major catalysts of environmental change and often occur simultaneously. In freshwater systems, degradation of adjacent terrestrial vegetation may facilitate introduced species by altering resource availability. Here we examine how the presence of intact riparian cover influences the impact of an invasive herbivorous snail, Tarebia granifera, on nitrogen (N) cycling in aquatic systems on the island of Trinidad. We quantified snail biomass, growth, and N excretion in locations where riparian vegetation was present or removed to determine how snail demographics and excretion were related to the condition of the riparian zone. In three Neotropical streams, we measured snail biomass and N excretion in open and closed canopy habitats to generate estimates of mass- and area-specific N excretion rates. Snail biomass was 2 to 8 times greater and areal N excretion rates ranged from 3 to 9 times greater in open canopy habitats. Snails foraging in open canopy habitat also had access to more abundant food resources and exhibited greater growth and mass-specific N excretion rates. Estimates of ecosystem N demand indicated that snail N excretion in fully closed, partially closed, and open canopy habitats supplied 2%, 11%, and 16% of integrated ecosystem N demand, respectively. We conclude that human-mediated riparian canopy loss can generate hotspots of snail biomass, growth, and N excretion along tropical stream networks, altering the impacts of an invasive snail on the biogeochemical cycling of N. PMID:22761706

  13. Impacts of an invasive snail (Tarebia granifera) on nutrient cycling in tropical streams: the role of riparian deforestation in Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, Jennifer M; Snider, Sunny B; Macneill, Keeley; Gilliam, James F; Flecker, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species and habitat degradation are two major catalysts of environmental change and often occur simultaneously. In freshwater systems, degradation of adjacent terrestrial vegetation may facilitate introduced species by altering resource availability. Here we examine how the presence of intact riparian cover influences the impact of an invasive herbivorous snail, Tarebia granifera, on nitrogen (N) cycling in aquatic systems on the island of Trinidad. We quantified snail biomass, growth, and N excretion in locations where riparian vegetation was present or removed to determine how snail demographics and excretion were related to the condition of the riparian zone. In three Neotropical streams, we measured snail biomass and N excretion in open and closed canopy habitats to generate estimates of mass- and area-specific N excretion rates. Snail biomass was 2 to 8 times greater and areal N excretion rates ranged from 3 to 9 times greater in open canopy habitats. Snails foraging in open canopy habitat also had access to more abundant food resources and exhibited greater growth and mass-specific N excretion rates. Estimates of ecosystem N demand indicated that snail N excretion in fully closed, partially closed, and open canopy habitats supplied 2%, 11%, and 16% of integrated ecosystem N demand, respectively. We conclude that human-mediated riparian canopy loss can generate hotspots of snail biomass, growth, and N excretion along tropical stream networks, altering the impacts of an invasive snail on the biogeochemical cycling of N.

  14. Seismic studies along the western shelf of Spitsbergen and the adjacent area of West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt (Isfjorden).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinova, M.; Mjelde, R.; Faleide, Y. I.

    2009-04-01

    Spitsbergen is the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago that is located in the north-western corner of the Barents Sea. The island has a long history of sedimentation, structural deformation, vertical and horizontal movements. Geological studies of Spitsbergen and surrounding areas play a key role in the understanding of the geotectonic evolution of the Arctic region. The area along the western coast of Spitsbergen is part of the mainly sheared western Barents Sea-Svalbard continental margin. This part of the margin is unique in the sense that the margin tectonics partly can be studied on exposed, virtually vegetation free, terrains located along the westernmost part of Spitsbergen. Interpretation of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired along the western shelf of Spitsbergen allowed identification of the main geological features of the area, including the Hornsund Fault Zone, and the Forlandsundet and Bellsund grabens. The Bellsund Graben represents the southward continuation of the Forlandsundet Graben initiated during the transpressional regime related to the evolution of the West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt. The final phase of graben formation took place during oblique extension from early Oligocene until final breakup and opening of the northern Norwegian-Greenland Sea (and the Fram Strait Gateway linking the NE Atlantic and Arctic) in Miocene time. The grabens are cut by strike-slip faults outside Isfjorden and Van Mijenfjorden, related to transfer faults evolving during breakup and opening of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The presence of flower-structure faults along the western major fault of the Bellsund Graben reflects transpressional and transtensional regimes during graben formation. The lowermost reflector that underlies Bellsund Graben has been interpreted as a detachment surface formed during Late Eocene?-Oligocene extension as reactivation of a thrust plane, which developed during formation of the West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust

  15. Selected hydrogeologic data for the southwest Glendive Preliminary Logical Mining Unit and adjacent areas, Dawson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data were collected from a coal area in Dawson County, Montana, to provide a basis for identifying and characterizing the groundwater resources. Inventory records for 72 domestic, stock, irrigation, unused, and observation wells are tabulated in the report; the data were collected principally from 1977 through 1981. The location of each well is shown on a map. Natural-gamma geophysical logs, and water level measurements are also included for selection wells. Twenty-six analyses of groundwater identify the chemical-constituent concentrations and physical properties of water from sampled wells. (USGS)

  16. Neogene structural evolution of Gold Mountain, Slate Ridge and adjacent areas, Esmeralda and Nye counties, SW Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, D.C.; Weiss, S.I.; Worthington, J.E. . Mackay School of Mines); McKee, E.H. )

    1993-04-01

    The onset of crustal instability in the Gold Mountain-Slate Ridge (GMSR) area took place prior to middle Miocene time, as shown by the irregular topography upon which the 16.8 Ma tuff of Mount Dunfee was deposited. Local wedges of fanglomerate and conglomerate between four overlying ash-flow sheets and complex patterns of thinning and thickening, nondeposition, and erosion show that normal faulting took place more-or-less continuously between 16.8 and 11.5 Ma. More intense listric( ) faulting, tilting, uplift, erosion and deposition of wedges of fanglomerate and conglomerate occurred between emplacement of the 11.5 Ma Timber Mountain Tuff (TMT) and the 7.5 Ma Stonewall Flat Tuff (SFT). The present topography west of long. 117[degree]W developed mostly after 7.5 Ma following deposition of the widespread SFT, which thickens westward with increasing elevation on the east end of Slate Ridge. major uplifted blocks include the GMSR area, Magruder Mountain, and Palmetto Mountain, where erosional remnants of the SFT are found at elevations as high as 8,200 ft. Uplift was accommodated by high-angle faulting with little tilting and by warping. In the GMSR area pre-7.5 Ma tilting was mainly to the south-southeast reflecting movement along N-dipping listric( ) faults, indicating northwest-directed extension. In contrast, southeast of Gold Mountain and in the northeastern part of the Grapevine Mountains post-11.5 Ma tilting resulted from movement on normal faults that dip to the SSE beneath Sarcobatus Flat and toward the WNW-vergent Boundary Canyon-Original Bullfrog detachment fault system further south; this implies SE-directed extensional strain within a general region of NW-directed extension. Slate Ridge also acted as a barrier to the 11.5 Ma TMT. These relations suggest that certain areas within this section of the Walker Lane belt tended to remain high from middle Miocene time until the present, with a major exception being the time of deposition of the SFT.

  17. Present and Reference Concentrations and Yields of Suspended Sediment in Streams in the Great Lakes Region and Adjacent Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    In-stream suspended sediment and siltation and downstream sedimentation are common problems in surface waters throughout the United States. The most effective way to improve surface waters impaired by sediments is to reduce the contributions from human activities rather than try to reduce loadings from natural sources. Total suspended sediment/solids (TSS) concentration data were obtained from 964 streams in the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River Basins from 1951 to 2002. These data were used to estimate median concentrations, loads, yields, and volumetrically (flow) weighted (VW) concentrations where streamflow data were available. SPAtial Regression-Tree Analysis (SPARTA) was applied to land-use-adjusted (residualized) TSS data and environmental-characteristic data to determine the natural factors that best described the distribution of median and VW TSS concentrations and yields and to delineate zones with similar natural factors affecting TSS, enabling reference or natural concentrations and yields to be estimated. Soil properties (clay and organic-matter content, erodibility, and permeability), basin slope, and land use (percentage of agriculture) were the factors most strongly related to the distribution of median and VW TSS concentrations. TSS yields were most strongly related to amount of precipitation and the resulting runoff, and secondarily to the factors related to high TSS concentrations. Reference median TSS concentrations ranged from 5 to 26 milligrams per liter (mg/L), reference median annual VW TSS concentrations ranged from 10 to 168 mg/L, and reference TSS yields ranged from about 980 to 90,000 kilograms per square kilometer per year. Independent streams (streams with no overlapping drainage areas) with TSS data were ranked by how much their water quality exceeded reference concentrations and yields. Most streams exceeding reference conditions were in the central part of the study area, where agricultural activities

  18. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments with regard to the mapping and analysis of MAGSAT data for the investigation of correlations between the magnetic field characteristics of South American and African shields are reported. Significant results in the interpretation of the global total-field anomalies and the anomaly patterns of Africa and South America are discussed. The central position of the Brazilian shield tends to form a negative total-field anomaly, consistent with findings for shields in equatorial Africa. Sedimentary sequences in the Amazon basin and in the Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paolo areas exhibit positive anomalies, also consistent with equatorial Africa. Results for the Caribbean Sea and Guyana regions are also described.

  19. Molecular diversity and distribution pattern of ciliates in sediments from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-10-01

    In comparison with the macrobenthos and prokaryotes, patterns of diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are poorly known. The widely used high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA has revealed a high diversity of microeukaryotes yielded from both living organisms and buried DNA in marine sediments. More recently, cDNA surveys have been utilized to uncover the diversity of active organisms. However, both methods have never been used to evaluate the diversity of ciliates in hydrothermal vents. By using high-throughput DNA and cDNA sequencing of 18S rDNA, we evaluated the molecular diversity of ciliates, a representative group of microbial eukaryotes, from the sediments of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and compared it with that of an adjacent deep-sea area about 15 km away and that of an offshore area of the Yellow Sea about 500 km away. The results of DNA sequencing showed that Spirotrichea and Oligohymenophorea were the most diverse and abundant groups in all the three habitats. The proportion of sequences of Oligohymenophorea was the highest in the hydrothermal vents whereas Spirotrichea was the most diverse group at all three habitats. Plagiopyleans were found only in the hydrothermal vents but with low diversity and abundance. By contrast, the cDNA sequencing showed that Plagiopylea was the most diverse and most abundant group in the hydrothermal vents, followed by Spirotrichea in terms of diversity and Oligohymenophorea in terms of relative abundance. A novel group of ciliates, distinctly separate from the 12 known classes, was detected in the hydrothermal vents, indicating undescribed, possibly highly divergent ciliates may inhabit this environment. Statistical analyses showed that: (i) the three habitats differed significantly from one another in terms of diversity of both the rare and the total ciliate taxa, and; (ii) the adjacent deep sea was more similar to the offshore area than to the

  20. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

  1. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future.

  2. Comparison of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of red foxes from adjacent urban, suburban, and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Dip, R; Stieger, C; Deplazes, P; Hegglin, D; Müller, U; Dafflon, O; Koch, H; Naegeli, H

    2001-05-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a representative of the canid family with wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere and Australia. The increasing utilization of urbanized habitats by red foxes prompted us to test whether this species may be used to monitor the presence of anthropogenic pollutants in cities or suburbs. For that purpose, we compared the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in foxes from urban, suburban, and rural areas within the municipality of Zürich (Switzerland). The kidney and liver of suburban and rural foxes contained the highest Cd concentrations, whereas urban foxes contained the highest Pb levels. In the kidney of suburban foxes, Cd concentrations increased from a median value of 0.73 mg/kg in juvenile animals to 1.82 mg/kg in adults. Similarly, the liver of suburban foxes contained increasing Cd levels from a median of 0.21 mg/kg in juvenile animals to 0.94 mg/kg in adults. An age-dependent storage of Cd was also found in foxes from the rural surroundings, but no such accumulation occurred in urban foxes from the city center, where even adult animals contained very low Cd levels. Conversely, foxes from the urban center were characterized by elevated Pb concentrations during the first 2 years of life, but this transient Pb accumulation was absent in suburban or rural animals. The liver of juvenile foxes contained a median Pb concentration of 0.99 mg/kg in the city compared to only 0.47 and 0.37 mg/kg in the suburban and rural area, respectively. Thus, we found that animals from separate environmental compartments contain different patterns of tissue residues, implying that red foxes may serve as a bioindicator species to detect certain toxic hazards in urbanized habitats. PMID:11525499

  3. Breeding bird response to partially harvested riparian management zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Peterson, Anna; Hanowski, JoAnn; Blinn, Charles R.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Niemi, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    We compared avian communities among three timber harvesting treatments in 45-m wide even-age riparian management zones (RMZs) placed between upland clearcuts and along one side of first- or second-order streams in northern Minnesota, USA. The RMZs had three treatments: (1) unharvested, (2) intermediate residual basal area (RBA) (targeted goal 11.5 m2/ha, realized 16.0 m2/ha), and (3) low RBA (targeted goal 5.7 m2/ha, realized 8.7 m2/ha). Surveys were conducted one year pre-harvest and three consecutive years post-harvest. There was no change in species richness, diversity, or total abundance associated with harvest but there were shifts in the types of birds within the community. In particular, White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica) increased while Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus) decreased. The decline of avian species associated with mature forest in the partially harvested treatments relative to controls indicates that maintaining an unharvested RMZ adjacent to an upland harvest may aid in maintaining avian species associated mature forest in Minnesota for at least three years post-harvest. However, our observations do not reflect reproductive success, which is an area for future research.

  4. Cost of riparian buffer zones: A comparison of hydrologically adapted site-specific riparian buffers with traditional fixed widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, T.; Lundström, J.; Kuglerová, L.; Laudon, H.; Öhman, K.; Ågren, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Traditional approaches aiming at protecting surface waters from the negative impacts of forestry often focus on retaining fixed width buffer zones around waterways. While this method is relatively simple to design and implement, it has been criticized for ignoring the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical processes and biodiversity in the riparian zone. Alternatively, a variable width buffer zone adapted to site-specific hydrological conditions has been suggested to improve the protection of biogeochemical and ecological functions of the riparian zone. However, little is known about the monetary value of maintaining hydrologically adapted buffer zones compared to the traditionally used fixed width ones. In this study, we created a hydrologically adapted buffer zone by identifying wet areas and groundwater discharge hotspots in the riparian zone. The opportunity cost of the hydrologically adapted riparian buffer zones was then compared to that of the fixed width zones in a meso-scale boreal catchment to determine the most economical option of designing riparian buffers. The results show that hydrologically adapted buffer zones were cheaper per hectare than the fixed width ones when comparing the total cost. This was because the hydrologically adapted buffers included more wetlands and low productive forest areas than the fixed widths. As such, the hydrologically adapted buffer zones allows more effective protection of the parts of the riparian zones that are ecologically and biogeochemically important and more sensitive to disturbances without forest landowners incurring any additional cost than fixed width buffers.

  5. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater-treatment plant discharges during base flow, which elevated specific conductance and nutrient concentrations, combined sewer overflows, and nonpoint sources likely contributed to water-quality impairment and lower aquatic-life status at the Blue River Basin sites. Releases from upstream reservoirs to the Little Blue River likely decreased specific conductance, suspended-sediment, and dissolved constituent concentrations and may have benefitted water quality and aquatic life of main-stem sites. Chloride concentrations in base-flow samples, attributable to winter road salt application, had the highest correlation with the SUII (Spearman’s ρ equals 0.87), were negatively correlated with the SCI (Spearman’s ρ equals -0.53) and several pollution sensitive Ephemeroptera plus Plecoptera plus Trichoptera abundance and percent richness metrics, and were positively correlated with pollution tolerant Oligochaeta abundance and percent richness metrics. Study results show that the easily calculated SUII and the selected modeled multimetric indices are effective for comparing urban basins and for evaluation of water quality in the Kansas City metropolitan area.

  6. Adjacent Band Interference from San Diego Area Transmitters to Goldstone Deep Space Network Receivers Near 2300 Megahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; Bathker, D.; Sue, M.; Peng, T.

    2001-10-01

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has recently granted a commercial company a license to potentially deploy its wireless Internet system in the San Diego area in the 2300- to 2305-MHz frequency range. Each of several base station emitters would transmit a relatively strong effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) (about 50 W). The frequency band is immediately above the band (2290 to 2300 MHz) used by NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving stations at Goldstone, California. A potential interference problem to DSN receivers thus exists through some anomalous propagation modes, such as tropospheric ducting and rain scattering, and interference must be kept under a very small percentage of time (0.001 percent), as required by NASA deep-space missions. In this article, we have estimated the effects of interference from the wireless Internet system to Goldstone receivers. The calculation results show that at 2300 MHz the interference received by the DSN could exceed the DSN protection level up to 0.1 percent of the time for ducting propagation. For rain scattering, this could occur up to 2.3 percent of the time. At 2290 MHz, due to the transmitter spectrum, interference through either mode is below the DSN protection level. Interference through terrain diffraction will suffer very large attenuations at both frequencies. After considering that in the middle of the path there is a tall mountain peak that largely blocks the surface ducting and direct illumination of rain clouds, the interference generated by the wireless system emitters and propagated

  7. Seismic structure beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and adjacent areas based on the tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khrepy, Sami; Koulakov, Ivan; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Petrunin, Alexey G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first 3-D model of seismic P and S velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and surrounding areas based on the results of passive travel time tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed based on travel time data from ˜ 9000 regional earthquakes provided by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), and this was complemented with data from the International Seismological Centre (ISC). The resulting P and S velocity patterns were generally consistent with each other at all depths. Beneath the northern part of the Red Sea, we observed a strong high-velocity anomaly with abrupt limits that coincide with the coastal lines. This finding may indicate the oceanic nature of the crust in the Red Sea, and it does not support the concept of gradual stretching of the continental crust. According to our results, in the middle and lower crust, the seismic anomalies beneath the Gulf of Aqaba seem to delineate a sinistral shift (˜ 100 km) in the opposite flanks of the fault zone, which is consistent with other estimates of the left-lateral displacement in the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform fault. However, no displacement structures were visible in the uppermost lithospheric mantle.

  8. Diversity, abundance, and spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing β-proteobacteria in sediments from Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent area in East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangyang; Zhen, Yu; He, Hui; Lu, Xinglan; Mi, Tiezhu; Yu, Zhigang

    2014-05-01

    Changjiang Estuary, the largest estuary in China, encompasses a wide range of nutrient loading and trophic levels from the rivers to the sea, providing an ideal natural environment to explore relationships between functional diversity, physical/chemical complexity, and ecosystem function. In this study, molecular biological techniques were used to analyze the community structure and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the sediments of Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters in East China Sea. The amoA gene (encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) libraries analysis revealed extensive diversity within the β-Proteobacteria group of AOB, which were grouped into Nitrosospira-like and Nitrosomonas-like lineages. The majority of amoA gene sequences fell within Nitrosospira-like clade, and only a few sequences were clustered with the Nitrosomonas-like clade, indicating that Nitrosospira-like lineage may be more adaptable than Nitrosomonas-like lineage in this area. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the spatial distribution of the sedimentary β-Proteobacterial amoA genotype assemblages correlated significantly with nitrate, nitrite, and salinity. The vertical profile of amoA gene copies in gravity cores showed that intense sediment resuspension led to a deeper mixing layer. The horizontal distribution pattern of amoA gene copies was nearly correlated with the clayey mud belt in Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent area in East China Sea, where higher β-Proteobacteria phylogenetic diversity was observed. Meanwhile, those areas with high amoA copies in the surface sediments nearly matched those with low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and ammonium in the bottom water.

  9. Contrasting Phylogeography of Sandy vs. Rocky Supralittoral Isopods in the Megadiverse and Geologically Dynamic Gulf of California and Adjacent Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Lee, Eun Jung; Mateos, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    patterns. Identification of divergent lineages of Tylos in the study area is important for conservation, as some populations are threatened by human activities. PMID:23844103

  10. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  11. Filtering fens: mechanisms explaining phosphorus-limited hotspots of biodiversity in wetlands adjacent to heavily fertilized areas.

    PubMed

    Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke; Fernandez, Filippo; van Wirdum, Geert; Geurts, Jeroen J M; van Loon, E Emiel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Lamers, Leon P M

    2014-05-15

    vegetation requires larger areas, as long as eutrophication has not been seriously tackled.

  12. Filtering fens: mechanisms explaining phosphorus-limited hotspots of biodiversity in wetlands adjacent to heavily fertilized areas.

    PubMed

    Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke; Fernandez, Filippo; van Wirdum, Geert; Geurts, Jeroen J M; van Loon, E Emiel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Lamers, Leon P M

    2014-05-15

    vegetation requires larger areas, as long as eutrophication has not been seriously tackled. PMID:24594742

  13. Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

    2007-12-01

    In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

  14. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York. The surficial geology, inferred ice-marginal positions, and distribution of stratified-drift aquifers were mapped from existing data. Ice-marginal positions, which represent pauses in the retreat of glacial ice from the region, favored the accumulation of coarse-grained deposits whereas more steady or rapid ice retreat between these positions favored deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits with limited coarse-grained deposits at depth. Unconfined aquifers with thick saturated coarse-grained deposits are the most favorable settings for water-resource development, and three several-mile-long sections of valley were identified (mostly in Broome County) as potentially favorable: (1) the southernmost valley section, which extends from the New York–Pennsylvania border to about 1 mile north of South Windsor, (2) the valley section that rounds the west side of the umlaufberg (an isolated bedrock hill within a valley) north of Windsor, and (3) the east–west valley section at the Broome County–Chenango County border from Nineveh to East of Bettsburg (including the lower reach of the Cornell Brook valley). Fine-grained lacustrine deposits form extensive confining units between the unconfined areas, and the water-resource potential of confined aquifers is largely untested. Recharge, or replenishment, of these aquifers is dependent not only on infiltration of precipitation directly on unconfined aquifers, but perhaps more so from precipitation that falls in adjacent upland areas. Surface runoff and shallow groundwater from the valley walls flow downslope and recharge valley aquifers. Tributary streams that drain upland areas lose flow as they enter main valleys on permeable alluvial fans. This infiltrating water also recharges valley aquifers. Current (2012) use of

  15. Characterization of surface-water resources in the Great Basin National Park area and their susceptibility to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Beck, David A.; Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Eight drainage basins and one spring within the Great Basin National Park area were monitored continually from October 2002 to September 2004 to quantify stream discharge and assess the natural variability in flow. Mean annual discharge for the stream drainages ranged from 0 cubic feet per second at Decathon Canyon to 9.08 cubic feet per second at Baker Creek. Seasonal variability in streamflow generally was uniform throughout the network. Minimum and maximum mean monthly discharges occurred in February and June, respectively, at all but one of the perennial streamflow sites. Synoptic-discharge, specific-conductance, and water- and air-temperature measurements were collected during the spring, summer, and autumn of 2003 along selected reaches of Strawberry, Shingle, Lehman, Baker, and Snake Creeks, and Big Wash to determine areas where surface-water resources would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys. Comparison of streamflow and water-property data to the geology along each stream indicated areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals. These areas consist of reaches where streams (1) are in contact with permeable rocks or sediments, or (2) receive water from either spring discharge or ground-water inflow.

  16. Defended territories of an aggressive damselfish contain lower juvenile coral density than adjacent non-defended areas on Kenyan lagoon patch reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. A. C.; Cowburn, B.; Sluka, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Jewel damselfish, Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus, aggressively defend small territories on coral reefs in which they cultivate lawns of edible macroalgae. Pairwise frequency counts showed that juvenile coral density was lower inside damselfish territories than that in adjacent non-defended areas on lagoon patch reefs in Kenya. These differences in coral density decreased as coral size increased. Direct farming effects of the damselfish and indirect inhibitory effects from higher algal densities inside territories are both thought to be potentially responsible for the results attained herein. Damselfish territories can occupy a large proportion of a coral reef; territorial behaviour in fish may have greater impacts on reef structure, in particular the resilience and growth rate of juvenile corals, than previously appreciated.

