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Sample records for adjacent san juan

  1. San Juan sag: A newly discovered basin beneath San Juan volcanic field of south-central Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    The San Juan sag is a Laramide foreland basin formerly adjacent to and west of the Laramide northern Sangre de Cristo/San Luis highland. Wrench faulting (Eocene ) and rifting (Oligocene and Miocene) split this bounding uplift and formed the San Luis basin adjacent to and east of the sag. Volcanism concealed the San Juan sag with over 10,000 ft of intermediate volcanic deposits, and its presence remained in doubt until oil in the volcanic rocks encouraged exploration for the underlying sedimentary rocks. Drilling through the volcanic field since 1984 has revealed the presence of Paleocene and Eocene( ) clastic sediments, the Cretaceous Lewis, Mancos, and Dakota formations, and the Jurassic Morrison and Junction Creek formations. Additionally, oil and gas shows abound, and minor production has been established. Exploratory drilling and geophysical acquisitions have helped to define basin geometry, reservoir rocks, source rocks, and maturation and burial history.

  2. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR. 165.754 Section 165.754 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and...

  3. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following area: (1) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships entering San Juan Harbor in an area one... referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships departing San Juan Harbor... Petroleum Gas vessels via a marine broadcast Notice to Mariners. (5) Should the actual time of entry of...

  4. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following area: (1) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships entering San Juan Harbor in an area one... referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships departing San Juan Harbor... Petroleum Gas vessels via a marine broadcast Notice to Mariners. (5) Should the actual time of entry of...

  5. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following area: (1) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships entering San Juan Harbor in an area one... referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships departing San Juan Harbor... Petroleum Gas vessels via a marine broadcast Notice to Mariners. (5) Should the actual time of entry of...

  6. 75 FR 48306 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in... comments should be sent to Attn: San Juan National Forest RAC, 15 Burnett Court, Durango, CO...

  7. 76 FR 12692 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in... comments should be sent to Attn: San Juan National Forest RAC, 15 Burnett Court, Durango, CO...

  8. 76 FR 40876 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in... Sonoran Meeting Rooms. Written comments should be sent to Attn: San Juan National Forest RAC, 15...

  9. Una Visita al Viejo San Juan (A Visit to Old San Juan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabello, Victor; And Others

    Written in Spanish, this black and white illustrated booklet provides a tour of Old San Juan, Puerto Rico's oldest and most historic city. Brief historical information is provided on the Perro de San Jeronimo, a statue of a barking dog found in front of the Castillo; Plaza de Colon, a small plaza dedicated to Christopher Columbus; the Catedral de…

  10. Hydrologic data from wells at or in the vicinity of the San Juan coal mine, San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Anne M.; Thomas, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, in cooperation with the Mining and Minerals Division (MMD) of the State of New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a 4-year assessment of hydrologic conditions at the San Juan coal mine (SJCM), located about 14 miles west-northwest of the city of Farmington, San Juan County, New Mexico. The mine produces coal for power generation at the adjacent San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) and stores coal-combustion byproducts from the SJGS in mined-out surface-mining pits. The purpose of the hydrologic assessment is to identify groundwater flow paths away from SJCM coal-combustion-byproduct storage sites that might allow metals that may be leached from coal-combustion byproducts to eventually reach wells or streams after regional dewatering ceases and groundwater recovers to predevelopment levels. The hydrologic assessment, undertaken between 2010 and 2013, included compilation of existing data. The purpose of this report is to present data that were acquired and compiled by the USGS for the SJCM hydrologic assessment.

  11. Chinanteco de San Juan Lealao, Oaxaca (Chinantec of San Juan Lealao, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Chinantec, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Juan Lealao, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  12. Trique de San Juan Copala, Oaxaca (Trique of San Juan Copala, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Trique, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Juan Copala, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the…

  13. Source rock maturation, San Juan sag

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, R.R.; Clayton, J.L.

    1989-09-01

    Kinetic modeling for thermal histories was simulated for seven wells in the San Juan sag honoring measured geochemical data. Wells in the area of Del Norte field (Sec. 9, T40N, R5E), where minor production has been established from an igneous sill reservoir, show that the Mancos Shale source rocks are in the mature oil generation window as a combined result of high regional heat flow and burial by approximately 2,700 m of Oligocene volcanic rocks. Maturation was relatively recent for this area and insignificant during Laramide subsidence. In the vicinity of Gramps field (Sec. 24, T33N, R2E) on the southwest flank of the San Juan sag, these same source rocks are exposed due to erosion of the volcanic cover but appear to have undergone a similar maturation history. At the north and south margins of the sag, two wells (Champlin 34A-13, Sec. 13, T35N, R4.5E; and Champlin 24A-1, Sec. 1, T44N, R5E) were analyzed and revealed that although the regional heat flow was probably similar to other wells, the depth of burial was insufficient to cause maturation (except where intruded by thick igneous sills that caused localized maturation). The Meridian Oil 23-17 South Fork well (Sec. 17, T39N, R4E) was drilled in a deeper part of the San Juan sag, and source rocks were intruded by numerous igneous sills creating a complex maturation history that includes overmature rocks in the lowermost Mancos Shale, possible CO{sub 2} generation from the calcareous Niobrara Member of the Mancos Shale, and mature source rocks in the upper Mancos Shale.

  14. 77 FR 47358 - San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Forest Service San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The San Juan National Forest Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with Title II of the Act....

  15. 33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base... Guard District § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a.... Coast Guard or U.S. naval vessels. (c) Regulations. (1) No person or vessel may enter into the...

  16. 33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base... Guard District § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico. (a.... Coast Guard or U.S. naval vessels. (c) Regulations. (1) No person or vessel may enter into the...

  17. 33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base... Guard District § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a.... Coast Guard or U.S. naval vessels. (c) Regulations. (1) No person or vessel may enter into the...

  18. 33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base... Guard District § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a.... Coast Guard or U.S. naval vessels. (c) Regulations. (1) No person or vessel may enter into the...

  19. RadNet Air Data From San Juan, PR

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for San Juan, PR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  20. 33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bahia de San Juan, PR. 110.74c... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05′45″ W....

  1. 33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bahia de San Juan, PR. 110.74c... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05′45″ W....

  2. 33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bahia de San Juan, PR. 110.74c... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05′45″ W....

  3. 33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bahia de San Juan, PR. 110.74c... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05′45″ W....

  4. Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Eruption of at least 8800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as 9 major ash-slow sheets (individually 150-5000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 and about 26.5 Ma in the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Voluminous andesitic-decitic lavas and breccias were erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of explosive volcanism, making the central San Juan caldera cluster an exceptional site for study of caldera-related volcanic processes. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum diameter, the largest calderas being associated with the most voluminous eruptions. After collapse of the giant La Garita caldera during eruption if the Fish Canyon Tuff at 17.6 Ma, seven additional explosive eruptions and calderas formed inside the La Garita depression within about 1 m.y. Because of the nested geometry, maximum loci of recurrently overlapping collapse events are inferred to have subsided as much as 10-17 km, far deeper than the roof of the composite subvolcanic batholith defined by gravity data, which represents solidified caldera-related magma bodies. Erosional dissection to depths of as much as 1.5 km, although insufficient to reach the subvolcanic batholith, has exposed diverse features of intracaldera ash-flow tuff and interleaved caldera-collapse landslide deposits that accumulated to multikilometer thickness within concurrently subsiding caldera structures. The calderas display a variety of postcollapse resurgent uplift structures, and caldera-forming events produced complex fault geometries that localized late mineralization, including the epithermal base- and precious-metal veins of the well-known Creede mining district. Most of the central San Juan calderas have been deeply eroded, and their identification is dependent on detailed geologic mapping. In contrast, the primary volcanic morphology of the

  5. The Forts of Old San Juan: Guardians of the Caribbean. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltzin, Rosanna

    The massive masonry defenses of Old San Juan, Puerto Rico, which were begun in the 16th century, exist today as the oldest European-style fortifications within the territory of the United States. This lesson is based on the World Heritage Site nomination file and the National Park Service Handbook, "San Juan: The Forts of Old San Juan."…

  6. LOD First Estimates In 7406 SLR San Juan Argentina Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, A.; Podestá, R.; Yin, Z.; Adarvez, S.; Liu, W.; Zhao, L.; Alvis Rojas, H.; Actis, E.; Quinteros, J.; Alacoria, J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we show results derived from satellite observations at the San Juan SLR station of Felix Aguilar Astronomical Observatory (OAFA). The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) telescope was installed in early 2006, in accordance with an international cooperation agreement between the San Juan National University (UNSJ) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The SLR has been in successful operation since 2011 using NAOC SLR software for the data processing. This program was designed to calculate satellite orbits and station coordinates, however it was used in this work for the determination of LOD (Length Of Day) time series and Earth Rotation speed.

  7. Physiography and Quaternary geology of the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwood, Wallace W.; Mather, Kirtley F.

    1932-01-01

    appeared from time to time as folios"' of the Geologic Atlas and reports on the economic geology of the mining districts, published by the United States Geological Survey between 1899 and 1910. Gradually the concept of the geologic problems was changed. Instead of considering individual mining districts as the units of investigation it became apparent that the San Juan region must itself be the unit. In 1908 Mr. Cross drafted plans for the completion of the San Juan studies on this enlarged basis. His aim was to arrange for the publication of papers on different subjects rather than one huge monograph on the region as a whole.

  8. San Juan College Task Force on Innovation 1995 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nelle

    In fall 1994, San Juan College, in New Mexico, established the Task Force on Innovation to examine changes in the paradigm of education and how those changes might affect the college. The Task Force determined that the primary driver of change in education was technology, and specifically the increasing number of means and ease of access to…

  9. Local Control and Self-Determination: The San Juan Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Keats; Jack, Donald

    Rapidly increasing Navajo enrollment in San Juan County, Utah, public schools in the 1960's forced the rural school district to improve educational services to a sizable Navajo population while attempting to preserve local control in the face of changing Indian self-determination policy. The district implemented a Curriculum Development Center, a…

  10. [Psychiatric Hospital San Juan de Dios. One hundred years later].

    PubMed

    Cocula-León, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and psychiatric diseases have always attracted people's and health authorities' attention due to its magical approach, the lack of knowledge that surrounds them, and, at the same time, the religious fear they provoke. Both have played an important role in the history of humanity, of public health politics, and of physicians. The places where psychiatric patients were treated are of historical interest, because through the historical knowledge we can identify an approach from the science and the health policies that prevailed in each age. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was developed in México a new model of hospital care attention to psychiatric patients. La Casa de Salud San Juan de Dios para Pacientes Alienados is an example; the concept "alienated patients" suggests a social and cultural perspective. This paper presents a chronological type description of one of the major institutions involved in mental health care in México. Similarly, it shows a review of the events that affected the religious order San Juan de Dios from 1901 to 2012, when the hospitaller order was reinstated in México and established the Casa de Salud San Juan de Dios para Pacientes Alienados in the town of Zapopan, Jalisco, institution that exists up to the present day and keeps participating in the mental health care in the state of Jalisco, with the current name of Servicios de Salud San Juan de Dios.

  11. Oil-bearing sediments beneath San Juan volcanics - Colorado's newest frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, R.R.

    1985-05-01

    During the Tertiary, the western part of the northern Sange de Cristo Range dropped 16,000 ft (4877 m) to become what is now known as the San Luis basin. The foreland basin formerly adjacent to and west of the range remained intact but was subsequently concealed by 10,000 ft (3048 m) of volcanic deposits. The existence of this concealed basin, a northeastern arm of the San Juan basin, was first suggested by Vincent Kelly who named it the San Juan sag. Oil, which was generated in the underlying Mancos Shale, migrated upward into vesicles and fractures in volcanic rocks. In at least two places, oil is currently seeping onto the volcanic surface or into overlying soil. These oil occurrences encouraged geologic and geophysical exploration and have led to confirmation by drilling that the basin exists. Porous reservoirs in both tertiary sedimentary rocks and volcanic rocks overlie a 2000 ft (610 m) Cretaceous Mancos Shale source rock. Within the Mancos Shale are fractured reservoirs, volcanic sills that have reservoir potential where fractured or porous, and stray sandstones. The Dakota Formation underlies the Mancos Shale and is about 200 ft (61 m) thick in this area. In addition, the Jurassic section has potential for source rocks in the Todilto Formation and reservoir rocks in the Entrada and Junction Creek Sandstones. The San Juan sag, a newly discovered basin of 2600 miS (6734 kmS) is a frontier for Colorado oil and gas exploration.

  12. 33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bahia de San Juan, PR. 110.74c Section 110.74c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward...

  13. The San Juan Delta, Colombia: tides, circulations, and salt dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Kjerfve, Björn

    2002-05-01

    The San Juan River delta (Colombia) with an area of 800 km 2 is the largest delta environment on the Pacific coast of South America. It consists of active distributaries maintained by an average discharge of 2500 m 3 s -1, is tide dominated, and has relatively narrow estuarine mixing zones <17 km wide and typically ˜7 km wide. Water level and current time series in two distributary mouths indicate that the tide is semidiurnal with a form number 0.1-0.2 and a mean range of 3 m. Processes at tidal frequencies explain 75-95% of the water level variability with the remaining low-frequency variability attributed to meteorological forcing and river processes. The tidal phase for the main diurnal and semidiurnal constituents progress from north to south along the coast. Only the southernmost distributary experiences significant tidal asymmetry as a result of strong river discharge and shallow depths. In the northernmost distributary, shallow water constituents are insignificant. Tidal currents were more semidiurnal than the water level, with form number 0.09-0.13. Tidal ellipses indicated that currents were aligned with the channels and mean amplitudes <1 m s -1. In the delta distributaries, circulation modes varied from seaward flow at all depths during intermediate runoff conditions to gravitational circulation during rising and high discharge periods. In San Juan and Chavica distributaries, the currents were ebb-directed, while in Charambirá they were flood-directed. The circulation appears to be controlled by the morphology of the distributaries, which were weakly stratified and only sometimes moderately stratified. The net salt transport was directed seaward in San Juan and Charambirá, and landward at Chavica, indicating an imbalance in the salt budget, and signifying non-steady state behavior. The net longitudinal salt flux in the San Juan delta is largely a balance between ebb-directed advective flux, and flood-directed tidal sloshing. Along the distributary

  14. Mineralogy from Cores in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Johnson, Raymond H.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, San Juan County, Colorado, was the center of a metal mining boom in the San Juan Mountains. Although most mining activity ceased by the 1990s, the effects of historical mining continue to contribute metals to ground water and surface water. Previous research by the U.S. Geological Survey identified ground-water discharge as a significant pathway for the loading of metals to surface water from both acid-mine drainage and acid-rock drainage. In an effort to understand the ground-water flow system in the upper Animas River watershed, Prospect Gulch was selected for further study because of the amount of previous data provided in and around that particular watershed. In support of this ground-water research effort, data was collected from drill core, which included: (1) detailed descriptions of the subsurface geology and hydrothermal alteration patterns, (2) depth of sulfide oxidation, and (3) quantitative mineralogy.

  15. Geologic map of the central San Juan caldera cluster, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The San Juan Mountains are the largest erosional remnant of a composite volcanic field that covered much of the southern Rocky Mountains in middle Tertiary time. The San Juan field consists mainly of intermediate-composition lavas and breccias, erupted about 35-30 Ma from scattered central volcanoes (Conejos Formation) and overlain by voluminous ash-flow sheets erupted from caldera sources. In the central San Juan Mountains, eruption of at least 8,800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as nine major ash flow sheets (individually 150-5,000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 Ma and about 26.5 Ma. Voluminous andesitic-dacitic lavas and breccias erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of more silicic explosive volcanism. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum dimension; the largest calderas are associated with the most voluminous eruptions.

  16. CHARACTERIZING THE ORGANIC MATTER IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM THE SAN JUAN BAY ESTUARY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Juan Bay Estuary (SJBE) is located on the north coast of Puerto Rico and includes the San Juan Bay, San José Lagoon, La Torrecilla Lagoon and Piñones Lagoon, as well as the Martín Peña and the Suárez Canals. The SJBE watershed has the highest...

  17. CHARACTERIZING THE ORGANIC MATTER IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM THE SAN JUAN BAY ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Juan Bay Estuary (SJBE) is located on the north coast of Puerto Rico and includes the San Juan Bay, San José Lagoon, La Torrecilla Lagoon and Piñones Lagoon, as well as the Martín Peña and the Suárez Canals. The SJBE watershed has the highest...

  18. Geology, thermal maturation, and source rock geochemistry in a volcanic covered basin: San Juan sag, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gries, R.R.; Clayton, J.L.; Leonard, C.

    1997-01-01

    The San Juan sag, concealed by the vast San Juan volcanic field of south-central Colorado, has only recently benefited from oil and gas wildcat drilling and evaluations. Sound geochemical analyses and maturation modeling are essential elements for successful exploration and development. Oil has been produced in minor quantities from an Oligocene sill in the Mancos Shale within the sag, and major oil and gas production occurs from stratigraphically equivalent rocks in the San Juan basin to the south-west and in the Denver basin to the northeast. The objectives of this study were to identify potential source rocks, assess thermal maturity, and determine hydrocarbon-source bed relationships. Source rocks are present in the San Juan sag in the upper and lower Mancos Shale (including the Niobrara Member), which consists of about 666 m (2184 ft) of marine shale with from 0.5 to 3.1 wt. % organic carbon. Pyrolysis yields (S1 + S2 = 2000-6000 ppm) and solvent extraction yields (1000-4000 ppm) indicate that some intervals within the Mancos Shale are good potential source rocks for oil, containing type II organic matter, according to Rock-Eval pyrolysis assay. Oils produced from the San Juan sag and adjacent part of the San Juan basin are geochemically similar to rock extracts obtained from these potential source rock intervals. Based on reconstruction of the geologic history of the basin integrated with models of organic maturation, we conclude that most of the source rock maturation occurred in the Oligocene and Miocene. Little to no maturation took place during Laramide subsidence of the basin, when the Animas and Blanco Basin formations were deposited. The timing of maturation is unlike that of most Laramide basins in the Rocky Mountain region, where maturation occurred as a result of Paleocene and Eocene basin fill. The present geothermal gradient in the San Juan sag is slightly higher (average 3.5??C/100 m; 1.9??F/100 ft) than the regional average for southern Rocky

  19. 78 FR 28800 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Parapiezas Corporation; San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Parapiezas Corporation; San Juan, Puerto Rico An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the Puerto Rico Trade &...

  20. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  1. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  2. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  3. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  4. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  5. 78 FR 61958 - San Juan County Historical Society; Notice of Preliminary Determination of A Qualifying Conduit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission San Juan County Historical Society; Notice of Preliminary Determination of A..., San Juan County Historical Society filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit... Historical Society, P.O. Box 154, Silverton, CO 81433, Phone No. (970) 387-5488. FERC Contact: Robert...

  6. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  7. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  8. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  9. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  10. Bedrock aquifers of eastern San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Charles

    1986-01-01

    This study is one of a series of studies appraising the waterbearing properties of the Navajo Sandstone and associated formations in southern Utah.  The stu<¥ area is al:x>dy area is about 4,600 square miles, extending from the Utah-Arizona State line northward to the San Juan-Grand County line and westward from the Utah-Colorado State line to the longitude of about 109°50'.Some of the water-yielding formations are grouped into aquifer systems. The C aquifer is comprised of the DeChelly Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation.  The P aquifer is comprised of the Cedar Mesa Member of the Cutler Formation and the undifferentiated Cutler Formation. The N aquifer is comprised of the sedimentary section that includes the Wingate Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, Navajo Sandstone, Carmel Formation, and Entrada sandstone.  The M aquifer is comprised of the Bluff Sandstone Member and other sandstone units of the Morrison Formation.  The D aquifer is comprised of the Burro Canyon Formation and Dakota Sandstone.  Discharge from the ground-water reservoir to the San Juan River between gaging stations at Four Corners and Mexican Hat is about 66 cubic feet per second.The N aquifer is the main aquifer in the study area. Recharge by infiltration of precipitation is estimated to be 25,000 acre-feet per year.  A major ground-water divide exists under the broad area east of Monticello.  The thickness of the N aquifer, where the sedimentary section is fully preserved and saturated, generally is 750 to 1,250 feet.   Hydraulic conductivity values obtained from aquifer tests range from 0.02 to 0.34 foot per day.  The total volume of water in transient storage is about 11 million acre-feet. Well discharge somewhat exceeded 2,340 acre-feet during 1981.  Discharge to the San Juan River from the N aquifer is estimated to be 6.9 cubic feet per second. Water quality ranges from a calcium bicarbonate to sodium chloride type water

  11. Deglaciation and postglacial timberline in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, P.E.; Mode, W.N.; Rubin, M.; Robinson, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    Lake Emma, which no longer exists because of a mining accident, was a tarn in a south-facing cirque near the headwaters of the Animas River in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado. During the Pinedale glaciation, this area was covered by a large transection glacier centered over the Lake Emma region. Three radiocarbon dates on basal organic sediment from Lake Emma indicate that by ca. 15,000 yr B.P. this glacier, one of the largest in the southern Rocky Mountains, no longer existed. Twenty-two radiocarbon dates on Picea and Abies krummholz fragments in the Lake Emma deposits indicate that from ca. 9600 to 7800 yr B.P., from 6700 to 5600 yr B.P., and at 3100 yr B.P. the krummholz limit was at least 70 m higher than present. These data, in conjunction with Picea:Pinus pollen ratios from both the Lake Emma site and the Hurricane Basin site of J. T. Andrews, P. E. Carrara, F. B. King, and R. Struckenrath (1975, Quaternary Research 5, 173-197) suggest than from ca. 9600 to 3000 yr B.P. timberline in the San Juan Mountains was higher than present. Cooling apparently began ca. 3000 yr B.P. as indicated by decreases in both the percentage of Picea pollen and Picea:Pinus pollen ratios at the Hurricane Basin site (Andrews et al., 1975). Cooling is also suggested by the lack of Picea or Abies fragments younger than 3000 yr B.P. at either the Lake Emma or the Hurricane Basin site. ?? 1984.

  12. Letter to Silverton and San Juan County Regarding Potential Superfund Listing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Feb. 12, 2016 Update: EPA added a letter to the Town of Silverton and San Juan County regarding the agency’s commitment to the Town and County’s involvement during a potential Superfund listing process.

  13. Analysis of The Surface Radiative Budget Using ATLAS Data for San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, D. L.; Gonzalez, J.; Comarazamy, Daniel; Picon, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The additional beating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other man-made materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 C higher than vegetated surfaces. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. Urban landscapes are a complex mixture of vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the complexity of urban radiant surface temperature variability. The NASA Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) operates in the visual and IR bands was used in February 2004 to collect data from San Juan, Puerto Rico with the main objective of investigating the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in tropical cities.

  14. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s.Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area.Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late summer

  15. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1993-94, with supplemental data, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, C.L.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Wilson, R.M.; Shineman, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior formed an interbureau task group to prepare a plan for investigating water- quality problems on irrigation projects sponsored by the Department of the Interior. The San Juan River area in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Investigators collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at more than 50 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Sample sites included (1) sites located within Department of the Interior irrigation project service areas, or areas that receive drainage from irrigation projects; (2) reference sites for comparison with irrigation project sites; and (3) sites located within the reach of the San Juan River from Navajo Dam to 10 miles downstream from the dam. The types of habitat sampled included the main stem of the San Juan River, backwater areas adjacent to the San Juan River, tributaries to the San Juan River, ponds, seeps, irrigation-delivery canals, irrigation-drainage canals, a stock tank, and shallow ground water. The types of media sampled included water, bottom sediment, soil, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and fish. Semipermeable-membrane devices were used as a surrogate medium to sample both air and water in some instances. Sample measurements included concentrations of major ions, trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon compounds, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. This report presents tables of physical, chemical, and biological data collected for the U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program. Additionally, supplemental physical, chemical, and biological data collected in association with the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project are presented.

  16. San Juan basin faulting - More than meets eye

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, A.C. Jr.; Taylor, D.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Interpretation of approximately 1,000 mi of seismic lines throughout the San Juan basin, New Mexico, has revealed a rectilinear pattern of high-angle faults with dominant trends of N60-70{degree}W and N30-40{degree}E. Vertical fault separation in the plane of section is commonly 150-250 ft, measured at the top of the basement. Strike-slip movement on many faults is also indicated by the map pattern, but no reliable measurements have yet been made. The authors analysis of the movement history of several faults indicates three significant episodes of movement: Pennsylvanian to Permian, Jurassic to Cretaceous, and early to middle Tertiary. Sense of movement on many of the faults varied episodically so that the present basement offset is actually cumulative offset representing all previous periods of movement. Above Permian strata, actual offset on most faults is not detectable on seismic sections; however, drape and measurable differences in thickness across fault zones are commonly exhibited by Mesozoic rocks.

  17. Fruit and fertility in San Juan de la Manguana.

    PubMed

    Mckenna, N D

    1995-01-01

    Ana Irsa (Nisoris) Aquina, 39, a mother of seven, grandmother, wife, and voluntary community health facilitator, lives in the Dominican Republic. Nisoris counsels women and their partners about reproductive health, provides child survival information to new mothers, and dispenses common remedies for diarrhea and respiratory infections as well as contraceptives (mainly oral contraceptives and condoms). These supplies are financed by Fundacion para el Desarrollo Communitario (FUDECO), a nongovernmental agency which is a member of the Save the Children alliance. FUDECO's work includes the development of water systems, health services, schools, and soil conservation training. Widespread deforestation in the San Juan area has led to a reduction in self-sufficient farming and a lack of nutrition evidenced by an increase in infant blindness caused by Vitamin A deficiency. To combat this situation, FUDECO has taught the women's group led by Nisoris how to use solar power to dry fruits and vegetables to preserve them for consumption beyond their season. The pilot group has in turn taught six other women's groups and conducted informal product sampling and Vitamin A information sessions in the local market. FUDECO provides supplies and technical expertise. The program has been so successful that the women are exploring packaging options so that they can sell the dried produce.

  18. Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

  19. Laramide tectonic evolution of San Juan sag, Colorado: Implications of Animas and Blanco basin formations

    SciTech Connect

    Brister, B.S. )

    1989-09-01

    The lower member of the Animas Formation (McDermott Member) is a volcaniclastic sequence derived from a north-northwest source (San Juan-La Plata area). It consists of purple andesitic debris flows, green fan-delta sandstones and mud rocks, and dark gray conglomerates with clast compositions indicating that the Precambrian core of the source uplift was exposed. The upper member is a sand-dominated alluvial plain sequence deposited by southwest-flowing braided streams. It includes green-gray-brown carbonaceous mudstones and pebbly sandstones containing clasts of mudstone, andesite, and detritus from Precambrian and Mesozoic sources in the Brazos-San Luis uplift to the east and northeast. by the end of Animas deposition, the San Juan sag (then a northeastern extension of the San Juan basin) was a broad, southwest-plunging synclinal downwarp bounded by hogback monoclines to the north and east. An erosional period followed Animas deposition; the greatest thickness of Animas was preserved along the axis of this synclinal feature. Bright-red sandy mudstones and yellow-gray pebbly sandstones and cobble conglomerates comprise the proximal alluvial-fan deposits of the Blanco Basin Formation. They unconformably overlie Precambrian through Paleocene rocks and clast compositions reflect these sources. Renewed uplift and segmentation of the Brazos-San Luis uplift resulted in the shedding of detritus southwestward into the San Juan sag and eastward into a narrow, asymmetrical, north-trending wrench basin within the uplift. Following Blanco Basin deposition, the last Laramide event is represented by the separation of the San Juan sag from the San Juan basin by uplift of the Archuleta anticlinorium.

  20. Occurrence, quality, and use of ground water in Orcas, San Juan, Lopez, and Shaw Islands, San Juan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whiteman, K.J.; Molenaar, Dee; Jacoby, J.M.; Bortleson, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, which supplies most of San Juan County 's water needs, occurs in both bedrock and glacial drift. Water in the bedrock occurs in fractures in the otherwise dense, poorly permeable rock. Deposits of sand and gravel in the glacial drift provide the best yields to wells drilled into unconsolidated materials. Specific capacities of bedrock wells are typically low, and those of glacial-drift wells considerably higher. Ground water is high in dissolved solids and hardness; 29 of 56 wells sampled had water classified as very hard. Sixteen percent of the 171 ground-water sites tested for indicator bacteria had positive counts of one or more of these bacteria: total coliform , fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus. Nine percent of the 279 wells sampled for chloride in September 1981, appear to be affected by seawater intrusion. All of these wells are located within a mile of the coast; 60 percent of these wells are on Lopez Island. In 1980 an estimated total of 220 million gallons of ground water was withdrawn for all uses. Ninety percent of all ground-water use is for domestic and public supply purposes. Heavy pumpage on northern and southern Lopez Island correlates with areas having high chloride concentrations. (USGS)

  1. Map Showing Susceptibility to Earthquake-Induced Landsliding, San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santiago, Marilyn; Larsen, Matthew C.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of slope angle and rock type using a geographic information system indicates that about 68 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area has low to no susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides. This is at least partly due to the fact that 45 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area is constructed on slopes of 3 degrees or less, which are too gentle for landslides to occur. The areas with the highest susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides account for 6 percent of the surface area. Almost one-quarter (24 percent) of the San Juan metropolitan area is moderately susceptible to earthquake-induced landslides. These areas are mainly in the southern portions of the San Juan metropolitan area, where housing development pressures are currently high because of land availability and the esthetics of greenery and hillside views. The combination of new development and moderate earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility indicate that the southern portions of the San Juan metropolitan area are be at greatest risk.

  2. Meteorologically Driven Simulations of Dengue Epidemics in San Juan, PR

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Cory W.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey

    2015-01-01

    Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010–2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important

  3. Meteorologically Driven Simulations of Dengue Epidemics in San Juan, PR.

    PubMed

    Morin, Cory W; Monaghan, Andrew J; Hayden, Mary H; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey

    2015-08-01

    Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010-2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important

  4. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cynthia M.; Guzmán, Manuel; Ortiz, Ana P.; Estrella, Mayra; Valle, Yari; Pérez, Naydi; Haddock, Lillian; Suárez, Erick

    2009-01-01

    Objective The metabolic syndrome is associated with a high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and Hispanics in the United States have higher rates than do other ethnic groups. We assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components in Puerto Rican adults. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study that used a probability cluster design to select a sample of households of the San Juan metropolitan area from 2005 through 2007. A total of 859 persons aged 21–79 years completed a face-to-face interview, blood pressure and waist circumference measurements, and blood sampling. Our primary outcome measure was metabolic syndrome as defined by the updated NCEP-ATP criteria. Results Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 43.3%; 45.3% for men and 42.2% for women (P>.05). Prevalence significantly rose with age, from 12.8% among participants aged 21–29 years to 58.2% for participants aged 70–79 years (P<.001). Corresponding increases in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in both men and women were also observed; the prevalence peaked in men aged 50–59 years (62.6%) and in women aged 70–79 years (65.2%). Elevated glucose (49.8%) and abdominal obesity (49.0%) were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome, followed by elevated blood pressure (46.1%), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (46.0%), and elevated triglycerides (31.3%). Substantial variations were found between men and women in the prevalence of individual components. Conclusions Puerto Ricans have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. This health disparity has implications for diabetes and cardiovascular prevention programs. PMID:19157247

  5. The Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, W. F.; Girard, T. M.; Platais, I.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Ostheimer, J.; Lopez, C. E.; Mendez, R. A.

    1999-09-01

    The SPM is based on photographic plates taken at our observatory at El Leoncito, Argentina and will yield absolute proper motions and positions to magnitude B 19 for approximately 1 million stars south of declination -20 degrees. The SPM is a joint program between the Yale Southern Observatory and the Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina. The SPM Catalog 2.0 provides positions, absolute proper motions, and photographic BV photometry for over 320,000 stars and galaxies. All objects contained in the SPM 1.0 Catalog (the South Galactic Pole region) are also included in this version. Note that SPM 1.0 has been replaced by SPM 1.1 which has slightly different astrometry (mostly proper motions) due to refinement of the magnitude equation correction in the SPM 2.0 Catalog. The Catalog covers an area of 3700 square degrees in an irregularly bounded band between declinations of -43 and -22 degrees, but excluding fields in the plane of the Milky Way. Stars cover the magnitude range 5 < V < 18.5. The standard errors for the best measured stars are as follows: 20 mas for positions in each coordinate; 2 mas/yr for absolute proper motions and 0.05 mag in B and V bandpasses. In addition to the Catalog, a list of CCD calibrating sequences in BV is provided. It contains 7783 stars. The new feature of the Catalog is an extensive list of cross-identifications with external special catalogs which include all major astrometric catalogs and a large number of astrophysically interesting objects. The Catalog is available on the WWW at http://www.astro.yale.edu/astrom/. Our web-site contains several useful plots showing the sky coverage, error distribution, a quick comparison with the Hipparcos proper motions, etc.

  6. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use,...

  7. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use,...

  8. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use,...

  9. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use,...

  10. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use,...

  11. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector San Juan Marine Inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection...

  12. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of lower Eocene San Jose formation, central San Juan basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G.; Smith, L.N. )

    1989-09-01

    The lower Eocene San Jose Formation in the central portion of the San Juan basin (Gobernador-Vigas Canyon area) consists of the Cuba Mesa, Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members. Well log data indicate that, from its 100-m thickness, the Cuba Mesa Member thins toward the basin center and pinches out to the northeast by lat. 36{degree}40'N, long. 107{degree}19'W. The Regina Member has the most extensive outcrops in the central basin, and it decreases in sandstone/mud rock ratio to the north. The Llaves and Tapicitos Members occur only at the highest elevations, are thin due to erosion, and are not mappable as separate units. Well log data and 1,275 m of measured stratigraphic section in the Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members indicate these strata are composed of approximately 35% medium to coarse-grained sandstone and 65% fine-grained sandstone and mud rock. Sedimentology and sediment-dispersal patterns indicate deposition by generally south-flowing streams that had sources to the northwest, northeast, and east. Low-sinuosity, sand-bedded, braided( ) streams shifted laterally across about 1 km-wide channel belts to produce sheet sandstones that are prominent throughout the San Jose Formation. Subtle levees separated channel environments from floodplain and local lacustrine areas. Avulsion relocated channels periodically to areas on the floodplain, resulting in the typically disconnected sheet sandstones within muddy overbank deposits of the Regina Member.

  13. A jewel in the desert: BHP Billiton's San Juan underground mine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-12-15

    The Navajo Nation is America's largest native American tribe by population and acreage, and is blessed with large tracks of good coal deposits. BHP Billiton's New Mexico Coal Co. is the largest in the Navajo regeneration area. The holdings comprise the San Juan underground mine, the La Plata surface mine, now in reclamation, and the expanding Navajo surface mine. The article recounts the recent history of the mines. It stresses the emphasis on sensitivity to and helping to sustain tribal culture, and also on safety. San Juan's longwall system is unique to the nation. It started up as an automated system from the outset. Problems caused by hydrogen sulfide are being tackled. San Juan has a bleederless ventilation system to minimise the risk of spontaneous combustion of methane and the atmospheric conditions in the mine are heavily monitored, especially within the gob areas. 3 photos.

  14. Stratigraphic relationships of Cretaceous and early Tertiary rocks of a part of northwestern San Juan basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baltz, Elmer Harold

    1953-01-01

    The Bridge Timber Mountain area in south-central La Plata County, southwestern Colorado lies mostly in the northwestern part of the Central San Juan Basin but contains a segment of the bounding Hogback 'monocline' and Four-Corners platform. The area contains rocks of late Cretaceous through early Eocene age, as well as Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Recent terrace and pediment gravels. The Pictured Cliffs sandstone of late Montana age is the latest marine formation present. Retreat of the Cretaceous seas from the area marked the beginning of Laramide orogenic activity and the earliest stages of deformation which produced the modern San Juan Basin. The Fruitland formation and Kirtland shale were deposited in brackish water and on coastal plains left by the retreating Cretaceous sea. Beds of the Farmington sandstone member and upper shale member of the Kirtland shale show evidence of a new source of sediments to the north or northeast distinct from the southwestern source area of older Cretaceous rocks. The McDermott 'formation', composed mainly of volcanic debris, is considered to be a local lower member of the Animas formation. Beds of the upper member of the Animas formation of Cretaceous and Paleocene age are considered to extend entirely across the area and into New Mexico. Overstep of higher sandstone and shale beds of the upper member across lower conglomeratic beds shows that folding on the Hogback 'monocline' began during deposition of the upper member. Beds of the upper member of the Animas formation grade laterally southward into Paleocene beds of the Nacimiento formation, but upper Nacimiento beds overstep folded beds of the Animas formation on the Hogback 'monocline' at the north end of Bridge Timber Mountain. The San Jose formation of Paleocene and Eocene age is conformable with the Nacimiento formation except at the north end of Bridge Timber Mountain where upper San Jose beds overstep all older tilted beds down to the Fruitland formation. The heavy

  15. Eruptive and noneruptive calderas, northeastern San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Where did the ignimbrites come from?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; McIntosh, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The northeastern San Juan Mountains, the least studied portion of this well-known segment of the Southern Rocky Mountains Volcanic Field are the site of several newly identified and reinterpreted ignimbrite calderas. These calderas document some unique eruptive features not described before from large volcanic systems elsewhere, as based on recent mapping, petrologic data, and a large array of newly determined high-precision, laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar ages (140 samples). Tightly grouped sanidine ages document exceptionally brief durations of 50-100 k.y. or less for individual Oligocene caldera cycles; biotite ages are more variable and commonly as much as several hundred k.y. older than sanidine from the same volcanic unit. A previously unknown ignimbrite caldera at North Pass, along the Continental Divide in the Cochetopa Hills, was the source of the newly distinguished 32.25-Ma Saguache Creek Tuff (???400-500 km3). This regionally, distinctive crystal-poor alkalic rhyolite helps fill an apparent gap in the southwestward migration from older explosive activity, from calderas along the N-S Sawatch locus in central Colorado (youngest, Bonanza Tuff at 33.2 Ma), to the culmination of Tertiary volcanism in the San Juan region, where large-volume ignimbrite eruptions started at ca. 29.5 Ma and peaked with the enormous Fish Canyon Tuff (5000 km3) at 28.0 Ma. The entire North Pass cycle, including caldera-forming Saguache Creek Tuff, thick caldera-filling lavas, and a smaller volume late tuff sheet, is tightly bracketed at 32.25-32.17 Ma. No large ignimbrites were erupted in the interval 32-29 Ma, but a previously unmapped cluster of dacite-rhyolite lava flows and small tuffs, areally associated with a newly recognized intermediate-composition intrusion 5 ?? 10 km across (largest subvolcanic intrusion in San Juan region) centered 15 km north of the North Pass caldera, marks a near-caldera-size silicic system active at 29.8 Ma. In contrast to the completely filled North Pass

  16. The geology and petrology of Volcán San Juan (Nayarit, México) and the compositionally zoned Tepic Pumice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhr, James F.

    2000-01-01

    Volcán San Juan is the westernmost Quaternary composite volcano in the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Its activity is divided into three stages of decreasing eruptive volume. During stage-1 activity, the main cone of San Juan and the adjacent Cerro Alto grew to a combined volume of ˜60 km 3 through eruption of hornblende-bearing andesites, dacites, and rhyodacites. Stage 1 included explosive eruptions of hornblende-dacite and an andesite dated at 33,750 a (years ago) and 23,010 a. Stage-2 activity involved a major Plinian eruption 14,770 a that produced the hypersthene-hornblende-bearing, compositionally zoned, rhyodacitic-andesitic Tepic Pumice and led to formation of an oval-shaped caldera 4×1 km in diameter. Tepic, the capital city of Nayarit State, with a population of ˜250,000, lies at the NE foot of Volcán San Juan. This location was buried under 2-9 m of rhyodacitic pumice-fall deposits from the Tepic Pumice eruption. Erosion has since removed virtually all exposures of Tepic Pumice >15 km from the caldera. The estimated volume of erupted tephra is 5.6 km 3, equivalent to 1.2 km 3 of magma. Modeling of the eruption dynamics indicates that as the eruption evolved the column height increased from ˜15 km to ˜24 km and maximum mass discharge rate increased from ˜3×10 6 kg/s to ˜6×10 7 kg/s. During stage-3 activity, a hornblende-andesitic lava dome partially filled the caldera and sent block lava flows down the north slope of the cone; total erupted volume was ˜0.55 km 3. Compared to other composite volcanoes of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt, the products from San Juan have the highest Sr contents and the lowest Rb, Y, Yb, and Lu contents, resulting in high La/Yb and Sr/Y, with low Rb/Sr. These observations indicate a strong slab-melt component at San Juan, consistent with its proximity to the Middle America Trench where young, hot lithosphere is subducting. The San Juan andesites, dacites, and rhyodacites also have relatively high 87Sr/ 86Sr, 206Pb/ 204

  17. Preliminary data report for the San Juan Basin-Crownpoint surveillance study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Peter F.; Craigg, Steven D.; Padgett, Elizabeth T.

    1981-01-01

    Geohydrologic data that may be used to predict the effects of mining on Navajo water resources in the San Juan structural basin are reported as well as the current availability of data from other government agencies. Emphasis is on the vicinity of Crownpoint, New Mexico. (USGS)

  18. 77 FR 33239 - Prairie Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, San Juan Island National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Prairie Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, San Juan Island National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental... Park Service (NPS) is initiating the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for...

  19. San Juan School Evaluation. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Albuquerque, NM.

    The San Juan School (Espanola, New Mexico) was evaluated by a team from the Bureau of Indian Affairs' Central Office staff in Albuquerque. Team members assisted the Division of Program Review as representatives from other divisions, using the expertise in their respective fields. The methodology and techniques, which were left to the evaluator's…

  20. 33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored or anchored in the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The security zone for a cruise ship entering port is activated when the vessel is one mile north... scheduled arrivals and departures of cruise ships via a broadcast notice to mariners. (c) Definition....

  1. 33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored or anchored in the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The security zone for a cruise ship entering port is activated when the vessel is one mile north... scheduled arrivals and departures of cruise ships via a broadcast notice to mariners. (c) Definition....

  2. 33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored or anchored in the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The security zone for a cruise ship entering port is activated when the vessel is one mile north... scheduled arrivals and departures of cruise ships via a broadcast notice to mariners. (c) Definition....

  3. 33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored or anchored in the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The security zone for a cruise ship entering port is activated when the vessel is one mile north... scheduled arrivals and departures of cruise ships via a broadcast notice to mariners. (c) Definition....

  4. 33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored or anchored in the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The security zone for a cruise ship entering port is activated when the vessel is one mile north... scheduled arrivals and departures of cruise ships via a broadcast notice to mariners. (c) Definition....

  5. 77 FR 52310 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the...

  6. U.S. EPA Statement on San Juan River Data from Gold King Mine Release

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SHIPROCK, NEW MEXICO - Today, U.S. EPA released additional water quality data from Aug. 7 to Aug. 9, 2015, on the San Juan River between Farmington and Shiprock, New Mexico. The August 7 data was collected for baseline purposes to understand river c

  7. 77 FR 61632 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Cattle Point Road Relocation, San Juan Island National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... terminates on the southeastern tip of San Juan Island, is threatened by coastal erosion at the base of the... from further consideration (including armoring the base of the slope in lieu of road realignment.... Since measurements began in 2002, erosion has moved approximately 14 feet closer to the guard rail...

  8. San Juan, Puerto Rico Agrees to Make Investments in Clean Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) Under a settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Municipality of San Juan has agreed to make substantial upgrades to its storm sewer systems throughout the city. The upgrades and rela

  9. Variability of fault slip behavior along the San Andreas Fault in the San Juan Bautista Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Taka'aki; Bürgmann, Roland; Nadeau, Robert M.; Dreger, Douglas S.

    2014-12-01

    An improved understanding of the time history of fault slip at depth is an essential step toward understanding the underlying mechanics of the faulting process. Using a waveform cross-correlation approach, we document spatially and temporally varying fault slip along the northernmost creeping section of the San Andreas Fault near San Juan Bautista (SJB), California, by systematically examining spatiotemporal behaviors of characteristically repeating earthquakes (CREs). The spatial distribution of pre-1998 SJB earthquake (1984-1998) fault slip rate inferred from the CREs reveals a ~15 km long low creep or partially locked section located near the 1998 Mw 5.1 SJB earthquake rupture. A finite-fault slip inversion reveals that the rupture of the 1998 SJB earthquake is characterized by the failure of a compact ~4 km2 asperity with a maximum slip of about 90 cm and corresponding peak stress drop of up to 50 MPa, whereas the mean stress drop is about 15 MPa. Following the 1998 earthquake, the CRE activity was significantly increased in a 5-10 km deep zone extending 2-7 km northwest of the main shock, which indicates triggering of substantial aseismic slip. The postseismic slip inferred from the CRE activity primarily propagated to the northwest and released a maximum slip of 9 cm. In this 5-10 km depth range, the estimated postseismic moment release is 8.6 × 1016 N m, which is equivalent to Mw 5.22. The aseismic slip distribution following the 1998 earthquake is not consistent with coseismic stress-driven afterslip but represents a triggered, long-lasting slow earthquake.

  10. SPM4: The Yale/San-Juan Southern Proper Motion survey: 100 million absolute proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, W. F.; Girard, T. M.; Casetti, D. I.; Vieira, K.; López, C. E.; Castillo, D.; Monet, D.; Zacharias, N.; Korchagin, V. I.; Platais, I.; Lee, Y. S.; Beers, T. C.; Herrera, D.

    The Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion SPM4 Catalog is the culmi- nation of a highly successful 47-year collaboration between the National University of San Juan (UNSJ) and the Yale Southern Observatory (YSO). The SPM4 Catalog contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, blue and visual passband photometry for 103,319,647 stars and galaxies be- tween the south celestial pole and -20 degrees declination. The Catalog is roughly complete to V=17.5 and the precision of its positions and absolute proper motions is approximately 30 to 150 mas and 2 to 10 mas/yr, respec- tively. It is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double-astrograph at the Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina.

  11. Further paleomagnetic results for the San Juan volcanic field of southern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, M.E.; Sheriff, S.D.; Diehl, J.F.; Hailwood, E.A.; Lipman, P.W.

    1977-01-01

    Combining paleomagnetic data for 17 new sites from the northwest portion of the (Oligocene) San Juan volcanic field of southern Colorado with data for 29 sites previously published yields a paleomagnetic pole at 85??N, 114??E (with a 95% confidence circle of 7.5?? radius). A further combination of the San Juan data with the results of other studies on rocks of Oligocene age from tectonically stable parts of North America gives a mid-Tertiary reference pole located at 81??N, 132.5??E, with a confidence circle of approximately 4??. Mid-Tertiary paleomagnetic poles for the western edge of the continent diverge markedly from this reference pole. ?? 1977.

  12. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  13. Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglass

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and raw insonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 degrees C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban-enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of

  14. The paradigm of paraglacial megafans of the San Juan river basin, Central Andes, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvires, Graciela M.

    2014-11-01

    The spatial distribution and several morphometric characteristics of the Quaternary alluvial fans of the San Juan River, in the province of San Juan, at the Central and Western part of Argentina, have been studied to classify them as paraglacial megafans, as well to ratify its depositional environmental conditions. The high sedimentary load exported by San Juan river from the Central Andes to the foreland depressions is estimated about 3,682,200 hm3. The large alluvial fans of Ullum-Zonda and Tulum valleys were deposited into deep tectonic depressions, during the Upper Pleistocene deglaciation stages. The outcome of collecting remotely sensed data, map and DEM data, geophysical data and much fieldwork gave access to morphometric, morphographic and morphogenetic data of these alluvial fans. The main drainage network was mapped on processed images using QGis (vers.2.0.1). Several fan morphometric parameters were measured, such as the size, the shape, the thickness, the surface areas and the sedimentary volume of exported load. The analyzed fans were accumulated in deep tectonic depressions, where the alluvium fill reaches 700 to 1200 m thick. Such fans do not reach the large size that other world megafans have, and this is due to tectonic obstacles, although the sedimentary fill average volume surpasses 514,000 hm3. The author proposes to consider Ullum-Zonda and Tulum alluvial fans as paraglacial megafans. According to the stratigraphic relationships of the tropical South American Rivers, the author considers that the San Juan paraglacial megafans would have occurred in the period before 24 ka BP , possibly corresponding to Middle Pleniglacial (ca 65-24ka BP). They record colder and more humid conditions compared with the present arid and dry conditions.