  17. Significant variations in the productivity of green macroalgae in a mesotidal estuary: implications to the nutrient loading of the system and the adjacent coastal area.

    PubMed

    Martins, Irene; Lopes, R J; Lillebø, A I; Neto, J M; Pardal, M A; Ferreira, J G; Marques, J C

    2007-06-01

    A spatially dynamic model for the productivity of spores and adults of green macroalgae (Enteromorpha sp.) was developed for a mesotidal estuary (Mondego estuary, Portugal). Many of the algal processes and parameters included in the model were experimentally obtained. Model predictions were compared to a real time series (1993-1997) of macroalgal biomass variation and the two sets show a good agreement (ANOVA, P<0.001). Results suggest that algal growth is highly sensitive to small changes in depth and exhibits different patterns of variation in different seasons. On a yearly basis, global calculations for the south channel of the estuary (137 ha) suggest that during bloom years, macroalgal biomass may reach about 21,205 ton DW compared to 240 ton DW in regular years. On a seasonal basis, the difference may be even more significant. The consequences of such variations on the nitrogen and phosphorus loading of the system and the adjacent coastal area are discussed. PMID:17395214

  18. Heavy metal enrichment in the riparian sediments and soils of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Q.; Bao, Y.; He, X.; Wen, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir encompasses a riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km2 that has been subjected to alternate inundation and exposure due to regular impoundment. Sedimentation on the riparian landforms constitutes an important pathway for riverine contaminant redistribution. In an attempt to understand heavy metal enrichment since water inundation, riparian sediments and soils were sampled along five transects in a typical riparian zone composed of cultivated bench terraces in the middle reaches. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were determined to characterize the lateral distribution and vertical transfer ratio. The results indicated that all heavy metals were enriched to varying extents both in the riparian sediments and soils, compared with regional background contents in soils and the reference levels in sediments. However, heavy metal levels in the riparian sediments were generally higher than those in the riparian soils, while those in the upper riparian soils (0-5 cm) were overall slightly higher than those in the lower riparian soils (5-10 cm). There was a decreasing trend of heavy metal contents with increasing elevation. The elevated levels of heavy metals in the riparian sediments may be attributed to sediment yields from upstream anthropogenic sources, especially during major rainstorms in the wet season when large loads of contaminated sediment may be produced from diffuse source areas. Heavy metals can also be adsorbed to pure sediment in the course of mobilization or after deposition. Considering that the riparian soils are local weathering products without mobilization, the enrichment of heavy metals may principally be ascribed to chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions or vertical transfer from overlaid sediments. Heavy metal enrichment may further be affected by the specific type of hydrologic regime such that relatively long flooding duration caused by water impoundment and natural floods

  19. A GIS-based methodology to quantitatively define an Adjacent Protected Area in a shallow karst cavity: the case of Altamira cave.

    PubMed

    Elez, J; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Garcia-Anton, E; Benavente, D; Cañaveras, J C; Sanchez-Moral, S

    2013-03-30

    Different types of land use are usually present in the areas adjacent to many shallow karst cavities. Over time, the increasing amount of potentially harmful matter and energy, of mainly anthropic origin or influence, that reaches the interior of a shallow karst cavity can modify the hypogeal ecosystem and increase the risk of damage to the Palaeolithic rock art often preserved within the cavity. This study proposes a new Protected Area status based on the geological processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the Altamira cave karst system. Analysis of the geological characteristics of the shallow karst system shows that direct and lateral infiltration, internal water circulation, ventilation, gas exchange and transmission of vibrations are the processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the cave. This study applies a comprehensive methodological approach based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to establish the area of influence of each transfer process. The stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the interior of the cave were determined using 3D Laser Scanning topography combined with classical field work, data gathering, cartography and a porosity-permeability analysis of host rock samples. As a result, it was possible to determine the hydrogeological behavior of the cave. In addition, by mapping and modeling the surface parameters it was possible to identify the main features restricting hydrological behavior and hence direct and lateral infiltration into the cave. These surface parameters included the shape of the drainage network and a geomorphological and structural characterization via digital terrain models. Geological and geomorphological maps and models integrated into the GIS environment defined the areas involved in gas exchange and ventilation processes. Likewise, areas that could potentially transmit vibrations directly into the cave were identified. This study shows that it is possible to define a

  20. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001--10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Woody vegetation, including ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), has encroached on some areas in central Texas that were historically oak grassland savannah. Encroachment of woody vegetation is generally attributed to overgrazing and fire suppression. Removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice (hereinafter referred to as "brush management") might change the hydrology in the watershed. These hydrologic changes might include changes to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local partners, examined the hydrologic effects of brush management in two adjacent watersheds in Comal County, Tex. Hydrologic data were collected in the watersheds for 3-4 years (pre-treatment) depending on the type of data, after which brush management occurred on one watershed (treatment watershed) and the other was left in its original condition (reference watershed). Hydrologic data were collected in the study area for another 6 years (post-treatment). These hydrologic data included rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but potential groundwater recharge was calculated by using a simplified mass balance approach. This fact sheet summarizes highlights of the study from the USGS Scientific Investigations Report on which it is based.

  1. Subsurface geology and porosity distribution, Madison Limestone and underlying formations, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James A.

    1978-01-01

    To evaluate the Madison Limestone and associated rocks as potential sources for water supplies in the Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, an understanding of the geologic framework of these units, their lithologic facies patterns, the distribution of porosity zones, and the relation between porosity development and stratigraphic facies is necessary. Regionally the Madison is mainly a fossiliferous limestone. However, in broad areas of the eastern Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains, dolomite is a dominant constituent and in places the Madison is almost entirely dolomite. Within these areas maximum porosity development is found and it seems to be related to the coarser crystalline dolomite facies. The porosity development is associated with tabular and fairly continuous crystalline dolomite beds separated by non-porous limestones. The maximum porosity development in the Bighorn Dolomite, as in the Madison, is directly associated with the occurrence of a more coarsely crystalline sucrosic dolomite facies. Well data indicate, however, that where the Bighorn is present in the deeper parts of the Powder River Basin, it may be dominated by a finer crystalline dolomite facies of low porosity. The 'Winnipeg Sandstone' is a clean, generally well-sorted, medium-grained sandstone. It shows good porosity development in parts of the northern Powder River Basin and northwestern South Dakota. Because the sandstone is silica-cemented and quartzitic in areas of deep burial, good porosity is expected only where it is no deeper than a few thousand feet. The Flathead Sandstone is a predominantly quartzose, slightly feldspathic sandstone, commonly cemented with iron oxide. Like the 'Winnipeg Sandstone,' it too is silica-cemented and quartzitic in many places so that its porosity is poor in areas of deep burial. Illustrations in this report show the thickness, percent dolomite, and porosity-feet for the Bighorn Dolomite and the Madison Limestone and its subdivisions. The

  2. Regional patterns in prevalence of principal external diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas 1992-1997.

    PubMed

    Dethlefsen, V; Lang, T; Köves, P

    2000-08-31

    The prevalence and spatial distribution of major diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas were studied in the summers 1992 to 1997. Areas covered were the North Sea, Irish Sea, northern and northeastern British Waters and the English Channel. The diseases studied were lymphocystis, epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma and skin ulceration. To standardise data, results were analysed for females >15 cm (>3 yr old). Data were subjected to median polish, and additive, extended and additive plus multiplicative models were applied to best account for effects of region and year. Annual differences in disease prevalence were low whilst differences between areas were pronounced. For lymphocystis higher prevalence was observed in the northwestern sector of the North Sea, at the northern tip of Scotland and in an area south of Iceland. Prevalence was low in the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the southern North Sea, and intermediate in the German Bight. For epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma, levels were low at Icelandic stations, in the northern Irish Sea, in the southern North Sea and the English Channel, whilst levels were high in the northwestern part of the North Sea and the German Bight. Elevated levels of skin ulceration were found on the Dogger, at 1 station in the Irish Sea (off Sellafield) and at 1 station to the south of Iceland. Lower levels were detected west of Iceland. Prevalence in all other areas was intermediate. It is concluded that a detailed analysis of available data on disease prevalence and putative causative factors is desirable and, given the good availability of data, would be a promising step forward toward elucidating possible cause and effect relationships between diseases and anthropogenic factors. PMID:11023251

  3. The hydrology of riparian buffer zones; two case studies in an ephemeral and a perennial stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassam, David W.; Fellows, Christine S.; De Hayr, Robert; Hunter, Heather; Bloesch, Philip

    2006-06-01

    Riparian zones can provide a protective buffer between streams and adjacent land-based activities by removing nitrate from shallow groundwater flowing through them. Hydrological factors are an important influence on the effectiveness of riparian buffer zones in reducing pollutant loads delivered to streams. In this paper, we present results from a study of the hydrology of two riparian buffers belonging to an ephemeral and a perennial stream, which are part of a research project to study nitrogen transport and transformation processes in shallow groundwater in South-East Queensland, Australia. The investigation at the ephemeral site has shown that a shallow perched water table forms shortly after stream flow commences as a result of lateral flow from the stream to floodplain; it resides within the carbon-rich root zone and drains off after stream flow ceases. The low head gradient of 1% results in a low flow rate of about 6 cm/day along the floodplain, slow enough to allow effective removal of nitrate via denitrification to occur. The investigation at the perennial site has shown that water table dynamics within the floodplain are dissociated from the up-slope area except during over-bank flood events. During non-event conditions, there is low streamward gradient that results in a base flow component to the stream; the water table depth is about 3.5 m, hence missing most of the carbon-rich soils located close to the soil surface. During flood events, a reverse gradient towards the floodplain is formed; the streamward gradient is re-established after the flood wave passes. The water table fluctuates between 1.8 and 3.5 m under these conditions thus having a higher chance of interacting with more active floodplain sediments. Water stored in the floodplain has a residence time of 2-10 days, providing an opportunity for denitrification to reduce nitrate concentrations prior to water draining back to the stream.

  4. Rivers through time: historical changes in the riparian vegetation of the semi-arid, winter rainfall region of South Africa in response to climate and land use.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M Timm; Rohde, Richard Frederick

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the riparian vegetation of perennial and ephemeral rivers systems in the semi-arid, winter rainfall region of South Africa has changed over time. Using an environmental history approach we assess the extent of change in plant cover at 32 sites using repeat photographs that cover a time span of 36-113 years. The results indicate that in the majority of sites there has been a significant increase in cover of riparian vegetation in both the channel beds and adjacent floodplain environments. The most important species to have increased in cover across the region is Acacia karroo. We interpret the findings in the context of historical changes in climate and land use practices. Damage to riparian vegetation caused by mega-herbivores probably ceased sometime during the early 19th century as did scouring events related to large floods that occurred at regular intervals from the 15th to early 20th centuries. Extensive cutting of riparian vegetation for charcoal and firewood has also declined over the last 150 years. Changes in the grazing history as well as increased abstraction and dam building along perennial rivers in the region also account for some of the changes observed in riparian vegetation during the second half of the 20th century. Predictions of climate change related to global warming anticipate increased drought events with the subsequent loss of species and habitats in the study area. The evidence presented here suggests that an awareness of the region's historical ecology should be considered more carefully in the modelling and formulation of future climate change predictions as well as in the understanding of climate change impacts over time frames of decades and centuries.

  5. Rivers through time: historical changes in the riparian vegetation of the semi-arid, winter rainfall region of South Africa in response to climate and land use.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M Timm; Rohde, Richard Frederick

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the riparian vegetation of perennial and ephemeral rivers systems in the semi-arid, winter rainfall region of South Africa has changed over time. Using an environmental history approach we assess the extent of change in plant cover at 32 sites using repeat photographs that cover a time span of 36-113 years. The results indicate that in the majority of sites there has been a significant increase in cover of riparian vegetation in both the channel beds and adjacent floodplain environments. The most important species to have increased in cover across the region is Acacia karroo. We interpret the findings in the context of historical changes in climate and land use practices. Damage to riparian vegetation caused by mega-herbivores probably ceased sometime during the early 19th century as did scouring events related to large floods that occurred at regular intervals from the 15th to early 20th centuries. Extensive cutting of riparian vegetation for charcoal and firewood has also declined over the last 150 years. Changes in the grazing history as well as increased abstraction and dam building along perennial rivers in the region also account for some of the changes observed in riparian vegetation during the second half of the 20th century. Predictions of climate change related to global warming anticipate increased drought events with the subsequent loss of species and habitats in the study area. The evidence presented here suggests that an awareness of the region's historical ecology should be considered more carefully in the modelling and formulation of future climate change predictions as well as in the understanding of climate change impacts over time frames of decades and centuries. PMID:20665084

  6. Meta-analysis of nitrogen removal in riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Paul M; Reynolds, Steven K; McCutchen, Marshall D; Canfield, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    Riparian buffers, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and reducing nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width is thought to be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrogen retention or removal. We surveyed the scientific literature containing data on riparian buffers and nitrogen concentration in streams and groundwater to identify trends between nitrogen removal effectiveness and buffer width, hydrological flow path, and vegetative cover. Nitrogen removal effectiveness varied widely. Wide buffers (>50 m) more consistently removed significant portions of nitrogen entering a riparian zone than narrow buffers (0-25 m). Buffers of various vegetation types were equally effective at removing nitrogen but buffers composed of herbaceous and forest/herbaceous vegetation were more effective when wider. Subsurface removal of nitrogen was efficient, but did not appear to be related to buffer width, while surface removal of nitrogen was partly related to buffer width. The mass of nitrate nitrogen removed per unit length of buffer did not differ by buffer width, flow path, or buffer vegetation type. Our meta-analysis suggests that buffer width is an important consideration in managing nitrogen in watersheds. However, the inconsistent effects of buffer width and vegetation on nitrogen removal suggest that soil type, subsurface hydrology (e.g., soil saturation, groundwater flow paths), and subsurface biogeochemistry (organic carbon supply, nitrate inputs) also are important factors governing nitrogen removal in buffers.

  7. Influence of multi-scale hydrologic controls on river network connectivity and riparian function

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecological functions of rivers and streams and their associated riparian zones are strongly influenced by surface and subsurface hydrologic routing of water within river basins and river networks. Hydrologic attributes of the riparian area for a given stream reach are typica...

  8. Dynamic river networks as the context for evaluating riparian influence on river basin solute export

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many studies have examined the influence of riparian areas on nitrogen as water drains from hillslopes and through riparian zones at the stream reach scale. Most of these studies have been conducted along relatively small streams. However, water quality concerns typically deal wi...

  9. Identifying Riparian Buffer Effects on Stream 1 Nitrogen in Southeastern Coastal Plain Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian areas have long demonstrated their ability to attenuate nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff at the field scale; however, to inform effective nutrient management choices, the impact of riparian buffers on water quality services must be assessed at watershed s...

  10. Sensitivity of a semi-arid riparian ecosystem to climatic variability in the southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatic change will have strong impacts on riverine ecosystems and their associated riparian zones. In the southwestern United States, conservation and restoration of riparian habitats has become a priority for resource management agencies and conservation groups, and these areas are biodiversity h...

  11. Examining water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in a southern ontario watershed.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanhong; Liu, Yongbo; Ou, Chunping; Gabor, Shane

    2016-06-01

    Wetland conservation has two important tasks: The first is to halt wetland loss and the second is to conduct wetland restoration. In order to facilitate these tasks, it is important to understand the environmental degradation from wetland loss and the environmental benefits from wetland restoration. The purpose of the study is to develop SWAT based wetland modelling to examine water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in the 323-km(2) Black River watershed in southern Ontario, Canada. The SWAT based wetland modelling was set up, calibrated and validated to fit into watershed conditions. The modelling was then applied to evaluate various scenarios of wetland loss from existing 7590 ha of riparian wetlands (baseline scenario) to 100% loss, and wetland restoration up to the year 1800 condition with 11,237 ha of riparian wetlands (100% restoration). The modelling was further applied to examine 100% riparian wetland loss and restoration in three subareas of the watershed to understand spatial pattern of water quality effects. Modelling results show that in comparing to baseline condition, the sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) loadings increase by 251.0%, 260.5%, and 890.9% respectively for 100% riparian wetland loss, and decrease by 34.5%, 28.3%, and 37.0% respectively for 100% riparian wetland restoration. Modelling results also show that as riparian wetland loss increases, the corresponding environmental degradation worsens at accelerated rates. In contrast, as riparian wetland restoration increases, the environmental benefits improve but at decelerated rates. Particularly, the water quality effects of riparian wetland loss or restoration show considerable spatial variations. The watershed wetland modelling contributes to inform decisions on riparian wetland conservation or restoration at different rates. The results further demonstrate the importance of targeting priority areas for stopping riparian wetland loss

  12. Examining water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in a southern ontario watershed.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanhong; Liu, Yongbo; Ou, Chunping; Gabor, Shane

    2016-06-01

    Wetland conservation has two important tasks: The first is to halt wetland loss and the second is to conduct wetland restoration. In order to facilitate these tasks, it is important to understand the environmental degradation from wetland loss and the environmental benefits from wetland restoration. The purpose of the study is to develop SWAT based wetland modelling to examine water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in the 323-km(2) Black River watershed in southern Ontario, Canada. The SWAT based wetland modelling was set up, calibrated and validated to fit into watershed conditions. The modelling was then applied to evaluate various scenarios of wetland loss from existing 7590 ha of riparian wetlands (baseline scenario) to 100% loss, and wetland restoration up to the year 1800 condition with 11,237 ha of riparian wetlands (100% restoration). The modelling was further applied to examine 100% riparian wetland loss and restoration in three subareas of the watershed to understand spatial pattern of water quality effects. Modelling results show that in comparing to baseline condition, the sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) loadings increase by 251.0%, 260.5%, and 890.9% respectively for 100% riparian wetland loss, and decrease by 34.5%, 28.3%, and 37.0% respectively for 100% riparian wetland restoration. Modelling results also show that as riparian wetland loss increases, the corresponding environmental degradation worsens at accelerated rates. In contrast, as riparian wetland restoration increases, the environmental benefits improve but at decelerated rates. Particularly, the water quality effects of riparian wetland loss or restoration show considerable spatial variations. The watershed wetland modelling contributes to inform decisions on riparian wetland conservation or restoration at different rates. The results further demonstrate the importance of targeting priority areas for stopping riparian wetland loss

  13. Bottom-up factors influencing riparian willow recovery in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tercek, M.T.; Stottlemyer, R.; Renkin, R.

    2010-01-01

    After the elimination of wolves (Canis lupis L.) in the 1920s, woody riparian plant communities on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) declined an estimated 50%. After the reintroduction of wolves in 19951996, riparian willows (Salix spp.) on YNP's northern range showed significant growth for the first time since the 1920s. However, the pace of willow recovery has not been uniform. Some communities have exceeded 400 cm, while others are still at pre-1995 levels of 250 cm max. height) willow sites where willows had escaped elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing with "short" willow sites that could still be browsed. Unlike studies that manipulated willow height with fences and artificial dams, we examined sites that had natural growth differences in height since the reintroduction of wolves. Tall willow sites had greater water availability, more-rapid net soil nitrogen mineralization, greater snow depth, lower soil respiration rates, and cooler summer soil temperatures than nearby short willow sites. Most of these differences were measured both in herbaceous areas adjacent to the willow patches and in the willow patches themselves, suggesting that they were not effects of varying willow height recovery but were instead preexisting site differences that may have contributed to increased plant productivity. Our results agree with earlier studies in experimental plots which suggest that the varying pace of willow recovery has been influenced by abiotic limiting factors that interact with top-down reductions in willow browsing by elk. ?? 2010 Western North American Naturalist.

  14. Mapping of lithologic and structural units using multispectral imagery. [Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent areas (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronberg, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery covering the Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent regions (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabi) was applied to the mapping of lithologic and structural units of the test area at a scale 1:1,000,000. Results of the geological evaluation of the ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar have proven the usefullness of this type of satellite data for regional geological mapping. Evaluation of the ERTS images also resulted in new aspects of the structural setting and tectonic development of the Afar-Triangle, where three large rift systems, the oceanic rifts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the continental East African rift system, seem to meet each other. Surface structures mapped by ERTS do not indicate that the oceanic rift of the Gulf of Aden (Sheba Ridge) continues into the area of continental crust west of the Gulf of Tadjura. ERTS data show that the Wonji fault belt of the African rift system does not enter or cut through the central Afar. The Aysha-Horst is not a Horst but an autochthonous spur of the Somali Plateau.

  15. Simulation and analysis of soil-water conditions in the Great Plains and adjacent areas, central United States, 1951-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Zelt, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water recharge and consumptive-irrigation requirements in the Great Plains and adjacent areas largely depend upon an environment extrinsic to the ground-water system. This extrinsic environment, which includes climate, soils, and vegetation, determines the water demands of evapotranspiration, the availability of soil water to meet these demands, and the quantity of soil water remaining for potential ground-water recharge after these demands are met. The geographic extent of the Great Plains contributes to large regional differences among all elements composing the extrinsic environment, particularly the climatic factors. A soil-water simulation program, SWASP, which synthesizes selected climatic, soil, and vegetation factors, was used to simulate the regional soil-water conditions during 1951-80. The output from SWASP consists of several soil-water characteristics, including surface runoff, infiltration, consumptive water requirements, actual evapotranspiration, potential recharge or deep percolation under various conditions, consumptive irrigation requirements, and net fluxes from the ground-water system under irrigated conditions. Simulation results indicate that regional patterns of potential recharge, consumptive irrigation requirements, and net fluxes from the ground-water system under irrigated conditions are largely determined by evapotranspiration and precipitation. The local effects of soils and vegetation on potential recharge cause potential recharge to vary by more than 50 percent in some areas having similar climatic conditions.

  16. Geology of the Cape Mendocino, Eureka, Garberville, and Southwestern Part of the Hayfork 30 x 60 Minute Quadrangles and Adjacent Offshore Area, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Ellen, S.D.; Blake, M.C.; Jayko, Angela S.; Irwin, W.P.; Aalto, K.R.; Carver, G.A.; Clarke, S.H.; Barnes, J.B.; Cecil, J.D.; Cyr, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction These geologic maps and accompanying structure sections depict the geology and structure of much of northwestern California and the adjacent continental margin. The map area includes the Mendocino triple junction, which is the juncture of the North American continental plate with two plates of the Pacific ocean basin. The map area also encompasses major geographic and geologic provinces of northwestern California. The maps incorporate much previously unpublished geologic mapping done between 1980 and 1995, as well as published mapping done between about 1950 and 1978. To construct structure sections to mid-crustal depths, we integrate the surface geology with interpretations of crustal structure based on seismicity, gravity and aeromagnetic data, offshore structure, and seismic reflection and refraction data. In addition to describing major geologic and structural features of northwestern California, the geologic maps have the potential to address a number of societally relevant issues, including hazards from earthquakes, landslides, and floods and problems related to timber harvest, wildlife habitat, and changing land use. All of these topics will continue to be of interest in the region, as changing land uses and population density interact with natural conditions. In these interactions, it is critical that the policies and practices affecting man and the environment integrate an adequate understanding of the geology. This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (ceghmf.ps, ceghmf.pdf, ceghmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The

  17. Groundwater-surface water interaction in the riparian zone of an incised channel, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.

    2006-01-01

    Riparian zones of many incised channels in agricultural regions are cropped to the channel edge leaving them unvegetated for large portions of the year. In this study we evaluated surface and groundwater interaction in the riparian zone of an incised stream during a spring high flow period using detailed stream stage and hydraulic head data from six wells, and water quality sampling to determine whether the riparian zone can be a source of nitrate pollution to streams. Study results indicated that bank storage of stream water from Walnut Creek during a large storm water runoff event was limited to a narrow 1.6 m zone immediately adjacent to the channel. Nitrate concentrations in riparian groundwater were highest near the incised stream where the unsaturated zone was thickest. Nitrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations and nitrate-chloride ratios increased during a spring recharge period then decreased in the latter portion of the study. We used MODFLOW and MT3DMS to evaluate dilution and denitrification processes that would contribute to decreasing nitrate concentrations in riparian groundwater over time. MT3DMS model simulations were improved with a denitrification rate of 0.02 1/d assigned to the floodplain sediments implying that denitrification plays an important role in reducing nitrate concentrations in groundwater. We conclude that riparian zones of incised channels can potentially be a source of nitrate to streams during spring recharge periods when the near-stream riparian zone is largely unvegetated. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prescribed fires as ecological surrogates for wildfires: A stream and riparian perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arkle, R.S.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Forest managers use prescribed fire to reduce wildfire risk and to provide resource benefits, yet little information is available on whether prescribed fires can function as ecological surrogates for wildfire in fire-prone landscapes. Information on impacts and benefits of this management tool on stream and riparian ecosystems is particularly lacking. We used a beyond-BACI (Before, After, Control, Impact) design to investigate the effects of a prescribed fire on a stream ecosystem and compared these findings to similar data collected after wildfire. For 3 years after prescribed fire treatment, we found no detectable changes in periphyton, macroinvertebrates, amphibians, fish, and riparian and stream habitats compared to data collected over the same time period in four unburned reference streams. Based on changes in fuels, plant and litter cover, and tree scorching, this prescribed fire was typical of those being implemented in ponderosa pine forests throughout the western U.S. However, we found that the extent and severity of riparian vegetation burned was substantially lower after prescribed fire compared to nearby wildfires. The early-season prescribed fire did not mimic the riparian or in-stream ecological effects observed following a nearby wildfire, even in catchments with burn extents similar to the prescribed fire. Little information exists on the effects of long-term fire exclusion from riparian forests, but a "prescribed fire regime" of repeatedly burning upland forests while excluding fire in adjacent riparian forests may eliminate an important natural disturbance from riparian and stream habitats.

  19. Responses to riparian restoration in the Spring Creek watershed, Central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, R.F.; Walsh, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Riparian treatments, consisting of 3- to 4-m buffer strips, stream bank stabilization, and rock-lined stream crossings, were installed in two streams with livestock grazing to reduce sediment loading and stream bank erosion. Cedar Run and Slab Cabin Run, the treatment streams, and Spring Creek, an adjacent reference stream without riparian grazing, were monitored prior to (1991-1992) and 3-5 years after (2001-2003) riparian buffer installation to assess channel morphology, stream substrate composition, suspended sediments, and macroinvertebrate communities. Few changes were found in channel widths and depths, but channel-structuring flow events were rare in the drought period after restoration. Stream bank vegetation increased from 50% or less to 100% in nearly all formerly grazed riparian buffers. The proportion of fine sediments in stream substrates decreased in Cedar Run but not in Slab Cabin Run. After riparian treatments, suspended sediments during base flow and storm flow decreased 47-87% in both streams. Macroinvertebrate diversity did not improve after restoration in either treated stream. Relative to Spring Creek, macroinvertebrate densities increased in both treated streams by the end of the posttreatment sampling period. Despite drought conditions that may have altered physical and biological effects of riparian treatments, goals of the riparian restoration to minimize erosion and sedimentation were met. A relatively narrow grass buffer along 2.4 km of each stream was effective in improving water quality, stream substrates, and some biological metrics. ?? 2007 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  20. Geology, hydrogeology, and potential of intrinsic bioremediation at the National Park Service Dockside II site and adjacent areas, Charleston, South Carolina, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, B.G.; Petkewich, M.D.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    A long history of industrial and commercial use of the National Park Service property and adjacent properties located in downtown Charleston, South Carolina, has caused extensive contamination of the shallow subsurface soils and water-table aquifer. The National Park Service property is located adjacent to a former manufactured-gas plant site, which is the major source of the contamination. Contamination of this shallow water-table aquifer is of concern because shallow ground water discharges to the Cooper River and contains contaminants, which may affect adjacent wildlife or human populations. The geology of the National Park Service property above the Ashley Formation of the Cooper Group consists of two Quaternary lithostratigraphic marine units, the Wando Formation and Holocene deposits, overlain by artificial fill. The Wando Formation overlies the Ashley Formation, a sandy calcareous clay, and consists of soft, organic clay overlain by gray sand. The Holocene deposits are composed of clayey to silty sand and soft organic-rich clay. The artificial fill, which was placed at the site to create dry land where salt marsh existed previously, is composed of sand, silt, and various scrap materials. The shallow hydrogeology of the National Park Service property overlying the Ashley Formation can be subdivided into two sandy aquifers separated by a leaky, black, organic-rich clay. The unconfined upper surficial aquifer is primarily artificial fill. The lower surficial aquifer consists of the Wando sand unit and is confined by the leaky organic-rich clay. Aquifer tests performed on the wells screened in these aquifers resulted in hydraulic conductivities from 0.1 to 10 feet per day for the upper surficial aquifer, and 16 feet per day for the lower surficial aquifer. Vertical hydraulic gradients at the site are typically low. A downward gradient from the upper surficial aquifer to the lower surficial aquifer occurs throughout most of the year. A brick-lined storm

  1. Riparian vegetation assessment of Cauvery River Basin of South India.

    PubMed

    Sunil, C; Somashekar, R K; Nagaraja, B C

    2010-11-01

    The Cauvery river basin of South India has a large phyto-floristic wealth, rightfully enough to constitute a separate phyto-geographic unit. Increase in the anthropogenic pressures within the river basin and surrounding landscapes have persistently stressed the riparian ecosystem structure adversely, besides altering its composition. The objective of this study was to examine the present status of riparian vegetation along the Cauvery river basin, in response to anthropogenic pressures. For vegetation analysis, the riparian forest coming in the middle stretch of Cauvery river was categorized into two zones, viz., forest zone covering ~54 km stretch and agroecosystem zone covering ~80 km stretch. In each zone, tree species were quantified using transects at 8-km interval. Overall tree species accounting for both forest and agroecosystem were recorded and compared. The results indicate that the mean density and basal area of trees per plot were higher in the forest zone than agroecosystem zone. The Shannon-Weiner diversity of forest zone is 4.6, which is higher than agroecosystem. In addition, species composition indicated a relatively low or poor similarity between the two zones. The vegetation density and site disturbance scores for all the study sites reveals that sand mining and grazing areas have exerted negative impact on riparian forest. The results of the present study clearly brought out the need for preparing and implementing site-specific conservation plans for riparian ecosystem.

  2. From Sewers to Salix and Tailpipes to Typha: Riparian Plants Reflect Anthropogenic Nitrogen Sources Across Montane to Urban Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. J.; Hale, R. L.; Baker, M. A.; Bowling, D. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and suburban streams typically receive anthropogenic nitrogen (N) from multiple sources, and their identification and partitioning is a prerequisite for effective water quality management. However, stream N fluxes and sources are often highly variable, limiting the utility of water samples for source identification. Nitrate in perennial streams can provide an important N source for riparian vegetation in semi-arid environments. Thus, riparian plant tissue may integrate the stable isotope composition (δ15N) of stream nitrate over longer timescales and assist in source identification. Here, we tested whether δ15N of riparian plant leaves could provide an effective indicator of spatial variation in N sources across land use gradients spanning wildland to urban ecosystems in Salt Lake City, Utah, and the surrounding Wasatch Range Megapolitan Area. We found that leaf δ15N varied systematically within and among eight streams and rivers (n = 378 leaf samples) consistent with spatial land use variations. Plants from a suburban stream adjacent to homes with septic systems (δ15N = 5.1‰) were highly enriched relative to similar species from an adjacent undeveloped stream (δ15N = -0.7 ‰), suggesting an important contribution of enriched human fecal N to the suburban stream. Plants from a montane stream in a largely undeveloped recreational canyon that permitted off-leash dogs (δ15N = 1.8 ‰) were enriched relative to an adjacent canyon with similar land use that strictly prohibited dogs but had comparable vehicle traffic (δ15N = -0.7 ‰), suggesting the contribution of dog waste to stream N. Plants from urban stream reaches were enriched by 1.3 - 2.8 ‰ relative to upstream wildland reaches, and δ15N increased by 0.2 ‰ per km in the urban streams. Mechanisms leading to this urban enrichment could include leaky municipal sewers, atmospheric N deposition, and/or increased rates of N cycling and gaseous losses. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential

  3. Reconstructing Historical Riparian Conditions of Two River Basins in Eastern Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Lynne S.

    2008-09-01

    As land use continues to alter riparian areas, historical information is increasingly needed to help establish reference conditions for monitoring and assessment. I developed and applied a procedure in the John Day and Deschutes river basins of eastern Oregon for synthesizing historical documentary records available across broad spatial areas to reconstruct 19th-century riparian conditions. The study area was stratified by ecoregion and stream physical characteristics to partition regional variability. Three primary data sources—General Land Office survey notes, historical photographs, and written accounts—provided descriptive records, which were grouped by topic to develop common riparian attributes. The number of records for each attribute was tallied by stratum to compare and contrast riparian structure and composition across strata and ecoregions. Detailed descriptions of historical riparian conditions using the original documentary records further illustrated the unique riparian conditions in each stratum. Similarities and differences in historical riparian structure and composition at the stratum and ecoregion levels were evident based on the distributional pattern and numbers of records of attributes across strata. A high number of repeated observations within and among primary data sources helped to corroborate descriptive data. Although these reference data cannot provide the detail needed for rigorous quantitative assessments, they do describe a range of conditions approaching a minimally disturbed condition and provide an important perspective for conducting riparian assessments in highly disturbed regions where least-disturbed reference sites are often poor examples of a desired condition.

  4. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  5. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  6. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s. Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area. Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late

  7. Comparing maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada produced by two different methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, James J.; Hufford, Gary L.; Daly, Christopher; Berg, Jared S.; Fleming, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada, produced by Oregon State University's Spatial Climate Analysis Service (SCAS) and the Alaska Geospatial Data Clearinghouse (AGDC), were analyzed. Because both sets of maps are generally available and in use by the community, there is a need to document differences between the processes and input data sets used by the two groups to produce their respective set of maps and to identify similarities and differences between the two sets of maps and possible reasons for the differences. These differences do not affect the observed large-scale patterns of seasonal and annual variability. Alaska is divided into interior and coastal zones, with consistent but different variability, separated by a transition region. The transition region has high interannual variability but low long-term mean variability. Both data sets support the four major ecosystems and ecosystem transition zone identified in our earlier work. Differences between the two sets of maps do occur, however, on the regional scale; they reflect differences in physiographic domains and in the treatment of these domains by the two groups (AGDC, SCAS). These differences also provide guidance for an improved observational network for Alaska. On the basis of validation with independent in situ data, we conclude that the data set produced by SCAS provides the best spatial coverage of Alaskan long-term mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation currently available. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  8. Turbines and terrestrial vertebrates: variation in tortoise survivorship between a wind energy facility and an adjacent undisturbed wildland area in the desert southwest (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Arundel, Terry; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David F.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18 year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  9. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA).

    PubMed

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Ennen, Joshua R; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R; Murphy, Mason O; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V; Price, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:25894273

  10. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R.; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  11. Consumption of unsafe food in the adjacent area of Hazaribag tannery campus and Buriganga River embankments of Bangladesh: heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Islam, G M Rabiul; Khan, Faysal Elahi; Hoque, Md Mozammel; Jolly, Yeasmin Nahar

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As in water, poultry meat, fish, vegetables, and rice plants obtained from the area adjacent to the Hazaribag tannery campus, Dhaka, Bangladesh, were estimated and compared with permissible levels established by the WHO and FAO and levels reported previously by other authors. The metal contents were in the following order according to the concentration in contaminated irrigation water: Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Mean concentrations of Cr, Pb, Hg, and As in irrigated water were above the permissible levels, whereas the results were below the permissible levels for Cd. The metal concentrations in poultry meat, fish, rice, and vegetables were in the following orders: Pb > Cr > Cd > Hg > As, Pb > Cr > Cd > As > Hg, Pb > As, and Cr > Pb > Cd > As > Hg, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in poultry meat, fish, rice, and vegetables were much higher than the permissible levels. The trends of weekly intake of heavy metals (WIMs) from poultry meat, fish, rice, and vegetables were as follows: Pb > Cr > Cd > Hg > As, Pb > Cr > Cd > As > Hg, Pb > As, and Cr > Pb > Cd > As > Hg, respectively. WIMs for all the metals were lower than the provisional maximum weekly intake recommended by WHO/FAO and USNAS.

  12. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA).

    PubMed

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Ennen, Joshua R; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R; Murphy, Mason O; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V; Price, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  13. Water relations of riparian plants from warm desert regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S.D.; Devitt, Dale A.; Cleverly, James R.; Busch, David E.

    1998-01-01

    Riparian plants have been classified as 'drought avoiders' due to their access to an abundant subsurface water supply. Recent water-relations research that tracks water sources of riparian plants using the stable isotopes of water suggests that many plants of the riparian zone use ground water rather than stream water, and not all riparian plants are obligate phreatophytes (dependent on ground water as a moisture source) but may occasionally be dependent of unsaturated soil moisture sources. A more thorough understanding of riparian plant-water relations must include water-source dynamics and how those dynamics vary over both space and time. Many rivers in the desert Southwest have been invaded by the exotic shrub Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar). Our studies of Tamarix invasion into habitats formerly dominated by native riparian forests of primarily Populus and Salix have shown that Tamarix successfully invades these habitats because of its (1) greater tolerance to water stress and salinity, (2) status as a facultative, rather than obligate, phreatophyte and, therefore, its ability to recover from droughts and periods of ground-water drawdown, and (3) superior regrowth after fire. Analysis of water- loss rates indicate that Tamarix-dominated stands can have extremely high evapotranspiration rates when water tables are high but not necessarily when water tables are lower. Tamarix has leaf-level transpiration rates that are comparable to native species, whereas sap-flow rates per unit sapwood area are higher than in natives, suggesting that Tamarix maintains higher leaf area than can natives, probably due to its greater water stress tolerance. Tamarix desiccates and salinizes floodplains, due to its salt exudation and high transpiration rates, and may also accelerate fire cycles, thus predisposing these ecosystems to further loss of native taxa. Riparian species on regulated rivers can be exposed to seasonal water stress due to depression of floodplain water tables

  14. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Liping; Lei, Kun; Nan, Bingxu

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination was investigated in concurrently sampled surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment of Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China. The total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 71.12 to 4255.43 ng/L in water, from 1969.95 to 11612.21 ng/L in SPM, and from 374.84 to 11588.85 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediment. Although the 2-3 ring PAHs were main PAH congeners in water and SPM, the 4-6 ring PAHs were also detected and their distribution was site-specific, indicating a very recent PAHs input around the area since they were hydrophobic. The PAHs pollution was identified as mixed combustion and petroleum sources. Based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD), the ecological risk in SPM from 82% stations was found to be higher obviously than that in water. The risk in water was basically ranked as medium, while the risk in SPM was ranked as high. Analysis with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that negative eco-risk occasionally occurred in about 50% stations, while negative eco-risk frequently occurred in about 3% stations only caused by Phenanthrene(Phe) and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene(DBA). Here freshwater acute effects data together with saltwater data were used for SSD model. And this method could quickly give the rational risk information, and achieved our objective that compared the spatial difference of risk levels among three compartments. The results confirmed that the use of freshwater acute effects data from the ECOTOX database together with saltwater effects data is acceptable for risk assessment purposes in estuary. PMID:26855211

  15. Rapid riparian buffer width and quality analysis using lidar in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akturk, Emre

    The importance of protecting water quality and aquatic resources are increasing because of harmful human impacts within and around waterways. Establishing or restoring functional riparian areas protect water quality and are a good mechanism to conserve aquatic systems, plants, and wildlife. Laser-based remote sensing technology offers a high resolution approach to both characterize and document changes in riparian buffer zones (RBZs). The objectives of this study were to build a model to calculate riparian buffer width on both sides of a stream using a LiDAR-derived slope variable, to classify riparian buffers and determine their quality, and to evaluate the appropriateness of using LiDAR in riparian buffer assessment. For this purpose, RBZs were delineated for Hunnicutt and King Creek, which are located in Oconee and Pickens counties, in South Carolina. Results show that LiDAR was effective in delineating required riparian buffer widths based on the topography slope of upstream areas, and to calculate the ratio of tree cover in those riparian buffer zones to qualify them. Furthermore, the riparian buffer assessment model that was created in this research has potential for use in different sites and different studies.

  16. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, S.; Rechsteiner, R.; Lehmann, M. F.; Brankatschk, R.; Vogt, T.; Diem, S.; Wehrli, B.; Tockner, K.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2012-11-01

    For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N) can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3-) removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ) were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3- concentration (> 50%) was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3- pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O) provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3- removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3- concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l-1 d-1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3- removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l-1 d-1). Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation-soil-groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3- removal. We estimated that, despite higher rates in the fairly constrained willow bush hot spot, total NO3- removal from the groundwater is lower than in the extended forest area. Overall, the aquifer in the restored section was more effective and removed ~20% more NO3- than the channelized section.

  17. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, S.; Rechsteiner, R.; Lehmann, M. F.; Brankatschk, R.; Vogt, T.; Diem, S.; Wehrli, B.; Tockner, K.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2012-06-01

    For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N) can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, on nitrate (NO3-) removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the River Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ) were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3- concentration (>50 %) was observed in the willow bush zone, but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3- pool (by up to 22 ‰ for δ15N and up to 12 ‰ for δ18O) provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3- removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone, during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3- concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l-1 d-1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pluses, and overall NO3- removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l-1 d-1). Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation-soil-groundwater coupling was found to be a~key driver for riparian NO3- removal. We estimated that, despite higher rates in the fairly constrained willow bush hot spot, total NO3- removal from the groundwater is lower than in the extended forest area. Overall, the aquifer in the restored section was more effective and removed ~20 % more NO3- than the channelized section.

  18. Nitrogen uptake and turnover in riparian woody vegetation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Chris; Marshall, John D; Danehy, Robert J

    2004-06-01

    The nutrient balance of streams and adjacent riparian ecosystems may be modified by the elimination of anadromous fish runs and perhaps by forest fertilization. To better understand nitrogen (N) dynamics within stream and riparian ecosystems we fertilized two streams and their adjacent riparian corridors in central Idaho. On each stream two nitrogen doses were applied to a swathe approximately 35 m wide centered on the stream. The fertilizer N was enriched in 15N to 18 per thousand. This enrichment is light relative to many previous labeling studies, yet sufficient to yield a traceable signal in riparian and stream biota. This paper reports pre-treatment differences in delta15N and the first-year N response to fertilizer within the riparian woody plant community. Future papers will describe the transfer of allochthonous litter N to the stream and its subsequent processing by stream biota. Pre-treatment delta15N differed between the two creeks (P=0.0002), possibly due to residual salmon nitrogen in one of the creeks. Pre-treatment delta15N of current-year needles was enriched compared to leaf litter, which was in turn enriched compared to needles aged 4 years and older. We conclude that fractionation due to retranslocation occurs in at least two phases. The first phase, which optimizes allocation of N in younger needle age classes, is distinctly different from the second, which conserves N prior to abscission. The delta15N difference between creeks was eliminated by the fertilization (P=0.42). In the two dominant conifer species, Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii, most fertilizer N was found in the current-year foliage; little was found in older needles and none was detected in litter (P=0.53). The only N-fixing shrub species, Alnus incana, took up only a small amount of fertilizer N [mean percent N derived from fertilizer (%Ndff) 5.0+/-1.6% (SE)]. Far more fertilizer N was taken up by other deciduous shrubs (mean %Ndff=33.9+/-4.5%). Fertilizer N made up 25

  19. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Region Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative, the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, the San Antonio River Authority, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, Texas Parks and Wildlife, the Guadalupe Blanco River Authority, and the San Antonio Water System, evaluated the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in and adjacent to the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. By removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice, the hydrology in the watershed might change. Using a simplified mass balance approach of the hydrologic cycle, the incoming rainfall was distributed to surface water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. After hydrologic data were collected in adjacent watersheds for 3 years, brush management occurred on the treatment watershed while the reference watershed was left in its original condition. Hydrologic data were collected for another 6 years. Hydrologic data include rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured but potential groundwater recharge was calculated using a simplified mass balance approach. The resulting hydrologic datasets were examined for differences between the watersheds and between pre- and post-treatment periods to assess the effects of brush management. The streamflow to rainfall relation (expressed as event unit runoff to event rainfall relation) did not change between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods. The daily evapotranspiration rates at the reference watershed and treatment watershed sites exhibited a seasonal cycle during the pre- and post-treatment periods, with intra- and interannual variability. Statistical analyses indicate the mean

  20. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    peripheral zones, whereas older, typically more reduced ground water tends to discharge closer to the center of the river corridor. Such distributions of redox state reflect ground-water movement and geochemical evolution at the aquifer-scale. Redox state of ground water undergoes additional modification as ground water nears discharge points in or adjacent to rivers, where riparian zone processes can be important. Lateral erosion of river systems away from the center of the flood plain can decrease or even eliminate interactions between ground water and reducing riparian zone sediments. Thus, ground water redox patterns in near-river sediments appear to reflect the position of a river within the riparian zone/aquifer continuum. Spatial heterogeneity of redox conditions near the river/aquifer boundary (that is, near the riverbed) makes it difficult to extrapolate transect-scale findings to a precise delineation of the oxic-suboxic boundary in the near-river environment of the entire study area. However, the understanding of relations between near-river redox state and proximity to riparian zone edges provides a basis for applying these results to the study-area scale, and could help guide management efforts such as nitrogen-reduction actions or establishment of Total Maximum Daily Load criteria. Coupling the ground-water redox-based understanding of river vulnerability with ground-water particle-tracking-based characterization of connections between upgradient recharge areas and receiving rivers demonstrates one means of linking effects of potential nitrate loads at the beginning of ground-water flow paths with river vulnerability.

  1. Temporal and spatial variations of abundance of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Chai, Chao; Wang, Jifang; Zhang, Ling; Cen, Jingyi; Lu, Songhui

    2016-10-01

    Three surveys were carried out in Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in May, August, and November, 2013, to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of abundance of phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus (PE-rich SYN) and phycocyanin-rich Synechococcus (PC-rich SYN). The effects of environmental factors on the alternation of the different Synechococcus groups were also elucidated. PE-rich SYN was detected in three surveys, whereas PC-rich SYN was detected in May and August, but not in November. The highest abundances of PE-rich SYN and PC-rich SYN were recorded in August and May, with mean values of 74.17×103 and 189.92×103 cells mL-1, respectively. From May to November, the relative abundance of PE-rich SYN increased, whereas that of PC-rich SYN declined. PE-rich and PC-rich SYN presented similar horizontal distributions with high abundance in the southern estuary in May, and in the western estuary in August. The abundances of PE-rich and PC-rich SYN were high at 27-32°C and salinity of 10-20. PC-rich SYN was not detected at < 24°C, and PC:PE-rich SYN decreased in abundance with salinity increase. When less than 20 mg L-1, suspended particulate matter (SPM) was helpful for Synechococcus growth. PE-rich SYN decreased in abundance when the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen increased in May and November, and the concentration of phosphate increased in November. However, PC-rich SYN abundance and nutrients showed no correlation. Principal component analysis and regression analysis indicated that PE-rich SYN significantly correlated with the principal components that were affected by environmental factors.

  2. Dependence of the cyclization of branched tetraethers (CBT) on soil moisture in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the adjacent areas: implications for palaeorainfall reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Liu, W.; Zhang, C. L.