  15. Temporal Geochemistry Data from Five Springs in the Cement Creek Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Wirt, Laurie; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Temporal data from five springs in the Cement Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado provide seasonal geochemical data for further research in the formation of ferricretes. In addition, these data can be used to help understand the ground-water flow system. The resulting data demonstrate the difficulty in gathering reliable seasonal data from springs, show the unique geochemistry of each spring due to local geology, and provide seasonal trends in geochemistry for Tiger Iron Spring.

  16. Geologic map of the Cochetopa Park and North Pass Calderas, northeastern San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    The San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado have long been known as a site of exceptionally voluminous mid-Tertiary volcanism, including at least 22 major ignimbrite sheets (each 150-5,000 km3) and associated caldera structures active at 33-23 Ma. Recent volcanologic and petrologic studies in the San Juan region have focused mainly on several ignimbrite-caldera systems: the southeastern area (Platoro complex), western calderas (Uncompahgre-Silverton-Lake City), and the central cluster (La Garita-Creede calderas). Far less studied has been the northeastern San Juan region, which occupies a transition between earlier volcanism in central Colorado and large-volume younger ignimbrite-caldera foci farther south and west. The present map is based on new field coverage of volcanic rocks in seventeen 7.5' quadrangles in northeastern parts of the volcanic field, high-resolution age determinations for 120 new sites, and petrologic studies involving several hundred new chemical analyses. This mapping and the accompanying lab results (1) document volcanic evolution of the previously unrecognized North Pass caldera and the morphologically beautifully preserved but enigmatic Cochetopa basin, including unique features not previously described from ignimbrite calderas elsewhere; (2) provide evidence for a more rapid recurrence of large ignimbrite eruptions than previously known elsewhere; (3) quantify the regional time-space-volume progression from the earlier Sawatch magmatic trend southward into the San Juan region; and (4) permit more rigorous comparison between the broad mid-Tertiary magmatic belt in the western U.S. Cordillera and the type continental-margin arc volcanism in the central Andes.

  17. Carbon Isotopic tests on the Origins of the Shuram Anomaly from the San Juan Fm., Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgin, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon isotope anomalies are associated with perturbations to the carbon cycle that offer insight into the geochemical evolution of the Earth. The largest Carbon isotope anomaly in earth history is the Shuram, which remains poorly understood in spite of being linked to the oxygenation of earth, the rise of metazoans, and a complete reorganization of the carbon cycle. From a basin transect of the carbonate-dominated San Juan Formation in southern Peru, we present evidence for the first clear example of the Shuram isotope anomaly in South America. Unique to this succession are ~140 meters of organic-rich black shale within the anomaly, containing as much as 4% TOC. Preliminary data from the organic-rich black shales of the San Juan Fm. confirm that δ13Corg is relatively invariant and does not covary with δ13Ccarb. These observations are consistent with other Shuram sections and support various models: an exogenous carbon source, an enlarged dissolved organic carbon pool, as well as authigenic carbonate production in organic-rich anoxic sediments. Critical tests of these models have been complicated by a paucity of organics in Shuram facies worldwide. Further analyses of the robust organics from the Shuram facies of the San Juan Fm. therefore hold promise in shedding light on the origin of the Shuram isotope anomaly and critical earth history events to which it has been linked.

  18. Assessing Climate Variability Effects on Dengue Incidence in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Otis, Daniel; McCarthy, Matthew J.; Peña-Orellana, Marisol

    2014-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming is evident with both SST and AST. Maximum and minimum air surface temperature extremes have increased. Between 1992 and 2011, dengue transmission increased by a factor of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.9–6.1) for each 1 °C increase in SST. For the period 2007–2011 alone, dengue incidence reached a factor of 5.2 (95% CI: 1.9–13.9) for each 1 °C increase in SST. Teenagers are consistently the age group that suffers the most infections in San Juan. Results help understand possible impacts of different climate change scenarios in planning for social adaptation and public health interventions. PMID:25216253

  19. Assessing climate variability effects on dengue incidence in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Muller-Karger, Frank E; Otis, Daniel; McCarthy, Matthew J; Peña-Orellana, Marisol

    2014-09-11

    We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming is evident with both SST and AST. Maximum and minimum air surface temperature extremes have increased. Between 1992 and 2011, dengue transmission increased by a factor of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.9-6.1) for each 1 °C increase in SST. For the period 2007-2011 alone, dengue incidence reached a factor of 5.2 (95% CI: 1.9-13.9) for each 1 °C increase in SST. Teenagers are consistently the age group that suffers the most infections in San Juan. Results help understand possible impacts of different climate change scenarios in planning for social adaptation and public health interventions.

  20. Fission-track dating of the tectonic development of the San Juan Islands, Washington.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Naeser, C.W.; Whetten, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Previous geological studies have indicated that the major thrusting event in the San Juan Islands was of late-early to late Cretaceous age. Geochronological data are consistent with these prior inferences and confirm that thrusting occurred between approx 105 and 75 m.y. Reset zircon fission-track dates indicate the possible presence of a reversed geothermal gradient in the Decatur terrain, the uppermost preserved thrust plate. If present, this gradient was probably produced by conductive heating, and possibly by shear heating associated with a now-eroded overlying thrust plate and thrust fault. Thrusting in the southern San Juan Islands was accompanied by uplift and resetting of apatite dates. The Haro formation, the Spieden group, and their basement (probably the Wrangellia terrain) did not experience this uplift and probably acted as a 'backstop' to thrusting. Uplift of the southern San Juan Islands was, therefore, probably mainly accommodated on the Haro fault. The Nanaimo basin formed in the foreland of this advancing thrust system, probably as a response to thrust-related loading. Eastern exposures of the Nanaimo group were uplifted prior to deposition of the Middle and Upper Eocene Padden member of the Chucknaut formation, perhaps along a reactivated Haro fault system. -J.M.H.

  1. The San Juan Canyon, southeastern Utah: A geographic and hydrographic reconnaissance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miser, Hugh D.

    1924-01-01

    This report, which describes the San Juan Canyon, San Juan River and the tributary streams and the geography and to some extent the geology of the region, presents information obtained by me during the descent of the river with the Trimble party in 1921. The exploration of the canyon, which was financed jointly by the United States Geological Survey and the Southern California Edison Co., had as its primary object the mapping and study of the San Juan in connection with proposed power and storage projects along this and Colorado rivers.1 The exploration party was headed by K. W. Thimble, topographic engineer of the United States Geological Survey. Other members of the party were Robert N. Allen, Los Angeles, Calif., recorder; H. E. Blake, jr., Monticello, Utah, and Hugh Hyde, Salt Lake City, Utah, rodmen; Bert Loper, Green River, Utah, boatman; Heber Christensen, Moab, Utah, cook; and H. D. Miser, geologist. Wesley Oliver, of Mexican Hat, Utah, served as packer for the party and brought mail and provisions by pack train twice a month to specified accessible places west of Goodridge.

  2. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commander, Naval Base, San Diego, Calif. (3) The regulations in this section shall be enforced by the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That...

  3. Modelling aftershock migration and afterslip of the San Juan Bautista, California, earthquake of October 3, 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The San Juan Bautista earthquake of October 3, 1972 (ML = 4.8), located along the San Andreas fault in central California, initiated an aftershock sequence characterized by a subtle, but perceptible, tendency for aftershocks to spread to the northwest and southeast along the fault zone. The apparent dimension of the aftershock zone along strike increased from about 7-10 km within a few days of the earthquake, to about 20 km eight months later. In addition, the mainshock initiated a period of accelerated fault creep, which was observed at 2 creep meters situated astride the trace of the San Andreas fault within about 15 km of the epicenter of the mainshock. The creep rate gradually returned to the preearthquake rate after about 3 yrs. Both the spreading of the aftershocks and the rapid surface creep are interpreted as reflecting a period of rapid creep in the fault zone representing the readjustment of stress and displacement following the failure of a "stuck" patch or asperity during the San Juan Bautista earthquake. Numerical calculations suggest that the behavior of the fault zone is consistent with that of a material characterized by a viscosity of about 3.6??1014 P, although the real rheology is likely to be more complicated. In this model, the mainshock represents the failure of an asperity that slips only during earthquakes. Aftershocks represent the failure of second-order asperities which are dragged along by the creeping fault zone. ?? 1987.

  4. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  5. Estimates of ground-water recharge from precipitation to glacial-deposit and bedrock aquifers on Lopez, San Juan, Orcas, and Shaw islands, San Juan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Laura A.; Bauer, Henry H.; Wayenberg, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    An important source of fresh water on Lopez, San Juan, Orcas, and Shaw Islands in San Juan County off the northwestern coast of Washington is glacial-deposit and bedrock aquifers. Two methods were used to estimate recharge from precipitation to the water tables on the islands. A daily near-surface water-balance method, the Deep Percolation Model (DPM), was used to simulate water budgets for the period October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1998 (water years 1997-98) for six small drainage basins?three on Lopez Island and one each on San Juan, Orcas, and Shaw Islands. The calibrated soil and subsoil parameters from the DPM for each small basin were then used in island-wide applications of the DPM where the direct runoff component (which is not available on an island-wide basis) was simulated, rather than input, and calibration was not required. A spatial distribution of annual recharge was simulated for each island, with island averages of: Lopez Island, 2.49 inches per year; San Juan Island, 1.99 inches per year; Orcas Island, 1.46 inches per year; and Shaw Island, 1.44 inches per year.A chloride mass-balance method that requires measurements of atmospheric chloride deposition, precipitation, streamflow, and chloride concentrations in ground water was used to estimate recharge to the glacial-deposit aquifers of Lopez Island. Only average recharge could be estimated using this method rather than area-specific recharge. Average recharge for Lopez Island estimated by this method was only 0.63 inch per year. The range of chloride concentrations in ground-water samples from selected wells indicates that the average recharge in areas of glacial deposits is between 0.29 and 1.95 inches per year. Recharge simulated using the DPM for two drainage basins on Lopez Island overlain by glacial deposits are 2.76 and 2.64 inches per year. Sources of chloride in ground water other than from the atmosphere would cause the recharge estimated by the chloride mass-balance method to be

  6. Dengue Fever Trends and Climate Change in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Mendez-Lazaro, P.; Otis, D. B.; McCarthy, M.; Pena-Orellana, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has important implications for public health. We developed and tested the hypothesis that conditions for dengue fever transmission in San Juan (Puerto Rico, USA) are becoming favorable as a result of meteorological drivers being modified with climate change. Sea level pressure, mean sea level (MSL), wind, sea surface temperature (SST), air surface temperature (AST), rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were variables examined over the past 30 years, or longer for some variables. Statistical tools used included Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend tests, and logistic regressions. Results show that dry days are increasing and that wet days are decreasing. MSL is steadily increasing, which increases the risk of dengue cases along the coast, as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and the shoreline moves inland. Warming is evident in both SST and AST. Maximum and minimum air surface temperature extremes have also increased. Incidence of dengue is accelerating along with environmental change. For example, between 2000-2011, dengue transmission increased by a factor of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.9-6.1) for each 1ºC increase in SST. Between 2007 and 2011, this risk factor increased to 5.2 (95% CI: 1.9-13.9) for every 1ºC increase in SST. An important but difficult to examine problem is how social and economic factors affect such dengue fever transmission rates in light of environmental change. A concern is that the patterns observed in San Juan are representative of potential incidence of dengue virus in other parts of the island of Puerto Rico and in other Caribbean nations. These results help understand patterns of disease spreading, and allow public health officials to evaluate scenarios and interventions intended to mitigate the impacts of climate change.

  7. A heat vulnerability index to improve urban public health management in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Otis, Daniel; McCarthy, Matthew J.; Rodríguez, Ernesto

    2017-02-01

    Increased frequency and length of high heat episodes are leading to more cardiovascular issues and asthmatic responses among the population of San Juan, the capital of the island of Puerto Rico, USA. An urban heat island effect, which leads to foci of higher temperatures in some urban areas, can raise heat-related mortality. The objective of this research is to map the risk of high temperature in particular locations by creating heat maps of the city of San Juan. The heat vulnerability index (HVI) maps were developed using images collected by satellite-based remote sensing combined with census data. Land surface temperature was assessed using images from the Thermal Infrared Sensor flown on Landsat 8. Social determinants (e.g., age, unemployment, education and social isolation, and health insurance coverage) were analyzed by census tract. The data were examined in the context of land cover maps generated using products from the Puerto Rico Terrestrial Gap Analysis Project (USDA Forest Service). All variables were set in order to transform the indicators expressed in different units into indices between 0 and 1, and the HVI was calculated as sum of score. The tract with highest index was considered to be the most vulnerable and the lowest to be the least vulnerable. Five vulnerability classes were mapped (very high, high, moderate, low, and very low). The hottest and the most vulnerable tracts corresponded to highly built areas, including the Luis Munoz International Airport, seaports, parking lots, and high-density residential areas. Several variables contributed to increased vulnerability, including higher rates of the population living alone, disabilities, advanced age, and lack of health insurance coverage. Coolest areas corresponded to vegetated landscapes and urban water bodies. The urban HVI map will be useful to health officers, emergency preparedness personnel, the National Weather Service, and San Juan residents, as it helps to prepare for and to mitigate

  8. A heat vulnerability index to improve urban public health management in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Muller-Karger, Frank E; Otis, Daniel; McCarthy, Matthew J; Rodríguez, Ernesto

    2017-02-17

    Increased frequency and length of high heat episodes are leading to more cardiovascular issues and asthmatic responses among the population of San Juan, the capital of the island of Puerto Rico, USA. An urban heat island effect, which leads to foci of higher temperatures in some urban areas, can raise heat-related mortality. The objective of this research is to map the risk of high temperature in particular locations by creating heat maps of the city of San Juan. The heat vulnerability index (HVI) maps were developed using images collected by satellite-based remote sensing combined with census data. Land surface temperature was assessed using images from the Thermal Infrared Sensor flown on Landsat 8. Social determinants (e.g., age, unemployment, education and social isolation, and health insurance coverage) were analyzed by census tract. The data were examined in the context of land cover maps generated using products from the Puerto Rico Terrestrial Gap Analysis Project (USDA Forest Service). All variables were set in order to transform the indicators expressed in different units into indices between 0 and 1, and the HVI was calculated as sum of score. The tract with highest index was considered to be the most vulnerable and the lowest to be the least vulnerable. Five vulnerability classes were mapped (very high, high, moderate, low, and very low). The hottest and the most vulnerable tracts corresponded to highly built areas, including the Luis Munoz International Airport, seaports, parking lots, and high-density residential areas. Several variables contributed to increased vulnerability, including higher rates of the population living alone, disabilities, advanced age, and lack of health insurance coverage. Coolest areas corresponded to vegetated landscapes and urban water bodies. The urban HVI map will be useful to health officers, emergency preparedness personnel, the National Weather Service, and San Juan residents, as it helps to prepare for and to mitigate

  9. Quantification of Methane and Ethane Emissions from the San Juan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. L.; Kort, E. A.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Gvakharia, A.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, and the primary component of natural gas, is emitted from areas of high fossil fuel production and processing. Recently, persistent and large methane emissions (~0.59 Tg yr-1) from the four corners area of the United States have been identified using satellite (SCIAMACHY) observations taken over the years 2003 to 2009. These emissions appear to be the largest CH4 anomaly (positive deviation above background values) in the contiguous U.S., and exceed bottom-up inventory estimates for the area by 1.8 to 3.5 times. The majority of emissions sources expected to contribute to this anomalous CH4 signal are located in the San Juan basin of New Mexico, and include harvesting and processing of natural gas, coal, and coalbed CH4. The magnitude of CH4 emissions from the San Juan basin have not yet been directly quantified using airborne measurements. Additionally, changing fossil fuel-related activities in the basin may have altered the magnitude of CH4 emissions compared to estimates derived from 2003-2009 satellite measurements. Here, we present in-situ airborne observations of CH4 over the San Juan basin, which allow tight quantification of CH4 fluxes using the mass balance method. Observations over the basin were taken for multiple wind directions on multiple days in April, 2015 to obtain a robust estimate of CH4 emissions. The flux of ethane (C2H6), the second most abundant component of natural gas and a tracer species indicative of fossil-derived CH4, was also quantified. Substantial C2H6 emissions may affect regional air quality and chemistry through its influence on tropospheric ozone production.

  10. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to exploration studies in the San Juan basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is currently applying geographic information systems (GIS) technology to develop a geologic knowledge base that will provide the framework for an integrated basin analysis for the San Juan basin. GIS technology involves the integration of mapping and data-base functions that enable the user to integrate and manipulate spatial (coordinate) data with attribute (thematic) data in order to combine complex geographic, geologic, and geophysical data sets into resultant overlay and composite maps and to conduct multivariate exploratory data analysis and have access to a variety of options for analyzing these databases. The San Juan basin, a 13,500-mi{sup 2} Laramide structural basin in northwestern New Mexico, was chosen for the pilot project. The basin encompasses a maximum of over 15,000 ft of Paleozoic to Eocene sedimentary rock and contains economic deposits of natural gas, oil, coal, and uranium. Successful exploration in this basin requires an understanding of the complex stratigraphy and structural geology controlling the distribution of these resources. GIS technology applied to the San Juan basin includes both surface and subsurface data sets that establish a three-dimensional perspective of the basin's fundamental stratigraphic and structural framework and aid in the identification of its temporal and tectonic relationships relative to origin and occurrence of its resources. Among the digital data bases used for surface mapping is the US GeoData system from the USGS's national mapping program, which includes digital elevation models (DEM) for terrain elevations: digital line graphs (DLG) for planimetric information on boundaries, transportation, hydrography, and the US Public Land Survey system; and land use and land cover (LULC) data. Additional data bases used for surface mapping include surficial geology, locations of oil and gas wells, well status, and oil and gas fields.

  11. Geochronology and geology of late Oligocene through Miocene volcanism and mineralization in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Hon, Ken; Budding, Karin E.; Slack, John F.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Yeoman, Ross A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents 25 new 40Ar/39Ar dates from the main calc-alkaline ash-flow sheets and related younger plutons of the western San Juan volcanic field, the ash-flow sheets of the Lake City caldera cycle, and veins and other altered rocks in the Lake City region. The goal of the study was to produce similar quality 40Ar/39Ar ages to those currently published for the eastern and central San Juan Mountains. These new data provide a much more precise chronological framework for interpreting durations of events and their relationship to mineralization than do previously published conventional K-Ar dates for the western San Juan Mountains.

  12. Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the

  13. Geochemical variability of natural soils and reclaimed minespoil soils in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    An inventory of total-and extractable-element concentrations in soils was made for three areas of the San Juan Basin in New Mexico: (1) the broad area likely to be affected by energy-related development. (2) an area of soils considered to have potential for use as topsoil in mined-land reclamation. and (3) an area of the San Juan coal mine that has been regraded. topsoiled, and revegetated. Maps made of concentrations of 16 elements in area 1 soils show no gradational pattern across the region. Further. these maps do not correspond to those showing geology or soil types. Sodic or saline problems, and a possible but unproven deficiency of zinc available to plants. may make some of the soils in this area undesirable for use as topsoil in mined-land reclamation. Taxonomic great groups of soil in this area cannot be distinguished because each great group tends to have a large within-group variability if compared to the between-group variability. In area 2 the major soils sampled were of the Sheppard. Shiprock. and Doak association. These soils are quite uniform in chemical composition and are not greatly saline or sodic. As in area 1 soils. zinc deficiency may cause a problem in revegetating most of these soils. It is difficult to distinguish soil taxonomic families by using their respective chemical compositions. because of small between-family variability. Topsoil from a reclaimed area of the San Juan mine (area 3) most closely resembles the chemical composition of natural C horizons of soil from area 1. Spoil material that has not been topsoiled is likely to cause sodic-and saline-related problems in revegetation and may cause boron toxicity in plants. Topsoiling has apparently ameliorated these potential problems for plant growth on mine spoil. Total and extractable concentrations for elements and other parameters for each area of the San Juan Basin provide background information for the evaluation of the chemical quality of soils in each area.

  14. [Urban demography and marriage age in nineteenth-century Puerto Rico: the case of San Juan].

    PubMed

    Matos Rodriguez, F V

    1998-01-01

    "This paper analyses the age at first marriage among the racial groups in San Juan, the capital of Puerto Rico, during the first half of [the] XIX century, using censuses of population.... We also give a short panorama of the demographic transformations experienced by the city during the same period. Over all we explain the change from a context where women and [non whites] were the majority until a new context [in the]1850 decade, where the majority was composed [of] men and [whites]." (EXCERPT)

  15. San Juan single-well seismic data analysis and modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Tom; Wu, C.; Harris, J.M.; Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.

    2004-02-26

    The authors analyze single-well seismic data from the San Juan basin in Northwest New Mexico. The consistently observable events are tube-waves: direct, reflected and multiple tube-waves can be explained by the formation properties and survey geometry except for an anomalous zone with low velocity, high amplitude and horizontal polarization. To aid the data analysis, forward modeling using a variable-grid finite-difference parallel code is performed. The numerical result confirms the identified events in the field observations.

  16. Isotopic evidence of Holocene climatic change in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Carrara, P.; Gleason, J.

    1988-01-01

    The ??D of cellulose from 14C-dated wood, collected in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, decreased by about 45??? from 9600 to 3100 yr B.P. and an additional 25??? to the present. The wood samples are from trees that grew above present-day tree line and reflect a time of warmer average summer temperatures. These changes in ??D are interpreted to indicate a major change during the Holocene in the sources of moisture, in the seasonality of precipitation, or in both. ?? 1988.

  17. Preliminary Report on the White Canyon Area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William Edward Barnes; Trites, A.F.; Beroni, E.P.; Feeger, J.A.

    1952-01-01

    The White Canyon area in San Juan County, Utah, contains known deposits of copper-uranium ore and is currently being mapped and studied by the Geological Survey. To date, approximately 75 square miles, or about 20 percent of the area, has been mapped on a scale 1 inch=1 mile. The White Canyon area is underlain by more than 2,000 feet of sedimentary rocks, Carboniferous to Jurassic(?) in age. The area is on the flank of the Elk Ridge anticline, and the strata have a regional dip of 1 deg to 2 deg SW. The Shinarump conglomerate of Late Triassic age is the principal ore-bearing formation. The Shinarump consists of lenticular beds of sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, clay, and siltstone, and ranges in thickness from a feather edge to as much as 75 feet. Locally the sandstones contain silicified and carbonized wood and fragments of charcoal. These vegetal remains are especially common in channel-fill deposits. Jointing is prominent in the western part of the area, and apparently affects all formations. Adjacent to the joints some of the redbeds in the sequence are bleached. Deposits of copper-uranium minerals have been found in the Moenkopi, Shinarump, and Chinle formations, but the only production of ore has been from the Shinarump conglomerate. The largest concentration of these minerals is in the lower third of the Shinarump, and the deposits seem to be controlled in part by ancient channel fills and in part by fractures. Locally precipitation of the copper and uranium minerals apparently has been aided by charcoal and clays. Visible uranium minerals include both hard and soft pitchblende and secondary hydrosulfates, phosphates, and silicates. In addition, unidentified uranium compounds are present in carbonized wood and charcoal, and in veinlets of hydrocarbons. Base-metal sulfides have been identified in all prospects that extend beyond the oxidized zone. Secondary copper minerals in the oxidized zone include the hydrous sulfates and carbonates, and possibly

  18. Hydrologic characteristics of lagoons at San Juan, Puerto Rico, during an October 1974 tidal cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Ellis, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Flow and water-quality changes were studied during a period of intense rainfall in the San Juan Lagoon system. The study covered a 25-hour period beginning 0900 hours 22 October, 1974. Precipitation during the study period averaged 70 millimeters. Sampling stations were located at Boca de Cangrejos, the main ocean outlet; Canal Pinones between Laguna de Pinones and Laguna La Torrecilla; Canal Suarez between Laguna San Jose, connects to Laguna La Torrecilla; and Cano de Martin Pena between Laguna San Jose and Bahia de San Juan. In addition water-elevation recording gages were installed at each lagoon. Water samples from the canal stations were analyzed for organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and suspended sediment. Specific-conductance measurements were used with the chemical data to estimate the runoff contributions of nutrients. Runoff into the lagoon, system during the study period was about 2.8 million cubic meters, or about 70 percent of the average precipitation. The runoff contributed chemical loadings to the lagoons of 95,000 kilograms total-organic carbon; 2,700 kilograms of total phosphorus; and 10,000 kilograms of total Khjeldhal nitrogen. A comparison with a prior study during which there was no significant rain, show that dry-period loadings are less than 10 percent of the wet-period loadings. At the end of the study period the system had not reached equilibrium, and the lagoons retained 80 percent of the water inflows from 50 to 90 percent of the chemical loads. Nearly 95 percent of the water outflows occurred at the Boca de Cangrejos sea outlet. The three lagoons and interconnecting canals form a very complex hydraulic system that is difficult to study using traditional techniques. A model of the system will facilitate management to improve the quality of water in the lagoons.

  19. Cancer screening participation: comparative willingness of San Juan Puerto Ricans versus New York City Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, Cristina; Katz, Ralph V.; Green, B. Lee; Kressin, Nancy R.; Wang, Min Qi; Russell, Stefanie L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The specific aim of this study was to determine the self-reported likelihood of New York Puerto Ricans (NYPR) and San Juan Puerto Ricans (SJPR) to participate in: 10 site-specific cancer screenings, cancer-screenings conducted by different specific persons/agencies and cancer-screening under specific conditions of what one was asked to do as a part of cancer screening. METHODS: The Cancer Screening Questionnaire (CSQ) was administered via random-digit-dial telephone interviews to 154 adults living in San Juan, PR and 155 in New York, NY. RESULTS: Although the self-reported willingness to participate across the 10 site-specific cancer screening exams was consistently high in both cities, SJPR had higher rates, as compared to NYPR for all 10 site-specific cancer screening exams in the unadjusted analyses. A similar pattern was observed regarding the influence of both "who conducts the cancer-screening exam" and "what one is asked to do in a cancer-screening exam" as factors in the willingness to participate in such exams. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed that the odds of SJPR participating in skin cancer screening as compared to NYPR, were three-fold higher to participate in skin cancer screening and were two-fold higher to participate in a cancer screening where they have to be interviewed about their alcohol habits. These two observed differences might reflect the effect of acculturation in the NYPR. PMID:17534012

  20. Application of an area of review variance methodology to the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Norman, S.; Warner, D.L.; Koederitz, L.F.; Laudon, R.C.

    1995-12-01

    When the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Regulations were promulgated in 1980, existing Class II Injection wells operating at the time were excluded from Area of Review (AOR) requirements. EPA has expressed its intent to revise the regulations to include the requirement for AOR`s for such wells, but it is expected that oil and gas producing states will be allowed to adopt a variance strategy for these wells. An AOR variance methodology has been developed under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The general concept of the variance methodology is a systematic evaluation of basic variance criteria that were agreed to by a Federal Advisory Committee. These criteria include absence of USDWs, lack of positive flow potential from the petroleum reservoir into the overlying USDWs, mitigating geological factors, and other evidence. The AOR variance methodology has been applied to oilfields in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. This paper details results of these analyses, particularly with respect to the opportunity for variance for injection fields in the San Juan Basin.

  1. Dinosaur Footprints in Lower Cretaceous Beds in San Juan Raya, Southern Mexico and the Paleoenvironmental Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves, D.

    2008-12-01

    Dinosaur footprints were traced at San Juan Raya, an important site in Mexico, a world fossil site. This site is found at South-west of the State of Puebla, within the Biosphere Reserve of Tehuacan-Cuitcatlán, to the southwest of the Tehuacan valley. These footprints were recorded by tracing them on transparent paper at Barranca Agua Nueva, at point 18°18.56´N 97°37´W. Using Jacob´s staff a stratigraphic register was generated from 50 m ascending and descending in stratigraphically direction from the bed where footprints were founded. Bivalbes, nerineas, shell fragments, and trigonias were founded in this sequence as well as cross bedding of clays and fine grain sand, some which display ripples. Fifty two footprints were recorded and five different tracks identified, observing two different sizes. The tracks of dinosaur footprints present the common Teropode ichnites. The succession where dinosaur footprints have been found, are interpreted as a peritidal environment. This investigation contributes to an eco-tourism project of San Juan Raya.

  2. 77 FR 75145 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World... for the facility of Sea World, Inc., located in Guaynabo, Puerto Rico. The application was...

  3. 77 FR 63289 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, PR, Application for Subzone, Coamo Property & Investments, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, PR, Application for Subzone, Coamo Property & Investments, LLC, Coamo, PR An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by... for the facility of Coamo Property & Investments, LLC, located in Coamo, Puerto Rico. The...

  4. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization

    SciTech Connect

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-04-23

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development.

  5. Geology, thermal maturation, and source rock geochemistry in a volcanic covered basin: San Juan sag, south-central Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, R.R.; Clayton, J.L.; Leonard, C.

    1997-07-01

    The San Juan sag, concealed by the vast San Juan volcanic field of south-central Colorado, has only recently benefited from oil and gas wildcat drilling and evaluations. Sound geochemical analyses and maturation modeling are essential elements for successful exploration and development. Oil has been produced in minor quantities from an Oligocene sill in the Mancos Shale within the sag, and major oil and gas production occurs from stratigraphically equivalent rocks in the San Juan basin to the southwest and in the Denver basin to the northeast. The objectives of this study were to identify potential source rocks, assess thermal maturity, and determine hydrocarbon-source bed relationships. Source rocks are present in the San Juan sag in the upper and lower Mancos Shale (including the Niobrara Member), which consists of about 666 m (2184 ft) of marine shale with from 0.5 to 3.1 wt. % organic carbon. Pyrolysis yields (S{sub 1} + S{sub 2} = 2000-6000 ppm) and solvent extraction yields (1000-4000 ppm) indicate that some intervals within the Mancos Shale are good potential source rocks for oil, containing type II organic matter, according to Rock-Eval pyrolysis assay.

  6. U.S. EPA Releases Monitoring Plan to Evaluate Conditions in the Animas and San Juan Rivers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today released its final monitoring plan for the Animas and San Juan rivers following the Aug. 5, 2015, Gold King Mine incident. The agency also posted on its Gold King Mine website the results o

  7. EPA Data Shows Water Quality in San Juan River in the Navajo Nation Back to Pre-Event Levels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DURANGO, CO - Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) surface water data collected following the August 5, 2015 Gold King Mine release, San Juan River water quality in Navajo Nation has returned to pre-event conditions. This determinatio

  8. AgRISTARS: Renewable resources inventory. Land information support system implementation plan and schedule. [San Juan National Forest pilot test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The planning and scheduling of the use of remote sensing and computer technology to support the land management planning effort at the national forests level are outlined. The task planning and system capability development were reviewed. A user evaluation is presented along with technological transfer methodology. A land management planning pilot test of the San Juan National Forest is discussed.

  9. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, LLC (Subzone 61A), (Ibuprofen Pharmaceutical Products), Guayama,...

  10. 75 FR 62112 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the San Juan Creek and Tributaries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Orange County, Feasibility Study. The purpose of this feasibility study is to evaluate flood risk... interim watershed feasibility study was prepared in August 2002. This study will incorporate the prior... San Juan Creek and Tributaries Flood Risk Management Study, Orange County, CA AGENCY: Department...

  11. 78 FR 38359 - Approval of Record of Decision for Relocation of Cattle Point Road, San Juan Island National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... approved a Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the relocation of the Cattle... National Park Service Approval of Record of Decision for Relocation of Cattle Point Road, San Juan Island...: Notice of Record of Decision. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental...

  12. Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Community-level Decision-Making: A San Juan, Puerto Rico Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program is developing tools and approaches to incorporate ecosystem goods and services concepts into community-level decision-making. The San Juan Community Study is one of a serie...

  13. The Use of ATLAS Data to Quantify Surface Radiative Budget Alteration Through Urbanization for San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Gonzalez, Jorge; Schiller, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The additional heating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other manmade materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 0 C higher than vegetated surfaces. Materials such as asphalt store much of the sun s energy and remains hot long after sunset. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. This effect is called the "urban heat island". Urban landscapes are a complex mixture of vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the complexity of urban radiant surface temperature variability. However, the use of remotely sensed thermal data from airborne scanners are ideal for the task. The NASA Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) operates in the visual and IR bands was used in February 2004 to collect data from San Juan, Puerto Rico with the main objective of investigating the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in tropical cities. In this presentation we will examine the techniques of analyzing remotely sensed data for measuring the effect of various urban surfaces on their contribution to the urban heat island effect. Results from data collected from other US cities of Sacramento, Salt Lake City and Baton Rouge will be used to compare the "urban fabric" among the cities.

  14. Cedar Hills Field, San Juan County, New Mexico: a multi-well coal degasification project, San Juan Basin, New Mexico-a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Perlman, S.H.

    1985-05-01

    Amoco Production Company is operating a multi-well coal degasification site, Cedar Hills field, in San Juan County, New Mexico. Data presented here have been made available by Amoco at public hearings before the New Mexico Oil and Gas Commission. The Cedar Hills field produces from the lowermost coal bed in the Cretaceous, Fruitland Formation, stratigraphically positioned above the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The coal bed reservoir is 18-20 ft (5-6 m) thick at a depth of 2800 ft (853 m). The first well in this field was the Amoco 1 Cahn, completed in 1977 with an initial production of 200-300 MCFGD and 200-300 BWPD. These rates increased to 1.5 MMCFGD and 80 BWPD by January 1984. This well's production history exhibits a negative decline (incline) curve. Gas analyses, water analyses, and reservoir pressure data strongly indicate that the 1 Cahn well is producing from the Fruitland coal bed rather than the Fruitland sandstones or underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone.

  15. Geochemistry of ground water in the Gallup, Dakota, and Morrison aquifers, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dam, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water was sampled from wells completed in the Gallup, Dakota, and Morrison aquifers in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, to examine controls on solute concentrations. Samples were collected from 38 wells primarily from the Morrison aquifer (25 wells) in the northwestern part of the basin. A series of samples was collected along ground-water flow paths; dissolved constituents varied horizontally and vertically. The understanding of the flow system changed as a result of the geochemical analyses. The conceptual model of the flow system in the Morrison aquifer prior to the study reported here assumed the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison aquifer as the only significant regional aquifer; flow was assumed to be two dimensional; and vertical leakage was assumed to be negligible. The geochemical results indicate that the Westwater Canyon Member is not the only major water-yielding zone and that the flow system is three dimensional. The data presented in this report suggest an upward component of flow into the Morrison aquifer. The entire section above and below the Morrison aquifer appears to be controlled by a three-dimensional flow regime where saline brine leaks near the San Juan River discharge area. Predominant ions in the Gallup aquifer were calcium bicarbonate in recharge areas and sodium sulfate in discharge areas. In the Dakota aquifer, predominant ions were sodium bicarbonate and sodium sulfate. Water in the Morrison aquifer was predominantly sodium bicarbonate in the recharge area, changing to sodium sulfate downgradient. Chemical and radioisotopic data indicate that water from overlying and underlying units mixes with recharge water in the Morrison aquifer. Recharge water contained a large ratio of chlorine-36 to chlorine and a small ratio of bromide to chloride. Approximately 10 miles downgradient, samples from four wells completed in the Morrison aquifer were considerably different in composition compared to recharge samples. Oxygen stable

  16. Effects of uranium development on erosion and associated sedimentation in southern San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    A reconnaissance was made of some of the effects of uranium development on erosion and associated sedimentation in the southern San Juan Basin, where uranium development is concentrated. In general, the effects of exploration on erosion are minor, although erosion may be accelerated by the building of access roads, by activities at the drilling sites, and by close concentration of drilling sites. Areas where the greatest effects on erosion and sedimentation from mining and milling operations have occurred are: (1) in the immediate vicinity of mines and mills, (2) near waste piles, and (3) in stream channels where modifications, such as changes in depth have been caused by discharge of excess mine and mill water. Collapse of tailings piles could result in localized but excessive erosion and sedimentation.

  17. San Juan National Forest Land Management Planning Support System (LMPSS) requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The role of remote sensing data as it relates to a three-component land management planning system (geographic information, data base management, and planning model) can be understood only when user requirements are known. Personnel at the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado were interviewed to determine data needs for managing and monitoring timber, rangelands, wildlife, fisheries, soils, water, geology and recreation facilities. While all the information required for land management planning cannot be obtained using remote sensing techniques, valuable information can be provided for the geographic information system. A wide range of sensors such as small and large format cameras, synthetic aperture radar, and LANDSAT data should be utilized. Because of the detail and accuracy required, high altitude color infrared photography should serve as the baseline data base and be supplemented and updated with data from the other sensors.

  18. Antidiatom activity of marine bacteria associated with sponges from San Juan Island, Washington.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cuili; Xin, Xiaying; Yu, Siyu; Qiu, Jingjing; Miao, Li; Feng, Ke; Zhou, Xiaojian

    2014-04-01

    Crude extracts of 52 marine bacteria associated with sponges, which were collected from the sea near San Juan Island, Washington, USA, were screened using diatom attachment assays against Amphora sp., Nitzschia closterium, Sellaphora sp. and Stauroneis sp. to investigate their antidiatom activities. Among these samples, five expressed strong anti-adhesion effects on all four tested diatoms. There was no negative effect observed from those five active samples on the growth of Amphora sp. Those five active samples were prepared from respective isolates, which all belonged to the genus Bacillus based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results of present study indicate that Bacillus may play important roles for sponges' chemical defence against biofouling of diatoms and that the metabolites of Bacillus may be a potential source of natural antifouling compounds.

  19. Thermal maturity patterns of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical thermal maturity patterns and time-temperature modeling indicate that the high levels of thermal maturity in the northern part of the basin are due to either: 1) convective heat transfer associated with a deeply buried heat source located directly below the northern part of the basin or 2) the circulation of relatively hot fluids into the basin from a heat source north of the basin located near the San Juan Mountains. Time-temperature and kinetic modeling of nonlinear Rm profiles indicates that present-day heat flow is insufficient to account for the measured levels of thermal maturity. Furthermore, in order to match nonlinear Rm profiles, it is necessary to assign artifically high thermal-conductivity values to some of the stratigraphic units. These unrealistically high thermal conductivities are interpreted as evidence of convective heat transfer. -from Author

  20. Structurally controlled and aligned tight gas reservoir compartmentalization in the San Juan and Piceance Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, A.D.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Klawitter, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Recurrent basement faulting is the primary controlling mechanism for aligning and compartmentalizing upper Cretaceous aged tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan and Piceance Basins. Northwest trending structural lineaments that formed in conjunction with the Uncompahgre Highlands have profoundly influenced sedimentation trends and created boundaries for gas migration; sealing and compartmentalizing sedimentary packages in both basins. Fractures which formed over the structural lineaments provide permeability pathways which allowing gas recovery from otherwise tight gas reservoirs. Structural alignments and associated reservoir compartments have been accurately targeted by integrating advanced remote sensing imagery, high resolution aeromagnetics, seismic interpretation, stratigraphic mapping and dynamic structural modelling. This unifying methodology is a powerful tool for exploration geologists and is also a systematic approach to tight gas resource assessment in frontier basins.

  1. Climate change, heat, and mortality in the tropical urban area of San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo A; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Martínez, Odalys; Taboas, Mariela; Bocanegra, Arelis; Méndez-Tejeda, Rafael

    2016-12-15

    Extreme heat episodes are becoming more common worldwide, including in tropical areas of Australia, India, and Puerto Rico. Higher frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat episodes are triggering public health issues in most mid-latitude and continental cities. With urbanization, land use and land cover have affected local climate directly and indirectly encouraging the Urban Heat Island effect with potential impacts on heat-related morbidity and mortality among urban populations. However, this association is not completely understood in tropical islands such as Puerto Rico. The present study examines the effects of heat in two municipalities (San Juan and Bayamón) within the San Juan metropolitan area on overall and cause-specific mortality among the population between 2009 and 2013. The number of daily deaths attributed to selected causes (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, chronic lower respiratory disease, pneumonia, and kidney disease) coded and classified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases was analyzed. The relations between elevated air surface temperatures on cause-specific mortality were modeled. Separate Poisson regression models were fitted to explain the total number of deaths as a function of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, while adjusting for seasonal patterns. Results show a significant increase in the effect of high temperatures on mortality, during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Stroke (relative risk = 16.80, 95% CI 6.81-41.4) and cardiovascular diseases (relative risk = 16.63, 95% CI 10.47-26.42) were the primary causes of death most associated with elevated summer temperatures. Better understanding of how these heat events affect the health of the population will provide a useful tool for decision makers to address and mitigate the effects of the increasing temperatures on public health. The enhanced temperature forecast may be a crucial component in decision

  2. Issues concerning a diagnostic study of an action plan for the San Juan river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Futamura, Hisanori; Nakayama, Mikiyasu

    2004-11-01

    An action plan is being formulated for the San Juan River basin, shared by Costa Rica and Nicaragua in Central America. The action plan is assumed to be a planning tool designed to ensure the availability of the goods and services that water resources provide for the conservation of ecosystems and for social and economic development. Development of the action plan comprises two phases, namely elaboration of the diagnostic study and drafting of the action plan. The diagnostic study was published in 1997. After examining previous cases in international water systems, for which the diagnostic study was developed as the precursor of an action plan, the author felt that the existing diagnostic study for the San Juan River basin still had room for improvements, in particular in the following aspects: (a) inventory of past, ongoing and future projects; (b) impacts of reserved areas on the basin as a whole; (c) instruments to promote public participation; (d) support by central decision makers; (e) mechanisms for information transparency. These aspects, which need enhancements, seem to suggest that more emphasis should be put on the soft aspects of the sciences. While the diagnostic study addresses issues of natural environment in detail, both data and analysis of human environments are in low profile. The lesson gained from the Zambezi River basin project is that lack of a proper strategy and political commitments by the central decision makers (of the riparian states) will lead to an impasse in implementation of the project, due mainly to paucity of support within basin countries. Lack of support by the general public may also lead to a failure in the implementation phase. These aspects should have been sufficiently addressed in the diagnostic study, so that appropriate actions (to be listed in the action plan) should be elaborated for implementation.

  3. Ordovidan K-bentonites in the Precordillera of San Juan and its tectomasmatic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cingolani, C.A.; Huff, W.; Bergstrom, S.; Kolata, D.

    1997-01-01

    A succession of approximately 35 early Middle Ordovician K-bentonite beds are exposed in the Precordillera region near the town of Jachal, in San Juan Province (at Cerro Viejo and La Chilca sections). They occur in argillaceous limestone in the upper part of the San Juan Limestone and in the interbedded shales and mudstones at the base of the overlying Los Azules Formation. Total thickness of the K-bentonite-bearing interval is 23 m and individual beds range from 1 to 65 cm thick. An essentially Arenig-Llanvirn age for the K-bentonite succession is indicated by the presence of graptolites diagnostic of the Paraglossograptus tentaculatus Zone and conodonts indicating the Eoplacognathus suecicus Zone. The bentonites consist mainly of Rl ordered illite/smectite, characteristic of most of the lower Paleozoic K-bentonites, plus volcanogenic crystals. Similar to other K-bentonites, these probably represent the distal, glass-rich portion of fall-out ash beds derived from collision zone explosive volcanism. The geochemical data and preliminary plots on the magmatic discrimination diagram indicate the parental magma was of rhyolite to trachyandesite composition. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show the setting of Cerro Viejo ash layers as falling on the boundary between volcanic arc and within plate rocks, typical of collision margin felsic volcanic rocks. U-Pb isotope dating for two zircon fractions from one sample show a lower concordia intercept of 461, +7-10 Ma coincident with the biostratigraphic age. Thus, they have important implications for the origin and early history of the allochtonous Precordillera terrane and the Pacific margin of South America. Furthermore, they are potentially important in interpretations of the paleogeographic relations of Laurentia and Gondwana during Ordovician time. ?? 1997 Asociacio??n Geolo??gica Argentina.

  4. Climate change, heat, and mortality in the tropical urban area of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo A.; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M.; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Martínez, Odalys; Taboas, Mariela; Bocanegra, Arelis; Méndez-Tejeda, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    Extreme heat episodes are becoming more common worldwide, including in tropical areas of Australia, India, and Puerto Rico. Higher frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat episodes are triggering public health issues in most mid-latitude and continental cities. With urbanization, land use and land cover have affected local climate directly and indirectly encouraging the Urban Heat Island effect with potential impacts on heat-related morbidity and mortality among urban populations. However, this association is not completely understood in tropical islands such as Puerto Rico. The present study examines the effects of heat in two municipalities (San Juan and Bayamón) within the San Juan metropolitan area on overall and cause-specific mortality among the population between 2009 and 2013. The number of daily deaths attributed to selected causes (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, chronic lower respiratory disease, pneumonia, and kidney disease) coded and classified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases was analyzed. The relations between elevated air surface temperatures on cause-specific mortality were modeled. Separate Poisson regression models were fitted to explain the total number of deaths as a function of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, while adjusting for seasonal patterns. Results show a significant increase in the effect of high temperatures on mortality, during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Stroke (relative risk = 16.80, 95% CI 6.81-41.4) and cardiovascular diseases (relative risk = 16.63, 95% CI 10.47-26.42) were the primary causes of death most associated with elevated summer temperatures. Better understanding of how these heat events affect the health of the population will provide a useful tool for decision makers to address and mitigate the effects of the increasing temperatures on public health. The enhanced temperature forecast may be a crucial component in decision

  5. Arsenic contamination of natural waters in San Juan and La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, J; Watts, M J; Shaw, R A; Marcilla, A L; Ward, N I

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic (As) speciation in surface and groundwater from two provinces in Argentina (San Juan and La Pampa) was investigated using solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge methodology with comparison to total arsenic concentrations. A third province, Río Negro, was used as a control to the study. Strong cation exchange (SCX) and strong anion exchange (SAX) cartridges were utilised in series for the separation and preservation of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). Samples were collected from a range of water outlets (rivers/streams, wells, untreated domestic taps, well water treatment works) to assess the relationship between total arsenic and arsenic species, water type and water parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids, TDS). Analysis of the waters for arsenic (total and species) was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in collision cell mode. Total arsenic concentrations in the surface and groundwater from Encon and the San José de Jáchal region of San Juan (north-west Argentina within the Cuyo region) ranged from 9 to 357 μg l(-1) As. Groundwater from Eduardo Castex (EC) and Ingeniero Luiggi (LU) in La Pampa (central Argentina within the Chaco-Pampean Plain) ranged from 3 to 1326 μg l(-1) As. The pH range for the provinces of San Juan (7.2-9.7) and La Pampa (7.0-9.9) are in agreement with other published literature. The highest total arsenic concentrations were found in La Pampa well waters (both rural farms and pre-treated urban sources), particularly where there was high pH (typically > 8.2), conductivity (>2,600 μS cm(-1)) and TDS (>1,400 mg l(-1)). Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of well waters in La Pampa for domestic drinking water in EC and LU significantly reduced total arsenic concentrations from a range of 216-224 μg l(-1) As to 0.3-0.8 μg l(-1) As. Arsenic species for both provinces were predominantly As(III) and As(V). As

  6. Biogeochemical variability of plants at native and altered sites, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The San Juan Basin is becoming a major energy resource region. The anticipated increase in strip mining for coal can be expected to alter the geochemical and biogeochemical environment. because such activities destroy the native vegetation communities, rearrange the rock strata, and disrupt natural soil development. This study investigated the variability in the biogeochemistry of native plant species at both undisturbed and altered sites and assessed the importance of the observed differences. Three studies are involved in this investigation: Study 1, the biogeochemical variability of native species found at sites throughout that part of the basin underlain by economically recoverable coal; Study 2, the biogeochemical variability of native species growing on soils considered favorable for use in the topsoiling of spoil areas; and Study 3, the biogeochemical variability of native species on rehabilitated sites at the San Juan coal mine. Summary statistics for concentrations of 35 elements (and ash yield) are reported in Study 1 for galleta grass, broom snakeweed, and fourwing saltbush. The concentrations of manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and uranium (and possibly iron and selenium) in galleta show regional patterns, with the highest values generally found in the south-central region and western edge of the study area. Differences in the concentration of elements between species was generally subtle (less than a factor of two) except for the following: ash yield of saltbush was two times that of the other plants; boron in snakeweed and saltbush was four times greater than in galleta; iron in galleta was two times greater than in saltbush; and, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and sulfur were generally highest in saltbush. Summary statistics (including the 95-percent expected range) for concentrations of 35 elements (and ash yield) are reported from Study 2 for galleta and broom snakeweed growing on the Sheppard, Shiprock, and Doak soil association

  7. Sediment and water chemistry of the San Juan River and Escalante River deltas of Lake Powell, Utah, 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornewer, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the presence of trace elements, organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and radionuclides in sediment from the Colorado River delta and from sediment in some side canyons in Lake Powell, Utah and Arizona. The fate of many of these contaminants is of significant concern to the resource managers of the National Park Service Glen Canyon National Recreation Area because of potential health impacts to humans and aquatic and terrestrial species. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey began a sediment-core sampling and analysis program in the San Juan River and Escalante River deltas in Lake Powell, Utah, to help the National Park Service further document the presence or absence of contaminants in deltaic sediment. Three sediment cores were collected from the San Juan River delta in August 2010 and three sediment cores and an additional replicate core were collected from the Escalante River delta in September 2011. Sediment from the cores was subsampled and composited for analysis of major and trace elements. Fifty-five major and trace elements were analyzed in 116 subsamples and 7 composited samples for the San Juan River delta cores, and in 75 subsamples and 9 composited samples for the Escalante River delta cores. Six composited sediment samples from the San Juan River delta cores and eight from the Escalante River delta cores also were analyzed for 55 low-level organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, 61 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, gross alpha and gross beta radionuclides, and sediment-particle size. Additionally, water samples were collected from the sediment-water interface overlying each of the three cores collected from the San Juan River and Escalante River deltas. Each water sample was analyzed for 57 major and trace elements. Most of the major and trace elements analyzed were detected at concentrations greater than reporting levels for the sediment-core subsamples and composited

  8. Determining the Habitat Preference of Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) Using Multibeam Bathymetry in the San Juan Islands, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E.; Greene, H.; Harmsen, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ammodytes hexapterus (Pacific Sand Lance or PSL) is an important forage fish supporting many marine populations, ranging from salmon, harbor seals, and whales. Previous studies have shown PSL to be highly substrate specific (Robards et al., 1999). Sand lance spend time buried in the substrate and come out into the water column to feed. This is due to the lack of swim bladders. If the sand particles are too fine their gills can be clogged (Wright et al., 2000). Little is known about the species sub-tidal habitat and new information regarding habitat preferences in deep water would be beneficial in determining their distribution and abundance. Preliminary examination undertaken in this investigation was limited to three sand wave fields: one, the central San Juan Channel (a known PSL sub-tidal habitat), and two previously un-sampled fields west of Sucia Island and southwest of Lopez Island in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, Washington. Multibeam bathymetric data, subsea video, and sediment analysis show that PSL have occupied the San Juan Channel, which is composed of well-sorted medium grained (~500 μm size) siliciclastic sand. Several sediment samples from in and around the fields were collected and analyzed to determine a grain size distribution of the sediments. The two un-sampled fields examined have an average grain size higher and lower respectively than the San Juan Channel field. The expected results of this study are to determine whether or not the two newly sampled sediment wave fields are potential sub-tidal habitats of PSL.