    2014-06-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) have been show promising for continental paleotemperature studies in loess-paleosol sequences (LPSs). Thus far, however, little is known about the effect of soil moisture on their distributions on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). In this study, the relationships between environmental variables and the cyclization of bGDGTs (the so called CBT index) were investigated in a comprehensive set of surface soils in the CLP and its adjacent arid/semi-arid areas. We find that CBT correlates best with soil water content (SWC) or mean annual precipitation (MAP) for the total sample set. Particularly for the CLP soils, there is a significant positive relationship between CBT and MAP (CBT = -0.0021 · MAP + 1.7, n = 37, R2 = 0.87; MAP range: 210-680 mm). This indicates that CBT is mainly controlled by soil moisture in the alkalescent soils (pH > 7) in arid/semi-arid regions, where it is not sensitive to soil pH. Therefore, we suggest that CBT can potentially be used as a palaeorainfall proxy on the CLP. According to the preliminary CBT-MAP relationship for modern CLP soils, palaeorainfall history was reconstructed from three LPSs (Yuanbao, Lantian, and Mangshan) with published bGDGT data spanning the past 70 ka. The CBT-derived MAP records of the three sites consistently show precession-driven variations resembling the speleothem δ18O monsoon record, and are also in general accord with the fluctuations of the respective magnetic susceptibility (MS) record, supporting CBT as a reasonable proxy for palaeorainfall reconstruction in LPS studies. Moreover, the comparison of CBT-derived MAP and bGDGT-derived temperature may enable us to further assess the relative timing and magnitude of hydrological and thermal changes on the CLP, independent of chronology.

  3. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control. PMID:26850034

  4. [Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area, China ].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-wen; Ma, Ying-qun; Zhao, Yan-min; Shi, Yao

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the pollution level of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area. The contents and spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ph and Zn in surface water, suspended solids and surface sediments were analyzed respectively. The integrated pollution index and geoaccumulation index were used to evaluate the contamination degree of heavy metals in surface water and surface sediments respectively. The results indicated that the contents of heavy metals in surface water was in the order of Pb < Cu < Cd < Cr < As < Zn. The heavy metal contents in surface water increased from river to sea. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface water of the typical domestic estuary in China, the overall contents of heavy metals in surface water were at a higher level. The contents of heavy metals in suspended solids was in the order of Cd < Cu < As < Cr

  5. Major structural features of the northern North Sea and adjacent areas of the continent according to lithosphere-scale 3D density and thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Y. P.; Olesen, O.; Ebbing, J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to analyse the regional configuration of the crystalline crust within the northern North Sea and adjacent areas of the continent, a lithosphere-scale 3D structural model has been constructed in the frame of the Crustal Onshore-Offshore Project (COOP project). Construction of the 3D model has been done by use of recently published/released structural data. For upper part of the model, all available data were merged into the following layers: sea water, the Cenozoic, the Upper Cretaceous, the Lower Cretaceous, the Jurassic, the Triassic, the Upper Permian (Zechstein) salt, Upper Permian clastics/carbonates and, finally, the Lower Permian-pre-Permian sedimentary rocks. Configuration of the crystalline crust and the Moho topography have been constrained by the published interpretations of deep seismic lines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary has been compiled from previously published data. To evaluate the deep structure of the crystalline crust, a 3D density modelling has been carried out by use of the software IGMAS+ (the Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Application System). According to the 3D density modeling, the crystalline crust of the study area consists of several layers. Within the upper crystalline crust, gabbro to anorthositic rocks have been included into the 3D model along the western coast of Norway. In addition, a low-density (2627 kg/m3) upper crustal layer is modelled beneath the Horda Platform. The next upper crustal layer is characterized by regional distribution and has a density of 2670 kg/m3. The modelled middle crust of the study area contains four layers with similar densities around 2700 kg/m3. The lower crust consists of three layers. The deepest crustal layer is the high-density lower crustal layer (3060 kg/m3) which corresponds to the high-velocity layer. This layer thickens strongly beneath the Norwegian-Danish Basin and the eastern part of the East-Shetland platform. In addition to this high-density lower crustal layer, the

  6. Deep structure of the northern North Sea and adjacent areas according to regional-scale 3D density and thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy P.; Olesen, Odleiv; Ebbing, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    To analyse the regional configuration of the crystalline crust within the northern North Sea and adjacent areas of the continent, a lithosphere-scale 3D structural model has been constructed in the frame of the Crustal Onshore-Offshore Project (COOP project). Construction of the 3D model has been carried out using recently published/released data. For upper part of the model, all available data were merged into the following layers: sea water, the Cenozoic, the Upper Cretaceous, the Lower Cretaceous, the Jurassic, the Triassic, the Upper Permian (Zechstein) salt, Upper Permian clastics/carbonates and, finally, the Lower Permian-pre-Permian sedimentary rocks. Configuration of the crystalline crust and the Moho topography have been constrained by the published interpretations of deep seismic lines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary has been compiled from previously published data. To evaluate the internal structure of the crystalline crust, a 3D density modelling has been carried out by use of the software IGMAS+ (the Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Application System). According to the 3D density modeling, the crystalline crust of the study area consists of several layers. Within the upper crystalline crust, gabbro to anorthositic rocks have been included into the 3D model along the western coast of Norway. In addition, a low-density (2627 kg/m3) upper crustal layer is modelled beneath the Horda Platform. The next upper crustal layer is characterized by regional distribution and has a density of 2670 kg/m3. The modelled middle crust of the study area contains four layers with similar densities around 2700 kg/m3. The lower crust consists of three layers. The deepest crustal layer is the high-density lower crustal layer (3060 kg/m3) which corresponds to the high-velocity layer. This layer thickens strongly beneath the Norwegian-Danish Basin and the eastern part of the East-Shetland platform. The obtained Moho is strongly uplifted beneath the Central and Viking

  7. A STRATEGY FOR INTEGRATED ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased sediments, nutrients, and other contaminants in the Mid-Atlantic region contribute to environmental problems ranging from stream degradation to possibly Pfiesteria attacks in Chesapeake Bay. Restoring riparian areas - the filters between terrestrial watersheds and aquat...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF ALIEN SPECIES INVASIVENESS: AN AID TO ASSESSING RIPARIAN VEGETATION CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many riparian areas are invaded by alien plant species that negatively affect native species composition, community dynamics and ecosystem properties. We sampled vegetation along reaches of 31 low order streams in eastern Oregon, and characterized species assemblages at patch an...

  9. Arthropod prey for riparian associated birds in headwater forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, Joan C.; Li, Judith; Sobota, Janel; Jenkins, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Headwater riparian areas occupy a large proportion of the land base in Pacific Northwest forests, and thus are ecologically and economically important. Although a primary goal of management along small headwater streams is the protection of aquatic resources, streamside habitat also is important for many terrestrial wildlife species. However, mechanisms underlying the riparian associations of some terrestrial species have not been well studied, particularly for headwater drainages. We investigated the diets of and food availability for four bird species associated with riparian habitats in montane coastal forests of western Oregon, USA. We examined variation in the availability of arthropod prey as a function of distance from stream. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) emergent aquatic insects were a food source for insectivorous birds in headwater riparian areas, and (2) the abundances of aquatic and terrestrial arthropod prey did not differ between streamside and upland areas during the bird breeding season. We found that although adult aquatic insects were available for consumption throughout the study period, they represented a relatively small proportion of available prey abundance and biomass and were present in only 1% of the diet samples from only one of the four riparian-associated bird species. Nonetheless, arthropod prey, comprised primarily of insects of terrestrial origin, was more abundant in streamside than upland samples. We conclude that food resources for birds in headwater riparian areas are primarily associated with terrestrial vegetation, and that bird distributions along the gradient from streamside to upland may be related to variation in arthropod prey availability. Because distinct vegetation may distinguish riparian from upland habitats for riparian-associated birds and their terrestrial arthropod prey, we suggest that understory communities be considered when defining management zones for riparian habitat.

  10. Riparian vegetation controls on braided stream dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, Karen; Paola, Chris

    2001-12-01

    Riparian vegetation can significantly influence the morphology of a river, affecting channel geometry and flow dynamics. To examine the effects of riparian vegetation on gravel bed braided streams, we conducted a series of physical experiments at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory with varying densities of bar and bank vegetation. Water discharge, sediment discharge, and grain size were held constant between runs. For each run, we allowed a braided system to develop, then seeded the flume with alfalfa (Medicago sativa), allowed the seeds to grow, and then continued the run. We collected data on water depth, surface velocity, and bed elevation throughout each run using image-based techniques designed to collect data over a large spatial area with minimal disturbance to the flow. Our results show that the influence of vegetation on overall river patterns varied systematically with the spatial density of plant stems. Vegetation reduced the number of active channels and increased bank stability, leading to lower lateral migration rates, narrower and deeper channels, and increased channel relief. These effects increased with vegetation density. Vegetation influenced flow dynamics, increasing the variance of flow direction in vegetated runs and increasing scour depths through strong downwelling where the flow collided with relatively resistant banks. This oblique bank collision also provides a new mechanism for producing secondary flows. We found it to be more important than the classical curvature-driven mechanism in vegetated runs.

  11. Sedimentation and associated trace metal enrichment in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiang; Bao, Yuhai; He, Xiubin; Zhou, Huaidong; Cao, Zhijing; Gao, Peng; Zhong, Ronghua; Hu, Yunhua; Zhang, Xinbao

    2014-05-01

    Impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir has created an artificial riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km(2), which has been subjected to seasonal inundation and exposure due to regular reservoir impoundment and the occurrence of natural floods. The significant alteration of hydrologic regime has caused numerous environmental changes. The present study investigated the magnitude and spatial pattern of sedimentation and metal enrichment in a typical section of the riparian zone, composed of bench terraces with previous agricultural land uses, and explored their links to the changed hydrologic regime. In particular, we measured the total sediment depths and collected surface riparian sediments and down-profile sectioned riparian soils (at 5 cm intervals) for trace metal determination. Our analysis showed that the annual average sedimentation rates varied from 0.5 to 10 cm·yr(-1) and they decreased significantly with increasing elevation. This lateral distribution was principally attributed to seasonal variations in water levels and suspended sediment concentrations. Enriched concentrations of trace metals were found both in the riparian sediments and soils, but they were generally higher in the riparian sediments than in riparian soils and followed a similar lateral decreasing trend. Metal contamination assessment showed that the riparian sediments were slightly contaminated by Ni, Zn, and Pb, moderately contaminated by Cu, and moderately to strongly contaminated by Cd; while riparian soils were slightly contaminated by As, and moderately contaminated by Cd. Trace metal enrichment in the riparian sediments may be attributed to external input of contaminated sediments produced from upstream anthropogenic sources and chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions during pure sediment mobilization and after sink for a prolonged flooding period due to reservoir impoundment.

  12. Sedimentation and associated trace metal enrichment in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiang; Bao, Yuhai; He, Xiubin; Zhou, Huaidong; Cao, Zhijing; Gao, Peng; Zhong, Ronghua; Hu, Yunhua; Zhang, Xinbao

    2014-05-01

    Impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir has created an artificial riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km(2), which has been subjected to seasonal inundation and exposure due to regular reservoir impoundment and the occurrence of natural floods. The significant alteration of hydrologic regime has caused numerous environmental changes. The present study investigated the magnitude and spatial pattern of sedimentation and metal enrichment in a typical section of the riparian zone, composed of bench terraces with previous agricultural land uses, and explored their links to the changed hydrologic regime. In particular, we measured the total sediment depths and collected surface riparian sediments and down-profile sectioned riparian soils (at 5 cm intervals) for trace metal determination. Our analysis showed that the annual average sedimentation rates varied from 0.5 to 10 cm·yr(-1) and they decreased significantly with increasing elevation. This lateral distribution was principally attributed to seasonal variations in water levels and suspended sediment concentrations. Enriched concentrations of trace metals were found both in the riparian sediments and soils, but they were generally higher in the riparian sediments than in riparian soils and followed a similar lateral decreasing trend. Metal contamination assessment showed that the riparian sediments were slightly contaminated by Ni, Zn, and Pb, moderately contaminated by Cu, and moderately to strongly contaminated by Cd; while riparian soils were slightly contaminated by As, and moderately contaminated by Cd. Trace metal enrichment in the riparian sediments may be attributed to external input of contaminated sediments produced from upstream anthropogenic sources and chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions during pure sediment mobilization and after sink for a prolonged flooding period due to reservoir impoundment. PMID:24561931

  13. Geologic framework of pre-Cretaceous rocks in the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and adjacent areas, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condon, Steven M.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a discussion and summary of Jurassic and older rocks in the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and adjacent areas, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, and is based on analysis of geophysical logs and observations of outcrops. The Reservation, which is located in the northern San Juan Basin, has been the site of deposition of sediments for much of the Phanerozoic. Geologic times represented on the Reservation are the Precambrian, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary. Rocks of Ordovician and Silurian age have not been reported in this region. Thicknesses of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks range from about 750 feet (229 meters) on the Archuleta arch, east of the Reservation, to more than 8,300 feet (2,530 meters) just northwest of the Reservation. About 5,500 feet (1,676 meters) of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks occur in the central part of the Reservation, near Ignacio. At Ignacio the top of the Jurassic lies at a depth of 7,600 feet (2,316 meters) below the surface, which is composed of Tertiary rocks. As much as 2,500 feet (762 meters) of Tertiary rocks occur in the area. More than 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) of Cretaceous and younger rocks, and 15,600 feet (4,755 meters) of all Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks occur in the vicinity of the Reservation. In the early Paleozoic the area that includes the Southern Ute Reservation was on the stable western shelf of the craton. During this time sediments that compose the following shallow-marine clastic and carbonate rocks were deposited: the Upper Cambrian Ignacio Quartzite (0-150 feet; 0-46 meters), Upper Devonian Elbert Formation (50-200 feet; 15-61 meters), Upper Devonian Ouray Limestone (10-75 feet; 3-23 meters), and Mississippian Leadville Limestone (0-250 feet; 0-76 meters). Mixed carbonate and clastic deposition, which was punctuated by a unique episode of deposition of evaporite sediments, continued through

  14. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s. Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area. Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-58) - Asotin Creek Channel, Floodplain and Riparian Restoration (2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Yarde, Richard

    2001-08-07

    BPA proposes to fund an instream and riparian habitat improvement project within the Asotin Creek watershed. This portion of the ongoing restoration program within the Asotin Creek watershed is comprised of the Hendrickson instream and riparian project and the George Creek instream and riparian project. These proposed projects include improving instream and riparian habitat, reestablishing geomorphic stability and enhancing the riparian plant community, by planting riparian vegetation, fencing cattle out of the riparian area, placement of large woody debris and constructing a stream channel within the unstable George Creek. The proposal calls for the removal of up to 300 feet of existing dikes and the placement of up to 10 rock weirs and 40 J-hook veins. Instream work would also include 4,300 feet of constructed meanders and 1,000 feet of constructed oxbow lakes and sediment berms.

  16. LOCAL RIPARIAN VERSUS WATERSHED INFLUENCE ON CHEMICAL AND MACROINVERTEBRATE INDICATORS OF STREAM WATER QUALITY IN TWO REGIONAL SURVEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compiled data from regional stream surveys in two areas of the U.S. to examine whether indicators of human disturbance at the local riparian scale (e.g., site canopy density, riparian human disturbance) or the watershed scale (e.g., percent basin in agriculture, basin road den...

  17. Riparian responses to extreme climate and land-use change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Climate change will induce alterations in the hydrological and landscape patterns with effects on riparian ecotones. In this study we assess the combined effect of an extreme climate and land-use change scenario on riparian woody structure and how this will translate into a future risk of riparian functionality loss. The study was conducted in the Tâmega catchment of the Douro basin. Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs) were used to model two riparian landscape indicators related with the degree of connectivity (Mean Width) and complexity (Area Weighted Mean Patch Fractal Dimension). Riparian data were extracted by planimetric analysis of high spatial-resolution Word Imagery Layer (ESRI). Hydrological, climatic and land-use variables were obtained from available datasets and generated with process-based modeling using current climate data (2008-2014), while also considering the high-end RCP8.5 climate-change and "Icarus" socio-economic scenarios for the 2046-2065 time slice. Our results show that hydrological and land-use changes strongly influence future projections of riparian connectivity and complexity, albeit to diverse degrees and with differing effects. A harsh reduction in average flows may impair riparian zones while an increase in extreme rain events may benefit connectivity by promoting hydrologic dynamics with the surrounding floodplains. The expected increase in broad-leaved woodlands and mixed forests may enhance the riparian galleries by reducing the agricultural pressure on the area in the vicinity of the river. According to our results, 63% of river segments in the Tâmega basin exhibited a moderate risk of functionality loss, 16% a high risk, and 21% no risk. Weaknesses and strengths of the method are highlighted and results are discussed based on a resilience perspective with regard to riparian ecosystems. PMID:27341115

  18. Maximizing Benefits from Riparian Revegetation Efforts: Local- and Landscape-Level Determinants of Avian Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardali, Thomas; Holmes, Aaron L.

    2011-07-01

    With limited financial resources available for habitat restoration, information that ensures and/or accelerates success is needed to economize effort and maximize benefit. In the Central Valley of California USA, riparian habitat has been lost or degraded, contributing to the decline of riparian-associated birds and other wildlife. Active restoration of riparian plant communities in this region has been demonstrated to increase local population sizes and species diversity of landbirds. To evaluate factors related to variation in the rate at which bird abundance increased after restoration, we examined bird abundance as a function of local (restoration design elements) and landscape (proportion of riparian vegetation in the landscape and riparian patch density) metrics at 17 restoration projects within five project areas along the Sacramento River. We developed a priori model sets for seven species of birds and used an information theoretic approach to identify factors associated with the rate at which bird abundance increased after restoration. For six of seven species investigated, the model with the most support contained a variable for the amount of riparian forest in the surrounding landscape. Three of seven bird species were positively correlated with the number of tree species planted and three of seven were positively correlated with the planting densities of particular tree species. Our results indicate that restoration success can be enhanced by selecting sites near existing riparian habitat and planting multiple tree species. Hence, given limited resources, efforts to restore riparian habitat for birds should focus on landscape-scale site selection in areas with high proportions of existing riparian vegetation.

  19. Comparison of bird community indices for riparian restoration planning and monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Jock S.; Ammon, Elisabeth M.; Weisburg, Peter J.; Dilts, Thomas E.; Newton, Wesley E.; Wong-Kone, Diane C.; Heki, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    The use of a bird community index that characterizes ecosystem integrity is very attractive to conservation planners and habitat managers, particularly in the absence of any single focal species. In riparian areas of the western USA, several attempts at arriving at a community index signifying a functioning riparian bird community have been made previously, mostly resorting to expert opinions or national conservation rankings for species weights. Because extensive local and regional bird monitoring data were available for Nevada, we were able to develop three different indices that were derived empirically, rather than from expert opinion. We formally examined the use of three species weighting schemes in comparison with simple species richness, using different definitions of riparian species assemblage size, for the purpose of predicting community response to changes in vegetation structure from riparian restoration. For the three indices, species were weighted according to the following criteria: (1) the degree of riparian habitat specialization based on regional data, (2) the relative conservation ranking of landbird species, and (3) the degree to which a species is under-represented compared to the regional species pool for riparian areas. To evaluate the usefulness of these indices for habitat restoration planning and monitoring, we modeled them using habitat variables that are expected to respond to riparian restoration efforts, using data from 64 sampling sites in the Walker River Basin in Nevada and California. We found that none of the species-weighting schemes performed any better as an index for evaluating overall habitat condition than using species richness alone as a community index. Based on our findings, the use of a fairly complete list of 30–35 riparian specialists appears to be the best indicator group for predicting the response of bird communities to the restoration of riparian vegetation.

  20. Riparian responses to extreme climate and land-use change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Climate change will induce alterations in the hydrological and landscape patterns with effects on riparian ecotones. In this study we assess the combined effect of an extreme climate and land-use change scenario on riparian woody structure and how this will translate into a future risk of riparian functionality loss. The study was conducted in the Tâmega catchment of the Douro basin. Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs) were used to model two riparian landscape indicators related with the degree of connectivity (Mean Width) and complexity (Area Weighted Mean Patch Fractal Dimension). Riparian data were extracted by planimetric analysis of high spatial-resolution Word Imagery Layer (ESRI). Hydrological, climatic and land-use variables were obtained from available datasets and generated with process-based modeling using current climate data (2008-2014), while also considering the high-end RCP8.5 climate-change and "Icarus" socio-economic scenarios for the 2046-2065 time slice. Our results show that hydrological and land-use changes strongly influence future projections of riparian connectivity and complexity, albeit to diverse degrees and with differing effects. A harsh reduction in average flows may impair riparian zones while an increase in extreme rain events may benefit connectivity by promoting hydrologic dynamics with the surrounding floodplains. The expected increase in broad-leaved woodlands and mixed forests may enhance the riparian galleries by reducing the agricultural pressure on the area in the vicinity of the river. According to our results, 63% of river segments in the Tâmega basin exhibited a moderate risk of functionality loss, 16% a high risk, and 21% no risk. Weaknesses and strengths of the method are highlighted and results are discussed based on a resilience perspective with regard to riparian ecosystems.

  1. Impact of water troughs on cattle use of riparian zones in the Georgia Piedmont in the United States.

    PubMed

    Franklin, D H; Cabrera, M L; Byers, H L; Matthews, M K; Andrae, J G; Radcliffe, D E; McCann, M A; Kuykendall, H A; Hoveland, C S; Calvert, V H

    2009-06-01

    Cattle use of riparian areas may lead to stream water contamination with nutrients, pathogens, and sediments. Providing alternative water away from the stream may reduce the amount of time cattle spend near streams and therefore reduce contamination. We conducted this study to 1) evaluate the effect of providing water troughs outside of the riparian zones on the amount of time cattle spend in riparian zones, and 2) evaluate if environmental factors such as temperature and humidity affect the impact of water trough availability on the amount of time cattle spend within riparian and nonriparian locations. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were used to document cow locations every 5 min in 2 mixed tall fescue/common bermuda-grass pastures of the Georgia Piedmont in the United States. We found that when the temperature and humidity index (THI) ranged between 62 and 72, providing cattle with water troughs outside of riparian zones tended to decrease time cattle spent in riparian zones by 63% (52 min x d(-1); P = 0.11). When THI ranged between 72 and 84, nonriparian water availability did not have a significant impact on the amount of time cattle spent in the riparian zone or in riparian shade. These results suggest that water troughs placed away from unfenced streams may improve water quality by reducing the amount of time cattle spend in riparian zones when environmental conditions as evaluated by THI are not stressful.

  2. Woody riparian vegetation response to different alluvial water table regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, P.B.; Stromberg, J.C.; Patten, D.T.

    2000-01-01

    Woody riparian vegetation in western North American riparian ecosystems is commonly dependent on alluvial groundwater. Various natural and anthropogenic mechanisms can cause groundwater declines that stress riparian vegetation, but little quantitative information exists on the nature of plant response to different magnitudes, rates, and durations of groundwater decline. We observed groundwater dynamics and the response of Populus Fremontii, Salix gooddingii, and Tamarix ramosissima saplings at 3 sites between 1995 and 1997 along the Bill Williams River, Arizona. At a site where the lowest observed groundwater level in 1996 (-1.97 m) was 1.11 m lower than in 1995 (-0.86 m), 92-100% of Populus and Salix saplings died, whereas 0-13% of the Tamarix stems died. A site with greater absolute water table depths in 1996 (-2.55 m), but less change from the 1995 condition (0.55 m), showed less Populus and Salix mortality and increased basal area. Excavations of sapling roots suggest that root distribution is related to groundwater history. Therefore, a decline in water table relative to the condition under which roots developed may strand plant roots where they cannot obtain sufficient moisture. Plant response is likely mediated by other factors such as soil texture and stratigraphy, availability of precipitation-derived soil moisture, and physiological and morphological adaptations to water stress, and tree age. An understanding of the relationships between water table declines and plant response may enable land and water managers to avoid activities that are likely to stress desirable riparian vegetation.