  9. 75 FR 41819 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the...

  10. Tectonic Setting and Characteristics of Natural Fractures in MesaVerde and Dakota Reservoirs of the San Juan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    LORENZ,JOHN C.; COOPER,SCOTT P.

    2000-12-20

    The Cretaceous strata that fill the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado were shortened in a generally N-S to NN13-SSW direction during the Laramide orogeny. This shortening was the result of compression of the strata between southward indentation of the San Juan Uplift at the north edge of the basin and northward to northeastward indentation of the Zuni Uplift from the south. Right-lateral strike-slip motion was concentrated at the eastern and western basin margins of the basin to form the Hogback Monocline and the Nacimiento Uplift at the same time, and small amounts of shear may have been pervasive within the basin as well. Vertical extension fractures, striking N-S to NNE-SSW with local variations (parallel to the Laramide maximum horizontal compressive stress), formed in both Mesaverde and Dakota sandstones under this system, and are found in outcrops and in the subsurface of the San Juan Basin. The immature Mesaverde sandstones typically contain relatively long, irregular, vertical extension fractures, whereas the quartzitic Dakota sandstones contain more numerous, shorter, sub-parallel, closely spaced, extension fractures. Conjugate shear planes in several orientations are also present locally in the Dakota strata.

  11. Liquefaction during the 1977 San Juan Province, Argentina earthquake (Ms = 7.4)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Keefer, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Liquefaction effects generated by the 1977 San Juan Province, Argentina, earthquake (Ms = 7.4) are described. The larger and more abundant effects were concentrated in the 60-km long band of the lowlands in the Valle del Bermejo and in an equally long band along the Rio San Juan in the Valle de Tulum. Fissures in the Valle del Bermejo were up to several hundred meters long and up to several meters wide. Sand deposits, from boils that erupted through the fissures, covered areas up to tens of square meters. Fissures generally parallelled nearby stream channels. Because the Valle del Bermejo is undeveloped, these large features caused no damage. Liquefaction in the Valle del Tulum caused important or unusual damage at several localities, including the following five sites: (1) At the Barrio Justo P. Castro, a subdivision of Caucete, liquefaction of subsurface sediments decoupled overlying, unliquefied stiff sediments, producing a form of ground failure called "ground oscillation". The associated differential ground movements pulled apart houses and pavements in extension, while shearing curbs and buckling canal linings in compression at the same locality. (2) At the Escuela Normal, in Caucete, the roof of a 30-m long single-story classroom building shifted westward relative to the foundation. That displacement fractured and tilted columns supporting the roof. The foundation was fractured at several places, leaving open cracks, as wide as 15 mm. The cumulative width of the open cracks was 48 mm, an amount roughly equivalent to the 63 mm of offset between the roof and foundation at the east end of the building. The ground and foundation beneath the building extended (or spread) laterally opening cracks and lengthening the foundation while the roof remained in place. (3) The most spectacular damage to structures at the community of San Martin was the tilting of a 6-m high water tower and the toppling of a nearby pump house into a 1-m deep crater. Similarly, a small

  12. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the Atlas Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Cruz, Jorge E.

    2005-01-01

    The general climate of the island of Puerto Rico is dominated by the easterly trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean, and during synoptically calm days by the topographic and local land surface characteristics [1]. The urban canopy of the metropolitan area of San Juan, capital city of the Island, may introduce a new microclimate that changes the characteristics of the low atmosphere and interacts with the other microclimates already present in the island. The primitive land cover and land use (LCLU) of the metropolitan area of San Juan was composed by broadleaf trees, moist soils, and very dense vegetation in general. The urban LCLU changes the balance for the mass, momentum and energy between the bottom boundary and the lower atmosphere, creating different climate conditions over urban and rural regions. Some of these differences are low relative humidity and high temperatures observed in urban areas when compared to rural areas. These in turn produces a convective circulation over the urban areas, a phenomenon compared to the sea and land breezes, commonly known as heat islands (UHI). Factors that contribute to the formation of the UHI are anthropogenic heat sources, aerosols from pollutants, fast water canalization due to the presence of buildings and streets, among others. The comparison between urban and rural climates is the most common approach to analyze the UHI. These contrasts are larger in clear and calm conditions and tend to disappear in cloudy and windy weather. The UHI was recognized in the early 1950 s as closed isotherms that separates the city from the general temperature field [2]. The impact of the urban LCLU in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was quantified calculating the difference between historical data sets for the air temperature over an identified urban area and a rural area dT(U-R). The analysis of the climatological data revealed that a UHI exists in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The data reveals a permanent urban heat island

  13. Ichthyophonus in Puget Sound rockfish from the San Juan Islands archipelago and Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halos, D.; Hart, S.A.; Hershberger, P.; Kocan, R.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro explant cultures identified Ichthyophonus in 10.9% of 302 Puget Sound rockfish Sebastes emphaeus sampled from five sites in the San Juan Islands archipelago and Puget Sound, Washington, in 2003. None of the infected fish exhibited visible lesions and only a single fish was histologically positive. Significantly more females were infected (12.4%) than males (6.8%), and while infected males were only detected at two of the five sites, infected females were identified at all sites, with no significant differences in infection prevalence. Genomic sequences of Ichthyophonus isolates obtained from Puget Sound rockfish, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, and Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were identical in both the A and B regions of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA but were different from Ichthyophonus sequences previously isolated from four different species of rockfish from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Ichthyophonus in Puget Sound rockfish may not have been previously detected because the infection is subclinical in this species and earlier investigators did not utilize in vitro techniques for diagnosis of ichthyophoniasis. However, since clinical ichthyophoniasis has recently been identified in several other species of northeast Pacific rockfishes, it is hypothesized that this either is an emerging disease resulting from changing marine conditions or the result of introduction by infected southern species that appear during periodic El Nin??o events. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  14. Shallow gas well drilling with coiled tubing in the San Juan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, R.G.; Ovitz, R.W.; Guild, G.J.; Biggs, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Coiled tubing is being utilized to drill new wells, for re-entry drilling to deepen or laterally extend existing wells, and for underbalanced drilling to prevent formation damage. Less than a decade old, coiled tubing drilling technology is still in its inaugral development stage. Initially, utilizing coiled tubing was viewed as a {open_quotes}science project{close_quotes} to determine the validity of performing drilling operations in-lieu of the conventional rotary rig. Like any new technology, the initial attempts were not always successful, but did show promise as an economical alternative if continued efforts were made in the refinement of equipment and operational procedures. A multiwell project has been completed in the San Juan Basin of Northwestern New Mexico which provides documentation indicating that coiled tubing can be an alternative to the conventional rotary rig. A 3-well pilot project, a 6-well project was completed uniquely utilizing the combined resources of a coiled tubing service company, a producing company, and a drilling contractor. This combination of resources aided in the refinement of surface equipment, personnel, mud systems, jointed pipe handling, and mobilization. The results of the project indicate that utilization of coiled tubing for the specific wells drilled was an economical alternative to the conventional rotary rig for drilling shallow gas wells.

  15. Taking 'know' for an answer: a reply to Nagel, San Juan, and Mar.

    PubMed

    Starmans, Christina; Friedman, Ori

    2013-12-01

    Nagel, San Juan, and Mar report an experiment investigating lay attributions of knowledge, belief, and justification. They suggest that, in keeping with the expectations of philosophers, but contra recent empirical findings [Starmans, C. & Friedman, O. (2012). The folk conception of knowledge. Cognition, 124, 272-283], laypeople consistently deny knowledge in Gettier cases, regardless of whether the beliefs are based on 'apparent' or 'authentic' evidence. In this reply, we point out that Nagel et al. employed a questioning method that biased participants to deny knowledge. Moreover, careful examination of participants' responses reveals that they attributed knowledge in Gettier cases. We also note that Nagel et al. misconstrue the distinction between 'apparent' and 'authentic' evidence, and use scenarios that do not feature the structure that characterizes most Gettier cases. We conclude that NS&M's findings are fully compatible with the claim that laypeople attribute knowledge in Gettier cases in general, but are significantly less likely to attribute knowledge when a belief is generated based on apparent evidence.

  16. Estimates of aseismic slip associated with small earthquakes near San Juan Bautista, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Simons, M.; Ampuero, J.-P.

    2016-11-01

    Postseismic slip observed after large (M > 6) earthquakes typically has an equivalent moment of a few tens of percent of the coseismic moment. Some observations of the recurrence intervals of repeating earthquakes suggest that postseismic slip following small (M≲4) earthquakes could be much larger—up to 10 or 100 times the coseismic moment. We use borehole strain data from U.S. Geological Survey strainmeter SJT to analyze deformation in the days before and after 1000 1.9 < M < 5 earthquakes near San Juan Bautista, CA. We find that on average, postseismic strain is roughly equal in magnitude to coseismic strain for the magnitude range considered, suggesting that postseismic moment following these small earthquakes is roughly equal to coseismic moment. This postseismic to coseismic moment ratio is larger than typically observed in earthquakes that rupture through the seismogenic zone but is much smaller than was hypothesized from modeling repeating earthquakes. Our results are consistent with a simple, self-similar model of earthquakes.

  17. Preliminary geologic map of the Beautiful Mountain anticline, San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaumont, E.C.

    1954-01-01

    The Beautiful Mountain anticline is on the Navajo Indian Reservation in western San Juan County, N. Mex., near the Arizona-New Mexico State line; it lies along tbe western side of the Chuska Valley at the foot of the Chuska Mountains. Most of the area of this report is characterized by low, sharp relief. Beautiful Mountain, a buttelike outlier of the Chuska Mountains, contrasts strikingly with the otherwise low relief of the area--it rises above the western flank of the anticline to an alutude of nearly 9,000 feet. The general form of the partly breached anticlinal structure is expressed in the topography sharply delineated cuestas, mesas, buttes, and promontories, all capped by the resistant sandstone beds of the Tocito sandstone lentil of rhe Mancos shale. This report shows the distribution and thickness of the sedimentary rocks exposed in the area of the Beautiful Mountain anticline and the conformation of the anticline as represented by structure contours drawn on the top of the Dakota sandstone.

  18. Geochemical evaluation of upper cretaceous fruitland formation coals, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, G.E.; Anders, D.E.; Law, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of coal samples from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado were used to determine thermal maturity, type of kerogen, and hydrocarbon generation potential. Mean random vitrinite reflectance (%Rm) of the Fruitland coal ranges from 0.42 to 1.54%. Rock-Eval pyrolysis data and saturated to aromatic hydrocarbon ratio indicate that the onset of thermal hydrocarbon generation begins at about 0.60% Rm and peak generation occurs at about 0.85% Rm. Several samples have hydrogen index values between 200 and 400, indicating some potential for liquid hydrocarbon generation and a mixed Type III and II kerogen. Pentacyclic and tricyclic terpanes, steranes, aromatic steroids and methylphenanthrene maturity parameters were observed through the complete range of thermal maturity in the Fruitland coals. Aromatic pentacyclic terpanes, similar to those found in brown coals of Australia, were observed in low maturity samples, but not found above 0.80% Rm. N-alkane depleted coal samples, which occur at a thermal maturity of approx. 0.90% Rm, paralleling peak hydrocarbon generation, are fairly widespread throughout the basin. Depletion of n-alkanes in these samples may be due to gas solution stripping and migration fromthe coal seams coincident with the development of pressure induced fracturing due to hydrocarbon generation; however, biodegradation may also effect these samples. ?? 1993.

  19. The nonopaque, detrital heavy mineralogy of the Morrison Formation near Crownpoint, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansley, Paula L.

    1983-01-01

    Description and quantification of the nonopaque, detrital heavy mineralogy of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin have helped to identify stratigraphic trends, source-area lithologies, and zones of post-depositional alteration possibly related to uranium mineralization. A synthesis of stratigraphic variations in mineral species and diversity in Morrison sandstones reveals an increasing upward igneous component, characterized by euhedral zircon and subhedral apatite. Complementing this trend, the predominantly well-rounded assemblage of the Recapture Member changes to a mixed assemblage of rounded and angular grains in the Westwater Canyon Member. Overall, the low diversity in mineral species indicates a sedimentary, low- to medium-grade-metamorphic, and acid igneous parentage for Morrison sediments; however, post-depositional processes have played a significant role in determining the present mineralogy. The roles that diagenesis and weathering have played in determining the present aspect of the assemblage, which is a mature garnet-zircon-apatite-tourmaline suite, cannot be overemphasized. For instance, the presence of authigenically etched to skeletal garnet and staurolite implies that entire grains have been destroyed. Comparison of cores with measured sections indicates that near-surface weathering has caused the destruction of some minerals, notably apatite, sensitive to acidic conditions. Therefore, in order to interpret the sedimentology, stratigraphic intervals in which post-depositional processes have affected the mineralogy were identified. These diagenetic zones may prove to be most useful in delineating the past movements and compositions of interstitial, possibly ore-forming, fluids.

  20. Deglaciation and postglacial treeline fluctuation in the northern San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado contain numerous lakes and bogs at and above treeline. In June 1978, Lake Emma, a tarn above present-day treeline, was suddenly drained by the collapse of underground mine workings. This study was initiated because the draining exposed a well-preserved archive of subfossil coniferous wood fragments that provided a unique opportunity to further our understanding of the paleoclimatic history of this region. These paleoclimatic studies-coniferous macrofossil identification in conjunction with radiocarbon dating, deuterium analysis of the dated conifer fragments, as well as pollen and fossil insect analyses-yielded new information regarding Holocene climate and accompanying treeline changes in the northern San Juan Mountains. This report synthesizes previously published reports by the author and other investigators, and unpublished information of the author bearing on late Pleistocene and Holocene treeline and climate in this region. Retreat of the glacier that occupied the upper Animas River valley from its Pinedale terminal position began about 19.4 + or - 1.5 10Be thousands of years ago and was essentially complete by about 12.3 + or - 1.0 10Be thousands of years ago. Two sets of late Pleistocene cirque moraines were identified in the northern San Juan Mountains. The older set is widespread and probably correlates with the Younger Dryas (11,000-10,000 radiocarbon years before present; 12,800-11,500 calendar years). The younger set is found only in the Grenadier Range and represents remnant glacier ice lying in well-shaded niches in a mountain range undergoing rapid deglaciation. A snowbank at the northern base of this range appears to be fronted by a Little Ice Age moraine. Soon after deglaciation the average July temperature is estimated to have been about 5°C cooler and timberline about 650 meters lower than at present. However, timberline (and treeline) responded rapidly to the postglacial warming and reached

  1. Basement-cover interaction in post-Mississippian folds in the San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    In the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, a Cambrian-Mississippian cratonic succession (generally <100 m thick) of clastic and carbonate rocks unconformably overlies a variety of Precambrian basement rocks and structures. Basement and cover strata are broken by steep faults that were reactivated episodically during Cambrian, Devonian-Mississippian and later. On the block between the Coal Bank Pass and Snowdon faults, folded Paleozoic strata overlies a vertically dipping Precambrian succession of alternate units of quartzite and metapelite (each [approximately]150 to 250 m thick); average angular discordance is [approximately]90[degree] at the sub-Cambrian unconformity. Gently plunging anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic strata are distributed systematically with respect to five successive lithologic contacts in the quartzite-metapelite succession; wavelength of the folds in Paleozoic rocks correspond to thickness of the quartzite and metapelite units. The systematic location of anticlines over metapelites and synclines over quartzites suggests that the structural relief of the anticlines was filled by vertical upward extension of metapelite parallel with foliation. A possible mechanism includes subhorizontal compression at a high angle to strike of the quartzite-metapelite, layer-perpendicular shortening and layer-parallel upward ductile extension of the metapelite, and folding of the Paleozoic strata. Folding of the Paleozoic strata probably reflects passive draping over the upward-extending metapelite, but a component of buckle folding with axes perpendicular to compression is also possible.

  2. Profile of prospective bioengineering students at National University of San Juan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, N.; Puzzella, A.; Zabala, A.; Demartini, H.; Alborch, A.; Cabrera, L.

    2007-11-01

    The low percentage of students (43 % of applicants) that passed the entrance exams for the bioengineering career at the National University of San Juan in 2007, plus the historical situation of desertion in first year (about 50%), motivated the application of a diagnostic test to prospective students of this career. The aim of this test was to obtain information about the competences acquired by students to solve problems in different contexts using basic mathematical tools, reading comprehension skills to understand texts, graphs and tables. Although this test was sat by the entire population of applicants of the current school year, only the results belonging to bioengineering students are the ones presented for the purpose of this work. However, students of other disciplines of the school of engineering also have similar problems. From the analysis of the answers to the different items, it can be observed that there are serious difficulties in the development of basic capacities to successfully take the courses of this career.

  3. Permafrost distribution map of San Juan Dry Andes (Argentina) based on rock glacier sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esper Angillieri, María Yanina

    2017-01-01

    Rock glaciers are frozen water reservoirs in mountainous areas. Water resources are important for the local populations and economies. The presence of rock glaciers is commonly used as a direct indicator of mountain permafrost conditions. Over 500 active rock glaciers have been identified, showing that elevations between 3500 and 4500 m asl., a south-facing or east-facing aspect, areas with relatively low solar radiation and low mean annual air temperature (-4 to 0 °C) favour the existence of rock glaciers in this region. The permafrost probability model, for Dry Andes of San Juan Province between latitudes 28º30‧S and 32°30‧S, have been analyzed by logistic regression models based on the active rock glaciers occurrence in relation to some topoclimatic variables such as altitude, aspect, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and solar radiation, using optical remote sensing techniques in a GIS environment. The predictive performances of the model have been estimated by known rock glaciers locations and by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). This regional permafrost map can be applied by the Argentinean Government for their recent initiatives which include creating inventories, monitoring and studying ice masses along the Argentinean Andes. Further, this generated map provides valuable input data for permafrost scenarios and contributes to a better understanding of our geosystem.

  4. Sultan Mountain mine, western San Juan Mountains, Colorado: A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, J.A. ); Thompson, T.B. . Dept. of Earth Resources)

    1991-01-01

    The Sultan Mountain (SM) mine, in the western San Juan Mountains of Colorado, has produced Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au ores from the mid-1870s until the 1950s. Production was from veins filling faults and fissures along the southern margin of the Silverton caldera. The principal host rock to the veins is a quartz monzonite stock. Five periods of hypogene mineralization have been recognized: (1) early quartz-pyrite; (2) quartz-pyrite; (3) rhodochrosite-siderite; (4) main ore-stage chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, galena, sphalerite, and gold; and (5) quartz-fluorite. Evidence of open-space filling (banding, crustification, vugs) is widespread. Heating studies of fluid inclusions in quartz, rhodochrosite-siderite, sphalerite, and fluorite indicate temperatures were approximately 200 C for stages 1 to 4 and 186 C for stage 5. Stages 1, 2, and 4 show evidence of boiling. Crushing studies indicate that high-pressure gas, probably CO[sub 2], is present in the fluid inclusions. Freezing point depression estimates of salinity, corrected for CO[sub 2], indicate a range of 13.6 to 1.3 wt percent NaCl equiv. These data together with P-V-T data for saline solutions and P[sub CO[sub 2

  5. Response to critique by lucas et al. (2009) of paper by Fassett (2009) documenting Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue of Palaeontologia Electronica Lucas, et al. (2009) question the validity f the Fassett (2009) paper that presented evidence for Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. Their challenges focus primarily on the lithostratigraphy, palynology, and paleomagnetism of the dinosaur-bearing Ojo Alamo Sandstone, shown by Fassett to be of Paleocene age. The lithostratigraphy of the Ojo Alamo is addressed by Lucas et al. (2009) based on detailed studies of outcrops of this formation in two relatively small areas in the southern San Juan Basin where Ojo Alamo dinosaur fossils have been found. When viewed over its 13,000 km2 extent, the Ojo Alamo is seen to be a much more complex formation than these authors recognize, thus their perception and description of the lithostratigraphy of this rock unit is limited and provincial. Fassett (2009) presented a detailed discussion of the palynology of the rocks adjacent to the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) interface in the San Juan Basin, including a 67-page appendix and 25 tables listing the 244 palynomorph species identified from these strata. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone produced 103 palynomorphs from five principal localities including one especially prolific sample set from drill core through K-T strata. Without exception, all samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone for palynologic analysis were found to contain Paleocene palynomorph assemblages. Lucas et al. challenge only one Ojo Alamo palynomorph assemblage from one of the five areas studied, stating that they were unable to find palynomorph-productive samples at that locality. They submit no new palynologic data that refutes the Paleocene palynologic age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone. In addressing the paleomagnetism of the Ojo Alamo, these authors dismiss the presence of a critical normal-polarity magnetochron discovered in the lower part of the Ojo Alamo - magnetochron C29n.2n of Fassett (2009) with no evidence to justify this dismissal

  6. Late Quaternary Faulting along the San Juan de los Planes Fault Zone, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, M. M.; Coyan, J. A.; Arrowsmith, J.; Maloney, S. J.; Gutierrez, G.; Umhoefer, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    As a result of continued distributed deformation in the Gulf Extensional Province along an oblique-divergent plate margin, active normal faulting is well manifest in southeastern Baja California. By characterizing normal-fault related deformation along the San Juan de los Planes fault zone (SJPFZ) southwest of La Paz, Baja California Sur we contribute to understanding the patterns and rates of faulting along the southwest gulf-margin fault system. The geometry, history, and rate of faulting provide constraints on the relative significance of gulf-margin deformation as compared to axial system deformation. The SJPFZ is a major north-trending structure in the southern Baja margin along which we focused our field efforts. These investigations included: a detailed strip map of the active fault zone, including delineation of active scarp traces and geomorphic surfaces on the hanging wall and footwall; fault scarp profiles; analysis of bedrock structures to better understand how the pattern and rate of strain varied during the development of this fault zone; and a gravity survey across the San Juan de los Planes basin to determine basin geometry and fault behavior. The map covers a N-S swath from the Gulf of California in the north to San Antonio in the south, an area ~45km long and ~1-4km wide. Bedrock along the SJPFZ varies from Cretaceous Las Cruces Granite in the north to Cretaceous Buena Mujer Tonalite in the south and is scarred by shear zones and brittle faults. The active scarp-forming fault juxtaposes bedrock in the footwall against Late Quaternary sandstone-conglomerate. This ~20m wide zone is highly fractured bedrock infused with carbonate. The northern ~12km of the SJPFZ, trending 200°, preserves discontinuous scarps 1-2km long and 1-3m high in Quaternary units. The scarps are separated by stretches of bedrock embayed by hundreds of meters-wide tongues of Quaternary sandstone-conglomerate, implying low Quaternary slip rate. Further south, ~2 km north of the

  7. Petrophysical Analysis and Geographic Information System for San Juan Basin Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Robert Balch; Tom Engler; Roger Ruan; Shaojie Ma

    2008-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the availability and ease of access to critical data on the Mesaverde and Dakota tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan Basin. Secondary goals include tuning well log interpretations through integration of core, water chemistry and production analysis data to help identify bypassed pay zones; increased knowledge of permeability ratios and how they affect well drainage and thus infill drilling plans; improved time-depth correlations through regional mapping of sonic logs; and improved understanding of the variability of formation waters within the basin through spatial analysis of water chemistry data. The project will collect, integrate, and analyze a variety of petrophysical and well data concerning the Mesaverde and Dakota reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, with particular emphasis on data available in the areas defined as tight gas areas for purpose of FERC. A relational, geo-referenced database (a geographic information system, or GIS) will be created to archive this data. The information will be analyzed using neural networks, kriging, and other statistical interpolation/extrapolation techniques to fine-tune regional well log interpretations, improve pay zone recognition from old logs or cased-hole logs, determine permeability ratios, and also to analyze water chemistries and compatibilities within the study area. This single-phase project will be accomplished through four major tasks: Data Collection, Data Integration, Data Analysis, and User Interface Design. Data will be extracted from existing databases as well as paper records, then cleaned and integrated into a single GIS database. Once the data warehouse is built, several methods of data analysis will be used both to improve pay zone recognition in single wells, and to extrapolate a variety of petrophysical properties on a regional basis. A user interface will provide tools to make the data and results of the study accessible and useful. The final deliverable

  8. El círculo meridiano automático de San Fernando - San Juan. Sus primeros pasos en el hemisferio sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamaci, C. C.; Muiños, J. L.; Gallego, M.; Pérez, J. A.; Marmolejo, L.; Navarro, J. L.; Sedeño, J.; Vallejos, M.; Belizón, F.

    Se informa sobre el estado actual del Círculo Meridiano Automático de San Fernando-San Juan. El instrumento (Grubb-Parson, de 178mm de abertura y 2665 mm de distancia focal) es gemelo del que se encuentra en las Islas Canarias, y fue instalado durante los meses de julio y agosto de 1996 en la estación astronómica ``Dr. C.U.Cesco" (El Leoncito, Barreal), a unos 200 km de distancia de la ciudad de San Juan, merced a un Convenio de Cooperación Científica, firmado en 1994 entre el ROA (España) y el OAFA (Argentina). En la actualidad se está llevando a cabo un programa de prueba cuyos resultados preliminares muestran que el telescopio está en buenas condiciones para observar estrellas de hasta magnitud aproximada 14.5, con buenos errores de observación (<0.12" en ascensión recta y declinación).

  9. Modeled Forecasts of Dengue Fever in San Juan, Puerto Rico Using NASA Satellite Enhanced Weather Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, C.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Zavodsky, B.; Case, J.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is an important mosquito transmitted disease that is strongly influenced by meteorological and environmental conditions. Recent research has focused on forecasting DF case numbers based on meteorological data. However, these forecasting tools have generally relied on empirical models that require long DF time series to train. Additionally, their accuracy has been tested retrospectively, using past meteorological data. Consequently, the operational utility of the forecasts are still in question because the error associated with weather and climate forecasts are not reflected in the results. Using up-to-date weekly dengue case numbers for model parameterization and weather forecast data as meteorological input, we produced weekly forecasts of DF cases in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Each week, the past weeks' case counts were used to re-parameterize a process-based DF model driven with updated weather forecast data to generate forecasts of DF case numbers. Real-time weather forecast data was produced using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction (NWP) system enhanced using additional high-resolution NASA satellite data. This methodology was conducted in a weekly iterative process with each DF forecast being evaluated using county-level DF cases reported by the Puerto Rico Department of Health. The one week DF forecasts were accurate especially considering the two sources of model error. First, weather forecasts were sometimes inaccurate and generally produced lower than observed temperatures. Second, the DF model was often overly influenced by the previous weeks DF case numbers, though this phenomenon could be lessened by increasing the number of simulations included in the forecast. Although these results are promising, we would like to develop a methodology to produce longer range forecasts so that public health workers can better prepare for dengue epidemics.

  10. Bathymetry, substrate and circulation in Westcott Bay, San Juan Islands, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Curran, Chris; Smith, Collin; Schwartz, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore bathymetry, substrate type, and circulation patterns in Westcott Bay, San Juan Islands, Washington, were mapped using two acoustic sonar systems, video and direct sampling of seafloor sediments. The goal of the project was to characterize nearshore habitat and conditions influencing eelgrass (Z. marina) where extensive loss has occurred since 1995. A principal hypothesis for the loss of eelgrass is a recent decrease in light availability for eelgrass growth due to increase in turbidity associated with either an increase in fine sedimentation or biological productivity within the bay. To explore sources for this fine sediment and turbidity, a dual-frequency Biosonics sonar operating at 200 and 430 kHz was used to map seafloor depth, morphology and vegetation along 69 linear kilometers of the bay. The higher frequency 430 kHz system also provided information on particulate concentrations in the water column. A boat-mounted 600 kHz RDI Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was used to map current velocity and direction and water column backscatter intensity along another 29 km, with select measurements made to characterize variations in circulation with tides. An underwater video camera was deployed to ground-truth acoustic data. Seventy one sediment samples were collected to quantify sediment grain size distributions across Westcott Bay. Sediment samples were analyzed for grain size at the Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team sediment laboratory in Menlo Park, Calif. These data reveal that the seafloor near the entrance to Westcott Bay is rocky with a complex morphology and covered with dense and diverse benthic vegetation. Current velocities were also measured to be highest at the entrance and along a deep channel extending 1 km into the bay. The substrate is increasingly comprised of finer sediments with distance into Westcott Bay where current velocities are lower. This report describes the data collected and preliminary findings of USGS Cruise B-6

  11. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington▿

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On On; Wong, Yue Him; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges. High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. incrustans and H. rufescens collected from different sites, suggesting that there are stable or even specific associations of certain bacteria in these two sponges. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H. panicea or for any one sponge genus. Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. were found exclusively in all M. incrustans sponges, while an uncultured gammaproteobacterium was unique to H. rufescens. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges. This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination

  12. New discoveries of early Paleocene (Torrejonian) primates from the Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silcox, Mary T; Williamson, Thomas E

    2012-12-01

    Primates underwent a period of diversification following the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs. Although the Order first appeared near the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, it is not until the Torrejonian (the second North American Land Mammal Age of the Paleocene) that a diversity of families began to emerge. One of the lithological units critical to understanding this first primate adaptive radiation is the early Paleocene Nacimiento Formation of the San Juan Basin (SJB; New Mexico). Primates previously described from this formation comprise six species of palaechthonid and paromomyid plesiadapiforms, all known from very limited material. Collecting has increased the sample of primate specimens more than fivefold. Included in the new sample is the first specimen of a picrodontid plesiadapiform from the Torrejonian of the SJB, referable to Picrodus calgariensis, and the first paromomyid specimen complete enough to allow for a species level taxonomic assignment, representing a new species of Paromomys. With respect to the 'Palaechthonidae', the current report describes large collections of Torrejonia wilsoni and Palaechthon woodi, and the first new specimens attributed to Plesiolestes nacimienti and Anasazia williamsoni since 1972 and 1994, respectively. These collections demonstrate previously unknown morphological variants, including the presence of a metaconid on the p4 of some specimens of T. wilsoni, a discovery that supports previous inferences about a close relationship between Torrejonia and Plesiolestes problematicus. This new sample considerably improves our knowledge of the poorly understood 'Palaechthonidae', and about the biostratigraphy, biogeography, and early evolution of North American primates. In particular, the rarity of paromomyids, the continuing absence of plesiadapid and carpolestid plesiadapiforms, and the presence of a number of endemic palaechthonid species in the SJB contrast with plesiadapiform samples from contemporaneous deposits to the

  13. Inter- and intraspecific variations of bacterial communities associated with marine sponges from san juan island, washington.

    PubMed

    Lee, On On; Wong, Yue Him; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2009-06-01

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges. High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. incrustans and H. rufescens collected from different sites, suggesting that there are stable or even specific associations of certain bacteria in these two sponges. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H. panicea or for any one sponge genus. Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. were found exclusively in all M. incrustans sponges, while an uncultured gammaproteobacterium was unique to H. rufescens. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges. This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination

  14. Mass Movement Susceptibility in the Western San Juan Mountains, Colorado: A Preliminary 3-D Mapping Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, K. A.; Giardino, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Mass movement is a major activity that impacts lives of humans and their infrastructure. Human activity in steep, mountainous regions is especially at risk to this potential hazard. Thus, the identification and quantification of risk by mapping and determining mass movement susceptibility are fundamental in protecting lives, resources and ensuring proper land use regulation and planning. Specific mass-movement processes including debris flows, rock falls, snow avalanches and landslides continuously modify the landscape of the San Juan Mountains. Historically, large-magnitude slope failures have repeatedly occurred in the region. Common triggers include intense, long-duration precipitation, freeze-thaw processes, human activity and various volcanic lithologies overlying weaker sedimentary formations. Predicting mass movement is challenging because of its episodic and spatially, discontinuous occurrence. Landslides in mountain terrain are characterized as widespread, highly mobile and have a long duration of activity. We developed a 3-D model for landslide susceptibility using Geographic Information Systems Technology (GIST). The study area encompasses eight USGS quadrangles: Ridgway, Dallas, Mount Sneffels, Ouray, Telluride, Ironton, Ophir and Silverton. Fieldwork consisted of field reconnaissance mapping at 1:5,000 focusing on surficial geomorphology. Field mapping was used to identify potential locations, which then received additional onsite investigation and photographic documentation of features indicative of slope failure. A GIS module was created using seven terrain spatial databases: geology, surficial geomorphology (digitized), slope aspect, slope angle, vegetation, soils and distance to infrastructure to map risk. The GIS database will help determine risk zonation for the study area. Correlations between terrain parameters leading to slope failure were determined through the GIS module. This 3-D model will provide a spatial perspective of the landscape to

  15. Surficial geology of the lower Comb Wash, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longpré, Claire I.

    2001-01-01

    The surficial geologic map of lower Comb Wash was produced as part of a master’s thesis for Northern Arizona University Quaternary Sciences program. The map area includes the portion of the Comb Wash alluvial valley between Highway 163 and Highway 95 on the Colorado Plateau in southeastern Utah. The late Quaternary geology of this part of the Colorado Plateau had not previously been mapped in adequate detail. The geologic information in this report will be useful for biological studies, land management and range management for federal, state and private industries. Comb Wash is a south flowing ephemeral tributary of the San Juan River, flanked to the east by Comb Ridge and to the west by Cedar Mesa (Figure 1). The nearest settlement is Bluff, about 7 km to the east of the area. Elevations range from 1951 m where Highway 95 crosses Comb Wash to 1291 m at the confluence with the San Juan River. Primary vehicle access to lower Comb Wash is provided by a well-maintained dirt road that parallels the active channel of Comb Wash between Highway 163 and Highway 95. For much of the year this road can be traversed without the aid of four-wheel drive. However, during inclement weather such as rain or snow the road becomes treacherous even with four-wheel drive. The Comb Wash watershed is public land managed by the Bureau of Land management (BLM) office in Monticello, Utah. The semi-arid climate of Comb Wash and the surrounding area is typical of the Great Basin Desert. Temperature in Bluff, Utah ranges from a minimum of –8° C in January to a maximum of 35° C in July with a mean annual temperature of 9.8° C (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1999). The difference between day and nighttime temperatures is as great as 20° C. Between 1928 and 1998, annual rainfall in Bluff averaged 178 mm per year (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1999). Annual rainfall in Comb Wash averaged 240 mm per year from 1991 to 1999 while Bluff received an average of 193 mm for the same 8 year period

  16. New perspectives on a 140-year legacy of mining and abandoned mine cleanup in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Fey, David L.; Chapin, Thomas; Johnson, Raymond H.

    2016-01-01

    The Gold King mine water release that occurred on 5 August 2015 near the historical mining community of Silverton, Colorado, highlights the environmental legacy that abandoned mines have on the environment. During reclamation efforts, a breach of collapsed workings at the Gold King mine sent 3 million gallons of acidic and metal-rich mine water into the upper Animas River, a tributary to the Colorado River basin. The Gold King mine is located in the scenic, western San Juan Mountains, a region renowned for its volcano-tectonic and gold-silver-base metal mineralization history. Prior to mining, acidic drainage from hydrothermally altered areas was a major source of metals and acidity to streams, and it continues to be so. In addition to abandoned hard rock metal mines, uranium mine waste poses a long-term storage and immobilization challenge in this area. Uranium resources are mined in the Colorado Plateau, which borders the San Juan Mountains on the west. Uranium processing and repository sites along the Animas River near Durango, Colorado, are a prime example of how the legacy of mining must be managed for the health and well-being of future generations. The San Juan Mountains are part of a geoenvironmental nexus where geology, mining, agriculture, recreation, and community issues converge. This trip will explore the geology, mining, and mine cleanup history in which a community-driven, watershed-based stakeholder process is an integral part. Research tools and historical data useful for understanding complex watersheds impacted by natural sources of metals and acidity overprinted by mining will also be discussed.

  17. Arc-parallel extension and fluid flow in an ancient accretionary wedge: The San Juan Islands, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schermer, E.R.; Gillaspy, J.R.; Lamb, R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural analysis of the Lopez Structural Complex, a major Late Cretaceous terrane-bounding fault zone in the San Juan thrust system, reveals a sequence of events that provides insight into accretionary wedge mechanics and regional tectonics. After formation of regional ductile flattening and shear-related fabrics, the area was crosscut by brittle structures including: (1) southwest-vergent thrusts, (2) extension veins and normal faults related to northwest-southeast extension, and (3) conjugate strike-slip structures that record northwest-southeast extension and northeast-southwest shortening. Aragonite-bearing veins are associated with thrust and normal faults, but only rarely with strike-slip faults. High-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) minerals constrain the conditions for brittle deformation to ???20 km and <250 ??C. The presence of similar structures elsewhere indicates that the brittle structural sequence is typical of the San Juan nappes. Sustained HP-LT conditions are possible only if structures formed in an accretionary prism during active subduction, which suggests that these brittle structures record internal wedge deformation at depth and early during uplift of the San Juan nappes. The structures are consistent with orogen-normal shortening and vertical thickening followed by vertical thinning and along-strike extension. The kinematic evolution may be related initially to changes in wedge strength, followed by response to overthickening of the wedge in an unbuttressed, obliquely convergent setting. The change in vein mineralogy indicates that exhumation occurred prior to the strike-slip event. The pressure and temperature conditions and spatial and temporal extent of small faults associated with fluid flow suggest a link between these structures and the silent earthquake process. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  18. Simulated changes in ground-water levels related to proposed development of Federal coal leases, San Juan Basin New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of coal-related ground-water withdrawals on potentiometric surfaces of aquifers in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, were estimated. A previously published steady-state finite-difference digital model was converted to a transient-state model by changing boundary conditions and adding storage coefficients. No calibration of the transient-state model was attempted. Predicted drawdowns with a minimum amount of coal development combined with other kinds of development were as great as 2,000 feet. As much as 300 feet of additional drawdown were simulated for the maximum amount of coal development. Drawdowns near pumping wells are not predicted. (USGS)

  19. Contemporaneous trachyandesitic and calc-alkaline volcanism of the Huerto Andesite, San Juan Volcanic Field, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parat, F.; Dungan, M.A.; Lipman, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Locally, voluminous andesitic volcanism both preceded and followed large eruptions of silicic ash-flow tuff from many calderas in the San Juan volcanic field. The most voluminous post-collapse lava suite of the central San Juan caldera cluster is the 28 Ma Huerto Andesite, a diverse assemblage erupted from at least 5-6 volcanic centres that were active around the southern margins of the La Garita caldera shortly after eruption of the Fish Canyon Tuff. These andesitic centres are inferred, in part, to represent eruptions of magma that ponded and differentiated within the crust below the La Garita caldera, thereby providing the thermal energy necessary for rejuvenation and remobilization of the Fish Canyon magma body. The multiple Huerto eruptive centres produced two magmatic series that differ in phenocryst mineralogy (hydrous vs anhydrous assemblages), whole-rock major and trace element chemistry and isotopic compositions. Hornblende-bearing lavas from three volcanic centres located close to the southeastern margin of the La Garita caldera (Eagle Mountain - Fourmile Creek, West Fork of the San Juan River, Table Mountain) define a high-K calc-alkaline series (57-65 wt % SiO2) that is oxidized, hydrous and sulphur rich. Trachyandesitic lavas from widely separated centres at Baldy Mountain-Red Lake (western margin), Sugarloaf Mountain (southern margin) and Ribbon Mesa (20 km east of the La Garita caldera) are mutually indistinguishable (55-61 wt % SiO2); they are characterized by higher and more variable concentrations of alkalis and many incompatible trace elements (e.g. Zr, Nb, heavy rare earth elements), and they contain anhydrous phenocryst assemblages (including olivine). These mildly alkaline magmas were less water rich and oxidized than the hornblende-bearing calc-alkaline suite. The same distinctions characterize the voluminous precaldera andesitic lavas of the Conejos Formation, indicating that these contrasting suites are long-term manifestations of San Juan

  20. Distribution of trace elements in drilling chip samples around a roll-type uranium deposit, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, H.C.; Spirakis, C.S.; Zech, R.S.; Kirk, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Chip samples from rotary drilling in the vicinity of a roll-type uranium deposit in the southwestern San Juan Basin were split into a whole-washed fraction, a clay fraction, and a heavy mineral concentrate fraction. Analyses of these fractions determined that cutting samples could be used to identify geochemical halos associated with this ore deposit. In addition to showing a distribution of selenium, uranium, vanadium, and molybdenum similar to that described by Harshman (1974) in uranium roll-type deposits in Wyoming, South Dakota, and Texas, the chemical data indicate a previously unrecognized zinc anomaly in the clay fraction downdip of the uranium ore.

  1. Geochemical data from waters in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado, that span pre- and post-Lark Mine remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Yager, Douglas B.; Johnson, Hugh D.

    2011-01-01

    In San Juan County, Colorado, the effects of historical mining continue to contribute dissolved metals to groundwater and surface water. Water samples in Prospect Gulch near Silverton, Colorado, were collected at selected locations that span pre- and post-reclamation activities at the Lark Mine, located in the Prospect Gulch watershed. Geochemical results from those water samples are presented in this report. Water samples were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen with handheld field meters, and metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

  2. Mines, prospects, mining claims, and sample localities of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area and vicinity, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Thomas D.

    1981-01-01

    In conjunction with studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a mineral survey in 1979 of known mines, prospect workings, and mineralized zones in the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area, San Juan County, Utah.  This map is a supplement to the Mineral Resources of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area (Weitz and Light, 1981)., and depicts the locations of mines, prospects, mining claims and sample localities for the area examined by the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

  3. Remote mineral mapping using AVIRIS data at Summitville, Colorado and the adjacent San Juan Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Trude V. V.; Clark, Roger N.; Ager, Cathy; Swayze, Gregg A.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated the unique utility of imaging spectroscopy in mapping mineral distribution. In the Summitville mining region we have shown that the mine site does not contribute clay minerals to the Alamosa River, but does contribute Fe-bearing minerals. Such minerals have the potential to carry heavy metals. This application illustrates only one specific environmental application of imaging spectroscopy data. For instance, the types of minerals we can map with confidence are those frequently associated with environmental problems related to active and abandoned mine lands. Thus, the potential utility of this technology to the field of environmental science has yet to be fully explored.

  4. Examination of native fish recruitment and description of the fish communities found in the San Juan and Colorado River interface zones of Lake Powell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon; Horn, Mike; Bradwisch, Quent; Boobar, Lewis

    2001-01-01

    Researchers examined the fish communities of the Colorado and San Juan river interface zones of Lake Powell during 1999 and 2000. The objectives were to: (1) search for young razorback sucker and Colorado pikeminnow and, if found, RIT tag them; (2) examine the effectiveness of the various collection techniques on juvenile native fish; and (3) describe the fish communities found in these transitory, or actually a??migratorya?? habitats. The San Juan River interface zone was sampled 5 time each year during the spring and summer while the Colorado River site was sampled a total of 3 times over the 2-year period, all in the springa?|

  5. Depths of channels in the area of the San Juan Basin Regional Uranium Study, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    During December 1977 and January 1978 about 280 measurements were made of the depths of channels (arroyos) more than 6 feet deep in the San Juan Basin area. More than half of the measurements were made at sites where channel depths had been previously measured Between 1964 and 1969. Some channels in the western part of the basin had Been re-measured in 1969 and in 1971. The principal areas Being dissected by arroyos are near highlands along the margins of the Basin and in uplands in the northeastern part of the Basin. The most severe dissection by arroyos and the deepest arroyos--commonly Between 40 and 60 feet deep--are in the southeastern part of the Basin. Dissection By arroyos is least in the central part of the Basin near the Chaco River where most arroyos are less than 10 feet deep. Elsewhere, moderate dissection predominates with most arroyos Between 12 and 40 feet deep. Comparison of measurements made from 1964-71 with those made in 1977-78 shows that more channels in the western San Juan Basin were filling than were downcutting. Downcutting or filling was generally less than 2 feet. About two-fifths of the sites measured showed less than half a foot of downcutting or filling. Maximum downcutting was 4 feet along the Rio San Jose in the southeastern part of the basin. Maximum filling of 7 feet was along the Chaco River at the Chaco Canyon National Monument. Along ii other streams elsewhere in the western part of the basin, channels were filled 3 to 4.5 feet. The few measurements made in the southeastern San Juan Basin indicate that since 1964 downcutting has predominated over filling. Large floods during the summer of 1977 caused some change in channel depths in the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin. Some of the channels appeared to have been filled during the years prior to the cutting that occurred from the 1977 floods. At other places, flood flows aggraded (filled) channels. The rate of erosion and arroyo formation in the entire San Juan Basin is

  6. A geologic and anthropogenic journey from the Precambrian to the new energy economy through the San Juan volcanic field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Burchell,; Johnson, Raymond H.