  3. Revised hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in the northern coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.; Gill, Harold E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework for the Floridan aquifer system has been revised for eight northern coastal counties in Georgia and five coastal counties in South Carolina by incorporating new borehole geophysical and flowmeter log data collected during previous investigations. Selected well logs were compiled and analyzed to determine the vertical and horizontal continuity of permeable zones that make up the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and to define more precisely the thickness of confining beds that separate these aquifers. The updated framework generally conforms to the original framework established by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1980s except for adjustments made to the internal boundaries of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and the individual permeable zones that compose these aquifers. The revised boundaries of the Floridan aquifer system were mapped by taking into account results from local studies and regional correlations of geologic and hydrogeologic units. Because the revised framework does not match the previous regional framework along all edges, additional work will be needed to expand the framework into adjacent areas. The Floridan aquifer system in the northern coastal region of Georgia and parts of South Carolina can be divided into the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, which are separated by a middle confining unit of relatively lower permeability. The Upper Floridan aquifer includes permeable and hydraulically connected carbonate rocks of Oligocene and upper Eocene age that represent the most transmissive part of the aquifer system. The middle confining unit consists of low permeability carbonate rocks that lie within the lower part of the upper Eocene in Beaufort and Jasper Counties, South Carolina, and within the upper to middle parts of the middle Eocene elsewhere. Locally, the middle confining unit contains thin zones that have moderate to high permeability and can produce water to wells that tap them. The Lower Floridan aquifer

  4. Assessing the extent and diversity of riparian ecosystems in Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, M.L.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Valdes-Casillas, C.; Erker, J.A.; Reynolds, E.W.; Shafroth, P.B.; Gomez-Limon, E.; Jones, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation of forested riparian ecosystems is of international concern. Relatively little is known of the structure, composition, diversity, and extent of riparian ecosystems in Mexico. We used high- and low-resolution satellite imagery from 2000 to 2006, and ground-based sampling in 2006, to assess the spatial pattern, extent, and woody plant composition of riparian forests across a range of spatial scales for the state of Sonora, Mexico. For all 3rd and higher order streams, river bottomlands with riparian forests occupied a total area of 2,301 km2. Where forested bottomlands remained, on average, 34% of the area had been converted to agriculture while 39% remained forested. We estimated that the total area of riparian forest along the principal streams was 897 km2. Including fencerow trees, the total forested riparian area was 944 km2, or 0.5% of the total land area of Sonora. Ground-based sampling of woody riparian vegetation consisted of 92, 50 m radius circular plots. About 79 woody plant species were noted. The most important tree species, based on cover and frequency, were willow species Salix spp. (primarily S. goodingii and S. bonplandiana), mesquite species Prosopis spp. (primarily P. velutina), and Fremont cottonwood Populus fremontii. Woody riparian taxa at the reach scale showed a trend of increasing diversity from north to south within Sonora. Species richness was greatest in the willow-bald cypress Taxodium distichum var. mexicanum-Mexican cottonwood P. mexicana subsp. dimorphia ecosystem. The non-native tamarisk Tamarix spp. was rare, occurring at just three study reaches. Relatively natural stream flow patterns and fluvial disturbance regimes likely limit its establishment and spread. ?? 2008 Springer Science + Business Media BV.

  5. Geostatistical modeling of riparian forest microclimate and its implications for sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eskelson, B.N.I.; Anderson, P.D.; Hagar, J.C.; Temesgen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Predictive models of microclimate under various site conditions in forested headwater stream - riparian areas are poorly developed, and sampling designs for characterizing underlying riparian microclimate gradients are sparse. We used riparian microclimate data collected at eight headwater streams in the Oregon Coast Range to compare ordinary kriging (OK), universal kriging (UK), and kriging with external drift (KED) for point prediction of mean maximum air temperature (Tair). Several topographic and forest structure characteristics were considered as site-specific parameters. Height above stream and distance to stream were the most important covariates in the KED models, which outperformed OK and UK in terms of root mean square error. Sample patterns were optimized based on the kriging variance and the weighted means of shortest distance criterion using the simulated annealing algorithm. The optimized sample patterns outperformed systematic sample patterns in terms of mean kriging variance mainly for small sample sizes. These findings suggest methods for increasing efficiency of microclimate monitoring in riparian areas.

  6. Innovative interdisciplinary approaches in catchment hydrology: on the potential for diatoms and thermal infrared imagery for documenting spatio-temporal dynamics and connectivity of saturated areas in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, L.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Wetzel, C.; Ector, L.; Frentress, J.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    years, our research activities have been focusing on the exploration of new research avenues for untapping new insights on inherent hydrological processes, guiding water source and flowpaths. Here, we will present the most recent results obtained to date from interdisciplinary proof-of-concept studies carried out in the Weierbach experimental watershed. New research avenues, such as the introduction of terrestrial diatom tracing in flood waves, will hopefully contribute to reduce uncertainties in the determination of the onset/cessation of surface runoff and connectivity in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream system. Likewise, thermal infrared imaging has shown considerable potential for tracing surface water flowpaths, connectivity, as well as saturated area dynamics.

  7. Effect of emergent aquatic insects on bat foraging in a riparian forest.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Dai; Murakami, Masashi; Nakano, Shigeru; Aoi, Toshiki

    2006-11-01

    1. Riparian zones serve several ecological functions for bats. They provide a source of prey and likely provide favourable structural habitats and shelter from predators. Many studies have shown that bats use the space above streams, ponds or riparian vegetation as feeding habitat. These studies, however, have never distinguished between the effects of habitat structure and prey availability on the foraging activities of bats. Such effects can only be distinguished by an experimental approach. We predicted that bat activity along a stream is influenced by the number of emerged aquatic insects. 2. We evaluated the response of terrestrial consumers, insectivorous bats, to changes in the abundance of emergent aquatic insects by conducting a manipulative field experiment. In a deciduous riparian forest in Japan, aquatic insect flux from the stream to the riparian zone was controlled with an insect-proof cover over a 1.2 km stream reach. 3. We estimated the abundance of emergent aquatic and flying terrestrial arthropods near the treatment and control reaches using Malaise traps. The foraging activity of bats was evaluated in both treatment and control reaches using ultrasonic detectors. 4. The insect-proof cover effectively reduced the flux of emergent aquatic insects to the riparian zone adjacent to the treatment reach. Adjacent to the control reach, adult aquatic insect biomass was highest in spring, and then decreased gradually. Terrestrial insect biomass increased gradually during the summer at both treatment and control reaches. 5. Foraging activity of bats was correlated with insect abundance. In spring, foraging activity of bats at the control reach was significantly greater than at the treatment reach, and increased at both sites with increasing terrestrial insect abundance. 6. Our result suggests that the flux of aquatic insects emerging from streams is one of the most important factors affecting the distribution of riparian-foraging bats. As is the case with

  8. Effect of emergent aquatic insects on bat foraging in a riparian forest.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Dai; Murakami, Masashi; Nakano, Shigeru; Aoi, Toshiki

    2006-11-01

    1. Riparian zones serve several ecological functions for bats. They provide a source of prey and likely provide favourable structural habitats and shelter from predators. Many studies have shown that bats use the space above streams, ponds or riparian vegetation as feeding habitat. These studies, however, have never distinguished between the effects of habitat structure and prey availability on the foraging activities of bats. Such effects can only be distinguished by an experimental approach. We predicted that bat activity along a stream is influenced by the number of emerged aquatic insects. 2. We evaluated the response of terrestrial consumers, insectivorous bats, to changes in the abundance of emergent aquatic insects by conducting a manipulative field experiment. In a deciduous riparian forest in Japan, aquatic insect flux from the stream to the riparian zone was controlled with an insect-proof cover over a 1.2 km stream reach. 3. We estimated the abundance of emergent aquatic and flying terrestrial arthropods near the treatment and control reaches using Malaise traps. The foraging activity of bats was evaluated in both treatment and control reaches using ultrasonic detectors. 4. The insect-proof cover effectively reduced the flux of emergent aquatic insects to the riparian zone adjacent to the treatment reach. Adjacent to the control reach, adult aquatic insect biomass was highest in spring, and then decreased gradually. Terrestrial insect biomass increased gradually during the summer at both treatment and control reaches. 5. Foraging activity of bats was correlated with insect abundance. In spring, foraging activity of bats at the control reach was significantly greater than at the treatment reach, and increased at both sites with increasing terrestrial insect abundance. 6. Our result suggests that the flux of aquatic insects emerging from streams is one of the most important factors affecting the distribution of riparian-foraging bats. As is the case with

  9. A fluid flow in the pipe junction with 6,25 cross-section area ratio. the influence of the adjacent branch angle on the pipe junction characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štigler, J.; Šperka, O.; Klas, R.

    2012-11-01

    This article deals with a fluid flow in the pipe junction. The comparison of the pipe junction characteristics obtained from the experiment with the pipe junction characteristics obtained from the numerical modelling using the CFD software will be discussed in this article. All measurements are done for the case of 50 mm diameter of the straight pipe and 20 mm diameter of the adjacent branch with five different angles. There are six possible flow configurations for this pipe junction. Three of them are cases of the flow combination and three of them are cases of the flow division. Only results for the flow combination are presented in this paper.

  10. Characterizing Controls of Riparian Width for Mountain Streams in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvi, L. E.; Wohl, E. E.

    2007-12-01

    High variability of mountain streams causes riparian width to vary greatly from changes in drainage, valley and channel characteristics. GIS- based models for predicting flood-prone width, valley bottoms, or riparian zones may not accurately reflect processes at the reach scale, therefore field verification and reach-specific studies are needed. Management of riparian areas often designates a generalized width, which may under- or over-estimate the true riparian width. This study examines correlations between potential control variables and riparian zone width in the Colorado Front Range. Results from this study will be used to predict the riparian zone as a proxy for flood-prone width in the semi-arid Colorado Front Range. We hypothesize that local controls interact with large- scale controls to determine floodplain processes. Large-scale controls identified are elevation, which reflects hydroclimatology and glacial history, gradient and drainage area. Local controls are entrenchment, the ratio of the valley width to channel width, connectedness, defined as the distance from the channel to valley edge, presence of colluvium, and vegetation type, affecting roughness during flooding and bank stability. We chose twenty reaches based on elevation, connectedness, gradient and drainage area using a GIS base map in anthropogenically undisturbed areas of the Colorado Front Range, which included the Cache la Poudre and North St. Vrain drainages. Riparian width was defined using a three-tiered approach: evidence of fluvial processes and presence of riparian vegetation, compared with the Q100 stage. A longitudinal and two valley and channel cross-section surveys were completed at each stream reach to determine valley and channel geometry and bed gradient. Preliminary results show significant positive correlations between drainage area, entrenchment, and connectedness and riparian width, and negative correlations between gradient and riparian width, supporting the hypothesis

  11. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jackrel, Sara L.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to

  12. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

    PubMed

    Jackrel, Sara L; Wootton, J Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to

  13. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

    PubMed

    Jackrel, Sara L; Wootton, J Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to

  14. Hillslope versus riparian zone runoff contributions in headwater catchments: A multi-watershed comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, B. L.; McGlynn, B. L.; McDonnell, J. J.; Hooper, R. P.; Shanley, J. B.; Hjerdt, K. N.; Hjerdt, K. N.

    2001-12-01

    It is often assumed that hillslope and riparian areas constitute the two most important and identifiable landscape units contributing to catchment runoff in upland humid catchments. Nevertheless, the relative amount and timing of hillslope versus riparian contributions to stormflow are poorly understood across different watersheds. We quantified the contributions of hillslopes and riparian zones to stormflow using physical, chemical, and isotopic techniques across 3 diverse ({ ~}15 ha) headwater catchments: a highly responsive steep wet watershed (Maimai, New Zealand), a moderately steep snowmelt dominated watershed (Sleepers, River, VT), and at a highly seasonal relatively low relief watershed (Panola Mt., Georgia). We monitored catchment runoff, internal hydrological response, and isotopic and solute dynamics for discrete riparian and hillslope zones within each catchment. Monitored catchment positions, including hillslope trenches at Maimai and Panola, were used to characterize directly, the hydrologic response and source water signatures for hillslope zones and riparian zones. We also examined the spatial and temporal source components of catchment stormflow using 3-component mass balance hydrograph separation techniques. At Maimai, NZ we found that hillslope runoff comprised 47-55% of total runoff during a 70 mm event. Despite the large amount of subsurface hillslope runoff in total catchment stormflow, riparian and channel zones accounted for 28% out of 29% of the total new water measured catchment runoff. Riparian water dominated the storm hydrograph composition early in the event, although hillslope water reached the catchment outlet soon after hillslope water tables were developed. Preliminary results for Sleepers River, VT and Panola Mountain, GA indicate that the timing and relative proportion of hillslope water in catchment runoff is later and smaller than at Maimai. Our multi-catchment comparison suggests that the ratio of the riparian reservoir to the

  15. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands.

  16. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands. PMID:24933893

  17. RIP-ET: A riparian evapotranspiration package for MODFLOW-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maddock, Thomas; Baird, Kathryn J.; Hanson, R.T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Ajami, Hoori

    2012-01-01

    A new evapotranspiration package for the U.S. Geological Survey's groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW, is documented. The Riparian Evapotranspiration Package (RIP-ET) provides flexibility in simulating riparian and wetland transpiration not provided by the Evapotranspiration (EVT) or Segmented Function Evapotranspiration (ETS1) Packages for MODFLOW 2005. This report describes how the RIP-ET package was conceptualized and provides input instructions, listings and explanations of the source code, and an example. Traditional approaches to modeling evapotranspiration (ET) processes assume a piecewise linear relationship between ET flux and hydraulic head. The RIP-ET replaces this traditional relationship with a segmented, nonlinear dimensionless curve that reflects the eco-physiology of riparian and wetland ecosystems. Evapotranspiration losses from these ecosystems are dependent not only on hydraulic head, but on the plant types present. User-defined plant functional groups (PFGs) are used to elucidate the interaction between plant transpiration and groundwater conditions. Five generalized plant functional groups based on transpiration rates, plant rooting depth, and water tolerance ranges are presented: obligate wetland, shallow-rooted riparian, deep-rooted riparian, transitional riparian and bare ground/open water. Plant functional groups can be further divided into subgroups (PFSGs) based on plant size, density or other characteristics. The RIP-ET allows for partial habitat coverage and mixtures of plant functional subgroups to be present in a single model cell. RIP-ET also distinguishes between plant transpiration and bare-ground evaporation. Habitat areas are designated by polygons; each polygon can contain a mixture of PFSGs and bare ground, and is assigned a surface elevation. This process requires a determination of fractional coverage for each of the plant functional subgroups present in a polygon to account for the mixture of coverage types and resulting

  18. Assessing riparian conservation land management practice impacts on gully erosion in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Zaimes, George N; Schultz, Richard C

    2012-05-01

    Well-established perennial vegetation in riparian areas of agricultural lands can stabilize the end points of gullies and reduce their overall erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of riparian land management on gully erosion. A field survey documented the number of gullies and cattle access points in riparian forest buffers, grass filters, annual row-cropped fields, pastures in which the cattle were fenced out of the stream, and continuously, rotationally and intensive rotationally grazed pastures in three regions of Iowa. Gully lengths, depths and severely eroding bank areas were measured. Gullies exhibited few significant differences among riparian management practices. The most significant differences were exhibited between conservation and agricultural management practices, an indication that conservation practices could reduce gully erosion. Changes in pasture management from continuous to rotational or intensive rotational grazing showed no reductions in gully erosion. It is important to recognize that more significant differences among riparian management practices were not exhibited because the conservation and alternative grazing practices had recently been established. As gully formation is more impacted by upland than riparian management, gully stabilization might require additional upland conservation practices. The existence of numerous cattle access points in pastures where cattle have full access to the stream also indicates that these could be substantial sources of sediment for streams. Finally, the gully banks were less important sediment contributors to streams than the streambanks. The severely eroding bank areas in streams were six times greater than those in the gullies in the monitored reaches.

  19. Water sources and mixing in riparian wetlands revealed by tracers and geospatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessels, Jason S.; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Birkel, Christian; Dick, Jonathan; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Mixing of waters within riparian zones has been identified as an important influence on runoff generation and water quality. Improved understanding of the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of water sources and how they mix in riparian zones is therefore of both fundamental and applied interest. In this study, we have combined topographic indices derived from a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with repeated spatially high-resolution synoptic sampling of multiple tracers to investigate such dynamics of source water mixing. We use geostatistics to estimate concentrations of three different tracers (deuterium, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon) across an extended riparian zone in a headwater catchment in NE Scotland, to identify spatial and temporal influences on mixing of source waters. The various biogeochemical tracers and stable isotopes helped constrain the sources of runoff and their temporal dynamics. Results show that spatial variability in all three tracers was evident in all sampling campaigns, but more pronounced in warmer dryer periods. The extent of mixing areas within the riparian area reflected strong hydroclimatic controls and showed large degrees of expansion and contraction that was not strongly related to topographic indices. The integrated approach of using multiple tracers, geospatial statistics, and topographic analysis allowed us to classify three main riparian source areas and mixing zones. This study underlines the importance of the riparian zones for mixing soil water and groundwater and introduces a novel approach how this mixing can be quantified and the effect on the downstream chemistry be assessed.

  20. Assessing Riparian Conservation Land Management Practice Impacts on Gully Erosion in Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaimes, George N.; Schultz, Richard C.

    2012-05-01

    Well-established perennial vegetation in riparian areas of agricultural lands can stabilize the end points of gullies and reduce their overall erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of riparian land management on gully erosion. A field survey documented the number of gullies and cattle access points in riparian forest buffers, grass filters, annual row-cropped fields, pastures in which the cattle were fenced out of the stream, and continuously, rotationally and intensive rotationally grazed pastures in three regions of Iowa. Gully lengths, depths and severely eroding bank areas were measured. Gullies exhibited few significant differences among riparian management practices. The most significant differences were exhibited between conservation and agricultural management practices, an indication that conservation practices could reduce gully erosion. Changes in pasture management from continuous to rotational or intensive rotational grazing showed no reductions in gully erosion. It is important to recognize that more significant differences among riparian management practices were not exhibited because the conservation and alternative grazing practices had recently been established. As gully formation is more impacted by upland than riparian management, gully stabilization might require additional upland conservation practices. The existence of numerous cattle access points in pastures where cattle have full access to the stream also indicates that these could be substantial sources of sediment for streams. Finally, the gully banks were less important sediment contributors to streams than the streambanks. The severely eroding bank areas in streams were six times greater than those in the gullies in the monitored reaches.

  1. Water sources and mixing in riparian wetlands revealed by tracers and geospatial analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Birkel, Christian; Dick, Jonathan; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mixing of waters within riparian zones has been identified as an important influence on runoff generation and water quality. Improved understanding of the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of water sources and how they mix in riparian zones is therefore of both fundamental and applied interest. In this study, we have combined topographic indices derived from a high‐resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with repeated spatially high‐resolution synoptic sampling of multiple tracers to investigate such dynamics of source water mixing. We use geostatistics to estimate concentrations of three different tracers (deuterium, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon) across an extended riparian zone in a headwater catchment in NE Scotland, to identify spatial and temporal influences on mixing of source waters. The various biogeochemical tracers and stable isotopes helped constrain the sources of runoff and their temporal dynamics. Results show that spatial variability in all three tracers was evident in all sampling campaigns, but more pronounced in warmer dryer periods. The extent of mixing areas within the riparian area reflected strong hydroclimatic controls and showed large degrees of expansion and contraction that was not strongly related to topographic indices. The integrated approach of using multiple tracers, geospatial statistics, and topographic analysis allowed us to classify three main riparian source areas and mixing zones. This study underlines the importance of the riparian zones for mixing soil water and groundwater and introduces a novel approach how this mixing can be quantified and the effect on the downstream chemistry be assessed. PMID:27478256

  2. Riparian restoration framework for the Upper Gila River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Bruce K.; Leverich, Glen L.; Diggory, Zooey E.; Dudley, Tom L.; Hatten, James R.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Orr, Devyn A.

    2014-01-01

    This technical report summarizes the methods and results of a comprehensive riparian restoration planning effort for the Gila Valley Restoration Planning Area, an approximately 53-mile portion of the upper Gila River in Arizona (Figure 1-1). This planning effort has developed a Restoration Framework intended to deliver science-based guidance on suitable riparian restoration actions within the ecologically sensitive river corridor. The framework development was conducted by a restoration science team, led by Stillwater Sciences with contributions from researchers at the Desert Botanical Garden (DBG), Northern Arizona University (NAU), University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). All work was coordinated by the Gila Watershed Partnership of Arizona (GWP), whose broader Upper Gila River Project Area is depicted in Figure 1-1, with funding from the Walton Family Foundation’s Freshwater Initiative Program.

  3. Riparian buffer transpiration and watershed scale impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forested riparian buffers are prevalent throughout the Southeastern Coastal Plain Region of the United States (US). Because they make up a significant portion of the regional landscape, transpiration within these riparian buffers is believed to have an important impact on the hydrologic budget of r...

  4. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  5. Mercury Speciation and Bioaccumulation In Riparian and Upland Food Webs of the White Mountains Region, New Hampshire, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenhouse, N.; Gebauer, R.; Lowe, W.; McFarland, K.; Bank, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The soils and foods webs associated with mid to high elevation, forested, headwater streams are potential hotspots for mercury methylation and bioaccumulation but are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that spatial variation in mercury bioaccumulation in upland taxa associated with headwater streams can be explained by variation in soil conditions promoting Hg methylation such as soil moisture, pH, and sulfur and organic matter content. We sampled at high (c. 700m) and mid elevation (c. 500m) in northern hardwood forest adjacent to and away from (75m) replicate headwater streams in the Hubbard Brook and Jeffers Brook watersheds of the White Mountains region, New Hampshire, USA. These forested watersheds differed primarily in soil calcium content and pH. We measured and assessed spatial variation in total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in soils, insects, spiders, salamanders and birds. We also tested whether trophic position, as determined by nitrogen stable isotopes, was a major predictor of Hg bioaccumulation across these riparian and upland forest taxa. We found elevated levels of THg in all measured components of the food web, and conditions for methylation were better in the upland forest sites compared to the riparian sites located adjacent to headwater streams. Both THg and MeHg in biota were positively correlated with trophic position as indicated by 15N enrichment. In fact, trophic position was a better predictor of THg and MeHg content than spatial location, but the spatial patterning of bioaccumulation differed among taxa. Our data show that that significant Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification can occur in soils and food webs of mid to high elevation temperate deciduous forests of the Northeast. They also suggest that mercury methylation in forested watersheds is a widespread phenomenon and not limited to areas with high soil moisture, such as lotic environments.

  6. Riparian and in-stream controls on nutrient concentrations along a headwater forested stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, S.; Lupon, A.; Ribot, M.; Sabater, F.; Martí, E.

    2014-07-01

    Headwater streams have a strong capacity to transform and retain nutrients, and thus, a longitudinal decrease in stream nutrient concentrations would be expected from in-stream nutrient removal alone. Yet, a number of other factors within the catchment, including biogeochemical processing within the riparian zone and export to streams, can contribute to stream nutrient concentration, which may overcome the effect of in-stream biogeochemical processing. To explore this idea, we analyzed the longitudinal patterns of stream and riparian groundwater concentrations for chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and phosphate (PO43-) along a 3.7 km reach at an annual scale. The reach showed a gradual increase in stream and riparian width, riparian tree basal area, and abundance of riparian N2-fixing tree species. Concentrations of Cl- indicated a~strong hydrological connection at the riparian-stream edge. However, stream and riparian groundwater nutrient concentrations showed a moderate to null correlation, suggesting high biogeochemical processing at the riparian-stream edge and within the stream. A mass balance approach along the reach indicated that, on average, in-stream net nutrient uptake prevailed over release for NH4+ and PO43-, but not for NO3-. On an annual basis, in-stream processes contributed to change stream input fluxes by 11%, 26%, and 29% for NO3-, NH4+, and PO43-, respectively. Yet, longitudinal trends in concentration were not consistent with the prevailing in-stream biogeochem ical processes. During the riparian dormant period, stream concentration decreased along the reach for NO3-, but increased for NH4+ and PO43-. During the riparian vegetative period, NO3- and PO43- increased along the reach while NH4+ showed no clear pattern. These longitudinal trends were partially related to riparian forest features and groundwater inputs, especially for NO3- and PO43-. Our study suggests that even though in-stream biogeochemical

  7. Influence of planting grass filter strips on the structure and function of riparian habitats of agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass filter strips are strips of cool or warm season grasses planted adjacent to agricultural streams to reduce nutrient, pesticide, and sediment input. This conservation practice is the most frequently planted riparian buffer type in the United States. Previous studies have not evaluated how gra...