    2010-01-01

    The San Juan volcanic field comprises 25,000 km2 of intermediate composition mid-Tertiary volcanic rocks and dacitic to rhyolitic calderas including the San Juan–Uncompahgre and La Garita caldera-forming super-volcanoes. The region is famous for the geological, ecological, hydrological, archeological, and climatological diversity. These characteristics supported ancestral Puebloan populations. The area is also important for its mineral wealth that once fueled local economic vitality. Today, mitigating and/or investigating the impacts of mining and establishing the region as a climate base station are the focuses of ongoing research. Studies include advanced water treatment, the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of propylitic bedrock for use in mine-lands cleanup, and the use of soil amendments including biochar from beetle-kill pines. Biochar aids soil productivity and revegetation by incorporation into soils to improve moisture retention, reduce erosion, and support the natural terrestrial carbon sequestration (NTS) potential of volcanic soils to help offset atmospheric CO2 emissions. This field trip will examine the volcano-tectonic and cultural history of the San Juan volcanic field as well as its geologic structures, economic mineral deposits and impacts, recent mitigation measures, and associated climate research. Field trip stops will include a visit to (1) the Summitville Superfund site to explore quartz alunite-Au mineralization, and associated alteration and new water-quality mitigation strategies; (2) the historic Creede epithermal-polymetallic–vein district with remarkably preserved resurgent calderas, keystone-graben, and moat sediments; (3) the historic mining town of Silverton located in the nested San Juan–Silverton caldera complex that exhibits base-metal Au-Ag mineralization; and (4) the site of ANC and NTS studies. En route back to Denver, we will traverse Grand Mesa, a high NTS area with Neogene basalt-derived soils and will enjoy a soak

  7. Correlation of data on strain accumulation adjacent to the San Andreas Fault with available models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical studies of deformation on strike slip faults were performed and the results applied to geodetic observations performed in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault in California. The initial efforts were devoted to an extensive series of finite element calculations of the deformation associated with cyclic displacements on a strike-slip fault. Measurements of strain accumulation adjacent to the San Andreas Fault indicate that the zone of strain accumulation extends only a few tens of kilometers away from the fault. There is a concern about the tendency to make geodetic observations along the line to the source. This technique has serious problems for strike slip faults since the vector velocity is also along the fault. Use of a series of stations lying perpendicular to the fault whose positions are measured relative to a reference station are suggested to correct the problem. The complexity of faulting adjacent to the San Andreas Fault indicated that the homogeneous elastic and viscoelastic approach to deformation had serious limitations. These limitation led to the proposal of an approach that assumes a fault is composed of a distribution of asperities and barriers on all scales. Thus, an earthquake on a fault is treated as a failure of a fractal tree. Work continued on the development of a fractal based model for deformation in the western United States. In order to better understand the distribution of seismicity on the San Andreas Fault system a fractal analog was developed. The fractal concept also provides a means of testing whether clustering in time or space is a scale-invariant process.

  8. Distribution of Tubifex tubifex lineages and Myxobolus cerebralis infection in the tailwater of the San Juan River, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DuBey, R.; Caldwell, C.

    2004-01-01

    We chose a hypolimnetic-release tailwater of the San Juan River, New Mexico, to characterize the etiology of whirling disease, a parasitic infection of salmonids. We sampled a 2-km reach of the tailwater in August and December 2001 and June 2002 to characterize environmental factors influencing the distribution and density of Tubifex tubifex lineages and Myxobolus cerebralis infection rates. Shortly after the scouring flow, organic matter in sediments and T. tubifex densities increased within deep habitats. In contrast, no differences were observed in T. tubifex densities and organic matter collected from shallow habitats throughout the three sampling dates. Within this study area, we found three sympatric lineages of T. tubifex (lineages I, III, and VI). Lineage VI dominated riffle reaches, whereas lineages I, III, and VI were observed in pool habitats. Myxobolus cerebralis infection rates were higher in T. tubifex collected in pool habitats (3.01%) than in those collected in riffle habitats (0.51%). Only lineage III exhibited infection with M. cerebralis. We suggest that the habitat and genotype of T. tubifex are important in characterizing prevalence of disease within the San Juan River tailwater. Scouring flow may have a beneficial effect on disease severity in salmonid hosts by reducing organic loading and hence T. tubifex abundance in deep habitats.

  9. Multi-scale reservoir modeling as an integrated assessment tool for geo-sequestration in the San Juan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, G.; Haerer, D.; Bromhal, G.; Reeves, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Southwestern Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration conducted an Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM)/Carbon Storage Pilot in the San Juan Basin as part of the ongoing DOE/NETL Carbon Capture and Storage Program. The primary goal of this pilot is to demonstrate the efficacy of using CO2 to enhance coalbed methane recovery particularly near reservoir abandonment pressure while also evaluating the suitability of coal seams for longer-term carbon storage. Basic geologic models of the coal seams were developed from well logs in the area. Production histories from several surrounding CBM wells were shown. To monitor the injection of up to 75,000 ton of CO2 beginning September 2007, seismic surveys and tiltmeter arrays were utilized. Larger-scale geo-hydrodynamic simulations were used to develop a regional model for the fluid dynamics of the northern San Juan Basin. Smaller-scale reservoir simulations, incorporating available laboratory and field data, were used to develop an improved understanding of reservoir dynamics within the specific 640-acre pilot area. Both modeling scales were critical to assessing the suitability of deploying commercial carbon storage programs throughout the basin. Reservoir characterization results on the optimization of total CO2 injection volume, injection rate over time, and how CO2 is expected to disperse after injection are presented. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2007 AIChE Annual Meeting (Salt Lake City, UT 11/4-9/2007).

  10. Completion reports, core logs, and hydrogeologic data from wells and piezometers in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, San Juan County, Colorado, was the center of a metal mining boom in the San Juan Mountains. Although most mining activity ceased by the 1990s, the effects of historical mining continue to contribute metals to ground water and surface water. Previous research by the U.S. Geological Survey identified ground-water discharge as a significant pathway for the loading of metals to surface water from both acid-mine drainage and acid-rock drainage. In an effort to understand the ground-water flow system in the upper Animas River watershed, Prospect Gulch was selected for further study because of the amount of previous data provided in and around that particular watershed. In support of this ground-water research effort, wells and piezometers were installed to allow for coring during installation, subsurface hydrologic testing, and the monitoring of ground-water hydraulic heads and geochemistry. This report summarizes the data that were collected during and after the installation of these wells and piezometers and includes (1) subsurface completion details, (2) locations and elevations, (3) geologic logs and elemental data, (4) slug test data for the estimation of subsurface hydraulic conductives, and (5) hydraulic head data.

  11. Progress report on the Happy Jack mine, Which Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trites, Albert F.; Chew, Randall T.

    1954-01-01

    The Happy Jack mine is in the White Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah. Production is from high-grade uranium deposits in the Shinarump conglomerate of the Triassic age. In this area the Shinarump beds range from about 16 to 40 feet in thickness and the lower part of these beds fills an east-trending channel this is note than 750 feet wide and 10 feet deep. The Shinarump conglomerate consists of beds of coarse- to fine-grained quartzose sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and claystone. Carbonized wood is abundant in these beds, and in the field it was classified as mineral charcoal and coal. Intra-Shinarump channels, cross-stratification, current lineation, and slumping and compaction structures have been recognized in the mine. Steeply dipping fractures have dominant trends in four directions -- N 65°W, N 60°E, N 85°E, and due north. Uranium occurs as bedded deposits, as replacement bodies in accumulations of "trash", and as replacements of larger fragments of wood. An "ore shoot" is formed where the three types of uranium deposits occur together; these ore shoots appear to be elongate masses with sharp boundaries. Uranium minerals include uraninite, sooty pitchblende(?), and the sulfate--betazippeite, johannite, and uranopilite. Associated with the uraninite are the sulfide minerals covellite, bornite, chalcopyritw, and pyrite. Galena and sphalerite have been found in close association with uranium minerals. The gaunge minerals include: limonite and hematite present in most of the sandstone beds throughout the deposit, jarosite that impregnates much of the sandstone in the outer parts of the mine workings, gypsum that fills many of the fractures, and barite that impregnates the sandstone in at least one part of the mine. Secondary copper minerals, mainly copper sulfates, occur throughout the mine, but most abundant near the adits in the outermost 30 feet of the workings. The minerals comprising the bulk of the country rock include quartz, feldspar, and clay

  12. Precaldera lavas of the southeast San Juan Volcanic Field: Parent magmas and crustal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, M. T.; Dungan, M. A.; Ferguson, K. M.; Lipman, P. W.; Moorbath, S.

    1991-07-01

    Early intermediate composition volcanic rocks of the Oligocene (circa 34-29 Ma) southeast San Juan volcanic field, southern Colorado, comprise the Conejos Formation. Conejos lavas include both high-K calc-alkaline and alkaline magma series (54-69% SiO2) ranging in composition from basaltic andesite (basaltic trachyandesite) to dacite (trachydacite). The subsequent Platoro caldera complex (29-27 Ma) was superimposed on a cluster of broadly precursory Conejos stratocones. Precaldera volcanism occurred in three pulses corresponding to three time-stratigraphic members: (1) the Horseshoe Mountain member, (2) the Rock Creek member, and (3) the Willow Mountain member. Each member exhibits distinctive phenocryst modes and incompatible trace element contents. Horseshoe Mountain lavas (hornblende-phyric) have relatively low alkali and incompatible element abundances, Rock Creek lavas (anhydrous phenocrysts) and ash-flow tuffs have the highest abundances, and Willow Mountain lavas (diverse mineralogy) are intermediate. All Conejos lavas exhibit low ratios of lead (206Pb/204Pb = 17.5 to 18.2) and neodymium (ɛNd = -8 to -4) isotopes and high 87Sr/86Sr (0.7045 to 0.7056) compared to depleted asthenospheric mantle. These values lie between those of likely mantle compositions and the isotopic composition of Proterozoic crust of the southern Rocky Mountains. Mafic lavas of the Horseshoe Mountain member have the lowest Pb and Nd isotope ratios among Conejos members but trend toward higher isotopic values with increasing degrees of differentiation. Compositions within the Rock Creek series trend toward higher Pb and lower Nd isotope ratios with increasing SiO2. Willow mountain volcanic sequences define diverse chemical-isotopic correlations. We interpret the chemical and isotopic differences observed between mafic lavas of each member to reflect derivation from compositionally distinct mantle derived parent magmas that have experienced extensive deep level crustal contamination

  13. New Gravity and Magnetic Maps of the San Juan Volcanic Field, Southwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenth, B. J.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    A very large simple Bouguer anomaly gravity low, about 100 km by 150 km in map view and reaching values less than -350 mGals, lies over the Oligocene San Juan volcanic field in southwestern Colorado. Roughly 15-18 different calderas represent the eruptive sources of the andesitic-rhyolitic rocks of this large volcanic field, and most are located within two swarms: the Silverton-Lake City (western) caldera complex, and the central complex that includes the Creede, Bachelor, and La Garita calderas. The prominent gravity low over the region has been previously interpreted to be due to the presence a low-density granitic batholith that underlies the volcanic field in the upper crust. However, there are complicating issues in this interpretation. First, many of the volcanic rocks are notably less dense than the Bouguer reduction density of 2.67 g/cc used for processing of the gravity data, meaning that those rocks exposed at the surface could account for a significant portion of the gravity low. Second, the extreme topographic relief in the region requires that terrain corrections (always positive algebraically) be applied. To meet these needs, a new complete Bouguer gravity map of the volcanic field has been prepared using the new traditionally terrain corrected U. S. gravity database. Modeling these data show that the caldera fill is a major contributor to the gravity low but that an upper crustal batholith is also required to satisfy the observed data. In addition, a second map is being prepared. It is derived by applying a new complex Bouguer correction that takes geologically reasonable surface densities and digital elevation data into account, and as a result will provide a much clearer picture of the nature of the subsurface batholith. A new aeromagnetic map of the region has also been completed. This represents a significant improvement over previous merging efforts in southwestern Colorado, as numerous and previously under-utilized high-resolution aeromagnetic

  14. Variation of mudstone mechanical properties by lithofacies, Upper Mancos Shale, San Juan Basin, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, A. J.; Broome, S. T.; Holcomb, D.; Dewers, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Predicting mechanical behavior of mudstones in the subsurface is a critical need for underground waste storage and resource extraction. To meet this need and to advance knowledge of the details of mudstone deformation, we are currently testing 6 muddy lithofacies from a traditional rock core in the Upper Mancos Shale, Gavilan Oil Pool, Eastern San Juan Basin, NM. The lithofacies include a laminated weakly bioturbated and a fully bioturbated muddy very fine sandstone, a weakly bioturbated thinly laminated and a fully bioturbated fossiliferous calcareous mudstone, and a weakly bioturbated thinly laminated and a fully bioturbated quartz-rich silty calcareous mudstone. For each lithofacies, we are performing a series of drained compression tests with the samples equilibrated and held at a constant relative humidity (76%). A compression test series includes an unconfined constant stress test, a hydrostatic compression test, and two constant mean stress tests, with an additional test in each series to confirm reproducibility. Each test includes measurements of axial and lateral displacement, axial force, confining pressure, and acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring (UM). The AE and UM monitoring occur on the same array of piezoelectric transducers, including 12 1-MHz PZT-5A compressional transducers arranged in 3 circumferential rings, and 4 1 MHz cross-cut quartz compressional transducers mounted in the sample end pieces. AE monitoring is continuous through each test, and UM monitoring occurs before and after each unload-load loop during the test. Pre- and post-test thin sections and a detailed lithologic description are being performed on each sample, as well as pre- and post-test medical grade x-ray CT scans. When the study is complete, we hope to provide the community with detailed understanding of mudstone deformation, as well as coupling classical lithofacies descriptions with rock tests to help predict the variation of mechanical properties in mudstones

  15. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data For the ATLAS Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, J. E.; Luvall, J. C.; Rickman, D.; Comarazamy, D. E.; Picon, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Atlas San Juan Mission was conducted in February 2004 with the main objectives of observing the Urban Heat Island of San Juan, providing high resolution data of the land use for El Yunque Rain Forest and for calibrating remote sensors. The mission was coordinated with NASA staff members at Marshall, Stennis, Goddard, and Glenn. The Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) from NASA/Stennis, that operates in the visual and IR bands, was used as the main sensor and was flown over Puerto Rico in a Lear 23 jet plane. To support the data gathering effort by the ATLAS sensor, remote sensing observations and upper air soundings were conducted along with the deployment of a number of ground based weather stations and temperature sensors. This presentation focuses in the analysis of this complementary data for the Atlas San Juan Mission. Upper air data show that during the days of the mission the Caribbean mid and high atmospheres were relatively dry and highly stable reflecting positive surface lifted index, a necessary condition to conduct this suborbital campaign. Surface wind patterns at levels below 850mb were dominated by the easterly trades, while the jet stream at the edge of the troposphere dominated the westerly wind at levels above 500mb. The jet stream remained at high latitudes reducing the possibility of fronts. In consequence, only 8.4 mm of precipitation were reported during the entire mission. Observation of soundings located about 150 km apart reflected minimum variations of the boundary layer across the island for levels below 850 meters and a uniform atmosphere for higher levels. The weather stations and the temperature sensors were placed at strategic locations to observe variations across the urban and rural landscapes. Time series plot of the stations' data show that heavily urbanized commercial areas have higher air temperatures than urban and suburban residential areas, and much higher temperatures than rural areas. Temperature

  16. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the ATLAS Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas; Comarazamy, Daniel; Picon, Ana J.

    2005-01-01

    The Atlas San Juan Mission was conducted in February 2004 with the main objectives of observing the Urban Heat Island of San Juan, providing high resolution data of the land use for El Yunque Rain Forest and for calibrating remote sensors. The mission was coordinated with NASA staff members at Marsha& Stennis, Goddard, and Glenn. The Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) from NASA/Stennis, that operates in the visual and IR bands, was used as the main sensor and was flown over Puerto Rico in a Lear 23 jet plane. To support the data gathering effort by the ATLAS sensor, remote sensing observations and upper air soundings were conducted along with the deployment of a number of ground based weather stations and temperature sensors. This presentation focuses in the analysis of this complementary data for the Atlas San Juan Mission. Upper air data show that during the days of the mission the Caribbean mid and high atmospheres were relatively dry and highly stable reflecting positive surface lifted index, a necessary condition to conduct this suborbital campaign. Surface wind patterns at levels below 850mb were dominated by the easterly trades, while the jet stream at the edge of the troposphere dominated the westerly wind at levels above 500mb. The jet stream remained at high latitudes reducing the possibility of fronts. In consequence, only 8.4 mm of precipitation were reported during the entire mission. Observation of soundings located about 150 km apart reflected minimum variations of the boundary layer across the Island for levels below 850 meters and a uniform atmosphere for higher levels. The weather stations and the temperature sensors were placed at strategic locations to observe variations across the urban and rural landscapes. Time series plot of the stations' data show that heavily urbanized commercial areas have higher air temperatures than urban and suburban residential areas, and much higher temperatures than rural areas. Temperature

  17. The Social-Action Role of the University: San Juan, Puerto Rico. A Study of the Torrecilla Baja (Pinones) Community. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataura, Osvaldo; Terrassa, Juan A.

    This document presents a report of an experimental community service program that took place in Torrecilla Baja (Pinones), a suburban sector of San Juan, Puerto Rico, from June 30, 1971 through May 30, 1972. Students and faculty alike participated in the program, trying to develop recreational and other programs for the 1,300 underprivileged…

  18. Analysis of the Transport and Fate of Metals Released From the Gold King Mine in the Animas and San Juan Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project’s objectives were to provide analysis of water quality following the release of acid mine drainage in the Animas and San Juan Rivers in a timely manner to 1) generate a comprehensive picture of the plume at the river system level, 2) help inform future monitoring eff...

  19. An assessment of The Effects of Elevation and Aspect on Deposition of Airborne Pollution and Water Quality in an Alpine Critical Zone: San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Marcantonio, F.

    2015-12-01

    The alpine critical zone is affected by various inputs, storages, pathways, and outputs. Unfortunately, many of these processes distribute the pollutants beyond the immediate area and into the surrounding biological and anthropogenic communities. Years of mining and improper disposal of the tailings and acid-mine drainage have degraded the quality of surface water within the San Juan Mountains. However, mining may not be the only factor significantly affecting the surface water quality in this high-elevation environment. As a high elevation system, this area is a fragile ecosystem with inputs ranging from local mining to atmospheric transport and deposition. Studies from around the world have shown atmospheric transport and deposition affect high-elevation systems. Thus, a significant question arises: does elevation or aspect affect the volume and rate of atmospheric deposition of pollutants? We assume atmospheric deposition occurs on the slopes in addition to in streams, lakes, and ponds. Deposition on slopes can be transported to nearby surface waters and increase the impact of the atmospheric pollutants along with residence time. Atmospheric deposition data were collected for aluminum, iron, manganese, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate. Water chemistry data were collected for the same constituents as the atmospheric deposition with the addition of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance. Deposition samples were collected on a five-day sampling regime during two summers. Water quality samples were collected in-stream adjacent to the deposition-ample collectors. Collection sites were located on opposite sides of Red Mountain at five equal elevations providing two different aspects. The north side is drained by Red Mountain Creek and the south side is drained by Mineral Creek. Differences in atmospheric deposition and water quality at different elevations and aspects suggest there is a relationship between aspect and elevation on atmospheric

  20. Seasonal Water Resources Management and Probabilistic Operations Forecast in the San Juan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, L.; Zagona, E. A.; Rajagopalan, B.; Grantz, K.; Miller, W. P.; Werner, K.

    2013-12-01

    within the NWS Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS) to produce an ensemble streamflow forecast. The ensemble traces are used to drive the MTOM with the initial conditions of the water resources system and the operating rules, to provide ensembles of water resources management and operation metrics. We applied this integrated approach to forecasting in the San Juan River Basin (SJRB) using a portion of the Colorado River MTOM. The management objectives in the basin include water supply for irrigation, tribal water rights, environmental flows, and flood control. The spring streamflow ensembles were issued at four different lead times on the first of each month from January - April, and are incorporated into the MTOM for the period 2002-2010. Ensembles of operational performance metrics for the SJRB such as Navajo Reservoir releases, end of water year storage, environmental flows and water supply for irrigation were computed and their skills evaluated against variables obtained in a baseline simulation using historical streamflow. Preliminary results indicate that thus obtained probabilistic forecasts may produce increased skill especially at long lead time (e.g., on Jan and Feb 1st). The probabilistic information for water management variables provide risks of system vulnerabilities and thus enables risk-based efficient planning and operations.

  1. Preliminary report on the White Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William E.; Trites, Albert F.; Beroni, Ernest P.; Feeger, John A.

    1952-01-01

    The White Canyon area, in the central part of San Juan County, Utah, consists of approximately two 15-minute quadrangles. Approximately 75 square miles have been mapped by the Geological Survey on a scale of 1 inch equals 1 mile, using a combined aerial photography-plane table method. Structure contours were drawn on top of the Organ Rock member of the Cutler formation. Parts of the Gonway and North Point claims, 1/4 mile east of the Happy Jack mine, were mapped in detail. The principal objectives of the investigations were: (1) to establish ore guides; (2) to select areas favorable for exploration; and (3) to map the general geology and to determine the regional relationships of the uranium deposits. The White Canyon area is comprised of sedimentary rocks of Carboniferous to Jurassic age, more than 2,000 feet thick, having a regional dip of 1° to 2° SW. The nearest igneous rocks are in the Henry Mountains about 7 miles west of the northern part of the area; The Shinarump conglomerate of the late Triassic age, the principal ore horizon in the White Canyon area, consists of lenticular beds of sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, conglomerate, clay, and siltstone. The Shinarump conglomerate, absent in places, is as much as 75 feet thick. The sandstones locally contain molds of logs and fragments of altered volcanic ash. Some of the logs have been replaced by copper and uranium minerals and iron oxides. The clay and siltstone underlie and are interbedded with the sandstone, and are most common in channels that cut into the underlying Moenkopi formation. The Shinarump conglomerate contains reworked Moenkopi siltstone fragments, clay balls, carbonized wood, and pebbles of quarts, quartzite, and chert. Jointing is prominent in the Western part of the mapped area. The three most prominent joint trends are due east, N. 65°-75° W., and N. 65°-75° E. All joints have vertical dips. The red beds are bleached along some joints, especially those that trend N. 65°-75° W

  2. Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: COMMENT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koenig, Alan E.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Heckert, Andrew B.; Sullivan, Robert M.; Jasinski, Steven E.; Fowler, Denver W.

    2012-01-01

    Based on U-Pb dating of two dinosaur bones from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico (United States), Fassett et al. (2011) claim to provide the first successful direct dating of fossil bones and to establish the presence of Paleocene dinosaurs. Fassett et al. ignore previously published work that directly questions their stratigraphic interpretations (Lucas et al., 2009), and fail to provide sufficient descriptions of instrumental, geochronological, and statistical treatments of the data to allow evaluation of the potentially complex diagenetic and recrystallization history of bone. These shortcomings lead us to question the validity of the U-Pb dates published by Fassett et al. and their conclusions regarding the existence of Paleocene dinosaurs.

  3. Hydrogeology of the Point Lookout Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craigg, Steven D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), and Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Point Lookout Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's database, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Point Lookout Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less areally extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  4. Hydrogeology of the Cliff House Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Conde R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), and Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Cliff House Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Cliff House Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  5. Snowpack Variability and Trends across the San Juan Mountains of Southwestern Colorado from Snow Telemetry and Snowcourse Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derry, J. E.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The world's mountains provide a crucial water source for one-sixth of the world's population and in the Western United States (U.S.) 70- 80% of the annual discharge originates from snowmelt in the mountain watershed. Mountain snowpacks are recognized as a sensitive bellwether of global and regional change. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been collecting snow data across the Western United States at manual (snowcourse) stations since the 1930s and at automated (snow telemetry) stations since the 1970s. These USDA data have been used to investigate change across the Western U.S., and many stations have seen significant decreases in their snowpack. Daily data from 34 SNOTEL stations and monthly data from 25 snowcourse stations across the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado were used to evaluate the variability and trends in snow water equivalent (SWE) for the selected periods to assess if there has been a systematic change in the San Juan snowpack. April 1st and peak SWE decreased at almost all of the stations, with a significant decrease being observed at about half of the stations. Decreases were over the entire period of record, with large declines in the 1980s through the year 2000, but there tended to be no decrease in the past 15 years (2001 to 2015). On average the snow accumulation has been less in recent years (2001 to 2015) than over previous periods; at stations with a deeper snowpack these decreases have been much greater and illustrate a possible shift in winter climate occurring in the early 2000s. The Center for Snow and Avalanche Studies (CSAS) in Silverton Colorado has been collecting comprehensive higher elevation meteorological and snowpack data since this possible climatic shift occurred. If the current snowpack regime represents a new normal, then existing and new data collected by CSAS will assist in interpreting changes within this regime.

  6. Characterization of coal-derived hydrocarbons and source-rock potential of coal beds, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, D.D.; Clayton, J.L.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Coal beds are considered to be a major source of nonassociated gas in the Rocky Mountain basins of the United States. In the San Juan basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado, significant quantities of natural gas are being produced from coal beds of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and from adjacent sandstone reservoirs. Analysis of gas samples from the various gas-producing intervals provided a means of determining their origin and of evaluating coal beds as source rocks. The rank of coal beds in the Fruitland Formation in the central part of the San Juan basin, where major gas production occurs, increases to the northeast and ranges from high-volatile B bituminous coal to medium-volatile bituminous coal (Rm values range from 0.70 to 1.45%). On the basis of chemical, isotopic and coal-rank data, the gases are interpreted to be thermogenic. Gases from the coal beds show little isotopic variation (??13C1 values range -43.6 to -40.5 ppt), are chemically dry (C1/C1-5 values are > 0.99), and contain significant amounts of CO2 (as much as 6%). These gases are interpreted to have resulted from devolatilization of the humic-type bituminous coal that is composed mainly of vitrinite. The primary products of this process are CH4, CO2 and H2O. The coal-generated, methane-rich gas is usually contained in the coal beds of the Fruitland Formation, and has not been expelled and has not migrated into the adjacent sandstone reservoirs. In addition, the coal-bed reservoirs produce a distinctive bicarbonate-type connate water and have higher reservoir pressures than adjacent sandstones. The combination of these factors indicates that coal beds are a closed reservoir system created by the gases, waters, and associated pressures in the micropore coal structure. In contrast, gases produced from overlying sandstones in the Fruitland Formation and underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone have a wider range of isotopic values (??13C1 values range from -43.5 to -38

  7. Plan of study for the regional aquifer-system analysis of the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The San Juan structural basin is an 18,000 sq mi area that contains several extensive aquifers. The basin includes three surface drainage basins and parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah. Surface water in the area is fully appropriated, and the steadily increasing demand for groundwater has resulted in water supply concerns. Competition is great between mining and electric power companies, municipalities, and Indian communities for the limited groundwater supplies. This report outlines a 4-year plan for a study of the regional aquifer system in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the study are to define and understand the aquifer system; to assess the effects of groundwater use on the aquifers and streams; and to determine the availability and quality of groundwater in the basin. (Author 's abstract)

  8. A Numerical Study of the Urban Heat Island in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico: Model Validation and Impacts of LCLU Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawls in tropical locations are rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study specific characteristics and patterns of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), the most noticeable urban core of the Caribbean. The research present in this paper makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission in two ways. First, surface and rawinsonde data are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Second, airborne remote sensing information is used to update the model's surface characteristics to obtain a detailed configuration of the SJMA in order to perform the LCLU changes impact analysis. This analysis showed that the presence of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between simulation with the city and with a potential natural vegetation induced by the presence of the urban area. Model results indicate that the urban-induced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a-larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

  9. Geologic framework of the San Juan structural basin of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah, with emphasis on Triassic through Tertiary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craigg, Steven D.

    2001-01-01

    The San Juan Basin Regional Aquifer-System Analysis began in 1984. This report describes rocks of Triassic through Tertiary age in the basin and also describes the regional geologic and stratigraphic framework of the basin's multilayered aquifer system. Maps showing altitude of top, depth to top, and thickness of major geologic units were prepared using geographic information system technology. Results presented form the basis for ground-water flow modeling and geochemical studies of the basin.

  10. Application of Advanced Exploration Technologies for the Development of Mancos Formation Oil Reservoirs, Jicarilla Apache Indian Nation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Scott; Billingsley, Randy

    2002-09-09

    The objectives of this project are to: (1) develop an exploration rationale for the Mancos shale in the north-eastern San Juan basin; (2) assess the regional prospectivity of the Mancos in the northern Nation lands based on that rationale; (3) identify specific leads in the northern Nation as appropriate; (4) forecast pro-forma production, reserves and economics for any leads identified; and (5) package and disseminate the results to attract investment in Mancos development on the Nation lands.

  11. Application of techniques to identify coal-mine and power-generation effects on surface-water quality, San Juan River basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, C.L.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, E.V.

    1987-01-01

    Numerous analytical techniques were applied to determine water quality changes in the San Juan River basin upstream of Shiprock , New Mexico. Eight techniques were used to analyze hydrologic data such as: precipitation, water quality, and streamflow. The eight methods used are: (1) Piper diagram, (2) time-series plot, (3) frequency distribution, (4) box-and-whisker plot, (5) seasonal Kendall test, (6) Wilcoxon rank-sum test, (7) SEASRS procedure, and (8) analysis of flow adjusted, specific conductance data and smoothing. Post-1963 changes in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, specific conductance, suspended sediment concentration, or suspended sediment load in the San Juan River downstream from the surface coal mines were examined to determine if coal mining was having an effect on the quality of surface water. None of the analytical methods used to analyzed the data showed any increase in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, or specific conductance in the river downstream from the mines; some of the analytical methods used showed a decrease in dissolved solids concentration and specific conductance. Chaco River, an ephemeral stream tributary to the San Juan River, undergoes changes in water quality due to effluent from a power generation facility. The discharge in the Chaco River contributes about 1.9% of the average annual discharge at the downstream station, San Juan River at Shiprock, NM. The changes in water quality detected at the Chaco River station were not detected at the downstream Shiprock station. It was not possible, with the available data, to identify any effects of the surface coal mines on water quality that were separable from those of urbanization, agriculture, and other cultural and natural changes. In order to determine the specific causes of changes in water quality, it would be necessary to collect additional data at strategically located stations. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Pliocene and Quaternary Deposits in the Northern Part of the San Juan Basin in Southwestern Colorado and Northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Glenn R.; Moore, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Unconsolidated late Cenozoic deposits in the northern part of the San Juan Basin range in age from late Pliocene to Holocene. Most of the deposits are alluvial gravel composed of resistant quartzite, sandstone, and igneous, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks derived from the uplifted central core of the San Juan Mountains 20-50 miles (32-80 kilometers) north of the basin. Alluvial deposits are most voluminous in the Animas Valley, but deposits of gravel of the same general age are present in the La Plata, Florida, Los Pinos, and Piedra River valleys as well. Alluvial gravel forms tabular deposits, generally about 20 feet (6 meters) thick, that are exposed beneath a sequence of terraces at many levels above the rivers. Gravel layers 360 feet (110 meters) or less above the Animas River are glacial outwash. The gravel layers begin at the south toes of end moraines and extend discontinuously downvalley at least 10-20 miles (16-32 kilometers). Farther south, distinction between outwash and nonglacial alluvium is problematical. Alluvial gravel beneath higher terraces does not grade to end moraines. Glacial till forms a series of end moraines at the north edge of the town of Durango. The oldest moraines are farthest downvalley, are higher above the river, and have more mature surficial soils than do moraines farther north. The two youngest moraines, the Animas City moraines, are interpreted to be Pinedale in age. They have narrow, ridgelike crests and form nearly unbroken arcs across the valley floor. Small segments of still more weathered moraines, the Spring Creek moraines, are 170-230 feet (52-70 meters) above the river and are 660-990 feet (200-300 meters) farther downvalley. The oldest moraines, the Durango moraines, are on the north end of the unnamed mesa on which Fort Lewis College is located. The base is about 180 feet (55 meters) above the river. These oldest moraines may be of Bull Lake age. Alluvial fans, pediment gravel, and landslides are scattered at several

  13. Geochronology and geology of late Oligocene through Miocene volcanism and mineralization in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, D.J.; Hon, Ken; Budding, K.E.; Slack, J.F.; Snee, L.W.; Yeoman, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-five new 40Ar/39Ar ages from volcanic rocks and veins in the western San Juan Mountains clarify relationships between volcanism and mineralization in this classic area. Five calc-alkaline ash-flow sheets erupted from caldera sources (Ute Ridge, Blue Mesa, Dillon Mesa, Sapinero Mesa, and Crystal Lake Tuffs) from 28.6 to 27.6 Ma. This is a much more restricted time interval than previously thought and indicates that the underlying batholith rose and evolved very rapidly beneath the western San Juan Mountains. The new ages and geologic relations constrain the timing of joint resurgence of the Uncompahgre and San Juan calderas to between 28.2 and 27.6 Ma. The collapse of the Silverton caldera produced a set of strong ring fractures that intersected with graben faults on the earlier resurgent dome to produce the complex set of structures that localized the mid-Miocene epithermal gold veins. Later calc-alkaline monzonitic to quartz monzontic plutons solidified at 26.5-26.0 Ma as the underlying batholith rose through its volcanic cover. A new age from lavas near Uncompahgre Peak supports earlier interpretations that these lavas were fed by nearby 26 Ma monzonite intrusions. Nearly all of these intrusions are associated with subeconomic Mo and Cu mineralization and associated alteration, and new ages of 26.40 and 25.29 Ma from the Ute-Ulay and Lilly veins in the Lake City region show that some of the most important silver and base-metal veins were temporally and possibly genetically connected to these plutons. In addition, the Golden Fleece telluride vein cuts all of the post-Uncompahgre caldera volcanics in the area and is probably temporally related to this cycle, though its age of 27.5 ? 0.3 Ma was determined by less precise U/Pb methods. The 22.9 Ma Lake City caldera collapsed within the older Uncompahgre caldera structure but is petrologically unrelated to the older calc-alkaline activity. The distinctive suite of high-silica rhyolite tuff and alkaline

  14. Hydrogeology of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dam, William L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. The purposes of the study (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams, and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. Previous reports in this series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Kirtland Shale and Fruitland Formation (Kernodle and others, 1990), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), and Ojo Alamo Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the RASA study or derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN database. Although all data available for the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic and younger age; therefore, the study area is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary

  15. Investigating Controls on Sedimentation Through Interpretation of the Syntectonic Cretaceous-Paleogene Sedimentary Record in the San Juan Basin (New Mexico, U.S.A.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, K.; Weissmann, G. S.; Fawcett, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the southwestern San Juan Basin is bracketed by the mudstone-dominated Cretaceous Kirtland Formation, the sandstone-dominated Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone, and the mudstone-dominated Paleocene lower Nacimiento Formation. Geochemical trends of fluvial mudstones from these units indicate changing sedimentary source areas through time. While the Kirtland and Nacimiento Formations represent periods of high accommodation within the San Juan Basin, the Ojo Alamo Sandstone represents a period of low accommodation and general reworking and transport by southeast-flowing paleorivers. The Kirtland and Nacimiento Formations thin and fine away from their interpreted source area whereas the Ojo Alamo Sandstone thickens and fines away from the source area. Here we investigate the enigmatic sedimentary architecture of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, geochemical evidence for a changing source area through this time period, and the complex relationships between sedimentation, source area, accommodation, and basin tectonic evolution. Incorporating new measured sections, petrographic analyses, geochemical trends, and stratigraphic relationships, we propose that the Ojo Alamo Sandstone represents an anomalous short period of low accommodation in the San Juan Basin during the early Laramide Orogeny and explore possible intra- and extra-basinal tectonic, climatic, and sedimentologic explanations as well as implications for understanding the evolution of the basin.

  16. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  1. Recurrent eruption and subsidence at the Platoro caldera complex, southeastern San Juan volcanic field, Colorado: New tales from old tuffs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Dungan, M.A.; Brown, L.L.; Deino, A.

    1996-01-01

    Reinterpretation of a voluminous regional ash-flow sheet (Masonic Park Tuff) as two separate tuff sheets of similar phenocryst-rich dacite erupted from separate source calderas has important implications for evolution of the multicyclic Platoro caldera complex and for caldera-forming processes generally. Masonic Park Tuff in central parts of the San Juan field, including the type area, was erupted from a concealed source at 28.6 Ma, but widespread tuff previously mapped as Masonic Park Tuff in the southeastern San Juan Mountains is the product of the youngest large-volume eruption of the Platoro caldera complex at 28.4 Ma. This large unit, newly named the "Chiquito Peak Tuff," is the last-erupted tuff of the Treasure Mountain Group, which consists of at least 20 separate ash-flow sheets of dacite to low-silica rhyolite erupted from the Platoro complex during a 1 m.y. interval (29.5-28.4 Ma). Two Treasure Mountain tuff sheets have volumes in excess of 1000 km3 each, and five more have volumes of 50-150 km3. The total volume of ash-flow tuff exceeds 2500 km3, and caldera-related lavas of dominantly andesitic composition make up 250-500 km3 more. A much greater volume of intermediate-composition magma must have solidified in subcaldera magma chambers. Most preserved features of the Platoro complex - including postcollapse asymmetrical trap-door resurgent uplift of the ponded intracaldera tuff and concurrent infilling by andesitic lava flows - postdate eruption of the Chiquito Peak Tuff. The numerous large-volume pre-Chiquito Peak ash-flow tuffs document multiple eruptions accompanied by recurrent subsidence; early-formed caldera walls nearly coincide with margins of the later Chiquito Peak collapse. Repeated syneruptive collapse at the Platoro complex requires cumulative subsidence of at least 10 km. The rapid regeneration of silicic magmas requires the sustained presence of an andesitic subcaldera magma reservoir, or its rapid replenishment, during the 1 m.y. life

  2. A new species of Hemibrycon (Characiformes, Characidae) from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Román-Valencia, César; Ruiz-C, Raquel I.; Taphorn, Donald C.; García-Alzate, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hemibrycon sanjuanensis, new species, is described from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia. It is distinguished from Hemibrycon boquiae, Hemibrycon brevispini, Hemibrycon cairoense, Hemibrycon colombianus, Hemibrycon mikrostiktos, Hemibrycon metae, Hemibrycon palomae, Hemibrycon rafaelense and Hemibrycon tridens by the presence of a circular or oblong humeral spot that is located two scales posterior to the opercle (vs. 3–4 scales in Hemibrycon palomae, Hemibrycon rafaelense, Hemibrycon brevispini and Hemibrycon cairoense, and 0–1 scales, in Hemibrycon metae and Hemibrycon boquiae). It further differs from Hemibrycon colombianus in having a round or oblong humeral spot (vs. rectangular). It differs from Hemibrycon beni, Hemibrycon dariensis, Hemibrycon divisorensis, Hemibrycon helleri, Hemibrycon huambonicus, Hemibrycon inambari, Hemibrycon jabonero, Hemibrycon jelskii, Hemibrycon mikrostiktos, Hemibrycon polyodon, Hemibrycon quindos, Hemibrycon raqueliae, Hemibrycon santamartae, Hemibrycon surinamensis, Hemibrycon taeniurus, Hemibrycon tridens, and Hemibrycon yacopiae in having melanophores on the posterior margins of the scales along the sides of body (vs. lacking melanophores on margins of scales along entire length of the sides of body). The new species differs from all congeners mentioned above in having, among other features, six teeth in the outer premaxillary row arranged in a straight line (vs. five or fewer teeth not arranged in straight line except Hemibrycon cairoense with two to six teeth in the outer premaxillary row). PMID:25493068

  3. Holocene landscape evolution and geoarcheology of low-order streams in the Rio Grande basin, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Daniel P.; Beeton, Jared M.

    2014-09-01

    This geoarcheological study investigates soil stratigraphy and geochronology of alluvial deposits to determine Holocene landscape evolution within the Hot Creek, La Jara Creek, and Alamosa River drainage basins in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. Geomorphic mapping and radiocarbon dating indicate synchronicity in patterns of erosion, deposition, and stability between drainage basins. In all three basins, the maximum age of mapped alluvial terraces and fans is ~ 3300 cal yr BP. A depositional period seen at both Hot Creek and the Alamosa River begins ~ 3300 to 3200 cal yr BP. Based on soil development, short periods of stability followed by alluvial fan aggradation occur in the Alamosa River basin ~ 2200 cal yr BP. A period of landscape stability at Hot Creek before ~ 1100 cal yr BP is followed by a period of rapid aggradation within all three drainages between ~ 1100 and 850 cal yr BP. A final aggradation event occurred between ~ 630 and 520 cal yr BP at La Jara Creek. These patterns of landscape evolution over the past ~ 3300 yr provide the framework for an archeological model that predicts the potential for buried and surficial cultural materials in the research area.

  4. A new species of Hemibrycon (Characiformes, Characidae) from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Román-Valencia, César; Ruiz-C, Raquel I; Taphorn, Donald C; García-Alzate, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Hemibryconsanjuanensis, new species, is described from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia. It is distinguished from Hemibryconboquiae, Hemibryconbrevispini, Hemibryconcairoense, Hemibryconcolombianus, Hemibryconmikrostiktos, Hemibryconmetae, Hemibryconpalomae, Hemibryconrafaelense and Hemibrycontridens by the presence of a circular or oblong humeral spot that is located two scales posterior to the opercle (vs. 3-4 scales in Hemibryconpalomae, Hemibryconrafaelense, Hemibryconbrevispini and Hemibryconcairoense, and 0-1 scales, in Hemibryconmetae and Hemibryconboquiae). It further differs from Hemibryconcolombianus in having a round or oblong humeral spot (vs. rectangular). It differs from Hemibryconbeni, Hemibrycondariensis, Hemibrycondivisorensis, Hemibryconhelleri, Hemibryconhuambonicus, Hemibryconinambari, Hemibryconjabonero, Hemibryconjelskii, Hemibryconmikrostiktos, Hemibryconpolyodon, Hemibryconquindos, Hemibryconraqueliae, Hemibryconsantamartae, Hemibryconsurinamensis, Hemibrycontaeniurus, Hemibrycontridens, and Hemibryconyacopiae in having melanophores on the posterior margins of the scales along the sides of body (vs. lacking melanophores on margins of scales along entire length of the sides of body). The new species differs from all congeners mentioned above in having, among other features, six teeth in the outer premaxillary row arranged in a straight line (vs. five or fewer teeth not arranged in straight line except Hemibryconcairoense with two to six teeth in the outer premaxillary row).

  5. Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Dengue as Influenced by Weather and Human Behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence. PMID:22206021

  6. An interdisciplinary analysis of Colorado Rocky Mountain environments using ADP techniques. [San Juan Mts. and Indian Peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Good ecological, classification accuracy (90-95%) can be achieved in areas of rugged relief on a regional basis for Level 1 cover types (coniferous forest, deciduous forest, grassland, cropland, bare rock and soil, and water) using computer-aided analysis techniques on ERTS/MSS data. Cost comparisons showed that a Level 1 cover type map and a table of areal estimates could be obtained for the 443,000 hectare San Juan Mt. test site for less than 0.1 cent per acre, whereas photointerpretation techniques would cost more than 0.4 cent per acre. Results of snow cover mapping have conclusively proven that the areal extent of snow in mountainous terrain can be rapidly and economically mapped by using ERTS/MSS data and computer-aided analysis techniques. A distinct relationship between elevation and time of freeze or thaw was observed, during mountain lake mapping. Basic lithologic units such as igneous, sedimentary, and unconsolidated rock materials were successfully identified. Geomorphic form, which is exhibited through spatial and textual data, can only be inferred from ERTS data. Data collection platform systems can be utilized to produce satisfactory data from extremely inaccessible locations that encounter very adverse weather conditions, as indicated by results obtained from a DCP located at 3,536 meters elevation that encountered minimum temperatures of -25.5 C and wind speeds of up to 40.9m/sec (91 mph), but which still performed very reliably.

  7. Surface water environment in the area of the San Juan Basin regional uranium study, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busby, Mark William

    1979-01-01

    Streamflows in the lowland areas of the San Juan Basin are highly variable, responding to short-duration, high-intensity thunderstorms occurring in the late spring and summer. The thunderstorms can cause floods of large magnitude, but of localized extent. Most streams of the lowlands are ephemeral or intermittent. Streams of the high mountain areas are much less variable. Most of their flow is from snowmelt, which results in low-intensity flood peaks with long, gradual recessions. Most large mountain streams are perennial. Small ephemeral lakes and ponds in the low-lying areas have little effect on flood flows. Larger reservoirs in the basin have varying effects on flows of rivers, ranging from complete flow control to minor regulation. The streams of the low-lying areas are high in dissolved solids content. Sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate are the predominant ions. The quality of the water varies during a single-flow event and season-ally. Streams in the mountains are low in dissolved solids content. Radiochemical constituents are fairly low in most of the natural streamflow, but concentrations are higher than in streams outside of the basin.

  8. Oil-generating coals of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, J.L.; Rice, D.D.; Michael, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Coal beds of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado have significant liquid hydrocarbon generation potential as indicated by typical Rock-Eval Hydrogen Indexes in the range of 200-400 mg hydrocarbon/g organic carbon (type II and III organic matter). Small, non-commercial quantities of oil have been produced from the coal beds at several locations. The oils are characterized by high pristane/phytane (ca 4) and pristane/n-C17 ratios (ca 1.2), abundant C21+ alkanes in the C10+ fraction with a slight predominance of odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes, abundant branched-chain alkanes in the C15+ region, and a predominance of methylcyclohexane in the C4-C10 fraction. The oils are indigenous to the Fruitland Formation coals and probably migrated at thermal maturities corresponding to vitrinite reflectance values in the range 0.7-0.8%. Although the oils found to date are not present in commercial amounts, these findings illustrate the potential of some coals to generate and expel oil under conditions of moderate thermal heating. ?? 1991.

  9. Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti and dengue as influenced by weather and human behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence.

  10. Paleoclimate cycles and tectonic controls on fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian strata in upper Triassic Chinle Formation, San Juan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dubiel, R.F. )

    1989-09-01

    Sedimentologic study of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the San Juan basin (SJB) indicates that Late Triassic paleoclimate and tectonic movements influenced the distribution of continental lithofacies. The Shinarump, Monitor Butte, and Petrified Forest Members in the lower part of the Chinle consist of complexly interfingered fluvial, floodplain, marsh, and lacustrine rocks; the Owl Rock and Rock Point Members in the upper part consists of lacustrine-basin and eolian sandsheet strata. Facies analysis, vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, and paleoclimate models demonstrate that the Late Triassic was dominated by tropical monsoonal circulation, which provided abundant precipitation interspersed with seasonally dry periods. Owl Rock lacustrine strata comprise laminated limestones that reflect seasonal monsoonal precipitation and larger scale, interbedded carbonates and fine-grained clastics that represent longer term, alternating wet and dry climatic cycles. Overlying Rock Point eolian sand-sheet and dune deposits indicate persistent alternating but drier climatic cyclicity. Within the Chinle, upward succession of lacustrine, alternating lacustrine/eolian sand-sheet, and eolian sand-sheet/dune deposits reflects an overall decrease in precipitation due to the northward migration of Pangaea out of low latitudes dominated by monsoonal circulation.

  11. Post-glacial landscape response to climate variability in the southeastern San Juan Mountains of Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bradley G.; Eppes, Martha Cary; Diemer, John A.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Layzell, Anthony L.

    2011-11-01

    Geomorphic mapping in the upper Conejos River Valley of the San Juan Mountains has shown that three distinct periods of aggradation have occurred since the end of the last glacial maximum (LGM). The first occurred during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (~ 12.5-9.5 ka) and is interpreted as paraglacial landscape response to deglaciation after the LGM. Evidence of the second period of aggradation is limited but indicates a small pulse of sedimentation at ~ 5.5 ka. A third, more broadly identifiable period of sedimentation occurred in the late Holocene (~ 2.2-1 ka). The latest two periods of aggradation are concurrent with increases in the frequency of climate change in the region suggesting that Holocene alpine and sub-alpine landscapes respond more to rapid changes in climate than to large singular climatic swings. Soil development and radiocarbon dating indicate that hillslopes were stable during the Holocene even while aggradation was occurring in valley bottoms. Thus, we can conclude that erosion does not occur equally throughout the landscape but is focused upslope of headwater streams, along tributary channels, or on ridge tops. This is in contrast to some models which assume equal erosion in headwater basins.

  12. Evaluation of hazardous waste incineration in cement kilns at San Juan Cement Company. Final report August 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.A.; Hughes, T.W.; McKendree, J.R.; Cox, L.A.; Hughes, B.M.

    1984-08-01

    Cement kiln incineration of chlorinated liquid organic wastes was investigated in a 5-month demonstration program at San Juan Cement Company in Puerto Rico. Chlorinated monocarbon compounds (POHC's) were monitored in the waste and emissions, and the fate of added chlorine in cement production was determined. Seven levels of percent chlorine in the waste were burned at ten different waste feed rates. Extensive sampling and analysis was conducted to look for the potential presence of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD's) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF's). The destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) of the POHC's ranged from 91.043 percent to 99.997 percent, with only 6 percent of the DRE's greater than 99.99 percent. Poor DRE results were attributed to the absence of waste atomization and the difficult incinerability of chlorinated monocarbon compounds. It was found that about 82 percent of the input chlorine appeared in the cement clinker. The amount of chlorine appearing in the baghouse dust varied from 5 percent to 26 percent of total chlorine input. The total absorption of the HCl formed averaged 99.7 percent in seven tests. PCDD's and PCDF's were not produced at detectable levels when the cement plant was operating normally.

  13. Turning scientific approaches into practical conservation actions: the case of Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, A; Bocco, G; Torres, A

    2001-05-01

    Optimum natural resource management and biodiversity conservation are desirable goals. These, however, often exclude each other, since maximum economic benefits have promoted drastic reductions in biodiversity throughout the world. This dilemma confronts local stakeholders, who usually go for maximizing economic inputs, whereas other social (e.g., academic) sectors are favor conservation practices. In this paper we describe the way two scientific approaches--landscape and participatory research--were used to develop sound and durable land use scenarios. These two approaches included expert knowledge of both social and environmental conditions in indigenous communities. Our major emphasis was given to detect spatially explicit land use scenarios and capacity building in order to construct a decision support system operated by stakeholders of the Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro in Mexico. The system for decision-making was fed with data from inventories of both abiotic and biotic biodiversity components. All research, implementation, and monitoring activities were conducted in close collaboration with members of the indigenous community. As a major result we obtained a number of forest alternative uses that favor emerging markets and make this indigenous community less dependent on a single market. Furthermore, skilled members of the community are now running the automated system for decision-making. In conclusion, our results were better expressed as products with direct benefits in local livelihoods rather than pure academic outputs.

  14. Preliminary investigation of the elemental variation and diagenesis of a tabular uranium deposit, La Sal Mine, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Robert A.; Campbell, John A.

    1976-01-01

    Ore in the La Sal mine, San Juan County, Utah, occurs as a typical tabular-type uranium deposit of the-Colorado Plateau. Uranium-vanadium occurs in the Salt Wash Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Chemical and petrographic analyses were used to determine elemental variation and diagenetic aspects across the orebody. Vanadium is concentrated in the dark clay matrix, which constitutes visible ore. Uranium content is greater above the vanadium zone. Calcium, carbonate carbon, and lead show greater than fifty-fold increase across the ore zone, whereas copper and organic carbon show only a several-fold increase. Large molybdenum concentrations are present in and above the tabular layer, and large selenium concentrations occur below the uranium zone within the richest vanadium zone. Iron is enriched in the vanadium horizon. Chromium is depleted from above the ore and strongly enriched below. Elements that vary directly with the vanadium content include magnesium, iron, selenium, zirconium, strontium, titanium, lead, boron, yttrium, and scandium. The diagenetic sequence is as follows: (1) formation of secondary quartz overgrowths as cement; (2) infilling and lining of remaining pores with amber opaline material; (3) formation of vanadium-rich clay matrix, which has replaced overgrowths as well as quartz grains; (4) replacement of overgrowths and detrital grains by calcite; (5) infilling of pores with barite and the introduction of pyrite and marcasite.

  15. Interpretation of Schlumberger DC resistivity data from Gibson Dome-Lockhart Basin study area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    A Schlumberger dc resistivity survey of the Gibson Dome-Lockhart Basin area, San Juan County, Utah, has revealed the following electrical characteristics of the area: (1) the area between the northern part of Davis Canyon and Gibson Dome is electrically quite uniform and resistive at the depth of the Pennsylvanian evaporite deposits, (2) there is a deep conductive anomaly at Horsehead Rock, and (3) there are several shallow and deep electrical anomalies in the vicinity of the Lockhart fault system. No adverse indicators were found for nuclear waste repository siting south of Indian Creek, but additional soundings should be made to increase data density and to extend the survey area southward. The Lockhart fault system appears to have triggered salt dissolution or flow outside the limits of Lockhart Basin; further geophysical work and drilling will be required to understand the origin of the Lockhart Basin structure and its present state of activity. This problem is important because geologic processes that lead to enlargement of the Lockhart Basin structure or to development of similar structures would threaten the integrity of a repository in the Gibson Dome area.

  16. Tectonic and unroofing history of Neogene Manantiales foreland basin deposits, Cordillera Frontal (32°30'S), San Juan Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Daniel J.

    2001-12-01

    The Miocene Manantiales foreland basin is located in Cordillera Frontal of San Juan, between 32°30' and 33°S. The unroofing study of the synorogenic Miocene deposits provides information about the structural evolution of Cordón de La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt. These Tertiary deposits are represented by the Chinches Formation and comprise seven members (Tc0-Tc6). They are the result of the uplift of Mesozoic sequences that crop out in La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt of the Cordillera Principal. Quaternary deposits unconformably overlying the Chinches Formation are composed of granitic and rhyolitic blocks, and represent the final uplift of the Cordón del Espinacito and a series of out-of-sequence thrusts. The unroofing studies also provide sufficient information to establish the out-of-sequence timing of the deformation at this latitude. Initial deposition of the Tertiary deposits can be dated at about 20 Ma, or early Miocene. Andesitic lavas dated in 9.2±0.3, 10.7±0.7, and 12.7±0.7 Ma unconformably overlie the structure of La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt. These facts constrain the uplift of the High Andes between 20 and 10 Ma at this latitude. The unconformity between Tertiary and Quaternary deposits suggests final uplift during Pliocene-Pleistocene times.

  17. Holocene compression in the Acequión valley (Andes Precordillera, San Juan province, Argentina): Geomorphic, tectonic, and paleoseismic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, M.; Franck, A.; Perucca, L.; Laura, P.; Pantano, Ana; Avila, Carlos R.; Onorato, M. Romina; Vargas, Horacio N.; Alvarado, Patricia; Viete, Hewart

    2016-04-01

    The Matagusanos-Maradona-Acequión Valley sits within the Andes Precordillera fold-thrust belt of western Argentina. It is an elongated topographic depression bounded by the roughly N-S trending Precordillera Central and Oriental in the San Juan Province. Moreover, it is not a piggy-back basin as we could have expected between two ranges belonging to a fold-thrust belt, but a very active tectonic corridor coinciding with a thick-skinned triangular zone, squeezed between two different tectonic domains. The two domains converge, where the Precordillera Oriental has been incorporated to the Sierras Pampeanas province, becoming the western leading edge of the west-verging broken foreland Sierras Pampeanas domain. This latter province has been in turn incorporated into the active deformation framework of the Andes back-arc at these latitudes as a result of enhanced coupling between the converging plates due to the subduction of the Juan Fernández ridge that flattens the Nazca slab under the South American continent. This study focuses on the neotectonics of the southern tip of this N-S elongated depression, known as Acequión (from the homonym river that crosses the area), between the Del Agua and Los Pozos rivers. This depression dies out against the transversely oriented Precordillera Sur, which exhibits a similar tectonic style as Precordillera Occidental and Central (east-verging fold-thrust belt). This contribution brings supporting evidence of the ongoing deformation during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene of the triangular zone bounded between the two leading and converging edges of Precordillera Central and Oriental thrust fronts, recorded in a multi-episodic lake sequence of the Acequión and Nikes rivers. The herein gathered evidence comprise Late Pleistocene-Holocene landforms of active thrusting, fault kinematics (micro-tectonic) data and outcrop-scale (meso-tectonic) faulting and folding of recent lake and alluvial sequences. In addition, seismically

  18. Summary of the San Juan structural basin regional aquifer-system analysis, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, G.W.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water resources are the only source of water in most of the San Juan structural basin and are mainly used for municipal, industrial, domestic, and stock purposes. Industrial use increased dramatically during the late 1970's and early 1980's because of increased exploration and development of uranium and coal resources. The San Juan structural basin is a northwest-trending, asymmetric structural depression at the eastern edge of the Colorado Plateau. The basin contains as much as 14,000 feet of sedimentary rocks overlying a Precambrian basement complex. The sedimentary rocks dip basinward from the basin margins toward the troughlike structural center, or deepest part of the basin. Rocks of Triassic age were selected as the lower boundary for the study. The basin is well defined by structural boundaries in many places with structural relief of as much as 20,000 feet reported. Faulting is prevalent in parts of the basin with displacement of several thousand feet along major faults. The regional aquifers in the basin generally are coincident with the geologic units that have been mapped. Data on the hydrologic properties of the regional aquifers are minimal. Most data were collected on those aquifers associated with uranium and coal resource production. These data are summarized in table format in the report. The regional flow system throughout most of the basin has been affected by the production of oil or gas and subsequent disposal of produced brine. To date more than 26,000 oil- or gas- test holes have been drilled in the basin, the majority penetrating no deeper than the bottom of the Cretaceous rocks. The general water chemistry of the regional aquifers is based on available data. The depositional environments are the major factor controlling the quality of water in the units. The dominant ions are generally sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate. A detailed geochemical study of three sandstone aquifers--Morrison, Dakota, and Gallup--was undertaken in the

  19. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks.

  20. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M.; Monge-Rojas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. Methods Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3) fried foods, and 4) Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. Results Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12–15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI), whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. Conclusions The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption. PMID:24553760

  1. Number and Type of Meals Consumed by Children in a Subset of Schools in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Alan M.; Rodriguez-Quintana, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating patterns of children have been investigated in the U.S. and have been found to be changeable over extended time periods. Trends can be correlated to changes in the same periods for determinants of overall health such as body mass index (BMI). In Puerto Rico, there have been no such studies so similar correlations cannot be done. Herein, we present baseline information on the number and types of eating occasions in a convenience sample of children from the area of San Juan so that future changes in patterns can be monitored over time. Methods Multiple 24 hr recall questionnaires were administered to school children at 3 different grade levels. Number of eating occasions and type of meal (breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks) were quantified. Factors considered for analysis were age, gender and BMI of the children, participation in the School Lunch Program (SLP) and if meals were eaten on a weekday or weekend day. Results Approximately 40% of children were categorized as overweight. There was a trend toward fewer eating occasions in older vs. younger children and fewer eating occasions on weekend days vs. weekdays. Lunch and dinner were consumed more frequently than breakfast and participants in the SLP had more eating occasions than non-participants. Conclusions The number of eating occasions in Puerto Rican youth is maintained at about 5 for weekdays and about 4.5 per day for weekend days with a trend toward fewer meals as a function of increasing age. This data can be used as baseline information in future studies that wish to correlate changes in dietary patterns with health. PMID:26061057

  2. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among medical residents of the University Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Dávila, Leticia Hernández; Rivera, Nixzaliz Rodríguez; Valentin, Mariel López; Haddock, Lillian; Martínez, Renil Rodríguez; Bossolo, Alex González

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has been attracting increased attention due to higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency than expected in areas with sufficient sun exposure. Even though sunlight exposure and diet are the main determinants of Vitamin D status, other factors such as: age, race, use of sunscreen, medications, and malabsorptive conditions affect vitamin D levels. Recent studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in different populations. However, there is limited data of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Puerto Rico. To answer that question we evaluated a sample of 51 internal medicine residents from ages 25 to 39 of the University Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico by means of a questionnaire about basic socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric data, and lifestyle characteristics and obtained blood sampling for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 21 ng/mL (range, 7–38 ng/mL). Forty-five participants (88.2%) had 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <30 ng/mL. We found vitamin D deficiency in 43.1% of the population and insufficiency in 45.1%. Contributory factors to our findings include limited exposure to sunlight during the periods of higher sun intensity, increased body mass index and a limited area of body exposed to sunlight. A relationship between lower physical activity levels and hypovitaminosis D was also found. Both calcium intake and vitamin D intake, which were markedly below recommended daily allowance, were positively correlated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, but with a weak association. PMID:26061058

  3. Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency among Young Physicians at University District Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vick, Margarita; Hernández-Dávila, Leticia; Rodríguez-Rivera, Nixzaliz; López-Valentín, Mariel; Haddock, Lillian; Rodríguez-Martínez, Renil; González-Bossolo, Alex

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D has been attracting increased attention because of higher prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency than expected in areas with sufficient sun exposure. Even though sunlight exposure and diet are the main determinants of vitamin D status, other factors, such as age, race, the use (or not) of sunscreen, medications, and malabsorptive conditions, also affect vitamin D levels. Recent studies have found high prevalences of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in different populations. However, there are limited data regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Puerto Rico. To shed more light on the subject, we evaluated a sample of 51 internal medicine residents and research fellows, aged from 25 to 39 years at the University District Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico, doing so by means of a questionnaire that explored basic socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics and collected anthropometric data; in addition, we obtained blood samples in order to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 21 ng/mL (range, 7-38 ng/mL). Forty-five participants (88.2%) had 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of lower than 30 ng/mL. We found vitamin D deficiencies in 43.1% of the population and insufficiencies in 45.1%. Contributory factors to our findings include limited exposure to sunlight during periods of high sun intensity, increased body mass index, and a limited area of the body being exposed to sunlight. A relationship between reduced physical activity levels and hypovitaminosis D was also found. Both calcium intake and vitamin D intake, which were markedly below recommended daily allowances, were positively correlated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, but with a weak association.

  4. Distribution and Correlates of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adults Living in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cynthia M.; Ortiz, Ana P.; Guzmán, Manuel; Suárez, Erick

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated correlates of the metabolic syndrome among adults living in Puerto Rico, a Hispanic subpopulation disproportionately affected by diabetes. Methods A probability cluster design was used to select a sample of households of the San Juan Metropolitan Area in Puerto Rico. A total of 858 persons aged 21–79 years completed a face-to-face interview, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and spot urine. Logistic regression was employed to assess correlates of the metabolic syndrome. Results Of 368 (42.9%) of adults who met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, elevated fasting glucose (49.8%), abdominal obesity (48.6%), and reduced HDL cholesterol (45.8%) were the most prevalent diagnostic criteria. In a multivariable logistic model that simultaneously adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors, older age, high school educational attainment or less, no alcohol intake, and lack of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity remained significantly (p<0.05) associated to the metabolic syndrome. However, the associations for male gender, some college education, and current smoking ≥20 cigarettes/day had borderline significance. Further controlling for inflammatory markers slightly attenuated the strength of most of these associations but remained significantly (p<0.05) associated to the metabolic syndrome with only a few exceptions. Middle and upper tertiles of hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and PAI-1 and an elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio were also associated (p<0.05) with the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Enhancing public education regarding modifiable risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and providing optimal medical management of individual metabolic disturbances among those at risk through preventive lifestyle changes should be placed as a public health priority for Puerto Rico. PMID:23038883

  5. Correlates of the Metabolic Syndrome Among a Sample of Women in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Suárez, Erick; Beauchamp, Giovanna; Romaguera, Josefina; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is an interaction of risk factors that may lead to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Methods Given the need for data in Puerto Rico, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between demographic, lifestyles, and reproductive characteristics and the metabolic syndrome among a sample of women (N = 564) in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. The metabolic syndrome was defined based on the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. Results In multivariate logistic regression models, women aged 40–59 and 60–79 years were 3.03 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70, 5.40] and 7.05 (95% CI, 3.69, 13.49) times more likely, respectively, to have the metabolic syndrome as compared to those aged 21–39 years. A dose–response relationship was also observed between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity reduced the odds for metabolic syndrome [prevalence odds ratios (POR) = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41, 1.01]; however, this association was marginally significant (P = 0.05). Among reproductive characteristics, only women who had a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) were 2.14 (95% CI, 1.02, 4.51) times more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, increased age and BMI, physical inactivity, and GDM are associated with the metabolic syndrome in this population. This information is relevant for the development of preventive interventions for the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20156074

  6. Variations in fluvial style in the Westwater Canyon Member, Morrison formation (Jurassic), San Juan basin, Colorado plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miall, A.D.; Turner-Peterson, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques of architectural element analysis and lateral profiling have been applied to the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic) in southern San Juan Basin. On a large scale, the sandstone-body architecture consists mainly of a series of tabular sandstone sheets 5-15 m thick and hundreds of meters wide, separated by thin fine-grained units. Internally these sheets contain lateral accretion surfaces and are cut by channels 10-20 m deep and at least 250 m wide. On a more detailed scale, interpretations made from large-scale photomosaics show a complex of architectural elements and bounding surfaces. Typical indicators of moderate- to high-sinuosity channels (lateral accretion deposits) coexist in the same outcrop with downstream-accreted macroform deposits that are typical of sand flats of low-sinuosity, multiple-channel rivers. Broad, deep channels with gently to steeply dipping margins were mapped in several of the outcrops by carefully tracing major bounding surfaces. Locally thick accumulations of plane-laminated and low-angle cross-laminated sandstone lithofacies suggest rapid flow, probably transitional to upper flow regime conditions. Such a depositional style is most typical of ephemeral rivers or those periodically undergoing major seasonal (or more erratic) stage fluctuations, an interpretation consistent with independent mineralogical evidence of aridity. Fining-upward sequences are rare in the project area, contrary to the descriptions of Campbell (1976). The humid alluvial fan model of Galloway (1978) cannot be substantiated and, similarly, the architectural model of Campbell (1976) requires major revision. Comparisons with the depositional architecture of the large Indian rivers, such as the Ganges and Brahmaputra, still seem reasonable, as originally proposed by Campbell (1976), although there is now convincing evidence for aridity and for major stage fluctuations, which differs both from those modern rivers and Campbell

  7. Carbonate mound reservoirs in the paradox formation: An outcrop analogue along the San Juan River, Southeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Chidsey, T. C. Jr.; Morgan, C.D.; Eby, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    Carbonate mound reservoirs within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation are major producers of oil and gas in the Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Outcrops of the Paradox Formation along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah provide small-scale analogues of reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, lithofacies, and geometry. These characteristics can be used in reservoir simulation models for secondary/tertiary recovery of oil from small fields in the basin. Exposures of the Paradox Formation Ismay zone in the Wild Horse Canyon area display lateral facies changes from phylloid algal mounds to off-mound detrital wedges or fans bounded at the top by a flooding surface. The phylloid mounds are composed of bafflestone, skeletal grainstone, packstone, and cementstone. Algal plates, brachiopods, bryozoans, and rugose corals are commonly found in the phylloid mounds. The mound wall is composed of rudstone, lumpstone, and cementstone. The detrital fan consists of transported algal material, grainstone, and mudstone with open-marine fossils. Within the mound complex is an inter-mound trough tentatively interpreted to be a tidal channel. The geometry and composition of the rocks in the trough significantly add to the overall heterogeneity of the mound. Reservoir models are being developed for possible water- and carbon-dioxide floods of small Paradox basin fields to determine the most effective secondary/tertiary recovery method. The models will include lithologic fabrics, flooding surfaces, and inter-mound troughs, based on the mound complex exposed at Wild Horse Canyon. This project may also provide reservoir information for simulation models in small Paleozoic carbonate mound fields in other basins worldwide.

  8. Hydrogeology of the Point Lookout Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Craigg, S.D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the US Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Summarized is information on the geology, occurrence and quality of water in the Point Lookout Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Water in the Point Lookout Sandstone occurs under both water table and artesian conditions. Potential recharge to the aquifer is from infiltration of precipitation and streamflow and from vertical leakage of water through confining beds. The average hydraulic conductivity calculated from oil and gas wells in the deeper parts of the basin is 0.0058 ft/d. The reported or measured discharge from 17 water wells completed in the Point Lookout Sandstone ranges from 1 to 75 gallons per minute and the median is 10 gpm/ft of drawdown and the median is 0.25 gpm/ft of drawdown. From a total of 37 samples for pH, 22 exceeded the standard. Out of a total of 43 samples for sulfate, 16 samples exceeded the secondary drinking water standard. Only 1 sample for chloride out of 49 samples exceeded the standard. From 44 samples for fluoride, 9 samples exceeded the secondary drinking water standard of 4 mg/L. Twenty-nine samples from a total of 42 samples for dissolved solids concentration exceeded the secondary drinking water standard. No samples for nitrate exceeded the primary drinking water standard of 10mg/L.

  9. Small theropod teeth from the Late Cretaceous of the San Juan Basin, northwestern New Mexico and their implications for understanding latest Cretaceous dinosaur evolution.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Thomas E; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Studying the evolution and biogeographic distribution of dinosaurs during the latest Cretaceous is critical for better understanding the end-Cretaceous extinction event that killed off all non-avian dinosaurs. Western North America contains among the best records of Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrates in the world, but is biased against small-bodied dinosaurs. Isolated teeth are the primary evidence for understanding the diversity and evolution of small-bodied theropod dinosaurs during the Late Cretaceous, but few such specimens have been well documented from outside of the northern Rockies, making it difficult to assess Late Cretaceous dinosaur diversity and biogeographic patterns. We describe small theropod teeth from the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. These specimens were collected from strata spanning Santonian - Maastrichtian. We grouped isolated theropod teeth into several morphotypes, which we assigned to higher-level theropod clades based on possession of phylogenetic synapomorphies. We then used principal components analysis and discriminant function analyses to gauge whether the San Juan Basin teeth overlap with, or are quantitatively distinct from, similar tooth morphotypes from other geographic areas. The San Juan Basin contains a diverse record of small theropods. Late Campanian assemblages differ from approximately coeval assemblages of the northern Rockies in being less diverse with only rare representatives of troodontids and a Dromaeosaurus-like taxon. We also provide evidence that erect and recurved morphs of a Richardoestesia-like taxon represent a single heterodont species. A late Maastrichtian assemblage is dominated by a distinct troodontid. The differences between northern and southern faunas based on isolated theropod teeth provide evidence for provinciality in the late Campanian and the late Maastrichtian of North America. However, there is no indication that major components of small-bodied theropod diversity were lost

  10. Small Theropod Teeth from the Late Cretaceous of the San Juan Basin, Northwestern New Mexico and Their Implications for Understanding Latest Cretaceous Dinosaur Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Thomas E.; Brusatte, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Studying the evolution and biogeographic distribution of dinosaurs during the latest Cretaceous is critical for better understanding the end-Cretaceous extinction event that killed off all non-avian dinosaurs. Western North America contains among the best records of Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrates in the world, but is biased against small-bodied dinosaurs. Isolated teeth are the primary evidence for understanding the diversity and evolution of small-bodied theropod dinosaurs during the Late Cretaceous, but few such specimens have been well documented from outside of the northern Rockies, making it difficult to assess Late Cretaceous dinosaur diversity and biogeographic patterns. We describe small theropod teeth from the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. These specimens were collected from strata spanning Santonian – Maastrichtian. We grouped isolated theropod teeth into several morphotypes, which we assigned to higher-level theropod clades based on possession of phylogenetic synapomorphies. We then used principal components analysis and discriminant function analyses to gauge whether the San Juan Basin teeth overlap with, or are quantitatively distinct from, similar tooth morphotypes from other geographic areas. The San Juan Basin contains a diverse record of small theropods. Late Campanian assemblages differ from approximately co-eval assemblages of the northern Rockies in being less diverse with only rare representatives of troodontids and a Dromaeosaurus-like taxon. We also provide evidence that erect and recurved morphs of a Richardoestesia-like taxon represent a single heterodont species. A late Maastrichtian assemblage is dominated by a distinct troodontid. The differences between northern and southern faunas based on isolated theropod teeth provide evidence for provinciality in the late Campanian and the late Maastrichtian of North America. However, there is no indication that major components of small-bodied theropod diversity were lost

  11. Comparison of Volatile and Major Element Concentrations in Melt Inclusions from Juan de Fuca Ridge Seamounts and the Adjacent Ridge Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanless, V. D.; Behn, M. D.; Perfit, M. R.; Clague, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present volatile (CO2, H2O, F, S, Cl) and major element data from >200 naturally glassy, olivine-hosted melt inclusions and glasses erupted from five seamounts proximal to the Juan de Fuca Ridge. This includes 90 analyses of melt inclusions from the Vance Seamount chain and 126 analyses from two small, mafic (glass MgO > 9 wt%) near-axis cones (T461 and T881). We provide geochemical constraints on both the compositional variations and the depths of crystallization beneath the seamounts using vapor-saturation pressures derived from CO2-H2O concentrations. These data suggest crystallization occurs beneath the two near-axis cones from seafloor pressures to 6400 bars corresponding to depths up to 9 km below the seafloor. This range of crystallization is similar to that calculated from olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the adjacent Juan de Fuca Ridge axis. By contrast, crystallization pressures from Vance Seamounts are more limited with pressures ranging from 400 to 1300 bars or depths of 0.7 to 3.8 km below seafloor. The Vance Seamounts have a prominent peak in depths of crystallization at ~2-3 km below seafloor in histograms, perhaps suggesting that it is the preferred depth of melt storage and crystallization beneath seamounts chains. By contrast, crystallization peaks beneath the small, near-axis cones are less prominent and occur slightly deeper at 3-4 km below seafloor. Overall, S and F concentrations in the seamount melt inclusions are similar to on-axis inclusions; however, Cl concentrations in the seamounts are remarkably low. On-axis inclusions have an average of 61 ppm Cl and range from 4-163 ppm. By contrast, Cl concentrations in the seamounts range from 3-82 ppm, but have an average of only 11 ppm. Excess Cl in mid-ocean ridge lavas is often attributed to contamination by seawater or brines associated with hydrothermal circulation. We suggest that the low Cl concentrations in the seamount inclusions may result from either a seamount mantle source

  12. Estimates of vertical hydraulic conductivity and regional ground-water flow rates in rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, P.F.; Lyford, F.P.

    1982-01-01

    The San Juan structural basin northwestern New Mexico was modeled in three dimensions using a finite-difference, steady-state model. The modeled space was divided into seven layers of square prisms that were 6 miles on a side in the horizontal directions. In the vertical direction, the layers of prisms ranged in thickness from 300 to 1,500 feet. The model included the geologic section between the base of the Entrada Sandstone and the top of Mesaverde Group. Principal aquifers in this section are mostly confined and include the Entrada Sandstone, the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation , and the Gallup Sandstone. Values for vertical hydraulic conductivities from 10 to the minus 12th power to 10 to the minus 11th power feet per second for the confining layers gave a good simulation of head differences between layers, but a sensitivity analysis indicated that these values could be between 10 and 100 times greater. The model-derived steady-state flow was about 30 cubic feet per second. About one-half of the flow was in the San Juan River drainage basin about one-third in the Rio Grande drainage basin, and one-sixth in the Puerco River drainage basin. (USGS)

  13. Perspectives of San Juan healthcare practitioners on the detection deficit in oral premalignant and early cancers in Puerto Rico: a qualitative research study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Puerto Rico, relative to the United States, a disparity exists in detecting oral precancers and early cancers. To identify factors leading to the deficit in early detection, we obtained the perspectives of San Juan healthcare practitioners whose practice could be involved in the detection of such oral lesions. Methods Key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with ten clinicians practicing in or around San Juan, Puerto Rico. We then triangulated our KI interview findings with other data sources, including recent literature on oral cancer detection from various geographic areas, current curricula at the University of Puerto Rico Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine, as well as local health insurance regulations. Results Key informant-identified factors that likely contribute to the detection deficit include: many practitioners are deficient in knowledge regarding oral cancer and precancer; oral cancer screening examinations are limited regarding which patients receive them and the elements included. In Puerto Rico, specialists generally perform oral biopsies, and patient referral can be delayed by various factors, including government-subsidized health insurance, often referred to as Reforma. Reforma-based issues include often inadequate clinician knowledge regarding Reforma requirements/provisions, diagnostic delays related to Reforma bureaucracy, and among primary physicians, a perceived financial disincentive in referring Reforma patients. Conclusions Addressing these issues may be useful in reducing the deficit in detecting oral precancers and early oral cancer in Puerto Rico. PMID:21612663

  14. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  15. Precise age of C33N-C32R magnetic-polarity reversal, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassett, James E.; Steiner, Maureen B.

    1997-01-01

    Polarity-chron boundary C33n-C32r has been identified in the Upper Cretaceous continental Farmington Sandstone Member of the Kirtland Shale in Hunter Wash in the southwest part of the San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in the marine Lewis Shale at Chimney Rock, Colorado, in the northeast part of the basin. Single- and multiple-crystal laser fusion 40Ar/39Ar ages of sanidine crystals from volcanic ash beds bracketing the C33n-C32r polarity reversal at Hunter Wash establish its age as 73.50 ± 0.18 Ma. The reversal apparently occurs within the Baculites compressus Western Interior ammonite zone and within the Edmontonian land-vertebrate faunal zone. An 8 Ma hiatus separates Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the southern San Juan Basin. These findings provide a precise new interpolated Late Cretaceous tie point for geologic time scales, provide the basis for the direct correlation of Western Interior ammonite zones to European open-ocean faunal zones, and establish the first direct tie between continental and marine fossil zones within the Western Interior of North America.

  16. Hydrogeology and steady-state simulation of ground-water flow in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary regional aquifer-system analysis, a three-dimensional steady-state ground-water-flow model was constructed for the San Juan Basin in parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah. The model simulated ground- water flow in 12 hydrostratigraphic units representing all of the major sources of ground water from aquifers of Jurassic and younger age. Ten map reports in the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas 720 series were prepared in conjunction with this investigation. The units that were described in the atlases were the San Jose, Nacimiento, and Animas Formations; Ojo Alamo Sandstone; Kirtland Shale and Fruitland Formation; Pictured Cliffs Sandstone; Cliff House Sandstone; Menefee Formation; Point Lookout Sandstone; Gallup Sandstone; Dakota Sandstone; and Morrison Formation. Additional descriptions of the alluvial and landslide deposits, Chuska and Crevasse Canyon Sandstones, Lewis and Mancos Shales, Wanakah Formation, and Entrada Sandstone are included in this report. Much of the information in the HA-720 series was generated from digital computer data bases that were directly usable by the computer for compilation of input data for the model. In essence, the major components of the ground-water- flow model were described and documented in the series of hydrologic atlases. The primary finding resulting from the ground-water-flow simulation was that boundary conditions and internal geometry of the aquifers are the major controls of steady-state ground-water flow and hydraulic heads in the San Juan Basin. Another significant finding was that the computed steady-state ground- water flux is a very minor component (about 1 percent) of the total water budget of the basin.

  17. Effects of reservoir installation, San Juan-Chama Project water, and reservoir operations on streamflow and water quality in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, northern and central New Mexico, 1938-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2004-01-01

    The coordinated operation of Heron, El Vado, and Abiquiu Dams on the Rio Chama and Cochiti Dam on the Rio Grande and the importation of Colorado River Basin water by the San Juan-Chama Project have altered streamflow and water quality of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande in northern and central New Mexico. The coordinated retention of streamflow in the four reservoirs increased median streamflows, decreased extreme flows, and decreased periods of small streamflow; inflow of San Juan-Chama Project water increased overall streamflow in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande. These changes to streamflow decreased specific conductance and suspended-sediment concentration and increased pH in the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande. Following construction of Heron and Cochiti Dams and integration of reservoir operations on the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande, the inflow of San Juan-Chama Project water and retention of snowmelt runoff influenced water quality. These influences varied by season because reservoir releases fluctuated according to downstream user needs and annual streamflow variation. The influences of San Juan-Chama Project water and retained snowmelt on water quality diminished with downstream flow as the Rio Grande was subjected to various natural and anthropogenic inflows. Because of the variability and type of seasonal influences, streamflow did not have a strong annual correlation with water quality in the Rio Chama or the Rio Grande.

  18. Geochemistry of jadeitites and jadeite-lawsonite rocks in a serpentinite mélange (Rio San Juan Complex, northern Dominican Republic): Constraints on fluid composition in a subduction channel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baese, Rauno; Maresch, Walter V.; Schenk, Volker; Schertl, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    and trace element concentrations also change from centers to rims. Ca/Na varies from 0.75-0.77 in the center to 1.03-1.29 in the rim; the rims are enriched in Rb, Ba, Pb, Eu and have slightly higher REE concentrations than the centers. This may be explained by the lower solubility of lawsonite compared to that of jadeite [6], causing lawsonite to crystallize first during precipitation. Lawsonite crystallization leads to a decrease of the Ca/Na ratio in the fluid. When the Ca/Na ratio becomes low enough jadeite starts to crystallize. Based on chemical data, jadeitites and jadeite-lawsonite rocks can be subdivided into two groups. The chondrite-normalised REE pattern of the first group shows decreasing normalized values from LREE (40-10 times) towards HREE (8-1 times). The second group has a U-shaped pattern with a strong positive Eu (5 times) anomaly. Even though no depletion zone in the adjoining host rock of the jadeitite is petrographically visible, there are lower REE concentrations in blueschists directly adjacent to the veins as compared to homogeneous blueschists without any veins. This clearly indicates some fluid-rock interaction during formation of the veins. References 1) Harlow G.E., Sorensen S.S. (2005) Jade (nephrite and jadeitite) and serpentinite: Metasomatic connections. International Geology Review 47:113-146. 2) Schertl, H.-P., Maresch, W.V., Krebs, M., Draper, G. (2007) The Rio San Juan serpentinite complex and its jadeitites (Dominican Republic). In: Martens U., García-Casco A. (eds) High-pressure belts of Central Guatemala: the Motagua suture and the Chuacús Complex. IGCP 546 Special Contribution, 1. 3) Schertl, H.-P., Krebs, M., Maresch, W.V., Draper, G. (2007) Jadeitite from Hispaniola: a link between Guatemala and Antigua? 20th Colloquium on Latin American Earth Sciences, Kiel, Germany, Abstract Volume, 167-168 4) Baese, R., Schertl, H.-P., Maresch, W.V. (2007) Mineralogy and petrology of Hispaniolan jadeitites: first results. In: Martens U

  19. [Military, sailors and the sick poor: contribution to the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias (18th century)].

    PubMed

    Echeverri, Adriana María Alzate

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias, at the end of the 18th century. Its activities and evolution cannot be understood unless they are analyzed within the context of the Bourbon sanitary reforms. it was precisely at that time when these reforms were being implemented in Nueva Granada. One of the goals of the reforms was to improve the health of the population in order to discipline the vassals, to promote the growth of the workforce and to increase the Crown's wealth. The text reviews different aspects of the institution, and how it operated. It examines the budget, its expenses, and the dynamics of the hospital population and of its employees. In doing so, it intends to explain what the hospital offered to the city's various social groups.

  20. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-01-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps. The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for this first phase of the agreement was $386,385.00 as detailed in Phase I Authorization For Expenditure (AFE). This report describes the tasks performed, the results, and conclusions for the first phase (Phase I) of the cooperative agreement.

  1. Oligo-Miocene mafic intrusions of the San Juan Volcanic Field, southwestern Colorado, and their relationship to voluminous, caldera-forming magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Ethan T.; Farmer, G. Lang

    2015-05-01

    The trigger(s) of ignimbrite flare-ups in continental environments and their connection to "high power" mantle-melting events are the subject of ongoing debate, often hampered by the relative scarcity of mantle-derived basalts compared to voluminous amounts of intermediate and silicic lavas, intrusions, and welded-tuffs. This study focused on locating and analyzing mafic magmas in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado, the largest erosional remnant of the Oligocene Southern Rocky Mountain ignimbrite flare-up. The "flare-up in" the San Juan Volcanic Field (SJVF) has several potential explanations including: crustal anatexis or MASH processes from either an asthenospheric "high power" melting event triggered by rifting and/or lithospheric delamination or a lithospheric mantle "high power" event caused by exposure of Farallon metasomatism to the underlying asthenosphere. The required volumes of crustal melt (a column 34-45 km tall over an area of 10,000 km2) and crustal heterogeneity disqualify anatexis as a source of the SJVF. Basalt and basaltic andesite magmas of the SJVF have εNd (-6 to -8) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.705-0.706), high Ba concentrations (750-1500 ppm) with low Rb/Zr (0.25-0.5) compatible with a lithospheric basalt MASH model. An OIB-like basalt source would require nearly twice the crustal assimilation (50%+) and MASH zone thickness (∼17 km) to produce the isotopic ratios of intermediate to silicic SJVF rocks and could not produce their elevated Ba concentrations. The location of the SJVF may be controlled by its maximum distance of magma capture and lateral transport or by the underlying lithospheric mantle.

  2. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  3. A geologic assessment of natural gas from tight gas sandstones in the San Juan Basin. Final report, June 1989--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, M.R.; Lombardi, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The authors conducted a detailed geologic appraisal, estimated gas in place and recoverable volumes, and evaluated the impact of technology improvements on potential Cretaceous (Pictured Cliffs, Chacra, Cliff House, Point Lookout and Dakota intervals) tight gas reserves of the San Juan Basin. This report summarizes the results of a disaggregated appraisal of the undeveloped San Juan tight gas resource in the context of current and near-term technology, project economics and market potential. A geologic data base was constructed based on location reservoir properties, and typical well recoveries were modeled on a township-specific basis. Project costing and cash flow economics were analyzed to derive potential reserves for various technology specifications and wellhead prices. These data provide a foundation for operators and pipelines to more closely examine these tight formations for development in the near future. Gas in place for the undeveloped tight portion of the five intervals studied was estimated at 17.2 Tcf, with the Dakota Formation accounting for two thirds of this volume. Using current technology, potential ultimate recovery for all intervals is 7.2 Tcf. Potential reserve additions are 1.1 Tcf at $1.50/Mcf, 2.3 Tcf at $2.00/Mcf, and 5.9 Tcf at $5.00/Mcf. The availability of the Nonconventional Fuels Tax Credit for eligible wells drilled in 1991 and 1992 could improve project economics by an after tax equivalent of $0.66/Mcf at the wellhead. Over 300 geophysical logs were evaluated to construct depth, overburden and isopach maps and a location-specific resource database. The database was analyzed using TGAS-PC{reg_sign}, an integrated engineering and economics model for tight sands that has the capability to do rapid sensitivity analysis of geological, technology and economic assumptions.

  4. Computer-assisted decision aid for the estimation of mineral endowment: uranium in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    This methodology comprises two main sections, each executed on a different computer system. The first section, the Geologic Decision Model, has been computerized as an interactive PLATO program. Using the PLATO system, the geologist describes probabilistically the perceived states of geologic processes and conditions. The decision model analyzes this information and computes a probability distribution for mineral occurrence. The second section, the Endowment Simulation Model (program MASTER), is run on the DEC 10 and Cyber 175 computers. Program MASTER takes the product of the Geologic Decision Model, combines it with other data, and produces a probabilistic estimate of mineral endowment for the region being evaluated. Development and testing of the Arizona Appraisal System were carried out simultaneously over a period of about three years. During this period, four geologists from government and industry were called upon four or five times over a period of about a year for a study of the uranium (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) endowment in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. The results produced by the system consist, for each geologist, of a probability distribution for tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ endowment for (1) each partition of each stratigraphic unit, (2) each stratigraphic unit as a whole, (3) ''formations'' or ''merged units'' (groups of stratigraphic units), and (4) the San Juan Basin as a whole (all stratigraphic units). The system also calculates the average distribution across all geologists for the various merged units and for the basin as a whole. The result for the basin as a whole (in thousands of tons) is: mean 3,855, variance 4,108 x 10/sup 9/, and 95th percentile 6,541.

  5. Analysis of regional deformation and strain accumulation data adjacent to the San Andreas fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the understanding of crustal deformation was developed under this grant. This approach combined aspects of fractals, chaos, and self-organized criticality to provide a comprehensive theory for deformation on distributed faults. It is hypothesized that crustal deformation is an example of comminution: Deformation takes place on a fractal distribution of faults resulting in a fractal distribution of seismicity. Our primary effort under this grant was devoted to developing an understanding of distributed deformation in the continental crust. An initial effort was carried out on the fractal clustering of earthquakes in time. It was shown that earthquakes do not obey random Poisson statistics, but can be approximated in many cases by coupled, scale-invariant fractal statistics. We applied our approach to the statistics of earthquakes in the New Hebrides region of the southwest Pacific because of the very high level of seismicity there. This work was written up and published in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. This approach was also applied to the statistics of the seismicity on the San Andreas fault system.

  6. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  7. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  8. Awareness of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is low but interest is high among men engaging in condomless anal sex with men in Boston, Pittsburgh, and San Juan

    PubMed Central

    Dolezal, Curtis; Frasca, Timothy; Giguere, Rebecca; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Cranston, Ross D.; Febo, Irma; Mayer, Kenneth H.; McGowan, Ian; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study examines awareness of and experiences with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among 228 men recruited in Boston, Pittsburgh, and San Juan between 12/2010–6/2012. All of them reported having condomless anal sex with a man in the prior year. Overall, 41% had heard of PEP, ranging from 16% in San Juan to 64% in Boston. Only 21% had heard of PrEP, ranging from 8% in San Juan to 36% in Boston. Three had used PEP, and none had used PrEP. After the methods were described to participants, interest in both was high, with intentions to use PEP and PrEP respectively at 9.1 and 7.7 (10-point scale). Increased public education is needed to raise awareness of these HIV prevention methods, especially among MSM who acknowledge potential risk behavior. It also seems likely that many such men would use these methods once they become aware of them. PMID:26241380

  9. Awareness of Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Is Low but Interest Is High Among Men Engaging in Condomless Anal Sex With Men in Boston, Pittsburgh, and San Juan.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Curtis; Frasca, Timothy; Giguere, Rebecca; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Cranston, Ross D; Febo, Irma; Mayer, Kenneth H; McGowan, Ian; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2015-08-01

    This study examines awareness of and experiences with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among 228 men recruited in Boston, Pittsburgh, and San Juan between 12/2010 and 6/2012. All of them reported having condomless anal sex with a man in the prior year. Overall, 41% had heard of PEP, ranging from 16% in San Juan to 64% in Boston. Only 21% had heard of PrEP, ranging from 8% in San Juan to 36% in Boston. Three had used PEP, and none had used PrEP. After the methods were described to participants, interest in both was high, with intentions to use PEP and PrEP respectively at 9.1 and 7.7 (10-point scale). Increased public education is needed to raise awareness of these HIV prevention methods, especially among MSM who acknowledge potential risk behavior. It also seems likely that many such men would use these methods once they become aware of them.

  10. Origin of rhyolite by crustal melting and the nature of parental magmas in the Oligocene Conejos Formation, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. F.; Ghosh, A.; Price, C. W.; Rinard, B. D.; Cullers, R. L.; Ren, M.

    2005-01-01

    Four closely spaced volcanoes (Summer Coon; Twin Mountains; Del Norte; Carnero Creek) form the east-central cluster of Conejos volcanic centers. These Conejos rocks range from high-K basaltic andesite to rhyolite, with andesite volumetrically the most abundant. Summer Coon and Twin Mountains are composite volcanoes. The Del Norte and Carnero Creek volcanoes are deeply eroded dacite shields. Rhyolite (10% of our Conejos analyses but a much smaller percentage by volume) is only known from Summer Coon and Twin Mountains volcanoes, although high-SiO 2 dacite occurs in the Del Norte volcano. The younger Hinsdale Formation contains a related series ranging from transitional basalt to high-K andesite; we use Hinsdale Formation analyses to represent Conejos parental magmas. Conejos and Hinsdale magmas evolved through AFC processes: Basalt, after interacting with lower crust, assimilated low K/Rb crust, similar in some ways to Taylor and McLennan (Taylor, S.R., and McLennan, S.M., 1985, The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific.) model upper crust; main series basaltic andesite fractionated to high-K andesite; rhyolite was produced by melting of high K/Ba upper crustal rocks similar to granite gneiss known from inclusions and basement outcrops. Some rhyolite may have been back-mixed into fractionating andesite and dacite. Field evidence for assimilation includes sanidinite-facies, partially melted, gneiss blocks up to 1 m in diameter. Temperature estimates (1100-900 ° C) from two-pyroxene equilibria are consistent with this interpretation, as are the sparsely porphyritic nature of the most-evolved rhyolites and the absence of phenocrystic alkali feldspar. Our study supports the conclusions of previous workers on AFC processes in similar, but generally more mafic, Conejos magmas of the southeastern San Juan Mountains. Our results, however, emphasize the importance of crustal melting in the generation of Conejos rhyolite. We further

  11. Puerto Ricos Government to Make Major Upgrades to San Juan Water Infrastructure in Settlement with the Federal Government

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) Under two settlements with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Justice, three Puerto Rico government agencies have agreed to upgrade portions of storm water systems they own within the Municipality of San Ju

  12. Geology, sequence stratigraphy, and oil and gas assessment of the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 5 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubiel, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the San Juan Basin Province contains a continuous gas accumulation in three distinct stratigraphic units deposited in genetically related depositional environments: offshore-marine shales, mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Lewis Shale, and marginal-marine shoreface sandstones and siltstones of both the La Ventana Tongue and the Chacra Tongue of the Cliff House Sandstone. The Lewis Shale was not a completion target in the San Juan Basin (SJB) in early drilling from about the 1950s through 1990. During that time, only 16 wells were completed in the Lewis from natural fracture systems encountered while drilling for deeper reservoir objectives. In 1991, existing wells that penetrated the Lewis Shale were re-entered by petroleum industry operators in order to fracture-stimulate the Lewis and to add Lewis gas production onto preexisting, and presumably often declining, Mesaverde Group production stratigraphically lower in the section. By 1997, approximately 101 Lewis completions had been made, both as re-entries into existing wells and as add-ons to Mesaverde production in new wells. Based on recent industry drilling and completion practices leading to successful gas production from the Lewis and because new geologic models indicate that the Lewis Shale contains both source rocks and reservoir rocks, the Lewis Shale TPS was defined and evaluated as part of this U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the San Juan Basin. Gas in the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System is produced from shoreface sandstones and siltstones in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues and from distal facies of these prograding clastic units that extend into marine rocks of the Lewis Shale in the central part of the San Juan Basin. Reservoirs are in shoreface sandstone parasequences of the La Ventana and Chacra and their correlative distal parasequences in the Lewis Shale where both natural and artificially enhanced fractures produce

  13. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated

  14. Markers of typical red wine varieties from the Valley of Tulum (San Juan-Argentina) based on VOCs profile and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Fabani, María P; Ravera, Mario J A; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2013-11-15

    We studied the VOCs profile of three red wine varieties, produced in the Valley of Tulum (San Juan-Argentina), over 4 consecutive years. Our main goal was to verify if different wine varieties could be differentiated from their VOCs profile, considering changes induced by their age, the yeast inoculated and the type of alcoholic fermentation, establishing those compounds that could be used as chemical markers of a particular variety. Stepwise LDA of selected VOCs allowed 100% differentiation between studied wines, showing that high levels of 1-hexanol were characteristic for Malbec, while low level of ethyl caproate was characteristic for Bonarda. Using controlled fermentations, 1-hexanol, a pre-fermentative VOC, presented a similar trend in wines produced from different yeast; while other fermentative VOCs, like ethyl caproate and ethyl caprilate, presented lower levels for Bonarda but also for Syrah. To our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of VOCs from Bonarda. Additionally, the quantitative analysis of VOCs profile, coupled to chemometrics, present a good alternative to differentiate wines from different varieties and also for studying wine fermentation.

  15. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Pat Fort; Don L. Hanosh

    2003-11-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps. Resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain oil fields located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP), determine if this system can reduce lift costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improved the economics. Three Phases of work have been defined in the DOE Form 4600.1 Notice of Financial Assistance Award for this project, in which the project objectives are to be attained through a joint venture between Enerdyne LLC (Enerdyne), owner and operator of the fields and Pumping Solutions Inc. (PSI), developer of the submersible pumping system. Upon analysis of the results of each Phase, the DOE will determine if the results justify the continuation of the project and approve the next Phase to proceed or terminate the project and request that the wells be plugged. This topical report shall provide the DOE with Phase I results and conclusions reached by Enerdyne and PSI.

  16. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD OF THE SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-11-01

    This report discusses: (1) being able to resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP); (2) determining if this system can reduce life costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improve the economics. In April 2003, a cooperative 50% cost share agreement between Enerdyne and the DOE was executed to investigate the feasibility of using cable suspended electric submersible pumps to reduce the life costs and increase the ultimate oil recovery of the Red Mountain Oil Field, located on the Chaco Slope of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. The field was discovered in 1934 and has produced approximately 55,650 cubic meters (m{sup 3}), (350,000 barrels, 42 gallons) of oil. Prior to April 2003, the field was producing only a few cubic meters of oil each month; however, the reservoir characteristics suggest that the field retains ample oil to be economic. This field is unique, in that, the oil accumulations, above fresh water, occur at depths from 88-305 meters, (290 feet to 1000 feet), and serves as a relatively good test area for this experiment.