  8. Grassland birds associated with agricultural riparian practices in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renfrew, R.B.; Ribic, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rotational grazing has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for minimizing runoff in Wisconsin agricultural riparian areas. The influence of this land management practice on grassland birds has not been evaluated in relation to more traditional agricultural land management systems in Midwestern riparian areas. This study compared the grassland bird community in riparian areas in Wisconsin that were rotationally grazed to 2 common land use practices along streams in Wisconsin: continuously grazed pastures and rowcrop fields with 10-m-wide ungrazed buffer strips located along the stream. We calculated total number of birds, the Berger-Parker Index of Dominance, and number of birds ha-1 for each site. Vegetation variables used were height-density, litter depth, and percent bare ground. Bird species richness, species dominance, and density did not differ among land use types. In contrast, grassland bird species of management concern [Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis Gmelin), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna L.), and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus L.)] were found on continuous and rotational pastures but very rarely or never occurred on buffer strips. Contrary to previous research, however, rotationally grazed pastures did not support more of these species than continuously grazed pastures. Bird density was related to vegetation structure, with higher densities found on sites with deeper litter. Within the pasture land use types, there were no consistent differences between species richness and density near the stream (10 m).

  9. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part II. Water temperature and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.; Davis, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Geothermal reconnaissance techniques have identified five areas in Utah County warranting further investigation for low-temperature geothermal resources. One area in northern Utah Valley is along Utah Lake fault zone and includes Saratoga Hot Springs. Water temperatures within this area range from 21 to 43/sup 0/C. Common ion analyses as well as B and Li concentrations indicate waters sampled in this area are anomalous when compared to other samples from the same aquifer. Two other areas in southern Utah Valley also coincide with the Utah Lake fault zone. Common ion analyses, trace element concentrations, and C1/HCO/sub 3/ ratios distinguish these areas from all other waters in this valley. Temperatures within these southern areas range from 21 to 32/sup 0/C. All three thermal areas are possibly the result of deep circulation of meteoric water being warmed and subsequently migrating upward within the Utah Lake fault zone. The Castilla Hot Springs area has been expanded by this study to include a spring located 3 mi further up Spanish Fork Canyon near the Thistle earthflow. A temperature of 50/sup 0/C was recorded for this spring and chemistry is similar to Castilla. In Goshen Valley, the fifth geothermal area identified, measured temperatures range from 20 to 27/sup 0/C for some wells and springs. Chemical analyses, however, do not discern the location of low-temperature geothermal reservoirs. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Denitrification potential in stormwater control structures and natural riparian zones in an urban landscape.

    PubMed

    Bettez, Neil D; Groffman, Peter M

    2012-10-16

    Humans have significantly altered urban landscapes, creating impervious surfaces, and changing drainage patterns that increase volume and velocity as well as frequency and timing of runoff following precipitation events. These changes in runoff have impaired streams and riparian areas that previously reduced watershed nitrogen (N) flux through uptake and denitrification. Stormwater control measures (SCM) are used most frequently to mitigate these hydrologic impacts. While SCM control runoff, their ability to remove N compared to natural riparian areas is not well-known. In this study we compared potential denitrification [as denitrification enzyme activity (DEA)] in five types of SCM (wet ponds, dry detention ponds, dry extended detention, infiltration basin, and filtering practices) and forested and herbaceous riparian areas in Baltimore, MD. DEA was higher in SCM (1.2 mg N kg(-1) hr(-1)) than in riparian areas (0.4 mg N kg(-1) hr(-1)). While DEA was highly correlated with soil moisture, organic matter, microbial biomass, and soil respiration areas across sites, it was always higher in SCM at equivalent levels of these variables. SCM appear to function as denitrification hotspots and, despite having similar microbial biomass, have higher potential denitrification than natural riparian areas.

  11. Predicting the impact of water demand and river flow regulation over riparian vegetation through mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Arias, A.; Pons, C.; Frances, F.

    2013-12-01

    The vegetation of the riversides is a main part of the complex riparian ecosystems and has an important role maintaining the fluvial ecosystems. Biotic and abiotic interactions between the river and the riverbank are essential for the subsistence and the development of both ecosystems. In semi-arid Mediterranean areas, the riparian vegetation growth and distribution is especially controlled by the water accessibility, determining the limit between the lush riparian bands and the sparse upland. Human intervention can alter the river hydrology determining the riparian vegetation wellbeing and its distribution and, in consequence, affecting both riparian and fluvial ecosystems. Predictive models are necessary decision support tools for adequate river management and restoration initiatives. In this context, the RibAV model is useful to predict the impact of water demand and river flow regulation on the riparian vegetation. RibAV is able to reproduce the vegetation performance on the riverside allowing the scenarios analysis in terms of vegetation distribution and wellbeing. In this research several flow regulation and water demand scenarios are proposed and the impacts over three plant functional types (PFTs) are analyzed. The PFTs group the herbaceous riparian plants, the woody riparian plants and the terrestrial vegetation. The study site is the Terde reach at the Mijares River, a 539m length reach located in a semi-arid Mediterranean area in Spain. The scenarios represent river flow alterations required to attend different human demands. These demands encompass different seasonality, magnitude and location. The seasonality is represented as hydroelectric (constant all over the year), urban (increased during the summer period) and agricultural demands (monthly seasonality). The magnitude is varied considering the 20%, the 40% and the 80% of the mean daily flow. Two locations are considered, upstream or downstream the study site. To attend the demands located

  12. Delineating riparian zones for entire river networks using geomorphological criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, D.; Barquín, J.; Álvarez-Cabria, M.; Peñas, F. J.

    2012-03-01

    Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for riparian and river ecosystem management, however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is, however, not usually available for entire river corridors, and is only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. One of the requirements for catchment planning is to establish the most appropriate location of zones to conserve or restore riparian buffer strips for whole river networks. This issue could be solved by using geomorphological criteria extracted from Digital Elevation Models. In this work we have explored the adjustment of surfaces developed under two different geomorphological criteria with respect to the flooded area covered by the 50-yr flood, in an attempt to rapidly delineate hydrologically-meaningful riparian zones for entire river networks. The first geomorphological criterion is based on the surface that intersects valley walls at a given number of bankfull depths above the channel (BFDAC), while the second is based on the surface defined by a~threshold value indicating the relative cost of moving from the stream up to the valley, accounting for slope and elevation change (path distance). As the relationship between local geomorphology and 50-yr flood has been suggested to be river-type dependant, we have performed our analyses distinguishing between three river types corresponding with three valley morphologies: open, shallow vee and deep vee valleys (in increasing degree of valley constrainment). Adjustment between the surfaces derived from geomorphological and hydrological criteria has been evaluated using two different methods: one based on exceeding areas (minimum exceeding score) and the other on the similarity among total area values. Both methods have pointed out the same surfaces when looking for those that best match with

  13. Riparian vegetation in South-western Europe: drivers of change across space and time (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, F. C.; Ferriera, M.

    2010-12-01

    Riparian ecosystems of Mediterranean Europe have been largely disturbed for millennia due to human-driven alterations. Land-use, deforestation, water diversion and river regulation have been the major causes of change of riparian and freshwater ecosystems. Riparian vegetation in this region has particular features due to a large climatic and environmental variation; from the climatic harshness and the flash-flow hydrological regime of southern rivers to high-altitude permanent rivers of the north regions. Riparia is a fundamental element of the Mediterranean landscape by a number of ecological values, and economic and societal benefits, and they are usually seen as “linear oasis” embedded in the complex landscape matrix. We face a huge challenge in understanding the distribution trends of the riparian species assemblages in those diverse biogeographic regions and the varying effects of the multi-scaled drivers of change. I will review the main studies that have explored the patterns of variation of riparian plant assemblages across space and time in South-Western Europe, including its longitudinal and lateral dimension. Structural community features and plant functional traits, that can be described and quantified, are ecological expressions of both natural and human disturbances, and comparatively less understood than floral composition patterns, and many studies suggest that they are more reactive to disturbance. Linkages of taxonomic and functional trait variation will also be addressed, focusing in the influence of environment at various scale levels. Effects of human disturbances, particularly the alien plant invasions and the losses of biodiversity and connectivity will be tackled. These studies provided evidence of shifts in species composition and in structural complexity, as well as in individual and community responses to wetting and drying due to regulation and to physical disturbances of riverbanks. The intensive agriculture in adjacent lands is a

  14. Impacts of stream flow and climate variability on native and invasive woody species in a riparian ecosystem of a semi-arid region of the Great Plains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolaut, K.; Awada, T.; Cherubini, P.; Schapaugh, A.; Huddle, J.

    2012-04-01

    Riparian ecosystems support diverse plant communities that exert direct and indirect biological, physical and chemical influence on, and are influenced by, adjacent water through both above and below-ground interactions. Historically, riparian areas of the northern Great Plains (United States) have been dominated by the native Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). This species relies on regular floods for regeneration and groundwater access for success. Over the past sixty years, changes in flow management and agricultural practices, coupled with climate variability and drought, have altered stream flow and caused a dramatic decline in stream water yields and levels of groundwater. These and other biotic factors have promoted the expansion of the upland native woody species Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar), and the invasion of the non-native (introduced) Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) into riparian ecosystems. This invasion has further altered the water balance in the system and exasperated the problem of water scarcity with negative feedback on ecosystem services and growth of native woody species. The ability of P. deltoides to re-establish and grow is of concern for natural resource managers. The study utilizes tree ring analysis of annual growth rates and stable isotope ratios of 13C and 18O to determine 1) the response P. deltoides and invasive J. virginiana and E. angustifulia have to climate variation and stream flow regulation, and 2) the impacts of the two invasive species on the growth of native P. deltoides. Preliminary results have shown that P. deltoids annual growth rate (using basal area increment growth) continually declined over the last 40 yrs, while that of E. angustifolia steadily increased. Growth of both P. deltoides and J. virginiana displayed greater dependence on climatic factors than E. angustifolia. Ecological and hydrological significance of the results will be presented.

  15. Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Valley-fill aquifers are modest resources within the area, as indicated by the common practice of completing supply wells in the underlying bedrock rather than the overlying glacial deposits. Groundwater turbidity problems curtail use of the resource. However, additional groundwater resources have been identified by test drilling, and there are remaining untested areas. New groundwater supplies that stress localized aquifer areas will alter the groundwater flow system. Considerations include potential water-quality degradation from nearby land use(s) and, where withdrawals induce infiltration of surface-water, balancing withdrawals with flow requirements for downstream users or for maintenance of stream ecological health.

  16. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2015-12-01

    Salmon are a valuable cultural and economic resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  17. Riparian shading and groundwater enhance growth potential for smallmouth bass in Ozark streams.

    PubMed

    Whitledge, Gregory W; Rabeni, Charles F; Annis, Gust; Sowa, Scott P

    2006-08-01

    focused in areas strongly influenced by groundwater. Restoring riparian shading along spring-fed warmwater streams will likely benefit adult smallmouth bass growth and may ultimately influence population sizes.

  18. Assessing Risks of Shallow Riparian Groundwater Quality Near an Oil Sands Tailings Pond.

    PubMed

    Roy, J W; Bickerton, G; Frank, R A; Grapentine, L; Hewitt, L M

    2016-07-01

    The potential discharge of groundwater contaminated by oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a concern for aquatic ecosystems near tailings ponds. Groundwater in the area, but unaffected by OSPW, may contain similar compounds, complicating the assessment of potential ecological impacts. In this study, 177 shallow groundwater samples were collected from riparian areas along the Athabasca River and tributaries proximate to oil sands developments. For "pond-site" samples (71; adjacent to study tailings pond), Canadian aquatic life guidelines were exceeded for 11 of 20 assessed compounds. However, "non-pond" samples (54; not near any tailings pond) provided similar exceedances. Statistical analyses indicate that pond-site and non-pond samples were indistinguishable for all but seven parameters assessed, including salts, many trace metals, and fluorescence profiles of aromatic naphthenic acids (ANA). This suggests that, regarding the tested parameters, groundwater adjacent to the study tailings pond generally poses no greater ecological risk than other nearby groundwaters at this time. Multivariate analyses applied to the groundwater data set separated into 11 smaller zones support this conclusion, but show some variation between zones. Geological and potential OSPW influences could not be distinguished based on major ions and metals concentrations. However, similarities in indicator parameters, namely ANA, F, Mo, Se, and Na-Cl ratio, were noted between a small subset of samples from two pond-site zones and two OSPW samples and two shallow groundwater samples documented as likely OSPW affected. This indicator-based screening suggests that OSPW-affected groundwater may be reaching Athabasca River sediments at a few locations. PMID:26743232

  19. Notes on the geology of Tibet and adjacent areas; report of the American plate tectonics delegation to the People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bally, A.W.; Allen, C.R.; Geyer, R.B.; Hamilton, W.B.; Hopson, C.A.; Molnar, P.H.; Oliver, J.E.; Opdyke, N.D.; Plafker, George; Wu, F.T.

    1980-01-01

    Mean water levels in wells across Georgia were from 3.03 feet higher to 11.67 feet lower in 1979 than in 1978, and in some areas were the lowest on record. Water levels in the principal artesian aquifer underwent a long-term decline during the period 1970-79. In some areas water levels dropped more than 10 feet. Wells tapping the Clayton Limestone in the Albany area showed a long-term decline during the period 1970-79, and in some wells water levels dropped more than 20 feet. Water levels in the Cretaceous aquifer system showed little fluctuation during 1979. In the Piedmont area mean water levels remained the same to 4 feet higher in 1979 than in 1978 and showed no long-term trend. (USGS)

  20. Multiple representations of body movements in mesial area 6 and the adjacent cingulate cortex: an intracortical microstimulation study in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Luppino, G; Matelli, M; Camarda, R M; Gallese, V; Rizzolatti, G

    1991-09-22

    The mesial agranular frontal cortex that lies rostral to area 4 (F1) is formed by two distinct cytoarchitectonic areas: F3, located caudally, and F6, located rostrally. In the present experiments we investigated the organization of F3 and F6 by observing the motor responses evoked by their intracortical electrical microstimulation. Our main purpose was to find out whether the cytoarchitectonic subdivision of the mesial agranular frontal cortex into two areas has a physiological counterpart. The result showed that F3 (the caudal area) contains a complete motor representation with hindlimb movements located caudally, forelimb movements located centrally, and orofacial movements located rostrally. The great majority of limb movements involved proximal joints. With respect to F1, F3 showed the following functional characteristics: (1) lack of segregation between proximal and distal movements, (2) larger percentage of complex movements, and (3) higher excitability threshold. Movements were more difficult to elicit from F6 (the rostral area) than from F3. However, by using a longer stimulus train duration (100 ms) 39.3% of tested sites produced body movements. This percentage increased (50.5%) when the electrical stimulation was applied during monkey natural movements instead of when the monkey was still in its chair. Most of the evoked movements concerned the forelimb. More rarely, neck and upper face movements were observed. Unlike F1 and F3 where most movements were fast, slow movements were frequently observed with stimulation of F6. Many of them mimicked natural movements of the animal. Eye movements were evoked from F7 (superior area 6) but not from F6. An additional motor representation was found in the dorsocaudal part of area 24 (24d). This area is topographically organized with a forelimb representation located caudally and ventrally and a hindlimb representation located rostrally and dorsally. The excitability threshold of area 24d is higher than that of F1

  1. Recovery times of riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, R.; Camporeale, C.; Ridolfi, L.

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation is a key element in a number of processes that determine the ecogeomorphological features of the river landscape. Depending on the river water stage fluctuations, vegetation biomass randomly switches between growth and degradation phases and exhibits relevant temporal variations. A full understanding of vegetation dynamics is therefore only possible if the hydrological stochastic forcing is considered. In this vein, we focus on the recovery time of vegetation, namely the typical time taken by vegetation to recover a well-developed state starting from a low biomass value (induced, for instance, by an intense flood). The analytical expression of the plot-dependent recovery time is given, the role of hydrological and biological parameters is discussed, and the impact of river-induced randomness is highlighted. Finally, the effect of man-induced hydrological changes (e.g., river damming or climate changes) is explored.

  2. Water information bulletin No. 30: geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 11. Geological, hydrological, geochemical and geophysical investigations of the Nampa-Caldwell and adjacent areas, southwestern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.C.

    1981-12-01

    The area under study included approximately 925 sq km (357 sq mi) of the Nampa-Caldwell portion of Canyon County, an area within the central portion of the western Snake River Plain immediately west of Boise, Idaho. Geologic mapping, hydrologic, geochemical, geophysical, including detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, were run to acquire needed data. In addition, existing magnetotelluric and reflection seismic data were purchased and reinterpreted in light of newly acquired data.

  3. RIPARIAN CHARACTERIZATION USING SUB-PIXEL ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT TM IMAGERY FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landuse/land cover and riparian corridor characterization for 7 major watersheds in western Ohio was accomplished using sub-pixel analysis and traditional classification techniques. Areas
    representing forest, woodland, shrub, and herbaceous vegetation were delineated using a ...

  4. Groundwater flow path dynamics and nitrogen transport potential in the riparian zone of an agricultural headwater catchment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stream riparian zones are often thought of as areas that provide natural remediation for groundwater contaminants, especially agricultural nitrogen (N). While denitrification and vegetative uptake tend to be efficient N removal processes in slow moving shallow groundwater, these mechanisms decrease ...

  5. Patterns of Distribution of Macro-fauna in Different Types of Estuarine, Soft Sediment Habitats Adjacent to Urban and Non-urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegarth, M.; Hoskin, M.

    2001-02-01

    Urban development typically creates a large number of potentially interacting disturbances that may cause impacts on assemblages of animals and plans in estuarine habitats. We tested predictions from the general model that intertidal areas exposed to different types of disturbances have different types of assemblages of benthic macrofauna. Different parts of the Port Hacking Estuary (New South Wales, Australia) are exposed to varying degrees of disturbance by human activities. We predicted that the average structure of assemblages of intertidal animals, and patterns of variability would differ between urban and non-urban areas of Port Hacking. Consistent with previous observations from the literature, there were differences in average structure between urban and non-urban sandy areas. Qualitative differences between abundances of individual taxa in urban and non-urban areas were generally not consistent with previous observations. Differences between assemblages in urban and non-urban areas were not observed in muddy sediments, nor in sediments among mangroves and seagrass. No significant differences in variability was observed between urban and non-urban areas. Two general models may be proposed to explain the observed differences in response to urbanization in different habitats: (1) animals are exposed to different levels or combinations of disturbances in different habitats; or (2) assemblages of animals differ in sensitivity to disturbances among habitats.

  6. Recovery times of riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation is a key element in a number of processes that determine the eco-geomorphological features of the river landscape. Depending on the river water stage fluctuations, vegetation biomass randomly switches between growth and decay phases, and its biomass exhibits relevant temporal variations. A full understanding of vegetation dynamics is therefore only possible if the hydrological stochastic forcing is considered. In this vein, we focus on the recovery time of vegetation, namely the typical time taken by vegetation to recover a health state starting from a low biomass value (induced, for instance, by an intense flood). The minimalistic stochastic modeling approach is used for describing vegetation dynamics (i.e., the noise-driven alternation of growth and decay phases). The recovery time of biomass is then evaluated according to the theory of the mean first passage time in systems driven by dichotomous noise. The effect of the main hydrological and biological parameters on the vegetation recovery was studied, and the dynamics along the riparian transect was described in details. The effect of climate change and human interventions (e.g., river damming) was also investigated. We found that: (i) the oscillations of the river stage delay the recovery process (up to one order of magnitude, with respect to undisturbed conditions); (ii) hydrological/biological alterations (due to climate change, damming, exotic species invasion) modify the timescales of the recovery. The result provided can be a useful tool for the management of the river. They open the way to the estimation of: (i) the recovery time of vegetation after devastating floods, clear cutting or fires and; (ii) the timescale of the vegetation response to hydrological and biological alterations.

  7. The Role of Legacy Effects and Reactive Amendments on Phosphorus Retention Within Riparian Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surridge, B.; Habibiandehkordi, R.; Quinton, J.

    2014-12-01

    Undisturbed riparian zones, including river floodplains and field buffer strips, can significantly reduce phosphorus (P) export associated with agricultural production. However, riparian zones are frequently disturbed, including through conversion to agricultural land. Restoring disturbed riparian zones is promoted widely within agri-environment schemes. However, restoration presents significant challenges, two of which are considered in this paper: understanding the impacts of restoration on legacy P within riparian zone soils; and maximising the efficacy of riparian zones for removal of all P fractions, including the more immediately bioavailable soluble P fractions. Firstly, we examine changes in porewater soluble P concentration following re-wetting of a river floodplain in Norfolk, UK, using laboratory mesocosms and in-situ field monitoring. Substantial release of P from sediment to porewater was observed following re-wetting (porewater soluble P concentration exceeded 6.5 mg P L-1), probably associated with reductive-dissolution of iron-bound P within floodplain sediments. Export of soluble P from porewater into adjacent receiving waters was observed following both natural hydrological events and management of the hydrological regime within the floodplain. Secondly, we examine how retention of soluble P with grass buffer strips can be enhanced through application of reactive industrial by-products, focussing on ochre and aluminium-based water treatment residuals. Application of these by-products to buffer strips increased removal of soluble P from surface runoff by over 50% compared to non-amended buffer strips. The long-term effectiveness of reactive amendments is also considered, using repeated runoff events under field conditions. Taken together, the research offers new insights into riparian zone P biogeochemistry within agricultural landscapes.

  8. Monitoring and mapping selected riparian habitat along the lower Snake River

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J. L; Tiller, B. L; Witter, M.; Mazaika, R.

    1996-01-01

    Studies in this document were initiated to establish baseline information on riparian and wetland habitat conditions at the areas studied under the current reservoir operations on the lower Snake River. Two approaches were used to assess habitat at 28 study sites selected on the four pools on the lower Snake River. These areas all contribute significant riparian habitat along the river, and several of these areas are designated habitat management units. At 14 of the 28 sites, we monitored riparian habitat on three dates during the growing season to quantify vegetation abundance and composition along three transects: soil nutrients, moisture, and pH and water level and pH. A second approach involved identifying any differences in the extent and amount of riparian/wetland habitat currently found at the study areas from that previously documented. We used both ground and boat surveys to map and classify the changes in vegetative cover along the shoreline at the 14 monitoring sites and at 14 additional sites along the lower Snake selected to represent various riparian/wetland habitat conditions. Results of these mapping efforts are compared with maps of cover types previously generated using aerial photography taken in 1987.

  9. Reflectivity patterns in the Variscan mountain belts and adjacent areas: an attempt for a pattern recognition and correlation to tectonic units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, R.; Wever, Th.; Sadowiak, P.; Dekorp Research Group

    1990-02-01

    The Seismic reflection profiles of DEKORP (DEutsches KOntinentales ReflexionsSeismisches Programm) in the Federal Republic of Germany to date have been limited to areas of the Variscan orogeny. Nevertheless, the character of their reflections differs considerably and may be correlated to certain Variscan and post-Variscan developments. Lower crust lamellae develop in areas of high heat flow, mostly associated with post-Variscan extensional processes; "crocodile" and nappe tectonics are best preserved in the cores and at the flanks of older massifs which were incorporated into the Variscan orogeny. So far poor reflectivity has been observed only in the area of the London-Brabant Massif which was not involved in any of the Phanerozoic orogenies.

  10. Agricultural conservation planning framework: 2. Classification of riparian buffer design types with application to assess and map stream corridors.