  17. Using Cable Suspended Submersible Pumps to Reduce Production Costs to Increase Ultimate Recovery in the Red Mountain Field of the San Juan Basin Region

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2006-08-15

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells, installing cable suspended submersible pumps ( Phase I ) and operating the oil field for approximately one year ( Phase II ). Upon the completion of Phases I and II ( Budget Period I ), Enerdyne LLC commenced work on Phase III which required additional drilling in an attempt to improve field economics ( Budget Period II ). The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for the two Budget Periods, of the Agreement, was $1,205,008.00 as detailed in Phase I, II & III Authorization for Expenditures (AFE). This report describes tasks performed and results experienced by Enerdyne LLC during the three phases of the cooperative agreement.

  18. Prevalence and spatial distribution of intraerythrocytic parasite(s) in Puget Sound rockfish (Sebastes emphaeus) from the San Juan Archipelago, Washington (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Straaten, N.; Jacobson, A.; Halos, D.; Hershberger, P.; Kocan, A.A.; Kocan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Two morphologically distinct forms of an intraerythrocytic parasite(s) were detected by microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained blood films in 45.7% of 119 rockfish (Sebastes emphaeus) from the San Juan Archipelago (Washington State, U.S.A.). Infection prevalence for both forms was 53% in males, 44% in females, and 33% in fish of undetermined gender. A binucleate "ring-stage" was present at all 4 geographic sites, with a mean prevalence of 45.7%, while mean prevalence of a larger gamont-like form from the same sites was 5.1%. The relationship of the 2 forms to each other could not be determined. Neither schizogony nor binary fission was evident in any of the infected erythrocytes and the parasites contained no obvious pigment. The possibility of the 2 morphologic forms being 2 distinct species is supported by the observation that no difference in parasitemia was seen in the binucleate form among sites (1.6-1.9%), while parasitemia of the gamont-like form varied significantly among sites, ranging from a high of 4% to a low of 0.1%. Taxonomic status of either form could not be determined at this time based on limited existing morphologic data. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2005.

  19. Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

  20. Control technology assessment of hazardous-waste-disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: in-depth survey report of San Juan Cement Company, Dorado, Puerto Rico, November 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, M.S.

    1982-07-01

    A visit was made to the San Juan Cement Company, Dorado, Puerto Rico to evaluate control methods for a storage and delivery system for hazardous wastes used in a demonstration project as a supplemental fuel for cofiring a cement kiln. Analysis of the material during the visit revealed the presence of methylene chloride, carbon-tetrachloride, chloroform, acetone, hexane, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. Steel storage tanks were placed on an impermeable concrete slab surrounded by a sealed retaining wall. Steel piping with all welded joints carried the waste fuels from storage tanks to the kiln, where fuels were injected through a specially fabricated burner. Vapor emissions were suppressed by venting the displaced vapor through a recycle line. Exhaust gases from the kiln passed through a bag house type dust collector, and were vented to the atmosphere through a single stack. Half-mask air-purifying respirators were used when in the hazardous-waste storage/delivery area. Neoprene gloves were used when performing tasks with potential skin contact. Hard hats, safety glasses, and safety boots were all worn. The author concludes that the control methods used seemed effective in suppressing vapor emissions.

  1. Geology, coal resources, and chemical analyses of coal from the Fruitland Formation, Kimbeto EMRIA study site, San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Gary B.; Hildebrand, Rick T.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1979-01-01

    The Kimbeto EMRIA study site, an area of about 20 square miles (52 km2), is located on the south margin of the San Juan Basin on the gently northward-dipping strata of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and the Kirtland Shale. The coal beds are mainly in the lower 150 feet (45 m) of the Fruitland Format ion. Coal resources--measured, indicated, and inferred--with less than 400 feet (120 m) of overburden in the site are 69,085,000 short tons (62,660,100 metric tons), 369,078,000 short tons (334,754,000 metric tons), and 177,803,000 short tons (161,267,000 metric tons) respectively. About 68 percent of these resources are overlain by 200 feet (60 m) or less of overburden. The apparent rank of the coal ranges from subbituminous B to subbituminous A. The average Btu/lb value of 14 core samples from the site on the as-received basis is 8,240 (4580 Kcal/kg), average ash content is 23.4 percent, and average sulfur content is 0.5 percent. Analyses of coal from the Kimbeto EMRIA study site show significantly higher ash content and significantly lower contents of volatile matter, fixed carbon, carbon, and a significantly lower heat of combustion when compared with other coal analyses from the Rocky Mountain province.

  2. Estimates of flow direction for calc-alkaline welded tuffs and paleomagnetic data reliability from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements: Central San Juan Mountains, southwest Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Brooks B.

    1982-07-01

    Flow directions are estimated from the measurement of the magnetic fabric of 106 samples, collected at 18 sites in four welded tuff units in the central San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado. The estimates assume that the tuffs generally flowed directly away from the extrusive vents and that the lineations of magnetic grains within the tuffs represent the flow direction at individual sites. Errors in the estimation may arise from topographic variation, rheomorphism (post-emplacement mass flow) within the tuff, and other factors. Magnetic lineation is defined as the site mean anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility maximum azimuth. A test on the flow directions for individual units is based on the projection of lineation azimuths and their intersection within or near the known source caldera for the tuff. This test is positive for the four units examined. Paleomagnetic results for these tuffs are probably reliable indicators of the geomagnetic field direction in southwest Colorado, during the time (28.2-26.5 Ma) of emplacement.

  3. Vertical-axis rotations and deformation along the active strike-slip El Tigre Fault (Precordillera of San Juan, Argentina) assessed through palaeomagnetism and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Cortés, José M.; Terrizzano, Carla M.

    2017-03-01

    Palaeomagnetic data from poorly consolidated to non-consolidated late Cenozoic sediments along the central segment of the active El Tigre Fault (Central-Western Precordillera of the San Juan Province, Argentina) demonstrate broad cumulative deformation up to 450 m from the fault trace and reveal clockwise and anticlockwise vertical-axis rotations of variable magnitude. This deformation has affected in different amounts Miocene to late Pleistocene samples and indicates a complex kinematic pattern. Several inherited linear structures in the shear zone that are oblique to the El Tigre Fault may have acted as block boundary faults. Displacement along these faults may have resulted in a complex pattern of rotations. The maximum magnitude of rotation is a function of the age of the sediments sampled, with largest values corresponding to middle Miocene-lower Pliocene deposits and minimum values obtained from late Pleistocene deposits. The kinematic study is complemented by low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data to show that the local strain regime suggests a N-S stretching direction, subparallel to the strike of the main fault.

  4. Production cost analysis and use of pesticides in the transgenic and conventional corn crop [Zea mays (L.)] in the valley of San Juan, Tolima.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Kelly Avila; Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro; Moreno, Giovanni Reyes; Castro, Carlos Silva

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 10 producers of conventional corn (Hybrids PAC 105 and Maximus) and 10 producers of transgenic corn (Pioneer Hybrid 30T17) was carried out in the municipality of Valle de San Juan in the territorial division of Tolima (Colombia), in order to analyze the differences in production costs and environmental impacts of these two agricultural technologies.  The environmental impacts were determined by calculating the field "Environmental Index Quotient" (EIQ). In the production cost analysis, a difference of 15% was found in benefit of the transgenic technology. The structure of costs of the transgenic technology was benefited by the reduced use of pesticides (insecticides and herbicides). In regards to production, the transgenic technology showed a greater yield, 5.22 ton/ha in comparison to 4.25 ton/ha the conventional technology, thus a 22% difference in yield. Finally, the EIQ calculation showed quantitative differences of 196.12 for the conventional technology (EIQ insecticides 165.14 + EIQ herbicides 30.98), while the transgenic technology was of 4.24 (EIQ insecticides 0 + EIQ herbicides 4.24). These results show a minor environmental impact when using the transgenic technology in comparison to the conventional technology, in regards to the use of insecticides and herbicides in a temporal, spatial and genotypical context analysis. :

  5. Natural Tracers and Multi-Scale Assessment of Caprock Sealing Behavior: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Heath; Brian McPherson; Thomas Dewers

    2011-03-15

    The assessment of caprocks for geologic CO{sub 2} storage is a multi-scale endeavor. Investigation of a regional caprock - the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA - at the pore-network scale indicates high capillary sealing capacity and low permeabilities. Core and wellscale data, however, indicate a potential seal bypass system as evidenced by multiple mineralized fractures and methane gas saturations within the caprock. Our interpretation of {sup 4}He concentrations, measured at the top and bottom of the caprock, suggests low fluid fluxes through the caprock: (1) Of the total {sup 4}He produced in situ (i.e., at the locations of sampling) by uranium and thorium decay since deposition of the Kirtland Formation, a large portion still resides in the pore fluids. (2) Simple advection-only and advection-diffusion models, using the measured {sup 4}He concentrations, indicate low permeability ({approx}10-20 m{sup 2} or lower) for the thickness of the Kirtland Formation. These findings, however, do not guarantee the lack of a large-scale bypass system. The measured data, located near the boundary conditions of the models (i.e., the overlying and underlying aquifers), limit our testing of conceptual models and the sensitivity of model parameterization. Thus, we suggest approaches for future studies to better assess the presence or lack of a seal bypass system at this particular site and for other sites in general.

  6. A correlation analysis of percent canopy closure versus TMS spectral response for selected forest sites in the San Juan National Forest, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The correlation of canopy closure with the signal response of individual thematic mapper simulator (TMS) bands for selected forest sites in the San Juan National Forest, Colorado was investigated. Ground truth consisted of a photointerpreted determination of percent canopy closure of 0 to 100 percent for 32 sites. The sites selected were situated on plateaus at an elevation of approximately 3 km with slope or = 10 percent. The predominant tree species were ponderosa pine and aspen. The mean TMS response per band per site was calculated from data acquired by aircraft during mid-September, 1981. A correlation analysis of TMS response vs. canopy closure resulted in the following correlation coefficients for bands 1 through 7, respectively: -0.757, -0.663, -0.666, -0.088, -0.797, -0.763. Two model regressions were applied to the TMS data set to create a map of predicted percent forest canopy closure for the study area. Results indicated percent predictive accuracies of 71, 74, and 57 for percent canopy closure classes of 0-25, 25-75, and 75-100, respectively.

  7. Geochemistry of Surface and Ground Water in Cement Creek from Gladstone to Georgia Gulch and in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Wirt, Laurie; Manning, Andrew H.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Fey, David L.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    In San Juan County, Colo., the effects of historical mining continue to contribute metals to ground water and surface water. Previous research by the U.S. Geological Survey identified ground-water discharge as a significant pathway for the loading of metals to surface water in the upper Animas River watershed from both acid-mine drainage and acid-rock drainage. In support of this ground-water research effort, Prospect Gulch was selected for further study and the geochemistry of surface and ground water in the area was analyzed as part of four sampling plans: (1) ten streamflow and geochemistry measurements at five stream locations (four locations along Cement Creek plus the mouth of Prospect Gulch from July 2004 through August 2005), (2) detailed stream tracer dilution studies in Prospect Gulch and in Cement Creek from Gladstone to Georgia Gulch in early October 2004, (3) geochemistry of ground water through sampling of monitoring wells, piezometers, mine shafts, and springs, and (4) samples for noble gases and tritium/helium for recharge temperatures (recharge elevation) and ground-water age dating. This report summarizes all of the surface and ground-water data that was collected and includes: (1) all sample collection locations, (2) streamflow and geochemistry, (3) ground-water geochemistry, and (4) noble gas and tritium/helium data.

  8. Utilizing Multibeam Bathymetry and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Expand Our Mapping Ability of Potential Rockfish Benthic Habitats in the San Juan Islands, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Slatten, K.

    2013-12-01

    In order to construct an accurate cartographic representation of the potential rockfish habitat zone in the San Juan Archipelago, Washington, bathymetric data is needed to form layers within Geographic Information Systems (GIS) that include, but are not limited to, slope, hillshade, and aspect. Backscatter data is also important in order to demonstrate the induration of the marine floor, which in turn may tell the researcher what type of sediment and substrate makes up that part of the benthic region. Once these layers are added to the GIS map, another layer (referred to as Potential Benthic Habitats) is created and inserted. This layer uses the same induration data but groups them into polygons, which are then color-coded and displayed on the map. With all the layers now pictured, it is clear that the intertidal zones are not complete. Aerial photographs are then added to fill in the gaps according to the GPS coordinates associated with the middle section of each picture. When all pictures and layers have been included, the GIS map is a somewhat three-dimensional, color-coordinated, aerial photograph enhanced depiction of Skipjack, Waldron, Orcas, and Sucia Islands. The bathymetric and backscatter data are plugged into Excel to graphically illustrate specific numbers that represent the various potential habitats. The given data support the idea that potential rockfish habitat (Sedimentary Bedrock and Fractured Bedrock) must be closely monitored and maintained in attempt to preserve and conserve the three either threatened or endangered rockfish species within the Puget Sound locale.

  9. Vertical-axis rotations and deformation along the active strike-slip El Tigre Fault (Precordillera of San Juan, Argentina) assessed through palaeomagnetism and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Cortés, José M.; Terrizzano, Carla M.

    2016-05-01

    Palaeomagnetic data from poorly consolidated to non-consolidated late Cenozoic sediments along the central segment of the active El Tigre Fault (Central-Western Precordillera of the San Juan Province, Argentina) demonstrate broad cumulative deformation up to ~450 m from the fault trace and reveal clockwise and anticlockwise vertical-axis rotations of variable magnitude. This deformation has affected in different amounts Miocene to late Pleistocene samples and indicates a complex kinematic pattern. Several inherited linear structures in the shear zone that are oblique to the El Tigre Fault may have acted as block boundary faults. Displacement along these faults may have resulted in a complex pattern of rotations. The maximum magnitude of rotation is a function of the age of the sediments sampled, with largest values corresponding to middle Miocene-lower Pliocene deposits and minimum values obtained from late Pleistocene deposits. The kinematic study is complemented by low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data to show that the local strain regime suggests a N-S stretching direction, subparallel to the strike of the main fault.

  10. The relationship between carbonate facies, volcanic rocks and plant remains in a late Palaeozoic lacustrine system (San Ignacio Fm, Frontal Cordillera, San Juan province, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busquets, P.; Méndez-Bedia, I.; Gallastegui, G.; Colombo, F.; Cardó, R.; Limarino, O.; Heredia, N.; Césari, S. N.

    2013-07-01

    The San Ignacio Fm, a late Palaeozoic foreland basin succession that crops out in the Frontal Cordillera (Argentinean Andes), contains lacustrine microbial carbonates and volcanic rocks. Modification by extensive pedogenic processes contributed to the massive aspect of the calcareous beds. Most of the volcanic deposits in the San Ignacio Fm consist of pyroclastic rocks and resedimented volcaniclastic deposits. Less frequent lava flows produced during effusive eruptions led to the generation of tabular layers of fine-grained, greenish or grey andesites, trachytes and dacites. Pyroclastic flow deposits correspond mainly to welded ignimbrites made up of former glassy pyroclasts devitrified to microcrystalline groundmass, scarce crystals of euhedral plagioclase, quartz and K-feldspar, opaque minerals, aggregates of fine-grained phyllosilicates and fiammes defining a bedding-parallel foliation generated by welding or diagenetic compaction. Widespread silicified and silica-permineralized plant remains and carbonate mud clasts are found, usually embedded within the ignimbrites. The carbonate sequences are underlain and overlain by volcanic rocks. The carbonate sequence bottoms are mostly gradational, while their tops are usually sharp. The lower part of the carbonate sequences is made up of mud which appear progressively, filling interstices in the top of the underlying volcanic rocks. They gradually become more abundant until they form the whole of the rock fabric. Carbonate on volcanic sandstones and pyroclastic deposits occur, with the nucleation of micritic carbonate and associated production of pyrite. Cyanobacteria, which formed the locus of mineral precipitation, were related with this nucleation. The growth of some of the algal mounds was halted by the progressive accumulation of volcanic ash particles, but in most cases the upper boundary is sharp and suddenly truncated by pyroclastic flows or volcanic avalanches. These pyroclastic flows partially destroyed the

  11. On the existence of potential source rocks in the lower Paleozoic carbonate sequence of the Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Baldis, B.A.J.; Martinez, R.D. )

    1993-02-01

    The Precordillera of western Argentina is a terrane that comprises a thick Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician carbonate sequence corresponding to a stable platform developed over a [open quotes]Pampean[close quotes] basement. Several authors have considered this terrane as allochthonous, on the internal border of the Andean Mobile Belt; but it is more possible to assign it to a parauthochthonous origin with minor relative displacements. The presence of kerogen has been detected at an interval comprising the Zonda (Cambrian) and San Roque (Cambrian-Tremadocian) formations, which correspond to calcareous intertidal to lagoonal sequences deposited in restricted carbonate platforms and grading into supratidal facies to the east (shoreline). The Zonda Formation includes dark wackestones, with oolites, intraclasts and peloids, gray to brownish carbonates with high fenestral porosity, showing fine lamination and stromatolites, and light-colored dolomitic mudstones with voids filled with sparite. As the result of sea-level changes, this part of the sequence shows typical dissecation structures and increased fracture porosity with kerogen fillings. The San Roque Formation is mainly formed by dolomitic mudstones showing bird's eyes filled with kerogen and strong evidence of dissecation and dehydration. Hydrocarbons always appear as partial fillings of fractures; also included in granular sparite veins or between microsparite bands in the laminated carbonates. These kerogen shows are the first described in Lower Paleozoic rocks in Argentina, and are tentatively assigned to changes in sea-level and the last stages of the Cambrian Great Cycles in South America. These new potential source rocks open new frontiers for petroleum exploration in the Cuyo Basin and prove potential plays in Lower Paleozoic rocks, as have been described in several basins of North America, China, and Australia.

  12. Quantification and Simulation of Metal Loading to the Upper Animas River, Eureka to Silverton, San Juan County, Colorado, September 1997 and August 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Drainage from abandoned and inactive mines and from naturally mineralized areas in the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado contributes metals to the upper Animas River near Silverton, Colorado. Tracer-injection studies and associated synoptic sampling were performed along two reaches of the upper Animas River to develop detailed profiles of stream discharge and to locate and quantify sources of metal loading. One tracer-injection study was performed in September 1997 on the Animas River reach from Howardsville to Silverton, and a second study was performed in August 1998 on the stream reach from Eureka to Howardsville. Drainage in the upper Animas River study reaches contributed aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, sulfate, and zinc to the surface-water system in 1997 and 1998. Colloidal aluminum, dissolved copper, and dissolved zinc were attenuated through a braided stream reach downstream from Eureka. Instream dissolved copper concentrations were lower than the State of Colorado acute and chronic toxicity standards downstream from the braided reach to Silverton. Dissolved iron load and concentrations increased downstream from Howardsville and Arrastra Gulch, and colloidal iron remained constant at low concentrations downstream from Howardsville. Instream sulfate concentrations were lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary drinking-water standard of 250 milligrams per liter throughout the two study reaches. Elevated zinc concentrations are the primary concern for aquatic life in the upper Animas River. In the 1998 Eureka to Howardsville study, instream dissolved zinc load increased downstream from the Forest Queen mine, the Kittimack tailings, and Howardsville. In the 1997 Howardsville to Silverton study, there were four primary areas where zinc load increased. First, was the increase downstream from Howardsville and abandoned mining sites downstream from the Cunningham Gulch confluence, which also was measured during

  13. Quantification and Mitigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization and Climate Change in the Tropical Coastal City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization, along with other cases of land cover and land use changes, has significant climate impacts in tropical regions with the added complexity of occurring within the context of global warming. The individual and combined effects of these two factors on the surface energy balance of a tropical city are investigated by use of an integrated atmospheric modeling approach, taking the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), Puerto Rico as the test case. To achieve this goal, an ensemble of climate and weather simulations is performed, with the climate scenarios combining urban development and sprawl with regional climate change over the past 50 years, and the short-term simulations designed to test the sensitivity to different urban vegetation configurations as mitigating alternatives. As indicator of change, we use the thermal response number (TRN), which is a measure of the sensible heating to the thermal storage of a surface or region, and the Bowen ratio, which is defined as the ratio of sensible to latent heat fluxes. The TRN of the area occupied by the SJMA has decreased as a consequence of replacing the low land coastal plain vegetation with man made materials, indicating that it takes less energy to raise the surface temperature of the urban area, whereas the TRN of forested regions has remained virtually unchanged. The global warming signal also has effects on the thermal response of the SJMA, where dryer current conditions generate lower TRN values. Differences due to global warming are more evident in the Bowen ratio pattern, mostly associated with the drier present conditions observed and its effects on sensible and latent heat fluxes. In terms of testing different mitigation strategies, the short-term simulations show that the urban area is more efficient in partitioning surface energy balance terms when green roofs are specified, as opposed to including vegetation inside the urban core.

  14. Lipid lowering agents use and systemic and oral inflammation in overweight or obese adult Puerto Ricans: the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS)

    PubMed Central

    Andriankaja, Oelisoa M.; Jiménez, James J.; Muñoz-Torres, Francisco J.; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Vergara, José L.; Joshipura, Kaumudi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lipid-lowering agents (LLA) on reducing systemic and oral inflammation have not been evaluated. Objective To assess the association of LLA use with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and oral inflammation. Design Cross-sectional analysis using baseline data from 1,300 overweight/obese participants aged 40–65 years, recruited for the ongoing San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study. Serum hs-CRP was measured by ELISA, gingival/periodontal inflammation was evaluated as bleeding upon probing (BOP), and LLA was self-reported. Separate logistic models were performed for systemic and oral inflammation. Results 24% participants reported history of dyslipidemia, of which, 50.3% self-reported LLA use. Sixty percent of the participants had elevated hs-CRP (>3 mg/dL) and 50% had high BOP (defined as at or above the median: 21%). After adjusting for age, gender, smoking, HDL-C, physical activity, diabetes, blood pressure medications, and percent body fat composition, LLA users had significantly lower odds of elevated hs-CRP compared to LLA non-users (OR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.39–0.85). After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, educational level, mean plaque index, and percent body fat, LLA users had significantly lower odds of high BOP compared to LLA non-users (OR= 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42–0.91). Conclusions Lipid-lowering agents may reduce both systemic and oral inflammatory responses. PMID:26407668

  15. Methods in HPV Surveillance: Experiences from a Population-Based Study of HPV Infection among Women in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Marrero, Edmir; Muñoz, Cristina; Pérez, Cynthia M; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Romaguera, Josefina; Rodríguez, Nahir; González-Falero, Andrea; Palefsky, Joel; Suárez, Erick

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the methodology of the first population-based study of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women aged 16-64 years residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico (PR). The sample was identified through a complex sampling design of households. The sampling frame was selected in four stages, using census tracts maps from the Census Bureau. Women completed a face-to-face interview and a computer-assisted self-interview using the Audio CASI system, for the collection of demographic, clinical, and lifestyle variables, and sampling acceptability. Anal, cervical, and oral specimens were collected through self-collection methods for HPV DNA testing using a modified pool of MY09/MY11 consensus HPV L1 and human ß-globin amplification primers. Anthropometric measurements were taken using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey methodology. Blood samples were collected to create a bio-repository for future HPV-related studies. Fifty census tract blocks were randomly selected. We recruited 566 women, with a response rate of 83.4%. Response rates did not vary by age-group (p>0.05); although they varied by socioeconomic (SES) census block stratums (p<0.05), response rates were good (>75%) in all SES strata. All participants agreed to respond to the surveys and provide the requested anogenital and oral samples. Overall, more than 98% understood and more than 50% felt comfortable with the cervical, anal, and oral self-collection methods used. This article documents the feasibility of performing population-based studies for HPV surveillance in women in PR.

  16. Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Church, Stanley E.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Wirt, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    During 1996 to 2000, the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a coordinated strategy to (1) study the environmental effects of historical mining on Federal lands, and (2) remediate contaminated sites that have the greatest impact on water quality and ecosystem health. This dataset provides information that contributes to these overall objectives and is part of the USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative. Data presented here represent ferricrete occurrences and selected iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed in San Juan County near Silverton, Colorado. Ferricretes (stratified iron and manganese oxyhydroxide-cemented sedimentary deposits) are one indicator of the geochemical baseline conditions as well as the effect that weathering of mineralized rocks had on water quality in the Animas River watershed prior to mining. Logs and wood fragments preserved in several ferricretes in the upper Animas River watershed, collected primarily along streams, yield radiocarbon ages of modern to 9,580 years B.P. (P.L. Verplanck, D.B. Yager, and S.E. Church, work in progress). The presence of ferricrete deposits along the current stream courses indicates that climate and physiography of the Animas River watershed have been relatively constant throughout the Holocene and that weathering processes have been ongoing for thousands of years prior to historical mining activities. Thus, by knowing where ferricrete is preserved in the watershed today, land-management agencies have an indication of (1) where metal precipitation from weathering of altered rocks has occurred in the past, and (2) where this process is ongoing and may confound remediation efforts. These data are included as two coverages-a ferricrete coverage and a bogs and springs coverage. The coverages are included in ArcInfo shapefile and Arc

  17. Hydrology of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and the producibility of coal-bed methane, San Juan basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, W.R. ); Swartz, T.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Fruitland coal seams contain 49 tcf of methane, which is produced from abnormally pressured coals in a variety of hydrologic settings. In a study funded by the Gas Research Institute, the authors calculated bottom-hole pressures from wellhead shut-in pressures to map hydraulic head and pressure regime, and estimated vertical pressure gradients to evaluate Fruitland hydrology and its relation to methane producibility. They inferred relative permeability from hydraulic head, pressure regime, and hydrochemistry, and related these hydrologic elements to established production. In the Fruitland Formation, coal seams are the primary aquifers, receiving recharge mainly from the elevated, wet, north and northwest margins of the basin. Formation waters in the north-central part of the basin have low chlorinities and high alkalinities, whereas those in the southern part of the basin are saline Na-Cl type similar to seawater. Regional discharge is to the San Juan River valley in the western part of the basin. Overpressuring in the north-central part of the basin is explained hydrodynamically and is attributed to artesian conditions. They infer enhanced coal-bed permeability where the potentiometric surface is flat and reduced permeability where it is steep. Overpressuring indicates enhanced permeability because permeability in coal seams is stress dependent. In the overpressured region, groundwater is fresh, indicative of an active, dynamic flow system and of permeable pathways. In contrast, connate seawater in the underpressured southern part of the basin implies negligible permeability; strata are too tight to accept and transmit measurable recharge. The basin's most productive coal bed-methane wells are overpressured and occur at hydrologic transitions from a flat to a steep potentiometric surface, overpressuring to underpressuring, and low- to high-chloride formation waters.

  18. Tectonic Setting and Characteristics of Natural Fractures in Mesaverde and Dakota Reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    LORENZ, JOHN C.; COOPER, SCOTT P.

    2001-01-01

    A set of vertical extension fractures, striking N-S to NNE-SSW but with local variations, is present in both the outcrop and subsurface in both Mesaverde and Dakota sandstones. Additional sets of conjugate shear fractures have been recognized in outcrops of Dakota strata and may be present in the subsurface. However, the deformation bands prevalent locally in outcrops in parts of the basin as yet have no documented subsurface equivalent. The immature Mesaverde sandstones typically contain relatively long, irregular extension fractures, whereas the quartzitic Dakota sandstones contain short, sub-parallel, closely spaced, extension fractures, and locally conjugate shear planes as well. Outcrops typically display secondary cross fractures which are rare in the subsurface, although oblique fractures associated with local structures such as the Hogback monocline may be present in similar subsurface structures. Spacings of the bed-normal extension fractures are approximately equal to or less than the thicknesses of the beds in which they formed, in both outcrop and subsurface. Fracture intensities increase in association with faults, where there is a gradation from intense fracturing into fault breccia. Bioturbation and minimal cementation locally inhibited fracture development in both formations, and the vertical limits of fracture growth are typically at bedding/lithology contrasts. Fracture mineralizations have been largely dissolved or replaced in outcrops, but local examples of preserved mineralization show that the quartz and calcite common to subsurface fractures were originally present in outcrop fractures. North-south trending compressive stresses created by southward indentation of the San Juan dome area (where Precambrian rocks are exposed at an elevation of 14,000 ft) and northward indentation of the Zuni uplift, controlled Laramide-age fracturing. Contemporaneous right-lateral transpressive wrench motion due to northeastward translation of the basin was both

  19. Alteration of magnetite and ilmenite in Upper Jurassic Morrison formation, San Juan basin, New Mexico: relationship to facies and primary uranium mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, N.S.; Peterson, C.E.T.; Reynolds; Reynolds, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    Petrographic studies of outcrop and drill core samples in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation along the southern and western margins of the San Juan basin reveal a close spatial relationship among altered (iron-leached) detrital magnetite and ilmenite (FeTi oxides), depositional facies in the overlying Brushy Basin Member, and distribution of primary uranium deposits. Iron leaching of FeTi oxides resulted from passage of solutions containing soluble organic material; concentrations of this organic material are the sites of the primary uranium ore bodies. Along the southern and western parts of the basin, FeTi oxides typically have been leached in the upper Westwater Member, but are unaltered in the lower Westwater; however, locally, leaching occurred throughout the Westwater. This zone of leaching systematically thins northward to zero, where unleached FeTi oxides occur throughout the Westwater. Regional patterns of alteration of FeTi oxides correspond to regional facies distribution in the overlying Brushy Basin Member. Extensive FeTi oxide leaching characterizes the Westwater beneath the smectite-rich mud-flat facies of the Brushy Basin, whereas negligible leaching characterizes the Westwater beneath the zeolite-rich playa facies of the Brushy Basin. This correspondence between facies and alteration patterns suggests that solutions responsible for solubilization of organic material, which in turn leached FeTi oxides in the Westwater, originated from the mud-flat facies of the Brushy Basin. Organic material that precipitated form these solutions concentrated uranium to form primary uranium ore bodies; therefore, distribution of the Brushy Basin mud-flat facies may define, and restrict, distribution of primary ore bodies in the Westwater.

  20. New geochronologic and stratigraphic evidence confirms the paleocene age of the dinosaur-bearing ojo alamo sandstone and animas formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dinosaur fossils are present in the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and Animas Formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and Colorado. Evidence for the Paleo-cene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone includes palynologic and paleomagnetic data. Palynologic data indicate that the entire Ojo Alamo Sandstone, including the lower dinosaur-bearing part, is Paleocene in age. All of the palynomorph-productive rock samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at multiple localities lacked Creta-ceous index palynomorphs (except for rare, reworked specimens) and produced Paleocene index palynomorphs. Paleocene palynomorphs have been identified strati-graphically below dinosaur fossils at two separate localities in the Ojo Alamo Sand-stone in the central and southern parts of the basin. The Animas Formation in the Colorado part of the basin also contains dinosaur fossils, and its Paleocene age has been established based on fossil leaves and palynology. Magnetostratigraphy provides independent evidence for the Paleocene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone and its dinosaur-bearing beds. Normal-polarity magnetochron C29n (early Paleocene) has been identified in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at six localities in the southern part of the San Juan Basin. An assemblage of 34 skeletal elements from a single hadrosaur, found in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone in the southern San Juan Basin, provided conclusive evidence that this assemblage could not have been reworked from underlying Cretaceous strata. In addition, geochemical studies of 15 vertebrate bones from the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and 15 bone samples from the underlying Kirtland Formation of Late Creta-ceous (Campanian) age show that each sample suite contained distinctly different abundances of uranium and rare-earth elements, indicating that the bones were miner-alized in place soon after burial, and that none of the Paleocene dinosaur bones ana-lyzed had been reworked. ?? U.S. Geological Survey, Public Domain April 2009.

  1. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  2. Multi-Scale Transport Properties of Fine-Grained Rocks: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; McPherson, B. J.; Wilson, T. H.; Flach, T.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding and characterizing transport properties of fine-grained rocks is critical in development of shale gas plays or assessing retention of CO2 at geologic storage sites. Difficulties arise in that both small scale (i.e., ~ nm) properties of the rock matrix and much larger scale fractures, faults, and sedimentological architecture govern migration of multiphase fluids. We present a multi-scale investigation of sealing and transport properties of the Kirtland Formation, which is a regional aquitard and reservoir seal in the San Juan Basin, USA. Sub-micron dual FIB/SEM imaging and reconstruction of 3D pore networks in core samples reveal a variety of pore types, including slit-shaped pores that are co-located with sedimentary structures and variations in mineralogy. Micron-scale chemical analysis and XRD reveal a mixture of mixed-layer smectite/illite, chlorite, quartz, and feldspar with little organic matter. Analysis of sub-micron digital reconstructions, mercury capillary injection pressure, and gas breakthrough measurements indicate a high quality sealing matrix. Natural full and partially mineralized fractures observed in core and in FMI logs include those formed from early soil-forming processes, differential compaction, and tectonic events. The potential impact of both fracture and matrix properties on large-scale transport is investigated through an analysis of natural helium from core samples, 3D seismic data and poro-elastic modeling. While seismic interpretations suggest considerable fracturing of the Kirtland, large continuous fracture zones and faults extending through the seal to the surface cannot be inferred from the data. Observed Kirtland Formation multi-scale transport properties are included as part of a risk assessment methodology for CO2 storage. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory for sponsoring this project. The DOE’s Basic Energy Science

  3. The Relationship Between the Surface Expression of Blind Thrust Faults and Crustal-Scale Deformation in the Eastern Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, C. R.; Meigs, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    Large earthquakes (M w 6.5+) are often accompanied by surface rupture that has a predictable relationship with the magnitude. However, in large thrust earthquakes that have a deep (30+ km) hypocenter or fault tip, coseismic surface deformation is expressed primarily by folding rather than as rupture along the fault surface. Knowledge of source characteristics and surficial geology are required to characterize the relationship between earthquake fault slip and coseismic folding. By fully identifying and characterizing the fault plane of the M w 7.4 earthquake that occurred in 1944 in the eastern Precordillera of the Andes, destroying the city of San Juan in northwestern Argentina, we seek to relate active folding in the near-surface structures to the blind-thrust fault at depth. Coseismic deformation associated with the 1944 earthquake are secondary fault-related folding features, and there is a large discrepancy between the amount of surface rupture and the magnitude. Subtle fold-related clues at the surface represent the only potential for recognition of the occurrence of past earthquakes. This two-part study employs seismology and structural mapping to provide a new image of the Eastern Precordillera at the crustal scale. Source parameter inversion of teleseismic seismograms from the 1944 event place the hypocenter on a west-dipping plane approximately 30 km deep, which has previously been defined by microseismicity, as opposed to a surface-rupturing event in the Neogene sedimentary strata. Preliminary results from field mapping show two types of folding due to a west-dipping thrust fault with a tip at 5 km depth: a broad long-wavelength fold (~8 km) in deformed strath terraces cut into previously deformed bedrock, and short wavelength folding and faulting in the bedrock in the form of reactivation of older thrust planes. As of now, we cannot uniquely tie any one of these surficial structure to the thrust fault at depth because the pre-existing deformation in the

  4. Mineral-Scale Sr and Pb Isotopic Variations as Recorders of Magma Differentiation Processes in the Fish Canyon Magmatic System, San Juan Volcanic Field, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, B. L.; Davidson, J. P.; Bachmann, O.; Dungan, M. A.

    2003-12-01

    The use of crystal isotope microstratigraphy, through microanalysis for Sr and more recently Pb isotopes, shows that inter- and intra-crystalline isotopic and compositional heterogeneities exist within many volcanic rocks. Here we report preliminary Sr and Pb isotope data for sanidine, plagioclase and biotite (Sr only) crystals separated from representative samples of the 5000km3, 28Ma Fish Canyon Tuff and the pre-caldera Pagosa Peak Dacite, from the La Garita Caldera, San Juan Volcanic Field, U.S.A. Age-corrected whole-rock 87Sr/86Sr values define a small range (0.7063 to 0.7065), whereas plagioclase values range from 0.7063 to 0.7072 and sanidines define a more limited range 0.7063 to 0.7067. These ranges in 87Sr/86Sr cannot be solely attributed to radiogenic ingrowth during residence in the Fish Canyon magma reservoir, as the 87Rb/86Sr values (plagioclase; 0.003 to 0.011, sanidine; 0.30 to 0.73) are too low to significantly affect 87Sr/86Sr over magmatic timescales. Biotites exhibit a much greater range in initial Sr isotope ratios (0.7202 to 0.7295), but with even higher 87Rb/86Sr ratios of 8 to 12, more than 50 Myrs would be needed to evolve such ratios from the whole-rock ratio. Similarly, large ranges of Pb isotope ratios in sanidines and plagioclase, cannot be produced given the U/Pb ratios of these phases on any geologically reasonable timescale. We interpret the isotopic variations to represent open system processes in the generation of the Fish Canyon magma either by 1) crystallisation from heterogeneous isotopically modified (ultimately mantle-derived) magmas during interaction with old, heterogeneous crust, and/or 2) the direct incorporation of xenocrystic phases from the crust to produce an isotopically heterogeneous magma (and rock) at the mineral scale. Small but significant variations in 39Ar/40Ar total fusion ages for each of the studied phases, are consistent with the latter interpretation, suggesting that the crystal population is a mixture of

  5. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites on U.S.D.A. Forest Service lands, Mineral Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Field observations, sampling of mine dumps and mine drainage waters, and laboratory studies of dump materials have been made at mining areas deemed to be on public lands administered by the USDA Forest Service in the Mineral Creek watershed. Results of chemical analyses of dump materials, leachates of those materials, and of surface waters draining mines or dumps provide indications of where acid is generated or consumed, and what metals are mobilized below mines or dumps. Information on 25 sites is reviewed and reclamation priorities are ranked into four classes (high, medium, low priority, or no work required). The western side of the upper Animas watershed (the Mineral Creek watershed) has a history of mining and prospecting for about 130 years. The intensity of miningrelated disturbance is higher than in most parts of the San Juan Mountains region, but actually is much less than the eastern half of the watershed (US BLM lands) and none of the mines moved millions of tons of rock and ore as in some of the eastern mines. The majority of the roughly one thousand mining sites on the USFS lands are very small (less than 100 tons or 70 cubic yards of dump material), are more than 2 miles from a major stream, or are so inaccessible as to prohibit reclamation. Twenty five sites have been considered by others to have significant size and potential for significant environmental degradation. These most significant mining areas were evaluated by multiple criteria, including tendency to generate acid or liberate toxic metals, observed acidic pH or dead vegetation (?kill zones?) below dumps or adits, potential mobility of metals, and likelihood of transport into streams of the watershed. In the author?s opinion, no single measurable parameter, such as metal concentration, is reliable for ranking significance or feasibility of reclamation. Rather, subjective estimates are required to evaluate combinations of, or interactions among, several parameters. The most subjective

  6. A geospatial data integration framework for mapping and monitoring tropical landscape diversity in Costa Rica's San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesnie, Steven E.

    Landcover change has substantially reduced the amount of tropical rain forest since the 1950s. Little is known about the extent of remaining forest types. A multivariate analysis of 144 forest plots across Costa Rica's San Juan - La Selva Biological Corridor resulted in eight floristically defined old-growth forest categories. Spectral separability was tested between categories using Landsat TM bands and vegetation indices for old-growth types, palm swamps, tree plantations and regrowth. Image filtering and NDVI increased spectral separability among categories by 30%. Separability tests resulted in seven well-discriminated forest categories. Factors driving forest beta-diversity are not well quantified for wet tropical environments. We examined the relationship between rain forest composition and environmental variation for a 3000 km2 area in northeastern Costa Rica. Mid- to upper-canopy tree species abundance and soil characteristics were measured from 127, 0.25-ha plots across Caribbean lowlands and foothills. Partial Mantel tests produced significant correlations between floristic distance and soil, terrain, and climate variables controlling the effects of geographical distance. Niche-factors showed a significant trend with forest composition more than dispersal limitation or disturbance related factors. Variables such as terrain features, climatic variation and Landsat TM bands associated with forest composition were assessed with two decision tree models. Thirty-two landcover types were compared for a 15-year time interval. Ten were floristic alliances from a cluster analysis of forest plots and wetland categories. A subset of 12 spectral and spatial predictor variables produced accuracies of 93%+/-7% and 83%+/-15% for QUEST and CRUISE classifiers, respectively. The QUEST classifier was accurate for habitat mapping and change detection important to biodiversity monitoring objectives. A 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited

  7. Mass flow in serpentinite-hosted subduction channels: P - T - t path patterns of metamorphic blocks in the Rio San Juan mélange (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, M.; Schertl, H.-P.; Maresch, W. V.; Draper, G.

    2011-09-01

    Serpentinite mélanges formed in the subduction zone channel of an intra-oceanic arc system are exposed in the Rio San Juan complex of northern Hispaniola. This study presents an array of pressure-temperature paths for 14 metamorphic blocks. The P- T paths were constructed from isochemical P- T phase diagrams ("pseudosections") as well as multi-equilibrium calculations on mineral assemblages, providing for the first time the means to compare P- T paths in both time and space. The study involves metabasic, meta-andesitic and metagranitic lithologies. Subduction was slow, so that the uninterrupted thermal development of the subduction zone can be followed over a time span of more than 60 Myr. Early eclogites mirror "warm" subduction zone gradients (˜18°/km); both clockwise and anticlockwise paths are found. The maximum P- T conditions reached are ˜800 °C and 26 kbar, thus indicating sufficient buoyancy for return flow from depths exceeding the stability of serpentine. As the subduction zone matures, P/ T gradients gradually steepen to ˜6°/km, and the maximum depth from which blocks are exhumed decreases in a regular way from 26 to 17 kbar. The exhumed metamorphic products are initially omphacite-bearing blueschists and evolve to jadeite- and lawsonite-bearing blueschists with veins of jadeitite jade. Lawsonite eclogites are not found, because in the latest history of the subduction zone the predominantly basic geochemistry of the blocks evolved to more intermediate compositions inappropriate for this rock type. There are no indications of systematic differences or episodic variations in subduction/exhumation velocities, so that a continuous cycling of material in the subduction zone channel is indicated. In two blocks of eclogite and garnet blueschist an earlier amphibolite-facies history at 575-700 °C and 7-8 kbar can be documented, suggesting erosion of the base of the overlying intra-oceanic island arc. The fossil subduction zone studied in detail here is

  8. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  9. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  10. Water chemistry, seepage investigation, streamflow, reservoir storage, and annual availability of water for the San Juan-Chama Project, northern New Mexico, 1942-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKean, Sarah E.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    The Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority supplements the municipal water supply for the Albuquerque metropolitan area, in central New Mexico, with surface water diverted from the Rio Grande. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, undertook this study in which water-chemistry data and historical streamflow were compiled and new water-chemistry data were collected to characterize the water chemistry and streamflow of the San Juan-Chama Project (SJCP). Characterization of streamflow included analysis of the variability of annual streamflow and comparison of the theoretical amount of water that could have been diverted into the SJCP to the actual amount of water that was diverted for the SJCP. Additionally, a seepage investigation was conducted along the channel between Azotea Tunnel Outlet and the streamflow-gaging station at Willow Creek above Heron Reservoir to estimate the magnitude of the gain or loss in streamflow resulting from groundwater interaction over the approximately 10-mile reach. Generally, surface-water chemistry varied with streamflow throughout the year. Streamflow ranged from high flow to low flow on the basis of the quantity of water diverted from the Rio Blanco, Little Navajo River, and Navajo River for the SJCP. Vertical profiles of the water temperature over the depth of the water column at Heron Reservoir indicated that the reservoir is seasonally stratified. The results from the seepage investigations indicated a small amount of loss of streamflow along the channel. Annual variability in streamflow for the SJCP was an indication of the variation in the climate parameters that interact to contribute to streamflow in the Rio Blanco, Little Navajo River, Navajo River, and Willow Creek watersheds. For most years, streamflow at Azotea Tunnel Outlet started in March and continued for approximately 3 months until the middle of July. The majority of annual streamflow

  11. Detailed study of selenium and selected constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Carole L.; Wilson, R.M.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Shineman, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior began the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) to investigate these concerns at irrigation projects sponsored by the Department. The San Juan River in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Study teams composed of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at 61 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Supplemental data collection conducted during 1991-95 by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its contractor extended the time period and sampling sites available for analysis. Analytical chemistry performed on samples indicated that most potentially toxic elements other than selenium generally were not high enough to be of concern to fish, wildlife, and human health. Element concentrations in some water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples exceeded applicable standards and criteria suggested by researchers in current literature. Selenium concentrations in water samples from 28 sites in the study area exceeded the 2-microgram-per-liter wildlife-habitat standard. Vanadium concentrations in water exceeded the 100-microgram-per-liter standard for livestock-drinking water at one site. In biota, selenium and aluminum concentrations regularly equaled or exceeded avian dietary threshold concentrations. In bottom sediment and soil, element concentrations above the upper limit of the baseline range for western soils were: selenium, 24 exceedances; lead, 2 exceedances; molybdenum, 2 exceedances; strontium, 4 exceedances; and zinc, 4 exceedances. Concentrations of total selenium in bottom-sediment and soil samples were significantly greater for Cretaceous than for non-Cretaceous soil types in the

  12. Neogene geomorphic and climatic evolution of the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado: K/Ar age and stable isotope data on supergene alunite and jarosite from the Creede mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert O.; Bethke, Philip M.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Steven, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    K/Ar age determinations or supergene alunite and jarosite, formed during Neogene weathering of the epithermal silver and base-metal ores of the Creede mining district, have been combined with geologic evidence to estimate the timing of regional uplift of the southern Rocky Mountains and related canyon cutting. In addition, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic studies suggest climate changes in the central San Juan Mountains during the past 5 m.y. Alunite [ideally (K,Na)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6] and jarosite [ideally KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6] can be dated by K/Ar or 40Ar/39Ar techniques and both contain OH and SO4 sites that enable four stable isotope analyses (δD, δ18OOH, and δ34S) to be made. This supergene alunite and jarosite formed by weathering of sulfide-rich ore bodies may record the evolution of the chemical and hydrologic processes affecting ancient oxidized acid ground water, as well as details of climate history and geomorphic evolution. Fine-grained (1-10 μm) supergene alunite and jarosite occur in minor fractures in the upper, oxidized parts of the 25 Ma sulfide-bearing veins of the Creede mining district, and jarosite also occurs in adjacent oxidized Ag-bearing clastic sediments. K/Ar ages for alunite range from 4.8 to 3.1 Ma, and for jarosite range from 2.6 to 0.9 Ma. The δD values for alunite and jarosite show opposite correlations with elevation, and values for jarosite correlate with age. Calculated δDH2O values of alunite fluids approach but are larger than those of present-day meteoric water. Calculated δDH2O values for jarosite fluids are more variable; the values of the youngest jarosites are lowest and are similar to those of present-day meteoric water in the district. The narrow δD-δ18OSO4 values of alunites reflects oxidation of sulfide below the water table. The greater range in these values for jarosites reflects oxidation of sulfide under vadose conditions. The ages of alunite mark the position of the paleo-water table at the end of a period of moderate

  13. Pliocene transpressional modification of depositional basins by convergent thrusting adjacent to the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault: An example from Lockwood Valley, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California is a left stepping flexure in the dextral fault system and has long been recognized as a zone of relatively high transpression compared to adjacent regions. The Lockwood Valley region, just south of the Big Bend, underwent a profound change in early Pliocene time (???5 Ma) from basin deposition to contraction, accompanied by widespread folding and thrusting. This change followed the recently determined initiation of opening of the northern Gulf of California and movement along the southern San Andreas fault at about 6.1 Ma, with the concomitant formation of the Big Bend. Lockwood Valley occupies a 6-km-wide, fault-bounded structural basin in which converging blocks of Paleoproterozoic and Cretaceous crystalline basement and upper Oligocene and lower Miocene sedimentary rocks (Plush Ranch Formation) were thrust over Miocene and Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks (in ascending order, Caliente Formation, Lockwood Clay, and Quatal Formation). All the pre-Quatal sedimentary rocks and most of the Pliocene Quatal Formation were deposited during a mid-Tertiary period of regional transtension in a crustal block that underwent little clockwise vertical-axis rotation as compared to crustal blocks to the south. Ensuing Pliocene and Quaternary transpression in the Big Bend region began during deposition of the poorly dated Quatal Formation and was marked by four converging thrust systems, which decreased the areal extent of the sedimentary basin and formed the present Lockwood Valley structural basin. None of the thrusts appears presently active. Estimated shortening across the center of the basin was about 30 percent. The fortnerly defined eastern Big Pine fault, now interpreted to be two separate, oppositely directed, contractional reverse or thrust faults, marks the northwestern structural boundary of Lockwood Valley. The complex geometry of the Lockwood Valley basin is similar

  14. Geologic map of the Providence Mountains in parts of the Fountain Peak and adjacent 7.5' quadrangles, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Miller, David M.; Stevens, Calvin H.; Rosario, Jose J.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wan, Elmira; Priest, Susan S.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2017-03-22

    IntroductionThe Providence Mountains are in the eastern Mojave Desert about 60 km southeast of Baker, San Bernardino County, California. This range, which is noted for its prominent cliffs of Paleozoic limestone, is part of a northeast-trending belt of mountainous terrain more than 100 km long that also includes the Granite Mountains, Mid Hills, and New York Mountains. Providence Mountains State Recreation Area encompasses part of the range, the remainder of which is within Mojave National Preserve, a large parcel of land administered by the National Park Service. Access to the Providence Mountains is by secondary roads leading south and north from Interstate Highways 15 and 40, respectively, which bound the main part of Mojave National Preserve.The geologic map presented here includes most of Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and land that surrounds it on the north, west, and south. This area covers most of the Fountain Peak 7.5′ quadrangle and small adjacent parts of the Hayden quadrangle to the north, the Columbia Mountain quadrangle to the northeast, and the Colton Well quadrangle to the east. The map area includes representative outcrops of most of the major geologic elements of the Providence Mountains, including gneissic Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, a thick overlying sequence of Neoproterozoic to Triassic sedimentary rocks, Jurassic rhyolite that intrudes and overlies the sedimentary rocks, Jurassic plutons and associated dikes, Miocene volcanic rocks, and a variety of Quaternary surficial deposits derived from local bedrock units. The purpose of the project was to map the area in detail, with primary emphasis on the pre-Quaternary units, to provide an improved stratigraphic, structural, and geochronologic framework for use in land management applications and scientific research.

  15. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  16. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  17. Paleogene and Neogene magmatism in the Valle del Cura region: New perspective on the evolution of the Pampean flat slab, San Juan province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella; Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg

    2007-09-01

    The Valle del Cura region is characterized by a thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sequence that records the Tertiary arc and backarc magmatic evolution of the Argentine Main Cordillera over the modern Pampean flatslab at 29.5-30°S. During the Eocene, a retroarc basin developed, represented by the Valle del Cura Formation synorogenic volcanosedimentary sequence, which includes rhyolites and dacitic tuffs. These silicic volcanic rocks have weak arc chemical signatures and high lithophile element concentrations and are isotopically enriched relative to the late Oligocene-early Miocene volcanic rocks that followed them. Their chemical characteristics fit with eruption through a thin crust. The Valle de Cura Formation was followed by the Oligocene-early Miocene Doña Ana Group volcanic sequence, which erupted at and near the arc front west of the border with Chile. The Doña Ana Group volcanic rocks have calc-alkaline chemical characteristics consistent with parental magmas forming in a mantle wedge and erupting through a normal thickness crust (35 km). Subsequent shallowing of the downgoing Nazca plate caused the volcanic front to migrate eastward. The volcanic sequences of the middle Miocene Cerro de las Tórtolas Formation erupted at this new arc front, essentially at the Argentine border. Two stages are recognized: an older one (16-14 Ma) in which magmas appear to have erupted through a normal thickness crust (30-35 km) and a younger one (13-10 Ma) in which the steeper REE pattern suggests the magmas last equilibrated with higher pressure residual mineral assemblages in a thicker crust. Isotopic ratios in the younger group are consistent with an increase in original crustal components and crust introduced into the mantle source by forearc subduction erosion. A peak in forearc subduction erosion near 12-10 Ma is consistent with when the main part of the Juan Fernandez Ridge began to subduct beneath the region. In addition to late Miocene Tambo Formation dacitic

  18. Geologic controls on transgressive-regressive cycles in the upper Pictured Cliffs sandstone and coal geometry in the lower Fruitland Formation, Northern San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.A.; Ayers, W.B.

    2007-08-15

    Three upper Pictured Cliffs Sandstone tongues in the northern part of the San Juan Basin record high-frequency transgressive episodes during the Late Cretaceous and are inferred to have been caused by eustatic sea level rise coincident with differential subsidence. Outcrop and subsurface studies show that each tongue is an amalgamated barrier strand-plain unit up to 100 ft (30 m) thick. Upper Pictured Cliffs barrier strand-plain sandstones underlie and bound thickest Fruitland coal seams on the seaward side. Controls on Fruitland coal-seam thickness and continuity are a function of local facies distribution in a coastal-plain setting, shoreline positions related to transgressive-regressive cycles, and basin subsidence. During periods of relative sea level rise, the Pictured Cliffs shoreline was temporarily stabilized, allowing thick, coastal-plain peats to accumulate. Although some coal seams in the lower Fruitland tongue override abandoned Pictured Cliffs shoreline deposits, many pinch out against them. Differences in the degree of continuity of these coal seams relative to coeval shoreline sandstones are attributed to either differential subsidence in the northern part of the basin, multiple episodes of sea level rise, local variations in accommodation and progradation, stabilization of the shoreline by aggrading peat deposits, or a combination of these factors. Fruitland coalbed methane resources and productivity are partly controlled by coal-seam thickness; other important factors include thermal maturity, fracturing, and overpressuring. The dominant production trend occurs in the northern part of the basin and is oriented northwestward, coinciding with the greatest Fruitland net coal thickness.

  19. 6. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1892. DISTANT VIEW OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1892. DISTANT VIEW OF SAN JUAN SMELTING AND MINING COMPANY WORKS WITH EXTANT SMELTER STACK AT LEFT. (Original print in possession of Strater Hotel, Durango, Colorado. Photographer unknown.) - San Juan & New York Mining & Smelting Company, Smelter Stack, State Route 160, Durango, La Plata County, CO

  20. General hydrogeology of the aquifers of Mesozoic age, Upper Colorado River Basin - excluding the San Juan Basin - Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Freethey, G.W.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Hood, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Stratigraphic, hydraulic, and water-level data obtained from water-well and petroleum test-hole records indicate that the Mesozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin include many potential aquifers. Structural deformation during late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic time caused large parts of the most productive aquifers to be removed by erosion; other parts are deeply buried by younger deposits. Three hydrogeologic units include aquifers. The lower unit consists of the Moenkopi and Chinle Formations. The middle unit consists of the Glen Canyon Group, the San Rafael Group, and the Morrison Formation; all containing sandstone aquifers. The Glen Canyon Group is only partly saturated where it crops out. It may contain from 600 to 1200 million acre-feet of drainable water in storage, but only a fraction is feasibly recoverable. The upper unit consists of two aquifer systems, the Mesaverde and Dakota systems, separated by a confining system, the Mancos Shale. Primary hydraulic-conductivity values are characteristically less than 10 feet per day. Fracturing increases hydraulic conductivity values near land surface; however, the thicker the overburden, the less likely the effect of this secondary permeability factor. The large volume rather than permeability of saturated rock accounts for the favorable water-supply potential of the Mesozoic age formations. . Where the middle hydrogeologic unit occurs near the surface or only at shallow depths it contains fresh to slightly saline water. Where deeply buried it contains water with concentrations of dissolved solids greater than 35,000 milligrams per liter (brine). The Mesaverde Group also contains water of varying quality; however, the sandstone lenses that contain usable water supplies are only locally continuous. Where the formation is deeply buried, it contains brine. 16 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Metamorphic evolution of migmatites from the deep Famatinian arc crust exposed in Sierras Valle Fértil La Huerta, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otamendi, J. E.; Tibaldi, A. M.; Vujovich, G. I.; Viñao, G. A.

    2008-05-01

    Meta-supracrustal migmatitic packages in the Sierras Valle Fértil-La Huerta of northwestern Argentina occur as wedge- or strip-shaped septa interlayered among mafic to intermediate igneous plutonic rocks. Meta-supracrustal rocks were metamorphosed under granulite-facies conditions during the development of the Famatinian magmatic arc, and are among the structurally deepest rocks exposed within the belt dominated by Ordovician plutonism. Petrographic analysis, mineral chemistry and whole rock geochemistry of granulite-facies migmatites are used to argue that the meta-supracrustal packages comprise a sequence of pelitic to quartzo-feldspathic sedimentary rocks that achieved peak metamorphic P- T conditions of 5.2-7.1 kbar and 770-840 °C. There are no resolvable differences in peak P- T conditions for migmatites separated 70 km along strike of the Sierras Valle Fértil and La Huerta, suggesting that similar levels of the Famatinian paleo-arc crust are currently exposed in these ranges. Idioblastic poikilitic garnets displaying weak to absent chemical zoning profiles developed at or close to the peak metamorphic stage are used in conjunction with petrogenetic grid constraints to interpret the prograde evolution. At the time the supracrustal rocks experienced maximum thermal conditions, they underwent dehydration partial melting. Microtextural features show that felsic melt (leucosome) back reacted with the adjacent coexisting mineral assemblage (mesosome). These observations are interpreted as evidence that the migmatites evolved through a continuous heating-cooling cycle with minor pressure change. This is consistent with the general lack of reaction textures denoting decompression at high temperatures, and with the possibility that in some migmatites retrograde reactions formed staurolite. Collectively, these features indicate that when the migmatites attained peak thermal conditions, the deepest exposed arc crust was about 20-25 km beneath the Ordovician surface

  2. Case-case study of factors associated to hMLH1, hMSH2, and hMSH6 protein expression among endometrial cancer patients of the University District Hospital of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    González, Lorena; Ortiz, Ana P.; Suárez, Erick; Umpierre, Sharee; Marcos, Maria J.; Billoch, Jorge; Joy, Leilani; Charneco, Eileen; Lacourt, Mercedes Y.; Bernabe-Dones, Raúl D.; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system deficiencies. Women affected by LS present a 40 to 60% lifetime risk of endometrial cancer (EC). Objective This case-case study aims to determine the frequency of the hMLH1, hMSH2, and hMSH6 MMR proteins and the factors (age, family history of cancer [FHC] related to LS, and body mass index [BMI]) associated to their absence in EC patients attending the University District Hospital of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Method/Materials Twenty cases were preliminary evaluated for the MMR protein expression by immunohistochemistry testing and classified as positive-cases (presence of protein) or negative-cases (absence of protein). The statistical analysis was based on the logistic regression model using the Maximum Likelihood estimation (MLE). The Bayesian approach was used to determine the posterior probability {posterior Pr[OR>1]}. Results Results showed absence for at least one MMR protein in 25% of the cases; 15% for hMLH1 and 10% for hMSH2. None of the cases showed an absence for hMSH6. The MLE demonstrated that women diagnosed with EC before the age of 50 (OR: 12.4; 95%CI = 0.5–322.7), having FHC related to LS (OR: 17.7; 95%CI = 0.6–534.6), and having lower BMI (OR: 2.38; 95%CI = 0.39–14.28) present higher odds than their counterparts of lacking an MMR protein, once adjusting for potential predictors (p > .05). The posterior probability that an excess risk of lacking an MMR protein occurs was ≥ 95% for each predictor. Conclusion Our study in this Hispanic population supports previous studies in that younger age, FHC, and lower BMI are associated with increased odds of having an absence of MMR protein expression. Further studies with larger sample sizes should be performed. PMID:22635031

  3. Subduction of fore-arc crust beneath an intra-oceanic arc: The high-P Cuaba mafic gneisess and amphibolites of the Rio San Juan Complex, Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Castillo-Carrión, Mercedes

    2016-10-01

    The Rio San Juan metamorphic complex (RSJC) exposes a segment of a high-P accretionary prism, built during Late Cretaceous subduction below the intra-oceanic Caribbean island-arc. In this paper we present new detailed maps, tectonostratigraphy, large-scale structure, mineral chemistry, in situ trace element composition of clinopyroxene (Cpx), and bulk rock geochemical data for representative garnet-free peridotites and mafic metaigneous rocks of the Cuaba and Helechal tectonometamorphic units of the southern RSJC. The Cuaba subcomplex is composed of upper foliated amphibolites and lower garnet amphibolites, retrograded (coronitic) eclogites, and heterogeneous metagabbros metamorphosed to upper amphibolite and eclogite-facies conditions. The lenticular bodies of associated peridotites are Cpx-poor harzburgites. The underlying Helechal subcomplex is composed of Cpx-poor harzburgites, Cpx-rich harzbugites, lherzolites and rare dunites. The presented data allow us to argue that the Cuaba subcomplex: (a) represents tectonically deformed and metamorphosed crust of the Caribbean island-arc, (b) contains fragments of its supra-subduction zone mantle, and (c) includes different geochemical groups of mafic protoliths generated by varying melting degrees of diverse mantle sources. These geochemical groups include mid-Ti tholeiites (N-MORB), normal IAT and calc-alkaline rocks, low-Ti IAT, metacumulates of boninitic affinity, and HREE-depleted IAT, that collectively record a multi-stage magmatic evolution for the Caribbean island-arc, prior to the Late Cretaceous high-P metamorphism. Further, these mafic protoliths present comparable geochemical features to mafic igneous rocks of the Puerca Gorda Schists, Cacheal and Puerto Plata complexes, all of them related to the Caribbean island-arc. These relations suggest that the southern RSJC complex represents part of the subducted fore-arc of the Caribbean island-arc, which experienced initial subduction, underplating below the arc

  4. San Juan Islands National Conservation Area Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Cantwell, Maria [D-WA

    2011-09-14

    03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. San Juan Mountains Wilderness Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Mark [D-CO

    2011-09-26

    03/22/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-642. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. San Juan Mountains Wilderness Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Mark [D-CO

    2009-11-10

    04/28/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Utilization by fishes of the Alviso Island ponds and adjacent waters in south san francisco bay following restoration to tidal influence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Mejia, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Earthen levees of three isolated salt ponds known locally as the Alviso Island Ponds were intentionally breached in March 2006 to allow tidal exchange of the ponds with water from Coyote Creek. The water exchange transformed the previously fishless hypersaline ponds into lower salinity habitats suitable for fish life. This study documented fish utilization of the ponds, adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek, and an upstream reach in nearby Artesian Slough during May-July 2006. By the time the study was initiated, water quality conditions in the ponds were similar to conditions in adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek. The only variable exhibiting a strong gradient within the study area was salinity, which increased progressively from upstream to downstream in Coyote Creek. A total of 4,034 fish represented by 18 species from 14 families was caught during the study. Judging from cluster analysis of presence-absence data that excluded rare fish species, the 10 sampling units (3 ponds, 6 reaches in Coyote Creek, and 1 reach in Artesian Slough) formed two clusters or groups, suggesting two species assemblages. The existence of two groups was also suggested by ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). One group, which was composed of the three ponds and four of the lowermost reaches of Coyote Creek, was characterized by mostly estuarine or marine species (e.g., topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax; and longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis). The second group, which was composed of the two uppermost reaches of Coyote Creek and the one reach of Artesian Slough, was characterized by freshwater species (e.g., Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis) and by an absence of the estuarine/marine species noted in the first assemblage. Judging from a joint plot of selected water quality variables overlaying the ordination results, salinity was the only important variable associated with spatial distribution of fish species. Water

  8. Public Library Service for San Benito County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Gail

    A sparsely populated, agricultural area, San Benito County (California) provides library services in conjunction with the Hollister city library and in cooperation with the San Juan Bautista city library. Financing comes from the county general fund. There are no written goals or policy statements and no professionally trained librarians. As…

  9. Divergent Ridge Features on the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, M. E.; Sautter, L.; Steele, M.

    2014-12-01

    Multibeam data collected using a Kongsberg EM122 sonar system on the NOAA ship R/V Marcus G. Langseth led by chief scientist Douglas Toomey (University of Oregon) in 2009 and with a Simrad EM302 sonar system on two NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer cruises led by chief scientists James Gardner (University of New Hampshire) and Catalina Martinez (University of Rhode Island) in 2009 show the morphology of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges, as well as the Blanco and Mendocino Fracture Zones. These ridges and fracture zones comprise the divergent plate boundary of the eastern edge of the Pacific Plate and the western edges of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Plates. Both plates are being subducted beneath the western edge of the North American Plate. CARIS HIPS 8.1 software was used to process the multibeam data and create bathymetric images. The ridge axes, located off the coast of Washington and Oregon (USA) adjacent to the Cascadia Basin, indicate obvious signs of spreading, due to the series of faults and rocky ridges aligned parallel to the plate boundaries. Fault and ridge orientations are used to compare the direction of seafloor spreading, and indicate that both the Juan de Fuca Plate and Gorda Plate are spreading in a southeastern direction. Younger ridges from the Gorda Ridge system mapped in the study run parallel to the boundary, however older ridges do not show the same orientation, indicating a change in spreading direction. The presence of hydrothermal vents along the Juan de Fuca Ridge is also evidence of the active boundary, as the vent chimneys are composed of minerals and metals precipitated from the hot water heated by magma from beneath the spreading seafloor. In this study, the data are used to compare and contrast earthquake seismicity and ridge morphologies at a depth range of approximately 762 to 2134 meters. The diverging Pacific, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda Plates along with the San Andreas Fault have potential to increase seismic and volcanic activity around

  10. Timing of deformational events in the Río San Juan complex: Implications for the tectonic controls on the exhumation of high-P rocks in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Valverde-Vaquero, Pablo; Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Gabites, Janet; Castillo-Carrión, Mercedes; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés

    2013-09-01

    An integrated structural, petrological and geochronological study was undertaken to constrain the tectonic history and controls on the exhumation of the high-P rocks of the Río San Juan complex in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary wedge. In the main structural units of the complex, microtextural analyses were performed to identify the fabrics formed at peak of metamorphism in eclogite-facies conditions and during the main retrogressive event toward the low-P amphibolite or blueschist/greenschist-facies conditions. U-Pb SHRIMP dating on zircon rims (71.3 ± 0.7 Ma) coupled with 40Ar-39Ar analyses on phengite (~ 70-69 Ma) in felsic sills placed temporal constraints on the exhumation of the Jagua Clara serpentinite-matrix mélange during the blueschist-facies stage at the early Maastrichtian. In the Cuaba unit, U-Pb TIMS zircon ages of 89.7 ± 0.1 Ma and 90.1 ± 0.2 Ma obtained for the crystallization of tonalitic/trondhjemitic melts in the lower Guaconejo and upper Jobito subunits, respectively, are similar. These ages coupled with a U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 87 ± 1.8 Ma obtained in a garnet amphibolite and a group of older 40Ar-39Ar cooling ages on calcic amphibole constrain the exhumation of the Guaconejo subunit from the high-P stage to the low-P stage at the ~ 90-83 Ma time interval. Further, the age data collectively supports a genetic relationship between the distributed extensional ductile shearing, the related decompression and the local partial anatexis in the subunit, at least from the Turonian-Coniacian boundary to the early Campanian. A group of younger 40Ar-39Ar ages obtained in the mylonitized amphibolites of the basal Jobito detachment zone indicates late ductile deformation and exhumation/cooling in the late Campanian to Maastrichtian (~ 75-70 Ma). Therefore, structural and age data established deformation partitioning and reworking of retrograde fabrics during ~ 20 Ma in the Cuaba unit. The different exhumation rates obtained for the

  11. The great San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nason, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Seventy-five years ago on April 18, 1906, the most devastating earthquake in United States history occurred in northern California. This earthquake, which occurred at 5:2 in the morning just as the dawn was breaking, came from rupture of the San Andreas fault from San Juan Bautista (near Hollister) northqard for 270 miles to the coast near Eureka. Buildings were damaged everywhere in this region, for a north-south distance of 370 miles, from Arcata to Salinas, and an east-west width of 50 miles inland from the coast. The larger cities of San Francisco, Sna Jose, and Santa Rosa suffered the msot severe damage. 

  12. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., preliminary management options, and an invitation to the public open house meetings. The open house public... questions. Public use changes include prohibiting pets on all Refuge lands and closing some areas on...

  13. 76 FR 19781 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    .... Local Library or Libraries: The documents are also available for review at the libraries listed under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin Ryan, Project Leader, 360-457- 8451, kevin_ryan@fws.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Introduction With this notice, we finalize the CCP...

  14. 78 FR 35593 - Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San Juan Harbor; San Juan, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Information The current regulations under 33 CFR 100 address safety for reoccurring marine events. This marine... safety of life in a regatta or marine parade, this marine event needs to be temporarily added. C. Basis... ensure the safety of race participants, participant vessels, spectators, and the general public...

  15. Remembering Juan Navia.

    PubMed

    Dasanayake, A P; Li, Y; Maetz, H M; Vermund, S H

    2013-10-01

    Juan Navia died on September 4, 2010. Those who knew him as the director of the University of Alabama's John J. Sparkman Center for International Public Health Education and later the dean of UAB School of Public Health watched him train and shape the next generation of global public health leaders with a kind heart and a firm, but gentle, hand. On this third anniversary of Professor Navia's passing, in response to an invitation from the Journal of Dental Research to write an essay on an educator who influenced the professional trajectories of many people, we have put together an account of some of his contributions and attributes to highlight this remarkable leader's accomplishments in and impact on dental public health and global nutrition.

  16. Conversation with Juan Carlos Negrete.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Juan Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Juan Carlos Negrete is Emeritus Professor of Psychiatry, McGill University; Founding Director, Addictions Unit, Montreal General Hospital; former President, Canadian Society of Addiction Medicine; and former WHO/PAHO Consultant on Alcoholism, Drug Addiction and Mental Health.

  17. EDITORIAL: `Bridging Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Observational Astrophysics', Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13) (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009), sponsored by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville and The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center `Bridging Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Observational Astrophysics', Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13) (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009), sponsored by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville and The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Mario; Jenet, Fredrick; Mohanty, Soumya

    2009-10-01

    The 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop took place in San Juan, Puerto Rico on the 19-22 January 2009. This annual event has become the established venue for presenting and discussing new results and techniques in this crucial subfield of gravitational wave astronomy. A major attraction of the event is that scientists working with all possible instruments gather to discuss their projects and report on the status of their observations. The Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy at the University of Texas at Brownsville, USA (a National Aeronautics and Space Administration University Research Center and a National Science Foundation Center for Research Excellence in Science and Technology) jointly with the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (which operates the Arecibo Observatory) were the proud sponsors of the gathering this time. As in previous years, GWDAW13 was well attended by more than 100 participants from over 10 countries worldwide As this issue is going to press GEO, LIGO and VIRGO are undergoing new scientific runs of their instruments with the LIGO detectors holding the promise of increasing their operational sensitivity twofold as compared with the observations finished a couple of years ago. This new cycle of observations is a major milestone compared to the previous observations which have been accomplished. Gravitational waves have not been observed yet, but the instrumental sensitivity achieved has started producing relevant astrophysical results. In particular, very recently (Nature, 20 August 2009) a letter from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration http://www.ligo.org and the VIRGO Collaboration http://www.virgo.infn.it has set the most stringent limits yet on the amount of gravitational waves that could have come from the Big Bang in the gravitational wave frequency band where current gravitational wave detectors can observe. These results have put new constraints on the physical characteristics of the early universe. The proximity

  18. Counseling According to don Juan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvino, Charles J.; Lee, James L.

    1975-01-01

    This article specifies a number of precepts put forth by don Juan, a Yaqui Indian sorcerer. It also outlines the consequences of each precept for counselors. The intent is to facilitate the emergence of a new reality for counseling and other helping professions. (Author/BW)

  19. Ground water recharge to the aquifers of northern San Luis Valley, Colorado: A remote sensing investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Huntley, D.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground water recharge to the aquifers of San Luis Valley west of San Luis Creek was primarily from ground water flow in the volcanic aquifers of the San Juan Mountains. The high permeability and anisotropic nature of the volcanic rocks resulted in very little contrast in flow conditions between the San Juan Mountains and San Luis Valley. Ground water recharge to aquifers of eastern San Luis Valley was primarily from stream seepage into the upper reaches of the alluvial fans at the base of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. The use of photography and thermal infrared imagery resulted in a savings of time and increase in accuracy in regional hydrogeologic studies. Volcanic rocks exhibited the same spectral reflectance curve as sedimentary rocks, with only the absolute magnitude of reflectance varying. Both saline soils and vegetation were used to estimate general ground water depths.

  20. EnerVest San Juan Operations, Title V Applicability Determination

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-02-26

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

  2. PRODUCTION ANALYSIS: CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr.

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  3. Electrical resistivity surveys in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougal, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of naturally occurring and mining related metals to Cement Creek, a tributary of the upper Animas River in southwestern Colorado. Efforts to improve water quality in the watershed have focused on Prospect Gulch because many of its abandoned mines and are located on federal lands. Information on sources and pathways of metals, and related ground-water flow, will be useful to help prioritize and develop remediation strategies. It has been shown that the occurrence of sulfate, aluminum, iron, zinc and other metals associated with historical mining and the natural weathering of pyritic rock is substantial. In this study, direct current resistivity surveys were conducted to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution and to identify faults and fractures that may act as ground-water conduits or barriers to flow. Five lines of resistivity data were collected in the vicinity of Prospect Gulch, and cross-section profiles were constructed from the field data using a two-dimensional inversion algorithm. The conductive anomalies in the profiles are most likely caused by wet or saturated rocks and sediments, clay rich deposits, or high TDS ground water. Resistive anomalies are likely bedrock, dry surficial and sub-surface deposits, or deposits of ferricrete.

  4. 33 CFR 165.1102 - Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Naval Base Point... Guard District § 165.1102 Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: The water adjacent to the Naval Base Point Loma, San...

  5. Order Responding to Petition to Ojbject to Title V Permit for San Juan Generating Station, San Juan County, New Mexico

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. 78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Project Final Environmental Impact Statement and Proposed California Desert Conservation Area Plan... Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan Amendment and Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the San... governments. Copies are also available in the BLM California Desert District Office at 22835 Calle San Juan...

  7. The San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay area, California: a geology fieldtrip guidebook to selected stops on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    This guidebook contains a series of geology fieldtrips with selected destinations along the San Andreas Fault in part of the region that experienced surface rupture during the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Introductory materials present general information about the San Andreas Fault System, landscape features, and ecological factors associated with faults in the South Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Point Reyes National Seashore regions. Trip stops include roadside areas and recommended hikes along regional faults and to nearby geologic and landscape features that provide opportunities to make casual observations about the geologic history and landscape evolution. Destinations include the sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in the San Juan Bautista and Hollister region. Stops on public land along the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties include in the Loma Prieta summit area, Forest of Nicene Marks State Park, Lexington County Park, Sanborn County Park, Castle Rock State Park, and the Mid Peninsula Open Space Preserve. Destinations on the San Francisco Peninsula and along the coast in San Mateo County include the Crystal Springs Reservoir area, Mussel Rock Park, and parts of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, with additional stops associated with the San Gregorio Fault system at Montara State Beach, the James F. Fitzgerald Preserve, and at Half Moon Bay. Field trip destinations in the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity provide information about geology and character of the San Andreas Fault system north of San Francisco.

  8. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... their 21 gun salute in accordance with the military tradition of vessel proving that it is unarmed upon... associated with the 21 gun salute near the Bar Channel entrance, and to protect the high ranking officials on... El Cano and 21 gun salute. The outbound escort is scheduled to take place on Wednesday, April...

  9. 77 FR 73311 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... waters of San Francisco Bay adjacent to the City of San Francisco waterfront in the vicinity of the... access to pier space and facilities along the City of San Francisco waterfront and to minimize other...-September 23, 2013). An image illustrating the location of the transit zone is available in the docket....

  10. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  11. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  12. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  13. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  14. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Palma, Alvaro T.; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures. PMID:26734732

  15. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gaymer, Carlos F; Palma, Alvaro T; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures.

  16. Forecasting the Next Great San Francisco Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, P.; Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Yakovlev, G.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2005-12-01

    The great San Francisco earthquake of 18 April 1906 and its subsequent fires killed more than 3,000 persons, and destroyed much of the city leaving 225,000 out of 400,000 inhabitants homeless. The 1906 earthquake occurred on a km segment of the San Andreas fault that runs from the San Juan Bautista north to Cape Mendocino and is estimated to have had a moment magnitude m ,l 7.9. Observations of surface displacements across the fault were in the range m. As we approach the 100 year anniversary of this event, a critical concern is the hazard posed by another such earthquake. In this talk we examine the assumptions presently used to compute the probability of occurrence of these earthquakes. We also present the results of a numerical simulation of interacting faults on the San Andreas system. Called Virtual California, this simulation can be used to compute the times, locations and magnitudes of simulated earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in the vicinity of San Francisco. Of particular importance are new results for the statistical distribution of interval times between great earthquakes, results that are difficult or impossible to obtain from a purely field-based approach. We find that our results are fit well under most circumstances by the Weibull statistical distribution, and we compute waiting times to future earthquakes based upon our simulation results. A contrasting approach to the same problem has been adopted by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, who use observational data combined with statistical assumptions to compute probabilities of future earthquakes.

  17. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAM JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-08-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps.

  18. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  19. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  20. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  1. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  2. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  3. Don Juan and the vision of Vision.

    PubMed

    Smith, C U

    1981-01-01

    Castaneda's well-known sequence of Don Juan books is used as a paradigmatic example of the relativist position. Central to Don Juan's teaching is the problem of perception: the main task, he constantly reiterates, is simply to 'see', to recognise that the commonsense world we customarily perceive is nothing more than a cultural construct. To combat this thoroughgoing relativism a case study is taken from the early history of visual science. In classical antiquity several fundamentally different 'views' (to use Don Juan's term) of how we see contended for approval. It was only at the beginning of the seventeenth century that the 'modern' interpretation was selected. This interpretation was selected, ultimately, because it 'worked'. Reference is made to both Wittgenstein and Marx to support this appeal to praxis. It is argued that through an intricate, complex, and ill-understood process of popularisation our self-image is ultimately grounded in the theories of natural science; and these, in turn, are ultimately grounded in our action in the world of things.

  4. San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge Well 10

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Easterly, C.E.; Ketelle, R.H.; Quarles, H.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), at the request of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the water production capacity of an artesian well in the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona. Water from the well initially flows into a pond containing three federally threatened or endangered fish species, and water from this pond feeds an adjacent pond/wetland containing an endangered plant species.

  5. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385 Section 80.1385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of...

  6. Juan's Dilemma: A New Twist on the Old Lemon Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Vanessa; Sorey, Timothy; Balandova, Evguenia; Palmquist, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    When life hands you lemons, make a battery! In this article, the authors describe an activity they refer to as "Juan's Dilemma," an extension of the familiar lemon-battery activity (Goodisman 2001). Juan's Dilemma integrates oxidation and reduction chemistry with circuit theory in a fun, real-world exercise. The authors designed this activity for…

  7. Depth to the Juan De Fuca slab beneath the Cascadia subduction margin - a 3-D model for sorting earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, Patricia A.; Blair, J. Luke; Oppenheimer, David H.; Walter, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    We present an updated model of the Juan de Fuca slab beneath southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and northern California, and use this model to separate earthquakes occurring above and below the slab surface. The model is based on depth contours previously published by Fluck and others (1997). Our model attempts to rectify a number of shortcomings in the original model and update it with new work. The most significant improvements include (1) a gridded slab surface in geo-referenced (ArcGIS) format, (2) continuation of the slab surface to its full northern and southern edges, (3) extension of the slab surface from 50-km depth down to 110-km beneath the Cascade arc volcanoes, and (4) revision of the slab shape based on new seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction studies. We have used this surface to sort earthquakes and present some general observations and interpretations of seismicity patterns revealed by our analysis. For example, deep earthquakes within the Juan de Fuca Plate beneath western Washington define a linear trend that may mark a tear within the subducting plate Also earthquakes associated with the northern stands of the San Andreas Fault abruptly terminate at the inferred southern boundary of the Juan de Fuca slab. In addition, we provide files of earthquakes above and below the slab surface and a 3-D animation or fly-through showing a shaded-relief map with plate boundaries, the slab surface, and hypocenters for use as a visualization tool.

  8. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  9. [The Hospital of the people of San Marcos. First in Aguascalientes, Mexico].

    PubMed

    López de la Peña, Xavier A

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, the major hospital of San Juan de Dios has been historically considered the first hospital in Aguascalientes,Mexico, founded on 1685. However, in this paper we report that the Hospital of the people of San Marcos, in operation at least since 1630, was really the first hospital in the state in functions and which services to the needy population continued until today’s last notice, as of 1728. As evidence, we offer various first-hand documentary sources obtained in different archive files, which give credit to this modest charity institution. The aforementioned for the memory and pride of the history of health care in Aguascalientes and Mexico.

  10. Irregular Recurrence of Large Earthquakes along the San Andreas Fault: Evidence from Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Gordon C.; Sheppard, Paul R.; Sieh, Kerry E.

    1988-07-01

    Old trees growing along the San Andreas fault near Wrightwood, California, record in their annual ring-width patterns the effects of a major earthquake in the fall or winter of 1812 to 1813. Paleoseismic data and historical information indicate that this event was the ``San Juan Capistrano'' earthquake of 8 December 1812, with a magnitude of 7.5. The discovery that at least 12 kilometers of the Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault ruptured in 1812, only 44 years before the great January 1857 rupture, demonstrates that intervals between large earthquakes on this part of the fault are highly variable. This variability increases the uncertainty of forecasting destructive earthquakes on the basis of past behavior and accentuates the need for a more fundamental knowledge of San Andreas fault dynamics.

  11. 33 CFR 165.1131 - Security Zone: Wilson Cove, San Clemente Island, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Clemente Island, California. 165.1131 Section 165.1131 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1131 Security Zone: Wilson Cove, San Clemente Island, California. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: The water area adjacent to San Clemente Island, California within 1.5...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1131 - Security Zone: Wilson Cove, San Clemente Island, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Clemente Island, California. 165.1131 Section 165.1131 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1131 Security Zone: Wilson Cove, San Clemente Island, California. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: The water area adjacent to San Clemente Island, California within 1.5...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1131 - Security Zone: Wilson Cove, San Clemente Island, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Clemente Island, California. 165.1131 Section 165.1131 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1131 Security Zone: Wilson Cove, San Clemente Island, California. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: The water area adjacent to San Clemente Island, California within 1.5...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1131 - Security Zone: Wilson Cove, San Clemente Island, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Clemente Island, California. 165.1131 Section 165.1131 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1131 Security Zone: Wilson Cove, San Clemente Island, California. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: The water area adjacent to San Clemente Island, California within 1.5...

  15. Fractal geometry in the San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Paul G.; Aki, Keiiti

    1987-01-01

    It has been noted that the spatial distribution of earthquakes and the mode of strain release in the San Andreas fault system is related to the complexity of fault geometry. Because of their rough appearance over many length scales, faults can be regarded as fractal surfaces. Direct estimates of fractal dimension D of portions of the San Andreas fault system between the northern Gabilan Range and the Salton Sea, including the postulated extent of the great 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, are obtained from measured fault lengths, analogous to the lengths of coastlines as discussed by Mandelbrot. Regions characterized by complicated fault geometry are associated with larger values of D. Based on fault traces mapped at a scale of 1:750,000, D is 1.3 for this reach of the fault defined as a 30-km-wide band about a main fault trace. For that part near Parkfield which could be associated with the nucleation of the 1857 earthquake, D is 1.1; at this same scale, D is 1.4 for the San Andreas and related faults near San Bernardino where the 1857 rupture stopped, compared to 1.2 for the San Andreas-San Juan fault segments near the point of arrest of the 1966 Parkfield earthquake. At finer map scales (1:24,000 and 1:62,500) critical lengths of ˜ 500 m and 1 km are identified which might relate to the extent of off-San Andreas fault offsets. The critical lengths also suggest that fault geometry is not self-similar. If this fractal geometry persists through the seismic cycle, it may be possible to use a quantitative measure of complexity to explain the occurrence of great and characteristic earthquakes along a given reach of fault.

  16. Model Simulations of Waves in Hurricane Juan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrie, W.; Toulany, B.; Padilla-Hernandez, R.; Hu, Y.; Smith, P.; Zhang, W.; Zou, Q.; Ren, X.

    2004-05-01

    Hurricane Juan made landfall at 0300 UTC near Halifax Nova Scotia. This was a category 2 hurricane with winds of 44 m/s, the largest storm to pass over these coastal areas in several decades. Associated high ocean waves were experienced in coastal waters, from Peggy's Cove to Sheet Harbour, growing to epic proportions on the Scotian Shelf, and exceeding the 100-year return wave based on the present climatology. As part of the GoMOOS program (Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System, www.gomoos.org), winds from the USA Navy COAMPS (Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model Prediction System) were used to evaluate and compare three widely-used third generation numerical wave models, SWAN, WAM and WaveWatch-III (hereafter WW3) for accuracy, with in situ measurements. Model comparisons consist of a set of composite model systems, respectively nesting WAM, WW3 and SWAN in WAM and WW3. We report results from the intermediate-resolution grid for Hurricane Juan. Wave measurements were made using four operational deep-water buoys (C44258, C44142, C44137, 44005), by a conventional directional wave rider (DWR) moored offshore from Lunenburg Bay, and also by two acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) located (1) near an oil rig on Sable Island Bank, in relatively shallow water, and (2) near the outer boundary of Lunenburg Bay. We discuss the reliability of DWR wave data compared to ADCP wave data. We show that all models provide reliable hindcasts for significant wave height (Hs) and for peak period (Tp) for Juan, although a clear under-estimation of Hs at the peak of the storm is evident, compared to observations. A feature in the COAMPS storm simulation is that the storm track appears to be slightly to the east of that of Quikscat scatterometer data. Comparisons between models and 2-dimensional wave spectra are presented. Preliminary results suggest that the recently released upgrade to the WW3 model shows slightly enhanced skill compared to the other models.

  17. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #926-A-4). Second floor plan, plan of typical nurses room; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Wilderman Hall, Johnson Lane, north side adjacent to (south of) Hospital Complex, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # MI-A-E-5). Dept PW, US Navy Yard Mare Island Calif. U.S. Marine reconstruction remodeling, rebuilding quarters M-1 plans and elevations; April, 1922. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters M1, Preston Street, south side adjacent to Marine Parade Grounds, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # MI-A-6). Dept. PW, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Calif. US Marine reconstruction, remodeling and rebuilding quarters M-1 details, N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters M1, Preston Street, south side adjacent to Marine Parade Grounds, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # M1-A-3). Dept PW, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Calif. US Marines Reconstruction officers quarters no. 1 additions and alterations, plans, sections, details, March 26, 1920. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters M1, Preston Street, south side adjacent to Marine Parade Grounds, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #926-A-12). Exterior stairs on ends on wings-details; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Wilderman Hall, Johnson Lane, north side adjacent to (south of) Hospital Complex, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Geochemistry of Axial seamount lavas: Magmatic relationship between the Cobb hotspot and the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.M.; Morgan, C.; Lilas, R.A. )

    1990-08-10

    Axial seamount, located along the central portion of the Juan de Fuca Ridge axis and at the eastern end of the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain, is the current center of the Cobb hotspot. Lava chemistry and bathymetry indicate that Axial seamount is a discrete volcanic unit, with a more productive shallow magmatic plumbing system separate from the adjacent ridge segments. Despite this classic association of spreading center and hotspot volcanic activity, there is no evidence in the lavas for geochemical or isotopic enrichment typical of hotspot or mantle plume activity. The differences in composition between the Axial seamount lavas and the Juan de Fuca Ridge lavas are attributed to melting processes rather than to any fundamental differences in their mantle source compositions. The higher magma production rates, higher Sr, and lower silica saturation in the seamount lavas relative to the ridge lavas are thought to be a consequence of melt initiation at greater depths. The melting column producing the seamount lavas is thought to be initiated in the stability field of spinel peridotite, whereas the ridge lavas are produced from a melting column initiated at shallower levels, possibly within or close to the stability field of plagioclase peridotite. Implicit in this interpretation is the conclusion that the Juan de Fuca Ridge lavas, and by analogy most MORB, are generated at shallow mantle levels, mostly within the stability field of plagioclase peridotite. This interpretation also requires that for the upwelling mantle to intersect the solidus at different depths, the mantle supplying Axial seamount must be hotter than the rest of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Axial seamount, therefore, reflects a thermal anomaly in the mantle, rather than a geochemically enriched ocean island basalt type mantle plume.

  3. Juan-Ron fever: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth

    2015-01-01

    Juan-Ron fever named after Juan Rosai and Ronald Dorfman is the fever associated with Rosai-Dorfman disease also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML). It is a rare disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by abundant macrophages in the lymph nodes throughout the body. Usually patient presents with painless lymphadenopathy. We present a case of a 45-year-old male who presented to us with bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and fever, later on diagnosed to have SHML.

  4. San Andreas Fault, California, M 5.5 or greater Earthquakes 1800-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppozada, T.; Branum, D.; Reichle, M.; Hallstrom, C.

    2001-12-01

    The San Andreas fault has been the most significant source of major California earthquakes since 1800. From 1812 to 1906 it generated four major earthquakes of M 7.2 or greater in two pairs on two major regions of the fault. A pair of major earthquakes occurred on the Central to Southern region, where the 1857 faulting overlapped the 1812 earthquake faulting. And a pair of major earthquakes occurred on the Northern region, where the 1906 faulting overlapped the 1838 earthquake faulting. The 1812 earthquake resulted from a rupture of up to about 200 km, from the region of Cajon Pass to as far as about 50 km west of Fort Tejon (Sieh and others, 1989). This rupture is the probable source of both the destructive 1812.12.8 "San Juan Capistrano" and the 1812.12.21 "Santa Barbara Channel" earthquakes. The 1838 earthquake's damage effects throughout the Bay area, from San Francisco to Santa Clara Valley and Monterey, were unequalled by any Bay area earthquake other than the 1906 event. The mainshock's effects, and numerous strong probable aftershocks in the San Juan Bautista vicinity in the following three years, suggest 1838 faulting from San Francisco to San Juan Bautista, and M about 7.4. The 630 km length of the San Andreas fault between San Francisco and Cajon Pass ruptured in the 1838 and 1857 earthquakes, except for about 75 km between Bitterwater and San Juan Bautista. The 1840-1841 probable aftershocks of the 1838 event occurred near San Juan Bautista, and the foreshocks and aftershocks of the 1857 event occurred near Bitterwater. In the Bitterwater area, strong earthquakes continued to occur until the 1885 earthquake of M 6.5. Near Parkfield, 40 to 70 km southeast of Bitterwater, M 5.5 or greater earthquakes have occurred from the 1870s to the 1960s. In the total Bitterwater to Parkfield zone bracketing the northern end of the 1857 rupture, the seismicity and moment release has decreased steadily since 1857, and has tended to migrate southeastward with time. The

  5. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San Francisco, California March 24, 1924 VIEW OF HIGH ALTAR - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  6. Regional patterns of hydrothermal alteration of sediments as interpreted from seafloor reflection coefficients, Middle Valley, Juan De Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohr, Kristin M. M.; Schmidt, Ulrike; Groschel-Becker, Henrike

    1993-09-01

    Reflection coefficients of the seafloor have been calculated from three multi-channel seismic reflection profiles across Middle Valley of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Seafloor reflection coefficients in this sedimented rift valley are high over an active hydrothermal vent and adjacent to major offset faults. Comparison of our measurements to drilling results from Leg 139 shows that high reflection coefficients over an active vent mound are produced by cemented sediments. Large reflection coefficients adjacent to major faults may have a similar origin and indicate that ongoing faulting creates pathways for hydrothermal fluids which alter the sediments and result in higher densities and velocities. Since 30 Hz seismic energy responds to the top 50 m of sediments, we are looking at the integrated response of hydrothermal alteration over tens of thousands of years. This is the first time seafloor reflection coefficients have been used to identify highly altered sediments in a region of deep-water hydrothermal activity.

  7. The San Andreas Fault 'Supersite' (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    An expanded and permanent Supersite has been proposed to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) for the San Andreas Fault system, based upon the successful initial Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Geohazard Supersite for the Los Angeles region from 2009-2013. As justification for the comprehensive San Andreas Supersite, consider the earthquake history of California, in particular the devastating M 7.8 San Francisco earthquake of 1906, which occurred along the San Andreas Fault, as did an earthquake of similar magnitude in 1857 in southern California. Los Angeles was only a small town then, but now the risk exposure has increased for both of California's megacities. Between the San Francisco and Los Angeles urban areas lies a section of the San Andreas Fault known to creep continually, so it has relatively less earthquake hazard. It used to be thought of as capable of stopping earthquakes entering it from either direction. Transitional behavior at either end of the creeping section is known to display a full range of seismic to aseismic slip events and accompanying seismicity and strain transient events. Because the occurrence of creep events is well documented by instrumental networks such as CISN and PBO, the San Andreas Supersite can be expected to be especially effective. A good baseline level of geodetic data regarding past events and strain accumulation and release exists. Many prior publications regarding the occurrence of geophysical phenomena along the San Andreas Fault system mean that in order to make novel contributions, state-of-the-art science will be required within this Supersite region. In more recent years, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake struck adjacent to the San Andreas Fault and caused the most damage along the western side of the San Francisco Bay Area. More recently, the concern has focused on the potential for future events along the Hayward Fault along the eastern side of San Francisco Bay. In Southern California, earthquakes

  8. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius... Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED...

  9. Slip characteristics of San Andreas Fault transition zone segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanson, Ingrid Anne

    Transition zones are areas of mixed behavior that divide areas of velocity strengthening and velocity weakening frictional parameters. Their slip characteristics have implications for the underlying mechanism for interseismic creep, the relationship between aseismic slip and earthquakes, and the seismic potential of the transition zones. Two transition zones on the San Andreas fault in California, USA are included in this work; the San Juan Bautista and the Parkfield segments. They are analyzed in three phases of the earthquake cycle; the interseismic, coseismic and postseismic. The San Juan Bautista segment currently undergoes only moderate seismicity. However, six M≥6 earthquakes occurred near the SJB segment between 1840 and 1899. A joint inversion of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements was performed to determine its current rate and distribution of interseismic creep. The model resolves two low-slip asperities surrounded by creep, indicating that its behavior arises from the heterogeneous distribution of fault frictional properties. InSAR and GPS data were also used to constrain models of coseismic and post-seismic slip in the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. The models indicate that coseismic and postseismic slip occurred in separate regions of the fault, suggesting that the distribution of frictional parameters on the fault exerted some control over the size of the earthquake. The postseismic model included nearly equal amounts of slip as the coseismic, suggesting that this is an important method of relieving stress along areas of the fault that slip aseismically and that these areas may not participate in earthquakes. The sensitivity of the Parkfield segment to outside stresses was also explored. Static stress changes from the 2003 San Simeon earthquake encouraged right-lateral strike slip on the Parkfield segment. While there is no clear correlation between the distribution of slip in the 2004

  10. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  11. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  12. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  13. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  14. The San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Sandra S.; Wallace, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of the San Andreas fault was brought dramatically to world attention on April 18, 1906, when sudden displacement along the fault produced the great San Francisco earthquake and fire. This earthquake, however, was but one of many that have resulted from episodic displacement along the fault throughout its life of about 15-20 million years.

  15. California: San Joaquin Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley   ... is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected ... as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, ...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius of 4,700 yards, centered at a point bearing 316° true, 3,605 yards, from Mare Island Strait Light...

  17. 33 CFR 167.1312 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1312 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes. In the southern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  18. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  19. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1314 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  20. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1311 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  1. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1313 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  2. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  3. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1314 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  4. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  5. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  6. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  7. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  8. 33 CFR 167.1312 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1312 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes. In the southern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  9. 33 CFR 167.1310 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1310 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme in the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of five parts: the...

  10. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1313 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  11. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1311 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  12. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1311 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  13. 33 CFR 167.1300 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: General. 167.1300 Section 167.1300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: General. The traffic separation scheme for the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca consists of three parts: the western approach, the southwestern approach,...

  14. Petition for the Administrator to Object to Title V Permit for San Juan Generating Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Approval of Alternative Test Method for Puerto Nuevo Wastewater Treatment Plant, San Juan, Puerto Rico Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This December 2008 memorandum is from Conniesue Oldham of the Measurement Technology Group to Marcus E. Kantz in EPA Region 2. This memorandum is regarding a request to use an alternative test method at the Puerto Neuvo wastewater treatment plant

  16. Paleoshorelines in the Upper Cretaceous Point Lookout Sandstone, southern San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zech, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    LANDSAT images and aerial photography reveal several parallel linear features as much as 17 km long and 0.7 km wide. Detailed cross sections normal to a linear feature show it to be an exhumed paleoshoreline containing several overlapping sandstone units. Each unit tends to pinchout into the shales of the overlying Menefee Formation, showing a range of depositional environments including upper shoreface, foreshore, washover and eolian. Paleogeomorphic elements, predominately beach ridges and interridge swales, shape the upper surface of the sandstone and produce a relief as great as 4.2 m. The various components found in the paleoshoreline create a trellis-like drainage pattern that contrasts with the regional dendritic drainage pattern; the resulting linear feature is easily discernible on aerial photography and LANDSAT images. The rapid lithologic and thickness changes of the sandstone bodies in these linear features provide excellent potential as stratigraphic trap for hydrocarbons. Paleoshoreline facies are likely to be preserved in areas of thickest marginal marine regressive sand accumulation and similar paleoshoreline systems may be preserved at depth in the Point Lookout (Sandstone) or other Cretaceous sandstones.