    PubMed

    Tomer, M D; Boomer, K M B; Porter, S A; Gelder, B K; James, D E; McLellan, E

    2015-05-01

    A watershed's riparian corridor presents opportunities to stabilize streambanks, intercept runoff, and influence shallow groundwater with riparian buffers. This paper presents a system to classify these riparian opportunities and apply them toward riparian management planning in hydrologic unit code 12 watersheds. In two headwater watersheds from each of three landform regions found in Iowa and Illinois, high-resolution (3-m grid) digital elevation models were analyzed to identify spatial distributions of surface runoff contributions and zones with shallow water tables (SWTs) (within 1.5 m of the channel elevation) along the riparian corridors. Results were tabulated, and a cross classification was applied. Classes of buffers include those primarily placed to (i) trap runoff and sediment, (ii) influence shallow groundwater, (iii) address both runoff and shallow groundwater, and (iv) maintain/improve stream bank stability. Riparian buffers occupying about 2.5% of these six watersheds could effectively intercept runoff contributions from 81 to 94% of the watersheds' contributing areas. However, extents of riparian zones where a narrow buffer (<10 m wide) would adequately intercept runoff but where >25 m width of buffer vegetation could root to a SWT varied according to landform region ( < 0.10). Yet, these wide-SWT riparian zones were widespread and occupied 23 to 53% of the lengths of stream banks among the six watersheds. The wide-SWT setting provides opportunities to reduce dissolved nutrients (particularly NO-N) carried via groundwater. This riparian classification and mapping system is part of a ArcGIS toolbox and could provide a consistent basis to identify riparian management opportunities in Midwestern headwater catchments wherever high-resolution elevation data are available. PMID:26024257

  11. Impacts of rotational grazing and riparian buffers on physicochemical and biological characteristicsof southeastern Minnesota, USA, streams.

    PubMed

    Sovell, L A; Vondracek, B; Frost, J A; Mumford, K G

    2000-12-01

    We assessed the relationship between riparian management and stream quality along five southeastern Minnesota streams in 1995 and 1996. Specifically, we examined the effect of rotationally and continuously grazed pastures and different types of riparian buffer strips on water chemistry, physical habitat, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish as indicators of stream quality. We collected data at 17 sites under different combinations of grazing and riparian management, using a longitudinal design on three streams and a paired watershed design on two others. Continuous and rotational grazing were compared along one longitudinal study stream and at the paired watershed. Riparian buffer management, fenced trees (wood buffer), fenced grass, and unfenced rotationally grazed areas were the focus along the two remaining longitudinal streams. Principal components analysis (PCA) of water chemistry, physical habitat, and biotic data indicated a local management effect. The ordinations separated continuous grazing from sites with rotational grazing and sites with wood buffers from those with grass buffers or rotationally grazed areas. Fecal coliform and turbidity were consistently higher at continuously grazed than rotationally grazed sites. Percent fines in the streambed were significantly higher at sites with wood buffers than grass and rotationally grazed areas, and canopy cover was similar at sites with wood and grass buffers. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics were significant but were not consistent across grazing and riparian buffer management types. Fish density and abundance were related to riparian buffer type, rather than grazing practices. Our study has potentially important implications for stream restoration programs in the midwestern United States. Our comparisons suggest further consideration and study of a combination of grass and wood riparian buffer strips as midwestern stream management options, rather than universally installing wood buffers in every instance

  12. Effects of anthropogenic fragmentation and livestock grazing on western riparian bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewksbury, J.J.; Black, A.E.; Nur, N.; Saab, V.A.; Logan, B.D.; Dobkin, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Deciduous vegetation along streams and rivers provides breeding habitat to more bird species than any other plant community in the West, yet many riparian areas are heavily grazed by cattle and surrounded by increasingly developed landscapes. The combination of cattle grazing and landscape alteration (habitat loss and fragmentation) are thought to be critical factors affecting the richness and composition of breeding bird communities. Here, we examine the influence of land use and cattle grazing on deciduous riparian bird communities across seven riparian systems in five western states: Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and California. These riparian systems are embedded in landscapes ranging from nearly pristine to almost completely agricultural. We conducted landscape analysis at two spatial scales: local landscapes (all land within 500 m of each survey location) and regional landscapes (all land within 5 km of each survey location). Despite the large differences among riparian systems, we found a number of consistent effects of landscape change and grazing. Of the 87 species with at least 15 detections on two or more rivers, 44 species were less common in grazed sites, in heavily settled or agricultural landscapes, or in areas with little deciduous riparian habitat. The Veery (Catharus fuscescens), Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), Red-naped Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca), and American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) were all less common under at least three of these conditions. In contrast, 33 species were significantly more common in one or more of these conditions. Sites surrounded by greater deciduous habitat had higher overall avian abundance and 22 species had significantly higher individual abundances in areas with more deciduous habitat. Yet, areas with more agriculture at the regional scale also had higher total avian abundance, due in large part to greater abundance of European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), American Robin

  13. Digital geologic map data for the Ozark National Scenic Riverways and adjacent areas along the Current River and Jacks Fork, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Harrison, Richard W.; Weems, Robert E.

    2016-09-23

    The geology of the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) in southern Missouri has been mapped at 1:24,000 scale. This endeavor was achieved through the combined efforts of U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri Geological Survey individual quadrangle mapping and additional fieldwork by the authors of this report. Geologic data covering the area of the ONSR and a 1-mile (1.6-kilometer) buffer zone surrounding the park, as well as geologic data from a few key adjoining areas, have been compiled into a single, seamless geographic information system database. The intent is to provide base geologic information for natural science research and land management in the park and surrounding areas. The data are served online at ScienceBase (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/), where they are provided in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) file geodatabase format, and are accompanied by metadata files. These data can be accessed at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7CJ8BKB. Additional detailed geologic information about the ONSR and surrounding areas is available in the separate 1:24,000-scale quadrangle maps and in a 1:100,000-scale map and report on the regional geology.

  14. Mapping Evapotranspiration Units in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Laczniak, Randell J.; Moreo, Michael T.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system study area. One common method used throughout the southwestern United States is to estimate ground-water discharge from evapotranspiration (ET). ET is a process by which water from the Earth's surface is transferred to the atmosphere. The volume of water lost to the atmosphere by ET can be computed as the product of the ET rate and the acreage of vegetation, open water, and moist soil through which ET occurs. The procedure used in the study groups areas of similar vegetation, water, and soil conditions into different ET units, assigns an average annual ET rate to each unit, and computes annual ET from each ET unit within the outer extent of potential areas of ground-water discharge. Data sets and the procedures used to delineate the ET-unit map used to estimate ground-water discharge from the study area and a qualitative assessment of the accuracy of the map are described in this report.

  15. Geologic map of the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone in the vicinity of Lake Pillsbury and adjacent areas of Mendocino, Lake, and Glenn Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlin, Henry N.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.; Sawyer, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    The Lake Pillsbury area lies in the eastern part of the northern California Coast Ranges, along the east side of the transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates (fig. 1). The Bartlett Springs Fault Zone is a northwest-trending zone of faulting associated with this eastern part of the transform boundary. It is presently active, based on surface creep (Svarc and others, 2008), geomorphic expression, offset of Holocene units (Lienkaemper and Brown, 2009), and microseismicity (Bolt and Oakeshott, 1982; Dehlinger and Bolt, 1984; DePolo and Ohlin, 1984). Faults associated with the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone at Lake Pillsbury are steeply dipping and offset older low to steeply dipping faults separating folded and imbricated Mesozoic terranes of the Franciscan Complex and interleaved rocks of the Coast Range Ophiolite and Great Valley Sequence. Parts of this area were mapped in the late 1970s and 1980s by several investigators who were focused on structural relations in the Franciscan Complex (Lehman, 1978; Jordan, 1975; Layman, 1977; Etter, 1979). In the 1980s the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped a large part of the area as part of a mineral resource appraisal of two U.S. Forest Service Roadless areas. For evaluating mineral resource potential, the USGS mapping was published at a scale of 1:62,500 as a generalized geologic summary map without a topographic base (Ohlin and others, 1983; Ohlin and Spear, 1984). The previously unpublished mapping with topographic base is presented here at a scale of 1:30,000, compiled with other mapping in the vicinity of Lake Pillsbury. The mapping provides a geologic framework for ongoing investigations to evaluate potential earthquake hazards and structure of the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone. This geologic map includes part of Mendocino National Forest (the Elk Creek Roadless Area) in Mendocino, Glenn, and Lake Counties and is traversed by several U.S. Forest Service Routes, including M1 and M6 (fig. 2). The study

  16. Urbanization and nutrient retention in freshwater riparian wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, D.M.; Walbridge, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization can degrade water quality and alter watershed hydrology, with profound effects on the structure and function of both riparian wetlands (RWs) and aquatic ecosystems downstream. We used freshwater RWs in Fairfax County, Virginia, USA, as a model system to examine: (1) the effects of increasing urbanization (indexed by the percentage of impervious surface cover [%ISC] in the surrounding watershed) on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in surface soils and plant tissues, soil P saturation, and soil iron (Fe) chemistry; and (2) relationships between RW soil and plant nutrient chemistries vs. the physical and biotic integrity of adjacent streams. Soil total P and NaOH-extractable P (representing P bound to aluminum [Al] and Fe hydrous oxides) varied significantly but nonlinearly with %ISC (r2 = 0.69 and 0.57, respectively); a similar pattern was found for soil P saturation but not for soil total N. Relationships were best described by second-order polynomial equations. Riparian wetlands appear to receive greater P loads in moderately (8.6-13.3% ISC) than in highly (25.1-29.1% ISC) urbanized watersheds. These observations are consistent with alterations in watershed hydrology that occur with increasing urbanization, directing water and nutrient flows away from natural RWs. Significant increases in total and crystalline soil Fe (r 2 = 0.57 and 0.53, respectively) and decreases in relative soil Fe crystallinity with increasing %ISC suggest the mobilization and deposition of terrestrial sediments in RWs, likely due to construction activities in the surrounding watershed. Increases in RW plant tissue nutrient concentrations and %ISC in the surrounding watershed were negatively correlated with standard indices of the physical and biotic integrity of adjacent streams. In combination, these data suggest that nutrient and sediment inputs associated with urbanization and storm-water management are important variables that affect wetland ecosystem services

  17. Urbanization and nutrient retention in freshwater riparian wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Dianna M; Walbridge, Mark R

    2007-06-01

    Urbanization can degrade water quality and alter watershed hydrology, with profound effects on the structure and function of both riparian wetlands (RWs) and aquatic ecosystems downstream. We used freshwater RWs in Fairfax County, Virginia, USA, as a model system to examine: (1) the effects of increasing urbanization (indexed by the percentage of impervious surface cover [%ISC] in the surrounding watershed) on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in surface soils and plant tissues, soil P saturation, and soil iron (Fe) chemistry; and (2) relationships between RW soil and plant nutrient chemistries vs. the physical and biotic integrity of adjacent streams. Soil total P and NaOH-extractable P (representing P bound to aluminum [Al] and Fe hydrous oxides) varied significantly but nonlinearly with % ISC (r2 = 0.69 and 0.57, respectively); a similar pattern was found for soil P saturation but not for soil total N. Relationships were best described by second-order polynomial equations. Riparian wetlands appear to receive greater P loads in moderately (8.6-13.3% ISC) than in highly (25.1-29.1% ISC) urbanized watersheds. These observations are consistent with alterations in watershed hydrology that occur with increasing urbanization, directing water and nutrient flows away from natural RWs. Significant increases in total and crystalline soil Fe (r2 = 0.57 and 0.53, respectively) and decreases in relative soil Fe crystallinity with increasing %ISC suggest the mobilization and deposition of terrestrial sediments in RWs, likely due to construction activities in the surrounding watershed. Increases in RW plant tissue nutrient concentrations and %ISC in the surrounding watershed were negatively correlated with standard indices of the physical and biotic integrity of adjacent streams. In combination, these data suggest that nutrient and sediment inputs associated with urbanization and storm-water management are important variables that affect wetland ecosystem services

  18. Estimation of groundwater use for a groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin and adjacent areas, 1864-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Luukkonen, Carol L.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, at the request of Congress, is assessing the availability and use of the Nation's water resources to help characterize how much water is available now, how water availability is changing, and how much water can be expected to be available in the future. The Great Lakes Basin Pilot project of the U.S. Geological Survey national assessment of water availability and use focused on the Great Lakes Basin and included detailed studies of the processes governing water availability in the Great Lakes Basin. One of these studies included the development of a groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin. This report describes the compilation and estimation of the groundwater withdrawals in those areas in Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois that were needed for the Lake Michigan Basin study groundwater-flow model. These data were aggregated for 12 model time intervals spanning 1864 to 2005 and were summarized by model area, model subregion, category of water use, aquifer system, aquifer type, and hydrogeologic unit model layer. The types and availability of information on groundwater withdrawals vary considerably among states because water-use programs often differ in the types of data collected and in the methods and frequency of data collection. As a consequence, the methods used to estimate and verify the data also vary. Additionally, because of the different sources of data and different terminologies applied for the purposes of this report, the water-use data published in this report may differ from water-use data presented in other reports. These data represent only a partial estimate of groundwater use in each state because estimates were compiled only for areas in Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois within the Lake Michigan Basin model area. Groundwater-withdrawal data were compiled for both nearfield and farfield model areas in Wisconsin and Illinois, whereas these data were compiled primarily for the nearfield model

  19. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of groundwater resources in Deep Creek Valley and adjacent areas, Juab and Tooele Counties, Utah, and Elko and White Pine Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.

    2015-09-18

    Water-level altitude contours and groundwater ages indicate the potential for a long flow path from southwest to northeast between northern Spring and Deep Creek Valleys through Tippett Valley. Although information gathered during this study is insufficient to conclude whether or not groundwater travels along this interbasin flow path, dissolved sulfate and chloride data indicate that a small fraction of the lower altitude, northern Deep Creek Valley discharge may be sourced from these areas. Despite the uncertainty due to limited data collection points, a hydraulic connection between northern Spring Valley, Tippett Valley, and Deep Creek Valley appears likely, and potential regional effects resulting from future groundwater withdrawals in northern Spring Valley warrant ongoing monitoring of groundwater levels across this area.

  20. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Chlorophyll-a in the Adjacent Sea Area of the Yangtze River Estuary Influenced by Yangtze River Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Hong; Jin, Jiaxin; Zhang, Xiuying; Lu, Xuehe; Wang, Yueqi

    2015-01-01

    Carrying abundant nutrition, terrigenous freshwater has a great impact on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal waters. The present study analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under the influence of discharge from the Yangtze River, based on remotely sensed Chl-a concentrations. The study area was initially zoned to quantitatively investigate the spatial variation patterns of Chl-a. Then, the temporal variation of Chl-a in each zone was simulated by a sinusoidal curve model. The results showed that in the inshore waters, the terrigenous discharge was the predominant driving force determining the pattern of Chl-a, which brings the risk of red tide disasters; while in the open sea areas, Chl-a was mainly affected by meteorological factors. Furthermore, a diversity of spatial and temporal variations of Chl-a existed based on the degree of influences from discharge. The diluted water extended from inshore to the east of Jeju Island. This process affected the Chl-a concentration flowing through the area, and had a potential impact on the marine environment. The Chl-a from September to November showed an obvious response to the discharge from July to September with a lag of 1 to 2 months. PMID:26006121

  1. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  2. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  3. Riparian vegetation and its water use during 1995 along the Mojave River, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lines, Gregory C.; Bilhorn, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    The extent and areal density of riparian vegetation, including both phreatophytes and hydrophytes, were mapped along the 100-mile main stem of the Mojave River during 1995. Mapping was aided by vertical false-color infrared and low-level oblique photographs. However, positive identification of plant species and plant physiological stress required field examination. The consumptive use of ground water and surface water by different areal densities of riparian plant communities along the main stem of the Mojave River was estimated using water-use data from a select group of studies in the southwestern United States. In the Alto subarea of the Mojave basin management area, consumptive water use during 1995 by riparian vegetation was estimated to be about 5,000 acre-feet upstream from the Lower Narrows and about 6,000 acre-feet downstream in the transition zone. In the Centro and Baja subareas, consumptive water use was estimated to be about 3,000 acre-feet and 2,000 acre-feet, respectively, during 1995. Consumptive water use by riparian vegetation in the Afton area, downstream from the Baja subarea, was estimated to be about 600 acre-feet during 1995. Consumptive water use by riparian vegetation during 1995 is considered representative of "normal" hydrologic conditions along the Mojave River. Barring major changes in the areal extent and density of riparian vegetation, the 1995 consumptive-use estimates should be fairly representative of riparian vegetation water use during most years. Annual consumptive use, however, could vary from the 1995 estimates as much as plus or minus 50 percent because of extreme hydrologic conditions (periods of high water table following extraordinarily large runoff in the Mojave River or periods of extended drought).

  4. Downstream Effects of Diversion Dams on Riparian Vegetation Communities in the Routt National Forest, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caskey, S. T.; Wohl, E. E.; Dwire, K. A.; Merritt, D. M.; Schnackenberg, L.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between riparian vegetation and changes in fluvial processes as a response to flow diversion is not well understood. Water extraction affects the hydrologic flow regime (i.e., magnitude, duration, and frequency of flows) reducing peak and base-flows, which could negatively impact riparian vegetation. Vegetation communities are temporally and spatially variable and are strongly interrelated with alluvial landforms and hydrograph variability. This research compares riparian community characteristics on diverted and undiverted pool-riffle channels and low gradient valleys to examine changes associated with flow diversion in the Routt National Forest (RNF). The RNF is the only under-appropriated area in Colorado, making future water extraction proposals likely. Many small extraction canals siphon water from small, headwater streams in the RNF, but the site-specific or cumulative effects of these diversions on riverine ecosystems have not been investigated. Systematic investigation is necessary, however, to determine whether existing flow diversions have influenced riparian communities and, if so, which communities are most sensitive to diversions. A total of 36 sites were sampled with five channel cross sections established per site, extending into the riparian zone at distance of two times the active channel width, and vegetation was sampled using the line-point intercept method. Preliminary results suggest a shift in vegetation communities from typical riparian species composition to more upland vegetation. The relative sensitivity of these responses are different depending on valley type; low- gradient, unconfined areas are less tolerant of diversion than steeper, confined reaches. Additionally, when stratified by plant assemblage, Salix abundance is significantly reduced downstream of diversion. The results of this study contribute to the collective understanding of mountain headwater riparian vegetation community response to changes in flow

  5. Irrigated Acreage Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welborn, Toby L.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate delineations of irrigated acreage are needed for the development of water-use estimates and in determining water-budget calculations for the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study. Irrigated acreage is estimated routinely for only a few basins in the study area. Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper platforms were used to delineate irrigated acreage on a field-by-field basis for the entire study area. Six hundred and forty-three fields were delineated. The water source, irrigation system, crop type, and field activity for 2005 were identified and verified through field reconnaissance. These data were integrated in a geodatabase and analyzed to develop estimates of irrigated acreage for the 2000, 2002, and 2005 growing seasons by hydrographic area and subbasin. Estimated average annual potential evapotranspiration and average annual precipitation also were estimated for each field.The geodatabase was analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of field locations, the total amount of irrigated acreage by potential irrigation water source, by irrigation system, and by crop type. Irrigated acreage in 2005 totaled nearly 32,000 acres ranging from less than 200 acres in Butte, Cave, Jakes, Long, and Tippett Valleys to 9,300 acres in Snake Valley. Irrigated acreage increased about 20 percent between 2000 and 2005 and increased the most in Snake and White River Valleys. Ground-water supplies as much as 80 percent of irrigation water during dry years. Almost 90 percent of the irrigated acreage was planted with alfalfa.

  6. 3D crustal seismic velocity model for the Gulf of Cadiz and adjacent areas (SW Iberia margin) based on seismic reflection and refraction profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Lucía; Cantavella, Juan Vicente; Barco, Jaime; Carranza, Marta; Burforn, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic margin of the SW Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco has been subject of study during the last 30 years. Many seismic reflection and refraction profiles have been carried out offshore, providing detailed information about the crustal structure of the main seafloor tectonic domains in the region, from the South Portuguese Zone and the Gulf of Cadiz to the Abyssal Plains and the Josephine Seamount. The interest to obtain a detailed and realistic velocity model for this area, integrating the available data from these studies, is clear, mainly to improve real-time earthquake hypocentral location and for tsunami and earthquake early warning. Since currently real-time seismic location tools allow the implementation of 3D velocity models, we aim to generate a full 3D crustal model. For this purpose we have reviewed more than 50 profiles obtained in different seismic surveys, from 1980 to 2008. Data from the most relevant and reliable 2D seismic velocity published profiles were retrieved. We first generated a Moho depth map of the studied area (latitude 32°N - 41°N and longitude 15°W - 5°W) by extracting Moho depths along each digitized profile with a 10 km spacing, and then interpolating this dataset using ordinary kriging method and generating the contour isodepth map. Then, a 3D crustal velocity model has been obtained. Selected vertical sections at different distances along each profile were considered to retrieve P-wave velocity values at each interface in order to reproduce the geometry and the velocity gradient within each layer. A double linear interpolation, both in distance and depth, with sampling rates of 10 km and 1 km respectively, was carried out to generate a (latitude, longitude, depth, velocity) matrix. This database of all the profiles was interpolated to obtain the P-wave velocity distribution map every kilometer of depth. The new 3D velocity model has been integrated in NonLinLoc location program to relocate several representative

  7. The localized environmental degradation of protected areas adjacent to bird feeding stations: a case study of the Australian brush-turkey Alectura lathami.

    PubMed

    Warnken, Jan; Hodgkison, Simon; Wild, Clyde; Jones, Darryl

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the potential for wildlife feeding to artificially increase population densities of the Australian brush-turkey, Alectura lathami and assessed the indirect adverse effects that this may have on surrounding forest floor vegetation. Census counts and observations of feeding activity conducted in recreation areas of Australia's Gold Coast hinterland confirmed that brush-turkey population densities were significantly elevated by the provision of food by humans. Brush-turkey densities were high at sites where birds are actively fed, moderate at sites where birds feed opportunistically and low at sites where humans have negligible impact on local food availability. Brush-turkeys caused significant environmental impact at sites where their population densities have been substantially elevated by active feeding. Across all sites, increases in brush-turkey density were accompanied by a significant decline in ground cover, leaf litter weight, seed density and seedling density. Natural environmental variables such as gradient, vegetation type and canopy cover did not explain the observed impacts. The impacts were consistent with those described in trampling studies and suggest that at high density, even small animals can have significant trampling impacts on their local environment. This study demonstrates that wildlife feeding can have detrimental impacts on the integrity of local environments and recommends greater consideration of small animals and their potential indirect impacts when regulating wildlife feeding in National Parks and other nature conservation areas.

  8. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts.

  9. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

  10. The localized environmental degradation of protected areas adjacent to bird feeding stations: a case study of the Australian brush-turkey Alectura lathami.

    PubMed

    Warnken, Jan; Hodgkison, Simon; Wild, Clyde; Jones, Darryl

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the potential for wildlife feeding to artificially increase population densities of the Australian brush-turkey, Alectura lathami and assessed the indirect adverse effects that this may have on surrounding forest floor vegetation. Census counts and observations of feeding activity conducted in recreation areas of Australia's Gold Coast hinterland confirmed that brush-turkey population densities were significantly elevated by the provision of food by humans. Brush-turkey densities were high at sites where birds are actively fed, moderate at sites where birds feed opportunistically and low at sites where humans have negligible impact on local food availability. Brush-turkeys caused significant environmental impact at sites where their population densities have been substantially elevated by active feeding. Across all sites, increases in brush-turkey density were accompanied by a significant decline in ground cover, leaf litter weight, seed density and seedling density. Natural environmental variables such as gradient, vegetation type and canopy cover did not explain the observed impacts. The impacts were consistent with those described in trampling studies and suggest that at high density, even small animals can have significant trampling impacts on their local environment. This study demonstrates that wildlife feeding can have detrimental impacts on the integrity of local environments and recommends greater consideration of small animals and their potential indirect impacts when regulating wildlife feeding in National Parks and other nature conservation areas. PMID:15160737

  11. Germination timing and rate of locally collected western wheatgrass and smooth brome grass: the role of collection site and light sensitivity along a riparian corridor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ecological integrity of riparian areas is reduced by biological plant invaders like smooth brome grass (Bromus inermis). Smooth brome actively invades recently disturbed riparian zones by its high seed production and fast seedling establishment. Restoring native perennial grasses to these regio...

  12. Body condition of the deep water demersal resources at two adjacent oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean and the influence of the environmental features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, L.; Moranta, J.; Abelló, P.; Balbín, R.; Barberá, C.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Olivar, M. P.; Ordines, F.; Ramón, M.; Torres, A. P.; Valls, M.; Massutí, E.

    2014-10-01

    Body condition indices not only are often used as reliable indicators of the nutritional status of individuals but also can they be utilized to provide insights regarding food availability and habitat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between the body condition of the demersal species and the environmental features in the water column (i.e. the hydrographic conditions and the potential trophic resources) in two proximate areas, the north and south regions of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean), viz., the Balearic sub-basin (BsB) and the Algerian sub-basin (AsB), respectively, with different geomorphological and hydrodynamic features. Body condition indices were calculated for individuals of 21 demersal species including 11 teleosts, 4 elasmobranchs, 3 cephalopods and 3 crustaceans, which represented > 70-77% of the deep water resources, captured by bottom trawling. The morphometric indices, viz., Relative Condition Index (Kn) and Standardised Residuals (SR) from the length-weight relationship, were used. The results for each one of the 21 species indicated a significantly better condition in terms of Kn and SR in the BsB, for 7 and 9 species, respectively. In addition, a general model, including the 21 species together, showed better body condition in the BsB, and during the summer. The spatial and temporal differences in the body condition are discussed in the context of the environmental variables characterising both the study areas, which showed significant variations, for some of the hydrographic features (chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, salinity, potential density and temperature), as well as for some of the potential trophic resources (mesopelagic and epibenthic fauna). These findings suggest an environmental effect on the body condition of the deep-water resources in the Balearic Islands, one of the most oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean, and reveal more suitable environmental conditions for these species

  13. Simulation of ground-water flow and the movement of saline water in the Hueco Bolson aquifer, El Paso, Texas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groschen, George E.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the projected withdrawal simulations from 1984-2000 indicate that the general historical trend of saline-water movement probably will continue. The saline water in the Rio Grande alluvium is the major source of saline-water intrusion into the freshwater zone throughout the historical period and into the future on the basis of simulation results. Some saline water probably will continue to move downward from the Rio Grande alluvium to the freshwater below. Injection of treated sewage effluent into some wells will create a small zone of freshwater containing slightly increased amounts of dissolved solids in the northern area of the Texas part of the Hueco bolson aquifer. Many factors, such as well interference, pumping schedules, and other factors not specifically represented in the regional simulation, can substantially affect dissolved-solids concentrations at individual wells.

  14. Hydrogeochemistry of Groundwater as Part of the Greenland Analogue Project in an Area of Continuous Permafrost Adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkemans, E.; Frape, S.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson-Liljedahl, L.; Lehtinen, A.; Annable, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    Studying groundwater in areas of continuous permafrost is often limited to studies of springs and open pingos (eg. Pollard et al. 1999 and Allen et al. 1976). Boreholes in such locations are expensive, risky and logistically challenging (eg. Stotler et al. 2011) resulting in a limited understanding of the interaction between continental scale ice sheets and groundwater. Continental ice sheet models are often coupled to groundwater flow systems; however, there is a lack of modern field data with which to compare the results of models and their treatment of groundwater flow systems under the influence of glaciation. The Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) aims to eliminate some of the uncertainties in modeling ice sheets by using the Greenland ice sheet as a modern analogue for past glaciations. Since 2009, 3 boreholes have been drilled, 2 of which contain sampling systems. DH-GAP01 is a 191 m deep borehole drilled at an angle into a talik and has been sampled and studied since 2009. DH-GAP04 is a 632 m deep, angled borehole that intersects the groundwater flow system directly beneath Isunguata Sermia and is producing preliminary groundwater samples. Additional information on groundwater in the Kangerlussuaq area comes from a spring located directly in front of the Leverett ice lobe. Geochemical and isotopic (δ18O, δ2H, δ37Cl, 87Sr/86Sr, and δ34S and δ18O of SO4) tools are used to interpret geochemical processes acting on groundwaters and provide insight into groundwater flow. Analyses of δ18O and δ2H in groundwaters from DH-GAP01 show the borehole waters fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Evaporation is an important process affecting the δ18O-δ2H of surface waters in the region causing lakes to plot along a local evaporation line (Leng and Anderson, 2003). The waters from the Leverett spring plot to the right of the GMWL as possibly a mixture of groundwater and surface evaporated fluids. However, both the waters from DH-GAP01 and the Leverett

  15. Stratigraphic contrasts and tectonic relationships between Carboniferous successions in the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect corridor and adjacent areas, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Watts, K.F.; Harris, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Carboniferous succession along the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) corridor in the Atigun Gorge area of the central Brooks Range consists of the Kayak Shale (Kinderhookian) and the Lisburne Group (Kinderhookian through Chesterian). The Kayak Shale is at least 210 m thick; it is chiefly black, noncalcareous shale with several limestone beds of pelmatozoan-bryozoan packstone and formed in an open-marine setting. The Lisburne Group is a carbonate rock succession about 650 m thick and consists mainly of skeletal packstone, wackestone, and mudstone which contain locally abundant calcispheres, ostracodes, algae, and sponge spicules; it accumulated largely in a shallow water platform environment with restricted circulation. This restriction was probably produced by a coeval belt of skeletal sand shoals recognized 70 km to the west in the Shainin Lake area. Significant and apparently abrupt shifts in the age and lithofacies of Carboniferous strata occur across the central and eastern Brooks Range. These shifts are most marked in a zone roughly coincident with what is interpreted by many workers to be the leading edge of the Endicott Mountains allochthon. Notable lithologic contrasts are also observed, however, between sections in the northern and southern parts of the Endicott Mountains allochthon. This suggests that considerable tectonic shortening has taken place within the allochthon, as well as between it and parautochthonous rocks to the northeast. The Carboniferous section near Mount Doonerak is more similar in age and lithofacies to coeval sections in the central Brooks Range that are considered allochthonous than to parautochthonous sections to the northeast. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Stratigraphic cross section of measured sections and drill holes of the Neslan Formation and adjacent formations, Book Cliffs Area, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirshbaum, Mark A.; Spear, Brianne D.

    2012-01-01

    This study updates a stratigraphic cross section published as plate 2 in Kirschbaum and Hettinger (2004) Digital Data Series 69-G (http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-069/dds-069-g/). The datum is a marine/tidal ravinement surface within the Cozzette Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation and the Thompson Canyon Sandstone and Sulphur Canyon Sandstone Beds of the Neslen Formation. One of the cores shown was included on the original cross section, and new core descriptions have been added to the upper part of the cored interval. A new core description (S178) is included in this report. Cores are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey Core Research Facility at the Denver Federal Center, Colorado. The following information has also been added to help define the stratigraphic framework: 1) At least five claystones interpreted as altered volcanic ashes have been identified and may give future workers a correlation tool within the largely continental section. 2) Thickness and general geometry of the Sego Sandstone, Buck Tongue of the Mancos Shale, and Castlegate Sandstone have been added to provide additional stratigraphic context. 3) The geometry in the Sego Sandstone, Buck Tongue of the Mancos Shale, and Castlegate Sandstone has been added to provide additional stratigraphic context. 4) Ammonite collections are from Gill and Hail. The zone of Didymoceras nebrascense projected into the East Salt Wash area is based on correlation of the flooding surface at the base of the Cozzette Member to this point as shown in Kirschbaum and Hettinger. 5) A leaf locality of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science is shown in its approximate stratigraphic position near Thompson Canyon. 6) A dinosaur locality of the Natural History Museum of Utah is shown in the Horse Canyon area measured section at the stratigraphic position where it was extracted.

  17. Linking stream flow and groundwater to avian habitat in a desert riparian system.

    PubMed

    Merritt, David M; Bateman, Heather L

    2012-10-01

    Increasing human populations have resulted in aggressive water development in arid regions. This development typically results in altered stream flow regimes, reduced annual flow volumes, changes in fluvial disturbance regimes, changes in groundwater levels, and subsequent shifts in ecological patterns and processes. Balancing human demands for water with environmental requirements to maintain functioning ecosystems requires quantitative linkages between water in streams and ecosystem attributes. Streams in the Sonoran Desert provide important habitat for vertebrate species, including resident and migratory birds. Habitat structure, food, and nest-building materials, which are concentrated in riparian areas, are provided directly or indirectly by vegetation. We measured riparian vegetation, groundwater and surface water, habitat structure, and bird occurrence along Cherry Creek, a perennial tributary of the Salt River in central Arizona, USA. The purpose of this work was to develop an integrated model of groundwater-vegetation-habitat structure and bird occurrence by: (1) characterizing structural and provisioning attributes of riparian vegetation through developing a bird habitat index (BHI), (2) validating the utility of our BHI through relating it to measured bird community composition, (3) determining the riparian plant species that best explain the variability in BHI, (4) developing predictive models that link important riparian species to fluvial disturbance and groundwater availability along an arid-land stream, and (5) simulating the effects of changes in flow regime and groundwater levels and determining their consequences for riparian bird communities. Riparian forest and shrubland vegetation cover types were correctly classified in 83% of observations as a function of fluvial disturbance and depth to water table. Groundwater decline and decreased magnitude of fluvial disturbance caused significant shifts in riparian cover types from riparian forest to

  18. Effects of climate-induced increases in summer drought on riparian plant species: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garssen, Annemarie G; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Soons, Merel B

    2014-01-01

    , surface water permanence and certain plant traits, especially plasticity in rooting depth, were mentioned most frequently as factors determining species responses. Very few studies mentioned hydrological thresholds, such as critical values for ground- and/or surface water levels, and so far these results have proved difficult to generalise. 6. Our meta-analysis has shown that the projected increase in the duration and intensity of drought periods, especially intense droughts lasting more than 30 days, can be expected to narrow the riparian wetland zone with typical hydric species and accelerate riparian wetland species losses in the near future. This may require extra efforts in terms of management and restoration of species-rich riparian areas. PMID:26180267

  19. Spatial and temporal variations and controlling factors of sediment accumulation in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea area in the Holocene, especially in the Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhibing; Liu, Baohua; Zhao, Yuexia; Li, Xishuang; Jiang, Li; Si, Shaokun

    2016-08-01

    The sub-bottom and collected borehole data provide insight into the transport and accumulation processes of the Yangtze-derived sediment in the study area since ~11 kyr BP. Five seismic units were identified according to six major acoustic surfaces. The sedimentary strata consist of fluvial, estuarine and deltaic systems from the bottom up, characterized by two different trends in sediment accumulation rates, i.e., low-high-low, and high-low-high. On the inner shelf of the East China Sea, the terrain with trough and ridge was formed by the Early Holocene transgression strata (formed in ~10 to 12 kyr BP) scoured by the later rectilinear tidal current due to postglacial sea-level transgression, and the sharply protruding seismic units are interpreted to be bedrocks outcropping on the seafloor. An analysis of the sedimentary characteristics in the boreholes and such factors as difference in accumulation rates, and tectonic subsidence led us to conclude that the paleo-coastline was located not far away from and to the east of Core ZK09 at ~9 kyr BP, and the southern bank of the Yangtze River estuary was located to the south of Core ZK09. At ~9 kyr BP, the Yangtze-derived sediments were transported eastwards along the southern bank of the Yangtze River and the barrier due to the influence of the paleo-coastal current from the north, the direction of the Yangtze-derived sediment transport was split on the northeast of the Zhoushan archipelago, and the sediments covered the terrain with trough and ridge. During the high sea level period (7 kyr BP-present), the eastward migration of paleo-coastline had resulted in the increase in accumulation rate. We also conclude that the sharp increase in accumulation rate near the Yangtze River estuary after ~2 kyr BP was not primarily caused by human activities. The position shifts of the estuary caused by the paleo-coastline migration and sea level oscillations since the Holocene is the main cause controlling the Yangtze

  20. Productivity of ephemeral headwater riparian forests impacted by sedimentation in the southeastern United States coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Rachel L; Lockaby, B Graeme; Cavalcanti, Guadalupe G

    2009-01-01

    Riparian forests serve an essential function in improving water quality through the filtering of sediments and nutrients from surface runoff. However, little is known about the impact of sediment deposition on productivity of riparian forests. Sediment inputs may act as a subsidy to forest productivity by providing additional nutrients for plant uptake or may act as a stress by creating anoxic soil conditions. This study determined how sediment deposition affected riparian forests along ephemeral headwater streams at Ft. Benning, Georgia, USA. Above- and belowground productivity, leaf-area index (LAI), and standing crop biomass for fine roots, shrubs, and trees were compared along a gradient of present sedimentation rates in 17 riparian forests. Annual litterfall production was determined from monthly collections using 0.25- m(2) traps; woody biomass was determined from annual diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements using species-specific allometric equations; fine root productivity was determined using sequential coring; LAI was measured by expanding specific leaf area by annual litterfall production; and shrub biomass was determined using species-specific biomass equations based on height and root collar diameter. Significant declines in litterfall, woody biomass production, fine root production, LAI, and shrub biomass were found with as little as 0.1 to 0.4 cm yr(-2) sedimentation. We conclude that the levels of sedimentation in this study do not subsidize growth in ephemeral headwater riparian forests but instead create a stress similar to that found under flooded conditions.

  1. Influence of a riparian wetland on nitrate and herbicides exported from an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Angier, Jonathan T; McCarty, Gregory W; Rice, Clifford P; Bialek, Krystyna

    2002-07-17

    Agrochemicals are a major source of nonpoint pollution. Forested corridors along stream channels (riparian zones) are thought to be potential sites for removal of agricultural contaminants from ground and surface waters. First-order riparian wetlands are reputed to be especially effective at groundwater remediation. The study site is a fairly typical (for eastern Maryland) small, first-order stream in an agricultural watershed. Preferential flow supplies most of the stream water within the riparian headwater wetland. This upstream area also contains the highest average stream N and pesticide loads in the entire first-order riparian system. Zones of active groundwater emergence onto the surface display high concentrations of nitrate throughout the soil profile and in the exfiltrating water, whereas inactive areas (where there is no visible upwelling) show rapid attenuation of nitrate with decreasing depths. Atrazine degradation products appear to penetrate more readily through the most active upwelling zones, and there is a correlation between zones of high nitrate and high atrazine metabolite levels. Deethylatrazine/atrazine ratios (DAR) seem to indicate that stream flow is dominated by ground water and that much of the ground water may have reached the stream via preferential flow. Remediative processes appear to be very complex, heterogeneous, and variable in these systems, so additional research is needed before effective formulation and application of riparian zone initiatives and guidelines can be accomplished.

  2. Maps showing formation temperatures and configurations of the tops of the Minnelusa Formation and the Madison Limestone, Powder River basin, Wyoming, Montana, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, William J.; Kilty, Kevin Thomas; Knottek, Richard K.

    1978-01-01

    This report is part of a study to describe the hydrogeologic framework needed to evaluate the water resources of the Paleozoic age aquifers in the Northern Great Plains coal region. Preliminary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota have indicated that these aquifers might provide a significant percentage of the water requirements for coal development. Geologic and water-temperature data for the Minnelusa Formation of Permian and Pennsylvanian age and for the Madison Limestone (Group where it is subdivided) of Mississippian and locally late Devonian age , and their equivalents, were compiled and interpreted. Maps were produced showing the altitude and ground-water temperatures of the top of these formations. The altitude (configuration) maps show the depth and position of the formations throughout the area. Temperature maps can be used to calculate changes in the viscosity of water caused by large temperature differences. The viscosity differences will be useful in adjusting calculated transmissivity aquifer values (the rate at which water can be transmitted through an aquifer). (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Status report on the geology of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site and adjacent areas. Volume I. Text and appendices A-E

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Puchlik, K.P.; Ramirez, A.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; Knauss, K.G.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    In April, 1979, geoscience personnel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) initiated comprehensive geologic, seismologic, and hydrologic investigations of the LLNL site and nearby areas. These investigations have two objectives: 1. to obtain data for use in preparing a Final Environmental Impact Report for LLNL, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act; 2. to obtain data for use in improving the determination of a design basis earthquake for structural analysis of LLNL facilities. The first phases of these investigations have been completed. Work completed to date includes a comprehensive literature review, analyses of three sets of aerial photographs, reconnaissance geophysical surveys, examination of existing LLNL site borehole data, and the logging of seven exploratory trenches, segments of two sewer trenches, a deep building foundation excavation, a road cut, and an enlarged creek bank exposure. One absolute age date has been obtained by the /sup 14/C method and several dates of pedogenic carbonate formation have been obtained by the /sup 230/Th//sup 234/U method. A seismic monitoring network has been established, and planning for a site hydrologic monitoring program and strong motion instrument network has been completed. The seismologic and hydrologic investigations are beyond the scope of this report and will be discussed separately in future documents.

  4. A reconnaissance of the water resources of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation and adjacent areas, Pacific County, Washington, 1978-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A 1978-79 reconnaissance of the quantity and quality of water in the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation yielded information needed by the Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe to plan future use of these resources. Ground water from the local artesian aquifer is suitable for most uses and it is estimated that yield can be as much as 100 to 500 gallons per minute. Long-term yields cannot be calculated from available data. Data from 1968-80 show no measurable declines in water levels or rates of flow due to pumping from the aquifer. Analysis of ground-water samples indicated no seawater intrusion into the aquifer. Mean monthly flows of two streams in the study area ranged from 0.53 to 3.28 cubic feet per second in February 1979. Estimated average 7-day low flows with a recurrance interval of 2 years ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 cubic feet per second. Analyses of surface-water samples indicated concentrations of Aldrin, DDD, DDT, Dieldrin, Diazinon , and Ethyl Parathion that exceeded EPA limits for protection of marine life. Samples of the stream-bottom material in one stream had high concentrations of Aldrin, DDD, DDE, DDT, Dichlobenil, and Dieldrin. Tribally owned tidelands into which these streams flow may be contaminated by these toxic chemicals. (USGS)

  5. Depositional Model for the Middle Eocene Oberlin Sand in Northwest Oberlin Field and Adjacent Areas, Allen Parish, Louisiana: A Well-log and Seismic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVey, Timothy Keith

    The depositional environment of the middle to late Eocene Oberlin sand of Northwest Oberlin Field and Pilgrim Church Field in central Allen Parish, Louisiana, was investigated. The depositional environment of the Oberlin sand has been interpreted from observations of spontaneous potential log signatures, conventional core reports, paleontological reports, shape of isochore maps, coherency extraction attribute, amplitude extraction attribute, and multiple seismic and subsurface cross sections. Focus is centered on the juxtaposition of component sand bodies and their proximity to the interdistributary and prodelta environments. Sand bodies include distributary channels, distributary mouth bars, crevasse subdeltas and shelfal bars and are interpreted to be the products of lower deltaic and shelf processes. The results of this study are based on seismic analysis, display techniques and subsurface maps calibrated to well logs, models, and recognition criteria of modern and ancient depositional environments previously described in the regional literature. The integration of all available data provides an objective and systematic approach detailing the origin, lateral extent, geometry and architecture of the Oberlin sand in the lower deltaic plain and shelf environments. The results of this study may be applicable to similar age sands on trend with the study area. Understanding of sand component types of the lower deltaic and shelf environments is vital to exploration success and development optimization of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs.

  6. Distribution and assessment of heavy metals off the Changjiang River mouth and adjacent area during the past century and the relationship of the heavy metals with anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Bi, Shipu; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Yong; Mei, Xi; Li, Anchun

    2015-07-15

    Forty-three surface sediment samples and one gravity core obtained from the offshore area of the Changjiang River were analyzed for selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg) to evaluate the spatial distribution and potential ecological risk during the last century. The results indicated that the sediments are composed of silty sand, sandy silt and silt and were deposited in a relatively stable environment over the last century. The studied marine sediments are fine and easily adsorb heavy metals from aquatic systems. The heavy metal concentrations were found to be enriched in the sediments and were generally closely related to anthropogenic activities. However, the data analysis demonstrated that the levels of heavy metal contamination were below background values during the last century, indicating low ecological risk. Spatially, a higher concentration was found at the entrance to the Changjiang River, while it decreased to the northeast. The vertical distribution of contamination levels and ecological risk can be divided into four periods based on the downcore variation in heavy metals: pre-1940s, 1940s-1970s, 1970s-1990s and the late 1990s to the present. These conclusions form the basis for implementing appropriate policies to protect marine sediment quality. PMID:26002099

  7. Potential effects of groundwater pumping on water levels, phreatophytes, and spring discharges in Spring and Snake Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.; Plume, Russell W.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing hydrologic effects of developing groundwater supplies in Snake Valley required numerical, groundwater-flow models to estimate the timing and magnitude of capture from streams, springs, wetlands, and phreatophytes. Estimating general water-table decline also required groundwater simulation. The hydraulic conductivity of basin fill and transmissivity of basement-rock distributions in Spring and Snake Valleys were refined by calibrating a steady state, three-dimensional, MODFLOW model of the carbonate-rock province to predevelopment conditions. Hydraulic properties and boundary conditions were defined primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model except in Spring and Snake Valleys. This locally refined model was referred to as the Great Basin National Park calibration (GBNP-C) model. Groundwater discharges from phreatophyte areas and springs in Spring and Snake Valleys were simulated as specified discharges in the GBNP-C model. These discharges equaled mapped rates and measured discharges, respectively. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity were distributed throughout Spring and Snake Valleys with pilot points and interpolated to model cells with kriging in geologically similar areas. Transmissivity of the basement rocks was estimated because thickness is correlated poorly with transmissivity. Transmissivity estimates were constrained by aquifer-test results in basin-fill and carbonate-rock aquifers. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity distributions of the GBNP-C model were estimated by minimizing a weighted composite, sum-of-squares objective function that included measurement and Tikhonov regularization observations. Tikhonov regularization observations were equations that defined preferred relations between the pilot points. Measured water levels, water levels that were simulated with RASA, depth-to-water beneath distributed groundwater and spring discharges, land-surface altitudes, spring discharge at

  8. Near-Surface Geologic Units Exposed Along Ares Vallis and in Adjacent Areas: A Potential Source of Sediment at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    A sequence of layers, bright and dark, is exposed on the walls of canyons, impact craters and mesas throughout the Ares Vallis region, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra, Mars. Four layers can be seen: two pairs of alternating dark and bright albedo. The upper dark layer forms the top surface of many walls and mesas. The upper dark-bright pair was stripped as a unit from many streamlined mesas and from the walls of Ares Valles, leaving a bench at the top of the lower dark layer, approximately 250 m below the highland surface on streamlined islands and on the walls of Ares Vallis itself. Along Ares Vallis, the scarp between the highlands surface and this bench is commonly angular in plan view (not smoothly curving), suggesting that erosion of the upper dark-bright pair of layers controlled by planes of weakness, like fractures or joints. These near-surface layers in the Ares Vallis area have similar thicknesses, colors, and resistances to erosion to layers exposed near the tops of walls in Valles Marineris (Treiman et al.) and may represent the same pedogenic hardpan units. From this correlation, and from analogies with hardpans on Earth, the light-color layers may be cemented by calcite or gypsum. The dark layers are likely cemented by an iron-bearing mineral. Mars Pathfinder instruments should permit recognition and useful analyses of hardpan fragments, provided that clean uncoated surfaces are accessible. Even in hardpan-cemented materials, it should be possible to determine the broad types of lithologies in the Martian highlands. However, detailed geochemical modeling of highland rocks and soils may be compromised by the presence of hardpan cement minerals.

  9. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  10. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can ind