  17. Uranium deposits at the Jomac mine, White Canyon area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trites, A.F.; Hadd, G.A.

    1955-01-01

    azurite, and chalcanthite occur locally with the uranium minerals. Principal ore guides at the Jomac mine are channels, and scours at the bottom of these channels coal-bearing sandstone or conglomerate at the base of the Shinarump conglomerate, coal, and jarosite.

  18. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Miocene Rio Azul section, Precordillera thrust belt, San Juan Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, T.E.; Beer, J.A. ); Rutty, P.M. Stanford Univ., CA ); McRae, L.E.; Tabbutt, K. ); Damanti, J.F. )

    1990-07-01

    The chronostratigraphy of synorogenic strata of Rio Azul in the Bermejo foreland basin, Argentine Andes, reveals details of Miocene tectonic activity and deposition. Chronostratigraphic interpretations are based on magnetic polarity stratigraphy and zircon fission-track dates of interbedded volcanic ashes. The Rio Azul section is located within the Precordillera thrust belt, uplifted and rotated by motion on subjacent faults. The 3,200 m thick section coarsens upward, from sandstone and mudstone (Cuculi Formation) to conglomerate (El Corral Formation). The radiometric ages indicate the entire section is of middle to late Miocene age, and the authors correlate the magnetic polarity pattern of each fault block to the magnetic polarity time scale. The lower 500 m of the section apparently ranges from approximately 16 to 12 Ma, although the age of the lowest 100 m is quite uncertain. The fault-bounded block from 500 to 1,000 m probably correlates to approximately 13.5-12.5 Ma. The block from 1,000 to 2,000 m correlates to approximately 12.5-10 Ma. Given the lack of unconformities in the coarse uppermost 1,200 m of section and a zircon fission track age within the conglomerates, the authors speculate that the upper part of the section was deposited very rapidly; the top of the section is probably no younger than about 8 to 9 Ma. These correlations and similarities of facies, paleocurrents, and provenance imply that the Cuculi Formation represents the proximal facies correlative to the Jarillal Formation of Sierra de Huaco, and that the El Corral conglomerates are the up-dip equivalent of the Huachipampa Formation of Huaco. These results are consistent with a paleogeographic model of a major drainage reorganization in the Bermejo foreland basin at about 10 Ma. It is clear, however, that thrusting in the Precordillera began more than 2 m.y. prior to the drainage reorganization.

  19. Completeness of tuberculosis case reporting, San Juan and Caguas Regions, Puerto Rico, 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Driver, C R; Braden, C R; Nieves, R L; Navarro, A M; Rullan, J V; Valway, S E; McCray, E

    1996-01-01

    Completeness of tuberculosis case reporting in Puerto Rico was assessed. Cases diagnosed among hospitalized, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus clinic patients during 1992 were retrospectively reviewed. Hospital discharge diagnoses, pharmacy listings of patients receiving anti-tuberculous medications, laboratory and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome registry data were used for case finding in selected hospitals and clinics. Identified cases were matched to the health department TB case registry to determine previous reporting through routine surveillance. Records of unreported cases were reviewed to verify tuberculosis diagnoses. Of 159 patients with tuberculosis, 31 (19.5%) were unreported. A case was defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Unreported cases were less likely than previously reported cases to have specimens that were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, 14 of 31 (45.2%) compared with 111 of 128 (86.7%). Excluding the laboratory, tuberculosis diagnoses in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome registry patients had the highest predictive value of finding tuberculosis (94.1%), followed by tuberculosis clinic records (71.7%), and pharmacy listings (45.6%). Tuberculosis discharge diagnoses, however, yielded the largest number of unreported cases (14). Health care providers should be educated regarding the importance of promptly reporting all suspected TB cases regardless of results of laboratory testing. PMID:8606915

  20. Fault-related carbonate breccia dykes in the La Chilca area, Eastern Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro de Machuca, Brígida; Perucca, Laura P.

    2015-03-01

    Carbonate fault breccia dykes in the Cerro La Chilca area, Eastern Precordillera, west-central Argentina, provide clues on the probable mechanism of both fault movement and dyke injection. Breccia dykes intrude Upper Carboniferous sedimentary rocks and Triassic La Flecha Trachyte Formation. The timing of breccia dyke emplacement is constrained by cross cutting relationships with the uppermost Triassic unit and conformable contacts with the Early Miocene sedimentary rocks. This study supports a tectonic-hydrothermal origin for these breccia dykes; fragmentation and subsequent hydraulic injection of fluidized breccia are the more important processes in the breccia dyke development. Brecciation can be triggered by seismic activity which acts as a catalyst. The escape of fluidized material can be attributed to hydrostatic pressure and the direction of movement of the material establishes the direction of least pressure. Previous studies have shown that cross-strike structures have had an important role in the evolution of this Andean segment since at least Triassic times. These structures represent pre-existing crustal fabrics that could have controlled the emplacement of the dykes. The dykes, which are composed mostly of carbonate fault breccia, were injected upward along WNW fractures.

  1. Launching Early College Districtwide: Pharr-San Juan-Alamo's "College for All" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Across the nation, early college schools are creating a path to college success for young people underrepresented in higher education. For a decade, these innovative public schools blending high school and college have proven that, with the right support, all high school students can tackle college work. Now, a Texas school district near the…

  2. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... archaeology, archaeoastronomy, visual and landscape characteristics, and geological and biological features..., visual and landscape characteristics, and geological and biological features, as well as objects of...

  3. Modeled Forecasts of Dengue Fever in San Juan, PR Using NASA Satellite Enhanced Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Cory; Quattrochi, Dale; Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus is transmitted between humans and mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and causes approximately 96 million cases of disease (dengue fever) each year (Bhatet al. 2013). Symptoms of dengue fever include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and eye, muscle and joint pain (CDC). More sever manifestations such as abdominal pain, bleeding from nose and gums, vomiting of blood, and clammy skin occur in rare cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (CDC). Dengue fever occurs throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, however, the geographical range and size of epidemics is increasing. Weather and climate are drivers of dengue virus transmission dynamics (Morin et al. 2013) by affecting mosquito proliferation and the virus extrinsic incubation period (i.e. required time for the virus to replicate and disseminate within the mosquito before it can retransmit the virus).

  4. Evaluation Report: Projects in Personnel Services from the Department of Education, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    This mammoth document consists of a random series of project reports and proposals from the Puerto Rican Department of Education. Each report is a distinct entity, and lists the school districts involved in the project under discussion. The papers all focus on those aspects of strategies and services which will help students to remain in school,…

  5. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND PORE CASTING: CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby; Louis H. Taylor

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  6. CAPILLARY PRESSURE/MERCURY INJECTION ANALYSIS: CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  7. THIN SECTION DESCRIPTIONS: CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  8. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS: BUG, CHEROKEE, AND PATTERSON CANYON FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan; Stephen T. Nelson

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  9. Geology and water resources of the Spanish Valley area, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1971-01-01

    This water-resources investigation was initiated in order to provide an estimate of the average annual water yield of the Mill Creek-Pack Creek drainage basin, the parts of that total yield available as surface water and ground water, the amount of ground water that might be recovered for beneficial use, and the effect of this use on the usable ground-water storage within the valley fill in Spanish and Moab Valleys. Detailed information has been sought which is basic to the establishment of sound policies for the development and management of water resources. The investigation was carried out as part of water-resources investigations in Utah with the Utah Division of Water Rights, Department of Natural Resources. Fieldwork was done during the period July 1967-November 1969.

  10. Snow Avalanche Disturbance Ecology: Examples From the San Juan Mountains, Colorado.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonson, S.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated landscape ecology approaches to characterize snow avalanche paths based on patterns of plant species composition and evidence of disturbance. Historical records of avalanche incidents, patterns in the annual growth layers of woody plants, and distributions of plant species can be used to quantify and map the frequency and magnitude of snow slide events. Near Silverton, Colorado, a series of snow storms in January of 2005 resulted in many avalanche paths running full track at 30 and 100 year return frequency. Many avalanches cut fresh trimlines, widening their tracks by uprooting, stripping, and breaking mature trees. Powerful avalanches deposited massive piles of snow, rocks, and woody debris in their runout zones. We used cross-section discs and cores of representative downed trees to detect dendro-ecological signals of past snow avalanche disturbance. Avalanche signals included impact scars from the moving snow and associated wind blast, relative width of annual growth rings, and development of reaction wood in response to tilting. Initial measurements of plant diversity and disturbance along the elevation gradient of an avalanche path near Silverton indicate that avalanche activity influences patterns of forest cover, contributes to the high local plant species diversity, and provides opportunities for new seedling establishment.

  11. Eighteenth International Conference on Social Welfare, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1976. Swedish National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    The report discusses achievements in Sweden's economic and social reforms which have led to an increase in equality. Intended as Sweden's contribution to the exchange of information regarding social welfare action in developed and developing nations, the report is presented in eight chapters. Chapter I enumerates Sweden's policies of welfare,…

  12. 76 FR 70703 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Expansion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ...)--warehouse facilities located on the north side of Highway 2, one mile east of Highway 165, Toa Baja; Site 7 (2 acres, sunset 10/31/12)--Baldioroty de Castro Warehouse and Distribution Center, located at.../31/14)--Manat chemical warehouse, intersection of Highways 686 and 670, Manat ; Site 9 (7...

  13. 78 FR 18789 - Establishment of the San Juan Islands National Monument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... hundred years old, include a majestic assemblage of trees, such as Douglas fir, red cedar, western hemlock... stream of wildlife watchers. Native, terrestrial mammals include black- tail deer, river otter,...

  14. Port Risk Assessment Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico, After Action Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-08

    board inside, pilot boat leads the cruise ship in; and pilot has direct comms with ship and with conn • Like to use pilot boat to advise if channel...not constrained to channel 3. Cruise ship operations – 4. In future – ferries may move in the Graving Dock Channel 5. Special events – races

  15. Tracer and air acceptance characterization of a San Juan basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, F. L.; Nuttall, H. E.; Tyner, C. E.; Jacobson, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop and assess the feasibility of underground coal gasification in New Mexico, a field study was performed to determine the natural flow characteristics of an undisturbed coal seam. Dewatering, air injection, and tracer experiments were conducted on a two-hole test pattern, spaced 30 ft apart, in a 15-ft-thick seam located about 500 ft below the surface. This was the first field experiment in coal to utilize a newly developed downhole measuring system designed and operated by Sandia National Laboratories. From the tracer flow logs and air acceptance tests it was found that the formation allows gas flow (100 SCFM at 250 psi) with low water production (50 gpd). While some vertical variation in air flow and tracer residence time through the coal seam was found, all of the coal sustained flow through a relatively low volume of active voids. Only 10 percent of the injected air was recovered and the recovery rate paralleled trends in the injection rate.

  16. Community-Based Education in San Juan La Laguna, Solola, Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreo, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous education in Guatemala is currently undergoing a massive overhaul in the depth and breadth of its reach in Maya areas. Although much can be said about the re-evaluation and incorporation of indigenous culture, language and worldview into the schools' curricula, it is still failing to reach the country's adult population. As a result of…

  17. 78 FR 35801 - Safety and Security Zones, San Juan Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ...) Port of Tallaboa, Puerto Rico. (A) All waters of the Caribbean Sea within a 100 yard radius surrounding..., Puerto Rico. (ii) Port of Guayanilla, Puerto Rico. (A) All waters of the Caribbean Sea within a 100-yard...' N in the waters of the Caribbean Sea on approach to or departing from the Port of Guayanilla,...

  18. Importance of mechanical disaggregation in chemical weathering in a cold alpine environment, San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoch, A.R.; Reddy, M.M.; Drever, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    Weathering of welded tuff near the summit of Snowshoe Mountain (3660 m) in southwestern Colorado was studied by analyzing infiltrating waters in the soil and associated solid phases. Infiltrating waters exhibit anomalously high potassium to silica ratios resulting from dissolution of a potassium-rich glass that occurs as a trace phase in the rock. In laboratory experiments using rock from the field site, initial dissolution generated potassium-rich solutions similar to those observed in the field. The anomalous potassium release decreased over time (about 1 month), after which the dominant cation was calcium, with a much lower potassium to silica ratio. The anomalous potassium concentrations observed in the infiltrating soil solutions result from weathering of freshly exposed rock surfaces. Continual mechanical disaggregation of the rock due to segregation freezing exposes fresh glass to weathering and thus maintains the source of potassium for the infiltrating water. The ongoing process of creation of fresh surfaces by physical processes is an important influence on the composition of infiltrating waters in the vadose zone.

  19. Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on San Juan Basin Coal

    SciTech Connect

    K. A. M. Gasem; R. L. Robinson; S. R. Reeves

    2002-03-01

    The major objectives of this project were to (a) measure the adsorption behavior of pure methane, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and their binary and ternary mixtures on wet Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia; (b) correlate the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data using the extended Langmuir model, the Langmuir model, the loading ratio correlation and the Zhou-Gasem-Robinson equation of state; and (c) establish sorption-time estimates for the pure components. Specific accomplishments are summarized below regarding the complementary tasks involving experimental work and data correlation. Representative coal samples from BP Amoco Tiffany Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 were prepared, as requested. The equilibrium moisture content and particle size distribution of each coal sample were determined. Compositional coal analyses for both samples were performed by Huffman Laboratories, Inc. Pure gas adsorption for methane on wet Tiffany coal samples from Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 was measured separately at 130 F (327.6 K) and pressures to 2000 psia (13.7 MPa). The average expected uncertainty in these data is about 3% (9 SCF/ton). Our measurements indicate that the adsorption isotherms of the two coal samples exhibit similar Langmuir-type behavior. For the samples from the two wells, a maximum variation of about 5% in the amount adsorbed is observed at 2000 psia. Gas adsorption isotherms were measured for pure methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} on a wet, mixed Tiffany coal sample. The coal sample was an equal-mass mixture of coals from Well No.1 and Well No.10. The adsorption measurements were conducted at 130 F at pressures to 2000 psia. The adsorption isotherms have average expected experimental uncertainties of 3% (9 SCF/ton), 6% (8 SCF/ton), and 7% (62 SCF/ton) for methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}, respectively. Adsorption isotherms were measured for methane/nitrogen, methane/CO{sub 2} and nitrogen/CO{sub 2} binary mixtures on wet, mixed Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia. These measurements were conducted for a single molar feed composition for each mixture. The expected uncertainties in the amount adsorbed for these binary mixtures vary with pressure and composition. In general, average uncertainties are about 5% (19 SCF/ton) for the total adsorption; however, the expected uncertainties in the amount of individual-component adsorption are significantly higher for the less-adsorbed gas at lower molar feed concentrations (e.g., nitrogen in the 20/80 nitrogen/CO{sub 2} system). Adsorption isotherms were measured for a single methane/nitrogen/CO{sub 2} ternary mixture on wet, mixed Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia. The nominal molar feed composition was 10/40/50. The average expected uncertainty for the total adsorption and CO{sub 2} adsorption is about 5% (16 SCF/ton). However, the low adsorption of nitrogen and methane in this ternary yield average experimental uncertainties of 14% (9 SCF/ton) and 27% (9 SCF/ton), respectively. Limited binary and ternary gas-phase compressibility factor measurements at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia involving methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were conducted to facilitate reduction of our ternary adsorption data. These newly acquired data (and available data from the literature) were used to improve the Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) equation-of-state (EOS) compressibility factor predictions, which are used in material balance calculations for the adsorption measurements. In general, the optimized BWR EOS represents the experimental compressibility factor data within 0.5% AAD. The Langmuir/loading ratio correlation (LRC) and the Zhou-Gasem-Robinson (ZGR) two-dimensional EOS were used to analyze the newly acquired adsorption data. Model parameters were obtained for the systems studied. The LRC and ZGR EOS were used to correlate the adsorption data for methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} and their mixtures on wet Tiffany coal. The model parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of squares of weighted errors in the calculated amounts of gas adsorbed. The results demonstrate the ability of the LRC and ZGR EOS to represent the total pure, binary and ternary systems within their expected experimental uncertainties. Specifically, representations with average absolute percentage errors (AAD) of 1-3% (2-15 SCF/ton), 1-8% (1-25 SCF/ton), and 2-10% (7-37 SCF/ton) were obtained for the pure, total binary, and total ternary adsorption isotherms, respectively. However, the quality of fit for the individual-component adsorption varies significantly, ranging from 3% for the more-adsorbed methane or CO{sub 2} to 32% for the less-adsorbed nitrogen. The LRC and ZGR EOS are capable of predicting binary adsorption isotherms based solely on pure-fluid adsorption parameters within twice their experimental uncertainties (1-50 %AAD, 5-40 SCF/ton).

  20. Foreland basin evolution in the central Andes, Bermejo basin, San Juan Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, T.E.; Naeser, C.W.; Johnson, N.M.; Johnsson, P.A.; Johnson, A.; Reynolds, J.; Reynolds, S.A.; Fielding, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Bermejo foreland basin in evolving east of and being cannibalized by a N-trending thrust belt (Precordillera (PC)), and west of a NNW-trending basement uplift (Sierra de Valle Fertil (VF)). Located above a flat Benioff zone, the Late Cenozoic nonmarine basin is analogous in scale and structure to the Green River-Hoback basin of Wyoming. Preliminary magnetic reversal stratigraphy, fission track dating, provenance studies, and facies analysis constrain its history. The thickest exposed strata (5 to 6 km) are in the easternmost folds of the PC and the subsurface sequence appears to thicken seaward toward the VF. Surface sections in the interior of the PC are thinner. Coeval strata west of the PC, but east of the Frontal Cordillera, are much thinner; they may not have been part of the Bermejo basin. The authors summarize the tectonic history as follows. There was little sediment accumulation in the foreland basin when the main volcanic arc was active (27 to 11 Ma). Thrusting in the central PC had begun by about 8 Ma, when diagnostic clasts appeared in the detritus to the east and subsidence rate was very high. About that time, volcanic activity and rapid sediment accumulation occurred briefly on the western flank of the PC. Subsequently, thrusting migrated eastward, causing coarsening-upward sections in the eastern PC. Deformation reached the eastern PC after 2.3 Ma. The eastern Bermejo basin continues to subside today. The time of uplift of the VF is poorly known, but was apparently younger than 12 Ma and coincident with thrust belt activity.

  1. Preliminary Geophysic Results in the Calingasta Bolson, Province of San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, P.; Gimenez, M. E.; Introcaso, A.; Ruiz, F.

    2007-05-01

    The Calingasta bolson is situated between the Frontal Cordillera and the Andean Precordillera from 31° to 32° south latitude and 69° 20' to 69° 45' West longitude. Its average elevation is about 1600 m a.s.l. The seismic information indicates that the eastern margin of this tectonic depression was affected by convergence during the latest tertiary and the quaternary. The depositional mesozoic sequences in this bolson lie on a strong angular unconformity evidenced by a marked lithologic and structural change. These deposits triassic in age occur in remnants of continental half-grabens formed by rifting that gave rise to NNW-SSE trending basins with rapid subsidence (Kokogian et al., 1999). These rift basins are coeval to the triassic depocenters in the oil producing Cuyana basin . Contemporary marine sedimentation is restricted to the Chilean territory, that is, to the west of the Frontal Cordillera, where narrow troughs were opened to the NW as marine embayments. In the Calingasta bolson, the outcropping triassic deposits were laid mainly in fluvial and lacustrine environments and are exposed along the western flank of the Precordillera, as observed at the latitude of the locality of Hilario, among other localities. The bolson can be considered as a ramp basin formed between the Precodillera and the Frontal Cordillera, limited by antithetic overthrusts controlled by the inversion of the extensional faulting associated to the triassic fill of the basin (Rossello et al., 1996). A new gravimetric survey carried out in the Calingasta bolson area led to the generation of a recent gravimetric chart, which was processed with different modern analytical and interpretation techniques such as Analytic Signal, Tilt and its Gradient and Euler Deconvolution. The Bouguer anomaly chart was filtered with the upward continuation at 40 km. The negative Bouguer isoanomalies in the resulting residual anomaly chart describe the geometry of the Calingasta bolson. Two outstanding depocenters with concentric isoanomalies of -20 mGal were determined, one at the latitude of the Calingasta village and the other situated to the SW of the locality of Barreal. The depths arising from the solutions of the localized Euler deconvolution, in the depocenters, reach 5000 meters. The distribution of the solutions of the Euler Deconvolution, as the responses of the Analytic Signal and Tilt Gradient, indicate the presence of zones with NNW-SSE and NNE-SSW trends which segment the bolson and separates both depocenters. This trends are interpreted as produced by antithetic (or conjugated) faulting, which is in accordance to seismic results. References Kokogian, D. A.; Spalletti, L. A.; Morel, E.; Artabe, A.; Martínez, R. N.; Alcober, O.A.; Milana, J. P.; Zavattieri, A. M. and Papu, O.H., 1999. Los depósitos continentals triásicos. En: Geología Argentina, Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales, Anales 29 (15): 377-398. Buenos Aires. Rossello, E.A.; López-Gamundí, O.R. and Vaillard, C. L., 1996. Geometry of an Andean ramp basin: the Calingasta Valley, western Argentina. 30° International Geological Congress (Beijing), Abstract 2 ( 5-6- 45): 318.

  2. 75 FR 54377 - Cattle Point Road Relocation; Draft Environmental Impact Statement; San Juan Island National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Park website announcing availability of the document. In April of 2005, a newsletter was sent to the... date is confirmed, it will be announced on the project website and via local and regional media....

  3. SAN JACINTO WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Brett F.; Conyac, Martin D.

    1984-01-01

    The San Jacinto Wilderness, located in the San Jacinto Mountains approximately 4 to 11 mi west of Palm Springs, California, was investigated by field and laboratory studies. The wilderness contains no known mineral deposits and no evidence of past mineral production. Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies indicate that the San Jacinto Wilderness has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. However, if future studies of plutonism and related processes of mineralization are conducted in the San Jacinto Mountains and vicinity, the metasedimentary rocks and bordering intrusive contacts in the south parcel of the wilderness might merit further examination. In particular, such future studies might further evaluate the origin and significance of minor stream-sediment geochemical anomalies for tungsten, cerium, and lanthanum detected in our panned-concentrate samples collected near the heads of Murray and Andreas Canyons.

  4. Fine-scale heat flow, shallow heat sources, and decoupled circulation systems at two sea-floor hydrothermal sites, Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.S.; Fisher, A.T.; Langseth, M.; Jin, W.; Iturrino, G.; Davis, E.

    1998-12-01

    Fine-scale heat-flow patterns at two areas of active venting in Middle Valley, a sedimented rift on the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge, provide thermal evidence of shallow hydrothermal reservoirs beneath the vent fields. The extreme variability of heat flow is explained by conductive heating immediately adjacent to vents and shallow circulation within sediments above the reservoir. This secondary circulation is hydrologically separated from the deeper system feeding the vents by a shallow conductive lid within the sediments. A similar separation of shallow and deep circulation may also occur at sediment-free ridge-crest hydrothermal environments.

  5. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  6. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  7. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  8. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  10. Juan Luis Vives: Tradition and Innovation in Renaissance Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Don Paul

    1986-01-01

    Argues that Juan Luis Vives' efforts to rehabilitate the discipline of discourse may well have been the most original of the sixteenth century, and that his discussion of elecutio (the essence of rhetoric) is considerably more distinguished than that of the better known Peter Ramus. (RS)

  11. Putting Educational Attainment First: An Interview with Juan Sepulveda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreon, Joe

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Juan Sepulveda. Sepulveda was appointed by U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan to the position of Executive Director of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics on May 19, 2009. In this capacity, Sepulveda is responsible for directing the efforts of the White House Initiative in…

  12. Offshore finfish mariculture in the Strait of Juan de Fuca

    SciTech Connect

    Rensel, Jack; Kiefer, Dale; Forster, John R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Evans, Nathan R.

    2007-10-07

    Finfish mariculture has existed in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for over thirty years, but for the past 15 years most effort has focused on culture of Atlantic salmon in protected, inshore cage sites. The Strait of Juan de Fuca (the "Strait") is a large area with relatively sparce shoreline development and several apparent advantages for mariculture using offshore technology.

  13. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in…

  14. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  15. Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Neogene San Joaquin basin in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc basin. The transition from forearc basin to the more restricted Neogene marine basin occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the basin include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the Basin and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the west side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene basin history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-west compression in the basin, resulting from extension in the Basin and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the west side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the basin, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the basin paleogeography through the Cenozoic.

  16. History of San Marco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporale, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

  17. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  18. SAN PEDRO GEODATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Pedro Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV). The goal of the Landscape Sciences Program is to improve decision-making relative to natural and human resource management through the development...

  19. SAN PEDRO WATERSHED DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Pedro River Geo-Data Browser was jointly developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Tucson, AZ). Since 1995, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A) and U...

  20. Juan Gabriel and audience interpretation. cultural impressions of effeminacy and sexuality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sowards, S K

    2000-01-01

    Juan Gabriel's purported effeminacy and sexuality have made him a controversial subject in Mexico, but still loved by fans. Juan Gabriel, by trying to gain acceptance into Mexican society, has become part of a hybrid culture, between the feminine/masculine and homosexual/bisexual/heterosexual groups. This study focuses on interviews with 20 participants who discuss Juan Gabriel's popularity and sexuality. The findings of the study indicate that Juan Gabriel may be considered by his fans to be effeminate, and consequently homosexual. Even though homophobia is widespread in Mexico, Juan Gabriel's fans tend to ignore or exoticize his sexuality, thus affording his success. It is also possible that Juan Gabriel, consciously or not, uses his controversial sexuality as a way to generate popular interest.

  1. 78 FR 58878 - Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay... Diego Shark Fest Swim. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants, crew... this rule because the logistical details of the San Diego Shark Fest Swim were not finalized...

  2. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  3. Upper crustal densities derived from sea floor gravity measurements: Northern Juan De Fuca Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Mark L.; Johnson, H. Paul

    1993-01-01

    A transect of sea floor gravity stations has been analyzed to determine upper crustal densities on the Endeavour segment of the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge. Data were obtained using ALVIN along a corridor perpendicular to the axis of spreading, over crustal ages from 0 to 800,000 years. Calculated elevation factors from the gravity data show an abrupt increase in density with age (distance) for the upper 200 m of crust. This density change is interpreted as a systematic reduction in bulk porosity of the upper crustal section, from 23% for the axial ridge to 10% for the off-axis flanking ridges. The porosity decrease is attributed to the collapse and filling of large-scale voids as the abyssal hills move out of the crustal formation zone. Forward modeling of a plausible density structure for the near-axis region agrees with the observed anomaly data only if the model includes narrow, along-strike, low-density regions adjacent to both inner and outer flanks of the abyssal hills. The required low density zones could be regions of systematic upper crustal fracturing and faulting that were mapped by submersible observers and side-scan sonar images, and whose presence was suggested by the distribution of heat flow data in the same area.

  4. Submersible observations along the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge: 1984 Alvin program.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, William R.; Morton, Janet L.; Ross, Stephanie L.

    1987-01-01

    In September 1984, the research submersible Alvin provided direct observations of three major hydrothermal vent areas along the southernmost segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR). The submersible operations focused on specific volcanologie, structural, and hydrothermal problems that had been identified during the preceding 4 years of photographic, dredging, acoustic imaging, and geophysical studies along a 12-km-long section of the ridge. A continuously maintained (from 1981 to the present) net of seafloor-anchored acoustic transponders allowed the observations from Alvin to be directly tied to all previous U.S. Geological Survey data sets and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration water column surveys from 1984 to the present. The three vent areas studied are the largest of at least six areas identified by previous deep-towed camera surveys that lie within a deep cleft, which marks the axis of symmetry of the JFR in this region. The cleft appears to be the locus of eruption for this segment of the JFR. The vent areas, at least in part, are localized near what appear to be previous volcanic eruptive centers marked by extensive lava lake collapse features adjacent to the cleft at these sites. Each hydrothermal area has several active discharge sites, and sulfide deposits occur as clusters (15–100 m2) of small chimneys, individual large chimneys, or clusters of large branched chimneys. We review the dive program and present a brief synthesis of the geology of the vent sites together with sample and track line compilations.

  5. Oral anatomy in the sixteenth century: Juan Valverde de Amusco.

    PubMed

    López-Valverde, A; Gómez de Diego, R; De Vicente, J

    2013-08-01

    In 1554 Juan Valverde de Amusco, a Spanish anatomist, wrote the History of the composition of the human body, a complete anatomical treatise that took as its model the Vesalius school of thought (La fábrica of Vesalius). Considered one of the most complete anatomical treatises of the Renaissance and one of the most widely read books of the sixteenth century, it was translated into four languages in its day. The first chapter, devoted to bones, provides a meticulously detailed analysis of the bones of the facial structures and of the teeth, their supporting structures, vascularisation and innervation. Juan Valverde de Amusco even describes techniques for reducing mandibular luxations. Even with the imprecise observations typical of the time the treatise must be considered an exceptional document.

  6. Teaching and Communicating Astronomy at Rey Juan Carlos University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernán-Obispo, M.; Serrano, A.; Aguirre, J.; Martín, P. San

    We present our activities of popularization of Astronomy at Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid, especially our 30-h workshop for people older than 55 (University for the Elderly) held since the academic year 2002/2003. Our course aims to introduce the basic topics on Astronomy to a group of motivated students who, in most cases, were not able to complete their education in their youth due to the historical environment of Spain in the middle of the twentieth century.

  7. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  8. Benthic Oxygen Demand in Three Former Salt Ponds Adjacent to South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Parcheso, Francis; Henderson, Kathleen D.; Piotter, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Sampling trips were coordinated in the second half of 2008 to examine the interstitial water in the sediment and the overlying bottom waters of three shallow (average depth 2 meters). The water column at all deployment sites was monitored with dataloggers for ancillary water-quality parameters (including dissolved oxygen, salinity, specific conductance, temperature, and pH) to facilitate the interpretation of benthic-flux results. Calculated diffusive benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) oxygen was consistently negative (that is, drawn from the water column into the sediment) and ranged between -0.5 x 10-6 and -37 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second (site averages depicted in table 2). Assuming pond areas of 1.0, 1.4, and 2.3 square kilometers for ponds A16, A14, and A3W, respectively, this converts to an oxygen mass flux into the ponds' sediment ranging from -1 to -72 kilograms per day. Diffusive oxygen flux into the benthos (listed as negative) was lowest in pond A14 (-0.5 x 10-6 to -1.8 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second) compared with diffusive flux estimates for ponds A16 and A3W (site averages -26 x 10-6 to -35 x 10-6 and -34 x 10-6 to -37 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second, respectively). These initial diffusive-flux estimates are of the order of magnitude of those measured in the South Bay using core-incubation experiments (Topping and others, 2004), which include bioturbation and bioirrigation effects. Estimates of benthic oxygen demand reported herein, based on molecular diffusion, serve as conservative estimates of benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by multidisciplinary processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation, ground-water advection, and wind resuspension (Kuwabara and others, 2009).

  9. 33 CFR 165.1105 - Security Zone: San Diego Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., California. 165.1105 Section 165.1105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Security Zone: San Diego Bay, California. (a) Location. (1) The following area is a security zone: The water area adjacent to Naval Air Station North Island, Coronado, California, and within 100 yards...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1105 - Security Zone: San Diego Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., California. 165.1105 Section 165.1105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Security Zone: San Diego Bay, California. (a) Location. (1) The following area is a security zone: The water area adjacent to Naval Air Station North Island, Coronado, California, and within 100 yards...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1105 - Security Zone: San Diego Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., California. 165.1105 Section 165.1105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Security Zone: San Diego Bay, California. (a) Location. (1) The following area is a security zone: The water area adjacent to Naval Air Station North Island, Coronado, California, and within 100 yards...

  12. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  13. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  14. 33 CFR 167.1302 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach. 167.1302 Section 167.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters....1302 In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach. In the southwestern approach to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established: (a) A separation zone bounded by...

  15. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  16. 33 CFR 167.1301 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: Western approach. 167.1301 Section 167.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1301 In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western approach. In the western approach to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established: (a) A separation zone bounded by a line...

  17. 33 CFR 167.1302 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach. 167.1302 Section 167.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters....1302 In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southwestern approach. In the southwestern approach to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established: (a) A separation zone bounded by...

  18. 33 CFR 167.1315 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1315 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Precautionary area “PA.” In the Strait of Juan de Fuca, precautionary area “PA” is...

  19. 33 CFR 167.1301 - In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Juan de Fuca: Western approach. 167.1301 Section 167.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1301 In the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western approach. In the western approach to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established: (a) A separation zone bounded by a line...

  20. 33 CFR 110.229 - Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. 110.229 Section 110.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.229 Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 110.229 - Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. 110.229 Section 110.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.229 Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. (a)...

  2. Pole of rotating analysis of present-day Juan de Fuca plate motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, C.; Wilson, D. S.; Hey, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    Convergence rates between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates are calculated by means of their relative, present-day pole of rotation. A method of calculating the propagation of errors in addition to the instantaneous poles of rotation is also formulated and applied to determine the Euler pole for Pacific-Juan de Fuca. This pole is vectorially added to previously published poles for North America-Pacific and 'hot spot'-Pacific to obtain North America-Juan de Fuca and 'hot spot'-Juan de Fuca, respectively. The errors associated with these resultant poles are determined by propagating the errors of the two summed angular velocity vectors. Under the assumption that hot spots are fixed with respect to a mantle reference frame, the average absolute velocity of the Juan de Puca plate is computed at approximately 15 mm/yr, thereby making it the slowest-moving of the oceanic plates.

  3. Tectonics and evolution of the Juan Fernandez microplate at the Pacific-Nazca-Antarctic triple junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson-Fontana, S.; Larson, R. L.; Engein, J. F.; Lundgren, P.; Stein, S.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic and bathymetric profiles derived from the R/V Endeavor survey and focal mechanism studies for earthquakes on two of the Juan Fernandez microplate boundaries are analyzed. It is observed that the Nazca-Juan Fernandez pole is in the northern end of the microplate since the magnetic lineation along the East Ridge of the microplate fans to the south. The calculation of the relative motion of the Juan Fernandez-Pacific-Nazca-Antarctic four-plate system using the algorithm of Minster et al. (1974) is described. The development of tectonic and evolutionary models of the region is examined. The tectonic model reveals that the northern boundary of the Juan Fernandez microplate is a zone of compression and that the West Ridge and southwestern boundary are spreading obliquely; the evolutionary model relates the formation of the Juan Fernandez microplate to differential spreading rates at the triple junction.

  4. Talc-bearing serpentinite and the creeping section of the San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Rymer, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The section of the San Andreas fault located between Cholame Valley and San Juan Bautista in central California creeps at a rate as high as 28 mm yr -1 (ref. 1), and it is also the segment that yields the best evidence for being a weak fault embedded in a strong crust. Serpentinized ultramafic rocks have been associated with creeping faults in central and northern California, and serpentinite is commonly invoked as the cause of the creep and the low strength of this section of the San Andreas fault. However, the frictional strengths of serpentine minerals are too high to satisfy the limitations on fault strength, and these minerals also have the potential for unstable slip under some conditions. Here we report the discovery of talc in cuttings of serpentinite collected from the probable active trace of the San Andreas fault that was intersected during drilling of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) main hole in 2005. We infer that the talc is forming as a result of the reaction of serpentine minerals with silica-saturated hydrothermal fluids that migrate up the fault zone, and the talc commonly occurs in sheared serpentinite. This discovery is significant, as the frictional strength of talc at elevated temperatures is sufficiently low to meet the constraints on the shear strength of the fault, and its inherently stable sliding behaviour is consistent with fault creep. Talc may therefore provide the connection between serpentinite and creep in the San Andreas fault, if shear at depth can become localized along a talc-rich principal-slip surface within serpentinite entrained in the fault zone. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Coma blisters sans coma.

    PubMed

    Heinisch, Silke; Loosemore, Michael; Cusack, Carrie A; Allen, Herbert B

    2012-09-01

    Coma blisters (CBs) are self-limited lesions that occur in regions of pressure during unconscious states classically induced by barbiturates. We report a case of CBs sans coma that were histologically confirmed in a 41-year-old woman who developed multiple tense abdominal bullae with surrounding erythema following a transatlantic flight. Interestingly, the patient was fully conscious and denied medication use or history of medical conditions. A clinical diagnosis of CBs was confirmed by histopathologic findings of eccrine gland necrosis, a hallmark of these bulIous lesions.

  6. Mediastinal pathology and the contributions of Dr. Juan Rosai.

    PubMed

    Wick, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    Dr. Juan Rosai is one of the most prolific contributors to the literature on mediastinal pathology, and he has added steadily to that body of work over a 50-year period. Rosai has written several landmark articles in this topical area, including articles on thymic epithelial lesions, mediastinal neuroendocrine tumors, mediastinal lymphoma and other hematopoietic lesions, thymolipoma, thymoliposarcoma, mediastinal solitary fibrous tumor, intrathymic langerhans-cell histiocytosis, mediastinal germ cell neoplasms, and multilocular thymic cyst. This review recounts his role as one of the principal figures in the surgical pathology of mediastinal diseases.

  7. Sr isotopic variations along the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaby, J.; Clague, D.A.; Delaney, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Sr isotopic ratios of 39 glass and microcrystalline basalt samples along the Juan de Fuca Ridge and one glass sample from Brown Bear Seamount are at the lower end of the range for normal MORB; the average 87Sr/86Sr ratio is 0.70249 + or - 0.00014 (2sigma ). Although subtle variations exist along the strike of the ridge, the Sr isotopic data do not show systematic variation relative to the proposed Cobb hotspot. The isotopic data are inconsistent with an enriched mantle-plume origin for the Cobb-Eikelberg Seamount chain.-W.H.B.

  8. A Water Quality Study: Heron's Head Park, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Wu, K.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    Heron's Head Park, formerly known as Pier 98, is a 24-acre restored wetland, owned and operated by the Port of San Francisco and situated at the base of the Hunter's Point Power Plant. Heron's Head is a unique environment that is built on landfill and is now a thriving marsh maintained primarily by youth and community volunteers. Adjacent to the park stands a PG&E power plant (closed May 2006), a county waste transfer station, and a combined sewer overflow (CSO) pipe. The park is bordered by San Francisco Bay on the north, east and south sides of the park. We examined the levels of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and fecal coliform at nine sites around the park. Utilizing historical data from other San Francisco Bay sites and other similar estuarine settings in California, we assessed the health of the Bay waters surrounding the park. We found the levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates to be within the parameters of historical San Francisco Bay data and similar to settings such as Elkhorn Slough, Tomales Bay and Tijuana Estuary. In our study we did find a potential hazard to human health. Fecal coliform concentrations in waters that border the park range from 340 MPN/100 mL - 24,000 MPN/100 mL. This level significantly exceeds Environmental Protection Agency recommendations of 300 MPN/100 mL for human contact with water.

  9. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban drainage basins in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin and Houston. Studies were completed in the Fort Worth metropolitan area at the end of the 1977 water year, and in the Dallas metropolitan area at the end of the 1979 water year. The study in the San Antonio area was completed at the end of the 1981 water year.The Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, expanded the existing streamflow network in the San Antonio metropolitan area in May 1968 to begin urban hydrology studies in this area. In September 1968, the program was further expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. The Texas Department of Water Resources ended its participation in the project in 1979, and the city of San Antonio funded the program through the 1981 water year.The operation and maintenance of stations 08178000, San Antonio River at San Antonio; 08178700, Salado Creek (upper station) at San Antonio; and 08178800, Salado Creek (lower station) at San Antonio are funded by the city of San Antonio and the U.S Geological Survey.The operation and maintenance and collection of water-quality data at station 08178720, Lorence Creek at Thousand Oaks Blvd., San Antonio, station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio, are funded by the Edwards Underground Water District in cooperation with the Texas Department of Hater Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio will provide hydrologic data on similar and adjacent watersheds. The West Elm watershed is still predominately rural but is undergoing extensive urbanization in some areas. The East Elm watershed is relatively stable and undeveloped.The objectives of the San Antonio urban hydrology study are:To provide data showing the effects of various stages

  10. Seismic Anisotropy and Mantle Flow from Ridge to Trench Below the Gorda-Juan de Fuca Plate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Short, R.; Allen, R. M.; Bastow, I. D.; Richards, M. A.; Totten, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic plates are underlain by a low viscosity layer of the mantle, the asthenosphere, which flows. Flow in the asthenosphere may be induced by motion of the overriding plate, or by deeper mantle convection. Measurement of seismic anisotropy, the directional dependence of seismic wave speed, is an important tool in understanding mantle structure and dynamics, and is often used to infer information about asthenospheric flow geometry. However, isolation of asthenospheric signals is challenging because most seismometers are located on the continents, whose complex structure influences seismic waves en-route to the surface. Thus the challenge is to record seismic data on oceanic lithosphere, which is much thinner and simpler. We present stacked shear wave splitting results from phases 1 to 3 of the Cascadia Initiative: An ambitious, large-scale deployment of offshore seismometers across the Gorda and Juan-de-Fuca plates. Fast splitting directions (FSD) can approximate mantle flow geometry, thus for the first time allowing an interpretation of flow beneath an ocean basin from ridge to trench. The Juan-de-Fuca plate appears able to influence mantle flow: FSD rotate towards the absolute plate motion direction (APM) with increasing distance from the ridge. In contrast, Gorda FSD align with the motion of the adjacent Pacific plate rather than Gorda APM. These observations suggest that drag caused by motion the Pacific plate controls asthenospheric flow beneath Gorda, and thus that the Gorda plate may be decoupled from the asthenosphere. We also construct a simple geodynamic model of this situation, which supports its plausibility. Our findings imply that tectonic plates must reach a minimum size and speed before they are able to exert influence on asthenospheric flow.

  11. Reactivity of San Andres dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S. )

    1991-05-01

    The San Andres formation is routinely stimulated with acid. Although numerous acidizing simulators are available to aid in treatment optimization, existing reactivity data were generated with quarried rock rather than formation samples. This paper presents reactivity data for five San Andres dolomite samples. These data can be used in most fracture-acidizing-design simulators to allow more accurate simulation of the acidizing process.

  12. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  13. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 DETAIL, CHAPEL ELEVATION, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  14. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 ALTAR, CHAPEL SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 ELEVATION OF CHAPEL, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  16. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would require measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. The Eastern California Shear Zone as the northward extension of the southern San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Wayne R.; Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Cluster analysis offers an agnostic way to organize and explore features of the current GPS velocity field without reference to geologic information or physical models using information only contained in the velocity field itself. We have used cluster analysis of the Southern California Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field to determine the partitioning of Pacific-North America relative motion onto major regional faults. Our results indicate the large-scale kinematics of the region is best described with two boundaries of high velocity gradient, one centered on the Coachella section of the San Andreas Fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone and the other defined by the San Jacinto Fault south of Cajon Pass and the San Andreas Fault farther north. The ~120 km long strand of the San Andreas between Cajon Pass and Coachella Valley (often termed the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio sections) is thus currently of secondary importance and carries lesser amounts of slip over most or all of its length. We show these first order results are present in maps of the smoothed GPS velocity field itself. They are also generally consistent with currently available, loosely bounded geologic and geodetic fault slip rate estimates that alone do not provide useful constraints on the large-scale partitioning we show here. Our analysis does not preclude the existence of smaller blocks and more block boundaries in Southern California. However, attempts to identify smaller blocks along and adjacent to the San Gorgonio section were not successful.

  18. Assimilation of Seawater in Basaltic Magmas: Evidence Found in a Lava Pillar From Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.; Chadwick, W. W.; Clague, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    A lava pillar formed during the 1998 eruption at Axial Seamount exhibits compositional and textural evidence consistent with the direct assimilation of seawater under magmatic conditions. Glass immediately adjacent to anastomosing microfractures within 1 cm of the inner pillar wall is oxidized and significantly enriched in both Na and Cl (and depleted in Fe and K) with respect to that in selvages from the (unaffected) outer pillar wall. The affected glass contains up to 1 wt. % Cl and is enriched by ca. 2 wt. % Na2O relative to unaffected glass, consistent with a nearly 1:1 (molar) assimilation of NaCl. Glass not adjacent to microfractures in the inner pillar wall is depleted in Na, but enriched in K, with respect to the NaCl-enriched, inner pillar wall glass and the unaffected outer pillar wall glass. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the NaCl-enriched glass (ca. 0.704 +/- .001), as determined by LA ICPMS, is slightly elevated with respect to that of unaffected glass (ca. .703) consistent with the incorporation of a seawater-derived fluid. The presence of tiny (< 10 mm) grains of Cu-Fe- and Fe-sulfides as well as elemental Ni, Ag, and Au in the Na-depleted, K-enriched glass of the inner pillar wall implies significant reduction of this glass, presumably by hydrogen generated during seawater assimilation and oxidation of magma adjacent to microfractures. We interpret that the chemical anomalies we see in the glass of the interior pillar wall are caused by nearly instantaneous assimilation of seawater into the magma during pillar growth. Other lava pillars we have examined from Axial Seamount and elsewhere on the Juan de Fuca Ridge do not display similar features, although we have not examined a statistically significant number of samples to ascertain how widespread a process this is for seawater assimilation.

  19. Hydrology of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, P.A.; Boettcher, A.J.; Snipes, R.J.; Mcintyre, H.J.

    1969-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Colorado part of the San Luis Valley was begun in 1966 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. (See index map, fig. 1). The purpose of the investigation is to provide information for planning and implementing improved water-development and management practices. The major water problems in the San Luis Valley include (1) waterlogging, (2) waste of water by nonbeneficial evapotranspiration, (3) deterioration of ground-water chemical quality, and (4) failure of Colorado to deliver water to New Mexico and Texas in accordance with the Rio Grande Compact. This report describes the hydrologic environment, extent of water-resource development, and some of the problems related to that development. Information presented is based on data collected from 1966 to 1968 and on previous studies. Subsequent reports are planned as the investigation progresses. The San Luis Valley extends about 100 miles from Poncha Pass near the northeast corner of Saguache County, Colo., to a point about 16 miles south of the Colorado-New Mexico State line. The total area is 3,125 square miles, of which about 3,000 are in Colorado. The valley is nearly flat except for the San Luis Hills and a few other small areas. The Colorado part of the San Luis Valley, which is described in this report, has an average altitude of about 7,700 feet. Bounding the valley on the west are the San Juan Mountains and on the east the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Most of the valley floor is bordered by alluvial fans deposited by streams originating in the mountains, the most extensive being the Rio Grande fan (see block diagram, fig. 2 in pocket). Most of the streamflow is derived from snowmelt from 4,700 square miles of watershed in the surrounding mountains. The northern half of the San Luis Valley is internally drained and is referred to as the closed basin. The lowest part of this area is known locally as the "sump." The

  20. The Fate of the Juan de Fuca Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, M.; Allen, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The Juan de Fuca plate is subducting beneath the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. Although the slab has been imaged to depths of at least ~{400} km beneath Washington and at least ~{200} to 300 km beneath northern Oregon with a dip of ~60° to the east, there is little evidence for a slab east of High Cascades deeper than ~150 km beneath central and ~200 km beneath southern Oregon. To image the slab beneath Oregon, we apply tomography technique using a dataset consisting of our own OATS deployment and all other available data. For the Vs inversion, a total of 95 events with clear S and SKS phases were recorded at 45 stations and a total number of 2148 rays were used. For the Vp inversion, a total of 74 events with clear direct P phase were recorded at 46 stations, and a total number of 2043 rays were used. Our tomographic images clearly show that the Juan de Fuca plate dives into the mantle beneath Oregon and continues east of the High Cascades with a dip of ~50° reaching a depth of ~400 km. The slab does not dip more vertically than its counterparts to north and south, which have a dip of ~60° and ~65° respectively. Resolution tests suggest there is little or no velocity anomaly associated with a slab below ~400 km.